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Sample records for northern ontario communities

  1. Domain Analysis and Second-Language Instruction in Northern Ontario Native Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toohey, Kelleen; Allen, Patrick

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the functions of English and native languages in northern Ontario native communities and argues that native children's greatest need for English is in an anglophone classroom environment. Discusses three types of curriculum design and suggests ways to develop content area reading and writing curricula for Canada native children. (SED)

  2. From social network to safety net: Dementia-friendly communities in rural northern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Wiersma, Elaine C; Denton, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Dementia-friendly communities, as communities that enable people with dementia to remain involved and active and have control over their lives for as long as possible, centrally involve social support and social networks for people living with dementia. The purpose of this research was to explore and understand the context of dementia in rural northern communities in Ontario with an emphasis on understanding how dementia friendly the communities were. Using qualitative methods, interviews were conducted with a total of 71 participants, including 37 health service providers, 15 care partners, 2 people living with dementia and 17 other community members such as local business owners, volunteers, local leaders, friends and neighbours. The strong social networks and informal social support that were available to people living with dementia, and the strong commitment by community members, families and health care providers to support people with dementia, were considered a significant asset to the community. A culture of care and looking out for each other contributed to the social support provided. In particular, the familiarity with others provided a supportive community environment. People with dementia were looked out for by community members, and continued to remain connected in their communities. The social support provided in these communities demonstrated that although fragile, this type of support offered somewhat of a safety net for individuals living with dementia. This work provides important insights into the landscape of dementia in rural northern Ontario communities, and the strong social supports that sustain people with dementia remaining in the communities.

  3. Report on Ontario's Northern Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    Ontario's funding formula fails to recognize the unique needs of northern school boards, which cover immense geographic areas, have many small schools, and enroll a high proportion of Aboriginal students. This report examines school size, enrollment, and staffing in northern Ontario schools, drawing on 2002-03 tracking reports of provincial…

  4. North of the 46° parallel: Obstacles and challenges to recycling in Ontario's rural and northern communities.

    PubMed

    Lakhan, Calvin

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the economic challenges of recycling in Ontario's rural and northern areas. Specifically, this study quantifies the economic and diversion impact of operating recycling programs in these regions. Using a systems based cost model, focus is placed on analyzing: (1) What would happen to provincial recycling costs and diversion levels if recycling programs were eliminated in "high cost" northern and rural communities? (2) Is it possible to increase the provincial recycling rate by focusing investments in low cost, high performance regions (while simultaneously eliminating recycling programs in rural and northern areas)? (3) How would the mix of material recovered change if recycling programs were eliminated in rural and northern areas? The results of this analysis show that eliminating recycling programs in high cost regions significantly decreased system costs without negatively impacting overall recycling rates. This study also found that it was possible to increase the provincial recycling rate while simultaneously reducing program costs by targeting specific regions for recovery. The findings of this study suggest that Ontario reevaluate whether rural and northern municipalities be legislatively required to operate household recycling programs.

  5. Building the New Northern Ontario Rural Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, James T. B.

    2002-01-01

    Opening in 2004, the new Northern Ontario Rural Medical School will address the rural doctor shortage in Canada. Supported by Laurentian University and Lakehead University, learning sites will be in hospitals, community clinics, and physicians' offices throughout northern Ontario. The curriculum will be patient-centered and clinical problem-based…

  6. From the community to the classroom: the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Jacklin, Kristen; Strasser, Roger; Peltier, Ian

    2014-01-01

    More undergraduate medical education programs are including curricula concerning the health, culture and history of Aboriginal people. This is in response to growing international recognition of the large divide in health status between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and the role medical education may play in achieving health equity. In this paper, we describe the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM). We describe a process for curriculum development and delivery, which includes ongoing engagement with Aboriginal communities as well as faculty expertise. Aboriginal health is delivered as a core curriculum, and learning is evaluated in summative assessments. Aboriginal health objectives are present in 4 of 5 required courses, primarily in years 1 and 2. Students attend a required 4-week Aboriginal cultural immersion placement at the end of year 1. Resources of Aboriginal knowledge are integrated into learning. In this paper, we reflect on the key challenges encountered in the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum. These include differences in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal knowledge; risk of reinforcing stereotypes in case presentations; negotiation of curricular time; and faculty readiness and development. An organizational commitment to social accountability and the resulting community engagement model have been instrumental in creating a robust, sustainable program in Aboriginal health at NOSM.

  7. Developing community mental health services for indigenous people of northern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Ward, J A

    1991-01-01

    Inadequacies of three common models of mental health service delivery have been presented but each of these can contribute to an adequate system if the approach aims at the totality of mental health care. The key to service delivery and the provision of services in the local community by adequately trained and supervised mental health workers familiar with the culture and language and who are involved with other community workers in an inter-agency process. A major and the most important part of the work occurs in this level. This front line work must have the back-up and support of the system which has three roots. The clinical root is that of a support team of professionals, the local nursing station, hospital and the tertiary institutions. The second root is in training and education by recognized courses and other resources and the third in an adequate administration in which the indigenous population has been put in control.

  8. Shifting Currents: Science Technology Society and Environment in Northern Ontario Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    The focus is on the practices of secondary science teachers in rural, resource-extraction-based communities in the boreal region of northern Ontario, Canada. In 2008 the Ontario Ministry of Education mandated that science teaching and learning should bring to the forefront consideration of the impacts of science on society and environment, and…

  9. Elevated contaminants contrasted with potential benefits of ω-3 fatty acids in wild food consumers of two remote first nations communities in northern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Seabert, Timothy A; Pal, Shinjini; Pinet, Bernard M; Haman, Francois; Robidoux, Michael A; Imbeault, Pascal; Krümmel, Eva M; Kimpe, Linda E; Blais, Jules M

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous communities in Boreal environments rely on locally-harvested wild foods for sustenance. These foods provide many nutritional benefits including higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; such as ω-3) than what is commonly found in store-bought foods. However, wild foods can be a route of exposure to dietary mercury and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Here, we show a strong association between the frequency of wild food consumption in adults (N=72) from two remote First Nations communities of Northern Ontario and environmental contaminants in blood (POPs) and hair (mercury). We observed that POPs and mercury were on average 3.5 times higher among those consuming wild foods more often, with many frequent wild food consumers exceeding Canadian and international health guidelines for PCB and mercury exposures. Contaminants in locally-harvested fish and game from these communities were sufficiently high that many participants exceeded the monthly consumption limits for methylmercury and PCBs. Those consuming more wild foods also had higher proportions of potentially beneficial ω-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These results show that the benefits of traditional dietary choices in Boreal regions of Canada must be weighed against the inherent risks of contaminant exposure from these foods.

  10. Elevated Contaminants Contrasted with Potential Benefits of ω-3 Fatty Acids in Wild Food Consumers of Two Remote First Nations Communities in Northern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Seabert, Timothy A.; Pal, Shinjini; Pinet, Bernard M.; Haman, Francois; Robidoux, Michael A.; Imbeault, Pascal; Krümmel, Eva M.; Kimpe, Linda E.; Blais, Jules M.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous communities in Boreal environments rely on locally-harvested wild foods for sustenance. These foods provide many nutritional benefits including higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; such as ω-3) than what is commonly found in store-bought foods. However, wild foods can be a route of exposure to dietary mercury and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Here, we show a strong association between the frequency of wild food consumption in adults (N = 72) from two remote First Nations communities of Northern Ontario and environmental contaminants in blood (POPs) and hair (mercury). We observed that POPs and mercury were on average 3.5 times higher among those consuming wild foods more often, with many frequent wild food consumers exceeding Canadian and international health guidelines for PCB and mercury exposures. Contaminants in locally-harvested fish and game from these communities were sufficiently high that many participants exceeded the monthly consumption limits for methylmercury and PCBs. Those consuming more wild foods also had higher proportions of potentially beneficial ω-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These results show that the benefits of traditional dietary choices in Boreal regions of Canada must be weighed against the inherent risks of contaminant exposure from these foods. PMID:24598815

  11. Trace element content of northern Ontario peat

    SciTech Connect

    Glooschenko, W.A.; Capoblanco, J.A.

    1982-03-01

    Peat samples were collected at 0-20- and 20-40-cm depths from several peatland ecosystems located in northern Ontario, Canada. Analysis was made for the trace metals Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, and Hg. Concentration values in general were in the low ppm range and did not significantly differ in terms of peatland type or depth except for Pb. This element was signficantly higher in surface peats in bogs and fens. Concentration of metals in peats found in the study were equivalent to those in US coals, suggesting caution during combustion in terms of potential atmospheric input of metals.

  12. Motivating Learners in Northern Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    A teacher at a northern Ontario adult Native literacy program describes how she cultivates student motivation. The teacher-student relationship is the most influential factor for motivating students. By focusing on cultural awareness, cultural teaching practices, and a sense of community, teachers can help students be successful. Program…

  13. Physical Activity and Fitness of First Nations Youth in a Remote and Isolated Northern Ontario Community: A Needs Assessment.

    PubMed

    Gates, Michelle; Hanning, Rhona; Gates, Allison; Stephen, Judy; Fehst, Andrew; Tsuji, Leonard

    2016-02-01

    Among a group of First Nations youth, this research aimed to obtain objective measures of anthropometry, physical activity (PA) and fitness; to identify any group-level differences by sex, body mass index, waist circumference and body fat categories; to assess the barriers and supports to PA. Youth participated in anthropometric measures (BMI, waist circumference, body fat percentage), PA assessment (3 days of accelerometry) and fitness testing (guided by the Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness and Lifestyle Approach). Barriers and supports were assessed via environmental scan and focus groups. Descriptive statistics were compared to reference data. Group differences by sex, BMI status, waist circumference and body fat categories were tested using Mann-Whitney U and Chi square tests (p ≤ 0.05). Qualitative data were assembled into one file and coded manually for categories and themes. Seventy-two youth (12.1 ± 1.1 years, 61.1% male) participated in at least one measure; 36 completed the accelerometry. Sixty-three percent were overweight or obese, 51% were abdominally obese and 21% had excess body fat. Most (86.1%) met Canada's PA guidelines. Boys were more active than girls (p = 0.025) and had greater cardiorespiratory endurance (p = 0.003). Overweight, obese, or abdominally obese youth had lower cardiorespiratory endurance than normal weight youth (p < 0.001). Barriers and supports fell under the main themes: motivation, role models, personnel and facilities, environment and programs. Based on this assessment, youth in this community are active, but not sufficiently physically fit, especially among those affected by obesity and abdominal obesity. The findings, in addition to the numerous barriers to PA, support the community's desire for school-based PA programming.

  14. Thrombolytic therapy for myocardial infarction. Treatment introduced in northern Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Hutten-Czapski, P.

    1993-01-01

    In remote regions of Canada, most patients with acute myocardial infarctions (MI) are treated by general practitioners. In hospitals served by cardiologists, intravenous thrombolytic therapy for MI is now routinely available. In a survey of northern Ontario general hospitals, 32 of 45 offered IV thrombolytic therapy. The use of streptokinase in one family physician-run hospital was also reviewed. PMID:8257484

  15. Exploring the Relationship between the Use of Information Technologies and Voluntary Participation in a Rural Area of Northern Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Mary E.

    1996-01-01

    Survey responses from 179 community members in 3 rural Northern Ontario areas determined that involvement with information technologies that link individuals with sources outside the community was not related to local community participation. The exception was a negative relationship with participation on committees. (SK)

  16. "There Is No Way To Prepare for This:" Teaching in First Nations Schools in Northern Ontario--Issues and Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Helen

    2000-01-01

    A qualitative study examined the experiences of 10 mostly inexperienced, female teachers working in two isolated Native communities in northern Ontario. Findings focus on teachers' uncertainties about appropriate pedagogical goals, the relationship of teachers to First Nations communities, living in the North, cross-cultural and multicultural…

  17. Assessing the Impact of Pilot School Snack Programs on Milk and Alternatives Intake in 2 Remote First Nation Communities in Northern Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Michelle; Hanning, Rhona M.; Gates, Allison; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Canadian Aboriginal youth have poorer diet quality and higher rates of overweight and obesity than the general population. This research aimed to assess the impact of simple food provision programs on the intakes of milk and alternatives among youth in Kashechewan and Attawapiskat First Nations (FNs), Ontario, Canada. Methods: A pilot…

  18. Children's Perceptions of the Northern Fruit and Vegetable Program in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Meizi; Beynon, Charlene E.; Gritke, Jennifer L.; Henderson, Michelle L.; Kurtz, Joanne M.; Sangster Bouck, Michelle; St. Onge, Renee L.; van Zandvoort, Melissa M.; Chevrier-Lamoureux, Renee D.; Warren, Claire Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined students' perceptions of and suggestions for the Northern Fruit and Vegetable Program, a free, school-based fruit and vegetable snack program implemented in elementary schools in 2 regions of northern Ontario, Canada. Methods: This was a qualitative study involving 18 focus groups with students in 11 elementary…

  19. Acute rheumatic fever in First Nations communities in northwestern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Janet; Kirlew, Mike; Schreiber, Yoko; Saginur, Raphael; Bocking, Natalie; Blakelock, Brittany; Haavaldsrud, Michelle; Kennedy, Christine; Farrell, Terri; Douglas, Lloyd; Kelly, Len

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To document a case series of 8 young First Nations patients diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever (ARF), a preventable disease that resulted in the death of 2 patients, in northwestern Ontario in the context of late diagnosis, overcrowded housing, and inadequate public health response. Design Retrospective case series over an 18-month period. Setting Remote First Nations communities in northwestern Ontario. Participants Eight patients with ARF. Main outcome measures Incidence, mortality, residual rheumatic heart disease, time to diagnosis, barriers to diagnosis and treatment, housing situation of patients, patient demographic characteristics (age, sex), and investigation results. Results The incidence of ARF in this population was 21.3 per 100 000, which is 75 times greater than the overall Canadian estimated incidence. The average patient age was 9.4 years. Most cases developed joint findings, and 5 of the surviving patients had rheumatic heart disease when they received echocardiography. The average time to diagnosis was 88 days. Two 4-year-old children died from ARF. Most patients lived in inadequate and crowded housing. Conclusion This rare disease still exists in remote First Nations communities. These communities demonstrate an incidence equal to that in aboriginal communities in Australia and New Zealand, which have among the highest international incidence of ARF. Primordial prevention, including improved on-reserve housing, is urgently needed. Case detection and ongoing surveillance for primary and secondary prophylaxis requires a well resourced regional strategy. PMID:26759842

  20. Education, Attitudes, and Language of Higher Education: Francophone Students in Northern Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Derek

    1994-01-01

    A study of 1,586 francophone students in northern Ontario (Canada) found 3 attitudes (either believing French unimportant, believing English practically dominant, or believing their French inadequate) lead students to continue postsecondary education in English. Believing French pleasurable was found to be positively related to continuing…

  1. Inequality Remade: The Theory of Correspondence and the Context of French Immersion in Northern Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, C. Paul

    1983-01-01

    Examines the French Immersion program in Northern Ontario, Canada, against the correspondence theory of Bowles and Gintis. Suggests that schools both reproduce class stratified society and promote social inequality. Explores the English-speaking middle-class motivations and actions in controlling French Immersion programs to benefit their…

  2. Contact North: The Concept, Policy, Development, and Status of the Northern Ontario Distance Education Access Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arblaster, John R.

    Contact North/Contact Nord (CN) was designed to enhance distance education opportunities at the secondary and postsecondary levels in Northern Ontario through the use of new information and communication technologies. The central thesis of CN is that access to education at all levels could be improved through a combined effort by community…

  3. Variation in the Structure of Bird Nests between Northern Manitoba and Southeastern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Crossman, Carla A.; Rohwer, Vanya G.; Martin, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Traits that converge in appearance under similar environmental conditions among phylogenetically independent lineages are thought to represent adaptations to local environments. We tested for convergence in nest morphology and composition of birds breeding in two ecologically different locations in Canada: Churchill in northern Manitoba and Elgin in southeastern Ontario. We examined nests from four families of passerine birds (Turdidae: Turdus, Parulidae: Dendroica, Emberizidae: Passerculus and Fringillidae: Carduelis) where closely related populations or species breed in both locations. Nests of American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches had heavier nest masses, and tended to have thicker nest-walls, in northern Manitoba compared with conspecifics or congenerics breeding in southeastern Ontario. Together, all species showed evidence for wider internal and external nest-cup diameters in northern Manitoba, while individual species showed varying patterns for internal nest-cup and external nest depths. American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches in northern Manitoba achieved heavier nest masses in different ways. American Robins increased all materials in similar proportions, and Yellow Warblers and Common Redpolls used greater amounts of select materials. While changes in nest composition vary uniquely for each species, the pattern of larger nests in northern Manitoba compared to southeastern Ontario in three of our four phylogenetically-independent comparisons suggests that birds are adapting to similar selective pressures between locations. PMID:21552515

  4. Integrating Hydrology and Historical Geography in an Interdisciplinary Environmental Masters Program in Northern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Kirsten; James, April

    2016-04-01

    Research in hydrology and other sciences are increasingly calling for new collaborations that "…simultaneously explore the biogeophysical, social and economic forces that shape an increasingly human-dominated global hydrologic system…" (Vorosmarty et al. 2015, p.104). With many environmental programs designed to help students tackle environmental problems, these initiatives are not without fundamental challenges (for example, they are often developed around a single epistemology of positivism). Many environmental graduate programs provide narrow interdisciplinary training (within the sciences, or bridging to the social sciences) but do not necessarily engage with the humanities. Geography however, has a long tradition and history of bridging the geophysical, social sciences, and humanities. In this paper, we reflect on new programming in an Interdisciplinary Master's program in Northern Ontario, Canada, inspired by the rich tradition of geography. As Canada Research Chairs trained in different geographical traditions (historical geography and hydrology), we aim to bring together approaches in the humanities and geophysical sciences to understand hydrological and environmental change over time. We are teaching in a small, predominantly undergraduate University located in Northern Ontario, Canada, a region shaped significantly by colonial histories and resource development. The Masters of Environmental Studies/Masters of Environmental Sciences (MES/MESc) program was conceived from a decade of interdisciplinary dialogue across three undergraduate departments (Geography, Biology and Chemistry, History) to promote an understanding of both humanistic and scientific approaches to environmental issues. In the fall of 2015, as part of our 2015-2020 Canada Research Chair mandates, we introduced new initiatives to further address the integration of humanities and sciences to our graduate program. We believe the new generation of environmental scientists and practioners

  5. Innovations in Literacy Learning: Reaching the Remote Northwestern Communities of Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eady, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    The Sioux Hudson Literacy Council in partnership with AlphaPlus Centre in Toronto, Ontario and Confederation College, Sioux Lookout Campus, is making groundbreaking strides to reach adult learners who reside in remote, isolated communities of Northwestern Ontario. Generous funding from the National Literacy Secretariat in collaboration with…

  6. Le role de l'identite ethnique dans l'acquisition et la retention de competences culturelles et de communication en milieu minoritaire francophone du Nord de l'Ontario (The Role of Ethnic Identity in Acquisition and Retention of Cultural and Communicative Competence in a Francophone Minority Context in Northern Ontario).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duquette, Georges

    A two-and-a-half-year study in northern Ontario (Canada) investigated the relationship between characteristics of the minority French-speaking community, home environment, and the school and classroom environments. Focus was on factors affecting the development and maintenance of cultural awareness, ethnic identity, and communicative competence in…

  7. Recommendations on Distance Education to the Northern Education Project of the Ministry of Education of the Government of Ontario. Submitted by the Distance Education Secondary School Committee of Northern Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGreal, Rory; And Others

    This report of the Distance Education Secondary School Committee of Northern Ontario, which is composed of representatives of the Ministry of Education (MOE), the Independent Learning Centre, Native and French language components of the MOE, and Contact North, discusses the role that the Contact North distance education network can play in the…

  8. Developing Partnerships. An Investigation of Library-Based Relationships with Students and Educators Participating in Distance Education in Northern Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burge, Elizabeth J.; And Others

    The Developing Partnerships project is a 5-year program intended to develop distance education programs in institutions of higher education in Northern Ontario, to establish an extensive information network called Contact North/Contact Nord, and to conduct research into areas considered appropriate for quality distance education delivery. The…

  9. The Views of Youth on Their Educational Rights: A Case Study of Secondary Students from Two Northern Ontario High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Sonja

    2005-01-01

    A case study is reported involving 32 applied and academic program student volunteers aged 15-18 years from two high schools located in Northern Ontario, Canada. Students were interviewed regarding a number of educational policy and school climate issues. The study examines perceptions of rights as an aspect of the school learning environment. The…

  10. The Untold Story: Examining Ontario's Community Health Centres' Initiatives to Address Upstream Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Patricia A.; Resendes, Sarah J.; Dunn, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Unlike traditional primary care centres, part of the Community Health Centre (CHC) mandate is to address upstream health determinants. In Ontario, CHCs refer to these activities as Community Initiatives (CIs); yet, little is known about how CIs operate. The objective of this study was to examine the scope, resource requirements, partnerships, successes and challenges among selected Ontario CIs. Methods: We conducted qualitative interviews with 10 CHC staff members representing 11 CIs across Ontario. CIs were identified through an online inventory, recruited by e-mail and interviewed between March and June 2011. Results: Most CIs aim to increase community participation, while addressing social isolation and poverty. They draw minimal financial resources from their CHC, and employ highly skilled staff to support implementation. Most enlist support from various partners, and use numerous methods for community engagement. Successes include improved community relations, increased opportunities for education and employment and rewarding partnerships, while insufficient funding was a commonly identified challenge. Conclusions: Despite minimal attention from researchers and funders, our findings suggest that CIs play key capacity-building roles in vulnerable communities across Ontario, and warrant further investigation. PMID:25410693

  11. Structure and characteristics of community-based multidisciplinary wound care teams in Ontario: an environmental scan.

    PubMed

    Abrahamyan, Lusine; Wong, Josephine; Pham, Ba'; Trubiani, Gina; Carcone, Steven; Mitsakakis, Nicholas; Rosen, Laura; Rac, Valeria E; Krahn, Murray

    2015-01-01

    Multidisciplinary team approach is an essential component of evidence-based wound management in the community. The objective of this study was to identify and describe community-based multidisciplinary wound care teams in Ontario. For the study, a working definition of a multidisciplinary wound care team was developed, and a two-phase field evaluation was conducted. In phase I, a systematic survey with three search strategies (environmental scan) was conducted to identify all multidisciplinary wound care teams in Ontario. In phase II, the team leads were surveyed about the service models of the teams. We identified 49 wound care teams in Ontario. The highest ratio of Ontario seniors to wound team within each Ontario health planning region was 82,358:1; the lowest ratio was 14,151:1. Forty-four teams (90%) participated in the survey. The majority of teams existed for at least 5 years, were established as hospital outpatient clinics, and served patients with chronic wounds. Teams were heterogeneous in on-site capacity of specialized diagnostic testing and wound treatment, team size, and patient volume. Seventy-seven percent of teams had members from three or more disciplines. Several teams lacked essential disciplines. More research is needed to identify optimal service models leading to improved patient outcomes.

  12. The offshore fish community in southern Lake Ontario, 1972-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owens, Randall W.; O'Gorman, Robert; Eckert, Thomas H.; Lantry, Brian F.; Munawar, M.

    2003-01-01

    The authors document the status of Lake Ontario's open-water fish community in 1972, near the beginning of an era of massive fish stocking and when phosphorus levels in the lake from anthropogenic inputs, were near their peak. They then describe changes that occurred in the fish community in 1978-98. This was a period when large numbers of young salmonid piscivores were released annually, sea lamprey control continued to improve, and phosphorus levels were declining due to successful nutrient abatement programs. Coincident with the above, the lower food web was changed by the addition of new exotic invertebrates, the zooplankter Bythotrephes cederstroemi and particularly the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, and quagga mussel, D. bugensis. The picture of the fish community structure is drawn from records of catches in bottom trawls and gill nets during surveys of southern Lake Ontario conducted the the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYDEC), from records of fish stocked in Lake Ontario by the NYDEC, and from a creel census of boat anglers returning to southern Lake Ontario ports conducted by the NYDEC.

  13. Velocity structure of the Kapuskasing Uplift, northern Ontario, from seismic refraction studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boland, A. V.; Ellis, R. M.

    1989-06-01

    A crustal scale seismic refraction experiment was conducted over the Kapuskasing structural zone, northern Ontario, in 1984. The zone cuts obliquely across the east-west structural grain of the Superior Province in the Canadian shield and has been proposed as a cross section of Archean crust exposed by thrust faulting along the Ivanhoe Lake cataclastic zone during early Proterozoic time. Five seismic refraction lines of 360-450 km were shot over the area. There were 18 profile shots and two fan shots with a recorder spacing of 2-5 km. We have modeled the travel times and amplitudes of the data from the profile lines and analyzed reflections from the crust-mantle boundary on the fan shots. We have imaged a low-velocity zone under the Abitibi greenstone belt ranging from 4-5 to 9-12 km depth that is underlain by a highly reflective zone. There is a considerable deepening of the Moho from 40-43 km to 50-53 km under and to the west of the southern end of the Kapuskasing structural zone. A high-velocity anomaly of 6.6-6.7 km/s has been imaged in the upper crust down to 20 km depth beneath the Kapuskasing structure with a suggested dip of 15°±2° to the west. This corresponds well to the proposed location of a granulite zone thrust up from the middle or lower crust in the early Proterozoic.

  14. Climate trends in northern Ontario and Québec from borehole temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickler, Carolyne; Beltrami, Hugo; Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    2016-12-01

    The ground surface temperature histories of the past 500 years were reconstructed at 10 sites containing 18 boreholes in northeastern Canada. The boreholes, between 400 and 800 m deep, are located north of 51° N and west and east of James Bay in northern Ontario and Québec. We find that both sides of James Bay have experienced similar ground surface temperature histories with a warming of 1.51 ± 0.76 K during the period of 1850 to 2000, similar to borehole reconstructions for the southern portion of the Superior Province and in agreement with available proxy data. A cooling period corresponding to the Little Ice Age was found at only one site. Despite permafrost maps locating the sites in a region of discontinuous permafrost, the ground surface temperature histories suggest that the potential for permafrost was minimal to absent over the past 500 years. This could be the result of air surface temperature interpolation used in permafrost models being unsuitable to account for the spatial variability of ground temperatures along with an offset between ground and air surface temperatures due to the snow cover.

  15. ESEM Studies of Colloidal Sulfur Deposition in a Natural Microbial Community from a Cold Sulfide Spring Near Ancaster, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, S.; Douglas, D.

    2000-01-01

    We have used a relatively new microscopial technique, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), together with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and light microscopy to investigate a unique microbial community from a temperate climate, cold sulfide spring near Ancaster, Ontario, Canada.

  16. Ground surface temperature histories in northern Ontario and Québec for the past 500 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickler, Carolyne; Beltrami, Hugo; Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    2016-04-01

    We have used 19 temperature-depth profiles measured in boreholes from eastern Canada to reconstruct the ground surface temperature histories of the region. The boreholes are located north of 51oN, and west and east of James Bay in northern Ontario and Québec. The 8 boreholes in northern Ontario come from 3 sites in a region of extensive discontinuous permafrost, while the 11 holes from Québec come from 6 sites in a region of sporadic discontinuous permafrost. The depths of the holes range between 400 and 800 m, allowing a reconstruction of the ground surface temperature histories for the past 500 years. Present ground surface temperatures are higher in Québec, perhaps because the region receives more snowfall as shown by meteorological records and proxy data. The ground surface temperature histories indicate a present-day warming of ˜2-2.5oC in Ontario and ˜1-1.5oC in Québec relative to the reference surface temperature 500 years BP. These results are in agreement with available proxy data for the recent warming in eastern North America. Furthermore, they suggest that the higher snowfall and strong cooling during the Little Ice Age could have muted the borehole temperature record of climate change in Québec.

  17. Methane emissions from wetlands in the Midboreal region of northern Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Bubier, J.L.; Moore, T.R. ); Roulet, N.T. )

    1993-12-01

    Methane (CH[sub 4]) fluxes were measured by a static chamber technique from May to October 1991 at 19 wetland sites near Cochrane, northern Ontario, representative of the Clay Belt Midboreal region of central Canada. Seasonal average fluxes of CH[sub 4] from the peatlands ranged from 0.4 to 67.5 mg[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]d[sup [minus]1] (0.06-10.1 g[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]yr[sup [minus]1]). Beaver ponds showed the highest fluxes of CH[sub 4], from both the open water section (seasonal average 290 mg[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]d[sup [minus]1], 44 g[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]yr[sup [minus]1]) and the adjacent marsh areas where the water table rose close to or above the soil surface (91-350 mg[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]d[sup [minus]1], 13-53 g[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]yr[sup [minus]1]). Seasonal mean water table position, particularly at the microtopographic scale of hummock and hollow, explained most of the variability in CH[sub 4] emission among wetlands (r[sup 2] = 0.74). Trophic status, such as pore-water Ca, Mg, and pH had little correlation with CH[sub 4] emissions. Broad-scale peatland classifications that do not account for hydrological differences at the microtopographic level are inadequate for predicting CH[sub 4] flux in boreal wetlands, particularly in forested ecosystems where conifer swamps are diverse and comprise the major peatland class. Based on areal estimates of the different wetland types in the Clay Belt, the authors estimate an annual CH[sub 4] flux of 3.4 g[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]yr[sup [minus]1], generally lower than that used in extrapolations to continental- or global-scale methane budgets. 68 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. A synthesis of ecological and fish-community changes in Lake Ontario, 1970-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, E.L.; Casselman, J.M.; Dermott, R.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Gal, G.; Holeck, K. T.; Hoyle, J.A.; Johannsson, O.E.; Lantry, B.F.; Makarewicz, J.C.; Millard, E.S.; Munawar, I.F.; Munawar, M.; O'Gorman, R.; Owens, R.W.; Rudstam, L. G.; Schaner, T.; Stewart, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed stressors associated with ecological and fishcommunity changes in Lake Ontario since 1970, when the first symposium on Salmonid Communities in Oligotrophic Lakes (SCOL I) was held (J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 29: 613-616). Phosphorus controls implemented in the early 1970s were undeniably successful; lower food-web studies showed declines in algal abundance and epilimnetic zooplankton production and a shift in pelagic primary productivity toward smaller organisms. Stressors on the fish community prior to 1970 such as exploitation, sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation, and effects of nuisance populations of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) were largely ameliorated by the 1990s. The alewife became a pivotal species supporting a multi-million-dollar salmonid sport fishery, but alewife-induced thiamine deficiency continued to hamper restoration and sustainability of native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Expanding salmonine populations dependent on alewife raised concerns about predator demand and prey supply, leading to reductions in salmonine stocking in the early 1990s. Relaxation of the predation impact by alewives and their shift to deeper water allowed recovery of native fishes such as threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides). The return of the Lake Ontario ecosystem to historical conditions has been impeded by unplanned introductions. Establishment of Dreissena spp. led to increased water clarity and increased vectoring of lower trophic-level production to benthic habitats and contributed to the collapse of Diporeia spp. populations, behavioral modifications of key fish species, and the decline of native lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Despite reduced productivity, exotic-species introductions, and changes in the fish community, offshore Mysis relicta populations remained relatively stable. The effects of climate and climate change on the population abundance and dynamics of Lake Ontario

  19. The Ontario CAI Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivier, W. P.

    The evolution and current operation of the Ontario Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) Network are described. Sponsored by the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education and including 11 community colleges in Ontario, the network has computer installations and access devices throughout the province. Initial development work was done using a…

  20. The Evolution of Online Education at a Small Northern Ontario University: Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lorraine; Graham, Robert Douglas

    2012-01-01

    One of the major influences on university education in Ontario is the growing use of Internet technologies. These new technologies have led faculty and learning experts at universities to talk about online and technology-enhanced learning with a fervour not often found on most campuses. Among other things, these discussions have challenged…

  1. Experience, training and confidence among small, non-community drinking water system operators in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pons, Wendy; McEwen, Scott A; Pintar, Katarina; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Young, Ian; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    The water operator plays an important role in water safety; however, little published research exists that has examined this role. The purpose of this study was to develop a greater understanding of the experience, existing knowledge, confidence and future training needs of the small, non-community drinking water operator in Ontario in order to help guide future outreach and training opportunities. A cross-sectional telephone survey of 332 small, non-community drinking water operators in Ontario was conducted in July and August 2011. Survey questions pertained to respondents' experience as operators, formal training, perceived importance of water safety issues, confidence in handling water safety issues, and future training needs. Approximately 16% (54/330) of respondents had one year or less experience as a water operator, and 60% (199/332) reported that being a water operator was not a chosen profession. Only 37% (124/332) of operators reported completing operator training. Respondents reported a preference for online training courses or on-site training (compared with a classroom setting). Low training rates, inexperience, and in certain situations, low confidence, among many small water system operators highlight a need to provide continued support to the development of ongoing training opportunities in this population.

  2. Adding insult to injury: The development of psychosocial stress in Ontario wind turbine communities.

    PubMed

    Walker, Chad; Baxter, Jamie; Ouellette, Danielle

    2015-05-01

    Though historically dismissed as not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) attitudes, reports of psychosocial stress linked to wind energy developments have emerged in Ontario, Canada. While the debate and rhetoric intensify concerning whether wind turbines 'actually' cause 'health' effects, less sincere attention has been given to the lived experience and mental well-being of those near turbines. Drawing on theories of environmental stress, this grounded theory, mixed-method (n = 26 interviews; n = 152 questionnaires) study of two communities in 2011 and 2012 traces how and why some wind turbine community residents suffer substantial changes to quality of life, develop negative perceptions of 'the other' and in some cases, experience intra-community conflict. Policy-related forces, along with existing community relationships may help explain much of these differences between communities. We suggest a move beyond debating simply whether or not 'annoyance' represents a 'health impact' and instead focus on ways to minimize and attenuate these feelings of threat (risk) and stress at the community level.

  3. Temporal changes in mercury concentrations of large-bodied fishes in the boreal shield ecoregion of northern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rex W K; Johnston, Thomas A; Gunn, John M; Bhavsar, Satyendra P

    2013-02-01

    Much of the mercury (Hg) in freshwater fish of the boreal shield ecoregion is believed to originate from atmospheric deposition. As such, declines in fish Hg concentrations would be expected in response to recent declines in atmospheric Hg deposition in this ecoregion. We compared recent (2005-2010) and historic (1974-1981) muscle total mercury concentrations ([THg], standardized to a fish body mass of 1 kg) in seven fish species (five piscivores, two benthivores) from 73 lakes in northern Ontario (Canada) using a paired-comparisons approach. The rate of bioaccumulation (i.e., slopes of log(e)[THg] vs log(e) total length relationship) increased for walleye (Sander vitreus) but did not change significantly for any other species. There was no significant decline in mean [THg] between recent and historic time periods for any species. In fact, recent mean [THg] were slightly higher (<0.08 ppm) than historic mean [THg] for all species, and this difference was significant for northern pike (Esox lucius). The magnitude of the temporal change in northern pike declined significantly from south to north over the study area but there were no discernible geographic patterns in the temporal change in [THg] for any other species. This study shows that [THg] of most large-bodied fish species in boreal shield lakes are not declining in response to the decline in atmospheric Hg deposition.

  4. Peat landforms along the Albany River, northern Ontario. An ecological study of peat landforms in Canada and Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    During the summer of 1985 a field investigation was started in the Hudson Bay lowland region of northern Ontario, which represents the largest expanse of peatland in North America and is an important sink in the global carbon cycle. A key area in the lowlands is situated along the Albany River near the confluence of the Chepay River. Here the striking vegetation-landforms are transitional between those found on the bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz in northern Minnesota and southern Manitoba and the more northern peatlands in the Hudson Bay lowland region. In peatland studies elsewhere the landform patterns have been used not only to classify different peatland types but also as an indicator of potential developmetnal trends. The study area is generally defined by that covered by the TM scene E-40062-15532 taken on Sept. 16, 1982. The purpose of the field work is to acquire sufficent information to interpret the TM imagery and test various hypotheses on peatland development on the gasis of the pattern transitions.

  5. The Expansion of Dreissena and Long-term Shifts in Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Structure in Lake Ontario, 1998-2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    The introduction of Dreissena to the Great lakes has profoundly impacted benthic ecosystems, resulting in the decline of native species and dramatic community restructuring. In Lake Ontario, long-term monitoring has yielded a wealth of detailed information regarding both the exp...

  6. Boiling over: A Descriptive Analysis of Drinking Water Advisories in First Nations Communities in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Galway, Lindsay P.

    2016-01-01

    Access to safe and reliable drinking water is commonplace for most Canadians. However, the right to safe and reliable drinking water is denied to many First Nations peoples across the country, highlighting a priority public health and environmental justice issue in Canada. This paper describes trends and characteristics of drinking water advisories, used as a proxy for reliable access to safe drinking water, among First Nations communities in the province of Ontario. Visual and statistical tools were used to summarize the advisory data in general, temporal trends, and characteristics of the drinking water systems in which advisories were issued. Overall, 402 advisories were issued during the study period. The number of advisories increased from 25 in 2004 to 75 in 2013. The average advisory duration was 294 days. Most advisories were reported in summer months and equipment malfunction was the most commonly reported reason for issuing an advisory. Nearly half of all advisories occurred in drinking water systems where additional operator training was needed. These findings underscore that the prevalence of drinking water advisories in First Nations communities is a problem that must be addressed. Concerted and multi-faceted efforts are called for to improve the provision of safe and reliable drinking water First Nations communities. PMID:27196919

  7. Lake Ontario zooplankton in 2003 and 2008: Community changes and vertical redistribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudstam, Lars G.; Holeck, Kristen T.; Bowen, Kelly L.; Watkins, James M.; Weidel, Brian C.; Luckey, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Lake-wide zooplankton surveys are critical for documenting and understanding food web responses to ecosystem change. Surveys in 2003 and 2008 during the binational intensive field year in Lake Ontario found that offshore epilimnetic crustacean zooplankton declined by a factor of 12 (density) and factor of 5 (biomass) in the summer with smaller declines in the fall. These declines coincided with an increase in abundance of Bythotrephes and are likely the result of direct predation by, or behavioral responses to this invasive invertebrate predator. Whole water column zooplankton density also declined from 2003 to 2008 in the summer and fall (factor of 4), but biomass only declined in the fall (factor of 2). The decline in biomass was less than the decline in density because the average size of individual zooplankton increased. This was due to changes in the zooplankton community composition from a cyclopoid/bosminid dominated community in 2003 to a calanoid dominated community in 2008. The increase in calanoid copepods was primarily due to the larger species Limnocalanus macrurus and Leptodiaptomus sicilis. These coldwater species were found in and below the thermocline associated with a deep chlorophyll layer. In 2008, most of the zooplankton biomass resided in or below the thermocline during the day. Increased importance of copepods in deeper, colder water may favor cisco and rainbow smelt over alewife because these species are better adapted to cold temperatures than Alewife.

  8. Impacts of logging and wildfire on an upland black spruce community in northwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Johnston, M H; Elliott, J A

    1996-01-01

    Plant species composition and community structure were compared among four sites in an upland black spruce community in northwestern Ontario. One site had remained undisturbed since the 1930s and three had been disturbed by either logging, fire, or both logging and fire. Canonical correspondence ordination analyses indicated that herbaceous species composition and abundance differed among the disturbance types while differences in the shrub and tree strata were less pronounced. In the herb stratum Pleurozium schreberi, Ptilium crista-castrensis and Dicranum polysetum were in greatest abundance on the undisturbed forest site, while the wildfire and burned cutover sites were dominated by Epilobium angustifolium and Polytrichum juniperinum. The unburned harvested site was dominated by Epilobium angustifolium, Cornus canadensis and Pleurozium schreberi. Species richness was lower on the undisturbed site than on any of the disturbed sites while species diversity (H') and evenness (Hill's E5) were higher on the unburned harvested site than on the other sites. Results suggest that herb re-establishment is different among harvested and burned sites in upland black spruce communities and we hypothesize that differences in the characteristics of the disturbance were responsible, in particular, the impact of burning on nutrient availability. These differences need to be taken into account in determining the effects of these disturbances on biodiversity and long-term ecosystem management.

  9. Social determinants of older adults' awareness of community support services in Hamilton, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Tindale, J; Denton, M; Ploeg, J; Lillie, J; Hutchison, B; Brazil, K; Akhtar-Danesh, N; Plenderleith, J

    2011-11-01

    Community support services (CSSs) have been developed in Canada and other Western nations to enable persons coping with health or social issues to continue to live in the community. This study addresses the extent to which awareness of CSSs is structured by the social determinants of health. In a telephone interview conducted in February-March 2006, 1152 community-dwelling older adults (response rate 12.4%) from Hamilton, Ontario, Canada were made to read a series of four vignettes and were asked whether they were able to identify a CSS they may turn to in that situation. Across the four vignettes, 40% of participants did name a CSS as a possible source of assistance. Logistic regression was used to determine factors related to awareness of CSSs. Respondents most likely to have awareness of CSS include the middle-aged and higher-income groups. Being knowledgeable about where to look for information about CSSs, having social support and being a member of a club or voluntary organisations are also significant predictors of awareness of CSSs. Study results suggest that efforts be made to improve the level of awareness and access to CSSs among older adults by targeting their social networks as well as their health and social care providers.

  10. Quantitative assessment of the hydraulic role of subglaciofluvial interbeds in promoting deposition of deformation till (Northern Till, Ontario)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meriano, Mandana; Eyles, Nick

    2009-04-01

    The Northern Till is a thick (>65 m) deformation till underlying some 7500 km 2 of Southern Ontario, Canada including the Peterborough Drumlin Field. It was deposited below the Lake Ontario ice stream of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. The till rests on glaciotectonized aquifer sediments and consists of multiple beds of till up to 6 m thick. These are separated by boulder lags, sometimes in the form of striated pavements, with thin (<30 cm) interbeds of poorly sorted waterlaid sand. The composite till stratigraphy indicates 'punctuated aggradation' where the subglacial bed was built up incrementally by the repeated 'immobilization' of deforming overpressured till layers. Boulders and sands indicate pauses in subglacial aggradation marked by sluggish sheet flows of water that reworked the top of the underlying till. Interbeds are laterally extensive and correlated using downhole electrical conductivity, core recovery and natural gamma data. A 3-D finite element model (FEFLOW) using data from 200 cored and geophysically logged boreholes, and a large digital water well dataset of 3400 individual records shows that the till functions as a 'leaky aquitard' as a consequence of water flow through interbeds. It is proposed that interbeds played a similar role in the subglacial hydraulic system below the Laurentide Ice Sheet by allowing drainage of excess porewater pressures in deforming sediment and promoting deposition of till. This is in agreement with theoretical studies of deforming bed dynamics and observations at modern glaciers where porewater in the deforming layer is discharged into underlying aquifers. In this way, the presence of interbeds may be fundamental in retarding downglacier transport of deforming bed material thereby promoting the build-up of thick subglacial till successions.

  11. Wildfires in Northern Siberian Larch Dominated Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khaurk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Im, Sergey T.

    2011-01-01

    The fire history of the northern larch forests within the permafrost zone in a portion of northern Siberia (approx 66 deg N, 100 deg E) was studied. Since there is little to no human activities in this area fires within the study area were mostly caused by lightning. Fire return intervals (FRI) were estimated based on burn marks on tree stems and dates of tree natality. FRI values varied from 130 yr to 350 yr with 200 +/- 50 yr mean. In southerly larch dominated communities FRI was found to be shorter (77 +/- 20 yr at approx 61 deg. N, and 82 +/- 7 at 64 deg N), and longer at the northern boundary (approx 71 deg) of larch stands (320 +/- 50 yr). During the Little Ice Age period in the 16th to 18th centuries FRI was approximately twice as long as recorded in this study. Fire caused changes in the soil including increases in soil drainage and permafrost thawing depth and a radial growth increase of about 2 times (with more than 6 times observed). This effect may simulate the predicted warming impact on the larch growth in the permafrost zone.

  12. Strategies pedagogiques dans les classes a niveaux multiples du nord de l'Ontario--Un compte rendu (Teaching Strategies for Multigraded Classes in Northern Ontario: An Account).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lataille-Demore, Diane

    2003-01-01

    A training and teaching tools development project aims to help multigrade classroom teachers in remote areas of Ontario. The project presents multiple instructional strategies, such as collaborative learning, differentiated teaching, and subject integration. Sixty teaching activities, created and tested by teachers, are contained on a CD that will…

  13. Molecular analysis of red maple (Acer rubrum) populations from a reclaimed mining region in Northern Ontario (Canada): soil metal accumulation and translocation in plants.

    PubMed

    Kalubi, K N; Mehes-Smith, M; Narendrula, R; Michael, P; Omri, A

    2015-04-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum) species is one of the most widespread deciduous (hardwood) trees of eastern North America. It is among the dominant tree species in the Northern Ontario after land reclamation. To date, the effects of heavy metal contamination from the mining activities on terrestrial ecosystems are not well understood. The main objectives of the present study are (1) to determine the level of phytoavailable metal in soil and accumulation in A. rubrum, and (2) to compare the levels of genetic variation among and within A. rubrum populations from areas with different metal contents in a Northern Ontario region. The total heavy metal levels were found to be high but the availability of these metals were much lower. We found that red maple does not accumulate heavy metals in their leaves as other hardwood species. The translocation factors were 0.05, 0.21, 0.38, 0.90, and 2.8 for Cu, Ni, Fe, Zn, and Mg, respectively. The levels of genetic variation in red maple populations from reclaimed lands in Northern Ontario were moderate to high since the percentage of polymorphic loci varied between 51 and 67%. The mean values for observed number of alleles (Na), effective number of alleles (Ne), Nei's gene diversity (h), and Shannon's information index (I) were 1.60, 1.24, 0.15 and 0.24, respectively. The population differentiation (GST) among the fragmented populations was high (0.28) despite a high level of gene flow (Nm = 1.28). Nevertheless, all the populations within the targeted region were genetically closely related. A specific ISSR marker that was identified in all the samples from the reference sites was absent in most samples from metal contaminated. This specific band was cloned and sequenced. Overall, the present study confirms that red maple populations in Northern Ontario are genetically sustainable despite the high level of total metal content in soil.

  14. Apprenticeship 2000: Ontario Community Colleges' Vision for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario, North York.

    In response to the Ministry of Education and Training Discussion Paper on Apprenticeship Reform, the Council of Presidents of the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario presented a new vision for apprenticeship in Ontario. The 21st century apprenticeship system aims to remove barriers and enable workers to successfully adjust and cope…

  15. Comparison of Lake Ontario zooplankton communities between 1967 and 1985: before and after implementation of salmonid stocking and phosphorus control

    SciTech Connect

    Johannsson, O.E.

    1987-01-01

    Two strong, contrasting management strategies were applied to Lake Ontario during the 1970s. There has been a 40 percent reduction in phosphorus loading to the lake and an exponential increase in salmonid stocking. A comparison of zooplankton community structure and abundance from 1981 to 1985 with that of earlier studies (1967 to 1972) found no detectable change in the range of abundances or community composition between the two periods. Clearly, neither management strategy has had a discernible impact on the zooplankton community to date; however, the potential for change in the system remains high. 36 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  16. Tracking Crop Leaf Area Index and Chlorophyll Content Using RapidEye Data in Northern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, J.; Liu, J.; Ma, B.; Zhao, T.; Kovacs, J. M.; Jiao, X.; Dong, T.; Huffman, T.; Geng, X.; Walters, D.

    2014-12-01

    Information on crop phenological state such as flowering, maturing, drying, senescence, and harvesting is essential for crop production surveillance and yield prediction. Earth Observation data provide an important information source for monitoring crop development at various temporal and spatial scales. In particular, the availability of many high-spatial-resolution space sensors offers a powerful tool for precision farming. This study reports the results of a two-year (2012, 2013) study over spring wheat and canola fields using six different vegetation indices derived from the high-resolution (6.5m) RapidEye optical satellite data in northern Ontario, Canada. The study revealed that for both wheat and canola, significant relationships were observed between the ground-derived leaf area index (LAI) and all 6 vegetation indices tested. For spring wheat, the strongest relationship was found between LAI and the Modified Triangular Vegetation Index 2 (MTVI2), with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.95. For canola, a R2 of 0.92 was achieved. Strong relationships were also found between all six vegetation indices and the chlorophyll concentration index (CCI) measured in the fields using a CCM-200 device. The strongest correlation exists between CCI and the ratio of Modified the Chlorophyll Absorption Reflected Index (MCARI) and the Optimized Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (OSAVI), with an R2 of 0.86. It suggests that RapidEye data can be used to track field-scale crop LAI and monitor crop chlorophyll content.

  17. Giving voice to food insecurity in a remote indigenous community in subarctic Ontario, Canada: traditional ways, ways to cope, ways forward

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Food insecurity is a serious public health issue for Aboriginal people (First Nations [FN], Métis, and Inuit) living in Canada. Food security challenges faced by FN people are unique, especially for those living in remote and isolated communities. Conceptualizations of food insecurity by FN people are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of food insecurity by FN adults living in a remote, on-reserve community in northern Ontario known to have a high prevalence of moderate to severe food insecurity. Methods A trained community research assistant conducted semi-directed interviews, and one adult from each household in the community was invited to participate. Questions addressed traditional food, coping strategies, and suggestions to improve community food security and were informed by the literature and a community advisory committee. Thematic data analyses were carried out and followed an inductive, data-driven approach. Results Fifty-one individuals participated, representing 67% of eligible households. The thematic analysis revealed that food sharing, especially with family, was regarded as one of the most significant ways to adapt to food shortages. The majority of participants reported consuming traditional food (wild meats) and suggested that hunting, preserving and storing traditional food has remained very important. However, numerous barriers to traditional food acquisition were mentioned. Other coping strategies included dietary change, rationing and changing food purchasing patterns. In order to improve access to healthy foods, improving income and food affordability, building community capacity and engagement, and community-level initiatives were suggested. Conclusions Findings point to the continued importance of traditional food acquisition and food sharing, as well as community solutions for food systems change. These data highlight that traditional and store-bought food are both part of the

  18. Changes in the nearshore and offshore zooplankton communities in Lake Ontario: 1981-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johannsson, Ora E.; Mills, Edward L.; O'Gorman, Robert

    1991-01-01

    We examined trends and factors influencing changes in nearshore and offshore zooplankton abundance and composition in Lake Ontario between 1981 and 1988. In the nearshore (southshore and eastern basin), zooplankton abundance decreased and shifts occurred in the relative abundances of Bosmina longirostris and Daphnia retrocurva (eastern basin) and Daphnia retrocurva and Daphnia galeata mendotae (southshore). These changes could have resulted from increased vertebrate predation or reduced food resources which intensified the effects of predation. In the offshore, the first appearance (FA) of the larger, less common cladoceran species occurred earlier in the season as of 1985. FA was correlated with cumulative epilimnetic temperature (CET) and the catch per unit effort (CPUE) of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) a?Y165 mm caught in U.S. waters in the spring. In 1987, when CET was high and CPUE of alewife a?Y165 mm was low, large populations of these cladocerans developed in June and July. Bythotrephes cederstroemi, a recent invader in the Great Lakes, was abundant only in 1987 when the CPUE of alewife was lowest. Changes in zooplankton abundance, development, and composition along the nearshore-offshore gradient reflected effects of temperature, habitat, and planktivory on the community.

  19. How do community pharmacists make decisions? Results of an exploratory qualitative study in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Paul A.M.; Whyte, Brenna; Austin, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    Background: As the complexity of pharmacy practice increases, pharmacists are required to make more decisions under ambiguous or information-deficient conditions. There is scant literature examining how pharmacists make decisions and what factors or values influence their choices. The objective of this exploratory research was to characterize decision-making patterns in the clinical setting of community pharmacists in Ontario. Methods: The think-aloud decision-making method was used for this study. Community pharmacists with 3 or more years’ experience were presented with 2 clinical case studies dealing with challenging situations and were asked to verbally reason through their decision-making process while being probed by an interviewer for clarification, justification and further explication. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using a protocol analysis method. Results and Discussion: A total of 12 pharmacists participated in this study. Participants experienced cognitive dissonance in attempting to reconcile their desire for a clear and confrontation-free conclusion to the case discussion and the reality of the challenge presented within each case. Strategies for resolving this cognitive dissonance included strong emphasis on the educational (rather than decision-making) role of the pharmacist, the value of strong interpersonal relationships as a way to avoid conflict and achieve desired outcomes, the desire to seek external advice or defer to others’ authority to avoid making a decision and the use of strict interpretations of rules to avoid ambiguity and contextual interpretation. This research was neither representative nor generalizable but was indicative of patterns of decisional avoidance and fear of assuming responsibility for outcomes that warrant further investigation. Conclusion: The think-aloud method functioned effectively in this context and provided insights into pharmacists’ decision-making patterns in the clinical setting. Can Pharm J (Ott

  20. The social construction of risk in a rural community: Responses of local residents to the 1990 Hagersville (Ontario) tire fire

    SciTech Connect

    Eyles, J.; Taylor, S.M.; Baxter, J.; Sider, D.; Willms, D. )

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents the findings of research relating to the 1990 Hagersville (Ontario) tire fire. After reviewing the literature on risk and risk perception, it begins by describing the event as well as the community in which it occurred. The reasons for adopting a qualitative research design are then established practical, conceptual, and methodological. The residents' accounts of the fire, evacuation, and aftermath in terms of concerns, anxieties, and responses are described. Five themes emerge: economic, community, health, environmental, and governance. The paper concludes by putting forward a case study-derived model of risk appraisal and management, and by relating the findings to policy issues. 48 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Community resources for psychiatric and psychosocial problems. Family physicians' referral patterns in urban Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Craven, M. A.; Allen, C. J.; Kates, N.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document the number and pattern of psychiatric and psychosocial referrals to community resources by family physicians (FPs) and to determine whether referral practices correlate with physician variables. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of referrals by FPs to 34 key psychiatric and psychosocial community resources identified by a panel of FPs, psychiatric social workers, psychiatric nurses, public health nurses, and the local community information service. SETTING: Regional municipality of 434,000 persons in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-seven of 34 (79%) community agencies identified 261 FPs who made 4487 referrals to participating agencies (range 0 to 65, median 15, mean 17.19 +/- 13.42). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of referrals to all agencies; variables, such as physician sex, school of graduation, year of graduation, and certificate status in the College of Family Physicians of Canada, related to referral patterns. RESULTS: Referrals to outpatient psychiatric clinics, support services, and general counseling services accounted for 96% of all referrals. Physicians' average annual referral profile was as follows: 8.6 patients to a support service, 6.3 to an outpatient psychiatric service, 1.6 to a counseling service, and 0.46 to a substance abuse service. Referral profiles of individual physicians varied greatly. Female FPs made fewer referrals than male FPs to support services, but both made similar numbers of referrals to psychiatric, counseling, and substance abuse services. The more recent the year of graduation, the greater the number of referrals to psychiatric (r = 0.158, P = 0.0107) and counseling services (r = 0.137, P = 0.0272) and the higher the fraction of referrals to psychiatric services (r = 0.286, P = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Family physicians in Hamilton-Wentworth made few referrals to psychiatric and psychosocial services. Only physician sex and year of graduation correlated significantly with numbers of referrals made. Recent

  2. Impact of long-term flooding on the hydrology and carbon biogeochemistry of a northern bog in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodau, Christian; Welchering, Lieselotte; Kasparbauer, Klaus; Durejka, Stefan; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2014-05-01

    Climate change and impoundment construction may lead to rising water tables in many northern peatlands. In this study the hydrological and biogeochemical effects of flooding were analyzed at a peatland in southern Ontario, Canada, that was partly flooded 60 years ago. By a comparison of sites of increasing distance to the lake, the effects of inundation on the peatland biogeochemistry were identified. The approximate range of lake water intrusion into the peatland was determined using 18O in water. Furthermore the local hydrology was analyzed by quantifying distributions of hydraulic conductivity and small-scale groundwater flow patterns. By measuring nitrate, phosphate, ammonium, sulfate and DIC, CH4 and DOC in the lake and groundwater the chemical and biogeochemical influence of the inundation was determined. Gas fluxes of CO2 and CH4 at the site were quantified using a static chamber approach. The findings indicate that the infiltration of water from the lake at these sites occurred in time periods of higher lake levels. During summer these locations were only fed by precipitation and the previously infiltrated surface water was diluted or replaced. Nutrient concentrations in the lake water were generally lower compared to the peat pore water. The main solute entering the peatland with the intrusion was sulfate, which also influenced methane concentration patterns. Vertical flow seemed to be an important hydraulic process and control on solute transport at the study site, which has not been described to this extent previously. Additionally, indications for a discharge of groundwater into the peat during a flow reversal were found, though the assumed low permeability of underlying layers should not allow for this process. While the impact of reservoir creation on hydrologic processes appeared to be limited, the changes in water table, soil moisture and vegetation patterns had large impacts on trance gas fluxes to the atmosphere, especially on methane, whose

  3. Climatic sensitivity, water-use efficiency, and growth decline in boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forests in Northern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Rachel; Bell, F. Wayne; Silva, Lucas C. R.; Cecile, Alice; Horwath, William R.; Anand, Madhur

    2016-10-01

    Rises in atmospheric carbon dioxide (atmCO2) levels are known to stimulate photosynthesis and increase intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) in trees. Stand-level increases in iWUE depend on the physiological response of dominant species to increases in atmCO2, while tree-level response to increasing atmCO2 depends on the balance between the direct effects of atmCO2 on photosynthetic rate and the indirect effects of atmCO2 on drought conditions. The aim of this study was to characterize the response of boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) stands in Northern Ontario to changes in atmCO2 and associated climatic change over the past 100 years. The impact of changes in growing season length, temperature, and precipitation, as well as atmCO2 on tree growth, was determined using stable carbon isotopes and dendrochronological analysis. Jack pine stands in this study were shown to be in progressive decline. As expected, iWUE was found to increase in association with rising atmCO2. However, increases in iWUE were not directly coupled with atmCO2, suggesting that the degree of iWUE improvement is limited by alternative factors. Water-use efficiency was negatively associated with tree growth, suggesting that warming- and drought-induced stomatal closure has likely led to deviations from expected atmCO2-enhanced growth. This finding corroborates that boreal forest stands are likely to face continued stress under future climatic warming.

  4. Barriers to Adult Learners of an Isolated Northern Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilts, David J.

    In 1991, a study was conducted to determine perceptions regarding the deterrents to college attendance among adult learners in an isolated northern community. The study consisted of a survey of 40 students at the Fort Nelson campus of Northern Lights College (NLC) in British Columbia, and a follow-up interview of eight of the survey respondents.…

  5. Microbial Response in Peat Overlying Kimberlite Pipes in The Attawapiskat Area, Northern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkervoort, L. J.; Southam, G.

    2009-05-01

    Exploration for ore deposits occurring under thick, post-mineralized cover requires innovative methods and instrumentation [1]. Buried kimberlite pipes 'produce' geochemical conditions such as increased pH and decreased Eh in overlying peat [2] that intuitively select for bacterial populations that are best able to grow and, which in turn affect the geochemistry producing a linked signal. A microbiological study of peat was conducted over the Zulu kimberlite in the Attawapiskat area of the James Bay Lowlands to determine if the type of underlying rock influences the diversity and populations of microorganisms living in the overlying peat. Peat was sampled along an 800 m transect across the Zulu kimberlite, including samples underlain by limestone. Microbial populations and carbon source utilization patterns of peat samples were compared between the two underlying rock types. Results demonstrate an inverse relationship of increased anaerobic populations and lower biodiversity directly above the kimberlite pipe. These results support a reduced 'column' consistent with the model presented by Hamilton [3]. The combination of traditional bacterial enumeration and community- level profiling represents a cost-effective and efficient exploration technique that can serve to compliment both geophysical and geochemical surveys. [1] Goldberg (1998) J. Geochem. Explor. 61, 191-202 [2] Hattori and Hamilton (2008) Appl. Geochem. 23, 3767-3782 [3] Hamilton (1998) J. Geochem. Explor. 63, 155-172

  6. Survey of consumer and non-consumer mental health service providers on assertive community treatment teams in Ontario.

    PubMed

    White, Helen; Whelan, Chantal; Barnes, J Derrick; Baskerville, Bruce

    2003-06-01

    Reflecting the increasing trend of consumers as providers in mental health services, the standards for Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) teams in Ontario, Canada require the hiring of at least 0.5 full-time equivalent consumer as a service provider. Through a mail-out survey, we explored how the consumer position has been integrated into these ACT teams. It was found that despite some variation in the roles and degree of integration of the consumers on these teams, consumers were generally well-incorporated team members with equal or better job satisfaction as compared to other employees.

  7. The association between income source and met need among community mental health service users in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Anna; Bondy, Susan J; Durbin, Janet

    2012-10-01

    We examined income source and match between recommended and received care among users of community mental health services. We conducted a secondary analysis of needs-based planning data on adults in Ontario community mental health programs from 2000 to 2002. The outcome was whether clients were severely underserved (yes/no) based on the match between level of care recommended and received. A logistic regression model investigated if income source predicted this outcome. 13% of clients were severely underserved. Over 40% were on public assistance and they had a higher risk of being severely undeserved than the others. Men were at greater risk. One aim of mental health reform is to increase access to care for vulnerable individuals. The finding that among users of community mental health services, individuals with public assistance income support are most vulnerable to being severely underserved should be considered by service planners and providers.

  8. Canadian community mental health workers' perceived priorities for supportive housing services in northern and rural contexts.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Karen; Montgomery, Phyllis; Mossey, Sharolyn; Bailey, Patricia

    2015-11-01

    A relationship between mental health and supportive housing has been established, yet there exist enduring challenges in meeting the supportive housing needs of people with severe mental health problems. Furthermore, not all stakeholder viewpoints of supportive housing services are well documented in the research literature, and research has tended to focus on supportive housing provision in large, urban centres. Potentially, distinct challenges and opportunities associated with the provision of supportive housing services in smaller urban and rural communities that define the greater geographical terrain of Canada and other jurisdictions are less developed. This study describes community mental health service workers' priorities for supportive housing services. Using Q methodology, 39 statements about supportive housing services, developed from a mixed-methods parent study, were sorted by 58 service providers working in four communities in northern Ontario, Canada. Data used in this study were collected in 2010. Q analysis was used to identify correlations between service workers who held similar and different viewpoints concerning service priorities. The results yielded four discrete viewpoints about priorities for delivery of supportive housing services including: a functional system, service efficiency, individualised services and promotion of social inclusion. Common across these viewpoints was the need for concrete deliverables inclusive of financial supports and timely access to adequate housing. These findings have the potential to inform the development of housing policy in regions of low population density which address both system and individual variables.

  9. Response of phytoplankton communities to acidification and recovery in Killarney Park and the Experimental Lakes Area, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Findlay, David L

    2003-04-01

    It has been widely speculated that controls of SO2 emissions would stimulate recovery of acidified freshwater lakes in Canada, the United States and Europe. Phytoplankton communities from 22 lakes near Killarney Park Ontario, covering a pH range from 4.5-7.7, were studied from 1998-2000 and compared to data from experimentally acidified (pH decreased 6.7 to 4.5) and recovered (pH increased to 6.0) Lake 302 South at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), northwestern Ontario to assess recovery from acidification. Based on historical data, pH levels have rebounded to above 6.0 in several lakes in the Killarney area that were previously acidified to pH 5.0-5.5. Phytoplankton biomass was not correlated to pH, but there was a highly significant relationship between species richness and pH. Recovery trajectories were observed in a subset of 6 lakes, combining species diversity data from the present study with historical data. Correspondence analysis indicated that several of the lakes that experienced increased pH have shifted towards phytoplankton assemblages typical of circumneutral environments.

  10. The Lake Ontario zooplankton community before (1987-1991) and after (2001-2005) invasion-induced ecosystem change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, T.J.; Johannsson, O.E.; Holeck, K.; Sprules, W.G.; O'Gorman, R.

    2010-01-01

    We assessed changes in Lake Ontario zooplankton biomass, production, and community composition before (1987–1991) and after (2001–2005) invasion-induced ecosystem changes. The ecosystem changes were associated with establishment of invasive dreissenid mussels and invasive predatory cladocerans (Bythotrephes and Cercopagis). Whole-lake total epilimnetic plus metalimnetic zooplankton production declined by approximately half from 42.45 (g dry wt∙m−2∙ year−1) during 1987–1991 to 21.91 (g dry wt∙m−2∙ year−1) in 2003 and averaged 21.01 (g dry wt∙m−2∙ year−1) during 2001–2005. Analysis of two independent data sets indicates that the mean biomass and biomass proportion of cyclopoid copepods declined while the same measures increased for the invasive predatory cladocerans. Changes in means and proportions of all other zooplankton groups were not consistent between the data sets. Cyclopoid copepod biomass and production declined by factors ranging from 3.6 to 5.7. Invasive predatory cladoceran biomass averaged from 5.0% to 8.0% of the total zooplankton biomass. The zooplankton community was otherwise resilient to the invasion-induced disruption as zooplankton species richness and diversity were unaffected. Zooplankton production was likely reduced by declines in primary productivity but may have declined further due to increased predation by alewives and invasive predatory cladocerans. Shifts in zooplankton community structure were consistent with increased predation pressure on cyclopoid copepods by alewives and invasive predatory cladocerans. Predicted declines in the proportion of small cladocerans were not evident. This study represents the first direct comparison of changes in Lake Ontario zooplankton production before and after the invasion-induced disruption and will be important to food web-scale investigations of invasion effects.

  11. Motivations and Experiences of Teachers in a Northern Manitoba Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janzen, Melanie D.; Cranston, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    This paper utilizes an exploratory case study method to examine the factors that attract and motivate teachers to stay in a remote, northern Canadian community. Bakan's (1966) framework of agency and communion, provides a lens for exploring and understanding teachers' experiences of working in the north where the term "the North" is…

  12. Marketing Plan 1983-1984. Northern Virginia Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmi, Charlotte; And Others

    A 1983-84 marketing plan is presented for Northern Virginia Community College (NVCC), which is designed to maximize the effective use of shrinking resources to meet the needs of the college's clientele. After introductory material discusses the problems and challenges facing NVCC and the role of marketing in understanding the environment in which…

  13. Signs and symptoms of methylmercury contamination in a First Nations community in Northwestern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Shigeru; Fujino, Tadashi; Hotta, Nobuyuki; Ueda, Keishi; Hanada, Masanobu; Tajiri, Masami; Inoue, Yukari

    2014-01-15

    In 1970, fish caught in the English-Wabigoon River system in northwestern Ontario, Canada, were found to be contaminated with mercury coming from a chlor-alkali plant in the province. In the 1970s, patients exhibiting some of the symptoms of the Hunter-Russell syndrome (e.g. paresthesias, visual field constriction, ataxia, impaired hearing, and speech impairment) were reported by some researchers. However attempts to diagnose the patients as suffering from methylmercury poisoning proved to be controversial. In order to research the presence of methylmercury contamination, and show that the patients, through eating contaminated fish, were suffering from methylmercury poisoning, we studied the results of subjective complaints, neurological findings, and quantitative somatosensory measurements gathered in Grassy Narrows Indian Reservation, Ontario, in March, 2010. At that time, the population of the Grassy Narrows settlement was around 900. Ninety-one residents volunteered to be examined. From them, we selected 80 people who were older than 15 years old, and divided them into two groups. Canadian Younger (CY): 36 residents who were from 16 to 45 years old. Canadian Older (CO): 44 residents who were from 46 to 76 years old. We compared them to Japanese Exposed (JE): 88 methylmercury exposed residents from the Minamata district in Japan, and Japanese Control (JC): 164 control residents from non-polluted areas in Japan. Complaints and abnormal neurological findings were more prevalent and quantitative sensory measurements were worse in the two Canadian groups and the Japanese Exposed group than in the Japanese Control group. Complaints, neurological findings and quantitative sensory measurements were similar in Canadian Older and Japanese Exposed. The results for Canadian Younger fell between those of Canadian Older and Japanese Control. These findings indicate that the clinical signs and symptoms of the residents of Grassy Narrows are almost the same as those recorded

  14. Support and intervention groups for adolescents with cancer in two Ontario communities.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Maru; Damore-Petingola, Sheila; Fleming, Carly; Mayer, Judy

    2006-10-01

    Adolescents who are treated for cancer must learn to negotiate challenging developmental tasks in the context of their treatment and adverse effects. Adverse affects of disease and treatment may prevent some of these adolescents from achieving full psychosocial development. Two programs developed independently to address the psychosocial and unique contextual needs of adolescents and young adults from different geographic regions in Ontario, Central urban and Northeastern rural, are described. The program in the urban area consists of eight 2-h sessions that combined structured creative activities and informal discussions of issues generated by adolescents; it includes a pre- post- intervention evaluation with standardized questionnaires. The Northeastern rural program consists of a monthly support open group that encourages sharing personal experiences and an annual expressive art retreat; both components include informal evaluation. Formal evaluation of these programs is in progress. Informal feedback from participants and parents suggest positive effects. These distinct and unique programs continue to evolve, as they address the unique psychosocial needs of adolescents and young adults in urban and rural areas.

  15. CHANGES IN THE FRESHWATER BENTHIC COMMUNITY OF LAKE ONTARIO SINCE THE INVASION OF DREISSENA 1972-1997

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population changes of three major benthic taxa are discussed in relation to Dreissena spp. Lake Ontario was sampled pre-invasion (1972) and post-invasion (1994, 1997) for abundance of benthic organisms. In offshore sediments of Lake Ontario, neither species composition nor abunda...

  16. Early Childhood Development in the Dixie Bloor Community of Mississauga, Ontario. Understanding the Early Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources Development Canada, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…

  17. Community health profile of Windsor, Ontario, Canada: anatomy of a Great Lakes area of concern.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, M; Brophy, J

    2001-01-01

    The rates of mortality, morbidity as hospitalizations, and congenital anomalies in the Windsor Area of Concern ranked among the highest of the 17 Areas of Concern on the Canadian side of the Great Lakes for selected end points that might be related to pollution in this relatively highly industrialized city. Mortality and morbidity rates from all causes were higher than in the rest of the province. Anomalously high rates of diseases included various cancers; endocrine, nutritional, metabolic, and immunity disorders; diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, nervous system and sense organs, circulatory and respiratory systems, digestive system, genitourinary system, skin and subcutaneous tissue, musculoskeletal system and connective tissues; congenital anomalies, and infant mortality. Of particular concern was the early onset of the elevated rates of many of these diseases and conditions. Comparison of these incident rates with those in Hamilton, another industrial municipality in southern Ontario, suggested that in addition to a variety of local sources of industrial pollution from automobile manufacturing and use, transboundary air and water pollution from Detroit, Michigan, should be investigated as potentially important causes of these health outcomes in the Windsor Area of Concern. Some of the institutional and political trends of the past decade may need to be reversed before effective remedial programs are implemented for cleaning up contaminated sediments and for containment of leaking hazardous waste sites. This pilot project would seem to be a useful preliminary method of integrating human health concerns and of priority setting for the administration of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement. PMID:11744501

  18. Predicting wetland plant community responses to proposed water-level-regulation plans for Lake Ontario: GIS-based modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, D.A.; Xie, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated, GIS-based, wetland predictive models were constructed to assist in predicting the responses of wetland plant communities to proposed new water-level regulation plans for Lake Ontario. The modeling exercise consisted of four major components: 1) building individual site wetland geometric models; 2) constructing generalized wetland geometric models representing specific types of wetlands (rectangle model for drowned river mouth wetlands, half ring model for open embayment wetlands, half ellipse model for protected embayment wetlands, and ellipse model for barrier beach wetlands); 3) assigning wetland plant profiles to the generalized wetland geometric models that identify associations between past flooding / dewatering events and the regulated water-level changes of a proposed water-level-regulation plan; and 4) predicting relevant proportions of wetland plant communities and the time durations during which they would be affected under proposed regulation plans. Based on this conceptual foundation, the predictive models were constructed using bathymetric and topographic wetland models and technical procedures operating on the platform of ArcGIS. An example of the model processes and outputs for the drowned river mouth wetland model using a test regulation plan illustrates the four components and, when compared against other test regulation plans, provided results that met ecological expectations. The model results were also compared to independent data collected by photointerpretation. Although data collections were not directly comparable, the predicted extent of meadow marsh in years in which photographs were taken was significantly correlated with extent of mapped meadow marsh in all but barrier beach wetlands. The predictive model for wetland plant communities provided valuable input into International Joint Commission deliberations on new regulation plans and was also incorporated into faunal predictive models used for that purpose.

  19. Supported housing programs for persons with serious mental illness in rural northern communities: A mixed method evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Phyllis; Forchuk, Cheryl; Duncan, Craig; Rose, Don; Bailey, Patricia H; Veluri, Ramamohan

    2008-01-01

    Background During the past two decades, consumers, providers and policy makers have recognized the role of supported housing intervention for persons diagnosed with serious mental illness (SMI) to be able to live independently in the community. Much of supported housing research to date, however, has been conducted in large urban centers rather than northern and rural communities. Northern conditional and contextual issues such as rural poverty, lack of accessible mental health services, small or non-existing housing markets, lack of a continuum of support or housing services, and in some communities, a poor quality of housing challenge the viability of effective supported housing services. The current research proposal aims to describe and evaluate the processes and outcomes of supported housing programs for persons living with SMI in northern and rural communities from the perspective of clients, their families, and community providers. Methods This research will use a mixed method design guided by participatory action research. The study will be conducted over two years, in four stages. Stage I will involve setting up the research in each of the four northern sites. In Stage II a descriptive cross-sectional survey will be used to obtain information about the three client outcomes: housing history, quality of life and housing preference. In Stage III two participatory action strategies, focus groups and photo-voice, will be used to explore perceptions of supported housing services. In the last stage findings from the study will be re-presented to the participants, as well as other key community individuals in order to translate them into policy. Conclusion Supported housing intervention is a core feature of mental health care, and it requires evaluation. The lack of research in northern and rural SMI populations heightens the relevance of research findings for health service planning. The inclusion of multiple stakeholder groups, using a variety of data

  20. Uncovering the hidden part of a large ice stream of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, northern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veillette, J. J.; Roy, M.; Paulen, R. C.; Ménard, M.; St-Jacques, G.

    2017-01-01

    This investigation was prompted by an enigmatic ice-flow anomaly (Area A) on the Glacial Map of Canada which covers about 10 000 km2 in the Hearst/Kapuskasing area of northeastern Ontario. It consists of streamlined landforms and striations indicative of a major ice flow toward 130° oriented at right angle to another toward 220°. Both are late glacial flows but long-lasting disagreement exists regarding their relative age. The analysis of aerial photographs and satellite images in conjunction with a detailed survey of bedrock cross-striated surfaces over an area of about 30 000 km2 within and around Area A clearly indicate that the 130° flow preceded the 220° flow. The earlier conflicting interpretations within Area A are attributed mainly to the sporadic occurrence of relict striated surfaces formed by older southwestward (220°-240°) Wisconsinan ice flows that have locally escaped destruction by late glacial flows, with the result that the southwestward flows are older (Wisconsinan) at some sites and younger (late glacial 220°) at others relative to the 130° flow. When considered with other factors such as the maximum elevation reached by the youngest late glacial flow, these ice-flow relationships indicate that Area A is the outcropping southern part of a much larger ESE ice-flow system, which is probably related to a large fluted belt located to the north and that was identified as the Winisk Ice Stream. The distal part of the ice stream, except for Area A, escaped detection by remote sensing mapping methods because depositional and erosional features associated with it are masked by deposits laid down by the younger (220°, Cochrane) ice flow and/or by postglacial marine and organic deposits (or were destroyed by the younger ice flow). The only reliable indicators of the passage of the ice stream in this "buried" section are ESE relict striations crossed by SW striations. The advancing ice stream toward the ESE not only preceded the late Cochrane 220

  1. Evaluating the Effectiveness of First-Time Methadone Maintenance Therapy Across Northern, Rural, and Urban Regions of Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Eibl, Joseph K.; Gomes, Tara; Martins, Diana; Camacho, Ximena; Juurlink, David N.; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Dhalla, Irfan A.; Marsh, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Our objective was to determine the impact that a patient's geographic status has on the efficacy of first-time methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) retention. Methods: We conducted an observational cohort study using administrative health care databases for patients who commenced methadone therapy between 2003 and 2012. Patients were stratified on the basis of their location of residence into 1 of 4 groups—Southern Urban, Southern Rural, Northern Urban, or Northern Rural. The primary outcome was continuous retention in treatment, defined as 1 year of uninterrupted therapy on the basis of prescription refill data. Mortality was measured as a secondary outcome. Results: We identified 17,211 patients initiating first-time MMT during this 10-year period. Nearly half of patients initiating therapy in northern regions completed 1 year of treatment (48.9%; N = 258 and 47.0%; N = 761 in Northern Rural and Urban regions, respectively), whereas lower rates of 40.6% (N = 410) and 39.3% (N = 5,518) occurred in Southern Rural and Urban regions, respectively. Patients residing in Northern Rural and Northern Urban regions were 31% (adjusted odds ratio = 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09%–1.58%] and 14% (adjusted odds ratio = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02%–1.27%] more likely to be retained in treatment compared with those residing in Southern Urban regions. There was no significant difference in treatment retention between those residing in Southern Rural and Southern Urban regions. A mortality rate of 3% was observed within 1 year of patients initiating treatment, with patients in the Southern Rural region having the highest rate (4.85%). Conclusions: Our study identified regional differences in retention rates and mortality of first-time MMT. These findings may relate to geographic isolation and limited methadone program availability experienced in northern regions. We interpret the data to suggest that patients who have reduced access to

  2. Prevalence of neutralizing antibody to Jamestown Canyon virus (California group) in populations of elk and moose in northern Michigan and Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Grimstad, P R; Schmitt, S M; Williams, D G

    1986-10-01

    Blood samples were collected from free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) harvested in Michigan's northern Lower Peninsula, from moose (Alces alces) relocated from Ontario's Algonquin Provincial Park to Michigan's Upper Peninsula, and from moose from Michigan's Isle Royale National Park. Sera were tested by serum dilution neutralization tests in Vero cell culture for neutralizing antibody to California serogroup viruses, in particular Jamestown Canyon (JC), La Crosse/snowshoe hare (LAC/SSH), and trivittatus (TVT) viruses. Specific neutralizing antibody to JC virus was detected in 71% of 31 and 65% of 20 moose from Algonquin and Isle Royale, respectively. An additional six moose from Algonquin and five from Isle Royale showed evidence of multiple infection. One juvenile moose from Isle Royale had specific neutralizing antibody to TVT virus. Specific neutralizing antibody to JC virus was detected also in 54% of 50 elk from Michigan; 20 of the 50 elk showed evidence of multiple infection. While no single serum sample showed specific neutralizing antibody only to LAC/SSH virus, its presence in sera from some animals may have been masked by the high prevalence of antibody to JC virus.

  3. Establishing the SouthWestern Academic Health Network (SWAHN): A Survey Exploring the Needs of Academic and Community Networks in SouthWestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Kathryn; Randhawa, Jasmine; Steele, Margaret

    2015-10-01

    With the evolving fields of health research, health professional education and advanced clinical care comes a need to bring researchers, educators and health care providers together to enhance communication, knowledge-sharing and interdisciplinary collaboration. There is also a need for active collaboration between academic institutions and community organizations to improve health care delivery and health outcomes in the community setting. In Canada, an Academic Health Sciences Network model has been proposed to achieve such activities. The SouthWestern Academic Health Network (SWAHN) has been established among three universities, three community colleges, community hospitals, community-based organizations and health care providers and two Local Health Integrated Networks (LHINs) in Southwestern Ontario. A survey was conducted to understand the characteristics, activities, existing partnerships, short- and long-term goals of the academic and community health networks in SouthWestern Ontario to inform the development of SWAHN moving forward. A total of 114 health networks were identified from the two participating LHINs, 103 community health networks and 11 academic health networks. A mailed survey was sent to all networks and responses were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The short- and long-term goals of these networks were categorized into five main themes: Public Health, Education, Research, System Delivery and Special Populations. Overall, this study helped to elicit important information from the academic and community based networks, which will inform the future work of SWAHN. This research has also demonstrated the significance of collecting information from both academic and community partners during the formation of other interdisciplinary health networks.

  4. Challenges in assessing food environments in northern and remote communities in Canada.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Kelly; Burnett, Kristin; Williams, Patricia; Martin, Debbie; Stothart, Christopher; LeBlanc, Joseph; Veeraraghavan, Gigi; Sheedy, Amanda

    2016-06-09

    Effective tools for retail food environments in northern and remote communities are lacking. This paper examines the challenges of conducting food environment assessments in northern and remote communities in Canada encountered during our experience with a food costing project. One of the goals of the Paying for Nutrition in the North project is to develop guidelines to improve current food costing tools for northern Canada. Paying for Nutrition illustrates the complex context of measuring food environments in northern and remote communities. Through the development of a food costing methodology guide to assess northern food environments, several contextual issues emerged, including retail store oligopolies in communities; the importance of assessing food quality; informal social food economies; and the challenge of costing the acquisition and consumption of land- and water-based foods. Food environment measures designed for northern and remote communities need to reflect the geographic context in which they are being employed and must include input from local residents.

  5. Waterfowl communities in the northern plains: Chapter 13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Douglas H.; Cody, M.L.; Smallwood, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    ecologists than have many other groups of birds despite the importance attributed to waterfowl by biologists more generally, as well as by the public. Exceptions include work by Nudds and colleagues in Canada and by P?ysS and colleagues in Finland (see Nudds 1992 and references contained therein). Further, waterfowl are important ecologically; in much of the prairie of the North American midcontinent, waterfowl are numerically among the most common bird species and are certainly dominant in terms of biomass. This chapter addresses some influences on waterfowl communities in mixed-grass prairie pothole habitat. It takes a temporal perspective, based on annual censuses of breeding ducks for 25 years on a specific study area at Woodworth, North Dakota. Any changes in the structural features of the habitat that may have occurred during this period at the census site were at most gradual. I examine how the waterfowl communities varied in response to influences that did change annually, such as climate, conditions of the wetlands on the study area, the regional populations of birds from which the communities were constituted, and the population at Woodworth during the previous year. The results of the analyses are interpreted relative to individual characteristics of 11 waterfowl species: Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), Gadwall (Anas strepera), Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca), Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), Northern Pintail (Anas acuta), Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata), American Wigeon (Anas americana), Canvasback (Aythya valisineria), Redhead (Aythya americana), Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis), and Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis).

  6. Métis Student Self-Identification in Ontario's K-12 Schools: Education Policy and Parents, Families, and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anuik, Jonathan; Bellehumeur-Kearns, Laura-Lee

    2014-01-01

    The mandate for school boards to develop self-identification policies for First Nation, Métis, and Inuit students is part of the 2007 Ministry of Education's "Ontario First Nation, Métis and Inuit Education Policy Framework." In this paper, we share findings from a larger study on the Framework that examines Métis student…

  7. Linking Quality of Life and Standard of Living Priorities with Rates of Return in Education: Implications for Ontario's Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menna, Agostino

    2012-01-01

    This study begins to develop a way to measure the returns and benefits of education using a standard of living and quality of life approach. It sought identification of school priorities among senior level managers at postsecondary institutions in Ontario, Canada, and found that these administrators prioritized standard of living over quality of…

  8. Deep Crustal Structure and Tectonic History of the Northern Kapuskasing Uplift of Ontario: AN Integrated Petrological-Geophysical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percival, J. A.; McGrath, P. H.

    1986-08-01

    The northeast trending Kapuskasing uplift transects the east-west belts of the central Superior Province over a distance of some 500 km. Granulite to upper amphibolite facies rocks of the uplift form three distinct geological-geophysical entities: from south to north, the Chapleau, Groundhog River, and Fraserdale-Moosonee blocks. Uplift of the granulites along a moderately northwest dipping crustal-scale thrust fault is attributed to an early Proterozoic compressional event. Major northeast-striking faults that bound the Kapuskasing zone on the west were examined by modelling of geophysical anomalies to determine dip and by geobarometry of garnet-orthopyroxene-plagioclase-quartz assemblages to determine vertical displacement. Granulites in the Kapuskasing zone have 7- to 9-kbar signatures whereas those in the Quetico belt to the west indicate metamorphic pressure of 4-6 kbar. Individual calibrations of the barometer yield consistent pressure differences of 2-3 kbar, suggesting 7-10 km of west-side-down movement on the faults. Modelling of gravity and aeromagnetic gradients indicates westerly dips of 60°-65°, with west-side-down offset of up to 14 km. These major normal faults probably formed as collapse structures in response to crustal thickening which occurred during the preceding compressional uplift stage. Differences in the configuration of individual blocks of the Kapuskasing zone can be related to variable fault slip and intersection angles between normal and reverse faults. Thus the Groundhog River and southern Fraserdale-Moosonee blocks are perched thrust tips analogous to the Sangre de Cristo Range of the Laramide uplift province, whereas the southern Chapleau block is a tilted slab with similar configuration to the Laramide Wind River Range. Pop-up geometry deduced for the northern Fraserdale-Moosonee block resembles the structure of the Laramide Uinta Mountains. A normal fault crosses the surface trace of the basal thrust fault between the Groundhog

  9. Citizen Support for Northern Ohio Community College Funding Initiatives during an Economic Recession Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The current research, "Citizen Support for Northern Ohio Community College Funding Initiatives during an Economic Recession Recovery", asks the question: Do the citizens of Northern Ohio support community college funding during difficult economic times? Based on the theory of Stakeholder Analysis, the purpose of this concurrent,…

  10. Diversity of rickettsiae in a rural community in northern California.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Nicole; Blaney, Alexandra; Clifford, Deana; Gabriel, Mourad; Wengert, Greta; Foley, Patrick; Brown, Richard N; Higley, Mark; Buckenberger-Mantovani, Sarah; Foley, Janet

    2017-02-27

    Far northern California forests are highly biodiverse in wildlife reservoirs and arthropod vectors that may propagate rickettsial pathogens in nature. The proximity of small rural communities to these forests puts people and domestic animals at risk of vector-borne infection due to spillover from wildlife. The current study was conducted to document exposure to rickettsial pathogens in people and domestic animals in a rural community, and identify which rickettsiae are present in sylvatic and peri-domestic environments near this community. Blood samples from people, domestic animals (dogs, cats, and horses) and wild carnivores were tested for Rickettsia spp. antibodies and DNA (people and domestic animals only) by serology and real time (RT)-PCR, respectively. Ectoparasites were collected from dogs, wild carnivores and from vegetation by flagging, and tested for Rickettsia spp. DNA by RT-PCR. DNA sequencing of the rickettsial 17kDa protein gene or the ompA gene was used for species identification. Despite a seroprevalence of 3% in people, 42% in dogs, 79% in cats, 33% in gray foxes, and 83% in bobcats, RT-PCR on blood was consistently negative, likely because the sensitivity of this test is low, as Rickettsia spp. do not often circulate in high numbers in the blood. Rickettsia spp. DNA was found in four flea species collected from bobcats and Ctenocephalides felis collected from domestic dogs. All amplicons sequenced from fleas were R. felis. Ixodes pacificus collected by flagging were commonly infected with a Rickettsia sp. endosymbiont. Rickettsia rhipicephali DNA was found in Dermacentor variabilis from dogs, black bears, a gray fox, and a D. occidentalis collected by flagging. Dermacentor variabilis from dogs and black bears also contained R. montanensis DNA. Multiple Rickettsia spp. (including species with zoonotic and pathogenic potential) were found among human biting arthropod vectors of both wild and domestic carnivores and on flags. Knowledge of the

  11. Final Report: Northern Virginia Community College Training for Biotechnology Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Johanna V

    2010-05-31

    The intent of this project was to expand Northern Virginia Community College's capability to offer training to support the Biotechnology Industry in the northern Virginia region. The general goal of this project was to create a College Biotechnology Program; specific goals of the project were to a) design curricula/courses to prepare students to become entry-level lab technicians, b) redesign and equip lab space to better suit the needs of the program, c) develop partnerships with the local industry through outreach and the formation on an advisory board, d) recruit students into the program, and e) provide instructional support for local high school teachers. At the end of the grant period, NOVA has successfully created two new curricula in biotechnology: an Associate of Applied Science (A.A.S.) in Biotechnology (initiated in Fall 2008) and a Career Studies Certificate for Biotechnology Lab Technicians (to be initiated in Fall 2010). These curricula were designed with advice from an external advisory committee which is comprised of representatives from industry, transfer institutions and high school administrators. To date, almost all courses have been designed and piloted; the equipment needed for the courses and the initial supplies were paid for by the grant as was the re-modeling of some lab space to be used for the biotech courses. In order to market the program, the NOVA Biotech Program has also established relationships with the local high schools. Presentations were given at several local high schools and on-site workshops were held for high school students and teachers. As a result, close to 1000 students have attended program open houses, presentations within the high schools, or workshops held in the summer. Over 100 teachers have received information and/or training in biotechnology. These outreach efforts as well as high quality curricula have started to attract a number of students to the program – for example, there are currently 70 students

  12. Opportunities, ethical challenges, and lessons learned from working with peer research assistants in a multi-method HIV community-based research study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Logie, Carmen; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R

    2012-10-01

    We discuss ethical challenges and opportunities experienced by peer research assistants (PRAs) in a multi-method HIV community-based research study in Ontario, Canada. We review lessons learned and best practices based on our experience conducting a qualitative investigation of research priorities with diverse women living with HIV (WLWH) and implementation of a cross-sectional survey with African, Caribbean, and Black WLWH. While some opportunities were similar across research phases for PRAs (e.g., skill building), distinct challenges emerged in qualitative and quantitative phases. For example, our training did not adequately prepare PRAs with focus group facilitation skills; at times, survey implementation became counseling sessions. Researchers should assess how best to support PRAs as part of multi-method research processes.

  13. Place Identity, Participation, and Emotional Climate in a Rural Community From the Northern Coast of Peru.

    PubMed

    Freire, Silvana; Espinosa, Agustín; Rottenbacher, Jan Marc

    2015-01-01

    Currently, in rural communities from the Peruvian northern coast, it is common to find a climate of distrust and pessimism that accompanies the lack of coordinated social action and community participation among residents. This study analyzes the relationships that people develop with regard to the place where they live in, how it associates to the ways they participate in their community and the relationship that these two variables have with the perceived emotional climate, in a rural community from the northern coast of Peru (n = 81). Results indicate that place identity is significantly associated with a high community participation and a climate of trust in the community. Finally, a Path Analysis is performed to analyze comprehensively the relationship between these variables. The results suggest that place identity does have an influence on perceived positive climate in the community, being mediated by the dimensions of community participation.

  14. [Overview of acupuncture development in Ontario Canada].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Wu, Bin-jiang

    2012-04-01

    The history of acupuncture in Ontario, Canada was traced, and the current status as welI as the prospection were introduced in this paper. Statistics showed that the history of acupuncture in Ontario started in the 1880s, and it was only popular in China Town and Chinese community. In the 1970s, it gradually merged into the mainstream of the society, and entered into a growing period. With the tide of Chinese immigration in the 1980s and 1990s, acupuncture matured rapidly. In 2006, the "Traditional Chinese Medicine Act" was passed in Ontario, it was considered as a milestone in the history of acupuncture. At present, just like the other 23 health care professions, acupuncture has already be included into the legislation system, and become a component of Ontario's health care system. At the same time, the law and regulation may also promote the establishment of "pure Chinese Medicine" in Ontario.

  15. Community engagement: a key to successful rural clinical education.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Roger P

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of rural clinical attachments has demonstrated that the rural setting provides a high-quality clinical learning environment that is of potential value to all medical students. Specifically, rural clinical education provides more 'hands on' experience for students in which they are exposed to a wide range of common health problems and develop a high level of clinical competence. Northern Ontario in Canada is a large rural region that has a chronic shortage of healthcare providers. The Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM) was established with a social accountability mandate to contribute to improving the health of the people and communities of Northern Ontario, and is a joint initiative of Laurentian University, Sudbury, and Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, which are over 1000 km apart. The NOSM has developed a distinctive model of medical education known as distributed community engaged learning (DCEL), which weaves together various recent trends in medical education including case-based learning, community-based medical education, electronic distance education and rural-based medical education (including the preceptor model). The NOSM curriculum is grounded in Northern Ontario and relies heavily on electronic communications to support DCEL. In the classroom and in clinical settings, students explore cases from the perspective of doctors in Northern Ontario. In addition, DCEL involves community engagement through which communities actively participate in hosting students and contribute to their learning.This paper explores the conceptual and practical issues of community engagement, with specific focus on successful rural clinical education. Community engagement takes the notion of 'community' in health sciences education beyond being simply community based in that the community actively contributes to hosting the students and enhancing their learning experiences. This is consistent with the focus on social accountability in medical education

  16. Uptake of the MedsCheck annual medication review service in Ontario community pharmacies between 2007 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Dolovich, Lisa; Consiglio, Giulia; MacKeigan, Linda; Abrahamyan, Lusine; Pechlivanoglou, Petros; Rac, Valeria E.; Pojskic, Nedzad; Bojarski, Elizabeth A.; Su, Jiandong; Krahn, Murray; Cadarette, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: MedsCheck Annual (MCA) is an Ontario government-funded medication review service for individuals taking 3 or more prescription medications for chronic conditions. Methods: This cohort study analyzed linked administrative claims data from April 1, 2007, to March 31, 2013. Trends in MCA claims and recipient characteristics were examined. Results: A total of 1,498,440 Ontarians (55% seniors, 55% female) received an MCA. One-third (36%) had 2 or more MCAs within 6 years. Service provision increased over time, with a sharper increase from 2010 onward. Almost half of Ontario pharmacies made at least 1 MCA claim in the first month of the program. Hypertension, respiratory disease, diabetes, psychiatric conditions and arthritis were common comorbidities. Recipients older than 65 years were most commonly dispensed an antihypertensive and/or antihyperlipidemic drug in the prior year and received an average of 11 unique prescription medications. Thirty-eight percent of recipients visited an emergency department or were hospitalized in the year prior to their first MCA. Discussion: Over the first 6 years of the program, approximately 1 in 9 Ontarians received an MCA. There was rapid and widespread uptake of the service. Common chronic conditions were well represented among MCA recipients. Older MCA recipients had less emergency department use compared with population-based estimates. Conclusions: Medication reviews increased over time; however, the number of persons receiving the service more than once was low. Service delivery was generally consistent with program eligibility; however, there are some findings possibly consistent with delivery to less complex patients. PMID:27708675

  17. Evaluating Team Project-Work Using Triangulation: Lessons from Communities in Northern Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Gordon; Jasaw, Godfred Seidu

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses triangulation to assess key aspects of a team-based, participatory action research programme for undergraduates in rural communities across northern Ghana. The perceptions of the programme and its effects on the students, staff and host communities are compared, showing areas of agreement and disagreement. The successes of the…

  18. Mamow Ki-ken-da-ma-win: A Partnership Approach to Child, Youth, Family and Community Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Judy; Hardy, Micheal; Morris, Donny; Nagy, Anna

    2010-01-01

    "Mamow-Sha-way-gi-kay-win": North-South Partnership for Children represents a coalition of individuals and organizations from southern Ontario who have partnered with First Nations Chiefs, community leaders, Elders, youth and community members from 30 remote northern communities. The collective goal of the Partnership is to learn from…

  19. Using a community of practice model to create change for Northern homeless women

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Nancy; Bopp, Judie

    2016-01-01

    This is a story about three virtual and face-to-face communities which met in the capitals of Canada’s three Northern territorial cities over a two-year period to discuss and act on culturally safe and gender-specific services for Northern women (and their children) experiencing homelessness, mental health and substance use concerns. It is a story of how researchers and community-based advocates can work across distance and culture, using co-learning in virtual communities as a core strategy to create relational system change. The three communities of practice were linked through a pan-territorial action research project entitled Repairing the Holes in the Net, in which all participants: learned together, mapped available services, discussed the findings from interviews with northern women about their trajectories of homelessness, analyzed relevant policy, planned local service enhancements, and generally took inspiration from each other. PMID:27468298

  20. Nonprescribed Hormone Use and Self-Performed Surgeries: “Do-It-Yourself” Transitions in Transgender Communities in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Greta R.; Scanlon, Kyle; Kaay, Matthias; Travers, Robb; Travers, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the extent of nonprescribed hormone use and self-performed surgeries among transgender or transsexual (trans) people in Ontario, Canada. Methods. We present original survey research from the Trans PULSE Project. A total of 433 participants were recruited from 2009 to 2010 through respondent-driven sampling. We used a case series design to characterize those currently taking nonprescribed hormones and participants who had ever self-performed sex-reassignment surgeries. Results. An estimated 43.0% (95% confidence interval = 34.9, 51.5) of trans Ontarians were currently using hormones; of these, a quarter had ever obtained hormones from nonmedical sources (e.g., friend or relative, street or strangers, Internet pharmacy, herbals or supplements). Fourteen participants (6.4%; 95% confidence interval = 0.8, 9.0) reported currently taking nonprescribed hormones. Five indicated having performed or attempted surgical procedures on themselves (orchiectomy or mastectomy). Conclusions. Past negative experiences with providers, along with limited financial resources and a lack of access to transition-related services, may contribute to nonprescribed hormone use and self-performed surgeries. Promoting training initiatives for health care providers and jurisdictional support for more accessible services may help to address trans people’s specific needs. PMID:23948009

  1. Shared Accents, Divided Speech Community? Change in Northern Ireland English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCafferty, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    Using data from Derry/Londonderry English, the impact of social factors on language variation is examined. Finds that where language change is occurring, ethnicity has an effect on the adoption of innovations. Changes originating in the (predominantly Protestant) east of Northern Ireland tend to be adopted primarily by Protestants, whereas…

  2. The ecology of patterned boreal peatlands of northern Minnesota: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, P.H.

    1987-06-01

    This report reviews the ecological information available for patterned boreal peatlands in northern Minnesota. Although vast areas of Canada and Alaska are covered by boreal forests, they extend southward into the continental United States only in northern Minnesota and to a lesser extent in northern Michigan. In northern Minnesota these peatlands comprise large areas of freshwater wetlands whose unique hydrological characteristics promote the development of patterned vegetation. This publication describes the distribution of peatlands, the physical settings in which they exist, and the processes leading to their development on the landscape. Hydrology, water chemistry, and nutrient cycling in bogs and fens are discussed. The plant communities unique to these types of wetlands, their successional trends, and the animal communities inhabiting them are also described. The profile closes with a summary of past human impacts on peatlands and recommendations for future management.

  3. Changes in smoking during pregnancy in Ontario, 1995 to 2010: results from the Canadian community health survey.

    PubMed

    Brown, Hilary K; Wilk, Piotr

    2014-10-01

    Objectif : Cette étude avait pour objectif (1) d’examiner les modifications des comportements quant au tabagisme avec le temps chez les femmes enceintes de l’Ontario (par comparaison avec les femmes n’étant pas enceintes et les hommes) et (2) de chercher à déterminer si, chez les femmes enceintes, ces modifications avec le temps variaient en fonction de caractéristiques sociodémographiques. Méthodes : Dans le cadre de cette étude, nous avons utilisé des données tirées de l’Enquête sur la santé dans les collectivités canadiennes. L’échantillon d’étude englobait les résidentes de l’Ontario dont l’âge se situait entre 15 et 49 ans. Une régression logistique multivariée (tenant compte des interactions entre la période et la caractéristique d’intérêt) a été utilisée pour chercher à déterminer si les modifications variaient avec le temps en fonction (1) du groupe (femmes enceintes, femmes n’étant pas enceintes, hommes; intervalles de deux ans, 2001-2010) et (2) du sous-groupe de grossesse (âge maternel, état matrimonial maternel, niveau de scolarité maternel; 1995-2000 [n = 3 745], 2001-2005 [n = 5 084] et 2006-2010 [n = 2 900]). Résultats : Bien qu’une baisse de la prévalence du tabagisme avec le temps ait été constatée dans tous les groupes, cette baisse était plus faible chez les femmes enceintes que chez les femmes n’étant pas enceintes (23,5 % vs 30,8 %). Chez les femmes enceintes, les interactions entre la période et l’âge maternel, l’état matrimonial maternel et le niveau de scolarité maternel étaient significatives sur le plan statistique. La prévalence du tabagisme pendant la grossesse connaissait une baisse chez les femmes plus âgées, mariées et disposant d’un niveau de scolarité supérieur, tandis qu’il connaissait une hausse chez les jeunes femmes (de l’ordre de 8,2 %) et chez les femmes disposant d’un niveau de scolarité inférieur (de l’ordre de 12,8 %). Bien

  4. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in bacterial communities associated with Cladophora glomerata mats along the nearshore of Lake Ontario.

    PubMed

    Ibsen, Michael; Fernando, Dinesh; Kumar, Ayush; Kirkwood, Andrea

    2017-02-13

    The alga Cladophora glomerata can erupt in nuisance blooms throughout the lower Great Lakes. Since bacterial abundance increases with the emergence and decay of Cladophora, we investigated the prevalence of antibiotic resistance (ABR) in Cladophora-associated bacterial communities up-gradient and down-gradient from a large sewage treatment plant (STP) on Lake Ontario. Although STPs are well-known sources of ABR, we also expected detectable ABR from up-gradient wetland communities since they receive surface run-off from urban and agricultural sources. Statistically significant differences in aquatic bacterial abundance and ABR were found between down-gradient beach-samples and up-gradient coastal wetland-samples (ANOVA, Holm-Sidak test p<0.05). Decaying and free-floating Cladophora sampled near the STP had the highest bacterial densities overall, including on ampicillin- and vancomycin-treated plates. However, qPCR analysis of the ABR-genes ampC, tetA, tetB, and vanA from environmental communities showed a different pattern. Some of the highest ABR-gene levels occurred at the two coastal wetland sites (vanA). Overall, bacterial ABR profiles from environmental samples were distinguishable between living and decaying Cladophora, inferring that Cladophora may control bacterial ABR depending on its life-cycle stage. Our results also show how spatially and temporally dynamic ABR is in nearshore aquatic bacteria, which warrants further research.

  5. Developing Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices in First Nations Communities: Learning Anishnaabemowin and Land-Based Teachings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oskineegish, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    First Nations schools in northern Ontario have the dual responsibility of providing students with the skills and foundation to thrive in their community as well as in higher education outside of their community. This responsibility requires teachers to be capable of developing and implementing lessons that support academic excellence and cultural…

  6. Impact of hydroelectric development upon a northern Manitoba native community

    SciTech Connect

    Waldram, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation describes the process of underdevelopment among the Cree Indian people of South Indian Lake, in Northern Manitoba, Canada, following the construction of the Churchill-Nelson River Hydro Project in 1975. The dissertation seeks to link the ecological, political, economic, socio-cultural and health aspects of the impact of the hydro project within the framework of the historical process of underdevelopment as it has occurred in Latin America, among Native people in the United States, and among Native people in Northern Canada. Utilizing both qualitative and quantitative data, a process of increased dependence is described as the product of two related processes. The first process is the impairment of the local commercial and domestic economy caused by the flooding of Southern Indian Lake, which has resulted in a decline in local productivity. The second process is the enhancement of consumerism through rising consumer expectations and a post-project increase in available goods and services which the people are increasingly unable to afford. The overall result has been a process of economic divergence at the local level. The dissertation concludes that the process of underdevelopment which has occurred in South Indian Lake has been the result primarily of changes in the local ecological system caused by the construction of the hydro project. These ecological changes have, in turn, resulted in secondary changes in the socio-economic system.

  7. Examining the Potential Use of the Collaborative-Geomatics Informatics Tool to Foster Intergenerational Transfer of Knowledge in a Remote First Nation Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isogai, Andrea; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Gardner, Holly L.; Karagatzides, Jim D.; Vandenberg, Skye; Barbeau, Christine; Charania, Nadia; Edwards, Vicky; Cowan, Don; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Northern First Nations in Canada have experienced environmental change throughout history, adapting to these changes based on personal experience interacting with their environment. Community members of Fort Albany First Nation of northern Ontario, Canada, have voiced their concern that their youths' connection to the land is diminishing, making…

  8. Lessons learned from Ontario wind energy disputes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast, Stewart; Mabee, Warren; Baxter, Jamie; Christidis, Tanya; Driver, Liz; Hill, Stephen; McMurtry, J. J.; Tomkow, Melody

    2016-02-01

    Issues concerning the social acceptance of wind energy are major challenges for policy-makers, communities and wind developers. They also impact the legitimacy of societal decisions to pursue wind energy. Here we set out to identify and assess the factors that lead to wind energy disputes in Ontario, Canada, a region of the world that has experienced a rapid increase in the development of wind energy. Based on our expertise as a group comprising social scientists, a community representative and a wind industry advocate engaged in the Ontario wind energy situation, we explore and suggest recommendations based on four key factors: socially mediated health concerns, the distribution of financial benefits, lack of meaningful engagement and failure to treat landscape concerns seriously. Ontario's recent change from a feed-in-tariff-based renewable electricity procurement process to a competitive bid process, albeit with more attention to community engagement, will only partially address these concerns.

  9. Child Physical and Sexual Abuse in a Community Sample of Young Adults: Results from the Ontario Child Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMillan, Harriet L.; Tanaka, Masako; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with physical, emotional, and social impairment, yet in Canada there is a paucity of community-based information about the extent of this problem and its determinants. We examined the prevalence of child physical and sexual abuse and the associations of child abuse with early contextual,…

  10. Gambling, housing conditions, community contexts and child health in remote indigenous communities in the Northern Territory, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent government reports have identified gambling, along with alcohol abuse, drug abuse and pornography, as contributing to child neglect and abuse in Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory (NT). These reports also identify gaps in empirical evidence upon which to base sound policy. To address this shortfall, data from ten remote Indigenous communities was analysed to determine the relationship between gambling problems, housing conditions, community contexts and child health in indigenous communities. Methods Logistic regression was used to assess associations between gambling problems, community contexts, housing conditions and child health. Separate multivariable models were developed for carer reported gambling problems in houses and six child health outcomes. Results Carer reported gambling problems in households across the ten communities ranged from 10% to 74%. Inland tropical communities had the highest level of reported gambling problems. Less access to a doctor in the community showed evidence of a multivariable adjusted association with gambling problems in houses. No housing variables showed evidence for a multivariable association with reported gambling problems. There was evidence for gambling problems having a multivariable adjusted association with carer report of scabies and ear infection in children. Conclusions The analyses provide evidence that gambling is a significant problem in Indigenous communities and that gambling problems in households is related to poor child health outcomes. A comprehensive (prevention, treatment, regulation and education) public health approach to harm minimisation associated with gambling amongst the Indigenous population is required that builds on current normative community regulation of gambling. PMID:22632458

  11. Engendering social suffering: a Chinese diasporic community in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Min

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how reproducing Chineseness has become a source of social suffering through the case study of a group of Yunnan Chinese who escaped Chinese communist rules in the Mainland in 1949 or shortly after and settled in northern Thailand in the 1960s. As self-proclaimed carriers of traditional Chinese culture, they worked arduously to replicate whatever they considered 'authentic' Chinese through a narrow interpretation of the Confucian moral tenets in daily life. The (re)establishment of a patriarchal social order in Thailand - a society with a relatively high level of gender-equality, has inflicted tremendous pain and suffering among women and youth in this reified society. Ethnographic fieldwork, upon which this paper was based, was conducted in Maehong Village, Chiang Mai Province, between 2002 and 2007.

  12. New Peace, New Teachers: Student Teachers' Perspectives of Diversity and Community Relations in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Alison; McGlynn, Claire

    2009-01-01

    This paper reflects upon student teachers' conceptions of inter-community relations and the preparation they receive to address issues of diversity and mutual understanding. The study in Northern Ireland is set against a backdrop of political, social and educational change, where a shared, peaceful future appears possible. Student teachers at a…

  13. The Governmentality of Reconciliation: Adult Education as a Community Relations Technique in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smala, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Despite a successfully negotiated peace agreement in Belfast in 1998, tensions between different community groups continue to exist in Northern Ireland. This situation creates a governmental need to find solutions to problems such as segregation, inter- and intra-group violence and other forms of sectarian antagonisms. On the one hand, this is…

  14. Religious Observance Accommodation in Ontario Universities. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Carole Ann

    This paper highlights the religious accommodations that Ontario (Canada) universities have undertaken to create an inclusive, supportive learning community for all students, faculty, and staff. It outlines the demographic changes and public policy surrounding religious accommodation issues in Canada and in Ontario in particular, focusing on the…

  15. Exploring the Gap between Teacher Certification and Permanent Employment in Ontario: An Integrative Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Allison; Ryan, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    The following integrative literature review illuminates the perceptible time gap that currently exists for new Ontario teachers graduating and moving from teacher preparation programs to permanent members of the Ontario teaching community. At a time of oversupply of teachers, many new teachers within Ontario and beyond its borders become…

  16. Perceptions of the Impact of Online Learning as a Distance-Based Learning Model on the Professional Practices of Working Nurses in Northern Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lorraine; Hanna, Mary; Warry, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Nurses in Canada face diverse challenges to their ongoing educational pursuits. As a result, they have been early adopters of courses and programs based on distance education principles and, in particular, online learning models. In the study described in this paper, nurses studying at two northern universities, in programs involving online…

  17. Seroprevalence of Sparganosis in Rural Communities of Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kavana, Nicholas; Sonaimuthu, Parthasarathy; Kasanga, Christopher; Kassuku, Ayub; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Fong, Mun Yik; Khan, Mohammad Behram; Mahmud, Rohela; Lau, Yee Ling

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the seroprevalence of sparganosis and its relationship with sociodemographic factors in northern Tanzania have been assessed. A total of 216 serum samples from two rural districts, Monduli and Babati, were tested for sparganosis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The seroprevalence of anti-sparganum IgG antibodies was 62.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 56.1–68.9) in all age groups. There were significant associations between district (relative risk [RR] = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.42–2.69), education (RR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.15–1.70), and pet ownership with seropositivity (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.02–2.16) based on univariate analysis. However, only the district was significantly associated with seropositivity (odds ratio = 4.20, 95% CI = 1.89–9.32) in binary logistic regression analysis. Providing health education to people residing in sparganosis-endemic areas is likely to improve the efficacy of preventative measures and reduce human disease burden. PMID:27481059

  18. Aboriginal Languages in Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnaby, Barbara J.

    This report outlines the basic characteristics of native languages in Ontario, the degree to which they are being maintained, and the aspirations of native people for their future development. The report covers only the Algonquian and Iroquoian families of languages spoken in Ontario for many generations and still spoken at present, including…

  19. Education: Ontario's Preoccupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, W. G.

    Written as an abridged companion volume to the seven-volume series, Ontario's Educative Society, this book shares the objective of exploring the development of education in Ontario since World War II. The material is presented within an historical framework and uses a broad definition of education which includes organizations and activities beyond…

  20. Spatial and vertical distribution of bacterial community in the northern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fu-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Wu, Mei-Lin; Sun, Cui-Ci; Cheng, Hao

    2015-10-01

    Microbial communities are highly diverse in coastal oceans and response rapidly with changing environments. Learning about this will help us understand the ecology of microbial populations in marine ecosystems. This study aimed to assess the spatial and vertical distributions of the bacterial community in the northern South China Sea. Multi-dimensional scaling analyses revealed structural differences of the bacterial community among sampling sites and vertical depth. Result also indicated that bacterial community in most sites had higher diversity in 0-75 m depths than those in 100-200 m depths. Bacterial community of samples was positively correlation with salinity and depth, whereas was negatively correlation with temperature. Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria were the dominant groups, which accounted for the majority of sequences. The α-Proteobacteria was highly diverse, and sequences belonged to Rhodobacterales bacteria were dominant in all characterized sequences. The current data indicate that the Rhodobacterales bacteria, especially Roseobacter clade are the diverse group in the tropical waters.

  1. Telemedicine delivery of patient education in remote Ontario communities: feasibility of an Advanced Clinician Practitioner in Arthritis Care (ACPAC)-led inflammatory arthritis education program

    PubMed Central

    Warmington, Kelly; Flewelling, Carol; Kennedy, Carol A; Shupak, Rachel; Papachristos, Angelo; Jones, Caroline; Linton, Denise; Beaton, Dorcas E; Lineker, Sydney

    2017-01-01

    to remote communities by using telemedicine. Future research with a focus on the sustainability of this and other models of technology-supported patient education for adults with IA across Ontario is warranted. PMID:28280400

  2. The Status of Benthos in Lake Ontario

    EPA Science Inventory

    The benthic community of Lake Ontario was dominated by an amphipod (Diporeia spp.) prior to the 1990’s. Two dreissenid mussel species D. polymorpha (zebra) and D. bugensis (quagga) were introduced in 1989 and 1991 via ballast water exchange. D. bugensis was observed as deep as 85...

  3. Marketing the College Brand in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holgerson, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Since inception of the Ontario college system in 1967, the quality of a diploma or certificate in comparison to a university degree has been perceived as an inferior rather than alternative academic credential. As public institutions, community colleges are mandated to respond to regional labour force needs, and to provide graduates who will…

  4. Tooth loss and dental caries in community-dwelling older adults in northern Manhattan

    PubMed Central

    Northridge, Mary E.; Ue, Frances V.; Borrell, Luisa N.; De La Cruz, Leydis D.; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Bodnar, Stephanie; Marshall, Stephen; Lamster, Ira B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine tooth loss and dental caries by sociodemographic characteristics from community-based oral health examinations conducted by dentists in northern Manhattan. Background The ElderSmile programme of the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine serves older adults with varying functional capacities across settings. This report is focused on relatively mobile, socially engaged participants who live in the impoverished communities of Harlem and Washington Heights/Inwood in northern Manhattan, New York City. Materials and Methods Self-reported sociodemographic characteristics and health and health care information were provided by community-dwelling ElderSmile participants aged 65 years and older who took part in community-based oral health education and completed a screening questionnaire. Oral health examinations were conducted by trained dentists in partnering prevention centres among ElderSmile participants who agreed to be clinically screened (90.8%). Results The dental caries experience of ElderSmile participants varied significantly by sociodemographic predictors and smoking history. After adjustment in a multivariable logistic regression model, older age, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic race/ethnicity, and a history of current or former smoking were important predictors of edentulism. Conclusion Provision of oral health screenings in community-based settings may result in opportunities to intervene before oral disease is severe, leading to improved oral health for older adults. PMID:21718349

  5. Distance Education in Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David M.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the services of the Ontario Educational Communications Authority (OECA), which has a nine station TV network, a nonbroadcast videotape distribution system, many interactions with cable companies and domestic satellite transmission, and a databank indexing OECA resources. (JEG)

  6. Changes in faunal and vegetation communities along a soil calcium gradient in northern hardwood forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beier, Colin M.; Woods, Anne M.; Hotopp, Kenneth P.; Gibbs, James P.; Mitchell, Myron J.; Dovciak, Martin; Leopold, Donald J.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Page, Blair D.

    2012-01-01

    Depletion of Ca from forest soils due to acidic deposition has had potentially pervasive effects on forest communities, but these impacts remain largely unknown. Because snails, salamanders, and plants play essential roles in the Ca cycle of northern hardwood forests, we hypothesized that their community diversity, abundance, and structure would vary with differences in biotic Ca availability. To test this hypothesis, we sampled 12 upland hardwood forests representing a soil Ca gradient in the Adirondack Mountains, New York (USA), where chronic deposition has resulted in acidified soils but where areas of well-buffered soils remain Ca rich due to parent materials. Along the gradient of increasing soil [Ca2+], we observed increasing trends in snail community richness and abundance, live biomass of redback salamanders (Plethodon cinereus (Green, 1818)), and canopy tree basal area. Salamander communities were dominated by mountain dusky salamanders (Desmognathus ochrophaeus Cope, 1859) at Ca-poor sites and changed continuously along the Ca gradient to become dominated by redback salamanders at the Ca-rich sites. Several known calciphilic species of snails and plants were found only at the highest-Ca sites. Our results indicated that Ca availability, which is shaped by geology and acidic deposition inputs, influences northern hardwood forest ecosystems at multiple trophic levels, although the underlying mechanisms require further study.

  7. Iodine status of Eeyou Istchee community members of northern Quebec, Canada, and potential sources.

    PubMed

    Tam, Benita; Tsuji, Leonard J S; Martin, Ian D; Liberda, Eric N; Ayotte, Pierre; Coté, Suzanne; Dewailly, Éric; Nieboer, Evert

    2015-04-01

    A multi community environment-and-health study among six of the nine communities of Eeyou Istchee in northern Quebec, Canada provided greater insight into iodine intake levels among these Cree First Nation communities. Using data from this large population-based study, descriptive statistics of measured urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) and iodine-creatinine ratios (stratified by age, sex, community of residence, and water consumption) were calculated, and the associations between independent variables and iodine concentration measures were examined through a general linear model. Traditional food consumption contributions were examined through Pearson partial correlation tests and linear regression analyses; and the importance of water sources through ANOVA. Generally speaking, urinary iodine levels of Eeyou Istchee community members were within the adequate range set out by the World Health Organization, though sex and community differences existed. However, men in one community were considered to be at risk of iodine deficiency. Older participants had significantly higher mean iodine-creatinine ratios than younger participants (15-39 years = 90.50 μmol mol(-1); >39 years = 124.52 μmol mol(-1)), and consumption of beaver (Castor canadensis) meat, melted snow and ice, and bottled water were predictive of higher iodine excretion. It is concluded that using both urinary iodine indicators can be helpful in identifying subgroups at greater risk of iodine deficiency.

  8. Land use influences arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in the farming-pastoral ecotone of northern China.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Dan; Verbruggen, Erik; Hu, Yajun; Veresoglou, Stavros D; Rillig, Matthias C; Zhou, Wenping; Xu, Tianle; Li, Huan; Hao, Zhipeng; Chen, Yongliang; Chen, Baodong

    2014-12-01

    We performed a landscape-scale investigation to compare the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities between grasslands and farmlands in the farming-pastoral ecotone of northern China. AMF richness and community composition were examined with 454 pyrosequencing. Structural equation modelling (SEM) and multivariate analyses were applied to disentangle the direct and indirect effects (mediated by multiple environmental factors) of land use on AMF. Land use conversion from grassland to farmland significantly reduced AMF richness and extraradical hyphal length density, and these land use types also differed significantly in AMF community composition. SEM showed that the effects of land use on AMF richness and hyphal length density in soil were primarily mediated by available phosphorus and soil structural quality. Soil texture was the strongest predictor of AMF community composition. Soil carbon, nitrogen and soil pH were also significantly correlated with AMF community composition, indicating that these abiotic variables could be responsible for some of the community composition differences among sites. Our study shows that land use has a partly predictable effect on AMF communities across this ecologically relevant area of China, and indicates that high soil phosphorus concentrations and poor soil structure are particularly detrimental to AMF in this fragile ecosystem.

  9. Motivations and challenges of community-based surveillance volunteers in the northern region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dil, Yasemin; Strachan, Daniel; Cairncross, Sandy; Korkor, Andrew Seidu; Hill, Zelee

    2012-12-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) are an important element of many health systems and programmes for the promotion and delivery of a wide range of health interventions and disease surveillance. Understanding the motivation and retention of CHWs is recognized as essential but there are few data from sub-Saharan Africa. This qualitative study explored factors that motivate, and the challenges faced by community-based surveillance volunteers (CBSVs) in the Northern Region of Ghana through semi-structured interviews with 28 CBSVs, 12 zonal coordinators, nine Ghana Health Service (GHS) sub-district level staff, ten GHS district level staff and two GHS regional level staff in the administrative capital. The community emerged as an important motivating factor in terms of altruism, a sense of duty to the community and gaining community respect and pride. This was enhanced by community selection of the volunteers. Major challenges included incorrect community perceptions of CBSVs, problems with transportation and equipment, difficulties conducting both volunteer and farm work and late or lack of payment for ad hoc tasks such as National Immunization Days. Most CBSVs recognized that they were volunteers, understood the constraints of the health system and were not demanding remuneration. However, CBSVs strongly desired something tangible to show that their work is recognized and appreciated and described a number of low cost items that could be used. They also desired equipment such as raincoats and identifiers such as tee-shirts and certificates.

  10. Implementing the General Education Development (GED) Program in First Nations Communities: Struggles for Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Tracy Jill; Melville, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an ethnographic case study of eleven First Nations adult learners in a Northern Ontario community attempting to earn secondary school equivalency through the General Education Development (GED) program. The paper maintains a focus on the power differentials at work in both the learners' prior educational endeavours and their…

  11. Natural Sunlight Shapes Crude Oil-Degrading Bacterial Communities in Northern Gulf of Mexico Surface Waters.

    PubMed

    Bacosa, Hernando P; Liu, Zhanfei; Erdner, Deana L

    2015-01-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH site with amendments of crude oil, Corexit dispersant, or both for 36 days under natural sunlight in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bacterial community was analyzed over time for total abundance, density of alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, and community composition via pyrosequencing. Our results showed that, for treatments with oil and/or Corexit, sunlight significantly reduced bacterial diversity and evenness and was a key driver of shifts in bacterial community structure. In samples containing oil or dispersant, sunlight greatly reduced abundance of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus but increased the relative abundances of Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Labrenzia, Sandarakinotalea, Bartonella, and Halomonas. Dark samples with oil were represented by members of Thalassobius, Winogradskyella, Alcanivorax, Formosa, Pseudomonas, Eubacterium, Erythrobacter, Natronocella, and Coxiella. Both oil and Corexit inhibited the Candidatus Pelagibacter with or without sunlight exposure. For the first time, we demonstrated the effects of light in structuring microbial communities in water with oil and/or Corexit. Overall, our findings improve understanding of oil pollution in surface water, and provide unequivocal evidence that sunlight is a key factor in determining bacterial community composition and dynamics in oil polluted marine waters.

  12. Natural Sunlight Shapes Crude Oil-Degrading Bacterial Communities in Northern Gulf of Mexico Surface Waters

    PubMed Central

    Bacosa, Hernando P.; Liu, Zhanfei; Erdner, Deana L.

    2015-01-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH site with amendments of crude oil, Corexit dispersant, or both for 36 days under natural sunlight in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bacterial community was analyzed over time for total abundance, density of alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, and community composition via pyrosequencing. Our results showed that, for treatments with oil and/or Corexit, sunlight significantly reduced bacterial diversity and evenness and was a key driver of shifts in bacterial community structure. In samples containing oil or dispersant, sunlight greatly reduced abundance of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus but increased the relative abundances of Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Labrenzia, Sandarakinotalea, Bartonella, and Halomonas. Dark samples with oil were represented by members of Thalassobius, Winogradskyella, Alcanivorax, Formosa, Pseudomonas, Eubacterium, Erythrobacter, Natronocella, and Coxiella. Both oil and Corexit inhibited the Candidatus Pelagibacter with or without sunlight exposure. For the first time, we demonstrated the effects of light in structuring microbial communities in water with oil and/or Corexit. Overall, our findings improve understanding of oil pollution in surface water, and provide unequivocal evidence that sunlight is a key factor in determining bacterial community composition and dynamics in oil polluted marine waters. PMID:26648916

  13. Genetic divergence and signatures of natural selection in marginal populations of a keystone, long-lived conifer, Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus) from Northern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Chhatre, Vikram E; Rajora, Om P

    2014-01-01

    Marginal populations are expected to provide the frontiers for adaptation, evolution and range shifts of plant species under the anticipated climate change conditions. Marginal populations are predicted to show genetic divergence from central populations due to their isolation, and divergent natural selection and genetic drift operating therein. Marginal populations are also expected to have lower genetic diversity and effective population size (Ne) and higher genetic differentiation than central populations. We tested these hypotheses using eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) as a model for keystone, long-lived widely-distributed plants. All 614 eastern white pine trees, in a complete census of two populations each of marginal old-growth, central old-growth, and central second-growth, were genotyped at 11 microsatellite loci. The central populations had significantly higher allelic and genotypic diversity, latent genetic potential (LGP) and Ne than the marginal populations. However, heterozygosity and fixation index were similar between them. The marginal populations were genetically diverged from the central populations. Model testing suggested predominant north to south gene flow in the study area with curtailed gene flow to northern marginal populations. Signatures of natural selection were detected at three loci in the marginal populations; two showing divergent selection with directional change in allele frequencies, and one balancing selection. Contrary to the general belief, no significant differences were observed in genetic diversity, differentiation, LGP, and Ne between old-growth and second-growth populations. Our study provides information on the dynamics of migration, genetic drift and selection in central versus marginal populations of a keystone long-lived plant species and has broad evolutionary, conservation and adaptation significance.

  14. Genetic Divergence and Signatures of Natural Selection in Marginal Populations of a Keystone, Long-Lived Conifer, Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus) from Northern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Chhatre, Vikram E.; Rajora, Om P.

    2014-01-01

    Marginal populations are expected to provide the frontiers for adaptation, evolution and range shifts of plant species under the anticipated climate change conditions. Marginal populations are predicted to show genetic divergence from central populations due to their isolation, and divergent natural selection and genetic drift operating therein. Marginal populations are also expected to have lower genetic diversity and effective population size (Ne) and higher genetic differentiation than central populations. We tested these hypotheses using eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) as a model for keystone, long-lived widely-distributed plants. All 614 eastern white pine trees, in a complete census of two populations each of marginal old-growth, central old-growth, and central second-growth, were genotyped at 11 microsatellite loci. The central populations had significantly higher allelic and genotypic diversity, latent genetic potential (LGP) and Ne than the marginal populations. However, heterozygosity and fixation index were similar between them. The marginal populations were genetically diverged from the central populations. Model testing suggested predominant north to south gene flow in the study area with curtailed gene flow to northern marginal populations. Signatures of natural selection were detected at three loci in the marginal populations; two showing divergent selection with directional change in allele frequencies, and one balancing selection. Contrary to the general belief, no significant differences were observed in genetic diversity, differentiation, LGP, and Ne between old-growth and second-growth populations. Our study provides information on the dynamics of migration, genetic drift and selection in central versus marginal populations of a keystone long-lived plant species and has broad evolutionary, conservation and adaptation significance. PMID:24859159

  15. SEROPREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH Toxoplasma gondii INFECTION AMONG RURAL COMMUNITIES IN NORTHERN IRAN

    PubMed Central

    ROSTAMI, Ali; SEYYEDTABAEI, Seyyed Javad; AGHAMOLAIE, Somayeh; BEHNIAFAR, Hamed; LASJERDI, Zohreh; ABDOLRASOULI, Alireza; MEHRAVAR, Saeed; ALVARADO-ESQUIVEL, Cosme

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Toxoplasmosis is the fourth most common cause of hospitalization and the second cause of death due to food-borne infections. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence, disease awareness and risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis among rural communities in Northern Iran. Data were obtained from serological testing and from participant's questionnaires and were analyzed using a logistic regression. Of the 630 participants, 465 (73.8%), and 12 (1.9%) had IgG and both IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, respectively. In the logistic regression analysis, T. gondii seropositivity was associated with the following factors: age, occupation, consumption of undercooked meat, and of unwashed raw vegetables or fruits (p < 0.001). Our study showed a high prevalence of T. gondii infection in the general population of Northern Iran. A health program is needed to increase the public awareness of toxoplasmosis, and its associated risk factors. PMID:27680175

  16. Project report to STB/UO, Northern New Mexico Community College two- year college initiative: Biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This report summarizes the experiences gained in a project involving faculty direct undergraduate research focused on biotechnology and its applications. The biology program at Northern New Mexico Community College has been involved in screening for mutations in human DNA and has developed the ability to perform many standard and advanced molecular biology techniques. Most of these are based around the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and include the use of single strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) in the screening for mutant DNA molecules, and the capability to sequence PCR generated fragments of DNA using non-isotopic imaging. At Northern, these activities have a two-fold objective: (1) to bring current molecular biology techniques to the teaching laboratory, and (2) to support the training of minority undergraduates in research areas that stimulate them to pursue advanced degrees in the sciences.

  17. Development of a media campaign on fetal alcohol spectrum disorders for Northern Plains American Indian communities.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jessica D; Winberg, Austin; Elliott, Amy

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol-exposed pregnancies are especially of concern for American Indians. The Indian Health Service reported that 47% to 56% of pregnant patients admitted to drinking alcohol during their pregnancy. In addition, rates of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome are estimated to be as high as 3.9 to 9.0 per 1,000 live births among American Indians in the Northern Plains, making prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies an important public health effort for this population. The goal of this article is to add to the literature on universal prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum disorders by describing the development, dissemination, and evaluation of a media campaign on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders that was created by and for American Indian communities in the Northern Plains.

  18. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, X.; Thornton, P. E.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Hanson, P. J.; Mao, J.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Griffiths, N. A.; Bisht, G.

    2015-02-20

    Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. We introduce here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM) which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Our structural and process changes to CLM focus on modifications needed to represent the hydrologic cycle of bogs environment with perched water tables, as well as distinct hydrologic dynamics and vegetation communities of the raised hummock and sunken hollow microtopography characteristic of peatland bogs. The modified model was parameterized and independently evaluated against observations from an ombrotrophic raised-dome bog in northern Minnesota (S1-Bog), the site for the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE). Simulated water table levels compared well with site-level observations. The new model predicts significant hydrologic changes in response to planned warming at the SPRUCE site. At present, standing water is commonly observed in bog hollows after large rainfall events during the growing season, but simulations suggest a sharp decrease in water table levels due to increased evapotranspiration under the most extreme warming level, nearly eliminating the occurrence of standing water in the growing season. Simulated soil energy balance was strongly influenced by reduced winter snowpack under warming simulations, with the warming influence on soil temperature partly offset by the loss of insulating snowpack in early and late winter. The new model provides improved predictive capacity for seasonal hydrological dynamics

  19. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.; Thornton, P. E.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Hanson, P. J.; Mao, J.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Griffiths, N. A.; Bisht, G.

    2015-11-01

    Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. We introduce here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM) which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Our structural and process changes to CLM focus on modifications needed to represent the hydrologic cycle of bogs environment with perched water tables, as well as distinct hydrologic dynamics and vegetation communities of the raised hummock and sunken hollow microtopography characteristic of peatland bogs. The modified model was parameterized and independently evaluated against observations from an ombrotrophic raised-dome bog in northern Minnesota (S1-Bog), the site for the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE). Simulated water table levels compared well with site-level observations. The new model predicts hydrologic changes in response to planned warming at the SPRUCE site. At present, standing water is commonly observed in bog hollows after large rainfall events during the growing season, but simulations suggest a sharp decrease in water table levels due to increased evapotranspiration under the most extreme warming level, nearly eliminating the occurrence of standing water in the growing season. Simulated soil energy balance was strongly influenced by reduced winter snowpack under warming simulations, with the warming influence on soil temperature partly offset by the loss of insulating snowpack in early and late winter. The new model provides improved predictive capacity for seasonal hydrological dynamics in northern

  20. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Hanson, Paul J.; Mao, Jiafu; Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Griffiths, Natalie A.; Bisht, Gautam

    2015-11-12

    Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. We introduce here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM) which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Our structural and process changes to CLM focus on modifications needed to represent the hydrologic cycle of bogs environment with perched water tables, as well as distinct hydrologic dynamics and vegetation communities of the raised hummock and sunken hollow microtopography characteristic of peatland bogs. The modified model was parameterized and independently evaluated against observations from an ombrotrophic raised-dome bog in northern Minnesota (S1-Bog), the site for the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE). Simulated water table levels compared well with site-level observations. The new model predicts hydrologic changes in response to planned warming at the SPRUCE site. At present, standing water is commonly observed in bog hollows after large rainfall events during the growing season, but simulations suggest a sharp decrease in water table levels due to increased evapotranspiration under the most extreme warming level, nearly eliminating the occurrence of standing water in the growing season. Simulated soil energy balance was strongly influenced by reduced winter snowpack under warming simulations, with the warming influence on soil temperature partly offset by the loss of insulating snowpack in early and late winter. Furthermore, the new model provides improved predictive capacity for seasonal hydrological dynamics

  1. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, X.; Thornton, P. E.; Ricciuto, D. M.; ...

    2015-02-20

    Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. We introduce here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM) which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Our structural and process changes to CLM focus on modifications needed to representmore » the hydrologic cycle of bogs environment with perched water tables, as well as distinct hydrologic dynamics and vegetation communities of the raised hummock and sunken hollow microtopography characteristic of peatland bogs. The modified model was parameterized and independently evaluated against observations from an ombrotrophic raised-dome bog in northern Minnesota (S1-Bog), the site for the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE). Simulated water table levels compared well with site-level observations. The new model predicts significant hydrologic changes in response to planned warming at the SPRUCE site. At present, standing water is commonly observed in bog hollows after large rainfall events during the growing season, but simulations suggest a sharp decrease in water table levels due to increased evapotranspiration under the most extreme warming level, nearly eliminating the occurrence of standing water in the growing season. Simulated soil energy balance was strongly influenced by reduced winter snowpack under warming simulations, with the warming influence on soil temperature partly offset by the loss of insulating snowpack in early and late winter. The new model provides improved predictive capacity for seasonal hydrological

  2. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; ...

    2015-11-12

    Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. We introduce here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM) which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Our structural and process changes to CLM focus on modifications needed to representmore » the hydrologic cycle of bogs environment with perched water tables, as well as distinct hydrologic dynamics and vegetation communities of the raised hummock and sunken hollow microtopography characteristic of peatland bogs. The modified model was parameterized and independently evaluated against observations from an ombrotrophic raised-dome bog in northern Minnesota (S1-Bog), the site for the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE). Simulated water table levels compared well with site-level observations. The new model predicts hydrologic changes in response to planned warming at the SPRUCE site. At present, standing water is commonly observed in bog hollows after large rainfall events during the growing season, but simulations suggest a sharp decrease in water table levels due to increased evapotranspiration under the most extreme warming level, nearly eliminating the occurrence of standing water in the growing season. Simulated soil energy balance was strongly influenced by reduced winter snowpack under warming simulations, with the warming influence on soil temperature partly offset by the loss of insulating snowpack in early and late winter. Furthermore, the new model provides improved predictive capacity for seasonal hydrological

  3. How Do Pre-Service Teachers Cope with a Literacy Intervention Program in a Remote Indigenous Community? The Community Action Support Program in the Northern Territory, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a new community education initiative, Community Action Support (CAS) that helps facilitate learning in Indigenous young people from Tennant Creek in the Northern Territory. CAS is an innovative partnership program between the Australian Literacy and Numeracy Foundation and the University of Western Sydney. The core aim of the…

  4. Microclimate and limits to photosynthesis in a diverse community of hypolithic cyanobacteria in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Christopher R; Streten-Joyce, Claire; Dalton, Robert; Nussear, Kenneth E; Gibb, Karen S; Christian, Keith A

    2010-03-01

    Hypolithic microbes, primarily cyanobacteria, inhabit the highly specialized microhabitats under translucent rocks in extreme environments. Here we report findings from hypolithic cyanobacteria found under three types of translucent rocks (quartz, prehnite, agate) in a semiarid region of tropical Australia. We investigated the photosynthetic responses of the cyanobacterial communities to light, temperature and moisture in the laboratory, and we measured the microclimatic variables of temperature and soil moisture under rocks in the field over an annual cycle. We also used molecular techniques to explore the diversity of hypolithic cyanobacteria in this community and their phylogenetic relationships within the context of hypolithic cyanobacteria from other continents. Based on the laboratory experiments, photosynthetic activity required a minimum soil moisture of 15% (by mass). Peak photosynthetic activity occurred between approximately 8 degrees C and 42 degrees C, though some photosynthesis occurred between -1 degrees C and 51 degrees C. Maximum photosynthesis rates also occurred at light levels of approximately 150-550 micromol m(-2) s(-1). We used the field microclimatic data in conjunction with these measurements of photosynthetic efficiency to estimate the amount of time the hypolithic cyanobacteria could be photosynthetically active in the field. Based on these data, we estimated that conditions were appropriate for photosynthetic activity for approximately 942 h (approximately 75 days) during the year. The hypolithic cyanobacteria community under quartz, prehnite and agate rocks was quite diverse both within and between rock types. We identified 115 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), with each rock hosting 8-24 OTUs. A third of the cyanobacteria OTUs from northern Australia grouped with Chroococcidiopsis, a genus that has been identified from hypolithic and endolithic communities from the Gobi, Mojave, Atacama and Antarctic deserts. Several OTUs identified

  5. Microclimate and limits to photosynthesis in a diverse community of hypolithic cyanobacteria in northern Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tracy, Christopher R.; Streten-Joyce, Claire; Dalton, Robert; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Gibb, Karen S.; Christian, Keith A.

    2010-01-01

    Hypolithic microbes, primarily cyanobacteria, inhabit the highly specialized microhabitats under translucent rocks in extreme environments. Here we report findings from hypolithic cyanobacteria found under three types of translucent rocks (quartz, prehnite, agate) in a semiarid region of tropical Australia. We investigated the photosynthetic responses of the cyanobacterial communities to light, temperature and moisture in the laboratory, and we measured the microclimatic variables of temperature and soil moisture under rocks in the field over an annual cycle. We also used molecular techniques to explore the diversity of hypolithic cyanobacteria in this community and their phylogenetic relationships within the context of hypolithic cyanobacteria from other continents. Based on the laboratory experiments, photosynthetic activity required a minimum soil moisture of 15% (by mass). Peak photosynthetic activity occurred between approximately 8°C and 42°C, though some photosynthesis occurred between −1°C and 51°C. Maximum photosynthesis rates also occurred at light levels of approximately 150–550 μmol m−2 s−1. We used the field microclimatic data in conjunction with these measurements of photosynthetic efficiency to estimate the amount of time the hypolithic cyanobacteria could be photosynthetically active in the field. Based on these data, we estimated that conditions were appropriate for photosynthetic activity for approximately 942 h (∼75 days) during the year. The hypolithic cyanobacteria community under quartz, prehnite and agate rocks was quite diverse both within and between rock types. We identified 115 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), with each rock hosting 8–24 OTUs. A third of the cyanobacteria OTUs from northern Australia grouped with Chroococcidiopsis, a genus that has been identified from hypolithic and endolithic communities from the Gobi, Mojave, Atacama and Antarctic deserts. Several OTUs identified from northern Australia have

  6. Molluscan shell communities: a window into the ecological history of the northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallmetzer, Ivo; Haselmair, Alexandra; Tomasovych, Adam; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The historical ecology approach used in the present study sheds light on the younger ecological history of the northern Adriatic Sea, targeting the period of the last 500 to 1500 years. We focus on down-core changes in molluscan death assemblages, where differences between community structures serve as a proxy for ecological shifts over time. The northern Adriatic Sea, with its densely populated shoreline, is among the most degraded marine ecosystems worldwide and is therefore particularly suited to study ecosystem modification under human pressure. Multiple cores of 1.5 m length and diameters of 90 and 160 mm were taken at seven sampling stations throughout the northern Adriatic Sea, covering different sediment types, nutrient conditions and degrees of exploitation. For the mollusc analyses, the cores were sliced into smaller subsamples and analysed for species composition, abundance, taxonomic similarity, evidence for ecological interactions (i.e., frequencies of drilling predation) and taphonomic condition of shells. Sediment analyses include granulometry and radiometric sediment dating using Pb 210. Sediment age analysis revealed one-order-of-magnitude differences in sedimentation rates between stations (34 mm/yr at the Po delta, Italy, 1.5 mm/yr at Brijuni islands, Croatia). In total, 114 bivalve and 112 gastropod species were recorded. Bivalve assemblages showed significant interregional differences that are strongly correlated with sedimentation rates and sediment composition. Down-core changes in molluscan communities are conspicuous in all cores, particularly in the uppermost core sections. This information, together with radiometric shell dating for selected species, helps to specify the timing of major ecological changes in the past and define pristine benthic communities as references for future conservation and management efforts.

  7. Practitioners' Views on Cross-Community Music Education Projects in Northern Ireland: Alienation, Socio-Economic Factors and Educational Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odena, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a qualitative investigation of the perceptions on cross-community music education activities of 14 key practitioners with experience with the two main communities in Northern Ireland (NI), Protestant and Catholic. The segregation of the NI education system is outlined in the first section, which is followed by a review of…

  8. Health professionals' perspectives on service delivery in two Northern Ireland communities.

    PubMed

    Mason, C; Orr, J; Harrisson, S; Moore, R

    1999-10-01

    This research builds on the findings of an ethnographic study of health inequalities in two small, rural communities in Northern Ireland. Through further analysis of existing data, this second study aimed to explore health professionals' perspectives on issues of service delivery relevant to government policy on primary care. Anthropological fieldwork was conducted for two consecutive 4-month periods during 1995 and 1996 in one predominantly Catholic and one predominantly Protestant town. To preserve confidentiality, the locations have been given the pseudonyms, respectively, of Ballymacross and Hunterstown. Research tools included fieldwork journals and a fieldwork diary, meetings with key informants, tape-recorded interviews, group discussions, participant observation and use of secondary material such as census data, local newspapers and community health profiles. Interviews with 15 health workers revealed that there was not a coherent approach to achieving health gain, little collaborative enterprise and minimal interaction between the different professional groups. The National Health Service (NHS)-employed primary care professionals, more than local community workers, appeared to be demoralized, exhausted and suspicious of the business-orientated health service. In this respect, the primary care-led NHS appeared not to be working. It is concluded that a shared health agenda should be developed by NHS-employed primary care professionals and local community workers to create a health-inducing environment at community level. This needs to be complemented by the establishment of formal mechanisms for inter-agency working at local, professional and government levels.

  9. Spatial Diversity of Bacterioplankton Communities in Surface Water of Northern South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuchao; Zou, Tao; Yu, Shuxian; Wang, Yinchu; Qin, Song; Wang, Guangyi

    2014-01-01

    The South China Sea is one of the largest marginal seas, with relatively frequent passage of eddies and featuring distinct spatial variation in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Here, we report a phylogenetic study of bacterial community structures in surface seawater of the northern South China Sea (nSCS). Samples collected from 31 sites across large environmental gradients were used to construct clone libraries and yielded 2,443 sequences grouped into 170 OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 23 bacterial classes with major components α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria, as well as Cyanobacteria. At class and genus taxon levels, community structure of coastal waters was distinctively different from that of deep-sea waters and displayed a higher diversity index. Redundancy analyses revealed that bacterial community structures displayed a significant correlation with the water depth of individual sampling sites. Members of α-Proteobacteria were the principal component contributing to the differences of the clone libraries. Furthermore, the bacterial communities exhibited heterogeneity within zones of upwelling and anticyclonic eddies. Our results suggested that surface bacterial communities in nSCS had two-level patterns of spatial distribution structured by ecological types (coastal VS. oceanic zones) and mesoscale physical processes, and also provided evidence for bacterial phylogenetic phyla shaped by ecological preferences. PMID:25402458

  10. Spatial diversity of bacterioplankton communities in surface water of northern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Jialin; Li, Nan; Li, Fuchao; Zou, Tao; Yu, Shuxian; Wang, Yinchu; Qin, Song; Wang, Guangyi

    2014-01-01

    The South China Sea is one of the largest marginal seas, with relatively frequent passage of eddies and featuring distinct spatial variation in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Here, we report a phylogenetic study of bacterial community structures in surface seawater of the northern South China Sea (nSCS). Samples collected from 31 sites across large environmental gradients were used to construct clone libraries and yielded 2,443 sequences grouped into 170 OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 23 bacterial classes with major components α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria, as well as Cyanobacteria. At class and genus taxon levels, community structure of coastal waters was distinctively different from that of deep-sea waters and displayed a higher diversity index. Redundancy analyses revealed that bacterial community structures displayed a significant correlation with the water depth of individual sampling sites. Members of α-Proteobacteria were the principal component contributing to the differences of the clone libraries. Furthermore, the bacterial communities exhibited heterogeneity within zones of upwelling and anticyclonic eddies. Our results suggested that surface bacterial communities in nSCS had two-level patterns of spatial distribution structured by ecological types (coastal VS. oceanic zones) and mesoscale physical processes, and also provided evidence for bacterial phylogenetic phyla shaped by ecological preferences.

  11. The epidemiology of infections due to Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica in a northern Nigerian community.

    PubMed

    Blakebrough, I S; Greenwood, B M; Whittle, H C; Bradley, A K; Gilles, H M

    1982-11-01

    The epidemiology of infection due to Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica was studied in a northern Nigerian community. A low meningococcal carriage rate was observed throughout the two-year survey. Initially, most meningococci isolated from nasopharyngeal carriers belonged to serogroup C or to serogroup Y. Following an outbreak of group A meningococcal disease, more group A meningococcal carriers were detected. Antibody studies indicated that infection with group A meningococci had been more widespread in the community than was suggested by regular carrier surveys. Carriage of meningococci was detected most frequently in children one to nine years of age. Children were identified as the first carriers in households more frequently than adults. The half-life of carriage was three months. The meningococcal carriage rate did not increase during the hot dry season when epidemics of meningococcal disease occur most frequently in Nigeria. Neisseria lactamica was isolated from the nasopharynx of children more frequently than were meningococci.

  12. An epidemiological study of asymptomatic neurocysticercosis in a pig farming community in northern India.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kashi N; Verma, Avantika; Srivastava, Sandeep; Gupta, Rakesh K; Pandey, Chandra M; Paliwal, Vimal K

    2011-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most frequent parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by the larvae of Taenia solium. The prevalence of NCC is obscured due to variations in the methods used for epidemiological studies and often asymptomatic manifestation. The present study was conducted on 595 apparently healthy individuals belonging to the pig farming community of northern India to estimate the prevalence of asymptomatic NCC and to evaluate risk factors based on questionnaires. Diagnosis of NCC was based on neuroimaging, immunological and epidemiological criteria. Asymptomatic NCC was detected in 90 (15.1%) of 595 individuals. The evaluation of risk factors showed that age >15 years (P=0.001), intake of raw vegetables (P=0.025) and undercooked pork (P=0.005), lack of safe drinking water (P=0.003), inadequate drainage system (P=0.049), no separate place for pigs (P≤0.001), NCC related active epilepsy in the family (P≤0.001) were significantly associated with asymptomatic NCC. The present study shows high prevalence of asymptomatic NCC in pig farming community of northern India. Further, asymptomatic NCC is associated with most variables of poor socio-economic parameters.

  13. Regional asynchronicity in dairy production and processing in early farming communities of the northern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Debono Spiteri, Cynthianne; Gillis, Rosalind E; Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Castells Navarro, Laura; Guilaine, Jean; Manen, Claire; Muntoni, Italo M; Saña Segui, Maria; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Whelton, Helen L; Craig, Oliver E; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Evershed, Richard P

    2016-11-29

    In the absence of any direct evidence, the relative importance of meat and dairy productions to Neolithic prehistoric Mediterranean communities has been extensively debated. Here, we combine lipid residue analysis of ceramic vessels with osteo-archaeological age-at-death analysis from 82 northern Mediterranean and Near Eastern sites dating from the seventh to fifth millennia BC to address this question. The findings show variable intensities in dairy and nondairy activities in the Mediterranean region with the slaughter profiles of domesticated ruminants mirroring the results of the organic residue analyses. The finding of milk residues in very early Neolithic pottery (seventh millennium BC) from both the east and west of the region contrasts with much lower intensities in sites of northern Greece, where pig bones are present in higher frequencies compared with other locations. In this region, the slaughter profiles of all domesticated ruminants suggest meat production predominated. Overall, it appears that milk or the by-products of milk was an important foodstuff, which may have contributed significantly to the spread of these cultural groups by providing a nourishing and sustainable product for early farming communities.

  14. mdRNA-Seq analysis of marine microbial communities from the northern Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Shengwei; Pfreundt, Ulrike; Miller, Dan; Berman-Frank, Ilana; Hess, Wolfgang R.

    2016-01-01

    Metatranscriptomic differential RNA-Seq (mdRNA-Seq) identifies the suite of active transcriptional start sites at single-nucleotide resolution through enrichment of primary transcript 5′ ends. Here we analyzed the microbial community at 45 m depth at Station A in the northern Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, during 500 m deep mixing in February 2012 using mdRNA-Seq and a parallel classical RNA-Seq approach. We identified promoters active in situ for five different pico-planktonic genera (the SAR11 clade of Alphaproteobacteria, Synechococcus of Cyanobacteria, Euryarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, and Micromonas as an example for picoeukaryotic algae), showing the applicability of this approach to highly diverse microbial communities. 16S rDNA quantification revealed that 24% of the analyzed community were group II marine Euryarchaeota in which we identified a highly abundant non-coding RNA, Tan1, and detected very high expression of genes encoding intrinsically disordered proteins, as well as enzymes for the synthesis of specific B vitamins, extracellular peptidases, carbohydrate-active enzymes, and transport systems. These results highlight previously unknown functions of Euryarchaeota with community-wide relevance. The complementation of metatranscriptomic studies with mdRNA-Seq provides substantial additional information regarding transcriptional start sites, promoter activities, and the identification of non-coding RNAs. PMID:27759035

  15. Significant and persistent impact of timber harvesting on soil microbial communities in Northern coniferous forests.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Martin; Howes, Charles G; VanInsberghe, David; Yu, Hang; Bachar, Dipankar; Christen, Richard; Henrik Nilsson, Rolf; Hallam, Steven J; Mohn, William W

    2012-12-01

    Forest ecosystems have integral roles in climate stability, biodiversity and economic development. Soil stewardship is essential for sustainable forest management. Organic matter (OM) removal and soil compaction are key disturbances associated with forest harvesting, but their impacts on forest ecosystems are not well understood. Because microbiological processes regulate soil ecology and biogeochemistry, microbial community structure might serve as indicator of forest ecosystem status, revealing changes in nutrient and energy flow patterns before they have irreversible effects on long-term soil productivity. We applied massively parallel pyrosequencing of over 4.6 million ribosomal marker sequences to assess the impact of OM removal and soil compaction on bacterial and fungal communities in a field experiment replicated at six forest sites in British Columbia, Canada. More than a decade after harvesting, diversity and structure of soil bacterial and fungal communities remained significantly altered by harvesting disturbances, with individual taxonomic groups responding differentially to varied levels of the disturbances. Plant symbionts, like ectomycorrhizal fungi, and saprobic taxa, such as ascomycetes and actinomycetes, were among the most sensitive to harvesting disturbances. Given their significant ecological roles in forest development, the fate of these taxa might be critical for sustainability of forest ecosystems. Although abundant bacterial populations were ubiquitous, abundant fungal populations often revealed a patchy distribution, consistent with their higher sensitivity to the examined soil disturbances. These results establish a comprehensive inventory of bacterial and fungal community composition in northern coniferous forests and demonstrate the long-term response of their structure to key disturbances associated with forest harvesting.

  16. Temporal variability of three different macrofauna communities in the northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schückel, Ulrike; Ehrich, Siegfried; Kröncke, Ingrid

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, 2003 and 2007 macrofauna communities were sampled in three different areas ("Boxes") of 10 × 10 nautical miles in the northern North Sea in order to study the temporal changes in community structure in relation to changes in temperature or changes in hydrography. Box D which was influenced by the Fair Isle Current revealed an increase in abundance of sand-licking species between 1999, 2003 and 2007. Significant positive correlations between SST and abundance of characteristic species as well as different feeding types in this mixed water column area seemed to be related to enhanced primary production and SST resulting in higher food supply. Within the East Shetland Basin (Boxes L and M) temporal changes in the macrofaunal communities between 1999 and 2003 were caused by a strong decrease in abundance of surface deposit and suspension feeders which indicated a lower food supply. An increase in abundance of species known for a rapid response to sudden food supply was found in 2007. There is evidence that hydrographic conditions such as stratification and different water masses in this area influence the variability of food supply for the macrofauna and caused changes in community structure.

  17. Nutrient limitation in Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM): phytoplankton communities and photosynthesis respond to nutrient pulse.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Quigg, Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    Although the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River system exports large amounts of nutrients to the Northern Gulf of Mexico annually, nutrient limitation of primary productivity still occurs offshore, acting as one of the major factors controlling local phytoplankton biomass and community structure. Bioassays were conducted for 48 hrs at two stations adjacent to the river plumes in April and August 2012. High Performance of Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) combined with ChemTax and a Fluorescence Induction and Relaxation (FIRe) system were combined to observe changes in the phytoplankton community structure and photosynthetic activity. Major fluorescence parameters (Fo, Fv/Fm) performed well to reveal the stimulating effect of the treatments with nitrogen (N-nitrate) and with nitrogen plus phosphate (+NPi). HPLC/ChemTax results showed that phytoplankton community structure shifted with nitrate addition: we observed an increase in the proportion of diatoms and prasinophytes and a decrease in cyanobacteria and prymnesiophytes. These findings are consistent with predictions from trait-based analysis which predict that phytoplankton groups with high maximum growth rates (μmax ) and high nutrient uptake rates (Vmax ) readily take advantage of the addition of limiting nutrients. Changes in phytoplankton community structure, if persistent, could trigger changes of particular organic matter fluxes and alter the micro-food web cycles and bottom oxygen consumption.

  18. Climate Change and Eutrophication Induced Shifts in Northern Summer Plankton Communities

    PubMed Central

    Suikkanen, Sanna; Pulina, Silvia; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Lehtinen, Sirpa; Brutemark, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are undergoing substantial changes due to human-induced pressures. Analysis of long-term data series is a valuable tool for understanding naturally and anthropogenically induced changes in plankton communities. In the present study, seasonal monitoring data were collected in three sub-basins of the northern Baltic Sea between 1979 and 2011 and statistically analysed for trends and interactions between surface water hydrography, inorganic nutrient concentrations and phyto- and zooplankton community composition. The most conspicuous hydrographic change was a significant increase in late summer surface water temperatures over the study period. In addition, salinity decreased and dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations increased in some basins. Based on redundancy analysis (RDA), warming was the key environmental factor explaining the observed changes in plankton communities: the general increase in total phytoplankton biomass, Cyanophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyceae, and decrease in Cryptophyceae throughout the study area, as well as increase in rotifers and decrease in total zooplankton, cladoceran and copepod abundances in some basins. We conclude that the plankton communities in the Baltic Sea have shifted towards a food web structure with smaller sized organisms, leading to decreased energy available for grazing zooplankton and planktivorous fish. The shift is most probably due to complex interactions between warming, eutrophication and increased top-down pressure due to overexploitation of resources, and the resulting trophic cascades. PMID:23776676

  19. Climate change and eutrophication induced shifts in northern summer plankton communities.

    PubMed

    Suikkanen, Sanna; Pulina, Silvia; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Lehtinen, Sirpa; Brutemark, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are undergoing substantial changes due to human-induced pressures. Analysis of long-term data series is a valuable tool for understanding naturally and anthropogenically induced changes in plankton communities. In the present study, seasonal monitoring data were collected in three sub-basins of the northern Baltic Sea between 1979 and 2011 and statistically analysed for trends and interactions between surface water hydrography, inorganic nutrient concentrations and phyto- and zooplankton community composition. The most conspicuous hydrographic change was a significant increase in late summer surface water temperatures over the study period. In addition, salinity decreased and dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations increased in some basins. Based on redundancy analysis (RDA), warming was the key environmental factor explaining the observed changes in plankton communities: the general increase in total phytoplankton biomass, Cyanophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyceae, and decrease in Cryptophyceae throughout the study area, as well as increase in rotifers and decrease in total zooplankton, cladoceran and copepod abundances in some basins. We conclude that the plankton communities in the Baltic Sea have shifted towards a food web structure with smaller sized organisms, leading to decreased energy available for grazing zooplankton and planktivorous fish. The shift is most probably due to complex interactions between warming, eutrophication and increased top-down pressure due to overexploitation of resources, and the resulting trophic cascades.

  20. Composition and diversity of weed communities in Al-Jouf province, northern Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Nasr H

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the main weed communities in Al-Jouf province in northern Saudi Arabia. Moreover, the composition and diversity of these communities were studied in relation to soil variables and crop type. Some 54 stands representing olive orchards, date palm orchards, wheat crop and watermelon crop were studied, using ten quadrats (1 × 1 m) per stand. A total of 71 species belonging to 22 families and 61 genera were observed. The classification of vegetation using the Two Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) resulted in the recognition of four vegetation groups representing wheat crop, orchards in winter season, orchards in summer season and watermelon crop. These results suggested the importance of both crop and season for the formation of weed community. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) showed that these groups are clearly distinguished by the first two DCA axes. The species richness was higher in both olive and date palm orchards than in wheat and watermelon crops. This pattern of species richness could be related to farm management practices and habitat micro-heterogeneity. Soil electrical conductivity, organic carbon and soil texture showed significant correlations with species richness and the cover values of some dominant species, suggesting the significant role of soil characteristics in weed community structure and diversity.

  1. Nutrient Limitation in Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM): Phytoplankton Communities and Photosynthesis Respond to Nutrient Pulse

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan; Quigg, Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    Although the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River system exports large amounts of nutrients to the Northern Gulf of Mexico annually, nutrient limitation of primary productivity still occurs offshore, acting as one of the major factors controlling local phytoplankton biomass and community structure. Bioassays were conducted for 48 hrs at two stations adjacent to the river plumes in April and August 2012. High Performance of Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) combined with ChemTax and a Fluorescence Induction and Relaxation (FIRe) system were combined to observe changes in the phytoplankton community structure and photosynthetic activity. Major fluorescence parameters (Fo, Fv/Fm) performed well to reveal the stimulating effect of the treatments with nitrogen (N-nitrate) and with nitrogen plus phosphate (+NPi). HPLC/ChemTax results showed that phytoplankton community structure shifted with nitrate addition: we observed an increase in the proportion of diatoms and prasinophytes and a decrease in cyanobacteria and prymnesiophytes. These findings are consistent with predictions from trait-based analysis which predict that phytoplankton groups with high maximum growth rates (μmax) and high nutrient uptake rates (Vmax) readily take advantage of the addition of limiting nutrients. Changes in phytoplankton community structure, if persistent, could trigger changes of particular organic matter fluxes and alter the micro-food web cycles and bottom oxygen consumption. PMID:24551144

  2. Composition and diversity of weed communities in Al-Jouf province, northern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Gomaa, Nasr H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the main weed communities in Al-Jouf province in northern Saudi Arabia. Moreover, the composition and diversity of these communities were studied in relation to soil variables and crop type. Some 54 stands representing olive orchards, date palm orchards, wheat crop and watermelon crop were studied, using ten quadrats (1 × 1 m) per stand. A total of 71 species belonging to 22 families and 61 genera were observed. The classification of vegetation using the Two Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) resulted in the recognition of four vegetation groups representing wheat crop, orchards in winter season, orchards in summer season and watermelon crop. These results suggested the importance of both crop and season for the formation of weed community. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) showed that these groups are clearly distinguished by the first two DCA axes. The species richness was higher in both olive and date palm orchards than in wheat and watermelon crops. This pattern of species richness could be related to farm management practices and habitat micro-heterogeneity. Soil electrical conductivity, organic carbon and soil texture showed significant correlations with species richness and the cover values of some dominant species, suggesting the significant role of soil characteristics in weed community structure and diversity. PMID:23961198

  3. Community-based Participatory Process – Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program for Northern First Nations and Inuit in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Peace, Diane McClymont; Myers, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Health Canada's Program for Climate Change and Health Adaptation in Northern First Nation and Inuit Communities is unique among Canadian federal programs in that it enables community-based participatory research by northern communities. Study design The program was designed to build capacity by funding communities to conduct their own research in cooperation with Aboriginal associations, academics, and governments; that way, communities could develop health-related adaptation plans and communication materials that would help in adaptation decision-making at the community, regional, national and circumpolar levels with respect to human health and a changing environment. Methods Community visits and workshops were held to familiarize northerners with the impacts of climate change on their health, as well as methods to develop research proposals and budgets to meet program requirements. Results Since the launch of the Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program in 2008, Health Canada has funded 36 community projects across Canada's North that focus on relevant health issues caused by climate change. In addition, the program supported capacity-building workshops for northerners, as well as a Pan-Arctic Results Workshop to bring communities together to showcase the results of their research. Results include: numerous films and photo-voice products that engage youth and elders and are available on the web; community-based ice monitoring, surveillance and communication networks; and information products on land, water and ice safety, drinking water, food security and safety, and traditional medicine. Conclusions Through these efforts, communities have increased their knowledge and understanding of the health effects related to climate change and have begun to develop local adaptation strategies. PMID:22584509

  4. Ontario's Student Voice Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This article describes in some detail aspects of the Student Voice initiative funded and championed by Ontario's Ministry of Education since 2008. The project enables thousands of students to make their voices heard in meaningful ways and to participate in student-led research. Some students from grades 7 to 12 become members of the Student…

  5. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...

  6. Living in Ontario French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadasdi, Terry

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a variationist analysis of verbs meaning "reside" in Ontario French. Four lexical variants are examined: "demeurer," "habiter," "rester" and "vivre." Results reveal that "rester" is used most often by unrestricted speakers and least often by those whose use of French…

  7. Modeling wetland plant community response to assess water-level regulation scenarios in the Lake Ontario-St. Lawrence River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudon, Christiane; Wilcox, Douglas; Ingram, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The International Joint Commission has recently completed a five-year study (2000-2005) to review the operation of structures controlling the flows and levels of the Lake Ontario - St. Lawrence River system. In addition to addressing the multitude of stakeholder interests, the regulation plan review also considers environmental sustainability and integrity of wetlands and various ecosystem components. The present paper outlines the general approach, scientific methodology and applied management considerations of studies quantifying the relationships between hydrology and wetland plant assemblages (% occurrence, surface area) in Lake Ontario and the Upper and Lower St. Lawrence River. Although similar study designs were used across the study region, different methodologies were required that were specifically adapted to suit the important regional differences between the lake and river systems, range in water-level variations, and confounding factors (geomorphic types, exposure, sediment characteristics, downstream gradient of water quality, origin of water masses in the Lower River). Performance indicators (metrics), such as total area of wetland in meadow marsh vegetation type, that link wetland response to water levels will be used to assess the effects of different regulation plans under current and future (climate change) water-supply scenarios.

  8. Hygiene and sanitation promotion strategies among ethnic minority communities in northern Vietnam: a stakeholder analysis.

    PubMed

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2012-10-01

    Effective rural hygiene and sanitation promotion (RHSP) is a major challenge for many low-income countries. This paper investigates strategies and stakeholders' roles and responsibilities in RHSP implementation in a multi-ethnic area of northern Vietnam, in order to identify lessons learned for future RHSP. A stakeholder analysis was performed, based on 49 semi-structured individual interviews and one group interview with stakeholders in RHSP in a northern province of Vietnam. Participants came from three sectors (agriculture, health and education), unions supported by the Vietnamese government and from four administrative levels (village, commune, district and province). The study villages represented four ethnic minority groups including lowland and highland communities. Stakeholders' roles, responsibilities and promotion methods were outlined, and implementation constraints and opportunities were identified and analysed using thematic content analysis. Effective RHSP in Vietnam is severely constrained despite supporting policies and a multi-sectorial and multi-level framework. Four main barriers for effective implementation of RHSP were identified: (1) weak inter-sectorial collaborations; (2) constraints faced by frontline promoters; (3) almost exclusive information-based and passive promotion methods applied; and (4) context unadjusted promotion strategies across ethnic groups, including a limited focus on socio-economic differences, language barriers and gender roles in the target groups. Highland communities were identified as least targeted and clearly in need of more intensive and effective RHSP. It is recommended that the Vietnamese government gives priority to increasing capacities of and collaboration among stakeholders implementing RHSP activities. This should focus on frontline promoters to perform effective behaviour change communication. It is also recommended to support more participatory and community-based initiatives, which can address the

  9. Population predictors of community health and social service use in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed Central

    Warnes, A M; Armstrong, G K; Peters, D

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of elderly populations associated with variations in their use of community health and personal social services and to test the hypotheses that the variations are related to: (a) the age structure of an elderly population; (b) the population's socioeconomic composition, including the level of deprivation; and (c) household or living arrangements. DESIGN: A common file of 1991 population census and 1994 NHS community trust operational variables was constructed for 67 postcode sectors, with the independent variables describing the age-sex groups to be studied. Clear criteria for the exclusion of "empty" sectors were developed. Relationships using bivariate and multivariate correlation and stepwise multiple regression were explored. SETTING: Eastern Health and Social Services Board area, Northern Ireland (Belfast and hinterland). PARTICIPANTS: Population of statutory pensionable age; in aggregate, younger and older age bands. MAIN RESULTS: The age structure or mean age of the elderly population had only a weak association with the community health and social service client rate, but there were strong associations with socio-economic variables, particularly the percentage of those living alone who were without a car and the percentage of pensioner households that included an adult of below pensionable age. Parsimonious multiple regression models accounted for between 46% and 80% of the variation in the NHS community trust client rate. Greater explanations were achieved for the young elderly population than for those aged 75+ years and, when the population was divided between young and old age bands, for men than for women. CONCLUSIONS: Community health and social services for elderly people in eastern Northern Ireland were focused on those with a low income and those who were not co-resident with adults of working age. When local elderly populations are compared, per capita morbidity and dependency are often higher

  10. Genetic diversity of bacterial communities and gene transfer agents in northern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fu-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Wu, Mei-Lin; Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Sun, Cui-Ci; Cheng, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) amplicons was performed to investigate the unique distribution of bacterial communities in northern South China Sea (nSCS) and evaluate community structure and spatial differences of bacterial diversity. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes constitute the majority of bacteria. The taxonomic description of bacterial communities revealed that more Chroococcales, SAR11 clade, Acidimicrobiales, Rhodobacterales, and Flavobacteriales are present in the nSCS waters than other bacterial groups. Rhodobacterales were less abundant in tropical water (nSCS) than in temperate and cold waters. Furthermore, the diversity of Rhodobacterales based on the gene transfer agent (GTA) major capsid gene (g5) was investigated. Four g5 gene clone libraries were constructed from samples representing different regions and yielded diverse sequences. Fourteen g5 clusters could be identified among 197 nSCS clones. These clusters were also related to known g5 sequences derived from genome-sequenced Rhodobacterales. The composition of g5 sequences in surface water varied with the g5 sequences in the sampling sites; this result indicated that the Rhodobacterales population could be highly diverse in nSCS. Phylogenetic tree analysis result indicated distinguishable diversity patterns among tropical (nSCS), temperate, and cold waters, thereby supporting the niche adaptation of specific Rhodobacterales members in unique environments.

  11. Longitudinal Relations between Sectarian and non-Sectarian Community Violence and Child Adjustment in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, E. Mark; Merrilees, Christine E.; Taylor, Laura K.; Shirlow, Peter; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cairns, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Although relations between political violence and child adjustment are well-documented, long-term longitudinal research is needed to adequately address the many questions remaining about the contexts and developmental trajectories underlying the effects on children in areas of political violence. The present study examined relations between sectarian and non-sectarian community violence and adolescent adjustment problems over four consecutive years for mother-child dyads (total N = 1015, 485 boys, 517 girls) living in socially deprived neighborhoods in a context of historical and ongoing political violence, that is, Belfast, Northern Ireland. Both sectarian and non-sectarian community violence predicted youth adjustment across four years, consistent with the hypothesis that both of these elements of the social ecology merit consideration with regard to children's well-being in contexts of political violence. The impact of sectarian community violence on adolescent adjustment was further accentuated in neighborhoods characterized by higher crime rates. Discussion considers the implications for evaluating social ecologies pertinent to the impact of political violence on children. PMID:23880380

  12. Access and Barriers to Healthcare Vary among Three Neighboring Communities in Northern Honduras.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Catherine A; Stevens, Michael P; Sanogo, Kakotan; Bearman, Gonzalo M L

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to describe and compare access and barriers to health services in three proximal yet topographically distinct communities in northern Honduras served by the nonprofit organization the Honduras Outreach Medical Brigada Relief Effort (HOMBRE). Methods. Study personnel employed a 25-item questionnaire in Spanish at the point of care during HOMBRE clinics in Coyoles, Lomitas, and La Hicaca (N = 220). We describe and compare the responses between sites, using Chi-squared and Fisher Exact tests. Results. Respondents in Lomitas demonstrated the greatest limitations in access and greatest barriers to care of all sites. Major limitations in access included "never" being able to obtain a blood test, obtain radiology services, and see a specialist. Major barriers were cost, distance, facility overcrowding, transportation, being too ill to go, inability to take time off work, and lack of alternate childcare. Conclusions. Despite being under the same local health authority, geographically remote Honduran communities experience greater burdens in healthcare access and barriers than neighboring communities of the same region.

  13. A Benthic Community Index for streams in the Northern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butcher, Jason T.; Stewart, Paul M.; Simon, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    Encompassing the northern glaciated section of the Midwest United States, the Northern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion is characterized by mixed conifer and deciduous forests and wetlands. Sites were randomly selected in the ecoregion using the Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program designed to develop an index of biotic integrity for wadeable streams. Macroinvertebrates were sampled during the fall of 1998 and 1999 using a multi-habitat, composite-sample method. Two hundred forty-six invertebrate taxa in 97 families were collected from 94 sites. Ten of 42 candidate metrics satisfied metric selection criteria, including six structural metrics (number of Ephemeroptera taxa, number of Diptera taxa, richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity, percent Trichoptera abundance, and percent Crustacea and Mollusca abundance), two functional metrics (number of Filterer taxa and number of Scraper taxa), and two conditional metrics (number of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera taxa and Hilsenhoff Biotic Index). These metrics were used to develop a Benthic Community Index to assess the biological integrity of wadeable streams in the ecoregion. Index values ranged from 10 to 50, and scores from impaired sites were significantly different than non-impaired sites (P<0.001). Index values were divided into three narrative interpretations of biological integrity (poor, fair, and good). After further testing, the index may provide a useful biological assessment tool for resource managers in the ecoregion.

  14. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Recommendations from Urban and Reservation Northern Plains American Indian Community Members.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Tracey R; Hanson, Jessica D; Griese, Emily R; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2015-07-03

    Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program effectiveness, few teen pregnancy prevention programs have published on recommendations for adapting these programs to address the specific needs of Northern Plains American Indian youth. We employed a mixed-methods analysis of 24 focus groups and 20 interviews with a combined total of 185 urban and reservation-based American Indian youth and elders, local health care providers, and local school personnel to detail recommendations for the cultural adaptation, content, and implementation of a teen pregnancy prevention program specific to this population. Gender differences and urban /reservation site differences in the types of recommendations offered and the potential reasons for these differences are discussed.

  15. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Recommendations from Urban and Reservation Northern Plains American Indian Community Members

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Tracey R.; Hanson, Jessica D.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2015-01-01

    Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program effectiveness, few teen pregnancy prevention programs have published on recommendations for adapting these programs to address the specific needs of Northern Plains American Indian youth. We employed a mixed-methods analysis of 24 focus groups and 20 interviews with a combined total of 185 urban and reservation-based American Indian youth and elders, local health care providers, and local school personnel to detail recommendations for the cultural adaptation, content, and implementation of a teen pregnancy prevention program specific to this population. Gender differences and urban /reservation site differences in the types of recommendations offered and the potential reasons for these differences are discussed. PMID:26550005

  16. The Determinants of Postsecondary Enrollment Rates in Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foot, David K.; Pervin, Barry

    1983-01-01

    Application of economic theories of educational supply and demand to Ontario postsecondary enrollments show that community college enrollments are more income-sensitive than university enrollments, and graduate enrollments are more price sensitive than undergraduate enrollments. No competition effects between community colleges and universities…

  17. Vertically migrating micronekton and macrozooplankton communities around Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suntsov, Andrey; Domokos, Réka

    2013-01-01

    The distribution, biomass, and assemblages of vertically migrating micronekton/macrozooplankton were studied in relation to oceanographic conditions around Guam and the adjacent Northern Mariana Islands during Spring 2010, using 3-m2 Isaacs-Kidd Midwater Trawl (IKMT). The study area was located within the oligotrophic waters of the westward flowing North Equatorial Current (NEC). However, southern stations of the survey were situated close to the northern boundary of the more productive North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC), where we observed the highest biomass, abundance, species richness, and diversity of pelagic organisms. Overall, we recorded 85 species from 20 families of mostly mesopelagic species in the area, with lanternfishes (Myctophidae-40 species) and dragonfishes (Stomiidae-18 species) being the most taxonomically diverse groups. Three genera of mesopelagic shrimps, Sergestes, Janicella and Sergia, dominated the decapod crustacean component of the micronekton community numerically and by biomass, while the contribution from cephalopods was relatively minor. Assemblages of major micronekton/macrozooplankton groups, based on biomass and abundance showed principal changes with latitude. However, the classification and ordination analysis, based on taxonomically resolved taxa (fishes and decapod shrimps), indicated additional zonal variation, with areas east and west of the island chain showing different community structure. The mean total micronekton biomass for the area near the productive boundary region between the NEC and NECC was 5.8 mg/m3, with a mean biomass of 1.2 mg/m3 obtained for stations in the oligotrophic NEC area. The corresponding biomass of mesopelagic fishes was 0.88 mg/m3 and 0.24 mg/m3 for these two areas, respectively. We reviewed and compared the available information on the quantitative distribution of midwater fish biomass in the western tropical Pacific and outlined major patterns of variation in the equatorial Pacific in

  18. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Emily G; Dhand, Navneet; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P

    2016-04-01

    Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information-together with model outputs-would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia's preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA) in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10-20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community. More than half of the

  19. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Emily G.; Dhand, Navneet; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information–together with model outputs–would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia’s preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA) in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10–20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community. More than

  20. Significant and persistent impact of timber harvesting on soil microbial communities in Northern coniferous forests

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Martin; Howes, Charles G; VanInsberghe, David; Yu, Hang; Bachar, Dipankar; Christen, Richard; Henrik Nilsson, Rolf; Hallam, Steven J; Mohn, William W

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems have integral roles in climate stability, biodiversity and economic development. Soil stewardship is essential for sustainable forest management. Organic matter (OM) removal and soil compaction are key disturbances associated with forest harvesting, but their impacts on forest ecosystems are not well understood. Because microbiological processes regulate soil ecology and biogeochemistry, microbial community structure might serve as indicator of forest ecosystem status, revealing changes in nutrient and energy flow patterns before they have irreversible effects on long-term soil productivity. We applied massively parallel pyrosequencing of over 4.6 million ribosomal marker sequences to assess the impact of OM removal and soil compaction on bacterial and fungal communities in a field experiment replicated at six forest sites in British Columbia, Canada. More than a decade after harvesting, diversity and structure of soil bacterial and fungal communities remained significantly altered by harvesting disturbances, with individual taxonomic groups responding differentially to varied levels of the disturbances. Plant symbionts, like ectomycorrhizal fungi, and saprobic taxa, such as ascomycetes and actinomycetes, were among the most sensitive to harvesting disturbances. Given their significant ecological roles in forest development, the fate of these taxa might be critical for sustainability of forest ecosystems. Although abundant bacterial populations were ubiquitous, abundant fungal populations often revealed a patchy distribution, consistent with their higher sensitivity to the examined soil disturbances. These results establish a comprehensive inventory of bacterial and fungal community composition in northern coniferous forests and demonstrate the long-term response of their structure to key disturbances associated with forest harvesting. PMID:22855212

  1. The Roles of Emerging and Conventional Technologies in Serving Children and Adolescents with Special Needs in Rural and Northern Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Judy; O'Sullivan, Julia; Howard, Joan

    2005-01-01

    More than a century of Canadian and international experience and research in open and distance learning indicates that traditional and emerging technologies can be used effectively, alone or in combination, to provide access to services and education for adults and children living in rural and northern communities. However, although there is an…

  2. Conceptions of Parenting in Different Cultural Communities: The Case of West African Nso and Northern German Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Heidi; Voelker, Susanne; Yovsi, Relindis Dzeaye

    2005-01-01

    The present study compares conceptions about parenting in two cultural communities that may be expected to hold different views on parent-child relationships. Sociodemographically diverse samples of 46 Northern German and 39 West African Nso women evaluated parenting behavior observed in 10 Nso and 10 German videotaped mother-infant interaction…

  3. Developing a Play-Based Communication Assessment through Collaborative Action Research with Teachers in Northern Canadian Indigenous Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagg Peterson, Shelley

    2017-01-01

    With the goal of developing culturally appropriate approaches for assessing and supporting children's language use, teachers of 4-to 6-year-old children in northern Canadian rural and Indigenous communities are involved in a 6-year collaborative action research project. Teachers video record children's interactions during dramatic and construction…

  4. Emergence of sequence type 398 as a community- and healthcare-associated methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus in northern Manhattan.

    PubMed

    Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Hafer, Cory; Miko, Benjamin A; Sowash, Madeleine G; Sullivan, Sean B; Shu, Qiuhu; Lowy, Franklin D

    2013-09-01

    The methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) clone sequence type (ST) 398 has increasingly been identified as a pathogen in diverse geographic settings, yet its epidemiology remains incompletely understood. In this case-control study of MSSA infections, we identified ST398 MSSA as both a major community- and hospital-associated MSSA pathogen in the Dominican neighborhood of northern Manhattan.

  5. The FACE YOUR FEAR Club: Therapeutic Group Work with Young Children as a Response to Community Trauma in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, David; Thomson, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines therapeutic group work with young children in response to acute community trauma in Northern Ireland. The children in question were the focus of a highly publicised dispute concerning access to their school. The work was carried out by NOVA, a Barnardo's trauma support service. Part one outlines the theoretical framework. It…

  6. Towards Educational Inclusion in a Transforming Society: Some Lessons from Community Relations and Special Needs Education in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Sean; Smith, Ron

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the socially constructed ideas that have come to be given the status of taken-for-granted knowledge within not one, but two, fields of professional practice in Northern Irish schools; community relations and special needs education. Dominant discourses were viewed as constructing norms around which educational professionals…

  7. A Multivariate Approach for Using Satellite Imagery to Map the Composition and Structure of Forests Susceptible to Insect Disturbance: Application to the Simulation of Carbon Dynamics in Northern Minnesota and Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, P. A.; Wolter, P. T.

    2007-12-01

    Compared to other forest disturbances, insects and disease influence the largest area of forests in both the U.S. and Canada, affecting an estimated 50 million acres in the U.S. with economic costs over $1.5 billion. The successful understanding and modeling of ecosystem impacts of insect disturbances (especially for carbon dynamics) requires good knowledge of the spatial distribution, density and structure of host species on the landscape. In this study, we mapped the distribution of host species for the spruce budworm ( Choristoneura fumiferana) to facilitate landscape scale planning and modeling of outbreak dynamics. Spruce budworm is one of the most destructive indigenous pests in sub-boreal and boreal spruce-fir forests in the United States and Canada. Although periodic outbreaks are part of the natural cycle in these forests, traditional forest management practices may be responsible for increasing the frequency and severity of outbreaks. Currently, accurate spatially explicit forest structure data for such endeavors remains a persistent challenge and considerable research has focused on using remote sensing to identify methodologies to facilitate accurate estimation of stand volume and/or biomass. We used multi-temporal, multi-seasonal Landsat data and over 230 ground truth plots (and 220 additional validation plots) to map basal area (BA), for over two million hectares of forest in northern Minnesota and neighboring Ontario. BA was mapped both overall and for two spruce budworm host tree species ( Picea glauca and Abies balsamea) using partial least squares (PLS) regression applied to raw spectral bands, various spectral derivatives, and ground truth data. Results of the PLS regression yielded reasonable estimates of overall forest BA with an adjusted R2 of 0.62 and RMSE 4.67 m2 ha-1. White spruce relative BA had an adjusted R2 of 0.88 (RMSE 12.57 m2ha-1) and balsam fir relative BA had an adjusted R2 of 0.64 (RMSE 6.08 m2ha-1). The method also produced

  8. Patterns in nematode community during and after experimentally induced anoxia in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Mehrshad; Grego, Mateja; Riedel, Bettina; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2015-09-01

    The effect of short and long-term induced anoxia on a benthic nematode community and its potential for recovery after reoxygenation were investigated in an in situ experiment on a silty-sand bottom in the Gulf of Trieste, the northern Adriatic Sea. Anoxia was created artificially by three underwater benthic Plexiglas chambers at a depth of 24 m. Treatments lasted for 2, 23 and 307 days. Control samples (Normoxia) were taken on 3 (Normoxia 1) and 25 (Normoxia 2) August 2010 outside the chambers (4-5 m further). After opening the chambers, recovery cores were taken after 7 days (Anoxia 2D), 30 days (Anoxia 23D) and 90 days (Anoxia 307D). Our results revealed that short-term anoxia (Anoxia 2D) did not affect nematode total density and diversity, community structure and their vertical distribution in the sediment. However, total and vertical nematode density, species richness and diversity decreased at 23 days and decreased further at 307 days anoxia. Some nematode species like Metalinhomoeus effilatus, Paralinhomoeus caxinus and Terschellingia longicaudata even survived at 307 days anoxia treatment. Our results also demonstrated that nematode community exposed to 23 days anoxia did not recover after 30 days sediment reoxygenation but, a full recovery was observed after 90 days for nematode community exposed to 307 days anoxia. Feeding type contribution (functional aspect) of the nematode community also changed at the anoxia treatments and during the recovery process. This change was most drastic at the Anoxia 23D and 307D treatments. At both Normoxia and Anoxia 2D treatments, selective deposit feeders (1A), non-selective deposit feeders (1B) and epistrate (diatom) feeders (2A) nematodes were observed in the dominant nematode community. Epistrate feeders disappeared from in the Anoxia 23D treatment epistrate and also selective deposit feeders did not belong to the dominant nematode species in the Anoxia 307D treatment. After the recovery process, epistrate feeders

  9. Helping northern Ethiopian communities reduce childhood mortality: population-based intervention trial.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammed; Asefaw, Teklehaimanot; Byass, Peter; Beyene, Hagos; Pedersen, F. Karup

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: More than 10 million children die each year mostly from preventable causes and particularly in developing countries. WHO guidelines for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) are intended to reduce childhood mortality and are being implemented in Ethiopia. As well as specific clinical interventions, the role of the community in understanding and acting on childhood sickness is an important factor in improving survival. This trial sought to assess the effect on survival of community-based health promotion activities. METHODS: Two districts in northern Ethiopia were studied, each with a random sample of more than 4000 children less than 5 years old. Regular six-monthly visits were made to document deaths among children. After the first year, communities in one district were educated about issues of good childcare and caring for sick children while the other district received this information only after the trial ended. FINDINGS: Although overall mortality was higher in the post-intervention period, most of the increase was seen in the control area. A Cox proportional hazards model gave an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.66 (95% confidence interval = 0.46-0.95) for the intervention area compared with the control area in the post-intervention period, with no significant pre-intervention difference. Significant survival advantages were found for females, children of younger fathers, those with married parents, those living in larger households, and those whose nearest health facility was a health centre. For all of the children who died, only 44% of parents or caregivers had sought health care before the child's death. CONCLUSION: This non-specific community-based public health intervention, as an addition to IMCI strategies in local health facilities, appears to have significantly reduced childhood mortality in these communities. The possibility that such interventions may not effectively reach certain social groups (for example single parents) is

  10. Cretaceous palaeoenvironmental changes inferred from foraminifera communities in the Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfgring, Erik; Wagreich, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The outcrop at Postalm (Northern Calcareous Alps) exhibits the development of a marine environment from a comparatively shallow shelf to bathyal environment. Cyclic marly limestones with marl intercalations display an almost complete Santonian to Maastrichtian succession. Within this succession a well defined interval, the R. calcarata total range zone has already undergone detailed stratigraphic investigation. The implementation of a cyclostratigraphic model, providing the exact duration of precession cycles (i.e. 19,6 ka), was followed by a high resolution assessment of foraminifera and nannoplankton communities of this interval (Wagreich et al., 2012). Over 300 bed-by-bed samples have been taken alongside the outcrop to give a "per-cycle" resolution. As foraminifera data suggest the outcrop covers an interval ranging from the uppermost Santonian Dicarinella asymetrica to the Maastrichtian Gansserina gansseri Zone (nannofossil zones CC17 to CC22) and indicates several changes in palaeoenvironment. The lowermost part of the section (uppermost Santonian) displays a comparatively shallow shelf environment yielding high percentage of benthic foraminifera. Highly diverse foraminifera communities can be identified. Planktic and shallow water benthic species are present in equal numbers. Furthermore, bivalves, sponges and echinoderms are highly abundant in the lower parts of the section. A distinct deepening can be observed from the basal Campanian to the Maastrichtian. Changes in foraminifera communities are evident. The upper parts of the section display foraminifera packstone yielding predominantly planktic foraminifera. Benthic foraminifera are present in almost every sample in varying numbers but never exceeding a 10 percent share of the total foraminifera community. The taxonomic composition of benthic foraminifera communities shows a high amount of infaunal agglutinating species in the stratigraphically younger sections of the outcrop. The uppermost part of the

  11. Polychaetes associated with the sciaphilic alga community in the northern Aegean Sea: spatial and temporal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniadou, C.; Nicolaidou, A.; Chintiroglou, C.

    2004-10-01

    Polychaete biodiversity has received little attention despite its importance in biomonitoring. This study describes polychaete diversity, and its spatial and temporal variability in infralittoral, hard substrate assemblages. Seven stations were chosen in the central area of the northern Aegean Sea. At each station, one to three depth levels were set (15, 30 and 40 m). Five replicates were collected by scuba diving with a quadrat sampler (400 cm2) from each station and depth level during summer for the spatial analysis, and seasonally for the study of temporal changes. Common biocoenotic methods were employed (estimation of numerical abundance, mean dominance, frequency, Margalef's richness, Shannon-Weaver index and Pielou's evenness). A total of 5,494 individuals, belonging to 79 species, were counted and classified. Diversity indices were always high. Clustering and multidimensional scaling techniques indicated a high heterogeneity of the stations, although these were all characterized by the sciaphilic alga community. A clear seasonal pattern was not detectable. Summer and autumn samples discriminate, while winter and spring form an even group. The abundance/biomass comparison indicated a dominance of k-strategy patterns, characteristic of stable communities.

  12. Protecting Place Through Community Alliances: Haida Gwaii Responds to the Proposed Enbridge Northern Gateway Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crist, Valine

    This research contributes to the emerging dialogue concerning power relationships and the alliances that are challenging current frameworks in an attempt to create positive change. Worldwide, local people in rural places are threatened by development paradigms and conflicting social, political, economic, and ecological values. Large-scale development, such as the Enbridge Northern Gateway Project (NGP), provide a tangible example of our failing systems and make the interplay of these elements palpable. Increasingly, communities are coalescing to challenge the current models and economically motivated agendas threatening Indigenous sovereignty and local lifeways. Central to these coalitions are Indigenous peoples who are aligning with non-Indigenous neighbours to renegotiate power relationships. This research examines these dynamic alliances and uses Haida Gwaii's resistance to the NGP as an example of the formidable strength of community coalitions mobilized by intersecting values. To contextualize the NGP within the broader discourse, I problematize Canada's environmental assessment process and consider how media portrays the growing resistance to the proposed project. Drawing on information presented through the environmental assessment, I analyze the main messages and shared values of Haida Gwaii citizens opposed to the NGP. This thesis focuses on this unanimous and galvanizing resistance, which is largely motivated by the reliance on local food sources and an embodied connection to Haida Gwaii shared by Island citizens. The continued denial of Aboriginal title and rights was inherent throughout this consideration and is an underlying theme throughout the analyses.

  13. Phytoplankton pigment patterns and community composition in the northern South China Sea during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Hongchang; Ning, Xiuren; Tang, Xuexi; Hao, Qiang; Le, Fengfeng; Qiao, Jing

    2011-03-01

    Phytoplankton pigment patterns and community composition were investigated in the northern South China Sea using high-performance liquid chromatography and the CHEMTAX software from February 11 to 23, 2009. We recognized four different vertical distribution patterns of pigments: chlorophyll a (Chi a)-like type, divinyl chlorophyll a (DV Chi a) type, even distribution type, and surface type. The average value of ratios of accessory photo-protective pigments (APP) to accessory photo-synthetic pigments was 0.89±0.63 in the upper 50 m and 0.16±0.06 below 50 m depth. With increasing depth, APP decreased and photo-synthetically active radiation was attenuated. There was an obvious succession in the phytoplankton community from inshore to the open sea. Diatoms were dominant in the inshore region, while pelagophytes, Prochlorococcus, cyanobacteria and prymnesiophytes were dominant in the open sea. The vertical distribution of phytoplankton also differed greatly from inshore to the open sea. In the coastal and shelf region, diatoms were important components in the whole water column. Cyanobacteria also had a high abundance at the Subsurface Chlorophyll a Maxima (SCM) in the shelf region. In the slope and open sea, Prochlorococcus and cyanobacteria were important groups above the SCM, while pelagophytes dominated below the SCM.

  14. Relationship between subsurface sedimentology and occurrence of vegetation communities of northern Minnesota boreal peatlands

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.P.; Siegel, D.I.; Romanowicz, E.A. . Dept. of Geology); Glaser, P.H. )

    1992-01-01

    A recent hydrologic and pore-water chemistry study of the 7,500 km[sup 2] Lake Agassiz Peatlands in northern Minnesota suggest that local groundwater flow through the peat in the Lake Agassiz Peatland is superimposed on a regional flow system. Discharge of the regional flow system into the peasants through the underlying lacustrine sediments controls the occurrence of vegetation communities. These peatlands have distinct vegetation communities; bogs and fens. Bogs have 0.5 to 3 meters relief above adjacent fens are dominated by Picea mariana, Carex oligosperma, and ericaceous shrubs with a continuous mat of Sphagnum moss. Fens are dominated by sedges, such as Carex lasiocarpa and Rhynchospora alba and various Amblystigeaceae mosses. Bogs and fens are hydrologically distinct. It is commonly thought that bogs are isolated from groundwater, receiving most of the water from precipitation, with fens having lateral groundwater flow. The findings indicate that, contrary to common belief, bogs in Lake Agassiz are located over areas of regional groundwater discharge with a shallow local recharging system. However, during droughts the hydrology of bogs change as the regional flow system begins to dominate while the shallow recharging system diminishes. A grain size distribution study of the lacustrine sediments underlying the peat indicate that sediments under bogs are generally coarser than sediments under adjacent fens. Consequently sediments under the bogs have higher hydraulic conductivity than the adjacent fens. The implication of this study is that placement of bogs may be controlled by regional groundwater discharge through areas of high hydraulic conductivity.

  15. Restless legs syndrome in a population of northern Tanzania: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Andrea Sylvia; Trendafilova, Anna; Meindl, Michael; Kaaya, John; Schmutzhard, Erich; Kassubek, Jan

    2010-04-15

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a highly prevalent movement disorder. However, prevalences seem to vary amongst different ethnicities. To date, no community-based prevalence studies on RLS have been reported from the African continent. We have conducted a community-based, door-to-door study in northern Tanzania. Over a period of 16 months, 7,654 people aged 14 years and older were screened for the RLS Essential Diagnostic Criteria. Sampling was performed according to the method of "multistage cluster sampling." People who screened positive where reinterviewed and physically examined by a specialist neurologist. During the screening phase, 10 people answered "yes" to at least one of the screening questions. After reinterviewing those people, the result was confirmed in five people only. After careful re-evaluation of the results, only one person was diagnosed with RLS. Because of methodological limitations a definite prevalence may only be calculated from larger population-based studies of different African ethnicities with screening questions adapted to the cultural context.

  16. Temporal and spatial trends of mercury in fish collected in the English-Wabigoon river system in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kinghorn, April; Solomon, Patricia; Chan, Hing Man

    2007-01-01

    The First Nations communities of Grassy Narrows and Wabaseemong (Ontario, Canada) have been impacted by mercury pollution since the 1960s. This study was implemented with the objective of providing these communities with information on current mercury concentrations in their catch, in order to make appropriate fish consumption choices. A total of 851 fish samples, including Walleye, Northern Pike, Large-mouth Bass, and Whitefish, were collected from thirteen lakes and rivers. Total mercury was measured and the relationship between fish length, mercury concentration, and lake of origin were assessed. It was found that fish from most of the lakes exhibit a positive relationship between length and mercury accumulation. Mercury concentrations in fish collected from Clay Lake, closest to the original source of contamination, are higher than those from other lakes. Mercury concentrations have declined over the last 25 years but the gradient of contamination was still observed. Results were communicated to the communities for public health purposes.

  17. Education Network of Ontario: Content/Curriculum Models for the Internet-Connected Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, Mary

    The Education Network of Ontario (ENO) is a telecommunications corporation creating an access and applications network for and by Ontario's 130,000-member education community. When educators register with ENO, they receive full industry-standard Internet and Intranet services in English and French. ENO/REO works from school or home. Statistics…

  18. Higher Education Policy and Legitimacy Building: The Making of a New Academic Credential in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Peter; Sa, Creso M.

    2013-01-01

    Canada's province of Ontario introduced a new policy in 2000 allowing community colleges to offer a new type of undergraduate degree. This decision was a significant policy change for the government considering the nature of Ontario's binary system, where a rigid separation has historically prevailed between the university and college sectors.…

  19. The Relationship between Parental Substance Abuse and Child Maltreatment: Findings from the Ontario Health Supplement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Christine; MacMillan, Harriet L.; Jamieson, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between reported exposure to child abuse and a history of parental substance abuse (alcohol and drugs) in a community sample in Ontario, Canada. Method: The sample consisted of 8,472 respondents to the Ontario Mental Health Supplement (OHSUP), a comprehensive population survey of mental health. The…

  20. Payments for ecosystem services as a framework for community-based conservation in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Fred; Foley, Charles; Foley, Lara S; Leposo, Abraham; Loure, Edward; Peterson, David; Peterson, Mike; Peterson, Thad; Sachedina, Hassan; Williams, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    Payments for ecosystem services (PES) are an increasingly promoted approach to conservation. These approaches seek to develop financial mechanisms that create economic incentives for the maintenance of ecosystems and associated biodiversity by rewarding those who are responsible for provision of ecological services. There are, however, few cases in which such schemes have been used as a strategy for conserving wildlife in developing countries and very few operational examples of such schemes of any sort in sub-Saharan Africa. In savannah ecosystems, large mammal populations generally depend on seasonal use of extensive areas and are widely declining as a result of habitat loss, overexploitation, and policies that limit local benefits from wildlife. Community-based conservation strategies seek to create local incentives for conserving wildlife, but often have limited impact as a result of persistent institutional barriers that limit local rights and economic benefits. In northern Tanzania, a consortium of tourism operators is attempting to address these challenges through an agreement with a village that possesses part of a key wildlife dispersal area outside Tarangire National Park. The operators pay the community to enforce voluntary restrictions on agricultural cultivation and permanent settlement in a defined area of land. The initiative represents a potentially cost-effective framework for community-based conservation in an ecologically important area and is helping to reconcile historically conflicting local and national interests relative to land tenure, pastoralist livelihoods, and conservation. Wider adaptation of payments for ecosystem services approaches to settings where sustaining wildlife populations depends on local stewardship may help address current challenges facing conservation outside state-protected areas in savannah ecosystems in sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the world.

  1. Qualitative Research to Design Sustainable Community-Based Surveillance for Rabies in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Brookes, Victoria J.; Kennedy, Emma; Dhagapan, Phillipa; Ward, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Given the proximity and recent spread of rabies in Indonesia, effective rabies surveillance in dogs is a priority in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG). Reporting of potential cases requires community engagement; therefore, the value and acceptability of such a system is critical to ensure sustainable surveillance. We used qualitative research methods to identify factors that influence the acceptability and value of community-based rabies surveillance. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in 16 communities in East Arnhem, the Northern Peninsula Area, the Torres Strait in Australia, and in Western Province, PNG. Thematic analysis identified common themes including the importance of verbal communication, particularly via radio, community meetings, and direct conversation. We also found that dogs have high value to community members through connection to culture, economic (especially hunting), and companionship. The greatest barrier to the reporting of sick dogs was insufficient veterinary services and the subsequent lack of treatment response. In some regions, acceptance that sick dogs are a normal daily occurrence and lack of trust of authorities were also barriers to reporting. The findings from this study will be used to design sustainable rabies surveillance in Northern Australia and PNG by utilizing traditional communication channels and building on existing and valued animal-management services. The methods and findings of this study complement previous quantitative research, so as to target surveillance to high-risk areas within these regions. PMID:28275611

  2. Qualitative Research to Design Sustainable Community-Based Surveillance for Rabies in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Victoria J; Kennedy, Emma; Dhagapan, Phillipa; Ward, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    Given the proximity and recent spread of rabies in Indonesia, effective rabies surveillance in dogs is a priority in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG). Reporting of potential cases requires community engagement; therefore, the value and acceptability of such a system is critical to ensure sustainable surveillance. We used qualitative research methods to identify factors that influence the acceptability and value of community-based rabies surveillance. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in 16 communities in East Arnhem, the Northern Peninsula Area, the Torres Strait in Australia, and in Western Province, PNG. Thematic analysis identified common themes including the importance of verbal communication, particularly via radio, community meetings, and direct conversation. We also found that dogs have high value to community members through connection to culture, economic (especially hunting), and companionship. The greatest barrier to the reporting of sick dogs was insufficient veterinary services and the subsequent lack of treatment response. In some regions, acceptance that sick dogs are a normal daily occurrence and lack of trust of authorities were also barriers to reporting. The findings from this study will be used to design sustainable rabies surveillance in Northern Australia and PNG by utilizing traditional communication channels and building on existing and valued animal-management services. The methods and findings of this study complement previous quantitative research, so as to target surveillance to high-risk areas within these regions.

  3. Potential Connectivity of Coldwater Black Coral Communities in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Yuley; Ruiz-Ramos, Dannise V.; Baums, Iliana B.; Bracco, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    The black coral Leiopathes glaberrima is a foundation species of deep-sea benthic communities but little is known of the longevity of its larvae and the timing of spawning because it inhabits environments deeper than 50 m that are logistically challenging to observe. Here, the potential connectivity of L. glaberrima in the northern Gulf of Mexico was investigated using a genetic and a physical dispersal model. The genetic analysis focused on data collected at four sites distributed to the east and west of Mississippi Canyon, provided information integrated over many (~10,000) generations and revealed low but detectable realized connectivity. The physical dispersal model simulated the circulation in the northern Gulf at a 1km horizontal resolution with transport-tracking capabilities; virtual larvae were deployed 12 times over the course of 3 years and followed over intervals of 40 days. Connectivity between sites to the east and west of the canyon was hampered by the complex bathymetry, by differences in mean circulation to the east and west of the Mississippi Canyon, and by flow instabilities at scales of a few kilometers. Further, the interannual variability of the flow field surpassed seasonal changes. Together, these results suggest that a) dispersal among sites is limited, b) any recovery in the event of a large perturbation will depend on local larvae produced by surviving individuals, and c) a competency period longer than a month is required for the simulated potential connectivity to match the connectivity from multi-locus genetic data under the hypothesis that connectivity has not changed significantly over the past 10,000 generations. PMID:27218260

  4. Potential Connectivity of Coldwater Black Coral Communities in the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Yuley; Ruiz-Ramos, Dannise V; Baums, Iliana B; Bracco, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    The black coral Leiopathes glaberrima is a foundation species of deep-sea benthic communities but little is known of the longevity of its larvae and the timing of spawning because it inhabits environments deeper than 50 m that are logistically challenging to observe. Here, the potential connectivity of L. glaberrima in the northern Gulf of Mexico was investigated using a genetic and a physical dispersal model. The genetic analysis focused on data collected at four sites distributed to the east and west of Mississippi Canyon, provided information integrated over many (~10,000) generations and revealed low but detectable realized connectivity. The physical dispersal model simulated the circulation in the northern Gulf at a 1km horizontal resolution with transport-tracking capabilities; virtual larvae were deployed 12 times over the course of 3 years and followed over intervals of 40 days. Connectivity between sites to the east and west of the canyon was hampered by the complex bathymetry, by differences in mean circulation to the east and west of the Mississippi Canyon, and by flow instabilities at scales of a few kilometers. Further, the interannual variability of the flow field surpassed seasonal changes. Together, these results suggest that a) dispersal among sites is limited, b) any recovery in the event of a large perturbation will depend on local larvae produced by surviving individuals, and c) a competency period longer than a month is required for the simulated potential connectivity to match the connectivity from multi-locus genetic data under the hypothesis that connectivity has not changed significantly over the past 10,000 generations.

  5. Chronic illness and functional limitation in Ontario children: findings of the Ontario Child Health Study.

    PubMed Central

    Cadman, D; Boyle, M H; Offord, D R; Szatmari, P; Rae-Grant, N I; Crawford, J; Byles, J

    1986-01-01

    The Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS) was based on interviews of 1869 Ontario families who were selected by means of a stratified, multistaged sampling method from the 1981 census of Canada. Its primary purpose was to determine the prevalence and distribution of mental health problems in Ontario children aged 4 to 16 years and their families, but it also allowed an estimate of other significant medical conditions and provided an overview of these children's use of health care, education and social services. Our results are based on questionnaire responses concerning 3294 children. Limitation of function without a chronic illness or medical condition was reported in 1.9%, the converse in 14.0%, and a chronic illness or medical condition with limitation of function in 3.7%. When the three groups are considered together, 19.6% of Ontario children had a chronic health problem. Children of lower socioeconomic status were much more likely to have chronic health problems. Overall, children with chronic health problems were more likely to use physician, special education, social and mental health services. These findings have implications for those who provide services for children, plan community programs or train professionals in caring for children. PMID:3756702

  6. Local temperatures inferred from plant communities suggest strong spatial buffering of climate warming across Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Graae, Bente Jessen; Aarrestad, Per Arild; Alsos, Inger Greve; Armbruster, W Scott; Austrheim, Gunnar; Bergendorff, Claes; Birks, H John B; Bråthen, Kari Anne; Brunet, Jörg; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Dahlberg, Carl Johan; Decocq, Guillaume; Diekmann, Martin; Dynesius, Mats; Ejrnaes, Rasmus; Grytnes, John-Arvid; Hylander, Kristoffer; Klanderud, Kari; Luoto, Miska; Milbau, Ann; Moora, Mari; Nygaard, Bettina; Odland, Arvid; Ravolainen, Virve Tuulia; Reinhardt, Stefanie; Sandvik, Sylvi Marlen; Schei, Fride Høistad; Speed, James David Mervyn; Tveraabak, Liv Unn; Vandvik, Vigdis; Velle, Liv Guri; Virtanen, Risto; Zobel, Martin; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies from mountainous areas of small spatial extent (<2500 km(2) ) suggest that fine-grained thermal variability over tens or hundreds of metres exceeds much of the climate warming expected for the coming decades. Such variability in temperature provides buffering to mitigate climate-change impacts. Is this local spatial buffering restricted to topographically complex terrains? To answer this, we here study fine-grained thermal variability across a 2500-km wide latitudinal gradient in Northern Europe encompassing a large array of topographic complexities. We first combined plant community data, Ellenberg temperature indicator values, locally measured temperatures (LmT) and globally interpolated temperatures (GiT) in a modelling framework to infer biologically relevant temperature conditions from plant assemblages within <1000-m(2) units (community-inferred temperatures: CiT). We then assessed: (1) CiT range (thermal variability) within 1-km(2) units; (2) the relationship between CiT range and topographically and geographically derived predictors at 1-km resolution; and (3) whether spatial turnover in CiT is greater than spatial turnover in GiT within 100-km(2) units. Ellenberg temperature indicator values in combination with plant assemblages explained 46-72% of variation in LmT and 92-96% of variation in GiT during the growing season (June, July, August). Growing-season CiT range within 1-km(2) units peaked at 60-65°N and increased with terrain roughness, averaging 1.97 °C (SD = 0.84 °C) and 2.68 °C (SD = 1.26 °C) within the flattest and roughest units respectively. Complex interactions between topography-related variables and latitude explained 35% of variation in growing-season CiT range when accounting for sampling effort and residual spatial autocorrelation. Spatial turnover in growing-season CiT within 100-km(2) units was, on average, 1.8 times greater (0.32 °C km(-1) ) than spatial turnover in growing-season GiT (0.18 °C km(-1) ). We

  7. [Socio-cultural aspects of epilepsy in a rural community in northern Benin in 2011].

    PubMed

    Adoukonou, T; Tognon-Tchegnonsi, F; Gnonlonfoun, D; Djidonou, A; Sego-Sounon, D; Gandaho, P; Houinato, D

    2015-03-01

    Despite the development of knowledge in diagnosis and therapeutic of epilepsy it remains to be cause of rejection and stigma. We aimed to study the knowledge, attitude and practice toward epilepsy and the stigma in a rural community. The cross-sectional study was carried out from 1st to 31st March 2011 in a rural community (Tourou) at Parakou in the northern Benin. It was a door-to-door survey and included 1 031 adults older than 15 years. The diagnosis of epilepsy was based on International League Against Epilepsy. The specific questionnaire was used and comprised 16 items which explored knowledge, attitude and practice toward epilepsy. Another questionnaire was developed to study stigma among epileptics. The associated factors to the misconception toward epilepsy have been studied. All adults have heard about epilepsy and knew the generalized tonic-clonic form of epilepsy and knew someone with epilepsy. Hereditary (98%) and witchcraft (97.9%) and social problems (65.9%) were mentioned as the most cause of epilepsy. Epilepsy was cited as contagious disease by 90.6% of respondents and the associated factors were the sex (p=0.005) and occupational status (0.024). The saliva (98.1%) and witness of the place of seizure (97.8%) were the frequently mentioned modes of transmission. 65% of all mentioned that epileptics can not get marriage and the main associated factors to this belief were the advanced age (p=0.008) and occupational status (0.004). 64.4% believed that children with epilepsy shouldn't be attend to school, age (0.004), ethnicity (0.047) and occupational status were the associated factors with this misconception. Despite 99.4% considered epilepsy as treatable disease only 12.7% would have referred epileptics to the hospital. All the seven epileptics considered themselves as victims of stigma and rejected by their family and the community. The misconceptions associated to the epilepsy can explain the stigma and the therapeutic gap in this rural community.

  8. Indigenous Languages across the Community. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Stabilizing Indigenous Languages (7th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 11-14, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnaby, Barbara Jane, Ed.; Reyhner, Jon Allan, Ed.

    Conference papers examine efforts by Indigenous communities, particularly Native American communities, to maintain and revitalize their languages. The 27 papers are: "Ko te reo te mauri o te mana Maori: The Language Is the Life Essence of Maori Existence" (Te Tuhi Robust); "The Preservation and Use of Our Languages: Respecting the…

  9. Education and Community: The Collaborative Solution. Proceedings of the International Conference Linking Research and Practice (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, March 3-5, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Stephen B., Ed.; Tanenzapt, Elaine, Ed.; Townsend, Richard G., Ed.

    These proceedings are divided into two sections that explore collaboration between schools and communities. In Part I, the first four papers, analytic frameworks are described that provide different perspectives on collaboration. In Part II, descriptions of concrete programs and advice for developing better school-community relations are offered.…

  10. Altitudinal and seasonal differences of tick communities in dogs from pastoralist tribes of Northern Kenya.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Gianluca; Dumitrache, Mirabela O; Široký, Pavel; Albrechtová, Kateřina; Sloboda, Michal; Domşa, Cristian; Sándor, Attila D; Balázsi, Robert; Kanyari, Paul W N; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei D

    2015-09-15

    Studies regarding the distribution and ecology of ticks in dogs from Eastern Africa are scarce. Our research was based on a long-term screening of ticks parasitising the domestic dogs living with indigenous people around Lake Turkana, Mt. Kulal and Mt. Nyiru areas, Northern Kenya. A total of 9977 ticks were collected from 1464 dogs of all ages and both sexes. Identification was performed using morphological keys and data were analyzed using the Repeated Measures ANOVA, post-hoc Scheffe test and F test, relating independent variables as seasons and regions. Final results were translated to maps using GIS software. Five species of ticks were identified: Rhipicephalus pulchellus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.), Rhipicephalus armatus, Amblyomma gemma and Hyalomma truncatum. Our results suggest a statistical difference of the tick community structure related to seasonal and altitudinal distribution. Parasitism with R. armatus and R. pulchellus was higher in September-October than in January, whereas, R. sanguineus s.l. was not influenced by the season. Rhipicephalus armatus was present exclusively on dogs living in semi-desert areas, while R. sanguineus s.l. was the dominant species present on the shores of Lake Turkana. Although R. pulchellus was present in the all studied areas, this species had a significantly higher abundance in the afromontane region of Mt. Kulal and montane xeromorphic forest of Mt. Nyiru; these regions are characterized by elevated humidity and cooler climate. Similar geo-climatic distribution is typical also for A. gemma, which was found in dogs exclusively in Mt. Kulal afromontane area. The current work represents the most extensive study performed on the tick community structure of dogs in Eastern Africa. The results showed a relatively limited tick species diversity, with clear seasonal differences and altitudinal distribution.

  11. Determining use of preventive health care in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Jason, X. Nie; Upshur, Ross E.G.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine rates of influenza vaccination, mammography, and Papanicolaou smear by comparing data obtained from the Ontario Health Insurance Plan administrative database with rates as self-reported in the Canadian Community Health Survey. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study using data from Statistics Canada’s 2000–2001 Canadian Community Health Survey and from the Ontario Health Insurance Plan administrative database for the same period. SETTING Ontario. PARTICIPANTS Those aged 12 and older who had received influenza vaccination, women aged 35 or older who had had mammograms within the past 2 years, and women aged 18 or older who had had Pap smears within the past 3 years who were surveyed during the Canadian Community Health Survey in 2001. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Rates of influenza vaccination, mammography, and Pap smear in Ontario’s 14 Local Health Integration Networks by network, age group, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS Rates varied by health network. Analysis by age showed that influenza vaccination rates increased with age and peaked among those 75 and older. Rates of mammography screening increased with age but dropped substantially among those 75 and older. Rates of Pap smear peaked among those 20 to 39 and decreased with increasing age. Rates of mammography and Pap smear increased with rising socioeconomic status, but influenza vaccination rates did not differ substantially by socioeconomic status. Rates for all 3 preventive maneuvers were lower in the Ontario Health Insurance Plan data than in the self-reported Canadian Community Health Survey data. CONCLUSION There are obstacles to finding out the true rates of preventive health care use in Ontario. We need to ascertain these rates in order to establish a criterion standard for delivery of these services. Development of programs to target specific geographic locations, socioeconomic classes, and high-risk groups are needed to increase the overall use of preventive health services

  12. Representing Northern Peatland Hydrology and Biogeochemistry within the Community Land Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Xu, X.; Thornton, P. E.; Hanson, P. J.; Mao, J.; Sebestyen, S.; Griffiths, N.

    2015-12-01

    Northern peatlands are projected to become very important in future carbon-climate feedback due to their large carbon storage and vulnerability to changes in hydrology and climate impacts. Understanding the hydrology and biogeochemistry is a fundamental task for projecting the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under future climate change. Models have started to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have considered a prognostic calculation of water table dynamics in vegetated peatlands rather than prescribed regional water tables. We introduced here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM), which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation between hummock and hollow microtopography in a vegetated peatland. We further integrated the hydrology treatment with vertically structured soil organic matter pools, and a newly developed microbial functional group-based methane module. The model was further used to test against observational data obtained within Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change (SPRUCE) project. Results for water table dynamic, carbon profile, and land surface fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane were reasonable. Model simulations showed that warming and elevated CO2 had significant impacts on land surface fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide. The warming-induced hydrological changes are another factors influencing biogeochemistry along soil profiles and land surface gas fluxes. These preliminary results provide some insights for field experiments as well as data-model comparison in next phase of the SPRUCE project.

  13. Longitudinal relations between sectarian and nonsectarian community violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine E; Taylor, Laura K; Shirlow, Peter; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Cairns, Ed

    2013-08-01

    Although relations between political violence and child adjustment are well documented, longitudinal research is needed to adequately address the many questions remaining about the contexts and developmental trajectories underlying the effects on children in areas of political violence. The study examined the relations between sectarian and nonsectarian community violence and adolescent adjustment problems over 4 consecutive years. Participants included 999 mother-child dyads (482 boys, 517 girls), M ages = 12.18 (SD = 1.82), 13.24 (SD = 1.83), 13.61 (SD = 1.99), and 14.66 (SD = 1.96) years, respectively, living in socially deprived neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland, a context of historical and ongoing political violence. In examining trajectories of adjustment problems, including youth experience with both sectarian and nonsectarian antisocial behaviors, sectarian antisocial behavior significantly predicted more adjustment problems across the 4 years of the study. Experiencing sectarian antisocial behavior was related to increased adolescent adjustment problems, and this relationship was accentuated in neighborhoods characterized by higher crime rates. The discussion considers the implications for further validating the distinction between sectarian and nonsectarian violence, including consideration of neighborhood crime levels, from the child's perspective in a setting of political violence.

  14. Laterality in the first Neolithic and Chalcolithic farming communities in northern Iberia.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Ballesteros, Eder; Arrizabalaga, Alvaro

    2015-05-01

    Laterality is a quality, widespread throughout the vertebrate kingdom. It consists in assigning different roles to each side of the body by granting predominance to one of the sides. Humans too display this quality and the specialization of each hemisphere in our brain was already present in the first vertebrates. We usually refer to right-handed and left-handed people depending on the upper limb that is assigned the dominant role. For a long time, it has been thought that the proportion of left-handed people in a population has remained constant in all cultures and during our evolution. However, laterality is affected by sociocultural influences and varies geographically and chronologically. Using archaeological remains, it is possible to obtain information about the laterality of our ancestors and determine laterality indices for past populations. We developed an experimental programme to determine which characteristics of a polished axe indicate the laterality of its maker. We describe a method based on the orientation of the edge and we study the Neolithic and Chalcolithic farming communities in northern Iberia to evaluate the laterality in those populations. The right/left laterality ratio for the Neolithic and Chalcolithic populations is very similar to the range detected for modern non-industrial societies.

  15. Northern perspectives on medical elective tourism: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Coke, Sarah; Kuper, Ayelet; Richardson, Lisa; Cameron, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada recognizes education to be necessary for doctors to provide culturally safe care. Communities in northern Canada have large populations of Aboriginal people and other marginalized groups. Our goal was to identify the elements of appropriate predeparture curricula for these medical trainees. Methods: We conducted our study in Kenora, Ontario. With the help of a core collaborative group and the support of the local Aboriginal Health Access Centre, we interviewed a purposive sample of community members about their interactions with trainees from southern Canada. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal researchers with roots in northern and southern Canada brought perspectives to the inductive analysis. Results: We conducted 17 semistructured interviews between February and March 2014. Participants felt that southern trainees were inadequately educated in northern politics, society and history. They identified 2 more themes: determinants of health affecting the local Aboriginal population, and provider and patient factors affecting delivery of culturally competent care. Participants also shared ideas on how best to implement this content into curricula. Interpretation: Providing culturally competent care to northern communities is a complex process requiring education. Using a collaborative method, we were able to delineate the experiences of members of a northern community and identify knowledge gaps of southern trainees travelling there. Our results provide a foundation for the content and structure of formal predeparture curricula to enable such trainees to provide culturally safe care. PMID:27398374

  16. Influence of sediment characteristics on the composition of soft-sediment intertidal communities in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Henkel, Jessica R.; Sigel, Bryan J.; Taylor, Caz M.

    2015-01-01

    Benthic infaunal communities are important components of coastal ecosystems. Understanding the relationships between the structure of these communities and characteristics of the habitat in which they live is becoming progressively more important as coastal systems face increasing stress from anthropogenic impacts and changes in climate. To examine how sediment characteristics and infaunal community composition were related along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, we sampled intertidal infaunal communities at seven sites covering common habitat types at a regional scale. Across 69 samples, the communities clustered into four distinct groups on the basis of faunal composition. Nearly 70% of the variation in the composition of the communities was explained by salinity, median grain size, and total organic content. Our results suggest that at a regional level coarse habitat characteristics are able to explain a large amount of the variation among sites in infaunal community structure. By examining the relationships between infaunal communities and their sedimentary habitats, we take a necessary first step that will allow the exploration of how changes in habitat and community composition influence higher trophic levels and ecosystem scale processes. PMID:26157603

  17. Context and cardiovascular risk modification in two regions of Ontario, Canada: a photo elicitation study.

    PubMed

    Angus, Jan E; Rukholm, Ellen; Michel, Isabelle; Larocque, Sylvie; Seto, Lisa; Lapum, Jennifer; Timmermans, Katherine; Chevrier-Lamoureux, Renée; Nolan, Robert P

    2009-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, which include coronary heart diseases (CHD), remain the leading cause of death in Canada and other industrialized countries. This qualitative study used photo-elicitation, focus groups and in-depth interviews to understand health behaviour change from the perspectives of 38 people who were aware of their high risk for CHD and had received information about cardiovascular risk modification while participating in a larger intervention study. Participants were drawn from two selected regions: Sudbury and District (northern Ontario) and the Greater Toronto Area (southern Ontario). Analysis drew on concepts of place and space to capture the complex interplay between geographic location, sociodemographic position, and people's efforts to understand and modify their risk for CHD. Three major sites of difference and ambiguity emerged: 1) place and access to health resources; 2) time and food culture; and 3) itineraries or travels through multiple locations. All participants reported difficulties in learning and adhering to new lifestyle patterns, but access to supportive health resources was different in the two regions. Even within regions, subgroups experienced different patterns of constraint and advantage. In each region, "fast" food and traditional foods were entrenched within different temporal and social meanings. Finally, different and shifting strategies for risk modification were required at various points during daily and seasonal travels through neighbourhoods, to workplaces, or on vacation. Thus health education for CHD risk modification should be place-specific and tailored to the needs and resources of specific communities.

  18. Context and Cardiovascular Risk Modification in Two Regions of Ontario, Canada: A Photo Elicitation Study

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Jan E.; Rukholm, Ellen; Michel, Isabelle; Larocque, Sylvie; Seto, Lisa; Lapum, Jennifer; Timmermans, Katherine; Chevrier-Lamoureux, Renée; Nolan, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, which include coronary heart diseases (CHD), remain the leading cause of death in Canada and other industrialized countries. This qualitative study used photo-elicitation, focus groups and in-depth interviews to understand health behaviour change from the perspectives of 38 people who were aware of their high risk for CHD and had received information about cardiovascular risk modification while participating in a larger intervention study. Participants were drawn from two selected regions: Sudbury and District (northern Ontario) and the Greater Toronto Area (southern Ontario). Analysis drew on concepts of place and space to capture the complex interplay between geographic location, sociodemographic position, and people’s efforts to understand and modify their risk for CHD. Three major sites of difference and ambiguity emerged: 1) place and access to health resources; 2) time and food culture; and 3) itineraries or travels through multiple locations. All participants reported difficulties in learning and adhering to new lifestyle patterns, but access to supportive health resources was different in the two regions. Even within regions, subgroups experienced different patterns of constraint and advantage. In each region, “fast” food and traditional foods were entrenched within different temporal and social meanings. Finally, different and shifting strategies for risk modification were required at various points during daily and seasonal travels through neighbourhoods, to workplaces, or on vacation. Thus health education for CHD risk modification should be place-specific and tailored to the needs and resources of specific communities. PMID:19826558

  19. Fish community dynamics in northeastern Lake Ontario with emphasis on the growth and reproductive success of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and white perch (Morone americana), 1978 to1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, Robert; Burnett, John A.D.

    2001-01-01

    Fishes were assessed in Guffin, Chaumount, and Black River bays in northeastern Lake Ontario with a 7.9-m (headrope) bottom trawl during late September and early October, 1978 to 1997. Fish density declined in the early 1990s with sharp declines in abundance of spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus), and johnny darter (Etheostoma nigrum) occurring in 1993 to 1995. Rising numbers of piscivores, walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), increased predation pressure, presumably acting in concert with oligotrophication to lower fish density, particularly after 1991 when large numbers of adult alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) no longer migrated to the northeast basin in spring. Annual mortality of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from age 2 to 5 rose from 33% in 1980–83 to 65% in 1992–95 and was positively related to piscivore numbers (P = 0.01, r = 0.96, n = 5). Annual mortality of yellow perch from age 0 to 2 also peaked in 1992–95. Abundance of yellow perch YOY in fall varied 40 fold and was not related to water warming in spring (P = 0.45, r = −0.19, n = 18) but was negatively related to the abundance of adult alewives in spring (P = 0.04, r = −0.49, n = 18). Although yellow perch produced moderate to strong year classes each year during 1991–95, stock size failed to increase because of rapidly accelerating mortality. Fully 85% of the variation in mean length of yellow perch YOY was explained by a multiple regression model which included YOY abundance, mean total phosphorus, and cumulative degree days > 13.5°C (P < 0.01, n = 15). Abundance of white perch (Morone americana) YOY varied nearly 200 fold and was not related to water warming or spring alewife abundance (P > 0.15). Variation in mean length of white perch YOY was related to cumulative degree days > 15°C (P < 0.01, r = 0.69).

  20. Longitudinal pathways between political violence and child adjustment: the role of emotional security about the community in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine E; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2011-02-01

    Links between political violence and children's adjustment problems are well-documented. However, the mechanisms by which political tension and sectarian violence relate to children's well-being and development are little understood. This study longitudinally examined children's emotional security about community violence as a possible regulatory process in relations between community discord and children's adjustment problems. Families were selected from 18 working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Participants (695 mothers and children, M = 12.17, SD = 1.82) were interviewed in their homes over three consecutive years. Findings supported the notion that politically-motivated community violence has distinctive effects on children's externalizing and internalizing problems through the mechanism of increasing children's emotional insecurity about community. Implications are considered for understanding relations between political violence and child adjustment from a social ecological perspective.

  1. Calculating the College-to-University Transfer Rate in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decock, Henry

    2004-01-01

    Measuring transfer is as varied as it is controversial, particularly in an era of increased accountability and in the case of Ontario Colleges, in a time of flux and change. American Community Colleges have been grappling with the definition of a transfer rate, continuing to fail on reaching a consensus. The importance of an acceptable transfer…

  2. Revisiting Constructivist Teaching Methods in Ontario Colleges Preparing for Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Rachel A.

    2015-01-01

    At the time of writing, the first community colleges in Ontario were preparing for transition to an accreditation model from an audit system. This paper revisits constructivist literature, arguing that a more pragmatic definition of constructivism effectively blends positivist and interactionist philosophies to achieve both student centred…

  3. Retention and sustainability of community-based health volunteers' activities: A qualitative study in rural Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Chatio, Samuel; Akweongo, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Background The shortage of formal health workers has led to the utilization of Community-Based Health Volunteers (CBHV) to provide health care services to people especially in rural and neglected communities. Community-based health volunteers have been effective partners in health care delivery at the community level for many years. The challenge is how to retain these volunteers and also sustain their activities. This study explored factors affecting retention and sustainability of community-based health volunteers’ activities in a rural setting in Northern Ghana. Methods This was a qualitative study comprising thirty-two in-depth interviews (IDIs) with health volunteers and health workers in-charge of health volunteers’ activities. Purposive sampling technique was used to select study participants for the interviews. The interviews were transcribed and coded into themes using Nvivo 10 software. The thematic analysis framework was used to analyze the data. Results Study participants reported that the desire to help community members, prestige and recognition as doctors in community mainly motivated them to work as health volunteers. Lack of incentives and logistical supplies such as raincoats, torch lights, wellington boots and transportation in the form of bicycles to facilitate the movement of health volunteers affected the work. They suggested that lack of these things discouraged them from working as health volunteers. Most of the dropout volunteers said lack of support and respect from community members made them to stop working as health volunteers. They recommended that community support, incentives and logistical supplies such as raincoats, torch light, wellington boots, bicycles, awards to hard working volunteers are mechanisms that can help retain community-based health volunteers and also sustain their activities. Conclusion Providing means of transport and non-monetary incentives would help to retain community-based health volunteers and also

  4. Numerical simulation of tides in Ontario Lacus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, David; Karatekin, Ozgür

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocarbons liquid filled lakes has been recently detected on Titan's surface. Most of these lakes are located in the northern latitudes but there is a substantial lake in the southern latitudes: Ontario Lacus. This lake gets our attention because of possible shoreline changes suggested by Cassini flybys over Ontario Lacus between September 2005 (T7) et January 2010 (T65). The shoreline changes could be due to evaporation-precipitation processes but could also be a consequence of tides. Previous studies showed that the maximal tidal amplitudes of Ontario Lacus would be about 0.2m (for an uniform bathymetry of 20m). In this study we simulate tidal amplitude and currents with SLIM (Second-generation Louvain-la-Neuve Ice-ocean Model, http://sites.uclouvain.be/slim/ ) which resolves 2D shallow water equation on an unstructured mesh. Unstructured mesh prevents problems like mesh discontinuities at poles and allows higher accuracy at some place like coast or straits without drastically increasing computing costs. The tide generating force modeled in this work is the gradient of tidal potential due to titan's obliquity and titan's orbital eccentricity around Saturn (other contribution such as sun tide generating force are unheeded). The uncertain input parameters such as the wind direction and amplitude, bottom friction and thermo-physical properties of hydrocarbons liquids are varied within their expected ranges. SAR data analysis can result in different bathymetry according to the method. We proceed simulations for different bathymetries: tidal amplitudes doesn't change but this is not the case for tidal currents. Using a recent bathymetry deduced from most recent RADAR/SAR observations and a finer mesh, the peak-to peak tidal amplitudes are calculated to be up to 0.6 m. which is more than a factor two larger than the previous results. The maximal offshore tidal currents magnitude is about 0.06 m/s.

  5. Community occupancy responses of small mammals to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine forests, northern Arizona, USA.

    PubMed

    Kalies, E L; Dickson, B G; Chambers, C L; Covington, W W

    2012-01-01

    In western North American conifer forests, wildfires are increasing in frequency and severity due to heavy fuel loads that have accumulated after a century of fire suppression. Forest restoration treatments (e.g., thinning and/or burning) are being designed and implemented at large spatial and temporal scales in an effort to reduce fire risk and restore forest structure and function. In ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, predominantly open forest structure and a frequent, low-severity fire regime constituted the evolutionary environment for wildlife that persisted for thousands of years. Small mammals are important in forest ecosystems as prey and in affecting primary production and decomposition. During 2006-2009, we trapped eight species of small mammals at 294 sites in northern Arizona and used occupancy modeling to determine community responses to thinning and habitat features. The most important covariates in predicting small mammal occupancy were understory vegetation cover, large snags, and treatment. Our analysis identified two generalist species found at relatively high occupancy rates across all sites, four open-forest species that responded positively to treatment, and two dense-forest species that responded negatively to treatment unless specific habitat features were retained. Our results indicate that all eight small mammal species can benefit from restoration treatments, particularly if aspects of their evolutionary environment (e.g., large trees, snags, woody debris) are restored. The occupancy modeling approach we used resulted in precise species-level estimates of occupancy in response to habitat attributes for a greater number of small mammal species than in other comparable studies. We recommend our approach for other studies faced with high variability and broad spatial and temporal scales in assessing impacts of treatments or habitat alteration on wildlife species. Moreover, since forest planning efforts are increasingly focusing on

  6. Acquisition, Loss or Multilingualism? Educational Planning for Speakers of Migrant Community Languages in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Debates surrounding linguistic heritage in Northern Ireland have primarily centred on Irish (Gaelic) and Ulster-Scots. However, closer analysis suggests that there have long been other languages spoken in the region. Cantonese, Mandarin, Polish, Lithuanian and Portuguese are all spoken throughout Northern Ireland as the region experiences…

  7. Pan-Canadian Forum on Community Learning Networks Conference Proceedings [and] A Discussion Guide (1st, Ottawa, Ontario, March 27-29, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources Development Canada, Hull (Quebec). Office of Learning Technologies.

    This document contains information from and about the Pan-Canadian Forum on Community Learning Networks (CLNs) that was conducted to identify existing and emerging needs of CLNs and identify emerging trends and issues related to CLNs. The document begins with a discussion of role played by CLNs in building a lifelong learning culture. Presented…

  8. Effectiveness and Student Success: Transforming Community Colleges for the 1990's. Proceedings from the Conference. (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 24-26, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walleri, Dan, Ed.; And Others

    The 27 papers included in this proceedings report focus on various aspects of institutional effectiveness and student outcomes. The papers are: (1) "Assessment Update: Ends, Means and Results" (Banta); (2) "The Top Ten Issues Facing America's Community Colleges" (Lorenzo and Banach); (3) "Assessing Institutional Effectiveness in Continuing…

  9. Considering the risk of infection by cryptosporidium via consumption of municipally treated drinking water from a surface water source in a Southwestern Ontario community.

    PubMed

    Pintar, K D M; Fazil, A; Pollari, F; Waltner-Toews, D; Charron, D F; McEwen, S A; Walton, T

    2012-07-01

    Through the use of case-control analyses and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), relative risks of transmission of cryptosporidiosis have been evaluated (recreational water exposure vs. drinking water consumption) for a Canadian community with higher than national rates of cryptosporidiosis. A QMRA was developed to assess the risk of Cryptosporidium infection through the consumption of municipally treated drinking water. Simulations were based on site-specific surface water contamination levels and drinking water treatment log₁₀ reduction capacity for Cryptosporidium. Results suggested that the risk of Cryptosporidium infection via drinking water in the study community, assuming routine operation of the water treatment plant, was negligible (6 infections per 10¹³ persons per day--5th percentile: 2 infections per 10¹⁵ persons per day; 95th percentile: 3 infections per 10¹² persons per day). The risk is essentially nonexistent during optimized, routine treatment operations. The study community achieves between 7 and 9 log₁₀ Cryptosporidium oocyst reduction through routine water treatment processes. Although these results do not preclude the need for constant vigilance by both water treatment and public health professionals in this community, they suggest that the cause of higher rates of cryptosporidiosis are more likely due to recreational water contact, or perhaps direct animal contact. QMRA can be successfully applied at the community level to identify data gaps, rank relative public health risks, and forecast future risk scenarios. It is most useful when performed in a collaborative way with local stakeholders, from beginning to end of the risk analysis paradigm.

  10. Comparative study of endophytic and endophytic diazotrophic bacterial communities across rice landraces grown in the highlands of northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rangjaroen, Chakrapong; Rerkasem, Benjavan; Teaumroong, Neung; Sungthong, Rungroch; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2014-01-01

    Communities of bacterial endophytes within the rice landraces cultivated in the highlands of northern Thailand were studied using fingerprinting data of 16S rRNA and nifH genes profiling by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The bacterial communities' richness, diversity index, evenness, and stability were varied depending on the plant tissues, stages of growth, and rice cultivars. These indices for the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria within the landrace rice Bue Wah Bo were significantly the lowest. The endophytic bacteria revealed greater diversity by cluster analysis with seven clusters compared to the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria (three clusters). Principal component analysis suggested that the endophytic bacteria showed that the community structures across the rice landraces had a higher stability than those of the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria. Uncultured bacteria were found dominantly in both bacterial communities, while higher generic varieties were observed in the endophytic diazotrophic bacterial community. These differences in bacterial communities might be influenced either by genetic variation in the rice landraces or the rice cultivation system, where the nitrogen input affects the endophytic diazotrophic bacterial community.

  11. Genetic assessment of meiobenthic community composition and spatial distribution in coastal sediments along northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Brannock, Pamela M; Wang, Lei; Ortmann, Alice C; Waits, Damien S; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2016-08-01

    Meiobenthic (meiofauna and micro-eukaryotes) organisms are important contributors to ecosystem functioning in aquatic environments through their roles in nutrient transport, sediment stability, and food web interactions. Despite their ecological importance, information pertaining to variation of these communities at various spatial and temporal scales is not widely known. Many studies in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) have focused either on deep sea or continental shelf areas, while little attention has been paid to bays and coastal regions. Herein, we take a holistic approach by using high-throughput sequencing approaches to examine spatial variation in meiobenthic communities within Alabama bays and the coastal northern GOM region. Sediment samples were collected along three transects (Mississippi Sound: MS, FOCAL: FT, and Orange Beach: OB) from September 2010 to April 2012 and community composition was determined by metabarcoding the V9 hypervariable region of the nuclear18S rRNA gene. Results showed that Stramenopiles (diatoms), annelids, arthropods (copepods), and nematodes were the dominate groups within samples, while there was presence of other phyla throughout the dataset. Location played a larger role than time sampled in community composition. However, samples were collected over a short temporal scale. Samples clustered in reference to transect, with the most eastern transect (OB) having a distinct community composition in comparison to the other two transects (MS and FT). Communities also differed in reference to region (Bay versus Shelf). Bulk density and percent inorganic carbon were the only measured environmental factors that were correlated with community composition.

  12. Diatom Community Changes in Five Sub-alpine Mountain Lakes in Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B.; Noble, P. J.; Howard, K.; Heyvaert, A.

    2012-12-01

    Sediment cores and/or phytoplankton sampling of five sub-alpine lakes within three northern California mountain ranges show a major shift in diatom phytoplankton communities over the past 20-60 years; however, specific causes of these changes are still under investigation. Diatom analysis of a 20-cm sediment core taken from Castle Lake, a meso-oligotrophic lake located on the eastern slope of the Klammath Mountains, shows the phytoplankton community shifted from being cyclotelloid-dominated to having a larger component of araphids beginning around 1997. In the lower 14 cm of the core, the phytoplankton are dominated by centric diatoms, including the Discostella stelligera-pseudostelligera group (>50% of total diatoms), and the Cyclotella occelata-rossii-tripartita complex (9-18%). The top 6 cm show an increasing shift towards araphids, including Asterionella formosa and the Fragilaria tenera-nanana group, which is consistent with phytoplankton in the lake's epilimnion today. Fallen Leaf Lake (FLL), located at the southern end of the Lake Tahoe basin, has also undergone a similar shift. Presently, A. formosa, the F. tenera-nananna group, and Tabellaria dominate the phytoplankton. Examination of a sediment core from FLL indicates that A. formosa has been present in high abundances since at least 1812. The most prominent shift in the FLL diatom population began in the 1950s when the centric diatoms (eg. Aulacoseira subarctica) declined significantly in favor of araphids. The F. tenera-nanana group was present in trace amounts before 1812 and dramatically increased in abundance after the 1950s. Sediment accumulation rates have increased steadily since 1950 and coincide with increases in lake development and recreational use. A. formosa is also present today in Gilmore Lake, a minimally human-impacted lake located in the watershed above FLL, and in the heavily impacted Manzanita Lake in the northwestern corner of Lassen Volcanic National Park (LAVO) at the southern end

  13. Fish Community Responses to the Establishment of a Piscivore, Northern Pike (Esox lucius), in a Nebraska Sandhill Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBates, T.J.; Paukert, C.P.; Willis, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius) was first documented in West Long Lake, Nebraska, in 1998 when two pike <380 mm were collected. In 2002, a Peterson mark-recapture population estimate on northern pike revealed density and standing stock (i.e., biomass) estimates of 35.8 fish/ha (95% CI= ?? 8.8) and 22.0 kg/ha (95% CI= ?? 5.4), respectively. Consequently, West Long Lake was sampled in 2002 to compare relative abundance, size structure, and growth of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) prior to and after the establishment of a high-density northern pike population. Bluegill, largemouth bass, and yellow perch relative abundances were significantly lower in 2002 than 1998. Similarly, size structures of all three species were significantly different between years. Size structure declined for both bluegill and yellow perch, and increased for largemouth bass. Growth was significantly higher for bluegill, largemouth bass, and yellow perch in 2002 than 1998. While the fish community changes were expected with the establishment of northern pike, they occurred in a relatively short time period (i.e., four years).

  14. Community-Based Native Teacher Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimbecker, Connie; Minner, Sam; Prater, Greg

    This paper describes two exemplary school-based Native teacher education programs offered by Northern Arizona University (NAU) to serve Navajo students and by Lakehead University (Ontario) to serve members of the Nishnabe Nation of northern Ontario. The Reaching American Indian Special/Elementary Educators (RAISE) program is located in Kayenta,…

  15. Rebuilding community resilience in a post-war context: developing insight and recommendations - a qualitative study in Northern Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals, families and communities in Northern Sri Lanka have undergone three decades of war trauma, multiple displacements, and loss of family, kin, friends, homes, employment and other valued resources. The objective of the study was understanding common psychosocial problems faced by families and communities, and the associated risk and protective factors, so that practical and effective community based interventions can be recommended to rebuild strengths, adaptation, coping strategies and resilience. Methods This qualitative, ecological study is a psychosocial ethnography in post-war Northern Sri Lanka obtained through participant observation; case studies; key- informant interviews; and focus groups discussions with mental health and psychosocial community workers as well as literature survey of media and organizational reports. Qualitative analysis of the data used ethnography, case studies, phenomenology, grounded theory, hermeneutics and symbolic interactionism techniques. Quantitative data on suicide was collected for Jaffna and Killinochchi districts. Results Complex mental health and psychosocial problems at the individual, family and community levels in a post-war context were found to impair recovery. These included unresolved grief; individual and collective trauma; insecurity, self-harm and suicides; poverty and unemployment; teenage and unwanted pregnancies; alcoholism; child abuse and neglect; gender based violence and vulnerability including domestic violence, widows and female headed-household, family conflict and separation; physical injuries and handicap; problems specific for children and elderly; abuse and/or neglect of elderly and disabled; anti-social and socially irresponsible behaviour; distrust, hopelessness, and powerlessness. Protective factors included families; female leadership and engagement; cultural and traditional beliefs, practices and rituals; and creative potential in narratives, drama and other arts. Risk

  16. Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Two Small-Scale Mining Communities in Northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Cobbina, Samuel J; Duwiejuah, Abudu B; Quansah, Reginald; Obiri, Samuel; Bakobie, Noel

    2015-08-28

    The study assessed levels of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining communities (Nangodi and Tinga) in northern Ghana. Seventy-two (72) water samples were collected from boreholes, hand dug wells, dug-out, and a stream in the two mining communities. The levels of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Mean levels (mg/l) of heavy metals in water samples from Nangodi and Tinga communities were 0.038 and 0.064 (Hg), 0.031 and 0.002 (As), 0.250 and 0.031 (Pb), 0.034 and 0.002 (Zn), and 0.534 and 0.023 (Cd), respectively, for each community. Generally, levels of Hg, As, Pb, Zn, and Cd in water from Nangodi exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) stipulated limits of 0.010 for Hg, As, and Pb, 3.0 for Zn and 0.003 for Cd for drinking water, and levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd recorded in Tinga, exceeded the stipulated WHO limits. Ingestion of water, containing elevated levels of Hg, As, and Cd by residents in these mining communities may pose significant health risks. Continuous monitoring of the quality of drinking water sources in these two communities is recommended.

  17. Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Two Small-Scale Mining Communities in Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Cobbina, Samuel J.; Duwiejuah, Abudu B.; Quansah, Reginald; Obiri, Samuel; Bakobie, Noel

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed levels of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining communities (Nangodi and Tinga) in northern Ghana. Seventy-two (72) water samples were collected from boreholes, hand dug wells, dug-out, and a stream in the two mining communities. The levels of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Mean levels (mg/l) of heavy metals in water samples from Nangodi and Tinga communities were 0.038 and 0.064 (Hg), 0.031 and 0.002 (As), 0.250 and 0.031 (Pb), 0.034 and 0.002 (Zn), and 0.534 and 0.023 (Cd), respectively, for each community. Generally, levels of Hg, As, Pb, Zn, and Cd in water from Nangodi exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) stipulated limits of 0.010 for Hg, As, and Pb, 3.0 for Zn and 0.003 for Cd for drinking water, and levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd recorded in Tinga, exceeded the stipulated WHO limits. Ingestion of water, containing elevated levels of Hg, As, and Cd by residents in these mining communities may pose significant health risks. Continuous monitoring of the quality of drinking water sources in these two communities is recommended. PMID:26343702

  18. Changes in the northern Adriatic molluscan community from the Holocene transgression up to the present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallmetzer, Ivo; Haselmair, Alexandra; Tomasovych, Adam; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea is one of the few modern, epicontinental seas comparable to typical Palaeozoic shelf environments. It has a shallow average water depth (<50 m) and was formed at the end of the last glaciation when the sea level rose. Since historical times this part of the Adriatic has been strongly influenced by human activities through multiple direct or indirect impacts (e.g. fishing, coastal building development, pollution, eutrophication, increased sedimentation), making it one of the most degraded marine ecosystems worldwide. Our study was designed to reconstruct major environmental changes here since the onset of the Holocene transgression using down-core changes in death assemblages of molluscs as indicators for ecological shifts. The sediment cores were taken at three different stations (Brijuni Islands, Croatia, off Piran, Slovenia, and off Venice, Italy), each representative of specific sediment and nutrient conditions and degrees of habitat exploitation. The cores were 1.5 m long and had diameters of 90 or 160 mm. For the molluscan shell analyses, sediment subsamples were examined for species composition, abundance, taxonomic similarity and ecological interactions (e.g. frequencies of drilling predation). In total, 98,700 valves and shells were investigated and 113 bivalve and 178 gastropod species recorded. Sedimentation rates derived from 210Pb dating are very low, between 0.15 cm/yr at Brijuni and 0.25 cm/yr at Piran. The dating of Lucinella divaricata, Timoclea ovata and Gouldia minima shells with 14C calibrated amino-acid racemisation (AAR) revealed that the cores at all three stations cover at least 6000 to 8000 years, i.e. the whole Holocene transgression period. Time averaging is high, especially in the lower core layers of Piran station, probably due to strong bioturbation. Surface mixed-layer assemblages tend to show right-skewed postmortem age-frequency distributions, whereas subsurface assemblages show unimodal or uniform shapes

  19. Extracellular enzyme activity and dynamics of bacterial community in mucilaginous aggregates of the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Zoppini, Annamaria; Puddu, Alberto; Fazi, Stefano; Rosati, Michela; Sist, Paola

    2005-12-15

    Bacterial degradation of mucilaginous aggregates (creamy layers, stringers and macroflocs) collected during two summer events (2001-2002) was tested. The objective was to describe the temporal trend of the bacterial activity, abundance and composition in the aggregated and dissolved organic matter under different trophic conditions. In the native aggregates proteins and organic phosphorous were actively hydrolyzed as aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase activities represented up to 87% and 25% of total activity, respectively; polysaccharides were less hydrolyzed and the highest activities were observed for beta-glucosidase (5% of the total). This hydrolysation pattern tends to a progressive accumulation of long persistent polysaccharides. During short term incubations nutrient addition (P, N and Glucose) differently stimulated bacterial growth in the seawater: P played the main role in stimulating bacterial production from 3 to 6 folds higher than in the control, whereas a secondary C-limitation was observed only for bacteria growing on seawater from macroflocs. This scarce dissolved organic carbon (DOC) bioavailability was confirmed by the lower DOC removal (13% macroflocs, 36% stringers). The total amount of carbon incorporated by bacteria living on aggregates was similar (0.58 mg C L(-1)) both in the control and under P enrichments showing a more balanced condition with respect to the seawater. Hence the well-known P limitation in the Northern Adriatic Sea affects only dissolved organic carbon uptake without influencing the uptake of aggregated organic matter. Organic matter limitation was observed only on stringers--total C incorporated raised to 0.96 mg C L(-1) after PNG addition. Macroflocs release of refractory compounds leads to DOC accumulation (73 microM DOC) contributing to inflate the pool of refractory DOC in the surrounding waters. Several evidences, including different monosaccharide composition of stringers and macroflocs (glucose 15% and 56% on

  20. Linking macrobenthic communities structure and zonation patterns on sandy shores: Mapping tool toward management and conservation perspectives in Northern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolet, Céline; Spilmont, Nicolas; Dewarumez, Jean-Marie; Luczak, Christophe

    2015-05-01

    In a context of intensifying anthropogenic pressures on sandy shores, the mapping of benthic habitat appears as an essential first step and a fundamental baseline for marine spatial planning, ecosystem-based management and conservation efforts of soft-sediment intertidal areas. Mapping allows representing intertidal habitats that are basically characterised by abiotic (e.g sediments, exposure to waves…) and biotic factors such as macrobenthic communities. Macrobenthic communities are known to show zonation patterns across sandy beaches and many studies highlighted the existence of three biological zones. We tested this general model of a tripartite biological division of the shore at a geographical scale of policy, conservation and management decisions (i.e. Northern France coastline), using multivariate analyses combined with the Direct Field Observation (DFO) method. From the upper to the lower shores, the majority of the beaches exhibited three macrobenthic communities confirming the existence of the tripartite biological division of the shore. Nevertheless, in some cases, two or four zones were found: (1) two zones when the drying zone located on the upper shore was replaced by littoral rock or engineering constructions and (2) four zones on beaches and estuaries where a muddy-sand community occurred from the drift line to the mid shore. The correspondence between this zonation pattern of macrobenthic communities and the EUNIS habitat classification was investigated and the results were mapped to provide a reference state of intertidal soft-sediment beaches and estuaries. Our results showed evidence of the applicability of this EUNIS typology for the beaches and estuaries at a regional scale (Northern France coastline) with a macroecological approach. In order to fulfil the requirements of the European Directives (WFD and MFSD), this mapping appears as a practical tool for any functional study on these coastal ecosystems, for the monitoring of anthropogenic

  1. Soil microbial communities and metabolic function of a Northern Alabama forest ecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thinning, prescribed burning, and their combinations, are common forest management practices to restore degraded forest communities and to prevent uncontrollable wildfires. However, their impacts on soil microbial communities, which are vital to global element cycling, are traditionally overlooked. ...

  2. Changes in northern Gulf of Mexico sediment bacterial and archaeal communities exposed to hypoxia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biogeochemical changes in marine sediments during coastal water hypoxia are well described, but less is known about underlying changes in microbial communities. Bacterial and archaeal communities in Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) hypoxic zone sediments were characterized by py...

  3. Breaking community barriers to polio vaccination in northern Nigeria: the impact of a grass roots mobilization campaign (Majigi)

    PubMed Central

    Nasiru, Sani-Gwarzo; Aliyu, Gambo G; Gasasira, Alex; Aliyu, Muktar H; Zubair, Mahmud; Mandawari, Sunusi U; Waziri, Hassana; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; El-Kamary, Samer S

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of a community-based intervention on the trends in the uptake of polio vaccination following a community mobilization campaign for polio eradication in northern Nigeria. Uptake of polio vaccination in high-risk communities in this region has been considerably low despite routine and supplemental vaccination activities. Large numbers of children are left unvaccinated because of community misconceptions and distrust regarding the cause of the disease and the safety of the polio vaccine. The Majigi polio campaign was initiated in 2008 as a pilot trial in Gezawa, a local council with very low uptake of polio vaccination. The average monthly increase in the number of vaccinated children over the subsequent six months after the pilot trial was 1,047 [95% confidence interval (CI): 647–2045, P = 0.001]. An increasing trend in uptake of polio vaccination was also evident (P = 0.001). The outcome was consistent with a decrease or no trend in the detection of children with zero doses. The average monthly decrease in the number of children with zero doses was 6.2 (95% CI: −21 to 24, P = 0.353). Overall, there was a relative increase of approximately 310% in the polio vaccination uptake and a net reduction of 29% of never vaccinated children. The findings of this pilot test show that polio vaccination uptake can be enhanced by programs like Majigi that promote effective communication with the community. PMID:23265374

  4. Breaking community barriers to polio vaccination in Northern Nigeria: the impact of a grass roots mobilization campaign (Majigi).

    PubMed

    Nasiru, Sani-Gwarzo; Aliyu, Gambo G; Gasasira, Alex; Aliyu, Muktar H; Zubair, Mahmud; Mandawari, Sunusi U; Waziri, Hassana; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; El-Kamary, Samer S

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines the impact of a community-based intervention on the trends in the uptake of polio vaccination following a community mobilization campaign for polio eradication in northern Nigeria. Uptake of polio vaccination in high-risk communities in this region has been considerably low despite routine and supplemental vaccination activities. Large numbers of children are left unvaccinated because of community misconceptions and distrust regarding the cause of the disease and the safety of the polio vaccine. The Majigi polio campaign was initiated in 2008 as a pilot trial in Gezawa, a local council with very low uptake of polio vaccination. The average monthly increase in the number of vaccinated children over the subsequent six months after the pilot trial was 1,047 [95% confidence interval (CI): 647-2045, P = 0·001]. An increasing trend in uptake of polio vaccination was also evident (P = 0·001). The outcome was consistent with a decrease or no trend in the detection of children with zero doses. The average monthly decrease in the number of children with zero doses was 6·2 (95% CI: -21 to 24, P = 0·353). Overall, there was a relative increase of approximately 310% in the polio vaccination uptake and a net reduction of 29% of never vaccinated children. The findings of this pilot test show that polio vaccination uptake can be enhanced by programs like Majigi that promote effective communication with the community.

  5. [Sporotrichosis among rural communities in the Northern Sierra in Puebla. Report of 55 cases September 1995 - December 2005].

    PubMed

    Macotela-Ruiz, Ernesto; Nochebuena-Ramos, Eloina

    2006-01-01

    Fifty five cases of cutaneous sporotrichosis collected from 35 communities located in the southeast region of the Northern Sierra of Puebla are described. The disease was more prevalent in males (60:40), but this difference was restricted to younger subjects (aged 0-15 years) where 14 cases were male and only 3 were female. No statistical difference regarding gender was observed in elder patients. The prevalence of the disease was significantly lower among patients aged 31 to 45. The most common clinical forms of the disease were lymphocutaneous and fixed. The drug of choice for the treatment of patients in rural communities was potassium iodide. When available, Itraconazol proved to be an excellent option.

  6. Origins of rainbow smelt in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.

    1983-01-01

    The first rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) to enter Lake Ontario were probably migrants from an anadromous strain introduced into New York's Finger Lakes. Since the upper Great Lakes were originally stocked with a landlocked strain from Green Lake, Maine, subsequent migration to Lake Ontario from Lake Erie makes Lake Ontario unique among the Great Lakes in probably having received introductions from two distinct populations.

  7. Novel cases of blastomycosis acquired in Toronto, Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Robert S.; DeKoven, Joel G.; Kane, Julius; Simor, Andrew E.; Krajden, Sigmund; Summerbell, Richard C.

    2000-01-01

    Blastomycosis, a potentially fatal fungal disease, is well known from defined areas of endemicity in Ontario, primarily in the northern part of the province. We present 2 unusual cases that appear to extend the area of endemicity into urban southern Ontario, specifically Toronto. Both patients presented to a dermatology clinic with skin lesions. Chest radiography, history and general physical evaluation indicated no disease at other body sites. Both cases appeared to represent “inoculation blastomycosis” connected with minor gardening injuries and a cat scratch respectively. Atypical dissemination could not be completely excluded in either case. Neither patient had travelled recently to a known area of high endemicity for blastomycosis, nor had the cat that was involved in one of the cases. Physicians must become aware that blastomycosis may mimic other diseases, including dermal infections, and may occur in patients whose travel histories would not normally suggest this infection. PMID:11107469

  8. Implications of Local Literacy Practices for Literacy Programmes in a Multilingual Community in Northern Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheffy, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Research in a rural area of northern Cameroon where most adults describe themselves as illiterate reveals a complex picture in which three languages are used in different ways and in different domains of life. The profile of the literacy practices associated with these languages is correspondingly complex. This paper argues that it is important…

  9. American Indian Completers and Noncompleters in a Tribal and Community College in Northern Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Jean Kelly Echternacht

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore and identify societal, institutional, organizational, family, and individual factors associated with American Indian students' completion and noncompletion rates in a tribal college in northern Minnesota. Data collection included a series of in-depth interviews and two focus groups with seven…

  10. From Pentecostalism to Politics: Mass Literacy and Community Development in Late Colonial Northern Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Kate

    2010-01-01

    This article takes as its starting point a strike among African trainee literacy workers in the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast (now Ghana) in 1952. While the existing literature tends to concentrate on the tensions and contradictions in British colonial education policy, this article uses the strike to investigate how these agendas were…

  11. "Plugging the Gap": Shared Education and the Promotion of Community Relations through Schools in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Joanne; Loader, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Although there is no consensus among educationalists as to the role schools play as drivers of hostilities in divided societies, there is broad agreement that they can facilitate more positive intergroup relations. In Northern Ireland the promotion of school based intergroup contact has been offered as a means through which this can happen. Until…

  12. Ageing in Changing Community Contexts: Cross-Border Perspectives from Rural Ireland and Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kieran; O'Shea, Eamon; Scharf, Thomas; Murray, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing demographic, social, economic and cultural changes point to the dynamic and continually changing contexts of rural areas in Ireland and Northern Ireland. However, the influence of such changes on the lives of older people remains under-explored, particularly the question of how older people perceive, connect to and engage in their…

  13. Community structure and spatial variation of benthic invertebrates associated with Zostera marina (L.) beds in the northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boström, Christoffer; Bonsdorff, Erik

    1997-05-01

    The distribution and bed structure of eelgrass ( Zostera marina L.), and its importance for associated faunal communities in the coastal areas of the northern Baltic Sea are poorly known. The spatial distribution of the fauna associated with Zostera was studied at five localities in SW Finland in 1993-1994. Zostera was common on all localities, but the beds varied in terms of area (1-5 m diameter), density (50-500 shoots/m 2) and blade length (20-110 cm). A total of about 40 species or taxa were recorded. The zoobenthic infauna showed significant spatial differences, and total abundance and species diversity were significantly higher in the Zostera beds than in adjacent bare sand. The total abundance in Zostera ranged from 25 000 to 50 000 ind/m 2 and in sand from 2500 to 15 000 ind/m 2 The mean number of species in Zostera ranged from 5.9 to 8.8 spp ( H' = 1.76-2.54) and in sand from 2.2 to 5.5 spp ( H' = 1.67-2.31). The epifauna in Zostera was numerically dominated by grazing gastropods (Hydrobiidae) and copepods. The epifauna is an important community component, which contributes to the total diversity of the Zostera assemblage. These systems are among the most species-rich components of the shallow soft-bottom ecosystems in the northern Baltic Sea. The mechanisms structuring both the Zostera and the ambient sand-bottom habitats are presented.

  14. Demand Creation for Polio Vaccine in Persistently Poor-Performing Communities of Northern Nigeria: 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Warigon, Charity; Mkanda, Pascal; Muhammed, Ado; Etsano, Andrew; Korir, Charles; Bawa, Samuel; Gali, Emmanuel; Nsubuga, Peter; Erbeto, Tesfaya B.; Gerlong, George; Banda, Richard; Yehualashet, Yared G.; Vaz, Rui G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Poliomyelitis remains a global threat despite availability of oral polio vaccine (OPV), proven to reduce the burden of the paralyzing disease. In Nigeria, children continue to miss the opportunity to be fully vaccinated, owing to factors such as unmet health needs and low uptake in security-compromised and underserved communities. We describe the implementation and evaluation of several activities to create demand for polio vaccination in persistently poor-performing local government areas (LGAs). Methods. We assessed the impact of various polio-related interventions, to measure the contribution of demand creation activities in 77 LGAs at very high risk for polio, located across 10 states in northern Nigeria. Interventions included provision of commodities along with the polio vaccine. Results. There was an increasing trend in the number of children reached by different demand creation interventions. A total of 4 819 847 children were vaccinated at health camps alone. There was a reduction in the number of wards in which >10% of children were missed by supplementary immunization activities due to noncompliance with vaccination recommendations, a rise in the proportion of children who received ≥4 OPV doses, and a decrease in the proportion of children who were underimmunized or unimmunized. Conclusions. Demand creation interventions increased the uptake of polio vaccines in persistently poor-performing high-risk communities in northern Nigeria during September 2013–November 2014. PMID:26908717

  15. Project MATCH. Ontario-Montclair School District, Ontario, California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Octave V.; Steinaker, Norman

    This description of career education activities in Ontario-Montclair School District (California), was prepared as part of a study conducted to identify evaluated, exemplary career education activities which represent the best of the current career education programs and practices referred to in Public Law 93-380. (See CE 018 212 for the final…

  16. Highly heterogeneous soil bacterial communities around Terra Nova Bay of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mincheol; Cho, Ahnna; Lim, Hyoun Soo; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ji Hee; Lee, Joohan; Choi, Taejin; Ahn, Tae Seok; Kim, Ok-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Given the diminished role of biotic interactions in soils of continental Antarctica, abiotic factors are believed to play a dominant role in structuring of microbial communities. However, many ice-free regions remain unexplored, and it is unclear which environmental gradients are primarily responsible for the variations among bacterial communities. In this study, we investigated the soil bacterial community around Terra Nova Bay of Victoria Land by pyrosequencing and determined which environmental variables govern the bacterial community structure at the local scale. Six bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, were dominant, but their relative abundance varied greatly across locations. Bacterial community structures were affected little by spatial distance, but structured more strongly by site, which was in accordance with the soil physicochemical compositions. At both the phylum and species levels, bacterial community structure was explained primarily by pH and water content, while certain earth elements and trace metals also played important roles in shaping community variation. The higher heterogeneity of the bacterial community structure found at this site indicates how soil bacterial communities have adapted to different compositions of edaphic variables under extreme environmental conditions. Taken together, these findings greatly advance our understanding of the adaption of soil bacterial populations to this harsh environment.

  17. Highly Heterogeneous Soil Bacterial Communities around Terra Nova Bay of Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyoun Soo; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ji Hee; Lee, Joohan; Choi, Taejin; Ahn, Tae Seok; Kim, Ok-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Given the diminished role of biotic interactions in soils of continental Antarctica, abiotic factors are believed to play a dominant role in structuring of microbial communities. However, many ice-free regions remain unexplored, and it is unclear which environmental gradients are primarily responsible for the variations among bacterial communities. In this study, we investigated the soil bacterial community around Terra Nova Bay of Victoria Land by pyrosequencing and determined which environmental variables govern the bacterial community structure at the local scale. Six bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, were dominant, but their relative abundance varied greatly across locations. Bacterial community structures were affected little by spatial distance, but structured more strongly by site, which was in accordance with the soil physicochemical compositions. At both the phylum and species levels, bacterial community structure was explained primarily by pH and water content, while certain earth elements and trace metals also played important roles in shaping community variation. The higher heterogeneity of the bacterial community structure found at this site indicates how soil bacterial communities have adapted to different compositions of edaphic variables under extreme environmental conditions. Taken together, these findings greatly advance our understanding of the adaption of soil bacterial populations to this harsh environment. PMID:25799273

  18. Spatial and Temporal Examination of Bivalve Communities in Several Estuaries of Southern California and Northern Baja California, MX.

    PubMed

    Novoa, Anai; Talley, Theresa S; Talley, Drew M; Crooks, Jeffrey A; Reyns, Nathalie B

    2016-01-01

    A combination of historical bivalve surveys spanning 30-50 years and contemporary sampling were used to document the changes in bivalve community structure over time at four southern California and one northern Baja California estuaries. While there are limitations to the interpretation of historic data, we observed generally similar trends of reduced total bivalve species richness, losses of relatively large and/or deeper-dwelling natives, and gains of relatively small, surface dwelling introduced species across the southern California estuaries, despite fairly distinct bivalve communities. A nearly 50-year absence of bivalves from two wetlands surveyed in a Baja California estuary continued. A combination of site history and current characteristics (e.g., location, depth) likely contributes to maintenance of distinct communities, and both episodic and gradual environmental changes likely contribute to within-estuary temporal shifts (or absences). We highlight future research needed to determine mechanisms underlying patterns so that we can better predict responses of bivalve communities to future scenarios, including climate change and restoration.

  19. Mammalian community response to the latest Paleocene thermal maximum: An isotaphonomic study in the northern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clyde, William C.; Gingerich, Philip D.

    1998-11-01

    New stratigraphic and paleontological information from the McCullough Peaks, northern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, is incorporated into an isotaphonomic faunal database and used to investigate the impact of the latest Paleocene thermal maximum and coincident earliest Wasatchian immigration event on local mammalian community structure. Surface collections from Willwood Formation overbank deposits provide taphonomically consistent and stratigraphically resolved samples of the medium- to large-sized components of underlying mammalian communities. Rarefaction shows that the immigration event caused an abrupt and dramatic increase in species richness and evenness. After this initial increase, diversity tapered off to more typical Wasatchian levels that were still higher than those in the preceding Clarkforkian. Wasatchian immigrants were rapidly incorporated into the new community organization, representing ˜20% of the taxa and ˜50% of the individuals. Immigrant taxa generally had larger body sizes and more herbivorous and frugivorous dietary habits compared to endemic taxa, causing significant turnover in body-size structure and trophic structure. There was a significant short-term body-size decrease in many lineages that may have been prompted by the elevated temperatures and/or decreased latitudinal thermal gradients during the latest Paleocene thermal maximum. Rapid short-term climatic change (transient climates) and associated biotic dispersal can have abrupt and long-lasting effects on mammalian community evolution.

  20. Spatial and Temporal Examination of Bivalve Communities in Several Estuaries of Southern California and Northern Baja California, MX

    PubMed Central

    Crooks, Jeffrey A.; Reyns, Nathalie B.

    2016-01-01

    A combination of historical bivalve surveys spanning 30–50 years and contemporary sampling were used to document the changes in bivalve community structure over time at four southern California and one northern Baja California estuaries. While there are limitations to the interpretation of historic data, we observed generally similar trends of reduced total bivalve species richness, losses of relatively large and/or deeper-dwelling natives, and gains of relatively small, surface dwelling introduced species across the southern California estuaries, despite fairly distinct bivalve communities. A nearly 50-year absence of bivalves from two wetlands surveyed in a Baja California estuary continued. A combination of site history and current characteristics (e.g., location, depth) likely contributes to maintenance of distinct communities, and both episodic and gradual environmental changes likely contribute to within-estuary temporal shifts (or absences). We highlight future research needed to determine mechanisms underlying patterns so that we can better predict responses of bivalve communities to future scenarios, including climate change and restoration. PMID:26840744

  1. Impacts of agriculture on the parasite communities of northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) in southern Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    King, K C; McLaughlin, J D; Gendron, A D; Pauli, B D; Giroux, I; Rondeau, B; Boily, M; Juneau, P; Marcogliese, D J

    2007-12-01

    Given that numerous amphibians are suffering population declines, it is becoming increasingly important to examine the relationship between disease and environmental disturbance. Indeed, while many studies relate anthropogenic activity to changes in the parasitism of snails and fishes, little is known of the impact on the parasites of amphibians, particularly from agriculture. For 2 years, the parasite communities of metamorphic northern leopard frogs from 7 agricultural wetlands were compared with those from 2 reference wetlands to study differences in parasite community diversity and abundance of various species under pristine conditions and 3 categories of disturbance: only agricultural landscape, only pesticides, and agricultural landscape with pesticides. Agricultural (and urban) area was negatively related to species richness, and associated with the near absence of adult parasites and species that infect birds or mammals. We suggest that agriculture and urbanization may hinder parasite transmission to frogs by limiting access of other vertebrate hosts of their parasites to wetlands. The only parasite found at all localities was an unidentified echinostome infecting the kidneys. This parasite dominated communities in localities surrounded by the most agricultural land, suggesting generalist parasites may persist in disrupted habitats. Community composition was associated with dissolved organic carbon and conductivity, but few links were found with pesticides. Pollution effects may be masked by a strong impact of land use on parasite transmission.

  2. Creating and Sustaining Healthy Community Environments for Children: Lessons from Northern Manhattan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prakash, Swati; Jordan, Jamillah

    2005-01-01

    Children and adults in communities of color and low-income communities face disproportionately high exposures to environmental hazards and, consequently, greater risk of experiencing adverse health impacts from these exposures. Almost two thirds of children under 6 with elevated blood lead levels are children of color living in disadvantaged…

  3. Ethnic Identity, Sense of Community, and Psychological Well-Being among Northern Plains American Indian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Carter, Jessica S.

    2011-01-01

    Limited research has examined how ethnic identity and sense of community may be associated with psychological well-being in American Indian adolescents. Via survey data, we examined the relationships among ethnic identity, sense of community, psychosomatic symptoms, positive affect, and feelings of depression with students from a tribal high…

  4. Summer Fish Communities in Northern Gulf of Mexico Estuaries: Indices of Ecological Condition

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used fish community data from trawl samples in >100 estuaries, bayous, and coastal lagoons of the Louisianan Biogeographic Province (Gulf of Mexico) to develop indicators of ecological condition. One data set, from which we derived reference values for fish community indicator...

  5. Community-Based Participatory Research to Improve Preconception Health among Northern Plains American Indian Adolescent Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jennifer; Mousseau, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sacred Beginnings is a community-based participatory research project that examines the effectiveness of a culturally appropriate preconception health educational intervention developed by tribal community members and elders. The primary goal is to increase knowledge of preconception health and its benefits among adolescent females and…

  6. Ontario. Reference Series No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Ontario and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography, climate, history, agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, manufacturing, transportation, energy, arts and culture, sports and recreation, and people and…

  7. Planktonic diatoms of Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinwand, Jerry F.

    1969-01-01

    The major species of diatoms in surface collections from Lake Ontario in September 1964 were Asterionella formosa, Fragilaria crotonensis, and Tabellaris fenestrata. Dominant species in the deep-water samples were Stephanodiscus astraea, S. astraea var. mintula, and F. crotonensis. The diatom flora in surface collections varied among several stations in the eastern end of the lake.

  8. Hydrologic connectivity of floodplains, northern Missouri: implications for management and restoration of floodplain forest communities in disturbed landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, R.; Faust, T.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrologic connectivity between the channel and floodplain is thought to be a dominant factor determining floodplain processes and characteristics of floodplain forests. We explored the role of hydrologic connectivity in explaining floodplain forest community composition along streams in northern Missouri, USA. Hydrologic analyses at 20 streamgages (207–5827 km2 area) document that magnitudes of 2-year return floods increase systematically with increasing drainage area whereas the average annual number and durations of floodplain-connecting events decrease. Flow durations above the active-channel shelf vary little with increasing drainage area, indicating that the active-channel shelf is in quasi-equilibrium with prevailing conditions. The downstream decrease in connectivity is associated with downstream increase in channel incision. These relations at streamflow gaging stations are consistent with regional channel disturbance patterns: channel incision increases downstream, whereas upstream reaches have either not incised or adjusted to incision by forming new equilibrium floodplains. These results provide a framework to explain landscape-scale variations in composition of floodplain forest communities in northern Missouri. Faust () had tentatively explained increases of flood-dependent tree species, and decreases of species diversity, with a downstream increase in flood magnitude and duration. Because frequency and duration of floodplain-connecting events do not increase downstream, we hypothesize instead that increases in relative abundance of flood-dependent trees at larger drainage area result from increasing size of disturbance patches. Bank-overtopping floods at larger drainage area create large, open, depositional landforms that promoted the regeneration of shade-intolerant species. Higher tree species diversity in floodplains with small drainage areas is associated with non-incised floodplains that are frequently connected to their channels and

  9. Oak forest exploitation and black-locust invasion caused severe shifts in epiphytic lichen communities in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Nascimbene, Juri; Marini, Lorenzo

    2010-10-15

    In the last two centuries, native European oak forests have undergone a dramatic decline related to increasing human pressure for agriculture and urbanization. Oak forests were either completely eradicated and transformed into agricultural landscapes or replaced by second-growth formations. Intensive forest management and the replacement of native forests with production forests or arable lands are recognized amongst the main threats to many lichens in Europe. In this study, we used historical information on the epiphytic lichen biota which was hosted in a native oak-dominated forest of Northern Italy to identify shifts of lichen communities due to the changes in land use which occurred during the last two centuries. We also compared the epiphytic lichen communities inhabiting remnant oak forests with those found in the habitats that have replaced native forests: black-locust forests and agrarian landscapes. Almost all the species sampled during the 19th century are now extinct. The loss of native habitat and the subsequent invasion by black locust were probably the most influential factors which affected the composition of lichen communities, causing the local extinction of most of the species historically recorded. Despite the fact that oak remnants host only a few species which were historically recorded, and that they currently are the lichen poorest habitat in the study region, they host lichen assemblages differing from those of black-locust forests and agrarian stands. In these habitats lichen assemblages are mainly composed of species adapted to well-lit, dry conditions and tolerating air pollution and eutrophication. This pattern is likely to be common also in other lowland and hilly regions throughout Northern Italy where oak forests are targeted among the habitats of conservation concern at the European level. For this reason, a national strategy for biodiversity conservation and monitoring of lowlands forests should provide the framework for local

  10. Effect of Otitis Media upon Reading Scores of Indian Children in Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaldwell, William A.

    1989-01-01

    Finds that lower reading scores were related to evidence of past or present middle ear infection among 524 American Indian children in northern and southern Ontario. Discusses the high incidence of otitis media among young Indian children, and educational implications. Contains 29 references. (SV)

  11. Choosing a School in a "Double-Minority" Context: Language, Migration and Ideologies in French Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlot, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in Toronto, Ontario, this article examines the schooling behaviour of parents who have migrated from France to Canada. The population under study, engaged in a "northern" kind of migration, generally benefits from an education acquired in the pre-migration period and from the legitimacy of…

  12. Riparian Ficus Tree Communities: The Distribution and Abundance of Riparian Fig Trees in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G.; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2014-01-01

    Fig trees (Ficus) are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand were investigated in 2010–2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1) calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2) measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha) were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious) from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from northern Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in Northern Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance. PMID:25310189

  13. Riparian Ficus tree communities: the distribution and abundance of riparian fig trees in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2014-01-01

    Fig trees (Ficus) are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand were investigated in 2010-2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1) calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2) measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha) were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious) from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from northern Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in Northern Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance.

  14. Geothermal Gases--Community Experiences, Perceptions, and Exposures in Northern California.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Cindy H; Lozier, Matthew J; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Tait, Karen; Barreau, Tracy; Copan, Lori; Roisman, Rachel; Jackson, Rebecca; Smorodinsky, Svetlana; Kreutzer, Richard A; Yip, Fuyuen; Wolkin, Amy

    2015-12-01

    Lake County, California, is in a high geothermal-activity area. Over the past 30 years, the city of Clearlake has reported health effects and building evacuations related to geothermal venting. Previous investigations in Clearlake revealed hydrogen sulfide at levels known to cause health effects and methane at levels that can cause explosion risks. The authors conducted an investigation in multiple cities and towns in Lake County to understand better the risk of geothermal venting to the community. They conducted household surveys and outdoor air sampling of hydrogen sulfide and methane and found community members were aware of geothermal venting and some expressed concerns. The authors did not, however, find hydrogen sulfide above the California Environmental Protection Agency air quality standard of 30 parts per billion over one hour or methane above explosive thresholds. The authors recommend improving risk communication, continuing to monitor geothermal gas effects on the community, and using community reports and complaints to monitor and document geothermal venting incidents.

  15. Winter and early spring CO2 efflux from tundra communities of northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fahnestock, J.T.; Jones, M.H.; Brooks, P.D.; Walker, D.A.; Welker, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon dioxide concentrations through snow were measured in different arctic tundra communities on the North Slope of Alaska during winter and early spring of 1996. Subnivean CO2 concentrations were always higher than atmospheric CO2. A steady state diffusion model was used to generate conservative estimates of CO2 flux to the atmosphere. The magnitude of CO2 efflux differed with tundra community type, and rates of carbon release increased from March to May. Winter CO2 efflux was highest in riparian and snow bed communities and lowest in dry heath, upland tussock, and wet sedge communities. Snow generally accrues earlier in winter and is deeper in riparian and snow bed communities compared with other tundra communities, which are typically windswept and do not accumulate much snow during the winter. These results support the hypothesis that early and deep snow accumulation may insulate microbial populations from very cold temperatures, allowing sites with earlier snow cover to sustain higher levels of activity throughout winter compared to communities that have later developing snow cover. Extrapolating our estimates of CO2 efflux to the entire snow-covered season indicates that total carbon flux during winter in the Arctic is 13-109 kg CO2-C ha-1, depending on the vegetation community type. Wintertime CO2 flux is a potentially important, yet largely overlooked, part of the annual carbon cycle of tundra, and carbon release during winter should be accounted for in estimates of annual carbon balance in arctic ecosystems. Copyright 1998 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Bird Communities and Environmental Correlates in Southern Oregon and Northern California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Dinger, Eric C.; Alexander, John D.; Mohren, Sean R.; Ralph, C. John; Sarr, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    We examined avian community ecology in the Klamath Ecoregion and determined that individual bird species co-exist spatially to form 29 statistically distinguishable bird groups. We identified climate, geography, and vegetation metrics that are correlated with these 29 bird groups at three scales: Klamath Ecoregion, vegetation formation (agriculture, conifer, mixed conifer/hardwood, shrubland), and National Park Service unit. Two climate variables (breeding season mean temperature and temperature range) and one geography variable (elevation) were correlated at all scales, suggesting that for some vegetation formations and park units there is sufficient variation in climate and geography to be an important driver of bird communities, a level of variation we expected only at the broader scale. We found vegetation to be important at all scales, with coarse metrics (environmental site potential and existing vegetation formation) meaningful across all scales and structural vegetation patterns (e.g. succession, disturbance) important only at the scale of vegetation formation or park unit. Additionally, we examined how well six National Park Service units represent bird communities in the broader Klamath Ecoregion. Park units are inclusive of most bird communities with the exception of the oak woodland community; mature conifer forests are well represented, primarily associated with conifer canopy and lacking multi-layered structure. Identifying environmental factors that shape bird communities at three scales within this region is important; such insights can inform local and regional land management decisions necessary to ensure bird conservation in this globally significant region. PMID:27732625

  17. Bird Communities and Environmental Correlates in Southern Oregon and Northern California, USA.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Jaime L; Dinger, Eric C; Alexander, John D; Mohren, Sean R; Ralph, C John; Sarr, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    We examined avian community ecology in the Klamath Ecoregion and determined that individual bird species co-exist spatially to form 29 statistically distinguishable bird groups. We identified climate, geography, and vegetation metrics that are correlated with these 29 bird groups at three scales: Klamath Ecoregion, vegetation formation (agriculture, conifer, mixed conifer/hardwood, shrubland), and National Park Service unit. Two climate variables (breeding season mean temperature and temperature range) and one geography variable (elevation) were correlated at all scales, suggesting that for some vegetation formations and park units there is sufficient variation in climate and geography to be an important driver of bird communities, a level of variation we expected only at the broader scale. We found vegetation to be important at all scales, with coarse metrics (environmental site potential and existing vegetation formation) meaningful across all scales and structural vegetation patterns (e.g. succession, disturbance) important only at the scale of vegetation formation or park unit. Additionally, we examined how well six National Park Service units represent bird communities in the broader Klamath Ecoregion. Park units are inclusive of most bird communities with the exception of the oak woodland community; mature conifer forests are well represented, primarily associated with conifer canopy and lacking multi-layered structure. Identifying environmental factors that shape bird communities at three scales within this region is important; such insights can inform local and regional land management decisions necessary to ensure bird conservation in this globally significant region.

  18. [Effects of nitrogen and water addition on soil bacterial diversity and community structure in temperate grasslands in northern China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shan; Li, Xiao-bing; Wang, Ru-zhen; Cai, Jiang-ping; Xu, Zhu-wen; Zhang, Yu-ge; Li, Hui; Jiang, Yong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we measured the responses of soil bacterial diversity and community structure to nitrogen (N) and water addition in the typical temperate grassland in northern China. Results showed that N addition significantly reduced microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) under regular precipitation treatment. Similar declined trends of MBC and MBN caused by N addition were also found under increased precipitation condition. Nevertheless, water addition alleviated the inhibition by N addition. N addition exerted no significant effects. on bacterial α-diversity indices, including richness, Shannon diversity and evenness index under regular precipitation condition. Precipitation increment tended to increase bacterial α-diversity, and the diversity indices of each N gradient under regular precipitation were much lower than that of the corresponding N addition rate under increased precipitation. Correlation analysis showed that soil moisture, nitrate (NO3(-)-N) and ammonium (NH4+-N) were significantly negatively correlated with bacterial evenness index, and MBC and MBN had a significant positive correlation with bacterial richness and evenness. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination illustrated that the bacterial communities were significantly separated by N addition rates, under both water ambient and water addition treatments. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that soil MBC, MBN, pH and NH4+-N were the key environmental factors for shaping bacterial communities.

  19. Results of the northern Manhattan diabetes community outreach project: a randomized trial studying a community health worker intervention to improve diabetes care in Hispanic adults.

    PubMed

    Palmas, Walter; Findley, Sally E; Mejia, Miriam; Batista, Milagros; Teresi, Jeanne; Kong, Jian; Silver, Stephanie; Fleck, Elaine M; Luchsinger, Jose A; Carrasquillo, Olveen

    2014-04-01

    OBJECTIVE The Northern Manhattan Diabetes Community Outreach Project evaluated whether a community health worker (CHW) intervention improved clinically relevant markers of diabetes care in adult Hispanics. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were adult Hispanics, ages 35-70 years, with recent hemoglobin A1c (A1C) ≥8% (≥64 mmol/mol), from a university-affiliated network of primary care practices in northern Manhattan (New York City, NY). They were randomized to a 12-month CHW intervention (n = 181), or enhanced usual care (educational materials mailed at 4-month intervals, preceded by phone calls, n = 179). The primary outcome was A1C at 12 months; the secondary outcomes were systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, and LDL-cholesterol levels. RESULTS There was a nonsignificant trend toward improvement in A1C levels in the intervention group (from unadjusted mean A1C of 8.77 to 8.40%), as compared with usual care (from 8.58 to 8.53%) (P = 0.131). There was also a nonsignificant trend toward an increase in SBP and LDL cholesterol in the intervention arm. Intervention fidelity, measured as the number of contacts in the intervention arm (visits, phone contacts, group support, and nutritional education), showed a borderline association with greater A1C reduction (P = 0.054). When assessed separately, phone contacts were associated with greater A1C reduction (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS The trend toward A1C reduction with the CHW intervention failed to achieve statistical significance. Greater intervention fidelity may achieve better glycemic control, and more accessible treatment models, such as phone-based interventions, may be more efficacious in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations.

  20. Policy approaches to support local community control over the supply and distribution of kava in the Northern Territory (Australia).

    PubMed

    Clough, Alan R; Jones, Peter J

    2004-03-01

    The health consequences of kava abuse in Arnhem Land Aboriginal populations in the Northern Territory (NT) and the persistence of an illegal kava trade with its associated social harms have been a cause for concern for 20 years. Despite these concerns, some Arnhem Land groups seek to continue using kava and to control its sale, distribution and the profits from the enterprise. In response, policy makers in the NT have embraced principles of harm reduction and created regulatory mechanisms to address broader public concerns and to support local management of kava supply while reinforcing control over the consequences of its use. This paper describes the kava regulatory system now being implemented in the NT which features kava management plans developed in consultation between Aboriginal communities and licensing authorities. It complements the earlier Harm Reduction Digest 9 by McDonald & Jowitt which looked at Kava in the South Pacific.

  1. Genetic structure of Triatoma infestans populations in rural communities of Santiago del Estero, northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marcet, P L; Mora, M S; Cutrera, A P; Jones, L; Gürtler, R E; Kitron, U; Dotson, E M

    2008-12-01

    To gain an understanding of the genetic structure and dispersal dynamics of Triatoma infestans populations, we analyzed the multilocus genotype of 10 microsatellite loci for 352 T. infestans collected in 21 houses of 11 rural communities in October 2002. Genetic structure was analyzed at the community and house compound levels. Analysis revealed that vector control actions affected the genetic structure of T. infestans populations. Bug populations from communities under sustained vector control (core area) were highly structured and genetic differentiation between neighboring house compounds was significant. In contrast, bug populations from communities with sporadic vector control actions were more homogeneous and lacked defined genetic clusters. Genetic differentiation between population pairs did not fit a model of isolation by distance at the microgeographical level. Evidence consistent with flight or walking bug dispersal was detected within and among communities, dispersal was more female-biased in the core area and results suggested that houses received immigrants from more than one source. Putative sources and mechanisms of re-infestation are described. These data may be use to design improved vector control strategies.

  2. GENETIC STRUCTURE OF TRIATOMA INFESTANS POPULATIONS IN RURAL COMMUNITIES OF SANTIAGO DEL ESTERO, NORTHERN ARGENTINA

    PubMed Central

    Marcet, PL; Mora, MS; Cutrera, AP; Jones, L; Gürtler, RE; Kitron, U; Dotson, EM

    2008-01-01

    To gain an understanding of the genetic structure and dispersal dynamics of T. infestans populations, we analyzed the multilocus genotype of 10 microsatellite loci for 352 T. infestans collected in 21 houses of 11 rural communities in October 2002. Genetic structure was analyzed at the community and house compound levels. Analysis revealed that vector control actions affected the genetic structure of T. infestans populations. Bug populations from communities under sustained vector control (core area) were highly structured and genetic differentiation between neighboring house compounds was significant. In contrast, bug populations from communities with sporadic vector control actions were more homogeneous and lacked defined genetic clusters. Genetic differentiation between population pairs did not fit a model of isolation by distance at the microgeographical level. Evidence consistent with flight or walking bug dispersal was detected within and among communities, dispersal was more female-biased in the core area and results suggested that houses received immigrants from more than one source. Putative sources and mechanisms of re-infestation are described. These data may be use to design improved vector control strategies PMID:18773972

  3. Nation Building and Social Signaling in Southern Ontario: A.D. 1350-1650.

    PubMed

    Hart, John P; Shafie, Termeh; Birch, Jennifer; Dermarkar, Susan; Williamson, Ronald F

    2016-01-01

    Pottery is a mainstay of archaeological analysis worldwide. Often, high proportions of the pottery recovered from a given site are decorated in some manner. In northern Iroquoia, late pre-contact pottery and early contact decoration commonly occur on collars-thick bands of clay that encircle a pot and extend several centimeters down from the lip. These decorations constitute signals that conveyed information about a pot's user(s). In southern Ontario the period A.D. 1350 to 1650 witnessed substantial changes in socio-political and settlement systems that included population movement, coalescence of formerly separate communities into large villages and towns, waxing and waning of regional strife, the formation of nations, and finally the development of three confederacies that each occupied distinct, constricted areas. Social network analysis demonstrates that signaling practices changed to reflect these regional patterns. Networks become more consolidated through time ultimately resulting in a "small world" network with small degrees of separation between sites reflecting the integration of communities within and between the three confederacies.

  4. Nation Building and Social Signaling in Southern Ontario: A.D. 1350–1650

    PubMed Central

    Shafie, Termeh; Birch, Jennifer; Dermarkar, Susan; Williamson, Ronald F.

    2016-01-01

    Pottery is a mainstay of archaeological analysis worldwide. Often, high proportions of the pottery recovered from a given site are decorated in some manner. In northern Iroquoia, late pre-contact pottery and early contact decoration commonly occur on collars—thick bands of clay that encircle a pot and extend several centimeters down from the lip. These decorations constitute signals that conveyed information about a pot’s user(s). In southern Ontario the period A.D. 1350 to 1650 witnessed substantial changes in socio-political and settlement systems that included population movement, coalescence of formerly separate communities into large villages and towns, waxing and waning of regional strife, the formation of nations, and finally the development of three confederacies that each occupied distinct, constricted areas. Social network analysis demonstrates that signaling practices changed to reflect these regional patterns. Networks become more consolidated through time ultimately resulting in a “small world” network with small degrees of separation between sites reflecting the integration of communities within and between the three confederacies. PMID:27223890

  5. Clean delivery practices in rural northern Ghana: a qualitative study of community and provider knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Knowledge, attitudes and practices of community members and healthcare providers in rural northern Ghana regarding clean delivery are not well understood. This study explores hand washing/use of gloves during delivery, delivering on a clean surface, sterile cord cutting, appropriate cord tying, proper cord care following delivery, and infant bathing and cleanliness. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results 253 respondents participated, including women with newborn infants, grandmothers, household and compound heads, community leaders, traditional birth attendants, and formally trained health care providers. There is widespread understanding of the need for clean delivery to reduce the risk of infection to both mothers and their babies during and shortly after delivery. Despite this understanding, the use of gloves during delivery and hand washing during and after delivery were mentioned infrequently. The need for a clean delivery surface was raised repeatedly, including explicit discussion of avoiding delivering in the dirt. Many activities to do with cord care involved non-sterile materials and practices: 1) Cord cutting was done with a variety of tools, and the most commonly used were razor blades or scissors; 2) Cord tying utilized a variety of materials, including string, rope, thread, twigs, and clamps; and 3) Cord care often involved applying traditional salves to the cord - including shea butter, ground shea nuts, local herbs, local oil, or “red earth sand.” Keeping babies and their surroundings clean was mentioned repeatedly as an important way to keep babies from falling ill. Conclusions This study suggests a widespread understanding in rural northern Ghana of the need for clean delivery. Nonetheless, many recommended clean delivery practices are ignored. Overarching themes emerging from this study included the increasing use of facility-based delivery, the

  6. Mining in subarctic Canada: airborne PM2.5 metal concentrations in two remote First Nations communities.

    PubMed

    Liberda, Eric N; Tsuji, Leonard J S; Peltier, Richard E

    2015-11-01

    Airborne particulate matter arising from upwind mining activities is a concern for First Nations communities in the western James Bay region of Ontario, Canada. Aerosol chemical components were collected in 2011 from two communities in northern Ontario. The chemical and mass concentration data of particulate matter collected during this study shows a significant difference in PM2.5 in Attawapiskat compared to Fort Albany. Elemental profiles indicate enhanced levels of some tracers thought to arise from mining activities, such as, K, Ni, and crustal materials. Both communities are remote and isolated from urban and industrial pollution sources, however, Attawapiskat First Nation has significantly enhanced levels of particulate matter, and it is likely that some of this arises from upwind mining activities.

  7. Spatial variability of soft-bottom macrobenthic communities in northern Sicily (Western Mediterranean): Contrasting trawled vs. untrawled areas.

    PubMed

    Romano, C; Fanelli, E; D'Anna, G; Pipitone, C; Vizzini, S; Mazzola, A; Badalamenti, F

    2016-12-01

    This study examines the impact of bottom trawl fishing on the macrobenthic communities inhabiting the coastal terrigenous mud off the northern coast of Sicily (Western Mediterranean). Two intensely trawled gulfs were compared with two gulfs from which trawling has been excluded for 15 years. The results show a significant effect of trawling on the faunal assemblage and when comparing the mean biomass and the whole isotopic composition of the benthic communities. A similar pattern, although not significant, was found for total abundance, biomass, production/biomass ratio and diversity. Higher abundance and lower biomass were found in the untrawled areas, attributable to the presence of more numerous yet smaller individuals, possibly a consequence of more abundant larger predators that are not removed by trawling, and consequent higher predatory pressure on the benthic macrofauna. The SIMPER analysis evidenced a dominance of burrowing deposit feeding worms (Paraonidae and Cossuridae) in trawled areas, as a result of increased mechanical alteration and hence more organic matter available as food. In contrast, the response to trawling as drawn by the use of trophic markers (i.e., stable isotopes) was less clear. While δ(15)N of benthic taxa did not vary significantly between untrawled and trawled areas, δ(13)C was higher in trawled areas possibly due to high sediment resuspension and consequent intense microbial activity. Mixing models confirmed higher reliance to a detritus-based food web for benthic organisms in the trawled areas. Standard Ellipse Areas (SEAc) as a measure of community niche width were slightly larger in trawled areas, likely due to higher generalism triggered by alteration/removal of the original benthic community.

  8. Endolithic microbial communities in carbonate precipitates from serpentinite-hosted hyperalkaline springs of the Voltri Massif (Ligurian Alps, Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Quéméneur, Marianne; Palvadeau, Alexandra; Postec, Anne; Monnin, Christophe; Chavagnac, Valérie; Ollivier, Bernard; Erauso, Gaël

    2015-09-01

    The Voltri Massif is an ophiolitic complex located in the Ligurian Alps close to the city of Genova (Northern Italy) where several springs discharge high pH (up to 11.7), low salinity waters produced by the active serpentinization of the ultramafic basement. Mixing of these hyperalkaline waters with the river waters along with the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide forms brownish carbonate precipitates covering the bedrock at the springs. Diverse archaeal and bacterial communities were detected in these carbonate precipitates using 454 pyrosequencing analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Archaeal communities were dominated by members of potential methane-producing and/or methane-oxidizing Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota) together with ammonia-oxidizing Nitrososphaerales (Thaumarchaeota) similar to those found in other serpentinization-driven submarine and terrestrial ecosystems. Bacterial communities consisted of members of the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Verrucomicrobia phyla, altogether accounting for 92.2% of total retrieved bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Amongst Bacteria, potential chemolithotrophy was mainly associated with Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria classes, including nitrogen-fixing, methane-oxidizing or hydrogen-oxidizing representatives of the genera Azospirillum, Methylosinus, and Hydrogenophaga/'Serpentinomonas', respectively. Besides, potential chemoorganotrophy was attributed mainly to representatives of Actinobacteria and Planctomycetales phyla. The reported 16S rRNA gene data strongly suggested that hydrogen, methane, and nitrogen-based chemolithotrophy can sustain growth of the microbial communities inhabiting the carbonate precipitates in the hyperalkaline springs of the Voltri Massif, similarly to what was previously observed in other serpentinite-hosted ecosystems.

  9. Patterns of variation in parasite component communities and infracommunities of a littoral fish species from the northern coast of Chile.

    PubMed

    Henríquez, Vania; González, M Teresa

    2014-03-01

    The structure and similarity of the parasite communities of fish can be evaluated at the component community (CC) and infracommunity (IC) levels. Both hierarchical levels have been used to assess parasite variations in fish at large (biogeographic) scales. However, studies evaluating the consistency between these two hierarchical levels at smaller geographical scales are scarce. In this study, the parasite assemblages of 124 Paralabrax humeralis collected by local fishermen by spear fishing at four sites (El Fierro, EF; P. Angamos, PA; Santa María, ISM; San Jorge, BSJ) in northern Chile were compared to assess the variability (or similarity) of their CCs and ICs at a limited geographical scale using multivariate analysis. At the IC level, discriminant analyses showed that P. humeralis parasite communities varied significantly among sites; 70% of ectoparasite ICs were correctly assigned to each site, but only 55% of helminth parasite ICs were correctly classified. At the CC level, the composition of parasite communities as assessed by correspondence analyses varied significantly between sites. Tagia sp., Neobenedenia sp. and Philometra sp. were associated with BSJ, ISM and PA, respectively; Corynosoma sp. and most digeneans were associated with both ISM and EF. Analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) showed significant variations in the degree of similarity between P. humeralis CCs from different sites, but not between ICs. Variations between CCs from different sites reflect fish population processes (e.g., population age, reproductive segregation) and the particular conditions of their respective habitats, whereas ICs reflect individual host movements. This study demonstrated that, when examined at a limited geographical scale, IC is better than CC at capturing the local pool of parasite assemblages when host populations are spatially segregated. Therefore, in this study, it is demonstrated that at a small geographic scale, CC variations are not reflected by IC, when

  10. Occupational cancer: experience in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Chovil, A. C.; McCracken, W. J.; Dowd, E. C.; Stewart, C.; Burton, D. F.; Dyer, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the experience of the Workmen's Compensation Board of Ontario in identifying cases of cancer that could be attributed to occupational hazards. Worker's claims for compensation are allowed if there is reasonable medical evidence that their cancer was caused by exposure to risk factors associated with their occupation. Details of the types of cancer associated with specific carcinogens or fields of employment are discussed. About 50% of the cases were related to exposure in particular industrial operations that functioned for relatively brief periods. The number of deaths from cancer identified as being caused by occupational factors is compared with the total for cancer from all causes in Ontario during the period 1971 through 1975. Although all workers eligible for compensation may not have been identified, the data suggest that less than 1% of cancer is presently caused by occupational factors. PMID:6460552

  11. Bacterial community structure and function shift across a northern boreal forest fire chronosequence

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hui; Santalahti, Minna; Pumpanen, Jukka; Köster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Raffaello, Tommaso; Asiegbu, Fred O.; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2016-01-01

    Soil microbial responses to fire are likely to change over the course of forest recovery. Investigations on long-term changes in bacterial dynamics following fire are rare. We characterized the soil bacterial communities across three different times post fire in a 2 to 152-year fire chronosequence by Illumina MiSeq sequencing, coupled with a functional gene array (GeoChip). The results showed that the bacterial diversity did not differ between the recently and older burned areas, suggesting a concomitant recovery in the bacterial diversity after fire. The differences in bacterial communities over time were mainly driven by the rare operational taxonomic units (OTUs < 0.1%). Proteobacteria (39%), Acidobacteria (34%) and Actinobacteria (17%) were the most abundant phyla across all sites. Genes involved in C and N cycling pathways were present in all sites showing high redundancy in the gene profiles. However, hierarchical cluster analysis using gene signal intensity revealed that the sites with different fire histories formed separate clusters, suggesting potential differences in maintaining essential biogeochemical soil processes. Soil temperature, pH and water contents were the most important factors in shaping the bacterial community structures and function. This study provides functional insight on the impact of fire disturbance on soil bacterial community. PMID:27573440

  12. Sorting Procedures in Enclosed Rural Communities: Admitting "People like Us" into Renewing Kibbutzim in Northern Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charney, Igal; Palgi, Michal

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the attempts made by the renewing kibbutzim to maintain their way of life as much as possible through the adjustment of their gating mechanisms. In this type of a rural gated community, sorting procedures and admittance criteria of nonmembers are the most notable elements. Background material and interviews with informants at…

  13. Adolescents' Educational Outcomes in a Social Ecology of Parenting, Family, and Community Risks in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Cummings, E. Mark; Cairns, Ed; Shirlow, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the influence of social ecological risks within the domains of parenting, family environment, and community in the prediction of educational outcomes for 770 adolescents (49% boys, 51% girls, "M"?=?13.6 years, "SD"?=?2.0) living in a setting of protracted political conflict, specifically working class areas…

  14. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Recommendations from Urban and Reservation Northern Plains American Indian Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Tracey R.; Hanson, Jessica D.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2015-01-01

    Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program…

  15. Plant Community and Soil Environment Response to Summer Fire in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire is a keystone process in many ecosystems, especially grasslands. However, documentation of plant community and soil environment responses to fire is limited for semiarid grasslands relative to that for mesic grasslands. Replicated summer fire research is lacking, but much needed because summe...

  16. Community-level distribution of misoprostol to prevent postpartum hemorrhage at home births in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ejembi, Clara; Shittu, Oladapo; Moran, Molly; Adiri, Faraouk; Oguntunde, Olugbenga; Saadatu, Babalafia; Aku-Akai, Larai; Abdul, Mohammed A; Ajayi, Victor; Williams, Natalie; Prata, Ndola

    2014-06-01

    In Nigeria, most deaths due to postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) occur in the absence of skilled birth attendants. A study using community mobilization and the training of community drug keepers to increase access to misoprostol for PPH prevention was conducted in five communities around Zaria in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Community-oriented resource persons (CORPs) and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) recruited and counseled pregnant women on bleeding after delivery, the importance of delivery at a health facility, and the role of misoprostol. Drug keepers stored and dispensed misoprostol during a woman's third trimester of pregnancy. TBAs and CORPs enrolled 1,875 women from January through December 2009. These results are based on 1,577 completed postpartum interviews. Almost all women delivered at home (95%) and skilled attendance at delivery was low (7%). The availability of misoprostol protected 83% of women who delivered at home against PPH who otherwise would not have been protected. Policymakers working in similar contexts should consider utilizing commuity-level distribution models to reach women with this life-saving intervention.

  17. Changes in northern Gulf of Mexico sediment bacterial and archaeal communities exposed to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Devereux, R; Mosher, J J; Vishnivetskaya, T A; Brown, S D; Beddick, D L; Yates, D F; Palumbo, A V

    2015-09-01

    Biogeochemical changes in marine sediments during coastal water hypoxia are well described, but less is known about underlying changes in microbial communities. Bacterial and archaeal communities in Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) hypoxic zone sediments were characterized by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA V4-region gene fragments obtained by PCR amplification of community genomic DNA with bacterial- or archaeal-specific primers. Duplicate LCS sediment cores collected during hypoxia had higher concentrations of Fe(II), and dissolved inorganic carbon, phosphate, and ammonium than cores collected when overlying water oxygen concentrations were normal. Pyrosequencing yielded 158,686 bacterial and 225,591 archaeal sequences from 20 sediment samples, representing five 2-cm depth intervals in the duplicate cores. Bacterial communities grouped by sampling date and sediment depth in a neighbor-joining analysis using Chao-Jaccard shared species values. Redundancy analysis indicated that variance in bacterial communities was mainly associated with differences in sediment chemistry between oxic and hypoxic water column conditions. Gammaproteobacteria (26.5%) were most prominent among bacterial sequences, followed by Firmicutes (9.6%), and Alphaproteobacteria (5.6%). Crenarchaeotal, thaumarchaeotal, and euryarchaeotal lineages accounted for 57%, 27%, and 16% of archaeal sequences, respectively. In Thaumarchaeota Marine Group I, sequences were 96-99% identical to the Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1 sequence, were highest in surficial sediments, and accounted for 31% of archaeal sequences when waters were normoxic vs. 13% of archaeal sequences when waters were hypoxic. Redundancy analysis showed Nitrosopumilus-related sequence abundance was correlated with high solid-phase Fe(III) concentrations, whereas most of the remaining archaeal clusters were not. In contrast, crenarchaeotal sequences were from phylogenetically diverse lineages, differed little in relative abundance between

  18. The elevational pattern of microbial community and enzyme activity along the northern slop of Changbai Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Yu, Guirui; Zhang, Xinyu; Ge, Jianpin; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Qiufeng; Wang, Dan

    2014-05-01

    we present a comprehensive analysis of soil microbial community structure, enzyme activities and their role in soil organic matter mineralization along six elevations representing five typical vegetation types from forest to alpine tundra in Changbai Mountain, China. The results showed that the microbial PLFAs presented hump-shaped patterns along the elevation with the total microbial PLFAs highest in Ermans birch forest soil. The fungi to bacteria and gram positive to negative bacteria ratios increased along the elevation with the lowest values in Broad leaved forest and Dark-coniferous spruce-fir forest soil, respectively. The soil microbial community structures showed a biogeography distribution pattern in vertical direction with microbial community structures in Broad leaved forest and Mixed coniferous broad leaved forest different from other four sites. The soil enzyme activities in Broad leaved forest and Mixed coniferous broad leaved forest were significantly higher than in other four elevations. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed substantial differences in soil microbial community composition among study sites, appeared to be driven primarily by MAT, MAP, soil temperature and content of silt & clay on the first principal component (PC1) which accounted for 87.1 % of the total sample variance. However, soil nutrients mainly responsible for the variation of soil enzyme activities. The soil organic matter mineralization rates tended to be highest in Ermans birch forest site and lowest in Dark-coniferous spruce-fir forest site and showed positive relationship with total microbial, bacterial and actinomycetes PLFAs. These findings could be used to facilitate interpretation of soil microbial community and ecological function in latitude forests ecosystem especially in volcanic forest ecosystem.

  19. Responses of soil fungal community to the sandy grassland restoration in Horqin Sandy Land, northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Kun; Zuo, Xiao-An; Zhao, Xue-Yong; Li, Yu-Qiang; Zhou, Xin; Lv, Peng; Luo, Yong-Qing; Yun, Jian-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Sandy grassland restoration is a vital process including re-structure of soils, restoration of vegetation, and soil functioning in arid and semi-arid regions. Soil fungal community is a complex and critical component of soil functioning and ecological balance due to its roles in organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling following sandy grassland restoration. In this study, soil fungal community and its relationship with environmental factors were examined along a habitat gradient of sandy grassland restoration: mobile dunes (MD), semi-fixed dunes (SFD), fixed dunes (FD), and grassland (G). It was found that species abundance, richness, and diversity of fungal community increased along with the sandy grassland restoration. The sequences analysis suggested that most of the fungal species (68.4 %) belonged to the phylum of Ascomycota. The three predominant fungal species were Pleospora herbarum, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Deconica Montana, accounting for more than one fourth of all the 38 species. Geranomyces variabilis was the subdominant species in MD, Pseudogymnoascus destructans and Mortierella alpine were the subdominant species in SFD, and P. destructans and Fungi incertae sedis were the dominant species in FD and G. The result from redundancy analysis (RDA) and stepwise regression analysis indicated that the vegetation characteristics and soil properties explain a significant proportion of the variation in the fungal community, and aboveground biomass and C:N ratio are the key factors to determine soil fungal community composition during sandy grassland restoration. It was suggested that the restoration of sandy grassland combined with vegetation and soil properties improved the soil fungal diversity. Also, the dominant species was found to be alternative following the restoration of sandy grassland ecosystems.

  20. [Transformation of soil organic matter in microarthropod community from the Northern Taiga of West Siberia].

    PubMed

    Mordkovich, V G; Berezina, O G; Liubechanskiĭ, I I; Andrievskiĭ, V S; Marchenko, I I

    2006-01-01

    Recolonization of defaunated soil by springtails as well as by gamasid and oribatid mites and the changes in organic matter content of soil were studied in the northern taiga. After a one-year exposure in gauze bags (1.7 mm mesh), the abundance of microarthropods was higher but the number of species was lower compared to the surrounding soil. Large surface and litter forms did not colonize the samples, while the number of small and/or soil forms was higher. Soil samples inaccessible for microarthropods (0.15 mm mesh) were depleted of organic carbon compared to both surrounding soil and recolonized samples. The content of humic and fulvic acids was higher in the samples inaccessible to microarthropods. Humification processes prevailed in soils in the absence of microarthropods.

  1. Programa de Fortalecimiento de Capacidades: Reflections on a Case Study of Community-Based Teacher Education Set in Rural Northern Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Steve; Ames, Patricia; Arroyo, Graciela Cordero; Dippo, Don

    2010-01-01

    This article explores distinctive features of a 5-year international education development project set in rural northern Peru (PROMEB, the "Proyecto de Mejoramiento de la Educacion Basica"). Grounded within a partnership between teacher educators from Peru, Mexico and Canada, and rural Peruvian teachers, students and their communities,…

  2. "Uberizing" home care in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Wojtak, Anne; Stark, Linda

    2016-07-01

    This article looks at home care in Ontario and its role as a foundation for a sustainable healthcare system in the future. Beginning with the history and evolution of the service delivery model, it examines current challenges and opportunities to unleash the potential of home care within a more integrated model for patient-centred care for the future. An in-depth look at how to better coordinate, integrate, and fund care for patients is highlighted.

  3. Warming in the Northern Great Plains: Impact and Response in the Agricultural Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seielstad, G.; Welling, L.

    2001-12-01

    Because agricultural production in the northern Great Plains contributes significantly to both domestic and international markets the impacts of climate change, as well as the response strategies undertaken by the region's residents, will be felt throughout the nation and the world. The national assessment of Climate Change Impacts on the United States has pointed out that the northern Great Plains could be favored under global warming scenarios in that future climates could increase crop yields [Reilly, Tubiello, McCarl, and Melillo, 2000]. Yield, though, is only one measure of the consequences that rapid warming might have on this region. Challenges to a changing environment must be met by people. Producers here, as well as in other agricultural regions, already function under multiple stresses that are completely separate from climate variability and change. These include falling prices, globalization, complex trade relations, changes in government policy, environmental constraints, and changing consumer preferences. It is against the backdrop of these stresses that pending climate changes must be considered. Interactions with stakeholders through the NGP Assessment workshops, held in 1997 and 1999, identified key concerns and outlined potential mitigation and optimization strategies for the consequences of climate change in this region. We will present examples of the successful implementation of some of these strategies: actions that farmers and ranchers are employing to 1) increase their awareness of environmental factors, 2) enhance their ability to respond quickly to environmental change, 3) improve their economic returns, and 4) decrease environmental degradation. We will also highlight other "no regrets" actions and policies under consideration that may offer individual producers greater flexibility in their management decisions and provide a healthier environment for society at large.

  4. A Regional Initiative to Reduce Skin Infections amongst Aboriginal Children Living in Remote Communities of the Northern Territory, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Ross M.; Kearns, Therese; Connors, Christine; Parker, Colin; Carville, Kylie; Currie, Bart J.; Carapetis, Jonathan R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Linked to extreme rates of chronic heart and kidney disease, pyoderma is endemic amongst Aboriginal children in Australia's Northern Territory (NT). Many of those with pyoderma will also have scabies. We report the results of a community-based collaboration within the East Arnhem Region, which aimed to reduce the prevalence of both skin infections in Aboriginal children. Methodology/Principal Findings Commencing September 2004, we conducted an ecological study that included active surveillance for skin infections amongst children aged <15 years in five remote East Arnhem communities over a three year period. Screening was undertaken by trained local community workers, usually accompanied by another project team member, using a standard data collection form. Skin infections were diagnosed clinically with the aid of a pictorial flip chart developed for the purpose. Topical 5% permethrin was provided for age-eligible children and all household contacts whenever scabies was diagnosed, whilst those with pyoderma were referred to the clinic for treatment in accordance with current guidelines. In addition, annual mass scabies treatment (5% permethrin cream) was offered to all community residents in accordance with current guidelines but was not directly observed. Pyoderma and scabies prevalence per month was determined from 6038 skin assessments conducted on 2329 children. Pyoderma prevalence dropped from 46.7% at baseline to a median of 32.4% (IQR 28.9%–41.0%) during the follow-up period – an absolute reduction of 14.7% (IQR 4.7%–16.8%). Compared to the first 18 months of observation, there was an absolute reduction in pyoderma prevalence of 18 cases per 100 children (95%CI −21.0, −16.1, p≤0.001) over the last 18 months. Treatment uptake increased over the same period (absolute difference 13.4%, 95%CI 3.3, 23.6). While scabies prevalence was unchanged, the prevalence of infected scabies (that is with superimposed pyoderma) decreased from 3.7% (95

  5. The intestinal helminth community of the spiny-tailed lizard Darevskia rudis (Squamata, Lacertidae) from northern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Roca, V; Jorge, F; Ilgaz, Ç; Kumlutaş, Y; Durmuş, S H; Carretero, M A

    2016-03-01

    Populations of the lizard Darevskia rudis (Bedriaga, 1886) from northern Anatolia were examined for intestinal parasites in adult specimens. One cestode, Nematotaenia tarentolae López-Neyra, 1944 and four nematode species, Spauligodon saxicolae Sharpilo, 1962, Skrjabinelazia hoffmanni Li, 1934, Oswaldocruzia filiformis (Goeze, 1782) and Strongyloides darevskyi Sharpilo, 1976, were found. Three of these nematodes, S. saxicolae, S. hoffmanni and S. darevskyi are suggested to be part of a module in the network of Darevskia spp. and their parasites. Only one, S. darevskyi, was identified as a Darevskia spp. specialist. The very low infection and diversity parameters are indicative of the depauperate helminth communities found in this lacertid lizard, falling among the lowest within the Palaearctic saurians. Nevertheless these values are higher than those found in parthenogenetic Darevskia spp. Interpopulation variation in the intensity of S. saxicolae and N. tarentolae is attributable to local changes in ecological conditions. On the other hand, parasite abundance and richness increased in the warmer localities, while the effect of lizard sex and size on infection was negligible. The structure of these helminth communities in D. rudis are compared with those observed in other European lacertid lizards.

  6. [Seasonal variations of community structures phytoplankton in groundwater discharge areas along the Northern Yucatán Peninsula coast].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Góngora, Cynthia Catalina; Liceaga-Correa, Maria de los Angeles; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge Alfredo

    2012-03-01

    The highly touristic Yucatán Peninsula is principally constituted with coastal marine environments. Like other coastal areas, this has been affected by the increase of waste water discharge, hydrological modifications and land use changes in the area. The phytoplankton community structure is one of the main components of coastal ecosystems and the most affected in hydrological processes. In order to follow the seasonal variations, the phytoplankton was characterized to follow the hydrological variability in two sites (Dzilam and Progreso) of the Northern Yucatán Peninsula. For this, cruises were carried out monthly during one year, from April 2004 to March 2005, with two samplings per season (dry, rainy and "nortes"). Hydrological variability was associated with seasonality and directly linked to groundwater discharges in the Dzilam area, and waste water discharges in the Progreso area. The highest nutrient concentrations occurred mainly during the rainy season. The phytoplankton community changes observed throughout the year suggested that the hydrological and chemical variability associated with seasonality and anthropogenic impacts have a strong influence. The substitution of diatoms by dinoflagellates as the dominant group in Progreso was the result of seasonal variability itself, but also could have been caused by eutrophic processes; while in Dzilam, the major presence of diatoms could have been favored by groundwater discharges. The results of this study can be used to understand the linkages between stressors from the anthropogenic activities and coastal water quality and changes.

  7. Providing animal health services to the poor in Northern Ghana: rethinking the role of community animal health workers?

    PubMed

    Mockshell, Jonathan; Ilukor, John; Birner, Regina

    2014-02-01

    The Community Animal Health Workers (CAHWs) system has been promoted as an alternative solution to providing animal health services in marginal areas. Yet, access to quality animal health services still remains a fundamental problem for livestock dependent communities. This paper uses the concepts of accessibility, affordability, and transaction costs to examine the perceptions of livestock keepers about the various animal health service providers. The empirical analysis is based on a survey of 120 livestock-keeping households in the Tolon-Kumbungu and Savelugu-Nanton districts in the Northern Region of Ghana. A multinomial logit model was used to determine the factors that influence households' choice of alternative animal health service providers. The results show that the government para-vets are the most preferred type of animal health service providers while CAHWs are the least preferred. Reasons for this observation include high transaction costs and low performance resulting from limited training. In areas with few or no government para-vets, farmers have resorted to self-treatment or to selling sick animals for consumption, which has undesirable health implications. These practices also result in significant financial losses for farmers. This paper finds that the CAHWs' system is insufficient for providing quality animal health services to the rural poor in marginal areas. Therefore, market-smart alternative solutions requiring strong public sector engagement to support livestock farmers in marginal areas and setting minimum training standards for animal health service providers merit policy consideration.

  8. Facilitators and Barriers to Traditional Food Consumption in the Cree Community of Mistissini, Northern Quebec.

    PubMed

    Laberge Gaudin, Véronique; Receveur, Olivier; Girard, Félix; Potvin, Louise

    2015-01-01

    To identify barriers to traditional food consumption and factors that facilitate it among the Cree community of Mistissini, a series of four focus groups was conducted with a total of twenty-three people. Two ecological models were created, one for facilitating factors and a second for obstacles, illustrating the role of numerous interconnected influences of traditional food consumption. Environmental impact project, laws and regulation, local businesses, traditional knowledge, youth influence, employment status, and nonconvenience of traditional food were named among numerous factors influencing traditional food consumption. The findings of this study can be used by political and public health organizations to promote traditional food where more emphasis should be invested in community and environmental strategies.

  9. Zonation of bacterioplankton communities along aging upwelled water in the northern Benguela upwelling

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Benjamin; Herlemann, Daniel P. R.; Jürgens, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Upwelling areas are shaped by enhanced primary production in surface waters, accompanied by a well-investigated planktonic succession. Although bacteria play an important role in biogeochemical cycles of upwelling systems, little is known about bacterial community composition and its development during upwelling events. The aim of this study was to investigate the succession of bacterial assemblages in aging upwelled water of the Benguela upwelling from coastal to offshore sites. Water from the upper mixed layer at 12 stations was sampled along two transects from the origin of the upwelling to a distance of 220 km. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was then used in a bacterial diversity analysis and major bacterial taxa were quantified by catalyzed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridization. Additionally, bacterial cell numbers and bacterial production were assessed. Community statistical analysis revealed a reproducible zonation along the two transects, with four clusters of significantly different microbial assemblages. Clustering was mainly driven by phytoplankton composition and abundance. Similar to the temporal succession that occurs during phytoplankton blooms in temperate coastal waters, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) affiliated with Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria were dominant during algal blooming whereas “Pelagibacterales” were highly abundant in regions with low algal abundance. The most dominant heterotrophic OTU (9% of all reads) was affiliated with “Pelagibacterales” and showed a strong negative correlation with phytoplankton. By contrast, the second most abundant heterotrophic OTU (6% of all reads) was affiliated with the phylum Verrucomicrobia and correlated positively with phytoplankton. Together with the close relation of bacterial production and phytoplankton abundance, our results showed that bacterial community dynamics is strongly driven by the development and composition of the phytoplankton community. PMID

  10. A comparative study of community solar heating systems for northern high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, P. D.

    1984-03-01

    A computational performance study of community solar heating systems with seasonal storage in southern Finland (60 deg N) has been accomplished. Computer simulations are carried out on an hour-by-hour basis and for four types of system configurations. The effect of collector type, storage volume, heat pump and collector area are investigated. The results of the study show that district solar heating systems may provide considerable solar fractions even in strict climatic conditions.

  11. The effects of water levels on Two Lake Ontario Wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, Wolf-Dieter N.; Osborn, Ronald G.; Auble, Gregor T.

    1990-01-01

    Lake Ontario's water levels have been regulated since 1959, after the completion of the St. Lawrence River navigation and hydropower development project. The plan used to guide the regulation (1958-D) has been in effect since 1963 (Bryce, 1982). The purpose of the regulation was to prevent extreme high-water levels which increased erosion on the south shore of Lake Ontario, while protecting the interests of commercial navigation and hydropower production in the St. Lawrence River (T. Brown, personal communication, member of the Board of Control). Major user groups have sought further reductions in the range of lake level fluctuations. However, the biological resources, especially the lake influenced wetlands, benefit from the waterlevel fluctuations. Great Lakes wetlands are the most important habitat for wildlife of the region (Tilton and Schwegler, 1978). We provide information here on the responses of wetland plant communities in two wetlands to changes in lake levels over time.

  12. Projecting Fish Mercury Levels in the Province of Ontario, Canada and the Implications for Fish and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Tang, Rex W K; Arhonditsis, George B

    2015-12-15

    Fish mercury levels appear to be increasing in Ontario, Canada, which covers a wide geographical area and contains about 250 000 lakes including a share of the North American Great Lakes. Here we project 2050 mercury levels in Ontario fish, using the recently measured levels and rates of changes observed during the last 15 years, and present potential implications for fish and human health. Percentage of northern Ontario waterbodies where sublethal effects of mercury on fish can occur may increase by 2050 from 60% to >98% for Walleye (WE), 44% to 59-70% for Northern Pike (NP), and 70% to 76-92% for Lake Trout (LT). Ontario waterbodies with unrestricted fish consumption advisories for the general population may deteriorate from 24-76% to <1-33% for WE, 40-95% to 1-93% for NP, and 39-89% to 18-86% for LT. Similarly, Ontario waterbodies with do not eat advisories for the sensitive population may increase from 32-84% to 73-100% for WE, 9-72% to 12-100% for NP, and 19-71% to 24-89% for LT. Risk to health of Ontario fish and humans consuming these fish may increase substantially over the next few decades if the increasing mercury trend continues and updated advisories based on continued monitoring are not issued/followed.

  13. Common perinatal mental disorders in northern Viet Nam: community prevalence and health care use

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thach; La, Buoi thi; Kriitmaa, Kelsi; Rosenthal, Doreen; Tran, Tuan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To establish the prevalence of common perinatal mental disorders their determinants, and their association with preventive health care use among women in one rural and one urban province in northern Viet Nam. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of cohorts of pregnant women and mothers of infants recruited systematically in 10 randomly-selected communes. The women participated in psychiatrist-administered structured clinical interviews and separate structured interviews to assess sociodemographic factors, reproductive health, the intimate partner relationship, family violence and the use of preventive and psychiatric health care. Associations between these variables and perinatal mental disorders were explored through univariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression. Findings Among women eligible for the study (392), 364 (93%) were recruited. Of these, 29.9% (95% confidence interval, CI: 25.20–34.70) were diagnosed with a common perinatal mental disorder (CPMD). The frequency of such disorders during pregnancy and in the postpartum period was the same. Their prevalence was higher among women in rural provinces (odds ratio, OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.19–3.93); exposed to intimate partner violence (OR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.12–3.96); fearful of other family members (OR: 3.36; 95% CI: 1.05–10.71) or exposed to coincidental life adversity (OR: 4.40; 95% CI: 2.44–7.93). Fewer women with a CPMD used iron supplements than women without a CPMD, but the results were not statistically significant (P = 0.05). None of the women studied had ever received mental health care. Conclusion Perinatal depression and anxiety are prevalent in women in northern Viet Nam. These conditions are predominantly determined by social factors, including rural residence, poverty and exposure to family violence. At present the needs of women with common perinatal mental disorders are unrecognized and not attended to and their participation in essential

  14. Actinorhizal Alder Phytostabilization Alters Microbial Community Dynamics in Gold Mine Waste Rock from Northern Quebec: A Greenhouse Study

    PubMed Central

    Callender, Katrina L.; Roy, Sébastien; Khasa, Damase P.; Whyte, Lyle G.; Greer, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    Phytotechnologies are rapidly replacing conventional ex-situ remediation techniques as they have the added benefit of restoring aesthetic value, important in the reclamation of mine sites. Alders are pioneer species that can tolerate and proliferate in nutrient-poor, contaminated environments, largely due to symbiotic root associations with the N2-fixing bacteria, Frankia and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. In this study, we investigated the growth of two Frankia-inoculated (actinorhizal) alder species, A. crispa and A. glutinosa, in gold mine waste rock from northern Quebec. Alder species had similar survival rates and positively impacted soil quality and physico-chemical properties in similar ways, restoring soil pH to neutrality and reducing extractable metals up to two-fold, while not hyperaccumulating them into above-ground plant biomass. A. glutinosa outperformed A. crispa in terms of growth, as estimated by the seedling volume index (SVI), and root length. Pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region for fungi provided a comprehensive, direct characterization of microbial communities in gold mine waste rock and fine tailings. Plant- and treatment-specific shifts in soil microbial community compositions were observed in planted mine residues. Shannon diversity and the abundance of microbes involved in key ecosystem processes such as contaminant degradation (Sphingomonas, Sphingobium and Pseudomonas), metal sequestration (Brevundimonas and Caulobacter) and N2-fixation (Azotobacter, Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium and Pseudomonas) increased over time, i.e., as plants established in mine waste rock. Acetate mineralization and most probable number (MPN) assays showed that revegetation positively stimulated both bulk and rhizosphere communities, increasing microbial density (biomass increase of 2 orders of magnitude) and mineralization (five-fold). Genomic techniques proved useful in investigating

  15. Benthic community structure and composition in sediment from the northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline, Texas to Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Strom, Douglas G.

    2012-01-01

    From April 20 through July 15, 2010, approximately 4.93 million barrels of crude oil spilled into the Gulf of Mexico from the British Petroleum Macondo-1 well, representing the largest spill in U.S. waters. Baseline benthic community conditions were assessed from shoreline sediment samples collected from 56 stations within the swash zone (for example, sample depth ranged from 0 to 1.5 feet) along the northern Gulf of Mexico coastline. These sites were selected because they had a high probability of being impacted by the oil. Cores collected at 24 stations contained no sediment infauna. Benthic community metrics varied greatly among the remaining stations. Mississippi stations had the highest mean abundances (38.9 ± 23.9 individuals per 32 square centimeters (cm2); range: 0 to 186), while Texas had the lowest abundances, 4.9 ± 3 individuals per 32 cm2 (range: 0 to 25). Dominant phyla included Annelida, Arthropoda, and Mollusca, but proportional contributions of each group varied by State. Diversity indices Margalef's richness (d) and Shannon-Wiener diversity (H') were highest at Louisiana and Mississippi stations (0.4 and 0.4, for both, respectively) and lowest at Texas (values for both indices were 0.1 ± 0.1). Evenness (J') was low for all the States, ranging from 0.2 to 0.3, indicating a high degree of patchiness at these sites. Across stations within a State, average similarity ranged from 11.1 percent (Mississippi) to 41.1 percent (Louisiana). Low within-state similarity may be a consequence of differing habitat and physical environment conditions. Results provide necessary baseline information that will facilitate future comparisons with post-spill community metrics.

  16. Blue oak plant communities of southern San Luis Obispo and northern Santa Barbara Counties, California. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Borchert, M.I.; Cunha, N.D.; Krosse, P.C.; Lawrence, M.L.

    1993-02-01

    An ecological classification system has been developed for the Pacific Southwest Region of the Forest Service. As part of that classification effort, blue oak (Quercus douglasii) woodlands and forests of southern San Luis Obispo and northern Santa Barbara Counties in Los Padres National Forest were classified into 13 plant communities using vegetation collected from 208 plots, 0.1 acre each. Three distinct regions of vegetation were identified in the study area: Avenales, Miranda Pine Mountain and Branch Mountain. Communities were classified separately for plots in each region. Each region has a woodland community that occupies flat or gently sloping benches, toeslopes, and valley bottoms.

  17. The cestode community in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmina, Tetiana A.; Hernández-Orts, Jesús S.; Lyons, Eugene T.; Spraker, Terry R.; Kornyushyn, Vadym V.; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The diversity and ecology of cestodes from the northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus (NFS), were examined using newly collected material from 756 humanely harvested subadult males between 2011 and 2014. NFSs were collected from five different haul-outs on St. Paul Island, Alaska. A total of 14,660 tapeworms were collected with a prevalence of 98.5% and intensity up to 107 cestodes per host (mean intensity 19.7 ± 16.5 SD). Three species of tapeworms were found: Adenocephalus pacificus (Diphyllobothriidea) was the most prevalent (prevalence 97.4%), followed by Diplogonoporus tetrapterus (49.7%), and 5 immature specimens of Anophryocephalus cf. ochotensis (Tetrabothriidea) (0.5%). Most of the cestodes found in the NFS were immature (69.7%). However, only 0.9% of cestodes were in larval (plerocercoid) stages. The species composition, prevalence and intensity of cestodes from these NFSs were not statistically different between the five separate haul-outs. Significant increases in the intensity of NFS infections were observed during the study period. PMID:26101743

  18. Measuring Community Resilience to Coastal Hazards along the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Nina S. N.; Reams, Margaret; Li, Kenan; Li, Chi; Mata, Lillian P.

    2016-01-01

    The abundant research examining aspects of social-ecological resilience, vulnerability, and hazards and risk assessment has yielded insights into these concepts and suggested the importance of quantifying them. Quantifying resilience is complicated by several factors including the varying definitions of the term applied in the research, difficulties involved in selecting and aggregating indicators of resilience, and the lack of empirical validation for the indices derived. This paper applies a new model, called the resilience inference measurement (RIM) model, to quantify resilience to climate-related hazards for 52 U.S. counties along the northern Gulf of Mexico. The RIM model uses three elements (exposure, damage, and recovery indicators) to denote two relationships (vulnerability and adaptability), and employs both K-means clustering and discriminant analysis to derive the resilience rankings, thus enabling validation and inference. The results yielded a classification accuracy of 94.2% with 28 predictor variables. The approach is theoretically sound and can be applied to derive resilience indices for other study areas at different spatial and temporal scales. PMID:27499707

  19. Measuring Community Resilience to Coastal Hazards along the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lam, Nina S N; Reams, Margaret; Li, Kenan; Li, Chi; Mata, Lillian P

    2016-02-01

    The abundant research examining aspects of social-ecological resilience, vulnerability, and hazards and risk assessment has yielded insights into these concepts and suggested the importance of quantifying them. Quantifying resilience is complicated by several factors including the varying definitions of the term applied in the research, difficulties involved in selecting and aggregating indicators of resilience, and the lack of empirical validation for the indices derived. This paper applies a new model, called the resilience inference measurement (RIM) model, to quantify resilience to climate-related hazards for 52 U.S. counties along the northern Gulf of Mexico. The RIM model uses three elements (exposure, damage, and recovery indicators) to denote two relationships (vulnerability and adaptability), and employs both K-means clustering and discriminant analysis to derive the resilience rankings, thus enabling validation and inference. The results yielded a classification accuracy of 94.2% with 28 predictor variables. The approach is theoretically sound and can be applied to derive resilience indices for other study areas at different spatial and temporal scales.

  20. Transport and coastal zooplankton communities in the northern California Current system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Hongsheng; Peterson, William T.; Strub, Paul T.

    2011-06-01

    Alongshore transport was estimated from the gridded AVISO altimeter data and water level data from NOAA tide gauges (1993-2010) for the northern California Current (NCC) system. The biomass of the cold neritic copepods including Calanus marshallae, Pseudocalanus mimus and Acartia longiremis (dominants in the eastern Bering Sea, coastal Gulf of Alaska, and NCC) was estimated from a 15 year time series of zooplankton samples (1996-2010) collected biweekly at a coastal station 9 km off Newport Oregon U.S.A. The alongshore currents and the biomass of the cold neritic copepods exhibit a strong seasonal pattern and fluctuate in opposite phase: positive alongshore current (from south) leads to low biomass in winter and negative alongshore current (from north) leads to high biomass in summer. When the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is positive, i.e., warm conditions around the northeast Pacific, there is more movement of water from the south in the NCC during winter. When the PDO is negative, there is more movement of water from the north during summer. The mean biomass of cold neritic copepods was positively correlated with the survival rate of juvenile coho salmon and cumulative transport was negatively correlated with coho salmon survival, i.e., in years when a greater portion of the source waters feeding the NCC enters from the north, the greater the salmon survival. We conclude that alongshore transport manifests PDO signals and serves as a linkage between large scale forcing to local ecosystem dynamics.

  1. Community composition, abundance and biomass of zooplankton in Zhangzi Island waters, Northern Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jiehui; Zhang, Guangtao; Li, Chaolun; Wang, Shiwei; Zhao, Zengxia; Wan, Aiyong

    2016-12-01

    Samples were collected monthly from the sea area around Zhangzi Island, northern Yellow Sea, from July 2009 to June 2010. Vertical net towing was used to examine spatial and temporal variability in zooplankton abundance and biomass. Overall, Calanus sinicus and Saggita crassa were the dominant species found during the study period, while the amphipod Themisto gracilipes was dominant in winter and spring. Vast numbers of the ctenophore species of the genus Beroe were found in October and November. It was not possible to count them, but they constituted a large portion of the total zooplankton biomass. Zooplankton species diversity was highest in October, and species evenness was highest in April. Zooplankton abundance (non-jellyfish) and biomass were highest in June and lowest in August, with annual averages of 131.3 ind./m³ and 217.5 mg/m³, respectively. Water temperature may be responsible for the variations in zooplankton abundance and biomass. Beroe biomass was negatively correlated with other zooplankton abundance. Longterm investigations will be carried out to learn more about the influence of the environment on zooplankton assemblages.

  2. Heterotrophic succession within dung-inhabiting beetle communities in northern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, Rosa; Gutiérrez, David

    1999-09-01

    Successional patterns of beetles inhabiting dung pats were examined during May and July 1993 in a mountain area in northern Spain (Picos de Europa). Beetles belonging to six families were caught during the course of succession (30 d). Coprophagous beetles were more abundant in dung pats than predatory beetles (89 and 11 %, respectively). A trophic sequence was observed in relation to age of the dung, coprophagous beetles occurring earlier in the dung than predatory beetles. The pattern was observed on two occasions during the season, though succession proceeded somewhat faster in July than in May. These results suggest that food availability and microclimatic conditions in dung pats appear to determine the successional occurrence of beetle taxa. On the other hand, coprophagous species ( Aphodius) were poorly segregated along the successional axis. Null models failed to support the hypothesis that successional overlap and differences in successional mean occurrence between species could be the result of competition. Successional patterns at the specific level probably reflect differences in behaviour, such as pat location, feeding, mating, egg-laying and larva requirements, rather than competitive replacement.

  3. Translational research to reduce trans-fat intakes in Northern Québec (Nunavik) Inuit communities: a success story?

    PubMed

    Counil, Émilie; Gauthier, Marie-Josée; Blouin, Valérie; Grey, Minnie; Angiyou, Eli; Kauki, Takralik; Dewailly, Éric

    2012-07-20

    Following our results, based on population studies conducted in Greenland and Northern Canada, that Nunavik Inuit were thrice as highly exposed to dietary trans-fat as were Greenlandic Inuit, and that the biological levels found in Nunavik were already associated with deleterious blood lipid profiles, we decided to engage in translational activities. Our goal was to support Inuit communities in the practical implementation of a reduction of the trans-fat content of food sold in Nunavik. We carried out a preliminary feasibility study in Kuujjuaq and participated in several meetings. This translational phase involved an Inuk leader, an Inuk student, a southern student, a southern nutritionist and a southern researcher in the framework of a public health project. In the present article, we recount the different phases of the process, from research implementation to results dissemination and institutional commitment to implement a primary prevention program of reduction in trans-fat exposure in Nunavik. This is the occasion to draw broader conclusions on the factors that could either act in favour of or, on the contrary, would likely compromise the implementation of primary prevention interventions dealing with food and nutrition in the Arctic. Finally, we share some reflections on future translational activities dealing with trans-fat as well as other junk food issues. The analytical framework we propose integrates a range of factors, from geo-climatic to socio-economic, ethno-cultural, and even political, that we think should be examined while identifying and building preventive recommendations and strategies related to the Northern diet.

  4. Translational research to reduce trans-fat intakes in Northern Québec (Nunavik) Inuit communities: a success story?

    PubMed Central

    Counil, Émilie; Gauthier, Marie-Josée; Blouin, Valérie; Grey, Minnie; Angiyou, Eli; Kauki, Takralik; Dewailly, Éric

    2012-01-01

    Following our results, based on population studies conducted in Greenland and Northern Canada, that Nunavik Inuit were thrice as highly exposed to dietary trans-fat as were Greenlandic Inuit, and that the biological levels found in Nunavik were already associated with deleterious blood lipid profiles, we decided to engage in translational activities. Our goal was to support Inuit communities in the practical implementation of a reduction of the trans-fat content of food sold in Nunavik. We carried out a preliminary feasibility study in Kuujjuaq and participated in several meetings. This translational phase involved an Inuk leader, an Inuk student, a southern student, a southern nutritionist and a southern researcher in the framework of a public health project. In the present article, we recount the different phases of the process, from research implementation to results dissemination and institutional commitment to implement a primary prevention program of reduction in trans-fat exposure in Nunavik. This is the occasion to draw broader conclusions on the factors that could either act in favour of or, on the contrary, would likely compromise the implementation of primary prevention interventions dealing with food and nutrition in the Arctic. Finally, we share some reflections on future translational activities dealing with trans-fat as well as other junk food issues. The analytical framework we propose integrates a range of factors, from geo-climatic to socio-economic, ethno-cultural, and even political, that we think should be examined while identifying and building preventive recommendations and strategies related to the Northern diet. PMID:22818719

  5. [Impact of income strategies on food security in rural Mayan communities in northern Campeche].

    PubMed

    Pat Fernández, Lucio A; Nahed Toral, José; Parra Vázquez, Manuel R; García Barrios, Luis; Nazar Beutelspacher, Austreberta; Bello Baltazar, Eduardo

    2010-03-01

    This paper examines the effect of income strategies on sufficiency of caloric intake in Mayan domestic groups (DG) of Campeche, Mexico. The analysis was based on the sustainable livelihoods approach. Information was obtained through a survey of households (N = 237) in four communities. The results reveal that all of the DG have diversified income strategies with clearly defined orientations. The caloric sufficiency index (CSI) is different (p < 0.05) among conglomerates (C) of DG and increases with the increase of the proportion of agricultural income in relation to total income. The wage labor strategy (37.6%) corresponding to C1 of DG (CSI-C = 0.69) and the agriculture-wage labor strategy (42.6%; CSI-C2 = 0.87) do not cover energy requirements of the DG. Only the agricultural strategy satisfies caloric intake needs (CSI-C3 = 1.09; CSI-C4 = 1.30) of the DG (19.8%). These results are associated with the heterogeneity of resources of the DG's, particularly, with the quality and extent of land, presence of producer organizations, and current rural policies. Implementation of differentiated local policies, interinstitutional coordination, and community participation could contribute to improving effectiveness of policies aimed at eradicating food insecurity.

  6. Macroinvertebrate Communities and Benthic Organic Matter in Sand Habitats of 15 Northern Michigan Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamuro, A. M.; Miesbauer, J. M.; Lamberti, G. A.

    2005-05-01

    Relationships between benthic organic matter (BOM) and macroinvertebrates have been well studied in streams with coarse substrates, but such relationships have been little studied in sand habitats, despite the abundance of sand in many streams. These relationships were investigated in sand habitats of 15 streams in three watersheds of the Ottawa National Forest, Michigan. Sand habitats in the 15 streams varied widely in mean total BOM quantity (112 to 1814 g AFDM·m-2) and size composition [very fine BOM (VFBOM, 0.45-250 μm), 0-58%; fine BOM (FBOM, 250 μm-1 mm), 11-27%; coarse BOM (CBOM, >1 mm), 27-81%] but differences were still detected among watersheds (VFBOM, ANOVA, F2,11 = 8.69, p = 0.005; CBOM, F2,11 = 11.15, p = 0.002). Sand-dwelling invertebrates were dominated by gathering-collectors, primarily Chironomidae (relative abundance = 73.6±15.4%; mean±SE; n = 15). Invertebrate biomass and mean body size differed among watersheds (biomass, F2,12 = 3.89, p = 0.050; body size, F2,12 = 6.12, p = 0.015). However, at this broad spatial scale, BOM quantity and quality had little effect on invertebrate community metrics in sand habitats. BOM content of sand habitats likely represents one factor, among many components of this dynamic habitat, which shapes overall macroinvertebrate communities.

  7. Methanogen communities and Bacteria along an ecohydrological gradient in a northern raised bog complex.

    PubMed

    Juottonen, Heli; Galand, Pierre E; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Laine, Jukka; Fritze, Hannu; Yrjälä, Kim

    2005-10-01

    Mires forming an ecohydrological gradient from nutrient-rich, groundwater-fed mesotrophic and oligotrophic fens to a nutrient-poor ombrotrophic bog were studied by comparing potential methane (CH(4)) production and methanogenic microbial communities. Methane production was measured from different depths of anoxic peat and methanogen communities were detected by detailed restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of clone libraries, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Potential CH(4) production changed along the ecohydrological gradient with the fens displaying much higher production than the ombrotrophic bog. Methanogen diversity also decreased along the gradient. The two fens had very similar diversity of methanogenic methyl-coenzyme M reductase gene (mcrA), but in the upper layer of the bog the methanogen diversity was strikingly lower, and only one type of mcrA sequence was retrieved. It was related to the Fen cluster, a group of novel methanogenic sequences found earlier in Finnish mires. Bacterial 16S rDNA sequences from the fens fell into at least nine phyla, but only four phyla were retrieved from the bog. The most common bacterial groups were Deltaproteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Acidobacteria.

  8. The community structure and seasonal dynamics of plankton in Bange Lake, northern Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wen; Zhao, Yuanyi; Wang, Qiaohan; Zheng, Mianping; Wei, Jie; Wang, Shan

    2016-11-01

    The seasonal variations in biomass, abundance, and species composition of plankton in relation to hydrography were studied in the saline Bange Lake, northern Tibet, China. Sampling was carried out between one to three times per month from May 2001 to July 2002. Salinity ranged from 14 to 146. The air and water temperature exhibited a clear seasonal pattern, and mean annual temperatures were approximately 4.8°C and 7.3°C, respectively. The lowest water temperature occurred in winter from December to March at -2°C and the highest in June and July at 17.7°C. Forty-one phytoplankton taxa, 21 zooplankton, and 5 benthic or facultative zooplankton were identified. The predominant phytoplankton species were Gloeothece linearis, Oscillatoria tenuis, Gloeocapsa punctata, Ctenocladus circinnatus, Dunaliella salina, and Spirulina major. The predominant zooplankton species included Holophrya actra, Brachionus plicatilis, Daphniopsis tibetana, Cletocamptus dertersi, and Arctodiaptomus salinus. The mean annual total phytoplankton density and biomass for the entire lake were 4.52×107 cells/L and 1.60 mg/L, respectively. The annual mean zooplankton abundance was 52, 162, 322, and 57, 144 ind./L, in the three sublakes. The annual mean total zooplankton biomass in Lakes 1-3 was 1.23, 9.98, and 2.13 mg/L, respectively. The annual mean tychoplankton abundances in Bg1, 2, and 3 were 47, 67, and 654 ind./L. The annual mean tychoplankton biomass was 2.36, 0.16, and 2.03 mg/L, respectively. The zooplankton biomass (including tychoplankton) in the lake was 9.11 mg/L. The total number of plankton species in the salt lake was significantly negatively correlated with salinity.

  9. Community participatory landscape classification and biodiversity assessment and monitoring of grazing lands in northern Kenya.

    PubMed

    Roba, Hassan G; Oba, Gufu

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we asked the Ariaal herders of northern Kenya to answer "why, what and how" they classified landscape, and assessed and monitored the biodiversity of 10 km(2) of grazing land. To answer the "why question" the herders classified grazing resources into 39 landscape patches grouped into six landscape types and classified soil as 'warm', 'intermediate' or 'cold' for the purpose of land use. For the "what question" the herders used soil conditions and vegetation characteristics to assess biodiversity. Plant species were described as 'increasers', 'decreasers' or 'stable'. The decreaser species were mostly grasses and forbs preferred for cattle and sheep grazing and the increasers were mostly woody species preferred by goats. The herders evaluated biodiversity in terms of key forage species and used absence or presence of the preferred species from individual landscapes for monitoring change in biodiversity. For the "how question" the herders used anthropogenic indicators concerned with livestock management for assessing landscape potential and suitability for grazing. The anthropogenic indicators were related to soils and biodiversity. The herders used plant species grazing preferences to determine the links between livestock production and biodiversity. By addressing these three questions, the study shows the value of incorporating the indigenous knowledge of herders into classification of landscape and assessment and monitoring of biodiversity in the grazing lands. We conclude that herder knowledge of biodiversity is related to the use as opposed to exclusive conservation practices. This type of knowledge is extremely valuable to conservation agencies for establishing a baseline for monitoring changes in biodiversity in the future.

  10. Thermophilization of adult and juvenile tree communities in the northern tropical Andes

    PubMed Central

    Duque, Alvaro; Stevenson, Pablo R.; Feeley, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to cause shifts in the composition of tropical montane forests towards increased relative abundances of species whose ranges were previously centered at lower, hotter elevations. To investigate this process of “thermophilization,” we analyzed patterns of compositional change over the last decade using recensus data from a network of 16 adult and juvenile tree plots in the tropical forests of northern Andes Mountains and adjacent lowlands in northwestern Colombia. Analyses show evidence that tree species composition is strongly linked to temperature and that composition is changing directionally through time, potentially in response to climate change and increasing temperatures. Mean rates of thermophilization [thermal migration rate (TMR), °C⋅y−1] across all censuses were 0.011 °C⋅y−1 (95% confidence interval = 0.002–0.022 °C⋅y−1) for adult trees and 0.027 °C⋅y−1 (95% confidence interval = 0.009–0.050 °C⋅y−1) for juvenile trees. The fact that thermophilization is occurring in both the adult and juvenile trees and at rates consistent with concurrent warming supports the hypothesis that the observed compositional changes are part of a long-term process, such as global warming, and are not a response to any single episodic event. The observed changes in composition were driven primarily by patterns of tree mortality, indicating that the changes in composition are mostly via range retractions, rather than range shifts or expansions. These results all indicate that tropical forests are being strongly affected by climate change and suggest that many species will be at elevated risk for extinction as warming continues. PMID:26261350

  11. Dissolved Organic Nitrogen Composition and Reactivity as a Function of Surface Vegetation and Microbial Community Structure in Northern Minnesota Peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, W. T.; Tfaily, M.; Podgorski, D.; Chanton, J.; Lin, X.; Kostka, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Peatlands sequester one-third of all soil carbon and currently act as major sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The ability to predict or simulate the fate of stored carbon in response to climatic disruption remains hampered by our limited understanding of the controls of carbon and nitrogen turnover and the composition and functioning of peatland microbial communities. Recent studies using some advanced analytical chemistry and microbial sequencing techniques, in particular ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) (Chanton et al., 2009; D'Andrilli J, et al.,2010) and bacterial/archaeal 16S rRNA sequencing (Lin X., et al., 2012) suggest that differences in enhanced carbon storage in northern peatlands that have been attributed to an inhibition of microbial metabolism can be identified and understood using this combined molecular-genetic approach. However, these studies have focused exclusively on dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In this presentation we report on similar molecular- and genetic-based studies that link microbial community structure and activity to the composition and reactivity of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in bog and fen sites dominated by contrasting plant species. These sites were located in the Glacial Lake Agassiz Peatland (GLAP) and Spruce and Peatland Response under Climatic and Environmental Change (SPRUCE) project area, both located in Northern Minnesota. Our study of DON reactivity was made possible by the recognition that positive- mode Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization (APPI) coupled to FT-ICR MS was able to selectively visualize the low-abundance organic nitrogen that is usually undetectable in the large background of dissolved organic carbon. This work was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation (NSF-EAR-0628349, NSF-DMR-06-54118) and Department of Energy (DE-SC0007144). Chanton JP, et al. (2008). Global Biogeochem Cy 22: GB4022, doi:4010.1029/2008GB003274. D

  12. Prevalence and Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in People of Rural Communities of the High Jungle of Northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Alroy, Karen A.; Huang, Christine; Gilman, Robert H.; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R.; Marks, Morgan A.; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Hillyard, Miranda; Verastegui, Manuela; Sanchez, Gerardo; Cabrera, Lilia; Vidal, Elisa; Billig, Erica M. W.; Cama, Vitaliano A.; Náquira, César; Bern, Caryn; Levy, Michael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background Vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi is seen exclusively in the Americas where an estimated 8 million people are infected with the parasite. Significant research in southern Peru has been conducted to understand T. cruzi infection and vector control, however, much less is known about the burden of infection and epidemiology in northern Peru. Methodology A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of T. cruzi infection in humans (n=611) and domestic animals [dogs (n=106) and guinea pigs (n=206)] in communities of Cutervo Province, Peru. Sampling and diagnostic strategies differed according to species. An entomological household study (n=208) was conducted to identify the triatomine burden and species composition, as well as the prevalence of T. cruzi in vectors. Electrocardiograms (EKG) were performed on a subset of participants (n=90 T. cruzi infected participants and 170 age and sex-matched controls). The seroprevalence of T. cruzi among humans, dogs, and guinea pigs was 14.9% (95% CI: 12.2 – 18.0%), 19.8% (95% CI: 12.7- 28.7%) and 3.3% (95% CI: 1.4 – 6.9%) respectively. In one community, the prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 17.2% (95% CI: 9.6 - 24.7%) among participants < 15 years, suggesting recent transmission. Increasing age, positive triatomines in a participant's house, and ownership of a T. cruzi positive guinea pig were independent correlates of T. cruzi infection. Only one species of triatomine was found, Panstrongylus lignarius, formerly P. herreri. Approximately forty percent (39.9%, 95% CI: 33.2 - 46.9%) of surveyed households were infested with this vector and 14.9% (95% CI: 10.4 - 20.5%) had at least one triatomine positive for T. cruzi. The cardiac abnormality of right bundle branch block was rare, but only identified in seropositive individuals. Conclusions Our research documents a substantial prevalence of T. cruzi infection in Cutervo and highlights a need for greater attention and vector

  13. Photosynthesis irradiance parameters and community structure associated with coastal filaments and adjacent waters in the northern Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toon, Rory K.; Lohrenz, Steven E.; Rathbun, Catherine E.; Michelle Wood, A.; Arnone, Robert A.; Jones, Burton H.; Kindle, John C.; Weidemann, Alan D.

    Comparisons were made among size-fractionated photosynthesis-irradiance ( P- E) parameters, chlorophyll a size distributions, and accessory pigment composition of natural phytoplankton assemblages in filaments, coastal upwelling waters, and an oligotrophic region of the northern Arabian Sea during the Fall Intermonsoon in 1995. Differences between P- E parameters, PBmax and αB, were observed between filaments and adjacent waters and were associated with differences in phytoplankton community structure. In a southern filament and coastal upwelled waters, the majority of the estimated biomass (chlorophyll a) was present in the larger (2-20 and 20-200 μm) size fractions; dominant accessory pigments were 19'-butanoyloxyfucoxanthin and peridinin. In higher salinity waters, high percentages of chlorophyll a and lutein/zeaxanthin were observed in the smallest size-fraction (<2 μm). Whole water values of PBmax ranged from 1.77 to 2.31 (g C g chl a-1 h -1) when the majority of the biomass was in the largest fractions. Higher values (more than 4.48 g C g chl a-1 h -1) were determined in whole water samples for communities comprised primarily of small cells. A size dependence was also observed in the value of αB, 0.017 or greater (g C g chl a-1 h -1)/(μmol quanta m -2 s -1) for whole water samples at stations dominated by small cells and 0.013 when derived from stations dominated by large cells. The observed pattern of larger phytoplankton associated with upwelling and filament waters was consistent with previous investigations and was, for the most part, comparable to findings in the California Current system. Our results show that differences in taxonomic composition and photosynthetic characteristics were indeed present between filament waters and other distinct regions; these results suggest that taxonomic variations may be associated with size-related variations in P- E parameters. Our findings provide a unique data set describing filament biology in the northern

  14. Distribution and community characteristics of staging shorebirds on the northern coast of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Audrey R.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Powell, Abby N.; Huettmann, Falk; Nigro, Debora A.; Kendall, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    Avian studies conducted in the 1970s on Alaska’s Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) indicated that coastal littoral habitats are important to Arctic-breeding shorebirds for staging prior to fall migration. However, relatively little recent, broad-scale, or quantitative information exists on shorebird use of staging areas in this region. To locate possible shorebird concentration areas in the littoral zone of the ACP, we conducted aerial surveys from the southwest end of Kasegaluk Lagoon on the Chukchi Sea to Demarcation Point on the Beaufort Sea during the summers of 2005–07. These surveys identified persistent within- and between-year concentrations of staging shorebirds at Peard Bay, Point Barrow/Elson Lagoon, Cape Simpson, and Smith Bay to Cape Halkett. Among river deltas in the Beaufort Sea, the Sagavanirktok and Kongakut deltas had large concentrations of staging shorebirds. We also collected data on shorebird community characteristics, staging phenology, and habitat use in 2005 and 2006 by conducting land-based surveys at six camps: Kasegaluk Lagoon, Peard Bay, Point Barrow/Elson Lagoon, Colville Delta, Sagavanirktok Delta, and Okpilak Delta. The shorebird community was more even and diverse (evenness E and Shannon Weiner H’) along the Beaufort Sea compared to the Chukchi Sea and in 2005 versus 2006. Staging phenology varied by species and location and differed for several species from that reported in previous studies. Our results suggest the existence of three foraging habitat guilds among the shorebird species observed in this study: gravel beach, mudflat, and salt marsh/pond edge. A comparison to data collected in the mid-1970s suggests that these foraging associations are conserved through time. Results from this research will be useful to land managers for monitoring the effects of changing environmental conditions and human activity on shorebirds and their habitats in Arctic Alaska.

  15. Effects of the bloom of harmful benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata on the microphytobenthos community in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Accoroni, Stefano; Romagnoli, Tiziana; Pichierri, Salvatore; Totti, Cecilia

    2016-05-01

    Composition and temporal variation of the microphytobenthos communities of the Conero Riviera (northern Adriatic Sea) were investigated in the course of an annual cycle, focusing on their relationships with blooms of the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata. Sampling was carried out from March 2009 to March 2010 on undisturbed benthic substrata (macroalgae and pebbles). Samples for the study of microphytobenthos were collected with a monthly frequency, while those for the study of Ostreopsis bloom weekly. Benthic diatoms dominated the microphytobenthos communities for most of the annual cycle (except the summer), both in terms of abundance and biomass. In summer, cyanobacteria were dominant (54.04±9.18 and 24.29±11.11% of total abundance and biomass, respectively), while benthic dinoflagellates were an important component of the community in terms of biomass only at the peak of the Ostreopsis bloom in late summer (up to 91% of the total biomass). Among diatoms, the most abundant forms throughout the year were motile species (77.5±3.71% of the population), while erect diatoms formed the majority of the biomass in winter and spring (48.66±16.66 and 48.05±5.56% of total population, respectively). Diatoms were mainly affected by DIN availability, while the patterns of biomass of O. cf. ovata and cyanobacteria were related to salinity and temperature. The biomass of Ostreopsis was also affected by the availability of phosphorus. The results of this study suggest that the proliferation of Ostreopsis affected the structure of the benthic diatom community: motile diatoms were significantly more abundant during the Ostreopsis bloom peak than during the rest of summer, probably because they benefited from the abundant mucilaginous mat covering the benthic substrata. In the course of the O. cf. ovata bloom the diversity of the microphytobenthos was significantly lower than during the rest of the year, suggesting an influence of both the shading produced by the

  16. Protectionist Measures in Postsecondary Ontario (Canada) TESL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambor, Paul Z.

    2012-01-01

    TESL in Ontario, Canada, seems to be on an inauspicious path by having set up non-tariff protectionist measures in an apparent attempt to keep out a multinational TESL workforce, effectively going against the spirit of globalization. This paper highlights some of the differences between South Korean TEFL and TESL in Ontario; for the most part…

  17. Examining Competition in Ontario's Higher Education Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farhan, Bayan Yousef

    2017-01-01

    Financial challenges have forced many publicly funded academic institutions in Ontario to adopt a corporate model and to use market tools to compete in the higher education market and maintain their enrolment and revenue levels. This study has analyzed how competition affects publicly funded universities in Ontario. Competition was examined by…

  18. Libraries in Ontario: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/ontario.html Libraries in Ontario To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Barrie Royal Victoria Regional Health Centre Health Library 201 Georgian Drive Barrie, ON L4M 6M2 CANADA ...

  19. Valuing and Sustaining (or Not) the Ability of Volunteer Community Health Workers to Deliver Integrated Community Case Management in Northern Ghana: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Karen; Sanders, David; Daviaud, Emmanuelle; Doherty, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    Background Within the integrated community case management of childhood illnesses (iCCM) programme, the traditional health promotion and prevention role of community health workers (CHWs) has been expanded to treatment. Understanding both the impact and the implementation experience of this expanded role are important. In evaluating UNICEF’s implementation of iCCM, this qualitative case study explores the implementation experience in Ghana. Methods and Findings Data were collected through a rapid appraisal using focus groups and individual interviews during a field visit in May 2013 to Accra and the Northern Region of Ghana. We sought to understand the experience of iCCM from the perspective of locally based UNICEF staff, their partners, researchers, Ghana health services management staff, CHWs and their supervisors, nurses in health facilities and mothers receiving the service. Our analysis of the findings showed that there is an appreciation both by mothers and by facility level staff for the contribution of CHWs. Appreciation was expressed for the localisation of the treatment of childhood illness, thus saving mothers from the effort and expense of having to seek treatment outside of the village. Despite an overall expression of value for the expanded role of CHWs, we also found that there were problems in supporting and sustaining their efforts. The data showed concern around CHWs being unpaid, poorly supervised, regularly out of stock, lacking in essential equipment and remaining outside the formal health system. Conclusions Expanding the roles of CHWs is important and can be valuable, but contextual and health system factors threaten the sustainability of iCCM in Ghana. In this and other implementation sites, policymakers and key donors need to take into account historical lessons from the CHW literature, while exploring innovative and sustainable mechanisms to secure the programme as part of a government owned and government led strategy. PMID:26079713

  20. "And then you'll see her in the grocery store": the working relationships of public health nurses and high-priority families in northern Canadian communities.

    PubMed

    Moules, Nancy J; MacLeod, Martha L P; Thirsk, Lorraine M; Hanlon, Neil

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the study is to examine and articulate the nature of working relationships of public health nurses and high-priority families in small communities in northern Canada. Public health nurses working in northern, rural, and remote communities face unique and varied challenges. Reportedly, the hardest part of their job is working with families who have been deemed high priority or high risk. Working with these families in these contexts relies on relationships of reciprocity, trust, and communication. This qualitative research was guided by an interpretive hermeneutic inquiry; 32 families, 25 public health nurses, and three lay home visitors were interviewed from July 2005 through July 2006. Analysis was completed individually and through teamwork of the researchers. Findings suggest that the working relationship of public health nurses and high-priority families in northern communities is complex and multifaceted. Nurses carefully negotiate the process of engaging and entering relationships, maintaining the relationships, and negotiating boundaries. The analysis offers insight into the everyday practices and problems that public health nurses and families encounter in providing care to a vulnerable, isolated, and often marginalized population while navigating the complexity of living and working in the same small communities.

  1. Dissolution cavities in upper Ordovician sandstones from Lake Ontario: analogs to vesiculated rocks on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiGregorio, Barry E.

    2003-02-01

    Fossiliferous sandstones of the Upper Ordovician (Lorraine Group) found along the Erie-Ontario Lowlands represent near-shore marine invertebrate communities which dominated the warm shallow sea that existed in this region 450 my ago. Subsequent glacial scouring and breakup of this ancient seabed during the Pleistocene resulted in its being buried under glacial sediments and soil. Then over a period of thousands of years, mild carbonic acid from rainwater mixed with humic acids from soil percolated through the sandstones and dissolved the entombed fossils leaving only dissolution cavities. This same process is how caves and karst features are formed. Rocks imaged by NASA"s Viking 2 lander in 1976 revealed ubiquitous "vesicles" that to this day remain enigmatic because the mineralogy of Martian rocks has not been adequately analyzed to date. Neither a sedimentary nor a volcanic origin for the rocks has been firmly established. Furthermore, proposed theories on the evolution of the Utopia Basin near the Viking 2 landing site include an ancient shallow ocean and glacial scouring. If Mars did indeed have an ocean at one point in its history, then the question must be asked "Did Martian lakes and oceans also have time enough for the development of life and ultimately to the multicellular stage that may have left traces of their existence as dissolution cavities? In this report, attention is drawn to the morphological similarities of biogenic dissolution cavities in terrestrial sandstones and in the near-field rocks at the Viking 2 landing site on Mars. The Beagle 2 astrobiology lander, part of the ESA"s Mars Express mission in 2003, will once again land in the northern plains of Mars not far from the shoreline of the proposed northern ocean basin. A comparison of the rocks from the Beagle 2 landing site to those at Viking 2 may shed further light on whether they are sedimentary or volcanic in origin, and, of greatest interest, whether the vesicles in the Martian rocks

  2. Phytoplankton Productivity and Community Structure Changes in the Northern South China Sea during the Last 260 Ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J.; Zhao, M.; Li, L.; Wang, P.

    2010-12-01

    Here we present a molecular organic geochemistry study with core MD05-2904 (19°27.32’N, 116°15.15’E) located in the northern South China Sea. A multi-biomarkers-based approach was applied to assess the paleo-phytoplankton productivity and its community structure, with alkenones, dinosterol, brassicasterol, C30 alkyl diols and cholesterol representing haptophytes, dinoglagellates, diatoms, eustigmatophytes, and zooplankton respectively. The contents of the biomarkers indicate that the productivity of the individual phytoplankton groups generally follow glacial/ interglacial patterns with high values in glacials, and low values in interglacials. The relative abundance of each phytoplanktonic biomarker demonstrates that the community structure of phytoplankton was relatively stable, showing no major glacial-interglacial changes. Diatoms, dinoflagellates and eustigmatophytes, differing from haptophytes, changed similarly. And the phenomenon was prominent over the last 125 ka. Despite the high contents of haptophytes and eustigmatophytes in the sediments, diatoms and dinoflagellates were the main primary producer in the planktonic ecosystem during the last 260 ka. And the spectrum analysis of these biomarkers show strong precession period (23.8ka). These results demonstrate close link between records of paleo-productivity, winter monsoon and insolation. During glacials, strong winter monsoon led to a development of deep-mixing surface layer conditions and a more efficient nutrient cycling, which enhanced marine productivity. While in the interglacials, weaker winter monsoon winds resulted in a more stratified water column and reduced marine productivity. In addition, changes of terrestrial material input may also play a role in marine productivity. However, the mechanisms that control the productivities of individual phytoplankton varieties are still unknown.

  3. Habitat characteristics influence macrofaunal communities in coralline turf more than mesoscale coastal upwelling on the coast of Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelaher, Brendan P.; Carlos Castilla, Juan

    2005-04-01

    Rocky shore communities are often influenced by near-shore coastal upwelling. For macrofauna in algal turf, these effects may be caused directly by well-studied bottom-up mechanisms or indirectly via changes in habitat structure provided by algal turf associated high nutrient loads. Here, we investigated possible interactions between upwelling and habitat structure by sampling diverse faunal assemblages in coralline algal turf on seven rocky intertidal shores in northern Chile, ranging from El Cobre [23°17'1″S, 70°31'40″W] to La Lobería [23°03'40″S, 70°33'14″W]. Some of these shores were located adjacent to strong upwelling centers, while others were in areas rarely affected. On each shore, we sampled four (2 × 2 m) sites separated by 15-50 m. In each site, we collected three replicate cores (80 mm in diameter) from which we measured macrofauna greater than 850 μm, biomass of sediment and epiphytes, frond density and average frond length. We used mean water temperature and its variation at 1-1.5 m water depth (below Extreme Low Water Spring, ELWS) to represent local upwelling intensity because long-term data have shown that these variables make excellent indicators for this region. In total, we found 94 macrofaunal taxa in coralline turf, which is almost three times higher than has previously been reported in Chile. Although macrofaunal assemblages varied significantly among shores, there were no patterns to suggest mesoscale variation in upwelling intensity affected either faunal assemblages or local habitat characteristics. In contrast, multivariate and univariate correlations highlighted sediment and frond density as strong determinants of community structure. We therefore conclude that traditionally studied habitat characteristics, such as structural complexity and habitat heterogeneity, have greater influence on faunal assemblages in mat-like habitats on rocky shores than environmental variables associated with mesoscale coastal upwelling.

  4. The mycorrhizal community in a forest chronosequence of Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.] in Northern England.

    PubMed

    Palfner, Götz; Casanova-Katny, M Angélica; Read, David J

    2005-11-01

    Demography and fungal diversity of the belowground ectomycorrhizal community in a chronosequence of Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.] in Northumberland, Northern England, were analysed; mycorrhizal root samples were taken from 6-, 12-, 30- and 40-year-old stands, and fungal fruiting bodies were collected in autumn to complement the survey. Naturally germinated seedlings less than 1 year of age (taken from the 30-year-old stand) were also examined. A total of 118,000 mycorrhizal root tips were extracted from 40 soil cores (ten per age class) and from the complete root systems of 25 seedlings and separated into active and senescent root tips according to their morphology and anatomy. Active tips were distinguished according to their mycobionts which were characterised and identified microscopically. Although almost 100% of all fine roots were mycorrhizal, EM fungal diversity throughout the chronosequence was low, consisting of a total of 16 species of which three were only found as fruiting bodies. Of the six mycobionts found most regularly below ground, Tylospora fibrillosa was the most common, colonising about 70% of all root tips and more than 90% of those of seedlings and young trees. Root density and mycorrhizal diversity increased, but percentage of vital root tips decreased with increasing tree age, levelling off in the 30- and 40-year-old stand. Among the five subdominant fungal species, Dermocybe crocea was found to have its peak of distribution in the 12-year-old stand and Russula emetica, Lactarius rufus, Hymenoscyphus ericae agg. and the unidentified Piceirhiza sulfo-incrustata in the 30- and 40-year-old stands. The possible correlations between the mycorrhizal community structure and biotic and abiotic factors are discussed.

  5. Community structure of epiphytic algae on three different macrophytes at Acarlar floodplain forest (northern Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunca, Hatice; Ongun Sevindik, Tuğba; Bal, Dilek Nur; Arabaci, Sevil

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the species composition, biodiversity and, relative abundance of epiphytic algae and their relationship with environmental variables on three different macrophytes ( Nymphaea alba, Ceratophyllum demersum, Typha latifolia ) at Acarlar Floodplain Forest (AFF). Epiphytic algae were gathered monthly by collecting aquatic plants between November 2011 and October 2012, except in winter when there were no plants. In this study, 67 taxa on N. alba, 66 taxa on C. demersum and 66 taxa on T. latifolia were identified as epiphytic algae. The mean value of species richness was 17, that of diversity was 1.5 and that of evenness was 0.54 for epiphytic algae on N. alba, 17, 1.1, and 0.39 on C. demersum, and 18, 1.64, and 0.56 on T. latifolia, respectively. Oscillatoria sp. and Komvophoron crassum (Vozzen) Anagnostidis and Komárek were the most abundant and consistent epiphytic algal species, occurring in high abundance on all macrophytes. Results show that species composition of epiphytic algae was different, but diversity values were similar on all the macrophytes. The hydrological pulse is one of the most important factors determining the physical and chemical environment of the epiphytic algal community. However, substrate type also affected the colonization by F. capucina, O. sancta, P. catenata, and L. truncicola more than the epiphytic algal seasonality.

  6. Uniting and networking the magnetic community in the northern Indian Ocean region - MAGNIO - a new initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Kusumita

    2015-04-01

    The North Indian Ocean (NIO) - a region of sparse data coverage - is a prime location for the measurement and study of variations of the geomagnetic field, where the effects of the Equatorial Electrojet (EEJ) and Solar quiet (Sq) currents as well as lithospheric configuration, are yet to be delineated. Ground based measurements of magnetic variations with a time resolution of one minute or better in the NIO region would provide an ideal window of opportunity to augment satellite measurements (SWARM). As the dip equator passes through the NIO, the magnetic field here can be subject to rapid change. Therefore it is felt that forging collaborative scientific links between the scientists and stakeholder communities of these nations is vital. In recognition of the significance of a regional initiative, the International Council of Science (ICSU) has awarded the MAGNIO project to the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG), to undertake activities necessary to put further medium and long term endeavors in place. The MAGNIO proposal aims to bring all NIO magnetic observatories and organisations using magnetic data together, along with relevant stakeholders. The line of action to be adopted for the fulfillment of MAGNIO objectives is presented. Critical issues of trust development, communication establishment, internet usage, role of mentors and policymankers, which could construct the requisite links to bring about such a collaborration and take it forward are discussed.

  7. Office blood pressure measurement practices among community health providers (medical and paramedical) in northern district of India

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Bishav; Aslam, Naved; Ralhan, Upma; Sharma, Sarit; Gupta, Naveen; Singh, Vivudh Pratap; Takkar, Shibba; Wander, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hypertension is directly responsible for 57% of all stroke deaths and 24% of all coronary heart disease deaths in India. Appropriate blood pressure measurement techniques are the cornerstone of clinical acumen. Despite the clear guidelines on BP measurement technique, there seems to be large inter-observer variations. Aim & methods A prospective, observational study was done to assess the knowledge and to study the current practices of office BP measurement among the 400 medical and paramedical staff working in various hospitals of a northern district of India. A single observer under the supervision of investigators observed all the participants and a proforma was filled based on AHA guidelines. After observing BP measurement technique scoring was done (≤8 question correct = inaccurate practices, >9 questions correct = accurate practices). Similarly, the knowledge was assessed by giving a pretested questionnaire. Results 5.85 % of the medical staff had excellent knowledge and 80% of the doctors and 62% of the paramedical staff had good knowledge about BPM. Only 1.47% (3 doctors) and 0.5% (1 nurse) had accurate practices. There was no correlation between knowledge and practices. Conclusions We conclude that the right technique and knowledge of blood pressure measurement among community health providers is inadequate and warrants further interventions to improve. PMID:25173197

  8. Responses of microbial community from northern Gulf of Mexico sandy sediments following exposure to Deepwater Horizon crude oil.

    PubMed

    Horel, Agota; Mortazavi, Behzad; Sobecky, Patricia A

    2012-05-01

    In the present study, microbial community responses to exposure to unweathered Macondo Well crude oil and conventional diesel in a sandy beach environment were determined. Biodegradation was assessed in mesocosm experiments with differing fuel amounts (2,000 and 4,000 mg/kg) and with or without inorganic nutrient amendment. Carbon dioxide production was measured daily for 42 d. Aerobic alkane, total hydrocarbon, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degraders were enumerated in treated and control mesocosms and changes in their abundances were measured weekly. Hydrocarbon mineralization occurred in all treatments. In the inorganic nutrient-amended treatments, the degradation rates were 2.31 and 2.00 times greater in the 2,000 mg/kg diesel and crude oil treatments, respectively, and 3.52 (diesel) and 4.14 (crude) times higher for the fuel types at the 4,000 mg/kg fuel concentrations compared to unamended treatments. Microbial lag phases were short (<3 d) and alkane and total hydrocarbon degrader numbers increased by five orders of magnitude compared to the uncontaminated treatments within 7 d in most treatments. Hydrocarbon degrader numbers in diesel and in crude oil treatments were similar; however, the PAH degraders were more abundant in the crude oil relative to diesel treatment. These findings indicate that hydrocarbon degradation by extant microbial populations in the northern Gulf of Mexico sandy beach environments can be stimulated and enhanced by inorganic nutrient addition.

  9. Toward a culturally sensitive conceptualization of resilience: Participatory research with war-affected communities in northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Vindevogel, Sofie; Ager, Alastair; Schiltz, Julie; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2015-06-01

    Resilience research with war-affected populations has long conceptualized resilience as the absence of psychopathology and operationalized it by use of standardized measures. However, literature on resilience increasingly highlights the importance of also including indicators of positively valued functioning as well as contextually sensitive indicators of resilience. This study used a participatory approach to examine the contextual conceptualization of youth resilience in the aftermath of war in northern Uganda, as defined by groups of stakeholders (youths, parents, elders, leaders, teachers) in four communities. The results identify 40 indicators covering a multiplicity of domains of functioning. The rationales behind these indicators were clustered into the broad themes: progress, self-reliance, social connectedness, morality, health, and comfort. The findings suggest that positively and negatively valued aspects of functioning are both key to conceptualizing resilience, and indicate the importance of including contextually distinguished indicators. The findings further point to the role of individual and collective processes in the construction of resilience, and to the need to take into account the contexts wherein resilience is conceptualized and observed. This study generated contextually sensitive indicators of young people's resilience, which can be used, complementary to existing measures of functioning, to provide a more comprehensive and culturally sensitive view of youths' resilience in the wake of war adversity.

  10. Life history analysis of HIV/AIDS-affected households in rice and cassava-based farming communities in Northern Malawi.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Midori; van Huis, Arnold; Jiggins, Janice

    2010-10-01

    The "New Variant Famine" hypothesis proposed that AIDS offers a major challenge to food security in this part of Africa by impairing the functioning of traditional support systems, leading to the collapse of "social immunity". This study explores the changing perceptions of HIV and AIDS and peoples' responses to its impact by eliciting life history narratives of 30 respondents in Northern Malawi. We classified respondents by means of gender, livelihood systems and AIDS impact levels. Respondents reported a range of critical events, recorded in the life histories, that threatened their "social immunity", including deaths, sicknesses, migration, marriages and divorces, and dropping out of school; i.e., a greater range of risks than AIDS alone, that need to be recognised in HIV and AIDS programming. For the respondents who were classified as "AIDS-affected", learning about their seropositive status was found to be an important, and in some cases a positive, turning point in their lives in terms of behavioural changes, such as joining support groups and opening up to discussion of the implications of their status. The emerging social organisations could re-create social capacity and check the downward spiral proposed by the "New Variant Famine" hypothesis. To promote this shift and to confer a higher level of "social immunity", investments in expanding access to voluntary counselling and testing and antiretroviral therapy services, and assistance to community-based organisations would be essential.

  11. Parenting correlates of child behavior problems in a multiethnic community sample of preschool children in northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Javo, Cecilie; Rønning, John A; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Rudmin, Floyd Webster

    2004-02-01

    A multiethnic community sample of 191 families with four-year-old children in northern Norway was used to explore whether parenting factors were associated with child behavior problems, and whether these associations differed for boys and girls or for the two main ethnic groups in this region: the indigenous Sami and the majority Norwegians. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and a semi-structured interview on child-rearing were used as instruments. As would be expected from a developmental perspective, elevated scores of child behavior problems were associated with lower levels of parental cuddling and with higher levels of physical punishment. Family demographics such as low maternal age and single parenthood were also associated with more behavioral problems. Girls seemed to be more strongly influenced by child-rearing factors than boys. Subgroup analyses suggested that for harsh treatment, patterns of correlations differed between Sami and Norwegian groups, especially for boys. A positive correlation between physical punishment and externalizing problems emerged for Norwegian boys, but not for Sami boys. Teasing/ridiculing was positively correlated with internalizing problems for Norwegian boys, but inversely correlated for Sami boys. These findings emphasize the importance of taking the child's cultural context and gender into account when assessing parenting influences on behavioral problems in children.

  12. The potential impact of bedform migration on seagrass communities in Torres Strait, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James J.; Harris, Peter T.; Hughes, Michael G.; Hemer, Mark; Heap, Andrew

    2008-09-01

    Seagrass communities in the northwest of Torres Strait are known to disappear episodically over broad areas. Sediment mobility surveys were undertaken within two study areas during the monsoon and trade wind seasons, in the vicinity of Turnagain Island, to find out if the migration of bedforms could explain this disappearance. The two study areas covered sand bank and sand dune environments to compare and contrast their migration characteristics. Repeat multibeam sonar surveys were used to measure dune-crest migration during each season. Our results show that seagrass beds occur in the troughs of sediment-starved dunes, but no seagrass occurs in association with full-bedded dunes that are superimposed on large sand bank features. The coincidence of seagrass beds with the sediment-starved dunes is in spite of the fact that they migrate faster (0.59 m day -1) than full-bedded dunes (0.13 m day -1), which indicates that some other factor (other than dune migration rate) limits seagrass growth within Torres Strait. We suggest that seagrasses are unable to colonise full-bedded dunes because of the semi-continuously transported sand that characterises this environment. In contrast, the troughs of sediment-starved dunes experience only limited bedload transport and are less hostile for seagrasses. A conceptual model is presented to explain the occurrence of seagrass beds in relation to their proximity to migrating sand dunes. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the widespread dieback of seagrasses documented for the Turnagain Island region was not caused by dune migration.

  13. When a community hospital becomes an academic health centre.

    PubMed

    Topps, Maureen; Strasser, Roger

    2010-01-01

    With the burgeoning role of distributed medical education and the increasing use of community hospitals for training purposes, challenges arise for undergraduate and postgraduate programs expanding beyond traditional tertiary care models. It is of vital importance to encourage community hospitals and clinical faculty to embrace their roles in medical education for the 21st century. With no university hospitals in northern Ontario, the Northern Ontario School of Medicine and its educational partner hospitals identified questions of concern and collaborated to implement changes. Several themes emerged that are of relevance to any medical educational program expanding beyond its present location. Critical areas for attention include the institutional culture; human, physical and financial resources; and support for educational activities. It is important to establish and maintain the groundwork necessary for the development of thriving integrated community-engaged medical education. Done in tandem with advocacy for change in funding models, this will allow movement beyond the current educational environment. The ultimate goal is successful integration of university and accreditation ideals with practical hands-on medical care and education in new environments.

  14. Adherence to hypertension medication: Quantitative and qualitative investigations in a rural Northern Vietnamese community

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thi-Phuong-Lan; Schuiling-Veninga, Catharina C. M.; Nguyen, Thi Bach Yen; Vu, Thu-Hang; Wright, E. Pamela; Postma, Maarten J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The purposes of this study were to assess the adherence to medication of hypertensive patients visiting community health stations in a rural area in Vietnam, to examine the relationship between levels of adherence and cardiovascular risk among hypertensive patients and to further understand factors influencing adherence. Methods This study is part of a prospective one-year study conducted on hypertension management in a population aged 35 to 64 years. Data on age, sex, blood pressure and blood test results were collected at baseline. Cardiovascular risk was based on the Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Model for populations in Asia. To calculate medication adherence, the number of days the drug was taken was divided by the number of days since the first day of the prescription. A threshold of 80% was applied to differentiate between adherence and non-adherence. In-depth interviews were conducted among 18 subjects, including subjects classified as adherent and as non-adherent. Results Among 315 patients analyzed, 49.8% of the patients were adherent. Qualitative investigation revealed discrepancies in classification of adherence and non-adherence based on quantitative analysis and interviews. No significant difference in medication compliance between two cardiovascular disease risk groups (<10% vs. >10% risk) was found, also not after controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio at 1.068; 95% CI: 0.614 to 1.857). The odds of medication adherence in females was 1.531 times higher than in males but the difference was not statistically significant (95% CI: 0.957 to 2.448). Each one-year increase in age resulted in patients being 1.036 times more likely to be compliant (95% CI: 1.002 to 1.072). Awareness of complications related to hypertension was given as the main reason for adherence to therapy. Conclusions Medication adherence rate was relatively low among hypertensive subjects. The data suggest that rather than risk profile, the factor of

  15. Multispecialty physician networks in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Stukel, Therese A; Glazier, Richard H; Schultz, Susan E; Guan, Jun; Zagorski, Brandon M; Gozdyra, Peter; Henry, David A

    2013-01-01

    Background Large multispecialty physician group practices, with a central role for primary care practitioners, have been shown to achieve high-quality, low-cost care for patients with chronic disease. We assessed the extent to which informal multispecialty physician networks in Ontario could be identified by using health administrative data to exploit natural linkages among patients, physicians, and hospitals based on existing patient flow. Methods We linked each Ontario resident to his or her usual provider of primary care over the period from fiscal year 2008/2009 to fiscal year 2010/2011. We linked each specialist to the hospital where he or she performed the most inpatient services. We linked each primary care physician to the hospital where most of his or her ambulatory patients were admitted for non-maternal medical care. Each resident was then linked to the same hospital as his or her usual provider of primary care. We computed “loyalty” as the proportion of care to network residents provided by physicians and hospitals within their network. Smaller clusters were aggregated to create networks based on a minimum population size, distance, and loyalty. Networks were not constrained geographically. Results We identified 78 multispecialty physician networks, comprising 12 410 primary care physicians, 14 687 specialists, and 175 acute care hospitals serving a total of 12 917 178 people. Median network size was 134 723 residents, 125 primary care physicians, and 143 specialists. Virtually all eligible residents were linked to a usual provider of primary care and to a network. Most specialists (93.5%) and primary care physicians (98.2%) were linked to a hospital. Median network physician loyalty was 68.4% for all physician visits and 81.1% for primary care visits. Median non-maternal admission loyalty was 67.4%. Urban networks had lower loyalties and were less self-contained but had more health care resources. Interpretation We demonstrated the feasibility

  16. Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario. Background Papers on Current Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario, Willowdale.

    Background information is provided on a number of conditions affecting Ontario's community colleges. The first section, dealing with financial issues, considers the college environment in the 1980s; examines the provincial government's perspective on priorities, the allocation process, government funding, and budgetary expenditures and trends; and…

  17. Juggling Multiple Accountability Systems: How Three Principals Manage These Tensions in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Katina; Winton, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Accountability in education is not new. Schools have always been accountable in one way or another to the communities they serve, regardless of the policy environment of the time (Elmore, "The Educational Forum," 69:134-142, 2005). This article explores how three principals from Ontario, Canada manage the tensions of multiple…

  18. Rates of Mental Illness and Associated Academic Impacts in Ontario's College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Alana; Silvestri, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Staff at campus-based counselling and disability centres in 15 of Ontario's 24 community colleges completed 3,536 surveys on 1,964 individual students querying the presence of mental illness and academic challenges as reported by students accessing these services. Survey data were analyzed to determine prevalence rates of mental disorders and…

  19. What's Ailing Ontario's Colleges and What Can Faculty Do about It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedderson, Kim

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the problems facing Ontario's community colleges' faculty as educators whose "craft" is to teach. The author contends that the problems educators face haven't really been the focus of the three constituencies that have dominated the conversations about the colleges: (1) college management; (2) the…

  20. Youth Environmental Science Outreach in the Mushkegowuk Territory of Subarctic Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karagatzides, Jim D.; Kozlovic, Daniel R.; De Iuliis, Gerry; Liberda, Eric N.; General, Zachariah; Liedtke, Jeff; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Gomez, Natalya; Metatawabin, Daniel; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2011-01-01

    We connected youth of the Mushkegowuk Territory (specifically Fort Albany First Nation) with environmental science and technology mentors in an outreach program contextualized to subarctic Ontario that addressed some of the environmental concerns identified by members of Fort Albany First Nation. Most activities were community-based centering on…

  1. A Reexamination of Ontario's Science Curriculum: Toward a More Inclusive Multicultural Science Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujawamariya, Donatille; Hujaleh, Filsan; Lima-Kerckhoff, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    The rapid diversification of communities in Ontario has necessitated the provincial government to reevaluate public school curriculums and policies to make schools more inclusive and reflective of its diverse population. This article critically analyzes the content of the latest revised science curricula for Grades 1 to 10 and assesses the degree…

  2. Hospital Utilization among Persons with an Intellectual Disability, Ontario, Canada, 1995-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balogh, Robert S.; Hunter, Duncan; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene

    2005-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that persons with an intellectual disability consume a disproportionate amount of hospital services. Policy changes in Ontario in the 1970s and 1980s made it necessary for community health services to accommodate this population that formerly received most of its medical care in the institutions where they lived.…

  3. Transported acid aerosols measured in southern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeler, Gerald J.; Spengler, John D.; Koutrakis, Petros; Allen, George A.; Raizenne, Mark; Stern, Bonnie

    During the period 29 June 1986-9 August 1986, a field health study assessing the acute health effects of air pollutants on children was conducted at a summer girls' camp on the northern shore of Lake Erie in SW Ontario. Continuous air pollution measurements of SO 2, O 3, NO x, particulate sulfates, light scattering, and meteorological measurements including temperature, dew point, and wind speed and direction were made. Twelve-hour integrated samples of size fractioned particles were also obtained using dichotomous samplers and Harvard impactors equipped with an ammonia denuder for subsequent hydrogen ion determination. Particulate samples were analyzed for trace elements by X-ray fluorescence and Neutron Activation, and for organic and elemental carbon by a thermal/optical technique. The measured aerosol was periodically very acidic with observed 12-h averaged H + concentrations in the range < 10-560 nmoles m -3. The aerosol H + appeared to represent the net strong acidity after H 2SO 4 reaction with NH 3(g). Average daytime concentrations were higher than night-time for aerosol H +, sulfate, fine mass and ozone. Prolonged episodes of atmospheric acidity, sulfate, and ozone were associated with air masses arriving at the measurement site from the west and from the southwest over Lake Erie. Sulfate concentrations measured at the lakeshore camp were more than twice those measured at inland sites during extreme pollution episodes. The concentration gradient observed with onshore flow was potentially due to enhanced deposition near the lakeshore caused by discontinuities in the meteorological fields in this region.

  4. College Perspective '76: A Productive Past: A Perplexing Present: Where Do We Go From Here? Proceedings, Annual International Institute on the Community College (7th, Lambton College, Sarnia, Ontario, Canada, June 14-17, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgrosso, G. M., Ed.; Allan, G. B., Ed.

    These eight papers focus on the changing role of the community college. Topics include: (1) the need for change in the way community college faculty members perceive themselves; (2) current social problems and trends and the ways in which community colleges can help to shape the future of society; (3) how the community college can become more…

  5. Prevalence of anemia in First Nations children of northwestern Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, E. A.; Caulfield, L. E.; Harris, S. B.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of anemia among First Nations children of northwestern Ontario. DESIGN: Retrospective review of all hemoglobin determinations between 1990 and 1992 in the Sioux Lookout Zone. SETTING: The Sioux Lookout Zone Hospital, a secondary care referral hospital for 28 remote First Nations communities in northwestern Ontario, affiliated with the University of Toronto's Sioux Lookout Program. PARTICIPANTS: All First Nations children age 3 to 60 months who had produced venipuncture or fingerprick blood samples between 1990 and 1992 (614 children had a total of 1223 hemoglobin determinations). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of anemia by age, sex, geographical location, and diagnosis. Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin value less than 110g/L. RESULTS: Prevalence of anemia peaked in the age range of 6 to 24 months with prevalence rates of 51.7% to 79.3%. Conditions most commonly associated with anemia were respiratory tract infections. Children living in communities in the western part of the Sioux Lookout Zone were 1.64 times more likely to have anemia (95% confidence interval 1.15, 2.35) than children in the other communities. CONCLUSIONS: Anemia appears to be a serious public health problem among preschool children in the Sioux Lookout Zone. PMID:9111982

  6. Opportunities and barriers for a crop-based energy sector in Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klupfel, Ellen Joanne

    This study investigates the existing opportunities and barriers for expanding the crop-based energy sector in Ontario. The investigation takes place at a time when growing concerns about sustainability---environmental, social, and economic---are encouraging the exploration of alternatives to energy systems based on fossil fuels, and concerns around the future viability of rural communities are making agriculturally-based and rural-based energy production systems attractive to many. To explore opportunities and barriers for the crop-based energy sector, this thesis addresses the question: What is the political-economic context within which the crop-based energy sector operates in Ontario? Taking an institutional approach, the study involved 26 interviews with individuals whose organizations influence Ontario's crop-based energy sector (that includes the biofuels ethanol and biodiesel), developed a model outlining relationships between the crop-based energy sector and other sectors of the economy, as well as the state, and implemented a survey of Ontario Members of Provincial Parliament's perspectives on biofuels. This research examines the balance of power of knowledge, production, security, finance, and technology for Ontario's crop-based energy sector. The overall balance of power currently rests with the petroleum sector. Through force field analysis, the study also identifies the key opportunities and barriers for the growth and development of the biofuels sector. These opportunities include climate change and rural development agendas, and the barriers include the petroleum sector, cost of production, and some sectors of the state. A few overarching conclusions emerge from this research: (1) Change in Ontario's crop-based energy sector is driven foremost by political and economic forces; (2) Climate change is the most significant driving force for the development and expansion of Ontario's crop-based energy sector; (3) Production cost and resistance from the

  7. Reconstructing the climatic ultrastructure and aquatic biotic communities response to Heinrich stadials in the continental northern Neotropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohuo, Sergio; Macario, Laura; Sylvestre, Florence; Pailles, Christine; Kutterolf, Steffen; Pérez, Liseth; Curtis, Jason; Schwalb, Antje

    2016-04-01

    Heinrich stadials (HS) are recognized as fast-acting "pulses" of global rapid environmental change that affect the climate and cause alterations in species composition and distribution. Past changes in aquatic ecosystems due to HSs may be an analog for future disruptions caused by climate change in the Neotropics. Our aim is to provide high resolution water temperature and conductivity records for HSs (HS1-HS6) in the northern Neotropics and identify their effects on aquatic communities. We analyzed the geochemical sediment composition (TIC and TOC) and quantified ostracode and diatom fossil abundances in cores PI-6 (73m long, from71m water depth) and PI-2 (84m long and from 54m water depth) from Lake Petén Itzá, Guatemala. Sediment cores were dated using a combination of radiocarbon and tephra chronology. Taxonomical analysis revealed that the ostracode fauna through all HSs had an exclusive tropical composition, reflecting that water temperatures remained warm, likely within the current tolerant range (26-33°C) observed for modern species inhabiting Central American lakes. Because of these warm conditions on the lake ecosystem, we infer that there was not a large change in temperatures as suggested by Hodell et al. (2012), but a small on such at the 5°C suggested by Correa-Metrio et al. (2012). Sediments during HSs are dominated by gypsum, suggesting variable water solute composition. Low TIC and TOC values during HSs indicate that these variations resulted from a decrease in precipitation and prevailing dry conditions. Bioproxy composition however, suggests sharp climatic transitions from humid to arid (HS5, HS3and H1) and from arid to humid (HS4, HS2). HS6 (63.2-60.1 ka BP) was characterized by domination of benthic diatoms and nektobenthic Cypria petenensis, Paracythereis opesta and Pseudocandona sp. ostracode species, suggesting low lake levels with predominance of littoral conditions. HS5 (50-47ka BP), HS3 (32.7-31.3ka BP) and HS1 (18-15.6ka BP) were

  8. Trends of ice breakup date in south-central Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Congsheng; Yao, Huaxia

    2015-09-01

    Large-scale ice phenology studies have revealed overall patterns of later freeze, earlier breakup, and shorter duration of ice in the Northern Hemisphere. However, there have been few studies regarding the trends, including their spatial patterns, in ice phenology for individual waterbodies on a local or small regional scale, although the coherence of ice phenology has been shown to decline rapidly in the first few hundred kilometers. In this study, we extracted trends, analyzed affecting factors, and investigated relevant spatial patterns for ice breakup date time series at 10 locations with record length ≥90 years in south-central Ontario, Canada. Wavelet methods, including the multiresolution analysis (MRA) method for nonlinear trend extraction and the wavelet coherence (WTC) method for identifying the teleconnections between large-scale climate modes and ice breakup date, are proved to be effective in ice phenology analysis. Using MRA method, the overall trend of ice breakup date time series (1905-1991) varied from earlier ice breakup to later ice breakup, then to earlier breakup again from south to north in south-central Ontario. Ice breakup date is closely correlated with air temperature during certain winter/spring months, as well as the last day with snow on the ground and number of snow-on-ground days. The influences of solar activity and Pacific North American on ice breakup were comparatively uniform across south-central Ontario, while those of El Niño-Southern Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Arctic Oscillation on ice phenology changed with distance of 50-100 km in the north-south direction.

  9. Water use characteristics of black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) communities along an ecotone with marsh at a northern geographical limit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, Ken W.; McKee, Karen L.; Hester, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are expanding into warm temperate-zone salt marsh communities in several locations globally. Although scientists have discovered that expansion might have modest effects on ecosystem functioning, water use characteristics have not been assessed relative to this transition. We measured early growing season sapflow (Js) and leaf transpiration (Tr) in Avicennia germinans at a latitudinal limit along the northern Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana, United States) under both flooded and drained states and used these data to scale vegetation water use responses in comparison with Spartina alterniflora. We discovered strong convergence when using either Js or Tr for determining individual tree water use, indicating tight connection between transpiration and xylem water movement in small Avicennia trees. When Tr data were combined with leaf area indices for the region with the use of three separate approaches, we determined that Avicennia stands use approximately 1·0–1·3 mm d–1 less water than Spartina marsh. Differences were only significant with the use of two of the three approaches, but are suggestive of net conservation of water as Avicennia expands into Spartina marshes at this location. Average Js for Avicennia trees was not influenced by flooding, but maximum Js was greater when sites were flooded. Avicennia and Spartina closest to open water (shoreline) used more water than interior locations of the same assemblages by an average of 1·3 mm d−1. Lower water use by Avicennia may indicate a greater overall resilience to drought relative to Spartina, such that aperiodic drought may interact with warmer winter temperatures to facilitate expansion of Avicennia in some years.

  10. Status of rainbow smelt in the U.S. waters of Lake Ontario, 2013: Section 12 of NYSDEC Lake Ontario Unit annual report 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weidel, Brian C.; Connerton, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax are the second most abundant pelagic prey fish in Lake Ontario after Alewife Alosa psuedoharengus. The 2013, USGS/NYSDEC bottom trawl assessment indicated the abundance of Lake Ontario age-1 and older Rainbow Smelt decreased by 69% relative to 2012. Length frequency-based age analysis indicated that age-1 Rainbow Smelt constituted approximately 50% of the population, which is similar to recent trends where the proportion of age-1 has ranged from 95% to 42% of the population. While they constituted approximately half of the catch, the overall abundance index for age 1 was one of the lowest observed in the time series, potentially a result of cannibalism from the previous year class. Combined data from all bottom trawl assessments along the southern shore and eastern basin indicate the proportion of the fish community that is Rainbow Smelt has declined over the past 30 years. In 2013 the proportion of the pelagic fish catch (only pelagic species) that was Rainbow Smelt was the second lowest in the time series at 3.1%. Community diversity indices, based on bottom trawl catches, indicate that Lake Ontario fish community diversity, as assessed by bottom trawls, has sharply declined over the past 36 years and in 2013 the index was the lowest value in the time series. Much of this community diversity decline is driven by changes in the pelagic fish community and dominance of Alewife.

  11. Seasonal trends in stable water isotopes and estimation of mean transit times for mesoscale catchments with mixed landuse in northeastern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chutko, Krys; James, April; McConnell, Chris; Yao, Huaxia

    2015-04-01

    Northern Ontario Precambrian shield basins include considerable surface water (large lakes, wetlands), moderate relief (e.g. 400 m), variation in surficial geology (clay belt soils, glacial tills), and increasingly, the influence of human landuse impact (e.g. urban, agriculture) that are characteristic of northern Ontario, Quebec and parts of Scandinavia. In northeastern Ontario, Lake Nipissing and the French River are part of an important headwater tributary that flows into Georgian Bay, Lake Huron. Lake Nipissing and its 13,000 km2 watershed is the source of water to local municipalities and First Nation communities, home to a First Nations fishery and 5{%} of Ontario's recreational angling, and contributes an estimated 100 million/year to Ontario's economy. In 2012, in response to increasing concerns over water quality and its implications for ecological and economic systems, and limited study of water quality and quantity in the Sturgeon River-Lake Nipissing-French River (SNF) basin, we initiated a stable water isotope (SWI) study to examine how landscape characteristics influence streamflow generation at scales where both natural landscape variation (e.g. surface reservoirs, clay belt soils, forested headwaters) and anthropogenic stressors (urbanization, agriculture) are anticipated to influence water quantity and quality. Bi-weekly to monthly monitoring of SWI in precipitation and streamflow began in January 2013. Catchments range in size from 35 to 6,875 km^2, with a median size of 197 km2 and median gradients from 1 to 8{%}. Landcover includes considerable agricultural (0-18{%}) and/or urban (0-47{%}) area. Lakes and wetlands together cover 10-25{%} of catchment area, with large individual lakes (e.g. Lake Temagami) acting as important reservoir storage for hydropower generation. The existing SWI dataset includes 2 years of streamflow data for 5 of the larger catchments, > 1 year for an additional 2 catchments, and 2 years of seasonal ice-off data for the

  12. Visual aesthetic quality of Northern Ontario's forested shorelines.

    PubMed

    Haider, Wolfgang; Hunt, Len

    2002-03-01

    Only a few empirical studies on forest aesthetics have adopted a water-based perspective for observers and have investigated the perceived visual quality of forested shorelines. In forested environments with many lakes, such as the boreal forest in the Canadian Shield, individuals have greater exposure to forests from water-based rather than in-stand vantage points. This study employed the psychophysical research direction to explore the relationships between scenic beauty and biophysical characteristics of the forested shorelines in the boreal forests. Two model forms were tested. One model related the variation of shoreline forest aesthetic evaluations of near-vista views (140 m offshore) to a set of forest mensuration data. Tree size, tree mortality, conifer shrubs, tree density, amount of hardwood, and slope explained 60.2% of the variance in scenic beauty between the study sites. A second model was calibrated to test the relationship between an already existing ecosystem vegetation classification system and the aesthetic evaluations of the same forested shorelines. When the ecosystem classification was simplified to eight groups, the model explained 48.5% of variance. These models suggest that the psychophysical approach to studying aesthetics can be applied successfully to near-vista evaluations of scenic beauty. The finding that a forest ecosystem classification system is highly related to scenic beauty suggests that, at least in the boreal forest, managers can reasonably estimate the scenic beauty of forested shoreline environments from an ecosystem classification, with little need for intensive data on these sites.

  13. Tilting and transpression of an Archaean anorthosite in northern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borradaile, Graham J.; Lagroix, France; King, David

    1998-08-01

    An Archaean anorthosite complex crops out over more than 300 km 2 at the junction between an Archaean metasedimentary accretionary prism (Quetico Belt) and a volcanic greenstone terrain to the north (Wabigoon Belt). The anorthosite is feebly deformed and weakly foliated. However, anisotropies of low field susceptibility (AMS) and anhysteretic remanence (AARM) define consistent magnetic fabric directions extending over subareas >25 km 2 in extent. Whereas magnetic fabrics cannot define strain magnitudes, they normally provide reliable indications of finite strain orientations, even where the fabrics developed by stress-controlled nucleation during a progressive noncoaxial strain history. The field schistosity S 1, being the oldest foliation, rotated closest to the shear plane. AMS foliation due to preferred crystallographic orientation of silicates and pyrrhotite as well as preferred dimensional orientation of magnetite lies at a greater angle to the shear plane; because it formed late then S 1 had less time to rotate. The few measurements of the youngest AARM foliation caused by magnetite and pyrrhotite suggest that it may lie at a still greater angle to the shear plane. Thus, S 1 and succeeding magnetic foliations provide a cryptic shear-sense indicator. They reveal relative motions along the terrain boundary that include transpression due to NW-SE shortening causing dextral E-W shear with a north-side-up component. Palaeomagnetic data confirm a progressive northwards steepening of the anorthosite sills that is consistent with northwards subduction of the accretionary prism to the south.

  14. Proterozoic diabase sills of northern Ontario: Magnetic properties and history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, R. S.; Borradaile, G. J.; Baker, D.; Lucas, K.

    2004-02-01

    Magnetic fabrics show that a series of massive diabase sills ("Logan sills") possess flow fabrics away from the midcontinental Proterozoic rift system, near its triple junction on the north shore of Lake Superior. Their intense remanences are commonly antiparallel to the geomagnetic field, requiring some knowledge of natural remanent magnetization in order to interpret of ground magnetic surveys. Thermal demagnetization, low-temperature demagnetization, and the combined techniques yield differently oriented characteristic remanence vectors in some of these sills. Although the commonly reported "Keweenawan" reversed paleofield direction is verified by most A components, the orientation of vectors within sites and through the thickness of sills is large and may be attributed to reversals, excursions, and secular variation. B components are mostly down, but their orientation distribution is poorly concentrated. Low-temperature demagnetization, prior to thermal demagnetization, tends to improve the consistency of vectors defined in subsequent thermal demagnetization. Moreover, in some cases, three to five cycles of low-temperature demagnetization alone produces the same result as the more time-consuming thermal demagnetization. Some within-site scatter of the A components is large, and some anomalous specimen directions and alternate polarities may be associated with platinum group mineralization. Whereas the grand mean direction for all sites lies on the available apparent polar wander path between 1100 and 1300 Ma, the mean paleopole locations differ at the 95% level for different demagnetization treatments of specimens from the same sites.

  15. Ontario Power Generation's Proposed Deep Geologic Repository, Tiverton, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, M.

    2009-05-01

    Ontario Power Generation is proposing to develop a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for the long-term management of its Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (L&ILW) at the Bruce site located near Tiverton, Ontario, 225 km northwest of Toronto. The shaft accessed repository, as envisioned, would accommodate 200,000 m3 (as packaged) of L&ILW in emplacement rooms excavated at a depth of 680 m within the Ordovician age argillaceous limestone Cobourg Formation. The Bruce site is underlain by an approximate 860 m thick Paleozoic sedimentary sequence comprised of near horizontally bedded carbonates, shales, evaporates and sandstones, Devonian to Cambrian in age, overlying crystalline basement rocks. Regional and site-specific geoscientific studies to verify the suitability of the Bruce site to host the DGR were initiated in 2006. The focus for the geoscientific investigations has been on gathering data to develop and test an understanding of the evolution and stability of the geologic, hydrogeologic, hydrogeochemical and geomechanical environ as it relates to demonstrating repository safety. Scheduled for completion in 2010, the interim results, which have included the drilling, coring and testing of 4 deep boreholes, are providing evidence of a predictable geosphere with a deep seated (>400 m), low permeability (K < 10-13 m sec-1), low porosity (0.01-0.08), saline (TDS > 250 gm l-1) groundwater regime that is ancient and resilient to external perturbations (e.g. glaciation). Work program activities in this regard have included, among others, detailed studies of rock core lithology, mineralogy and petrophysics, rock matrix pore fluid and groundwater characterisation, in-situ rock mass hydraulic testing, geomechanical rock core testing, 2-D seismic reflection surveys and long-term hydraulic borehole instrumentation. These data, in addition to regional and site-scale hydrogeologic modelling of the sedimentary sequence that among other aspects is examining groundwater

  16. Programa de fortalecimiento de capacidades: reflections on a case study of community-based teacher education set in rural northern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsop, Steve; Ames, Patricia; Arroyo, Graciela Cordero; Dippo, Don

    2010-12-01

    This article explores distinctive features of a 5-year international education development project set in rural northern Peru (PROMEB, the Proyecto de Mejoramiento de la Educación Básica). Grounded within a partnership between teacher educators from Peru, Mexico and Canada, and rural Peruvian teachers, students and their communities, we offer reflections on a teacher education initiative which sought to support action-orientated inquiries as a mechanism for school/community development. Set against a background of poverty, hunger, isolation and an "educational crisis", we outline our pedagogy and describe two projects. We then reflect on the influences of our engagements and on associated tensions and ambiguities in our methods. We hope that such discussions might offer insights for others involved in international school/community development projects of this type.

  17. Understanding Physiotherapists' Roles in Ontario Primary Health Care Teams

    PubMed Central

    Lucy, S. Deborah; Brown, Judith Belle

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To understand physiotherapists' roles and how they are enacted within Ontario primary health care (PHC) teams. Methods: Following a pragmatic grounded theory approach, 12 physiotherapists practising within Ontario PHC teams participated in 18 semi-structured in-depth in-person interviews. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim, then entered into NVIVO-8. Coding followed three progressive analytic stages and was iterative in nature, guided by grounded theory. An explanatory scheme was developed. Results: Physiotherapists negotiate their place within the PHC teams through five interrelated roles: (1) manager; (2) evaluator; (3) collaborator; (4) educator; and (5) advocate. These five roles are influenced by three contextual layers: (1) inter-professional team; (2) community and population served; and (3) organizational structure and funding. Canada's PHC mandate (access, teams, information, and healthy living) frame the contexts that influence role enactment. Conclusions: To fulfill the PHC mandate, physiotherapists carry out multiple roles that are based on a broad holistic perspective of health, within the context of a collaborative inter-professional team and the community, through an evidenced-informed approach to care. There appear to be multiple ways of successfully integrating physiotherapists within PHC teams, provided that role enactment is context sensitive and congruent with the mandate of PHC. PMID:25125776

  18. West Nile virus outbreak in North American owls, Ontario, 2002.

    PubMed

    Gancz, Ady Y; Barker, Ian K; Lindsay, Robbin; Dibernardo, Antonia; McKeever, Katherine; Hunter, Bruce

    2004-12-01

    From July to September 2002, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) caused a high number of deaths in captive owls at the Owl Foundation, Vineland, Ontario, Canada. Peak death rates occurred in mid-August, and the epidemiologic curve resembled that of corvids in the surrounding Niagara region. The outbreak occurred in the midst of a louse fly (Icosta americana, family Hippoboscidae) infestation. Of the flies tested, 16 (88.9 %) of 18 contained WNV RNA. Species with northern native breeding range and birds >1 year of age were at significantly higher risk for WNV-related deaths. Species with northern native breeding range and of medium-to-large body size were at significantly higher risk for exposure to WNV. Taxonomic relations (at the subfamily level) did not significantly affect exposure to WNV or WNV-related deaths. Northern native breeding range and medium-to-large body size were associated with earlier death within the outbreak period. Of the survivors, 69 (75.8 %) of 91 were seropositive for WNV.

  19. Early observations on an emerging Great Lakes invader Hemimysis anomala in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Maureen G.; Lantry, Brian F.; Boscarino, Brent; Bowen, Kelly; Gerlofsma, Jocelyn; Schaner, Ted; Back, Richard; Questel, Jennifer; Smythe, A. Garry; Cap, Roberta; Goehle, Michael; Young, Bryan; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Hemimysis anomala, a Ponto-Caspian littoral mysid, is an emerging Great Lakes invader that was discovered in Lakes Michigan and Ontario in 2006. Similar to the native mysid Mysis diluviana, Hemimysis exhibits a diel vertical migration pattern but generally inhabits shallower and warmer waters than M. diluviana. Because basic information on the distribution, habitat use, and biology of Hemimysis in the Great Lakes is scarce, the potential for food web disruption by Hemimysis cannot easily be predicted. Preliminary observations indicate widespread invasion of Hemimysis in Lake Ontario. In this study, we confirm the presence of Hemimysis at sites spanning the northern and southern shores of Lake Ontario and the presence of the individuals during winter months. In one horizontal tow in November 2007, over 26,000 individuals were collected with a length range of 4.4 to 9.0. mm and an average caloric density of 611. cal/g wet weight. The most effective methods for sampling Hemimysis were horizontal tows with either a zooplankton net in the water column or a benthic sled near the lake bottom. Although more quantitative data on the life history and distribution of this species is necessary, our preliminary observations support the prediction that the potential for Hemimysis to impact the nearshore food web in Lake Ontario appears high.

  20. Parkinsonism in a population of northern Tanzania: a community-based door-to-door study in combination with a prospective hospital-based evaluation.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Andrea Sylvia; Tütüncü, Esra; Trendafilova, Anna; Meindl, Michael; Kaaya, John; Schmutzhard, Erich; Kassubek, Jan

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) in sub-Saharan Africa is still a matter of debate. The few studies that have been conducted have shown prevalences lower than those in the western world. Whether this represents a genuine finding is unclear to date. In northern Tanzania, we have conducted a hospital-based evaluation and a community-based door-to-door study to assess the prevalence of Parkinsonism, including that of PD. Over a period of 8 months, all patients admitted to a mid-size rural hospital were screened for PD. In parallel, 1,569 people aged >or=50 years were recruited from the communities and assessed for PD with standard questions. Sampling was performed according to the method of "multistage cluster sampling." The questions had previously been tested in a pilot study prior to the survey. People who screened positive were examined by a specialist neurologist. In the hospital, eight of 740 people with neurological diagnoses had Parkinsonism, of whom three patients had a diagnosis of PD. In the community-based study, 18 people answered positively to least one of the 12 screening questions. However, the diagnosis of PD could not be confirmed by further examination in any of them. The prevalence of PD in northern Tanzania was found to be very low. This result would need confirmation in studies with larger populations, ideally of different African ethnicities.

  1. The influence of partial timber harvest in riparian management zones on macroinvertebrate and fish communities on first- and second-order streams in northern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chizinski, Christopher J.; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Blinn, Charles R.; Newman, Raymond M.; Atuke, Dickson M.; Fredricks, Keith; Hemstad, Nathaniel A.; Merten, Eric; Schlesser, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Relatively few evaluations of aquatic macroinvertebrate and fish communities have been published in peer-reviewed literature detailing the effect of varying residual basal area (RBA) after timber harvesting in riparian buffers. Our analysis investigated the effects of partial harvesting within riparian buffers on aquatic macroinvertebrate and fish communities in small streams from two experiments in northern Minnesota northern hardwood-aspen forests. Each experiment evaluated partial harvesting within riparian buffers. In both experiments, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish were collected 1 year prior to harvest and in each of 3 years after harvest. We observed interannual variation for the macroinvertebrate abundance, diversity and taxon richness in the single-basin study and abundance and diversity in the multiple-basin study, but few effects related to harvest treatments in either study. However, interannual variation was not evident in the fish communities and we detected no significant changes in the stream fish communities associated with partially harvested riparian buffers in either study. This would suggest that timber harvesting in riparian management zones along reaches ≤200 m in length on both sides of the stream that retains RBA ≥ 12.4 ± 1.3 m2 ha−1 or on a single side of the stream that retains RBA ≥ 8.7 ± 1.6 m2 ha−1 may be adequate to protect macroinvertebrate and fish communities in our Minnesota study systems given these specific timber harvesting techniques.

  2. Mauritia flexuosa palm swamp communities: natural or human-made? A palynological study of the Gran Sabana region (northern South America) within a neotropical context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rull, Valentí; Montoya, Encarni

    2014-09-01

    Mauritia flexuosa L.f. is one of the more widely distributed neotropical palms and is intensively used by humans. This palm can grow in tropical rainforests or can develop a particular type of virtually monospecific communities restricted to warm and wet lowlands of the Orinoco and Amazon basins. It has been proposed that, during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the Mauritia swamp communities were restricted to the core of the Amazon basin from where they expanded favoured by the Holocene warmer and wetter climates. It has also been suggested that some of these palm communities might have been the result of human dispersal during the last millennia. Here, we evaluate both hypotheses using the case study of the Venezuelan Gran Sabana (GS) region, where the M. flexuosa swamp communities (locally called morichales) are common and well developed. The morichales did not reach the GS until the last 2000 years, as manifested by sudden increases of Mauritia pollen parallelled by similar trends in charcoal particles as proxies for fire. During the last two millennia, the situation was very similar to the present, characterised by extensive burning practices affecting savannas and savanna-forest ecotones but rarely morichales (selective burning). This strongly suggests that human activities could have been responsible for the penetration of the morichales to the GS. A meta-analysis of the available records of Mauritia pollen across northern South America shows that this palm has been present in the region since at least the last four glacial cycles. During the LGM, Mauritia was likely restricted to few but widespread sites of favourable microclimatic conditions (microrefugia) from where the palm expanded during the Holocene. During the last 2000 years, Mauritia underwent a remarkable expansion in northern South America, which includes the GS. It is proposed that humans could have played a role in this regional expansion of Mauritia communities.

  3. Phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll-a are significant factors controlling ciliate communities in summer in the northern Beibu Gulf, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yibo; Zhang, Wenjing; Lin, Yuanshao; Cao, Wenqing; Zheng, Lianming; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Ciliates (protozoa) are ubiquitous components of plankton community and play important roles in aquatic ecosystems in regards of their abundance, biomass, diversity and energy turnover. Based on the stratified samples collected from the northern Beibu Gulf in August 2011, species composition, abundance, biomass, diversity and spatial pattern of planktonic ciliates were studied. Furthermore the main environmental factors controlling ciliate communities were determined. A total of 101 species belonging to 44 genera and 7 orders (i.e., Oligotrichida, Haptorida, Euplotida, Sessilida, Pleurostomatida, Scuticociliatida and Tintinnida) were identified. The variation of ciliate communities was significant at horizontal level, but that was not at vertical level. Based on cluster analysis, ciliate communities were divided into three main groups. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that Group A, existing in the waters with higher concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen, was dominated by Tintinnidium primitivum. Group B in the waters with lower temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration, was dominated by Leegaardiella ovalis. Group C, existing in the waters with higher temperature and chlorophyll-a concentration, was dominated by large Strombidium spp. and Mesodinium rubrum. Combining multiple analytic methods, our results strongly supported that phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll-a were the most significant factors affecting the ciliate communities in the northern Beibu Gulf in summer. Concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen primarily influenced ciliate biomass, implying a potential impact of eutrophication on ciliate growth. The correlation with chlorophyll-a concentration, on one hand indicate the response of ciliates to the food availability, and on the other hand, the ciliates containing chloroplasts or endosymbionts may contribute greatly to the chlorophyll-a.

  4. A survey of alterations in microbial community diversity in marine sediments in response to oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill: Northern Gulf of Mexico shoreline, Texas to Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lisle, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial community genomic DNA was extracted from sediment samples collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) coast. These samples had a high probability of being impacted by Macondo-1 (M-1) well oil from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drilling site. The hypothesis for this project was that presence of M-1 oil in coastal sediments would significantly alter the diversity within the microbial communities associated with the impacted sediments. To determine if community-level changes did or did not occur following exposure to M-1 oil, microbial community-diversity fingerprints were generated and compared. Specific sequences within the community's genomic DNA were first amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a primer set that provides possible resolution to the species level. A second nested PCR that was performed on the primary PCR products using a primer set on which a GC-clamp was attached to one of the primers. These nested PCR products were separated using denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) that resolves the nested PCR products based on sequence dissimilarities (or similarities), forming a genomic fingerprint of the microbial diversity within the respective samples. Sediment samples with similar fingerprints were grouped and compared to oil-fingerprint data from Rosenbauer and others (2010). The microbial community fingerprints grouped closely when identifying those sites that had been impacted by M-1 oil (N=12) and/or some mixture of M-1 and other oil (N=4), based upon the oil fingerprints. This report represents some of the first information on naturally occurring microbial communities in sediment from shorelines along the NGOM coast. These communities contain microbes capable of degrading oil and related hydrocarbons, making this information relevant to response and recovery of the NGOM from the DWH incident.

  5. Emotional insecurity in the family and community and youth delinquency in Northern Ireland: a person-oriented analysis across five waves

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, E. Mark; Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Over one billion children are exposed worldwide to political violence and armed conflict. Currently, conclusions about bases for adjustment problems are qualified by limited longitudinal research from a process-oriented, social-ecological perspective. In this study, we examined a theoretically-based model for the impact of multiple levels of the social ecology (family, community) on adolescent delinquency. Specifically, this study explored the impact of children's emotional insecurity about both the family and community on youth delinquency in Northern Ireland. Methods In the context of a five-wave longitudinal research design, participants included 999 mother–child dyads in Belfast (482 boys, 517 girls), drawn from socially-deprived, ethnically-homogenous areas that had experienced political violence. Youth ranged in age from 10 to 20 and were 12.18 (SD = 1.82) years old on average at Time 1. Findings The longitudinal analyses were conducted in hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), allowing for the modeling of interindividual differences in intraindividual change. Intraindividual trajectories of emotional insecurity about the family related to children's delinquency. Greater insecurity about the community worsened the impact of family conflict on youth's insecurity about the family, consistent with the notion that youth's insecurity about the community sensitizes them to exposure to family conflict in the home. Conclusions The results suggest that ameliorating children's insecurity about family and community in contexts of political violence is an important goal toward improving adolescents' well-being, including reduced risk for delinquency. PMID:25981614

  6. Fish communities in coastal freshwater ecosystems: the role of the physical and chemical setting

    PubMed Central

    Arend, Kristin K; Bain, Mark B

    2008-01-01

    Background We explored how embayment watershed inputs, morphometry, and hydrology influence fish community structure among eight embayments located along the southeastern shoreline of Lake Ontario, New York, USA. Embayments differed in surface area and depth, varied in their connections to Lake Ontario and their watersheds, and drained watersheds representing a gradient of agricultural to forested land use. Results We related various physicochemical factors, including total phosphorus load, embayment area, and submerged vegetation, to differences in fish species diversity and community relative abundance, biomass, and size structure both among and within embayments. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and centrarchids numerically dominated most embayment fish communities. Biomass was dominated by piscivorous fishes including brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus), bowfin (Amia calva), and northern pike (Esox lucius). Phosphorus loading influenced relative biomass, but not species diversity or relative abundance. Fish relative abundance differed among embayments; within embayments, fish abundance at individual sampling stations increased significantly with submerged vegetative cover. Relative biomass differed among embayments and was positively related to total phophorus loading and embayment area. Fish community size structure, based on size spectra analysis, differed among embayments, with the frequency of smaller-bodied fishes positively related to percent vegetation. Conclusion The importance of total phosphorus loading and vegetation in structuring fish communities has implications for anthropogenic impacts to embayment fish communities through activities such as farming and residential development, reduction of cultural eutrophication, and shoreline development and maintenance. PMID:19114002

  7. Resources and population served: a description of the Ontario Paediatric Diabetes Network

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Rayzel; Miller, Fiona A.; Stukel, Therese A.; Daneman, Denis; Guttmann, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Network of Ontario Pediatric Diabetes Programs was established in 2001 to provide access to specialized pediatric diabetes care. Universal funding for pediatric insulin pump therapy has been available in Ontario since 2006. The objective of this study was to describe the distribution of patients, resources and insulin pump use across centres within the network, now called the Ontario Paediatric Diabetes Network. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 2012 of the 35 pediatric diabetes centres in Ontario to measure centre characteristics, patient volume and available clinical and social resources. We used health administrative data from the provincial Assistive Devices Program to describe patients aged 18 years or less using insulin pumps by centre as a measure of technology uptake. Results: All 35 centres participated, reporting a total of 6676 children with type 1 diabetes and 368 with type 2 diabetes. Most (> 80%) children with type 1 diabetes were followed at tertiary (n = 5) or large community (n = 14) centres. Nursing patient load was similar between centre types, but there was a large range across centres within any type. Overall, percent insulin pump use was 38.1% and varied widely across centres (5.3%-66.7%). Funded 24-hour support for pump users was available at 5 (36%) small community centres, 3 (19%) large community centres and 2 (40%) tertiary centres. Interpretation: Our study showed differences in access to specialized and after-hours care for children with diabetes in Ontario. Pump use varied widely across centres. Further research is needed to assess the impact of these observed differences on quality of care and outcomes. PMID:27398356

  8. Special Education: A Right or Privilege in Ontario?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeton, Anne

    1979-01-01

    Government policies and procedures for identifying, assessing, placing, and programing children in special education in Ontario, Canada, are examined. Survey results provide a picture of the variability that exists across Ontario in interpretation and carrying out of the regulations. (JMF)

  9. Community-based technology transfer in rural aquaculture: the case of mudcrab Scylla serrata nursery in ponds in Northern Samar, Central Philippines.

    PubMed

    Baticados, Didi B; Agbayani, Renato F; Quinitio, Emilia T

    2014-12-01

    Finding aquaculture development approaches to open up livelihood opportunities for the rural poor and in mainstreaming smallholder fish farmers to reduce poverty remain a challenge. This paper examines the community-based technology transfer mechanism of mudcrab nursery in ponds and its socioeconomic impacts on smallholder mudcrab growers in Northern Samar, Philippines. Results indicated that the technology is a viable enterprise done by a straight culture system method, which is the rearing of crablets from <1.0 to 4.0 cm for 42 days, or by-phases. However, technology adoption hinges on many factors like area ownership, farm distance from household, and market including the type of strategy needed to enhance technology uptake. Collaboration among research and development institutions and local partners is critical in training and empowering rural communities to adopt aquaculture technologies.

  10. Female Health Workers at the Doorstep: A Pilot of Community-Based Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health Service Delivery in Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Uzondu, Charles A; Doctor, Henry V; Findley, Sally E; Afenyadu, Godwin Y; Ager, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Nigeria has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world. Poor health outcomes are linked to weak health infrastructure, barriers to service access, and consequent low rates of service utilization. In the northern state of Jigawa, a pilot study was conducted to explore the feasibility of deploying resident female Community Health Extension Workers (CHEWs) to rural areas to provide essential maternal, newborn, and child health services. Methods: Between February and August 2011, a quasi-experimental design compared service utilization in the pilot community of Kadawawa, which deployed female resident CHEWs to provide health post services, 24/7 emergency access, and home visits, with the control community of Kafin Baka. In addition, we analyzed data from the preceding year in Kadawawa, and also compared service utilization data in Kadawawa from 2008–2010 (before introduction of the pilot) with data from 2011–2013 (during and after the pilot) to gauge sustainability of the model. Results: Following deployment of female CHEWs to Kadawawa in 2011, there was more than a 500% increase in rates of health post visits compared with 2010, from about 1.5 monthly visits per 100 population to about 8 monthly visits per 100. Health post visit rates were between 1.4 and 5.5 times higher in the intervention community than in the control community. Monthly antenatal care coverage in Kadawawa during the pilot period ranged from 11.9% to 21.3%, up from 0.9% to 5.8% in the preceding year. Coverage in Kafin Baka ranged from 0% to 3%. Facility-based deliveries by a skilled birth attendant more than doubled in Kadawawa compared with the preceding year (105 vs. 43 deliveries total, respectively). There was evidence of sustainability of these changes over the 2 subsequent years. Conclusion: Community-based service delivery through a resident female community health worker can increase health service utilization in rural, hard-to-reach areas. PMID

  11. The Ontario Telemedicine Network: a case report.

    PubMed

    Brown, Edward M

    2013-05-01

    This article describes the evolution, current status, and future prospects of the Ontario Telemedicine Network (OTN). Started in the late 1990s (and formally established in 2006), OTN is a not-for-profit corporation primarily funded by the Government of Ontario, Canada, that aims to improve access to and quality of care throughout the Province. It covers a land mass larger than France and serves a population of just over 13 million, the vast majority of which live in a narrow strip close to the U.S. border. Telemedicine has been effective in reducing travel to usual sources of care, reducing hospital admissions, and improving efficiency and prompt access to care. The diffusion of telemedicine is accelerating in Ontario, and it is becoming an integral part of the health system.

  12. A Report on Accounting Education in Ontario Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    A 1981 report on accounting education in Ontario universities, which was prepared by a study group of the Council of Ontario Universities (COU), is presented. The objective was to advise the COU on the feasibility of establishing a professional school or faculty of accounting in one or more Ontario universities. Attention was directed to the…

  13. Opening Doors to Nursing Degrees: A Proposal from Ontario's Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colleges Ontario, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Ontario needs to expand nursing education options to improve access to the nursing profession, create better pathways amongst all nursing occupations, and build Ontario's capacity to meet the province's long-term nursing needs. Ontario's colleges are capable of playing a larger role within a long-term provincial strategy for sustaining and…

  14. Resource Development in Ontario's Colleges--What's the Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouveia, Cindy O. Y.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a brief historical account, and differences in philanthropy between Ontario's colleges and universities. Several theoretical concepts will be explored to explain donor motivation in Ontario's higher education sector. The final section of this paper explores non-traditional resource development strategies that Ontario colleges…

  15. "Strengthening" Ontario Universities: A Neoliberal Reconstruction of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigas, Bob; Kuchapski, Renée

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews neoliberalism as an ideology that has influenced higher education generally and Ontario higher education in particular. It includes a discourse analysis of "Strengthening Ontario's Centres of Creativity, Innovation and Knowledge" (Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges, and Universities, 2012), a government discussion…

  16. Statistical Analysis of Regional Surface Water Quality in Southeastern Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodo, Byron A.

    1992-01-01

    Historical records from Ontario's Provincial Water Quality Monitoring Network for rivers and streams were analyzed to assess the feasibility of mapping regional water quality patterns in southeastern Ontario, spanning the Precambrian Shield and the St. Lawrence Lowlands. The study served as a model for much of Ontario. (54 references) (Author/MDH)

  17. Damaged Youth: Prevalence of Community Violence Exposure and Implications for Adolescent Well-Being in Post-Conflict Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAloney, Kareena; McCrystal, Patrick; Percy, Andrew; McCartan, Claire

    2009-01-01

    As Northern Ireland transitions to a post-conflict society the nature of violent victimization and its influence on adolescents following the "Troubles" becomes an even more important area of interest. Adolescents are particularly at risk of victimization and associated social, emotional, and psychological health problems. In this…

  18. Slavery, Colonialism and the Pursuit of Community Life: Anglican Mission Education in Zanzibar and Northern Rhodesia 1864-1940

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Education became the central focus of the Universities' Mission to Central Africa (UMCA) following a disastrous and unsuccessful attempt to settle in Nyasaland (now Malawi). The aim of this article is to trace the UMCA educational policy from Zanzibar, where the mission became established in 1864, to Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). From their…

  19. SUMMER FISH COMMUNITY OF THE COASTAL NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO: CHARACTGERIZATION OF A LARGE-SCALE TRAWL SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes the trawled fish assemblage collected during 1992 - 1994 at 119 locations in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The 367 collection sites were located adjacent to five states and represented seven estuarine categories. Fish were collected using an otter trawl durin...

  20. Working with a Child Exposed to Community and Domestic Violence in Northern Ireland: An Illustrated Case Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the author's multi-modal therapeutic practice with a 7-year-old boy referred to the Family Trauma Centre, following paramilitary assaults on his father. The work also addresses the boy's experience of domestic violence. The work is contextualised in terms of the "Peace Process" in Northern Ireland, including…

  1. Long-term changes in community composition and life-history traits in a highly exploited basin (northern Adriatic Sea): the role of environment and anthropogenic pressures.

    PubMed

    Barausse, A; Michieli, A; Riginella, E; Palmeri, L; Mazzoldi, C

    2011-12-01

    The changes in a marine community in the northern Adriatic Sea were explored over a period of 65 years using landings data from a commercial fishing fleet, and the role of fishing pressure and environmental variations in driving these changes was investigated. A total of 40 taxonomic categories, including one or several species, were analysed, representing 93·7% of the total landings. From 1945 to 2010 a significant decrease in the evenness index was observed, indicating a trend towards landings dominated by fewer taxa. The composition of the landings showed a temporal shift during the 1980s; from 1945 to the 1980s a continuous, clear change in composition took place, probably driven by an increase in fishing pressure as well as riverine nutrient inputs. Since the 1980s, a different trend of changing composition emerged. Among the analysed predictors, fishing capacity, summer seawater temperature, inflow from the Po River (the major river of the northern Adriatic Sea) and nutrients were related to the changes in landings. In relation to life-history traits of the landed species, the community shifted from large, late-maturing species to more fecund, smaller and earlier-maturing species. A high fishing pressure is probably the major cause of these changes, possibly acting synergistically with environmental variations.

  2. The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Anthony F.

    1987-01-01

    The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario is a non-profit volunteer-driven organization that is active in supporting research and education programs with the ultimate goal of reducing death and disability from heart disease and stroke. The Foundation has over 65 chapters across the province, a full-time staff of 130, and over 70,000 volunteers involved in various programs and fund-raising activities. Several of the Foundation's programs offer direct assistance to family physicians and their patients. This review summarizes the major programs of the Foundation and specifies how they relate to the physicians of Ontario. PMID:21263913

  3. The measurement of ultraviolet radiation and sunburn time over southern Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, W. F. J.

    1994-01-01

    Studies of the depletion of ozone which have been conducted from the TOMS instrument on the NIMBUS 7 satellite indicate that total ozone has declined by 5 percent over the last 12 years at most mid-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere typical of southern Ontario. The measurement of the actual resultant increases in UVB is now important. A monitoring program of UVB (biologically active solar ultraviolet radiation) has been conducted for the last 24 months at a site near Bolton, Ontario. The sunburn time varies from less than 17 minutes in late July, to over 4 hours in December on clear days. The levels depend on solar insolation and total ozone column. The ultraviolet levels are strongly affected by cloud and sky conditions. The implications of present and future depletion on the sunburn time are discussed.

  4. Reducing rural maternal mortality and the equity gap in northern Nigeria: the public health evidence for the Community Communication Emergency Referral strategy

    PubMed Central

    Aradeon, Susan B; Doctor, Henry V

    2016-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) maternal mortality target risks being underachieved like its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) predecessor. The MDG skilled birth attendant (SBA) strategy proved inadequate to end preventable maternal deaths for the millions of rural women living in resource-constrained settings. This equity gap has been successfully addressed by integrating a community-based emergency obstetric care strategy into the intrapartum care SBA delivery strategy in a large scale, northern Nigerian health systems strengthening project. The Community Communication Emergency Referral (CCER) strategy catalyzes community capacity for timely evacuations to emergency obstetric care facilities instead of promoting SBA deliveries in environments where SBA availability and accessibility will remain inadequate for the near and medium term. Community Communication is an innovative, efficient, equitable, and culturally appropriate community mobilization approach that empowers low- and nonliterate community members to become the communicators. For the CCER strategy, this community mobilization approach was used to establish and maintain emergency maternal care support structures. Public health evidence demonstrates the success of integrating the CCER strategy into the SBA strategy and the practicability of this combined strategy at scale. In intervention sites, the maternal mortality ratio reduced by 16.8% from extremely high levels within 4 years. Significantly, the CCER strategy contributed to saving one-third of the lives saved in the project sites, thereby maximizing the effectiveness of the SBAs and upgraded emergency obstetric care facilities. Pre- and postimplementation Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey results and qualitative assessments support the CCER theory of change. This theory of change rests on a set of implementation steps that rely on three innovative components: Community Communication, Rapid Imitation Practice, and CCER support

  5. Reducing rural maternal mortality and the equity gap in northern Nigeria: the public health evidence for the Community Communication Emergency Referral strategy.

    PubMed

    Aradeon, Susan B; Doctor, Henry V

    2016-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) maternal mortality target risks being underachieved like its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) predecessor. The MDG skilled birth attendant (SBA) strategy proved inadequate to end preventable maternal deaths for the millions of rural women living in resource-constrained settings. This equity gap has been successfully addressed by integrating a community-based emergency obstetric care strategy into the intrapartum care SBA delivery strategy in a large scale, northern Nigerian health systems strengthening project. The Community Communication Emergency Referral (CCER) strategy catalyzes community capacity for timely evacuations to emergency obstetric care facilities instead of promoting SBA deliveries in environments where SBA availability and accessibility will remain inadequate for the near and medium term. Community Communication is an innovative, efficient, equitable, and culturally appropriate community mobilization approach that empowers low- and nonliterate community members to become the communicators. For the CCER strategy, this community mobilization approach was used to establish and maintain emergency maternal care support structures. Public health evidence demonstrates the success of integrating the CCER strategy into the SBA strategy and the practicability of this combined strategy at scale. In intervention sites, the maternal mortality ratio reduced by 16.8% from extremely high levels within 4 years. Significantly, the CCER strategy contributed to saving one-third of the lives saved in the project sites, thereby maximizing the effectiveness of the SBAs and upgraded emergency obstetric care facilities. Pre- and postimplementation Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Survey results and qualitative assessments support the CCER theory of change. This theory of change rests on a set of implementation steps that rely on three innovative components: Community Communication, Rapid Imitation Practice, and CCER support

  6. Transforming Ontario's Apprenticeship Training System: Supplying the Tradespersons Needed for Sustained Growth--A Proposal from Ontario's Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colleges Ontario, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Ontario's colleges share the provincial government's belief that apprenticeship must play a greater role in addressing skills shortages and contributing to innovative, high-performance workplaces that enhance Ontario's competitiveness. Given the severity of the economic downturn, Ontario faces an immediate, serious challenge as apprenticeship…

  7. Toward a Shift in Expectations and Values: What We've Learned from Collaborative Action Research in Northern Indigenous Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shelly Stagg; Horton, Laura; Restoule, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose that collaborative action research values, goals and practices have much in common with guiding principles for conducting research with educators and community members in First Nation, Inuit and Metis communities, as outlined in the Task Force on Aboriginal Languages and Cultures on Aboriginal Languages and Cultures'…

  8. An Exploratory Study of the Curriculum Development Process of a Complementary Education Program for Marginalized Communities in Northern Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mfum-Mensah, Obed

    2009-01-01

    Complementary education programs have emerged as a useful tool for addressing the educational needs of marginalized communities in the developing world. The literature attributes the success of these complementary education programs to innovative school organization, curriculum development, and community participation. This article is based on a…

  9. Ecogenomic responses of benthic communities under multiple stressors along the marine and adjacent riverine areas of northern Bohai Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuwei; Hong, Seongjin; Kim, Seonjin; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yang, Jianghua; Giesy, John P; Wang, Tieyu; Lu, Yonglong; Yu, Hongxia; Khim, Jong Seong

    2017-04-01

    Benthic communities in the aquatic ecosystem are influenced by both natural and anthropogenic stressors. To understand the ecogenomic responses of sediment communities to the multiple stressors of polluted environments, the bacteria, protistan and metazoan communities in sediments from marine and adjacent riverine areas of North Bohai Sea were characterized by environmental DNA meta-systematics, and their associations with environmental variables were assessed by multiple statistical approaches. The bacterial communities were dominated by Firmicutes (mean 22.4%), Proteobacteria (mean 21.6%) and Actinobacteria (mean 21.5%). The protistan communities were dominated by Ochrophyta (33.7%), Cercozoa (18.9%) and Ciliophora (17.9%). Arthropoda (71.1%) dominated the metazoan communities in sediments. The structures of communities in sediments were shaped by both natural variables (spatial variability and/or salinity (presented as Na and Ca)) and anthropogenic contaminants, including DDTs, PAHs or metals (Cu, Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni and Zn). Particularly, the correlation network of multiple communities was modulated by the concentrations of Na and DDTs at the family level. Overall, environmental DNA meta-systematics can provide a powerful tool for biomonitoring, sediment quality assessment, and key stressors identification.

  10. A shift in the archaeal nitrifier community in response to natural and anthropogenic disturbances in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Newell, Silvia E; Eveillard, Damien; McCarthy, Mark J; Gardner, Wayne S; Liu, Zhanfei; Ward, Bess B

    2014-02-01

    The Gulf of Mexico is affected by hurricanes and suffers seasonal hypoxia. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted every trophic level in the coastal region. Despite their importance in bioremediation and biogeochemical cycles, it is difficult to predict the responses of microbial communities to physical and anthropogenic disturbances. Here, we quantify sediment ammonia-oxidizing archaeal (AOA) community diversity, resistance and resilience, and important geochemical factors after major hurricanes and the oil spill. Dominant AOA archetypes correlated with different geochemical factors, suggesting that different AOA are constrained by distinct parameters. Diversity was lowest after the hurricanes, showing weak resistance to physical disturbances. However, diversity was highest during the oil spill and coincided with a community shift, suggesting a new alternative stable state sustained for at least 1 year. The new AOA community was not significantly different from that at the spill site 1 year after the spill. This sustained shift in nitrifier community structure may be a result of oil exposure.

  11. Assessing clinical support and inter-professional interactions among front-line primary care providers in remote communities in northern Canada: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Young, Stephanie K.; Young, T. Kue

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary care in remote communities in northern Canada is delivered primarily by nurses who receive clinical support from physicians in regional centres and the patient transportation system. To improve continuity, quality and access to care in remote northern communities, it is important to understand the perspectives of front-line providers and the complex challenges they face. Objective To design and implement a survey of primary care providers to identify issues relating to inter-professional communication, clinical support and patient evacuation. Methods In collaboration with the territorial government and regional health authority partners, we developed a 21-item self-administered questionnaire survey, which could be completed online. The survey was sent to 218 physicians and nurses who were employed in the Northwest Territories (NWT) at the time of the survey and were involved in sending patients out of the community and/or receiving patients. The survey also contained an open-ended question at the end seeking comments regarding primary health care. Results The overall low response rate of 39% among nurses and 19% among physicians threatens the validity of the quantitative results. The majority of providers were satisfied with their ability to communicate with other providers in a timely manner, their freedom to make clinical decisions and their overall experience practicing in the NWT. The patient transfer system appears to work from both the sender and receiver perspectives. However, a common theme reported by nurses was that physicians providing clinical advice, especially short-term locums, were not familiar with the local situation, whilst physicians at the receiving end remarked that the clinical information provided to them often lacked clarity. Conclusions Important lessons were learnt from the pilot study, especially in better engagement of providers in planning and dissemination. The questionnaire design and the online method of delivery

  12. Human exposure to soil contaminants in subarctic Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Ellen Stephanie; Liberda, Eric Nicholas; Tsuji, Leonard James S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemical contaminants in the Canadian subarctic present a health risk with exposures primarily occurring via the food consumption. Objective Characterization of soil contaminants is needed in northern Canada due to increased gardening and agricultural food security initiatives and the presence of known point sources of pollution. Design A field study was conducted in the western James Bay Region of Ontario, Canada, to examine the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (ΣDDT), other organochlorines, and metals/metalloids in potentially contaminated agriculture sites. Methods Exposure pathways were assessed by comparing the estimated daily intake to acceptable daily intake values. Ninety soil samples were collected at random (grid sampling) from 3 plots (A, B, and C) in Fort Albany (on the mainland), subarctic Ontario, Canada. The contaminated-soil samples were analysed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Results The range of ΣDDT in 90 soil samples was below the limit of detection to 4.19 mg/kg. From the 3 soil plots analysed, Plot A had the highest ΣDDT mean concentration of 1.12 mg/kg, followed by Plot B and Plot C which had 0.09 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Concentrations of other organic contaminants and metals in the soil samples were below the limit of detection or found in low concentrations in all plots and did not present a human health risk. Conclusion Exposure analyses showed that the human risk was below regulatory thresholds. However, the ΣDDT concentration in Plot A exceeded soil guidelines set out by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment of 0.7 mg/kg, and thus the land should not be used for agricultural or recreational purposes. Both Plots B and C were below threshold limits, and this land can be used for agricultural purposes. PMID:26025557

  13. 1992 Ontario Survey of Public Health Nurses: perceptions of roles and activities.

    PubMed

    Chambers, L W; Underwood, J; Halbert, T; Woodward, C A; Heale, J; Isaacs, S

    1994-01-01

    A survey of public health nurses (PHNs) who work in official public health units in Ontario was undertaken to determine whether their perceptions of their roles and activities concurred with a 1990 Canadian Public Health Association report which describes the roles and qualifications of public health nursing in Canada. The survey questionnaire was completed by 1,849 PHNs in all 42 public health units (response rate = 85%). About one tenth of the PHNs reported no activity as a caregiver/service provider. Most PHNs reported being active in the roles of educator/consultant, social marketer, and facilitator/communicator/collaborator. The community developer, policy formulator, research/evaluator, and resource manager/planner/coordinator roles were less frequently performed, however, increased activities in such roles were expected in the future. Nurses said that they needed further preparation to perform the latter roles. These results have implications for deployment of PHNs as Ontario's health system shifts to community health and health promotion.

  14. Cultural barriers to effective communication between Indigenous communities and health care providers in Northern Argentina: an anthropological contribution to Chagas disease prevention and control

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ninety percent of the aboriginal communities of Argentina are located in areas of endemic vectorial transmission of Chagas disease. Control activities in these communities have not been effective. The goal of this research was to explore the role played by beliefs, habits, and practices of Pilaga and Wichi indigenous communities in their interaction with the local health system in the province of Formosa. This article contributes to the understanding of the cultural barriers that affect the communication process between indigenous peoples and their health care providers. Methods Twenty-nine open ended interviews were carried out with members of four indigenous communities (Pilaga and Wichi) located in central Formosa. These interviews were used to describe and compare these communities’ approach to health and disease as they pertain to Chagas as well as their perceptions of Western medicine and its incarnation in local health practice. Results Five key findings are presented: 1) members of these communities tend to see disease as caused by other people or by the person’s violation of taboos instead of as a biological process; 2) while the Pilaga are more inclined to accept Western medicine, the Wichi often favour the indigenous approach to health care over the Western approach; 3) members of these communities do not associate the vector with the transmission of the disease and they have little awareness of the need for vector control activities; 4) indigenous individuals who undergo diagnostic tests and accept treatment often do so without full information and knowledge; 5) the clinical encounter is rife with conflict between the expectations of health care providers and those of members of these communities. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that there is a need to consider the role of the cultural patterning of health and disease when developing interventions to prevent and control Chagas disease among indigenous communities in Northern Argentina

  15. Les Enjeux juridiques et socio-politiques des conflits linguistiques: le cas de l'Ontario (The Legal and Sociopolitical Stakes of Language Conflicts: The Case of Ontario). Publication G-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Daniel

    The study of language conflict in Ontario is part of a larger project that is analyzing the links between intercultural relations and legal mechanisms within this and three other Canadian provinces. This study looks at the problems created by the close proximity of communities using the two official languages, French and English, and at the rules…

  16. Linking Economic Strategies and Ontario Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Bill; Drea, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Ontario's Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology (CAATs) have established productive links with employers and the result is practical training that leads to rewarding work for graduates. This practical success is not being adequately recognized in a crucial debate that focuses on strategies for economic development. It is important for the CAATs…

  17. The Whiteness of Literacy Practice in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Kleut, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 2008, the Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Education in Canada released a DVD that was one in a series designed to train literacy teachers in what the Ministry referred to as "high-yield" comprehension strategies. Using the lens of Critical Race Theory, this article analyses the picture book…

  18. Measuring Social Capital in Hamilton, Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Peter; Williams, Allison; Simone, Dylan

    2012-01-01

    Social capital has been studied by academics for more than 20 years and within the past decade there has been an explosion of growth in research linking social capital to health. This paper investigates social capital in Hamilton, Ontario by way of a telephone survey of 1,002 households in three neighbourhood groups representing high, mixed and…

  19. Ontario's Quality Assurance Framework: A Critical Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heap, James

    2013-01-01

    Ontario's Quality Assurance Framework (QAF) is reviewed and found not to meet all five criteria proposed for a strong quality assurance system focused on student learning. The QAF requires a statement of student learning outcomes and a method and means of assessing those outcomes, but it does not require that data on achievement of intended…

  20. The fruit flies (Tephritidae) of Ontario

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen species of Tephritidae are newly recorded from Ontario, and alternative format keys are provided to the 31 genera and 72 species of fruit fly now known from, or likely to occur, in the province. Standard dichotomous keys to genera, and simplified field keys to genera and species are provide...

  1. Ontario's Old Growth: A Learner's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stabb, Mark

    This handbook was written in response to an identified need for more public information on Ontario's old growth forests. It is meant to be taken into old growth stands, where the learner can see, touch, and study the natural ingredients of old growth forests. Much of the handbook is a guide to forest history, helping the learner to discover…

  2. Indians of Ontario (An Historical Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The booklet presents an historical review and a description of the 2 cultural groups of Indians--Iroquoian and Algonkian--which inhabited Ontario in pre-European times. According to the document, the Iroquoian culture evolved over a period of at least 2000 years in the fertile land of the eastern Great Lakes region; the Algonkians inhabited the…

  3. Teachers' Collective Bargaining in Ontario: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Alan M.

    Laws regarding Ontario teachers' collective bargaining have implications for continuing education. "Continuing education" here means a system of education that serves everyone irrespective of age and to which access at any time is a right. Teacher collective bargaining laws are important in a system of continuing education because these…

  4. Ontario and the enhanced 18-month well-baby visit: Trying new approaches

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Robin; Clinton, Jean; Biscaro, Anne

    2008-01-01

    In Ontario, the 18-month well-baby visit is the last scheduled primary care visit before school entry. Recognizing the importance of this visit and the role that primary care plays in developmental surveillance, an Ontario expert panel recommended enhancing the 18-month visit. Their recommendations are based on evidence from multiple disciplines, which underscore the reality that the quality of the early years experience establishes trajectories of health and well-being for children. An underlying premise of the recommendations is that when there are collaborations among parents, primary care, community health and child development services, the outcomes for children will be improved. The present article focuses on two Ontario pilot projects that were funded to discover how, in real life primary care settings, the recommendations could be implemented and outcomes measured. Findings and insights were significant, and future directions are clear, as the strategy for an enhanced 18-month well-baby visit is implemented in the future for Ontario. PMID:19436551

  5. Regional Similarities and Consistent Patterns of Local Variation in Beach Sand Bacterial Communities throughout the Northern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Staley, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent characterization of the bacterial community structure in beach sands has revealed patterns of biogeography similar to those observed in aquatic environments. Studies to date, however, have mainly focused on subtidal sediments from marine beaches. Here, we investigate the bacterial diversity, using Illumina-based sequencing of the V5-V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene, at 11 beaches representing those next to the Great Lakes, Florida, and the Pacific Ocean. The alpha diversity differed significantly among regions (P < 0.0001), while the within-region diversity was more similar. The beta diversity also differed by region (P < 0.001), where freshwater sands had significantly higher abundances of taxa within the Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia than marine environments. In contrast, marine sands harbored greater abundances of Gammaproteobacteria and Planctomycetes, and those from Florida had more Deltaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Marine beaches had significantly different phylogenetic community structures (P ≤ 0.018), but freshwater and Florida beaches showed fewer within-region phylogenetic differences. Furthermore, regionally distinct patterns in taxonomic variation were observed in backshore sands, which had communities distinct from those in nearshore sands (P < 0.001). Sample depth minimally influenced the community composition. The results of this study reveal distinct bacterial community structures in sand on a broad geographic scale but moderate regional similarity and suggest that local variation is primarily related to the distance from the shoreline. This study offers a novel comparison of the bacterial communities in freshwater and marine beach sands and provides an important basis for future comparisons and analyses to elucidate factors affecting microbial ecology in this underexplored environment. IMPORTANCE This study presents a large-scale geographic characterization of the bacterial communities present in beach

  6. The Success of Gay-Straight Alliances in Waterloo Region, Ontario: A Confluence of Political and Social Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Alex; Travers, Robb; Munro, Lauren; Liboro, Renato; Schneider, Margaret; Greig, Carrie L.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how gay-straight alliances (GSAs) work to connect youth with community resources, and outlines the political and social context of GSAs in Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada. Fifteen individuals (youth, teachers, and a lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer [LGBTQ] youth service provider) participated in interviews…

  7. An Integrated Multi-Institutional Diabetes Prevention Program Improves Knowledge and Healthy Food Acquisition in Northwestern Ontario First Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Lara S.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Rimal, Rajiv; Treuth, Margarita S.; Sharma, Sangita; Rosecrans, Amanda; Harris, Stewart B.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the impact results of a feasibility study in Canada for prevention of risk factors for diabetes in seven northwestern Ontario First Nations. Baseline and follow-up data were collected before and after the 9-month intervention program in schools, stores, and communities that aimed to improve diet and increase physical activity…

  8. Exploring the Alignment between Post-Secondary Education Programs and Earnings: An Examination of 2005 Ontario Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Kristyn; Walters, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the influence that field of study and level of post-secondary education have on the earnings of recent graduates in Ontario. Graduates of trades, community college, and university programs are compared. Results suggest that graduates of applied and technical programs obtain higher earnings within two years of graduation than…

  9. Mitigating Radicalism in Northern Nigeria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    radicalization in northern Nigeria. u Active engagement of youth and communities in peacebuilding programs that facilitate interactions among individuals...leaders, sustained development investments in marginalized communities , promotion of values of inclusivity to mitigate the spread of extremist ideology...claiming to have repelled Boko Haram, the militants return, regroup, and seek revenge. As a result, social and economic activities in the northern

  10. Community change and evidence for variable warm-water temperature adaptation of corals in Northern Male Atoll, Maldives.

    PubMed

    McClanahan, T R; Muthiga, N A

    2014-03-15

    This study provides a descriptive analysis of the North Male, Maldives seven years after the 1998 bleaching disturbance to determine the state of the coral community composition, the recruitment community, evidence for recovery, and adaptation to thermal stress. Overall, hard coral cover recovered at a rate commonly reported in the literature but with high spatial variability and shifts in taxonomic composition. Massive Porites, Pavona, Synarea, and Goniopora were unusually common in both the recruit and adult communities. Coral recruitment was low and some coral taxa, namely Tubipora, Seriatopora, and Stylophora, were rarer than expected. A study of the bleaching response to a thermal anomaly in 2005 indicated that some taxa, including Leptoria, Platygyra, Favites, Fungia, Hydnophora, and Galaxea astreata, bleached as predicted while others, including Acropora, Pocillopora, branching Porites, Montipora, Stylophora, and Alveopora, bleached less than predicted. This indicates variable-adaptation potentials among the taxa and considerable potential for ecological reorganization of the coral community.

  11. Field-Based Evaluation of Two Herbaceous Plant Community Composition Sampling Methods for Long-Term Monitoring in Northern Great Plains National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Symstad, Amy J.; Wienk, Cody L.; Thorstenson, Andy

    2006-01-01

    The Northern Great Plains Inventory & Monitoring (I&M) Network (Network) of the National Park Service (NPS) consists of 13 NPS units in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, and eastern Wyoming. The Network is in the planning phase of a long-term program to monitor the health of park ecosystems. Plant community composition is one of the 'Vital Signs,' or indicators, that will be monitored as part of this program for three main reasons. First, plant community composition is information-rich; a single sampling protocol can provide information on the diversity of native and non-native species, the abundance of individual dominant species, and the abundance of groups of plants. Second, plant community composition is of specific management concern. The abundance and diversity of exotic plants, both absolute and relative to native species, is one of the greatest management concerns in almost all Network parks (Symstad 2004). Finally, plant community composition reflects the effects of a variety of current or anticipated stressors on ecosystem health in the Network parks including invasive exotic plants, large ungulate grazing, lack of fire in a fire-adapted system, chemical exotic plant control, nitrogen deposition, increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, and climate change. Before the Network begins its Vital Signs monitoring, a detailed plan describing specific protocols used for each of the Vital Signs must go through rigorous development and review. The pilot study on which we report here is one of the components of this protocol development. The goal of the work we report on here was to determine a specific method to use for monitoring plant community composition of the herb layer (< 2 m tall).

  12. Bacterial community shift is induced by dynamic environmental parameters in a changing coastal ecosystem (northern Adriatic, northeastern Mediterranean Sea)--a 2-year time-series study.

    PubMed

    Tinta, T; Vojvoda, J; Mozetič, P; Talaber, I; Vodopivec, M; Malfatti, F; Turk, V

    2015-10-01

    The potential link between the microbial dynamics and the environmental parameters was investigated in a semi-enclosed and highly dynamic coastal system (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea, NE Mediterranean Sea). Our comprehensive 2-year time-series study showed that despite the shallowness of this area, there was a significant difference between the surface and the bottom bacterial community structure. The bottom bacterial community was more diverse than the surface one and influenced by sediment re-suspension. The surface seawater temperature had a profound effect on bacterial productivity, while the bacterial community structure was more affected by freshwater-borne nutrients and phytoplankton blooms. Phytoplankton blooms caused an increase of Gammaproteobacteria (Alteromonadaceae, SAR86 and Vibrionaceae) and shift in dominance from SAR11 to Rhodobacteraceae taxon at the surface. Our results propose the importance of the water mass movements as drivers of freshwater-borne nutrients and of allochthonous microbial taxa. This study emphasizes the prediction power based on association networks analyses that are fed with long-term measurements of microbial and environmental parameters. These interaction maps offer valuable insights into the response of marine ecosystem to climate- and anthropogenic-driven stressors.

  13. Reappearance of deepwater sculpin in Lake Ontario: Resurgence or last gasp of a doomed population?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lantry, B.F.; O'Gorman, R.; Walsh, M.G.; Casselman, J.M.; Hoyle, J.A.; Keir, M.J.; Lantry, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsonii) were abundant in Lake Ontario in the 1920s and at least common into the 1940s. By the 1960s they were rare and, thereafter, some considered the population extirpated even though a synoptic survey of the lake in 1972 produced three, relatively large (148–165 mm total length, TL), and presumably old, specimens from the northern half of the lake. Deepwater sculpin were absent from annual survey catches in the 1980s and did not reappear until 1996, when three were caught in northern Lake Ontario. Isolated collections of deepwater sculpin continued during 1998–2004. Catches during 1996–2004 included five smaller individuals, 89–118 mm TL. In 2005, catches increased sharply, with 18 deepwater sculpin collected from southern waters and one from northern waters. Moreover, young, small sculpin were dominant in 2005—16 of the 19 sculpins averaged 68 ± 12 mm total length (± 1 s.d.). The young fish observed since 1996 could have originated from reproduction by the small in-lake population, from downstream drift of planktonic larvae from Lake Huron, or both. The presence of juveniles is a clear sign that conditions for survival of young deepwater sculpin are becoming more favorable, perhaps because of reduced abundance of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), a pelagic planktivore linked to depression of deepwater sculpin in Lake Michigan, and also low abundances of burbot (Lota lota) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), benthic piscivores.

  14. Seasonal Variation of the Macrozoobenthic Community Structure at Low Salinities in a Mediterranean Lagoon (Monolimni Lagoon, Northern Aegean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevrekidis, Theodoros

    2004-09-01

    The macrozoobenthic community structure and dynamics at low salinities (0.3-6 psu) in a Mediterranean lagoon (Monolimni lagoon) were investigated. Samples were collected monthly from February 1998 to February 1999 at two sampling stations. Community structure was analyzed by means of uni- and multivariate methods. 21 taxa were collected; the amphipod Corophium orientale and the gastropod Ventrosia maritima dominated the assemblages. Total abundance peaked (50,000-60,000 individuals m-2) in mid or late autumn. Community structure showed an almost even seasonal periodicity; seasonal changes were mainly derived from the intense variation in abundance of most species and the non-occurrence of a few ones (e.g. Corophium insidiosum, Polydora ciliata) in spring and summer. Non- occurrence, which led to a depression of the most diversity indices, was possibly the only direct impact of the extremely low salinities (~0.3 psu) on community structure. The main structuring factors of the community in the deeper outer part of the lagoon were water temperature and depth, and in the innermost part, where a Ruppia maritima meadow occurred, were water temperature and predation pressure by crabs (Carcinus aestuarii) and gobies (Knipowitchia caucasica). A temporary decline in total abundance in summer followed an increase in abundance of these predators. (

  15. Translating the Diabetes Prevention Program for Northern Plains Indian Youth Through Community-Based Participatory Research Methods

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Blakely D.; Harris, Kari Jo; Harris, Jeri Lyn; Parker, Martin; Ricci, Christiana; Noonan, Curtis

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to use a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to translate the original Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) to be age and culturally specific for American Indian (AI) youth. Methods Tribally enrolled members on 2 Montana Indian reservations conducted focus groups and interviews to discuss community members’ perspectives of factors that encouraged or were barriers to healthy diet and exercise behaviors in AI youth. In total, 31 community members, aged 10 to 68 years old, participated in 4 focus groups and 14 individual interviews. Participants were self-identified as elder, cultural expert, tribal health worker, educator, parent/guardian, youth, or school food service worker. Researchers analyzed transcripts based on inductive methods of grounded theory. Results Data analysis revealed translating the DPP to youth was contingent on the lessons incorporating cultural strategies for healthy behaviors in youth such as berry picking, gardening, horseback riding, and dancing; improving knowledge and access to healthy foods and physical activity for youth and their parents; having interactive, hands-on learning activities for healthy lifestyles in the DPP lessons; using a group format and tribal members to deliver the DPP lessons; and having tribal elders talk to youth about the importance of adopting healthy behaviors when they are young. Conclusions A CBPR approach engaged community members to identify strategies inherent in their culture, tradition, and environment that could effectively translate the DPP to Montana Indian youth living in rural reservation communities. PMID:20944056

  16. Deep structure beneath Lake Ontario: crustal-scale Greeneville subdivisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forsyth, D. A.; Zelt, Colin A.; White, D. J.; Easton, R. M.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.

    1994-01-01

    Lake Ontario marine seismic data reveal major Grenville crustal subdivisions beneath central and southern Lake Ontario separated by interpreted shear zones that extend to the lower crust. A shear zone bounded transition between the Elzevir and Frontenac terranes exposed north of Lake Ontario is linked to a seismically defined shear zone beneath central Lake Ontario by prominent aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies, easterly dipping wide-angle reflections, and fractures in Paleozoic strata. We suggest the central Lake Ontario zone represents crustal-scale deformation along an Elzevir–Frontenac boundary zone that extends from outcrop to the south shore of Lake Ontario.Seismic images from Lake Ontario and the exposed western Central Metasedimentary Belt are dominated by crustal-scale shear zones and reflection geometries featuring arcuate reflections truncated at their bases by apparent east-dipping linear reflections. The images show that zones analogous to the interpreted Grenville Front Tectonic Zone are also present within the Central Metasedimentary Belt and support models of northwest-directed crustal shortening for Grenvillian deep crustal deformation beneath most of southeastern Ontario.A Precambrian basement high, the Iroquoian high, is defined by a thinning of generally horizontal Paleozoic strata over a crestal area above the basement shear zone beneath central Lake Ontario. The Iroquoian high helps explain the peninsular extension into Lake Ontario forming Prince Edward County, the occurrence of Precambrian inlier outcrops in Prince Edward County, and Paleozoic fractures forming the Clarendon–Linden structure in New York.

  17. Study of the rocky Intertidal communities of central and northern California: Years 3 and 4. Volume 1 of 5

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, D.

    1990-08-01

    The study objectives are to describe seasonal and successional variation in rocky Intertidal community structure; determine the response of rocky Intertidal communities to natural and human-induced disturbances and correlate these responses with successional, seasonal, and latitudinal variation; and correlate life history information and oil toxicity data with data from this and other relevant studies. The Year III and IV report is for the third (1987) and fourth (1988) years of a five-year field experimental study investigating two biological assemblages, the Mytilus assemblage and the Endocladia/Mastocarpus papillatus assemblage, that are being studied at six sites along the California coast. Experimental treatments include clearing three plots in spring 1985 and three plots in fall 1985. Data from the program will be correlated with oil toxicity data and other studies to provide indications of the long term effects of an oil spill on rocky Intertidal communities. The report is volume 1 of a 5 volume set.

  18. Study of the rocky Intertidal communities of central and northern California: Years 3 and 4. Volume 5 of 5

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, D.

    1990-08-01

    The study objectives are to describe seasonal and successional variation in rocky Intertidal community structure; determine the response of rocky Intertidal communities to natural and human-induced disturbances and correlate these responses with successional, seasonal, and latitudinal variation; and correlate life history information and oil toxicity data with data from this and other relevant studies. The Year III and IV report is for the third (1987) and fourth (1988) years of a five-year field experimental study investigating two biological assemblages, the Mytilus assemblage and the Endocladia/Mastocarpus papillatus assemblage, that are being studied at six sites along the California coast. Experimental treatments include clearing three plots in spring 1985 and three plots in fall 1985. Data from the program will be correlated with oil toxicity data and other studies to provide indications of the long term effects of an oil spill on rocky Intertidal communities. The report is volume 5 of a 5 volume set.

  19. Study of the rocky Intertidal communities of central and northern California: Years 3 and 4. Volume 3 of 5

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, D.

    1990-08-01

    The study objectives are to describe seasonal and successional variation in rocky Intertidal community structure; determine the response of rocky Intertidal communities to natural and human-induced disturbances and correlate these responses with successional, seasonal, and latitudinal variation; and correlate life history information and oil toxicity data with data from this and other relevant studies. The Year III and IV report is for the third (1987) and fourth (1988) years of a five-year field experimental study investigating two biological assemblages, the Mytilus assemblage and the Endocladia/Mastocarpus papillatus assemblage, that are being studied at six sites along the California coast. Experimental treatments include clearing three plots in spring 1985 and three plots in fall 1985. Data from the program will be correlated with oil toxicity data and other studies to provide indications of the long term effects of an oil spill on rocky Intertidal communities. The report is volume 3 of a 5 volume set.

  20. Study of the rocky Intertidal communities of central and northern California: Years 3 and 4. Volume 2 of 5

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, D.

    1990-08-01

    The study objectives are to describe seasonal and successional variation in rocky Intertidal community structure; determine the response of rocky Intertidal communities to natural and human-induced disturbances and correlate these responses with successional, seasonal, and latitudinal variation; and correlate life history information and oil toxicity data with data from this and other relevant studies. The Year III and IV report is for the third (1987) and fourth (1988) years of a five-year field experimental study investigating two biological assemblages, the Mytilus assemblage and the Endocladia/Mastocarpus papillatus assemblage, that are being studied at six sites along the California coast. Experimental treatments include clearing three plots in spring 1985 and three plots in fall 1985. Data from the program will be correlated with oil toxicity data and other studies to provide indications of the long term effects of an oil spill on rocky Intertidal communities. The report is volume 2 of a 5 volume set.

  1. Study of the rocky Intertidal communities of central and northern California: Years 3 and 4. Volume 4 of 5

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, D.

    1990-08-01

    The study objectives are to describe seasonal and successional variation in rocky Intertidal community structure; determine the response of rocky Intertidal communities to natural and human-induced disturbances and correlate these responses with successional, seasonal, and latitudinal variation; and correlate life history information and oil toxicity data with data from this and other relevant studies. The Year III and IV report is for the third (1987) and fourth (1988) years of a five-year field experimental study investigating two biological assemblages, the Mytilus assemblage and the Endocladia/Mastocarpus papillatus assemblage, that are being studied at six sites along the California coast. Experimental treatments include clearing three plots in spring 1985 and three plots in fall 1985. Data from the program will be correlated with oil toxicity data and other studies to provide indications of the long term effects of an oil spill on rocky Intertidal communities. The report is volume 4 of a 5 volume set.

  2. Soil bacterial community and functional shifts in response to altered snowpack in moist acidic tundra of northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricketts, Michael P.; Poretsky, Rachel S.; Welker, Jeffrey M.; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A.

    2016-09-01

    Soil microbial communities play a central role in the cycling of carbon (C) in Arctic tundra ecosystems, which contain a large portion of the global C pool. Climate change predictions for Arctic regions include increased temperature and precipitation (i.e. more snow), resulting in increased winter soil insulation, increased soil temperature and moisture, and shifting plant community composition. We utilized an 18-year snow fence study site designed to examine the effects of increased winter precipitation on Arctic tundra soil bacterial communities within the context of expected ecosystem response to climate change. Soil was collected from three pre-established treatment zones representing varying degrees of snow accumulation, where deep snow ˜ 100 % and intermediate snow ˜ 50 % increased snowpack relative to the control, and low snow ˜ 25 % decreased snowpack relative to the control. Soil physical properties (temperature, moisture, active layer thaw depth) were measured, and samples were analysed for C concentration, nitrogen (N) concentration, and pH. Soil microbial community DNA was extracted and the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced to reveal phylogenetic community differences between samples and determine how soil bacterial communities might respond (structurally and functionally) to changes in winter precipitation and soil chemistry. We analysed relative abundance changes of the six most abundant phyla (ranging from 82 to 96 % of total detected phyla per sample) and found four (Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Chloroflexi) responded to deepened snow. All six phyla correlated with at least one of the soil chemical properties (% C, % N, C : N, pH); however, a single predictor was not identified, suggesting that each bacterial phylum responds differently to soil characteristics. Overall, bacterial community structure (beta diversity) was found to be associated with snow accumulation treatment and all soil chemical properties

  3. A Comparative Study on Children's Perceptions of the Child Rights in the Turkish Community of Turkey and Northern Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akengin, Hamza

    2008-01-01

    Developed communities make the children's right education a major part of the primary education, relating it with the human rights education. There are two sides with respect to the children's rights: the children themselves and their family and the school that have rights and interests in them and that determine the radius of action of children…

  4. Longitudinal Pathways between Political Violence and Child Adjustment: The Role of Emotional Security about the Community in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, E. Mark; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Links between political violence and children's adjustment problems are well-documented. However, the mechanisms by which political tension and sectarian violence relate to children's well-being and development are little understood. This study longitudinally examined children's emotional security about community violence as a possible regulatory…

  5. Lower Mesophotic Coral Communities (60-125 m Depth) of the Northern Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea

    PubMed Central

    Englebert, Norbert; Bongaerts, Pim; Muir, Paul R.; Hay, Kyra B.; Pichon, Michel; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2017-01-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific remain relatively unexplored, particularly at lower mesophotic depths (≥60 m), despite their potentially large spatial extent. Here, we used a remotely operated vehicle to conduct a qualitative assessment of the zooxanthellate coral community at lower mesophotic depths (60–125 m) at 10 different locations in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and the Coral Sea Commonwealth Marine Reserve. Lower mesophotic coral communities were present at all 10 locations, with zooxanthellate scleractinian corals extending down to ~100 metres on walls and ~125 m on steep slopes. Lower mesophotic coral communities were most diverse in the 60–80 m zone, while at depths of ≥100 m the coral community consisted almost exclusively of the genus Leptoseris. Collections of coral specimens (n = 213) between 60 and 125 m depth confirmed the presence of at least 29 different species belonging to 18 genera, including several potential new species and geographic/depth range extensions. Overall, this study highlights that lower mesophotic coral ecosystems are likely to be ubiquitous features on the outer reefs of the Great Barrier Reef and atolls of the Coral Sea, and harbour a generic and species richness of corals that is much higher than thus far reported. Further research efforts are urgently required to better understand and manage these ecosystems as part of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and Coral Sea Commonwealth Marine Reserve. PMID:28146574

  6. Responding to Communities in Trauma in Northern Ireland: Supporting the Positive Experience of Childhood by Partnership Working

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Martin; Stewart, David

    2006-01-01

    Support for children and young people who experience violence, both directly and indirectly, is the principal focus of Martin Murphy's and David Stewart's article. Describing the work of the NOVA organisation, they highlight the benefits of close, interagency collaboration, with an emphasis upon therapeutic support and community capacity building.

  7. Lower Mesophotic Coral Communities (60-125 m Depth) of the Northern Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea.

    PubMed

    Englebert, Norbert; Bongaerts, Pim; Muir, Paul R; Hay, Kyra B; Pichon, Michel; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2017-01-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems in the Indo-Pacific remain relatively unexplored, particularly at lower mesophotic depths (≥60 m), despite their potentially large spatial extent. Here, we used a remotely operated vehicle to conduct a qualitative assessment of the zooxanthellate coral community at lower mesophotic depths (60-125 m) at 10 different locations in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and the Coral Sea Commonwealth Marine Reserve. Lower mesophotic coral communities were present at all 10 locations, with zooxanthellate scleractinian corals extending down to ~100 metres on walls and ~125 m on steep slopes. Lower mesophotic coral communities were most diverse in the 60-80 m zone, while at depths of ≥100 m the coral community consisted almost exclusively of the genus Leptoseris. Collections of coral specimens (n = 213) between 60 and 125 m depth confirmed the presence of at least 29 different species belonging to 18 genera, including several potential new species and geographic/depth range extensions. Overall, this study highlights that lower mesophotic coral ecosystems are likely to be ubiquitous features on the outer reefs of the Great Barrier Reef and atolls of the Coral Sea, and harbour a generic and species richness of corals that is much higher than thus far reported. Further research efforts are urgently required to better understand and manage these ecosystems as part of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park and Coral Sea Commonwealth Marine Reserve.

  8. Lessons learned from scaling up a community-based health program in the Upper East Region of northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Sory, Elias Kavinah; Nyonator, Frank K; Phillips, James F; Wang, Chen; Schmitt, Margaret L

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ghana's Community-Based Health Planning and Service (CHPS) initiative is envisioned to be a national program to relocate primary health care services from subdistrict health centers to convenient community locations. The initiative was launched in 4 phases. First, it was piloted in 3 villages to develop appropriate strategies. Second, the approach was tested in a factorial trial, which showed that community-based care could reduce childhood mortality by half in only 3 years. Then, a replication experiment was launched to clarify appropriate activities for implementing the fourth and final phase—national scale up. This paper discusses CHPS progress in the Upper East Region (UER) of Ghana, where the pace of scale up has been much more rapid than in the other 9 regions of the country despite exceedingly challenging economic, ecological, and social circumstances. The UER employed 5 strategies that facilitated scale up: (1) nurse recruitment from their home districts to improve worker morale and cultural grounding, balanced with some social distance from the village community to ensure client confidentiality, particularly regarding family planning use; (2) prioritization of CHPS planning and continuous review in management meetings to make necessary modifications to the initiative's approach; (3) community engagement and advocacy to local politicians to mobilize resources for financing start-up costs; (4) a shared and consistent vision about CHPS among health administration leaders to ensure appropriate resources and commitment to the initiative; and (5) knowledge exchange visits between new and advanced CHPS implementers to facilitate learning and scale up within and between districts. PMID:25276522

  9. Roads in northern hardwood forests affect adjacent plant communities and soil chemistry in proportion to the maintained roadside area.

    PubMed

    Neher, Deborah A; Asmussen, David; Lovell, Sarah Taylor

    2013-04-01

    The spatial extent of the transported materials from three road types was studied in forest soil and vegetative communities in Vermont. Hypotheses were two-fold: 1) soil chemical concentrations above background environment would reflect traffic volume and road type (highway>2-lane paved>gravel), and 2) plant communities close to the road and near roads with greater traffic will be disturbance-tolerant and adept at colonization. Soil samples were gathered from 12 randomly identified transects for each of three road types classified as "highway," "two-lane paved," and "gravel." Using GIS mapping, transects were constructed perpendicular to the road, and samples were gathered at the shoulder, ditch, backslope, 10 m from the edge of the forest, and 50 m from road center. Sample locations were analyzed for a suite of soil elements and parameters, as well as percent area coverage by plant species. The main effects from roads depended on the construction modifications required for a roadway (i.e., vegetation clearing and topography modification). The cleared area defined the type of plant community and the distance that road pollutants travel. Secondarily, road presence affected soil chemistry. Metal concentrations (e.g., Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn) correlated positively with road type. Proximity to all road types made the soils more alkaline (pH 7.7) relative to the acidic soil of the adjacent native forest (pH 5.6). Roadside microtopography had marked effects on the composition of plant communities based on the direction of water flow. Ditch areas supported wetland plant species, greater soil moisture and sulfur content, while plant communities closer to the road were characteristic of drier upland zones. The area beyond the edge of the forest did not appear to be affected chemically or physically by any of the road types, possibly due to the dense vegetation that typically develops outside of the managed right-of-way.

  10. Social and Structural Challenges to Drug Cessation Among Couples in Northern Mexico: Implications for Drug Treatment in Underserved Communities

    PubMed Central

    Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Rolón, María Luisa; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, Gudelia; Vera, Alicia; Amaro, Hortensia; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Hernandez, Daniel O.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Available drug treatment modalities may inadequately address social and structural contexts surrounding recovery efforts. Methods This mixed methods analysis drew on (1) surveys with female sex workers and their intimate male partners and (2) semi-structured interviews with a subsample of 41 couples (n = 82 individuals, 123 total interviews) in Northern Mexico. Descriptive and content analyses examined drug cessation and treatment experiences. Results Perceived need for drug treatment was high, yet only 35% had ever accessed services. Financial and institutional barriers (childcare needs, sex-segregated facilities) prevented partners from enrolling in residential programs together or simultaneously, leading to self-treatment attempts. Outpatient methadone was experienced more positively, yet financial constraints limited access and treatment duration. Relapse was common, particularly when one partner enrolled alone while the other continued using drugs. Conclusions Affordable, accessible, evidence-based drug treatment and recovery services that acknowledge social and structural contexts surrounding recovery are urgently needed for drug-involved couples. PMID:26470596

  11. Educational Think Tank for Northern Pinal County: A Unique Community-Wide Approach to Academic Needs Assessment and Program Planning. A Report to the Central Arizona College Governing Board April 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, S. Leslie; Ross, Jeffrey D.

    The Educational Think Tank for Northern Pinal County was established in order to discover the educational needs of the people in the community, improve links between educational entities, and improve the public perception of educational systems in Pinal County at all levels. The group's role was to create ideas for others to execute, which was…

  12. Blurring the boundaries of space: shaping nursing lives at the Red Cross outposts in Ontario, 1922-1945.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jayne

    2004-01-01

    Historians and other scholars interested in the history of hospitals have investigated the links between medical architecture and the organization of space with the evolution of modern medicine. The transformation over time in the architectural for of medical institutions has tended to reflect developments in medical science and therapeutic efficiency as well as elements in the broader social climate. Some authors, however, have argued for the agency of structure and spatial organization, to consider that they are not just containers with which human activities take place, but which also actively construct or constitute social practices and relations. Most studies of this nature have centred on large medical buildings especially in urban areas, and have examined the impact of architectural arrangement in relation to administrators and architects, physicians and patients. Fe have considered the interconnections of form and space with nurses, despite the prominence of institutional nursing labour since the late 19th-century. The following discussion begins an exploration of these concepts within the rural environment. Between 1922 and 1984, the Ontario Division of the Canadian Red Cross Society administered an outpost program in which it operated small hospitals and nursing stations in isolated communities throughout the northern reaches of the province. This article will focus primarily o n the one-nurse stations that the Division managed during the interwar years and the nurses that it hired to staff them. The interior spatial organization of these outposts, which led in particular to their multiple functions as tiny hospitals, community health centres and nurses' homes, not only shaped both the professional practice and the social or private lives of the Red Cross nurses but also contributed to the diffusion of contemporary precepts in health and medical care throughout a remote population.

  13. Integrated Ecosystem Assessment: Lake Ontario Water Management

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Mark B.; Singkran, Nuanchan; Mills, Katherine E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Ecosystem management requires organizing, synthesizing, and projecting information at a large scale while simultaneously addressing public interests, dynamic ecological properties, and a continuum of physicochemical conditions. We compared the impacts of seven water level management plans for Lake Ontario on a set of environmental attributes of public relevance. Methodology and Findings Our assessment method was developed with a set of established impact assessment tools (checklists, classifications, matrices, simulations, representative taxa, and performance relations) and the concept of archetypal geomorphic shoreline classes. We considered each environmental attribute and shoreline class in its typical and essential form and predicted how water level change would interact with defining properties. The analysis indicated that about half the shoreline of Lake Ontario is potentially sensitive to water level change with a small portion being highly sensitive. The current water management plan may be best for maintaining the environmental resources. In contrast, a natural water regime plan designed for greatest environmental benefits most often had adverse impacts, impacted most shoreline classes, and the largest portion of the lake coast. Plans that balanced multiple objectives and avoided hydrologic extremes were found to be similar relative to the environment, low on adverse impacts, and had many minor impacts across many shoreline classes. Significance The Lake Ontario ecosystem assessment provided information that can inform decisions about water management and the environment. No approach and set of methods will perfectly and unarguably accomplish integrated ecosystem assessment. For managing water levels in Lake Ontario, we found that there are no uniformly good and bad options for environmental conservation. The scientific challenge was selecting a set of tools and practices to present broad, relevant, unbiased, and accessible information to guide

  14. Hydrocarbon entrapment in Trenton of southern Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Trevail, R.A.

    1984-12-01

    Middle Ordovician Trenton strata in southern Ontario are represented by a generally transgressive sequence that reflects a wide spectrum of carbonate environments from tidal flat, through lagoon and shoal, into deeper shelf carbonates. Virtually all Ordovician production in Ontario is associated with structural deformation related to rejuvenation of a Precambrian fracture framework triggered by orogenic events in the nearby Appalachian orogene. The reservoirs are characterized by the replacement of original bioclastic limestone beds by more or less discontinuous lenses of fine to medium-grained, light to medium-brown crystalline dolostone. Pools generally are linear, following the trend of the associated fracture. Six of the 18 known Ordovician pools in Ontario are located in Essex County. A detailed study of the geology and reservoirs confirmed the close association of fracturing, dolomitization, and hydrocarbon entrapment. Representative samples of well cuttings from 20 wells were analyzed by XRD (x-ray defraction) to determine calcite-dolomite ratios. As expected, low ratios were present in the producing reservoirs. Partially dolomitized zones were revealed in wells in close proximity to fractures. Formation water originating in the underlying Cambrian sandstones was probably the main dolomitizing agent as it migrated up through the fracture. Dolomitization enhanced already existing porosity within the bioclastic zones.

  15. Effects of two classification strategies on a Benthic Community Index for streams in the Northern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butcher, Jason T.; Stewart, Paul M.; Simon, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    Ninety-four sites were used to analyze the effects of two different classification strategies on the Benthic Community Index (BCI). The first, a priori classification, reflected the wetland status of the streams; the second, a posteriori classification, used a bio-environmental analysis to select classification variables. Both classifications were examined by measuring classification strength and testing differences in metric values with respect to group membership. The a priori (wetland) classification strength (83.3%) was greater than the a posteriori (bio-environmental) classification strength (76.8%). Both classifications found one metric that had significant differences between groups. The original index was modified to reflect the wetland classification by re-calibrating the scoring criteria for percent Crustacea and Mollusca. A proposed refinement to the original Benthic Community Index is suggested. This study shows the importance of using hypothesis-driven classifications, as well as exploratory statistical analysis, to evaluate alternative ways to reveal environmental variability in biological assessment tools.

  16. Benefits and Limitations of a Community-Engaged Emergency Referral System in a Remote, Impoverished Setting of Northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sneha; Koku Awoonor-Williams, John; Asuru, Rofina; Boyer, Christopher B; Awopole Yepakeh Tiah, Janet; Sheff, Mallory C; Schmitt, Margaret L; Alirigia, Robert; Jackson, Elizabeth F; Phillips, James F

    2016-12-23

    Although Ghana has a well-organized primary health care system, it lacks policies and guidelines for developing or providing emergency referral services. In 2012, an emergency referral pilot-the Sustainable Emergency Referral Care (SERC) initiative-was launched by the Ghana Health Service in collaboration with community stakeholders and health workers in one subdistrict of the Upper East Region where approximately 20,000 people reside. The pilot program was scaled up in 2013 to a 3-district (12-subdistrict) plausibility trial that served a population of approximately 184,000 over 2 years from 2013 to 2015. The SERC initiative was fielded as a component of a 6-year health systems strengthening and capacity-building project known as the Ghana Essential Health Intervention Program. Implementation research using mixed methods, including quantitative analysis of key process and health indicators over time in the 12 intervention subdistricts compared with comparison districts, a survey of health workers, and qualitative systems appraisal with community members, provided data on effectiveness of the system as well as operational challenges and potential solutions. Monitoring data show that community exposure to SERC was associated with an increased volume of emergency referrals, diminished reliance on primary care facilities not staffed or equipped to provide surgical care, and increased caseloads at facilities capable of providing appropriate acute care (i.e., district hospitals). Community members strongly endorsed the program and expressed appreciation for the service. Low rates of adherence to some care protocols were noted: referring facilities often failed to alert receiving facilities of incoming patients, not all patients transported were accompanied by a health worker, and receiving facilities commonly failed to provide patient outcome feedback to the referring facility. Yet in areas where SERC worked to bypass substandard points of care, overall facility

  17. Benefits and Limitations of a Community-Engaged Emergency Referral System in a Remote, Impoverished Setting of Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sneha; Koku Awoonor-Williams, John; Asuru, Rofina; Boyer, Christopher B; Awopole Yepakeh Tiah, Janet; Sheff, Mallory C; Schmitt, Margaret L; Alirigia, Robert; Jackson, Elizabeth F; Phillips, James F

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although Ghana has a well-organized primary health care system, it lacks policies and guidelines for developing or providing emergency referral services. In 2012, an emergency referral pilot—the Sustainable Emergency Referral Care (SERC) initiative—was launched by the Ghana Health Service in collaboration with community stakeholders and health workers in one subdistrict of the Upper East Region where approximately 20,000 people reside. The pilot program was scaled up in 2013 to a 3-district (12-subdistrict) plausibility trial that served a population of approximately 184,000 over 2 years from 2013 to 2015. The SERC initiative was fielded as a component of a 6-year health systems strengthening and capacity-building project known as the Ghana Essential Health Intervention Program. Implementation research using mixed methods, including quantitative analysis of key process and health indicators over time in the 12 intervention subdistricts compared with comparison districts, a survey of health workers, and qualitative systems appraisal with community members, provided data on effectiveness of the system as well as operational challenges and potential solutions. Monitoring data show that community exposure to SERC was associated with an increased volume of emergency referrals, diminished reliance on primary care facilities not staffed or equipped to provide surgical care, and increased caseloads at facilities capable of providing appropriate acute care (i.e., district hospitals). Community members strongly endorsed the program and expressed appreciation for the service. Low rates of adherence to some care protocols were noted: referring facilities often failed to alert receiving facilities of incoming patients, not all patients transported were accompanied by a health worker, and receiving facilities commonly failed to provide patient outcome feedback to the referring facility. Yet in areas where SERC worked to bypass substandard points of care, overall

  18. Initial uptake of the Ontario Pharmacy Smoking Cessation Program

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lindsay; Burden, Andrea M.; Liu, Yan Yun; Tadrous, Mina; Pojskic, Nedzad; Dolovich, Lisa; Calzavara, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking is a significant public health concern. The Ontario Pharmacy Smoking Cessation Program was launched in September 2011 to leverage community pharmacists and expand access to smoking cessation services for public drug plan beneficiaries. Methods: We examined health care utilization data in Ontario to describe public drug plan beneficiaries receiving, and pharmacies providing, smoking cessation services between September 2011 and September 2013. Patient characteristics were summarized, stratified by drug plan group: seniors (age ≥65 years) or social assistance. Trends over time were examined by plotting the number of services, unique patients and unique pharmacies by month. We then examined use of follow-up services and prescription smoking cessation medications. Results: We identified 7767 residents receiving pharmacy smoking cessation services: 28% seniors (mean age = 69.9, SD = 4.8; 53% male) and 72% social assistance (mean age = 44.4 years, SD = 11.8; 48% male). Cumulative patient enrollment increased over time with an average of 311 (SD = 61) new patients per month, and one-third (n = 1253) of pharmacies participated by the end of September 2013. Regions with the highest number of patients were Erie St. Clair (n = 1328) and Hamilton Niagara Haldimand Brant (n = 1312). Sixteen percent of all patients received another pharmacy service (e.g., MedsCheck) on the same day as smoking cessation program enrollment. Among patients with follow-up data, 56% received follow-up smoking cessation services (60% seniors, 55% social assistance) and 74% received a prescription smoking cessation medication. One-year quit status was reported for 12%, with a 29% success rate. Conclusions: Program enrollment has increased steadily since its launch, yet only a third of pharmacies participated and 56% of patients received follow-up services. PMID:26759563

  19. Patterns of practice among older physicians in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Chan, B; Anderson, G M; Thériault, M E

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Policy-makers interested in the supply of doctors in Canada have recently begun focusing attention on older physicians. This study informs the policy debate by analysing the practice patterns of Ontario physicians aged 65 years and over. METHODS: A cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of physician claims data for fiscal years 1989/90 through 1995/96 was conducted. The number of full-time equivalent (FTE) physicians by age category, urban or rural status, and specialty was calculated by means of an established method, and differences between older physicians, established physicians and recent graduates (in practice for 5 years or less), in terms of the types of services provided and patients seen, were examined. RESULTS: The proportion of FTE physicians aged 65 or more increased from 5.3% to 7.0% during the study period, whereas the proportion of recent graduates decreased from 19.6% to 16.3%. Of the older physicians, 61.4% practised part time (less than 1 FTE). Half of the physicians aged 75 in 1989/90 were still in practice 6 years later. Older physicians were less likely than those under age 65 to practice obstetrics (4.6% v. 16.9%), provide emergency department services (1.1% v. 14.8%) or house calls (38.7% v. 60.4%), or perform many minor procedures (38.7% v. 62.3%) (p < or = 0.001 for all comparisons). Older physicians tended to be male and had older patients in their practices than did younger physicians. Rural regions had higher proportions of older specialists. INTERPRETATION: Ontario's physician corps is aging. This may result in decreasing availability of obstetrics and emergency department coverage in the future. Encouraging retirement may create more openings for recent graduates, but if such policies are enacted, special attention should be paid to ensure that rural communities and older patients continue to be served. PMID:9835877

  20. Farmers' Use of Publications. Report of a Survey of Ontario Farmers' Receipt and Use of Three Technical Publications of the Ontario Department of Agriculture and Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Donald J.

    A survey was conducted to determine the extent of Ontario farmers' receipt, use and perception of three publications of the Ontario Department of Agriculture and Food--"Field Crop Recommendations for Ontario,""Guide to Chemical Weed Control" and "Dairy Husbandry in Ontario." A questionnaire was mailed in May 1969 to a…

  1. Stationwide environmental baseline survey and related environmental factors, Ontario Air National Guard Station, California

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-26

    This Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) has been prepared to document the environmental condition of real property at Ontario Air National Guard Station (ANGS), California, resulting from the storage, release, and disposal of hazardous substances and petroleum products and their derivatives over the installations history. This EBS is also used by the Air Force to meet its obligations under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 United States Code Section 9620(h), as amended by the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) (Public Law 102-426). Table ES-1 list all uncontaminated property based on information obtained through a records search, interviews, and visual site inspections at Ontario ANGS. Figure ES-1 depicts their respective locations.

  2. Experiences on the development of a Community Based Early Warning System for mountain risks in northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Carolina; Sterlacchini, Simone; de Amicis, Mattia; Fontana, Michele; Trozzi, Arianna; Frigerio, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    In the framework of the European project Mountain Risks (http://mountain-risks.eu/), one of the projects currently developed is a methodology to integrate risk management and evacuation emergency plans, focused on prevention as a key element for disaster risk reduction, applied in the Mountain Community Valtellina of Tirano, an area recurrently affected by several mountain hazards. Taking into account the actual state of disaster risk reduction initiatives in the study area, including the existence of a real time emergency plan based on GIS (Geographical Information Systems), DSS (Decision Support Systems), and ICT (Information & Communication Technology), but knowing the lack involvement of the general community in any of the preparation activities developed until the present and the lack of divulgation of the current emergency plan, it was decided that the methodology that could better adapt to the actual conditions of the study area would be a non structural Community Based Early Warning System (CBEWS). A CBEWS has been recognized by institutions as the UN and the INSDR, as an effective and important strategy for disaster risk reduction. This strategy is broadly used especially in developing countries and has proved its effectiveness in many disasters crisis all over the world. In spite of that, possibly for political and social reasons, there are really few applications of CBEWS in developed countries which has made the elaboration of this research project a particularly difficult process due to the lack of previous references with similar conditions to the one in the study area. Difficulties related to any multidisciplinary work which also involves the general community have been faced during the development of the project such as the differences in language (both the technical jargon of the different disciplines and the native language), time restrictions, the process of learning and adapting to different social structures, the process of contacting several

  3. Volcanic Risk Perception in Five Communities Located near the Chichón Volcano, Northern Chiapas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, F.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Chichón volcano (17° 19’ N and 93° 15’ W) is located in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. This volcano is classified by UNESCO as one of the ten most dangerous volcanos in the world. The eruptions of March and April in 1982 affected at least 51 communities located in the surroundings of the volcano and caused the death of about 2000 people. In this work we evaluate the risk perception in five communities highly populated: Juárez, Ostuacán, Pichucalco, Reforma and Sunuapa. We selected these communities because they have a high possibility to be affected by a volcanic eruption in the future. Our survey was carried out during February and March 2006. A total of 222 families were interviewed using a questionnaire to measure risk perception. These questionnaires retrieved general information as how long people had been living there and their reasons to do so; their experiences during the 1982 events, their opinion about the authorities participation and their perception of volcanic risk; the plans of the community for disaster prevention and mitigation. Some of the most important results are: (1). People perceive a very low volcanic risk and the 70% of interviewees believe that a new eruption in the future is almost improbable because it happened in 1982. This result is particularly interesting because, according to the state government, more than 100,000 inhabitants will be directly affected in case of a new similar eruption; (2). About 95% of the population do not know the current activity of the volcano and consider that the authorities do not inform properly to their communities; (3). The response of the authorities during the events of 1982 was ranked as deficient mainly because they were unable provide shelters, storage facilities, food as well as medicine and health care access; (4). Approximately 60% of the community will accept to be re-located again in case of a new eruption; (5). About 70% of the population will not accept to be re-located because

  4. Lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.; O'Gorman, Robert; Schneider, Clifford P.; Eckert, Thomas H.; Schaner, Ted; Bowlby, James N.; Schleen, Larry P.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to maintain the native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Ontario by stocking fry failed and the species was extirpated by the 1950s. Hatchery fish stocked in the 1960s did not live to maturity because of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation and incidental commercial harvest. Suppression of sea lampreys began with larvicide treatments of Lake Ontario tributaries in 1971 and was enhanced when the tributaries of Oneida Lake and Lake Erie were treated in the 1980s. Annual stocking of hatchery fish was resumed with the 1972 year class and peaked at about 1.8 million yearlings and 0.3 million fingerlings from the 1985–1990 year classes. Survival of stocked yearlings declined over 50% in the 1980 s and was negatively correlated with the abundance of lake trout > 550 mm long (r = −0.91, P < 0.01, n = 12). A slot length limit imposed by the State of New York for the 1988 fishing season reduced angler harvest. Angler harvest in Canadian waters was 3 times higher in eastern Lake Ontario than in western Lake Ontario. For the 1977–1984 year classes, mean annual survival rate of lake trout age 6 and older was 0.45 (range: 0.35–0.56). In U.S. waters during 1985–1992, the total number of lake trout harvested by anglers was about 2.4 times greater than that killed by sea lampreys. The number of unmarked lake trout < 250 mm long in trawl catches in 1978–1992 was not different from that expected due to loss of marks and failure to apply marks at the hatchery, and suggested that recruitment of naturally-produced fish was nil. However, many of the obstacles which may have impeded lake trout rehabilitation in Lake Ontario during the 1980s are slowly being removed, and there are signs of a general ecosystem recovery. Significant recruitment of naturally produced lake trout by the year 2000, one interim objective of the rehabilitation plan for the Lake, may be achieved.

  5. Community College Students and Applied Research. Professional File. Number 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuniga, Sabrina Faust

    2009-01-01

    Student participation in applied research as a form of experiential learning in community colleges is relatively new. Ontario Colleges today participate at different levels with different numbers of projects and faculty involved. A few colleges in Ontario are more established in doing applied research including having basic infrastructure for…

  6. Fleas associated with non-flying small mammal communities from northern and central Chile: with new host and locality records.

    PubMed

    Bazán-León, E A; Lareschi, M; Sanchez, J; Soto-Nilo, G; Lazzoni, I; Venegas, C I; Poblete, Y; Vásquez, R A

    2013-12-01

    Fleas associated with small mammals from seven localities from northern and central Chile were assessed. We captured 352 small mammals belonging to 12 species from which we obtained 675 fleas belonging to 15 different species. The most frequently captured flea species were Neotyphloceras crassispina crassispina (n = 198) and N. chilensis (n = 175). High values of flea species richness and diversity were found in Fray Jorge National Park (NP), a north-central Chilean site, whereas the highest values of mean abundance (MA) and prevalence were found in three diverse sites that include Los Molles River, a high altitude site located in north-central Chile, Fray Jorge NP and Dichato, in south-central Chile. On the other hand, high values of flea richness and diversity were found on two rodent species, Abrothrix olivacea and A. longipilis, whereas the highest values of MA and prevalence were found on Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, A. longipilis and Phyllotis xanthopygus. A total of three new host recordings, nine new localities and nine new host species and locality recordings are reported. Also, this study represents the first known record of Tetrapsyllus (Tetrapsyllus) comis in Chile and the first ecological analysis of Neotyphloceras chilensis.

  7. Conveying Flood Hazard Risk Through Spatial Modeling: A Case Study for Hurricane Sandy-Affected Communities in Northern New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Artigas, Francisco; Bosits, Stephanie; Kojak, Saleh; Elefante, Dominador; Pechmann, Ildiko

    2016-10-01

    The accurate forecast from Hurricane Sandy sea surge was the result of integrating the most sophisticated environmental monitoring technology available. This stands in contrast to the limited information and technology that exists at the community level to translate these forecasts into flood hazard levels on the ground at scales that are meaningful to property owners. Appropriately scaled maps with high levels of certainty can be effectively used to convey exposure to flood hazard at the community level. This paper explores the most basic analysis and data required to generate a relatively accurate flood hazard map to convey inundation risk due to sea surge. A Boolean overlay analysis of four input layers: elevation and slope derived from LiDAR data and distances from streams and catch basins derived from aerial photography and field reconnaissance were used to create a spatial model that explained 55 % of the extent and depth of the flood during Hurricane Sandy. When a ponding layer was added to the previous model to account for depressions that would fill and spill over to nearby areas, the new model explained almost 70 % of the extent and depth of the flood. The study concludes that fairly accurate maps can be created with readily available information and that it is possible to infer a great deal about risk of inundation at the property level, from flood hazard maps. The study goes on to conclude that local communities are encouraged to prepare for disasters, but in reality because of the existing Federal emergency management framework there is very little incentive to do so.

  8. Conveying Flood Hazard Risk Through Spatial Modeling: A Case Study for Hurricane Sandy-Affected Communities in Northern New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artigas, Francisco; Bosits, Stephanie; Kojak, Saleh; Elefante, Dominador; Pechmann, Ildiko

    2016-10-01

    The accurate forecast from Hurricane Sandy sea surge was the result of integrating the most sophisticated environmental monitoring technology available. This stands in contrast to the limited information and technology that exists at the community level to translate these forecasts into flood hazard levels on the ground at scales that are meaningful to property owners. Appropriately scaled maps with high levels of certainty can be effectively used to convey exposure to flood hazard at the community level. This paper explores the most basic analysis and data required to generate a relatively accurate flood hazard map to convey inundation risk due to sea surge. A Boolean overlay analysis of four input layers: elevation and slope derived from LiDAR data and distances from streams and catch basins derived from aerial photography and field reconnaissance were used to create a spatial model that explained 55 % of the extent and depth of the flood during Hurricane Sandy. When a ponding layer was added to the previous model to account for depressions that would fill and spill over to nearby areas, the new model explained almost 70 % of the extent and depth of the flood. The study concludes that fairly accurate maps can be created with readily available information and that it is possible to infer a great deal about risk of inundation at the property level, from flood hazard maps. The study goes on to conclude that local communities are encouraged to prepare for disasters, but in reality because of the existing Federal emergency management framework there is very little incentive to do so.

  9. Evaluation of the Community-Based Chronic Disease Prevention Program Meta Salud in Northern Mexico, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Rosales, Cecilia; Cornejo, Elsa; Bell, Melanie L.; Munguía, Diana; Zepeda, Tanyha; Carvajal, Scott; Guernsey de Zapien, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Meta Salud is a community health worker–facilitated intervention in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico, and was adapted from Pasos Adelante, a similar evidence-based intervention developed for a Latino population in the United States–Mexico border region. The objective of this study was to examine outcomes for Meta Salud and compare them with outcomes for Pasos Adelante. Methods This pretest–posttest study took place during 13 weeks among low-income residents of an urban area. The program provided information on topics such as heart health, physical activity, nutrition, diabetes, healthy weight, community health, and emotional well-being; included individual and group activities aimed at motivating behavior change; and encouraged participants to engage in brisk physical activity. Results We found significant decreases from baseline to conclusion in body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, weight, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. From baseline to 3-month follow-up, we found significant decreases in body mass index, waist circumference, weight, LDL cholesterol, and glucose, and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Outcomes for Meta Salud were similar to those found for Pasos Adelante. Conclusion The physiological improvements found among participants in Meta Salud and comparable changes among participants in Pasos Adelante suggest a scalable and effective behavioral intervention for regions of the United States and Mexico that share a common boundary or have similar cultural and linguistic characteristics. PMID:25211502

  10. THE COMPOSITE INTERNATIONAL DIAGNOSTIC INTERVIEW (CIDI): ITS RELIABILITY AND APPLICABILITY IN A RURAL COMMUNITY OF NORTHERN INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Jugal; Kapoor, Vinay; Reddaiah, V.P.

    1999-01-01

    To study the reliability and applicability of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) in a rural community of India, a two steps sampling procedure was adopted, Step I: A clinical diagnosis based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder-Ill-Revised (DSM-IIIR) criteria was administered to 218 persons aged 18-60 years who consulted the Primary Health Centre (PHC); Step II: Of these persons, 71 were selected for detailed examination with the CIDI Hindi version in their home environment. The current diagnoses produced by the CIDI (scored two ways DSM-III-R and ICD-10) were evaluated against the DSM-III-R clinical diagnoses. The kappa values were 0.43 and 0.64. The likelihood ratios of positive CIDI-DSM-III-R and CIDI-ICD-10 were found to be 13.11 and 17.23; the specificity rates were 95.4% in each; the positive predictive values were 96.6% and 97.4% and the sensitivity rates were 59.2% and 77.5%. A significant longer time was faken for coding one CIDI. Only 8% of the 71 CIDI interviewed required more than one sitting. 96% of those interviewed were receptive for future interviews with CIDI. The study findings emphasize the good reliability and acceptability of the CIDI in a rural community of India. PMID:21430810

  11. Drinking-water treatment, climate change, and childhood gastrointestinal illness projections for northern Wisconsin (USA) communities drinking untreated groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uejio, Christopher K.; Christenson, Megan; Moran, Colleen; Gorelick, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relative importance of climate change and drinking-water treatment for gastrointestinal illness incidence in children (age <5 years) from period 2046-2065 compared to 1991-2010. The northern Wisconsin (USA) study focused on municipalities distributing untreated groundwater. A time-series analysis first quantified the observed (1991-2010) precipitation and gastrointestinal illness associations after controlling for seasonality and temporal trends. Precipitation likely transported pathogens into drinking-water sources or into leaking water-distribution networks. Building on observed relationships, the second analysis projected how climate change and drinking-water treatment installation may alter gastrointestinal illness incidence. Future precipitation values were modeled by 13 global climate models and three greenhouse-gas emissions levels. The second analysis was rerun using three pathways: (1) only climate change, (2) climate change and the same slow pace of treatment installation observed over 1991-2010, and (3) climate change and the rapid rate of installation observed over 2011-2016. The results illustrate the risks that climate change presents to small rural groundwater municipalities without drinking water treatment. Climate-change-related seasonal precipitation changes will marginally increase the gastrointestinal illness incidence rate (mean: ˜1.5%, range: -3.6-4.3%). A slow pace of treatment installation somewhat decreased precipitation-associated gastrointestinal illness incidence (mean: ˜3.0%, range: 0.2-7.8%) in spite of climate change. The rapid treatment installation rate largely decreases the gastrointestinal illness incidence (mean: ˜82.0%, range: 82.0-83.0%).

  12. Zooplankton communities fluctuations from 1995 to 2005 in the Bay of Villefranche-sur-Mer (Northern Ligurian Sea, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandromme, P.; Stemmann, L.; Berline, L.; Gasparini, S.; Mousseau, L.; Prejger, F.; Passafiume, O.; Guarini, J.-M.; Gorsky, G.

    2010-12-01

    An integrated analysis of the pelagic ecosystems of the Ligurian Sea is performed combining time series of different zooplankton groups (small and large copepods, chaetognaths, appendicularians, pteropods, thaliaceans, decapods larvae, other crustaceans, other gelatinous and other zooplankton), chlorophyll-a and nutrients, seawater salinity, temperature and density and local weather at the Point B coastal station (Northern Ligurian Sea). From January 1995 to December 2005, a shift in most variables occurred ca. 2000. From 1995 to 2000 winters were wet and mild resulting in lower winter sea surface density. These years showed lower than average nutrients and zooplankton concentrations while phytoplankton biomass was higher. After 2000, winters were colder and dryer resulting in higher sea surface density. Nutrients and zooplankton showed higher concentrations while phytoplankton was lower than average. The ca. 2000 shift was observed for most zooplankton groups with a one year delay for certain groups. The observed patterns suggest that the pelagic ecosystem trophic state is mostly set by the winter forcing on the convection that upwells nutrients to the surface sustaining the spring bloom. However, low phytoplankton concentrations in higher nitrate and zooplankton conditions during the well mixed years suggest that phytoplankton is controlled by grazers. The proposed mechanisms of convection regimes hold for most of the time series, but specific years with contradicting patterns needed to be explained by other factors. The limitation of phytoplankton growth by the light availability in spring/summer was then proposed as a secondary driving force that can moderate or even reverse the winter forcing. Finally, the eleven years of observation did not reveal a clear link with the North Atlantic Oscillation, suggesting a more complex dynamics linking large scale climate to Ligurian Sea ecosystems or that the length of the plankton monitoring is not yet sufficient to

  13. Restructuring home care in the 1990s: geographical differentiation in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Williams, Allison M

    2006-06-01

    Through exploring the geographically differentiated effects of restructuring on the work of home care practitioners, labor process change is found to be spatially specific. It is through examining the spatiallity of labor process change that the differential impacts of health care restructuring on human health care resources can be determined. This has implications for human health care resource availability and service provision, which is particularly an issue for medically under-serviced regions. The restructuring approach, together with regulation theory, is used in this paper as tools for exploring the effects of health care reform on the local labor process. Both quantitative and qualitative data collected from home care practitioners in Ontario (Canada) show that the general trends in labor process change (work transfer down the home care hierarchy, increased time constraints, and enhanced job stress) are being similarly experienced, while shedding light on specific local differences. Findings show two working life factors to be differently experienced across the size of the place in which practitioners live and work. Two representative localities provide a closer examination of local differences in labor process change via the examination of local service cultures, local institutional practices, and local practitioner advocacy. The two sites are Sault Ste. Marie, located in northern Ontario's medically under-serviced northern health region, and Guelph, found in the province's well-serviced southern region.

  14. Insegnamiento dell'italiano nell'Ontario (The Teaching of Italian in Ontario)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verna, Anthony

    1972-01-01

    Paper read at the International Congress of Teachers of Italian held at the Universita Italiana per Stranieri in Perugia, Italy, August 27-28, 1971. Discusses the patterns of growth of Italian studies in Ontario at high school and university levels. (DS)

  15. Population-based passive tick surveillance and detection of expanding foci of blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis and the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Nelder, Mark P; Russell, Curtis; Lindsay, L Robbin; Dhar, Badal; Patel, Samir N; Johnson, Steven; Moore, Stephen; Kristjanson, Erik; Li, Ye; Ralevski, Filip

    2014-01-01

    We identified ticks submitted by the public from 2008 through 2012 in Ontario, Canada, and tested blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis for Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Among the 18 species of ticks identified, I. scapularis, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes cookei and Amblyomma americanum represented 98.1% of the 14,369 ticks submitted. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest in Ontario's Eastern region; D. variabilis in Central West and Eastern regions; I. cookei in Eastern and South West regions; and A. americanum had a scattered distribution. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest from children (0-9 years old) and older adults (55-74 years old). In two health units in the Eastern region (i.e., Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District and Kingston-Frontenac and Lennox & Addington), the rate of submission for engorged and B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks was 47× higher than the rest of Ontario. Rate of spread for blacklegged ticks was relatively faster and across a larger geographic area along the northern shore of Lake Ontario/St. Lawrence River, compared with slower spread from isolated populations along the northern shore of Lake Erie. The infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi in blacklegged ticks increased in Ontario over the study period from 8.4% in 2008 to 19.1% in 2012. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks increased yearly during the surveillance period and, while increases were not uniform across all regions, increases were greatest in the Central West region, followed by Eastern and South West regions. The overall infection prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in blacklegged ticks was 0.3%. This study provides essential information on ticks of medical importance in Ontario, and identifies demographic and geographic areas for focused public education on the prevention of tick bites and tick-borne diseases.

  16. NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043) HIV/AIDS community mobilization (CM) to promote mobile HIV voluntary counseling and testing (MVCT) in rural communities in Northern Thailand: modifications by experience.

    PubMed

    Kawichai, Surinda; Celentano, David; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Wichajarn, Monjun; Pancharoen, Kanokporn; Chariyalertsak, Chonlisa; Visrutaratana, Surasing; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Sweat, Michael; Chariyalertsak, Suwat

    2012-07-01

    Project Accept is a RCT designed to test the efficacy of community mobilization (CM), mobile voluntary counseling and testing (MVCT), and post-test support services (PTSS) in reducing HIV incidence in three African countries and Thailand. The intervention started in rural areas, northern Thailand in January 2006. CM initially included door-to-door visits during the daytime, small group discussions and joining organized meetings and followed by MVCT. In February 2007, CM strategy using HIV/AIDS "edutainment" (education and entertainment) during evening hours was introduced. After edutainment was initiated, the number of participants increased substantially. VCT uptake increased from 18 to 28 persons/day on average (t test; t = 7.87 P < 0.0001). Edutainment especially motivated younger people, as the median age of VCT clients decreased from 38 to 35 years old (median test; z = 6.74, P < 0.0001). Providing free MVCT in community settings along with edutainment during evening hours increased VCT uptake and was particularly attractive to younger adults.

  17. NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043) HIV/AIDS Community Mobilization (CM) to Promote Mobile HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing (MVCT) in Rural Communities in Northern Thailand: Modifications by Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kawichai, Surinda; Celentano, David; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Wichajarn, Monjun; Pancharoen, Kanokporn; Chariyalertsak, Chonlisa; Visrutaratana, Surasing; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Sweat, Michael; Chariyalertsak, Suwat

    2012-01-01

    Project Accept is a RCT designed to test the efficacy of community mobilization (CM), mobile voluntary counseling and testing (MVCT), and post-test support services (PTSS) in reducing HIV incidence in three African countries and Thailand. The intervention started in rural areas, northern Thailand in January 2006. CM initially included door-to-door visits during the daytime, small group discussions and joining organized meetings and followed by MVCT. In February 2007, CM strategy using HIV/AIDS “edutainment” (education and entertainment) during evening hours was introduced. After edutainment was initiated, the number of participants increased substantially. VCT uptake increased from 18 to 28 persons/day on average (t test; t = 7.87 P < 0.0001). Edutainment especially motivated younger people, as the median age of VCT clients decreased from 38 to 35 years old (median test; z = 6.74, P < 0.0001). Providing free MVCT in community settings along with edutainment during evening hours increased VCT uptake and was particularly attractive to younger adults. PMID:22170382

  18. Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  19. Effectiveness of the Revised Ontario School Record System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Edward H.; Elwood, Bryan C.

    Results of a study conducted for the Ministry of Education (Ontario) and designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Ontario School Record System (OSR) as revised in 1973 are reported in this paper. In order to evaluate the OSR's effectiveness, the study team examined educators', parents and students' perceived needs for student information,…

  20. Educational Quality and Accountability in Ontario: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volante, Louis

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the genesis, limitations, and future directions for the Education Quality and Accountability Office (EQAO) in the province of Ontario. Recent assessment reforms are analyzed and examined in relation to broader Canadian and international literature. Research describing the impact of Ontario's large-scale assessment programs on…

  1. Ontario Pins Hopes on Practices, Not Testing, to Achieve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on Ontario's way of school improvement which focuses less on test-score results and more on engaging teachers and principals. Like the United States, the Canadian province of Ontario has committed itself to reaching key numeric targets: at least 75 percent of 6th graders able to read, write, and do mathematics at the…

  2. Outbreak investigation of porcine epidemic diarrhea in swine in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Pasma, Tim; Furness, Mary Catherine; Alves, David; Aubry, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus was first diagnosed in Ontario in January of 2014. An outbreak investigation was conducted and it was hypothesized that feed containing spray-dried porcine plasma contaminated with the virus was a risk factor in the introduction and spread of the disease in Ontario.

  3. Ontario's Policy Framework for Environmental Education: Indoctrination and Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardy, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Outdoor educators should find little to like in the Ontario government's new policy framework for environmental education. Released in February 2009, the document, titled "Acting Today, Shaping Tomorrow," relies heavily on the 2007 Report of the Working Group on Environmental Education in Ontario, "Shaping Our Schools, Shaping Our…

  4. Education Governance Reform in Ontario: Neoliberalism in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattler, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between neoliberal ideology and the discourse and practice of education governance reform in Ontario over the last two decades. It focuses on changes in education governance introduced by successive Ontario governments: the NDP government from 1990 to 1995, the Progressive Conservative government from 1995 to…

  5. The Financial Position of Universities in Ontario: 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report reviews economic factors affecting the universities of Ontario, Canada. In 34 tables and 25 figures it provides comparative data with other Canadian and American institutions over the past 15 years. An executive summary reveals that operating grants from the Ontario government have been declining, and that many universities have been…

  6. The Financial Position of Universities in Ontario: 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto. Research Div.

    This paper examines the financial status of public universities in Ontario, Canada, and makes the argument that they are under-funded by the Ontario government. An opening section notes the recent announcement by the government of funding levels for 1992-93, 1993-94, and 1994-95 which are below the projected rate of inflation and suggests that…

  7. 3. ONTARIO MINE. ADIT ENTRANCE WITH TIN ROOF. TIP TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ONTARIO MINE. ADIT ENTRANCE WITH TIN ROOF. TIP TOP IS LOCATED IN LINE WITH 'Y' BRANCH AND THE TAILING PILE FOR TIP TOP IS VISIBLE JUST TO RIGHT OF IT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Ontario Mine, Northwest side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  8. 1. ONTARIO MINE IS LOCATED ALONG FAR RIGHT ROADWAY APPROXIMATELY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ONTARIO MINE IS LOCATED ALONG FAR RIGHT ROADWAY APPROXIMATELY 100 YARDS FROM CAMERA POSITION. TAILING PILE DOWN SLOPE AND WEST OF CAMERA POSITION IN ID-31-C-44. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Ontario Mine, Northwest side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  9. Ontario Kindergarten Teachers' Social Media Discussions about Full Day Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Meghan

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory netnographic study describes how a sample of Ontario kindergarten teachers perceive the new Ontario Full Day Kindergarten (FDK) curriculum. Discussions from teacher message boards, the comment sections of online news articles, and interviews with kindergarten teachers were analyzed and coded using a qualitative approach. Analysis…

  10. Inventory of Physical Facilities of Ontario Universities, 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report presents the results of the latest in a series of triennial surveys conducted by the Council of Ontario Universities (COU) (Ontario, Canada) in order to monitor the existing university space inventory and changes in space requirements as determined by the COU Building Blocks space formula. Section 1, "Introduction," discusses…

  11. Pedagogical over Punitive: The Academic Integrity Websites of Ontario Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This study is a snapshot of how Ontario universities are currently promoting academic integrity (AI) online. Rather than concentrating on policies, this paper uses a semiotic methodology to consider how the websites of Ontario's publicly funded universities present AI through language and image. The paper begins by surveying each website and…

  12. Characteristics of established group practices in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Vayda, E; Williams, A P; Stevenson, H M; Pierre, K D; Burke, M; Barnsley, J

    1989-01-01

    Established group practices in Ontario were surveyed to determine their structure, characteristics and attitudes toward government assistance in the development of group practice. The degree of organization of the groups surveyed was related to size and less than that reported in surveys of United States group practices. Group size and years of operation were strongly associated. Night, weekend and vacation coverage, the use of a unit patient record and the employment of non-physician administrators were reported frequently, and were more common in older and larger groups. As well, fringe benefits, except for professional organization dues, were not commonly provided.

  13. Air Quality in the Central Ontario Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gbor, P. K.; Meng, F.; Singh, R.; Galvez, O.; Sloan, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    The Central Ontario Region (COR) is the most densely populated area in Canada. With a population of 7.3 million, it contains 23% of the total population of Canada. It extends from the extreme south west end of Ontario to the eastern end of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and includes the Niagara, Hamilton and Waterloo Regions,. The air quality of this region is frequently severely impaired in the summer months. In the larger metropolitan areas (Toronto and Hamilton) air pollution is a concern throughout the year. Local health authorities attribute about 1000 premature deaths per year in the GTA alone to air pollution. Average air pollution levels in Ontario have decreased significantly during the past 30 years, despite significant growth in both population and industry. The concentrations of SO2 and CO have decreased by over 80% and the concentration of NOX has decreased by about 50% over the past 26 years. Currently, the concentrations of NOX, CO, SO2 and VOCs in the COR are well below the Provincial and Federal air quality criteria. Ozone, PM2.5 and PM10, however, remain above the Provincial guidelines, so smog still remains a problem. The pollutants in the atmosphere of the COR are caused by both local emissions and long range transport. The COR contributes over 50% of the NOx, VOC and CO emissions in Ontario. Over 58% of NOX and CO emissions in the COR are due to mobile sources while about 50% of VOC and PM emissions are due to area sources. The proximity of the COR to the Canada-U.S. border makes it vulnerable to long range transport of pollutants stemming from the much larger population in the United States. The Canadian government, industries and non-governmental organizations are all taking steps to help reduce the level of pollution in Canada. The Canadian federal government also participates in extensive consultations and cooperative programs with the United States designed to reduce the mutually detrimental effects of cross-border pollution. These

  14. Lake Ontario geological and geophysical data sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Wold, Richard J.

    1979-01-01

    A bibliography of various geological and geophysical data sources was compiled as part of an overall effort to evaluate the status of research on the Great Lakes.  We hope that such a summary will be a catalyst for additional work and be an aid in planning future work.  Our presentation has two forms: maps showing the locations of the different data types and a bibliography which lists the references from the maps and additional relevant papers.  The charts shown in this map summarize the data source for Lake Ontario.

  15. The impacts of low-cost treatment options upon scale formation potential in remote communities reliant on hard groundwaters. A case study: Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kinsela, Andrew S; Jones, Adele M; Collins, Richard N; Waite, T David

    2012-02-01

    The majority of small, remote communities within the Northern Territory (NT) in Central Australia are reliant on groundwater as their primary supply of domestic, potable water. Saturation indices for a variety of relevant minerals were calculated using available thermodynamic speciation codes on collected groundwater data across the NT. These saturation indices were used to assess the theoretical formation of problematic mineral-scale, which manifests itself by forming stubborn coatings on domestic appliances and fixtures. The results of this research show that 63% of the measured sites within the NT have the potential to form calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) scale, increasing to 91% in arid, central regions. The data also suggests that all groundwaters are over-saturated with respect to amorphous calcium-bridged ferric-silica polymers, based on the crystalline mineral index (Ca(3)Fe(2)Si(3)O(12)), although the quantitative impact of this scale is limited by low iron concentrations. An assessment of possible low-cost/low-technology management options was made, including; lowering the temperature of hot-water systems, diluting groundwater with rainwater and modifying the pH of the source water. Source water pH modification (generally a reduction to pH 7.0) was shown to clearly alleviate potential carbonate-based scale formation, over and above the other two options, albeit at a greater technical and capital expense. Although low-cost/low-technology treatment options are unlikely to remove severe scale-related issues, their place in small, remote communities with minor scale problems should be investigated further, owing to the social, technical and capital barriers involved with installing advanced treatment plants (e.g. reverse osmosis) in such locations.

  16. Dynamics of suspended sediment plumes in Lake Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pluhowski, E. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Enhancement of ERTS-1 imagery yielded excellent quality 35-mm color slides and prints of several prominent turbidity plumes in Lake Ontario. Selected ERTS-1 frames of the Welland Canal and Genesee River plumes will be used to develop time-lapse sequences showing the impact of wind stress on each plume. Unusually high lake levels during the spring resulted in extensive beach erosion along the entire Lake Ontario shoreline. The resulting high concentrations of suspended matter generated highly turbid (up to 420 JTU) nearshore conditions that appeared milky white in the imagery obtained April 12 and 29th, 1973. During the shipping season, both the Welland Canal and a diversion channel at Port Dalhousie, Ontario, produced readily identifiable turbidity plumes in Lake Ontario. However, in the winter neither plume was visible in the ERTS-1 imagery suggesting sharply lower sediment discharge into Lake Ontario from these sources.

  17. Zonation and spatial distribution of littoral fish communities from the southwestern Finnish coast (Archipelago and Bothnian Sea, Northern Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahteri, Petri; O'Brien, Kevin; Vuorinen, Ilppo

    2009-03-01

    The aim of our study was to test whether the distribution of littoral fish assemblages would reflect both their immediate environment with reference to local underwater vegetation, including larger scale geographic archipelagial zonation. A total of 62 locations were sampled using beach seine and underwater video along the southwestern Finnish coastline in summer 2001. At all locations, water temperature, water transparency and benthic vegetation patterns (depth ranges of plant species or taxa) were recorded. Using correspondence analysis, our results showed a clear division of the Archipelago Sea into three separate zones based on littoral fish species assemblages. Overall, fish assemblages formed three distinct site groups, being dominated by pike and cyprinids, by percids and gobies, or by gasterosteids, and showed clear inner, middle and outer archipelago zones respectively, within the study area. Our results suggest that while vegetation in the study sites was diverse, it failed to express the zonation reflected by the littoral fish assemblages, which showed a definite zonation pattern which broadly reflected previous reports using both physical and biological parameters. We interpret our results to show that littoral vegetation is better in expressing small-scale differences between study sites, while littoral fish communities are more robust in detecting changes over a larger geographical scale.

  18. Effects of shoreline discharge of iron mine tailings on a marine soft-bottom community in northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Lancellotti, D A; Stotz, W B

    2004-02-01

    This study evaluates the magnitude and extension of the impact produced by the discharge of inert allochthonous materials, including clays and particulate iron, on macrobenthic soft-bottom assemblages in the subtidal zone of a coastal bay in north-central Chile. An average of 118 Ton h(-1) of finely divided solids were discharged into the rocky intertidal zone of the bay for a period of over 16 years, producing continuous turbidity in the water column and sedimentation in the subtidal zone. Data obtained four months before cessation of the discharge showed that the macrofauna present at 20 and 50 m depth in the bay suffered an important decrease in abundance and species richness, low diversity/high dominance, and deep changes in community structure related to the discharge. The faunal assemblages present at 110 m depth did not show effects from the discharge, suggesting that the impact was limited to the inner part of the bay. The impoverished faunal aggregates at 20 and 50 m depth showed exclusive domination by the Lumbrineris bifilaris (polychaete)-Diastylis tongoyensis (cumacean) association, representing a simple trophic guild of deposit feeders. The complete absence of opportunistic species such as capitellid, spionid, and/or cirratulid polychaetes may be associated with the turbidity and sedimentation levels in the bay.

  19. Characterization of the natural enemy community attacking cotton aphid in the Bt cotton ecosystem in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abid; Desneux, Nicolas; Lu, Yanhui; Liu, Bing; Wu, Kongming

    2016-04-14

    Planting Bt cotton in China since 1997 has led to important changes in the natural enemy communities occurring in cotton, however their specific effect on suppressing the cotton aphids (being notorious in conventional cotton ecosystem) has not been fully documented yet. We observed strong evidence for top-down control of the aphid population, e.g. the control efficiency of natural enemies on cotton aphid increased significantly in open field cages compared to exclusion cages, accounted for 60.2, 87.2 and 76.7% in 2011, 2012 and 2013 season, respectively. The cotton aphid populations peaked in early June to late July (early and middle growth stages) in open field cotton survey from 2011 to 2013. The population densities of cotton aphids and natural enemies were highest on middle growth stage while lowest densities were recorded on late stage for aphids and on early plant stage for natural enemies. Aphid parasitoids (Trioxys spp., Aphidius gifuensis), coccinellids and spiders were key natural enemies of cotton aphid. Briefly, natural enemies can suppress aphid population increase from early to middle plant growth stages by providing biocontrol services in Chinese Bt cotton.

  20. Characterization of the natural enemy community attacking cotton aphid in the Bt cotton ecosystem in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abid; Desneux, Nicolas; Lu, Yanhui; Liu, Bing; Wu, Kongming

    2016-01-01

    Planting Bt cotton in China since 1997 has led to important changes in the natural enemy communities occurring in cotton, however their specific effect on suppressing the cotton aphids (being notorious in conventional cotton ecosystem) has not been fully documented yet. We observed strong evidence for top-down control of the aphid population, e.g. the control efficiency of natural enemies on cotton aphid increased significantly in open field cages compared to exclusion cages, accounted for 60.2, 87.2 and 76.7% in 2011, 2012 and 2013 season, respectively. The cotton aphid populations peaked in early June to late July (early and middle growth stages) in open field cotton survey from 2011 to 2013. The population densities of cotton aphids and natural enemies were highest on middle growth stage while lowest densities were recorded on late stage for aphids and on early plant stage for natural enemies. Aphid parasitoids (Trioxys spp., Aphidius gifuensis), coccinellids and spiders were key natural enemies of cotton aphid. Briefly, natural enemies can suppress aphid population increase from early to middle plant growth stages by providing biocontrol services in Chinese Bt cotton. PMID:27075171