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Sample records for northern ontario communities

  1. The Northern Ontario School of Medicine: responding to the needs of the people and communities of Northern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Roger; Lanphear, Joel

    2008-12-01

    Northern Ontario, like many rural and remote regions around the world, has a chronic shortage of health professionals. Recognizing that medical graduates who have grown up in rural areas are more likely to practice in rural settings, the Government of Ontario, Canada established a new medical school with a social accountability mandate to contribute to improving the health of the peoples and communities of Northern Ontario. The Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM) is a joint initiative of Laurentian University in Sudbury and Lakehead University in Thunder Bay, cities one thousand kilometers apart. The NOSM model of medical education is built on several recent educational developments including rural-based medical education, social accountability of medical education and electronic distance education. This paper describes these developments as background to presenting the Northern Ontario School of Medicine as a socially accountable, geographically distributed rural-based medical school. NOSM MD PROGRAM: The school actively seeks to recruit students for the MD program from Northern Ontario or similar northern, rural, remote, Aboriginal, and Francophone backgrounds. The holistic, cohesive curriculum is grounded in Northern Ontario and relies heavily on broadband electronic communications to support distributed, community engaged learning. Students, both in classroom and clinical settings, explore cases as if they were physicians in Northern Ontario communities. Clinical education takes place in a wide range of community and health service settings so that students can experience the diversity of communities and cultures in Northern Ontario. Although NOSM is still in the early stages of development, there are encouraging signs that the school's evidence-based model of medical education will be successful in developing a sustainable, community responsive health workforce for Northern Ontario.

  2. Domain Analysis and Second-Language Instruction in Northern Ontario Native Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toohey, Kelleen; Allen, Patrick

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the functions of English and native languages in northern Ontario native communities and argues that native children's greatest need for English is in an anglophone classroom environment. Discusses three types of curriculum design and suggests ways to develop content area reading and writing curricula for Canada native children. (SED)

  3. From social network to safety net: Dementia-friendly communities in rural northern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Wiersma, Elaine C; Denton, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Dementia-friendly communities, as communities that enable people with dementia to remain involved and active and have control over their lives for as long as possible, centrally involve social support and social networks for people living with dementia. The purpose of this research was to explore and understand the context of dementia in rural northern communities in Ontario with an emphasis on understanding how dementia friendly the communities were. Using qualitative methods, interviews were conducted with a total of 71 participants, including 37 health service providers, 15 care partners, 2 people living with dementia and 17 other community members such as local business owners, volunteers, local leaders, friends and neighbours. The strong social networks and informal social support that were available to people living with dementia, and the strong commitment by community members, families and health care providers to support people with dementia, were considered a significant asset to the community. A culture of care and looking out for each other contributed to the social support provided. In particular, the familiarity with others provided a supportive community environment. People with dementia were looked out for by community members, and continued to remain connected in their communities. The social support provided in these communities demonstrated that although fragile, this type of support offered somewhat of a safety net for individuals living with dementia. This work provides important insights into the landscape of dementia in rural northern Ontario communities, and the strong social supports that sustain people with dementia remaining in the communities.

  4. Mental Health Perceptions and Practices of a Cree Community in Northern Ontario: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Danto, David; Walsh, Russ

    2017-01-01

    This project is a qualitative study of the mental health perceptions and practices of one Aboriginal community in the northern Ontario James and Hudson Bay region. Despite a shared history of trauma and oppression with the other five Cree communities in this area, as well as an added trauma of natural disaster and subsequent relocation, this community has been reported to have markedly lower rates of mental health services utilization and suicide. Interviews with eight community leaders and mental health services providers were conducted and analyzed in order to identify the features that distinguish this community. In line with recent recommendations for culturally sensitive and community-compatible research methods, participants' narratives were organized in terms of the "medicine wheel" of traditional healing. Results showed strong connection to the land and traditions, openness to both traditional and Christian spirituality, community engagement, and shared parenting as strengths valued by a majority of participants.

  5. The economic contribution of the Northern Ontario School of Medicine to communities participating in distributed medical education.

    PubMed

    Hogenbirk, John C; Robinson, David R; Hill, Mary Ellen; Pong, Raymond W; Minore, Bruce; Adams, Ken; Strasser, Roger P; Lipinski, Joe

    2015-01-01

    The economic contribution of medical schools to major urban centres can be substantial, but there is little information on the contribution to the economy of participating communities made by schools that provide education and training away from major cities and academic health science centres. We sought to assess the economic contribution of the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM) to northern Ontario communities participating in NOSM's distributed medical education programs. We developed a local economic model and used actual expenditures from 2007/08 to assess the economic contribution of NOSM to communities in northern Ontario. We also estimated the economic contribution of medical students or residents participating in different programs in communities away from the university campuses. To explore broader economic effects, we conducted semistructured interviews with leaders in education, health care and politics in northern Ontario. The total economic contribution to northern Ontario was $67.1 million based on $36.3 million in spending by NOSM and $1.0 million spent by students. Economic contributions were greatest in the university campus cities of Thunder Bay ($26.7 million) and Sudbury ($30.4 million), and $0.8-$1.2 million accrued to the next 3 largest population centres. Communities might realize an economic contribution of $7300-$103 900 per pair of medical learners per placement. Several of the 59 interviewees remarked that the dollar amount could be small to moderate but had broader economic implications. Distributed medical education at the NOSM resulted in a substantial economic contribution to participating communities.

  6. Report on Ontario's Northern Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    Ontario's funding formula fails to recognize the unique needs of northern school boards, which cover immense geographic areas, have many small schools, and enroll a high proportion of Aboriginal students. This report examines school size, enrollment, and staffing in northern Ontario schools, drawing on 2002-03 tracking reports of provincial…

  7. North of the 46° parallel: Obstacles and challenges to recycling in Ontario's rural and northern communities.

    PubMed

    Lakhan, Calvin

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the economic challenges of recycling in Ontario's rural and northern areas. Specifically, this study quantifies the economic and diversion impact of operating recycling programs in these regions. Using a systems based cost model, focus is placed on analyzing: (1) What would happen to provincial recycling costs and diversion levels if recycling programs were eliminated in "high cost" northern and rural communities? (2) Is it possible to increase the provincial recycling rate by focusing investments in low cost, high performance regions (while simultaneously eliminating recycling programs in rural and northern areas)? (3) How would the mix of material recovered change if recycling programs were eliminated in rural and northern areas? The results of this analysis show that eliminating recycling programs in high cost regions significantly decreased system costs without negatively impacting overall recycling rates. This study also found that it was possible to increase the provincial recycling rate while simultaneously reducing program costs by targeting specific regions for recovery. The findings of this study suggest that Ontario reevaluate whether rural and northern municipalities be legislatively required to operate household recycling programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of the emergency room in Elliot Lake, a rural community of Northern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Harris, L; Bombin, M; Chi, F; DeBortoli, T; Long, J

    2004-01-01

    There is ample documentation that use of hospital emergency facilities for reasons other than urgencies/emergencies results in clogged services in many urban centers. However, little has been published about similar misuse of emergency rooms/departments in rural and remote areas, where the situation is usually compounded by a scarcity of healthcare professionals. In Canada there is a shortage of physicians in rural and remote areas as a consequence of misdistribution (most physicians staying in southern urban centers after residence), and there is a chronic misuse of facilities meant for urgencies/emergencies to cope with primary healthcare needs. We address the problem in Elliot Lake, a rural Northern Ontario community of 12,000 people. The economy of Elliot Lake was based on uranium mining until the mid-1990s, when it drastically changed to become a center for affordable retirement and recreational tourism. As a consequence, at the present time the proportion of seniors in Elliot Lake doubles the Canadian average. Our objectives are to elucidate the demographics of emergency room (ER) clients and the effect of the elderly population; the nature of ER use; the perceived level of urgency of clients versus health professionals; and possible alternatives offered to non-urgent/emergency visits. This is the first study of the kind in Northern Ontario, a region the size of France. The study, conducted in July 2001, used a prospective survey, completed by patients and attending clinicians at the time of a patient's presentation to the ER of St Joseph's General Hospital. This hospital is staffed by family physicians, a nurse practitioner, and registered nurses (RNs). The catchment area population (town plus surrounding areas) of the hospital is approximately 18,000 people. ER clients were interviewed verbally, and the attending health professionals responded to written questionnaires. Demographics were recorded (age, sex, employment and marital status), as was each client

  9. Building the New Northern Ontario Rural Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, James T. B.

    2002-01-01

    Opening in 2004, the new Northern Ontario Rural Medical School will address the rural doctor shortage in Canada. Supported by Laurentian University and Lakehead University, learning sites will be in hospitals, community clinics, and physicians' offices throughout northern Ontario. The curriculum will be patient-centered and clinical problem-based…

  10. An environmental scan of emergency response systems and services in remote First Nations communities in Northern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Mew, E. J.; Ritchie, S. D.; VanderBurgh, D.; Beardy, J. L.; Gordon, J.; Fortune, M.; Mamakwa, S.; Orkin, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Approximately 24,000 Ontarians live in remote Indigenous communities with no road access. These communities are a subset of Nishnawbe Aski Nation (NAN), a political grouping of 49 First Nations communities in Northern Ontario, Canada. Limited information is available regarding the status of emergency care in these communities. Objective: We aimed to understand emergency response systems, services, and training in remote NAN communities. Design: We used an environmental scan approach to compile information from multiple sources including community-based participatory research. This included the analysis of data collected from key informant interviews (n=10) with First Nations community health leaders and a multi-stakeholder roundtable meeting (n=33) in October 2013. Results: Qualitative analysis of the interview data revealed four issues related to emergency response systems and training: (1) inequity in response capacity and services, (2) lack of formalised dispatch systems, (3) turnover and burnout in volunteer emergency services, and (4) challenges related to first aid training. Roundtable stakeholders supported the development of a community-based emergency care system to address gaps. Conclusions: Existing first response, paramedical, and ambulance service models do not meet the unique geographical, epidemiological and cultural needs in most NAN communities. Sustainable, context-appropriate, and culturally relevant emergency care systems are needed. PMID:28494638

  11. From the community to the classroom: the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Jacklin, Kristen; Strasser, Roger; Peltier, Ian

    2014-01-01

    More undergraduate medical education programs are including curricula concerning the health, culture and history of Aboriginal people. This is in response to growing international recognition of the large divide in health status between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, and the role medical education may play in achieving health equity. In this paper, we describe the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum at the Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM). We describe a process for curriculum development and delivery, which includes ongoing engagement with Aboriginal communities as well as faculty expertise. Aboriginal health is delivered as a core curriculum, and learning is evaluated in summative assessments. Aboriginal health objectives are present in 4 of 5 required courses, primarily in years 1 and 2. Students attend a required 4-week Aboriginal cultural immersion placement at the end of year 1. Resources of Aboriginal knowledge are integrated into learning. In this paper, we reflect on the key challenges encountered in the development and delivery of the Aboriginal health curriculum. These include differences in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal knowledge; risk of reinforcing stereotypes in case presentations; negotiation of curricular time; and faculty readiness and development. An organizational commitment to social accountability and the resulting community engagement model have been instrumental in creating a robust, sustainable program in Aboriginal health at NOSM.

  12. Developing community mental health services for indigenous people of northern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Ward, J A

    1991-01-01

    Inadequacies of three common models of mental health service delivery have been presented but each of these can contribute to an adequate system if the approach aims at the totality of mental health care. The key to service delivery and the provision of services in the local community by adequately trained and supervised mental health workers familiar with the culture and language and who are involved with other community workers in an inter-agency process. A major and the most important part of the work occurs in this level. This front line work must have the back-up and support of the system which has three roots. The clinical root is that of a support team of professionals, the local nursing station, hospital and the tertiary institutions. The second root is in training and education by recognized courses and other resources and the third in an adequate administration in which the indigenous population has been put in control.

  13. Driving Distance to Telemedicine Units in Northern Ontario as a Measure of Potential Access to Healthcare.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, Laurel D; Hogenbirk, John C

    2016-04-01

    The Ontario Telemedicine Network (OTN) uses technology to help make medical services more accessible to people in medically underserved rural and remote parts of Ontario, Canada. We examined access to OTN-enabled health and medical services in Northern Ontario, which has 775,000 people in communities scattered across an area of 803,000 km(2). We used ArcGIS Network Analyst (Esri, Redlands, CA) to conduct a service area analysis with travel time as a measure of potential access to care. We used road distance and speed limits to estimate travel time between Northern Ontario communities and the nearest OTN unit. In 2014 there were 2,331 OTN units, of which 552 (24%) were located in Northern Ontario. All seven communities in Northern Ontario with a population of 10,000 or greater had OTN units. Almost 97% of the 59 communities with 1,000-10,000 people were within 30 min of an OTN unit. The percentage of communities within 30 min steadily decreased with decreasing population size, to 58% for communities with fewer than 50 people. In total, 86% (690/802) of Northern Ontario communities were within an hour's drive of an OTN unit. This study showed that most Northern Ontario communities were within an hour's drive of an OTN unit. The current distribution of OTN units has the potential to increase access to medical services and to reduce the need for medically related travel for residents of these communities.

  14. Shifting Currents: Science Technology Society and Environment in Northern Ontario Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    The focus is on the practices of secondary science teachers in rural, resource-extraction-based communities in the boreal region of northern Ontario, Canada. In 2008 the Ontario Ministry of Education mandated that science teaching and learning should bring to the forefront consideration of the impacts of science on society and environment, and…

  15. Elevated contaminants contrasted with potential benefits of ω-3 fatty acids in wild food consumers of two remote first nations communities in northern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Seabert, Timothy A; Pal, Shinjini; Pinet, Bernard M; Haman, Francois; Robidoux, Michael A; Imbeault, Pascal; Krümmel, Eva M; Kimpe, Linda E; Blais, Jules M

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous communities in Boreal environments rely on locally-harvested wild foods for sustenance. These foods provide many nutritional benefits including higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; such as ω-3) than what is commonly found in store-bought foods. However, wild foods can be a route of exposure to dietary mercury and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Here, we show a strong association between the frequency of wild food consumption in adults (N=72) from two remote First Nations communities of Northern Ontario and environmental contaminants in blood (POPs) and hair (mercury). We observed that POPs and mercury were on average 3.5 times higher among those consuming wild foods more often, with many frequent wild food consumers exceeding Canadian and international health guidelines for PCB and mercury exposures. Contaminants in locally-harvested fish and game from these communities were sufficiently high that many participants exceeded the monthly consumption limits for methylmercury and PCBs. Those consuming more wild foods also had higher proportions of potentially beneficial ω-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These results show that the benefits of traditional dietary choices in Boreal regions of Canada must be weighed against the inherent risks of contaminant exposure from these foods.

  16. Elevated Contaminants Contrasted with Potential Benefits of ω-3 Fatty Acids in Wild Food Consumers of Two Remote First Nations Communities in Northern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Seabert, Timothy A.; Pal, Shinjini; Pinet, Bernard M.; Haman, Francois; Robidoux, Michael A.; Imbeault, Pascal; Krümmel, Eva M.; Kimpe, Linda E.; Blais, Jules M.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous communities in Boreal environments rely on locally-harvested wild foods for sustenance. These foods provide many nutritional benefits including higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; such as ω-3) than what is commonly found in store-bought foods. However, wild foods can be a route of exposure to dietary mercury and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Here, we show a strong association between the frequency of wild food consumption in adults (N = 72) from two remote First Nations communities of Northern Ontario and environmental contaminants in blood (POPs) and hair (mercury). We observed that POPs and mercury were on average 3.5 times higher among those consuming wild foods more often, with many frequent wild food consumers exceeding Canadian and international health guidelines for PCB and mercury exposures. Contaminants in locally-harvested fish and game from these communities were sufficiently high that many participants exceeded the monthly consumption limits for methylmercury and PCBs. Those consuming more wild foods also had higher proportions of potentially beneficial ω-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These results show that the benefits of traditional dietary choices in Boreal regions of Canada must be weighed against the inherent risks of contaminant exposure from these foods. PMID:24598815

  17. Trace element content of northern Ontario peat

    SciTech Connect

    Glooschenko, W.A.; Capoblanco, J.A.

    1982-03-01

    Peat samples were collected at 0-20- and 20-40-cm depths from several peatland ecosystems located in northern Ontario, Canada. Analysis was made for the trace metals Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, and Hg. Concentration values in general were in the low ppm range and did not significantly differ in terms of peatland type or depth except for Pb. This element was signficantly higher in surface peats in bogs and fens. Concentration of metals in peats found in the study were equivalent to those in US coals, suggesting caution during combustion in terms of potential atmospheric input of metals.

  18. A Case Study of the Integration of Information and Communication Technology in a Northern Ontario First Nation Community High School: Challenges and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laronde, Gerald; MacLeod, Katarin; Frost, Lorraine; Waller, Ken

    2017-01-01

    A case study approach was used in examining Information and Communication Technology (ICT) use within a small First Nation high school in Northern Ontario. Quantitative and qualitative data was gathered from students, teacher, and the administrator, who participated in an online survey, followed by interviews on their use of ICT in education. How…

  19. Motivating Learners in Northern Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    A teacher at a northern Ontario adult Native literacy program describes how she cultivates student motivation. The teacher-student relationship is the most influential factor for motivating students. By focusing on cultural awareness, cultural teaching practices, and a sense of community, teachers can help students be successful. Program…

  20. Impact of a school snack program on the dietary intake of grade six to ten First Nation students living in a remote community in northern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Kelly; Hanning, Rhona M; Metatawabin, Joan; Martin, Ian D; Tsuji, Leonard J S

    2012-01-01

    School snack and breakfast programs may be especially important in remote northern communities where many households are food insecure. Despite the strong potential for school programs to improve the dietary intake and eating behaviours of children and youth, very few studies have reported on the effects of school nutrition programs in Aboriginal communities. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a school snack program on the dietary intake of grade six to ten First Nation students living in a remote community in northern Ontario. Data were collected in November 2004 and December 2007 with grade six to ten (aged 10-18 years) students (n=63 and n=50, respectively) using a validated web-based 24 hour diet recall survey, the WEB-Q. Food group consumption and nutrient intake of students participating in the school snack program on the previous day were compared with students who chose not to participate. In each year, ANOVA was used to assess differences between participants and non-participants, genders, and grade groups. The second data collection in December of 2007 included five questions asking students about their participation, preferences, and impressions of the snack program. Students participating in the snack program during the 2004 data collection (37%; n=23) compared with those who did not (63%; n=40) had significantly (p<0.05) higher mean intakes from the 'Vegetables and Fruit' food group (7.5 vs 3.4 servings), folate (420 vs 270 μg), dietary fiber (18 vs 8 g), vitamin C (223 vs 94 mg), calcium (1055 vs 719 mg) and iron (16.5 vs 11.7 mg). For the 2007 data collection, snack program participants (52%; n=26) had higher intakes from the 'Milk and Alternatives' food group (3.3 vs 2.2 servings), vitamin A (697 vs 551 RE [retinol equivalents]), calcium (1186 vs 837 mg), and vitamin D (6.9 vs 4.4 μg) and significantly lower intakes of 'Other' foods (6.0 vs 7.2 servings) compared with non-participants (48%; n=24). For 2004 and 2007, differences

  1. Physical Activity and Fitness of First Nations Youth in a Remote and Isolated Northern Ontario Community: A Needs Assessment.

    PubMed

    Gates, Michelle; Hanning, Rhona; Gates, Allison; Stephen, Judy; Fehst, Andrew; Tsuji, Leonard

    2016-02-01

    Among a group of First Nations youth, this research aimed to obtain objective measures of anthropometry, physical activity (PA) and fitness; to identify any group-level differences by sex, body mass index, waist circumference and body fat categories; to assess the barriers and supports to PA. Youth participated in anthropometric measures (BMI, waist circumference, body fat percentage), PA assessment (3 days of accelerometry) and fitness testing (guided by the Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness and Lifestyle Approach). Barriers and supports were assessed via environmental scan and focus groups. Descriptive statistics were compared to reference data. Group differences by sex, BMI status, waist circumference and body fat categories were tested using Mann-Whitney U and Chi square tests (p ≤ 0.05). Qualitative data were assembled into one file and coded manually for categories and themes. Seventy-two youth (12.1 ± 1.1 years, 61.1% male) participated in at least one measure; 36 completed the accelerometry. Sixty-three percent were overweight or obese, 51% were abdominally obese and 21% had excess body fat. Most (86.1%) met Canada's PA guidelines. Boys were more active than girls (p = 0.025) and had greater cardiorespiratory endurance (p = 0.003). Overweight, obese, or abdominally obese youth had lower cardiorespiratory endurance than normal weight youth (p < 0.001). Barriers and supports fell under the main themes: motivation, role models, personnel and facilities, environment and programs. Based on this assessment, youth in this community are active, but not sufficiently physically fit, especially among those affected by obesity and abdominal obesity. The findings, in addition to the numerous barriers to PA, support the community's desire for school-based PA programming.

  2. Identifying criteria and establishing parameters for forest-based ecotourism in Northern Ontario, Canada

    Treesearch

    Stephen W. Boyd; Richard W. Butler; Wolfgang Haider

    1995-01-01

    This paper identifies the following criteria as indicators for ecotourism suitability within a Northern Ontario context: naturalness, wildlife, cultural heritage, landscape and community. A methodology is proposed which uses Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to identify ecotourism sites by linking criteria deemed important with actual landscape characteristics of...

  3. Thrombolytic therapy for myocardial infarction. Treatment introduced in northern Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Hutten-Czapski, P.

    1993-01-01

    In remote regions of Canada, most patients with acute myocardial infarctions (MI) are treated by general practitioners. In hospitals served by cardiologists, intravenous thrombolytic therapy for MI is now routinely available. In a survey of northern Ontario general hospitals, 32 of 45 offered IV thrombolytic therapy. The use of streptokinase in one family physician-run hospital was also reviewed. PMID:8257484

  4. Exploring the Relationship between the Use of Information Technologies and Voluntary Participation in a Rural Area of Northern Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Mary E.

    1996-01-01

    Survey responses from 179 community members in 3 rural Northern Ontario areas determined that involvement with information technologies that link individuals with sources outside the community was not related to local community participation. The exception was a negative relationship with participation on committees. (SK)

  5. "There Is No Way To Prepare for This:" Teaching in First Nations Schools in Northern Ontario--Issues and Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Helen

    2000-01-01

    A qualitative study examined the experiences of 10 mostly inexperienced, female teachers working in two isolated Native communities in northern Ontario. Findings focus on teachers' uncertainties about appropriate pedagogical goals, the relationship of teachers to First Nations communities, living in the North, cross-cultural and multicultural…

  6. Assessing the Impact of Pilot School Snack Programs on Milk and Alternatives Intake in 2 Remote First Nation Communities in Northern Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Michelle; Hanning, Rhona M.; Gates, Allison; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Canadian Aboriginal youth have poorer diet quality and higher rates of overweight and obesity than the general population. This research aimed to assess the impact of simple food provision programs on the intakes of milk and alternatives among youth in Kashechewan and Attawapiskat First Nations (FNs), Ontario, Canada. Methods: A pilot…

  7. Assessing the Impact of Pilot School Snack Programs on Milk and Alternatives Intake in 2 Remote First Nation Communities in Northern Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Michelle; Hanning, Rhona M.; Gates, Allison; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Canadian Aboriginal youth have poorer diet quality and higher rates of overweight and obesity than the general population. This research aimed to assess the impact of simple food provision programs on the intakes of milk and alternatives among youth in Kashechewan and Attawapiskat First Nations (FNs), Ontario, Canada. Methods: A pilot…

  8. Barriers to offering French language physician services in rural and northern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Timony, Patrick E; Gauthier, Alain P; Serresse, Suzanne; Goodale, Natalie; Prpic, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Rural and Northern Ontario francophones face many health-related challenges including poor health status, a poor supply of French-speaking physicians, and the potential for an inability or reduced ability to effectively communicate with anglophone healthcare providers. As such, it can reasonably be expected that rural and Northern Ontario francophones experience barriers when receiving care. However, the experience of physicians working in areas densely populated by francophones is largely unexplored. This paper identifies barriers experienced by French-speaking and Non-French-speaking rural and Northern Ontario physicians when serving francophone patients. A series of key informant interviews were conducted with 18 family physicians practicing in rural and urban francophone communities of Northeastern Ontario. Interviews were analyzed using a thematic analysis process. Five categories of barrier were identified: (1) language discordance, (2) characteristics of francophone patients, (3) dominance of English in the medical profession, (4) lack of French-speaking medical personnel, and (5) physicians' linguistic (in)sensitivity. Some barriers identified were unique to Non-French-speaking physicians (eg language discordance, use of interpreters, feelings of inadequacy), some were unique to French-speaking physicians (eg limited French education and resources), and some were common to both groups (eg lack of French-speaking colleagues/staff, added time commitments, and the particularities of Franco-Ontarian preferences and culture). Healthcare providers and decision makers may take interest in these results. Although physicians were the focus of the present article, the barriers expressed are likely experienced by other healthcare providers, and thus the lessons learned from this article extend beyond the physician workforce. Efforts must be made to offer educational opportunities for physicians and other healthcare providers working in areas densely populated by

  9. Children's Perceptions of the Northern Fruit and Vegetable Program in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Meizi; Beynon, Charlene E.; Gritke, Jennifer L.; Henderson, Michelle L.; Kurtz, Joanne M.; Sangster Bouck, Michelle; St. Onge, Renee L.; van Zandvoort, Melissa M.; Chevrier-Lamoureux, Renee D.; Warren, Claire Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined students' perceptions of and suggestions for the Northern Fruit and Vegetable Program, a free, school-based fruit and vegetable snack program implemented in elementary schools in 2 regions of northern Ontario, Canada. Methods: This was a qualitative study involving 18 focus groups with students in 11 elementary…

  10. Children's Perceptions of the Northern Fruit and Vegetable Program in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Meizi; Beynon, Charlene E.; Gritke, Jennifer L.; Henderson, Michelle L.; Kurtz, Joanne M.; Sangster Bouck, Michelle; St. Onge, Renee L.; van Zandvoort, Melissa M.; Chevrier-Lamoureux, Renee D.; Warren, Claire Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined students' perceptions of and suggestions for the Northern Fruit and Vegetable Program, a free, school-based fruit and vegetable snack program implemented in elementary schools in 2 regions of northern Ontario, Canada. Methods: This was a qualitative study involving 18 focus groups with students in 11 elementary…

  11. Education, Attitudes, and Language of Higher Education: Francophone Students in Northern Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Derek

    1994-01-01

    A study of 1,586 francophone students in northern Ontario (Canada) found 3 attitudes (either believing French unimportant, believing English practically dominant, or believing their French inadequate) lead students to continue postsecondary education in English. Believing French pleasurable was found to be positively related to continuing…

  12. Inequality Remade: The Theory of Correspondence and the Context of French Immersion in Northern Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, C. Paul

    1983-01-01

    Examines the French Immersion program in Northern Ontario, Canada, against the correspondence theory of Bowles and Gintis. Suggests that schools both reproduce class stratified society and promote social inequality. Explores the English-speaking middle-class motivations and actions in controlling French Immersion programs to benefit their…

  13. Contact North: The Concept, Policy, Development, and Status of the Northern Ontario Distance Education Access Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arblaster, John R.

    Contact North/Contact Nord (CN) was designed to enhance distance education opportunities at the secondary and postsecondary levels in Northern Ontario through the use of new information and communication technologies. The central thesis of CN is that access to education at all levels could be improved through a combined effort by community…

  14. Evaluation of a Family and Community Engagement Strategy in Three Ontario Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Glenda L.; Cantalini-Williams, Maria; Elliott-Johns, Susan E.; Wideman, Ron

    2013-01-01

    The Learning Partnership (TLP) initiated a Family and Community Engagement Strategy (FACES) initiative in three Ontario communities to foster active and responsive relationships among community partners and enhanced family engagement in transitions to school. A case study research design, grounded in participatory action research, was used to…

  15. Strengthening the rural dietetics workforce: examining early effects of the Northern Ontario Dietetic Internship Program on recruitment and retention.

    PubMed

    Hill, Mary Ellen; Raftis, Denise; Wakewich, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    As with other allied health professions, recruitment and retention of dietitians to positions in rural and isolated positions is challenging. The aim of this study was to examine the early effects of the Northern Ontario Dietetic Internship Program (NODIP) on recruitment and retention of dietitians to rural and northern dietetics practice. The program is unique in being the only postgraduate dietetics internship program in Canada that actively selects candidates who have a desire to live and work in northern and rural areas. Objectives of the survey were to track the early career experiences of the first five cohorts (2008-2012) of NODIP graduates, with an emphasis on employment in underserviced rural and northern areas of Ontario. NODIP graduates (62) were invited to complete a 27-item, self-administered, mailed questionnaire approximately 22 months after graduation. The survey, reflecting issues identified in the rural allied health and dietetics literature, documented their work history, practice locations, employment settings, roles, future career intentions and rural background. Aggregated data were analyzed descriptively to assess their early work experiences, with a focus on their acceptance of positions in rural and northern communities. Items also assessed professional and personal factors influencing their most recent decisions concerning practice locations. Three-quarters of graduates chose organizations serving rural or northern communities for their first employment positions and two-thirds were practicing in rural and underserviced areas when surveyed. Most worked as clinical, community health or public health dietitians, in diverse settings including clinics, hospitals and diabetes care programs. Although most had found permanent positions, working for more than one employer at a time was not uncommon. Factors affecting practice choices included prior awareness of employers, prospects for full-time employment, flexible working conditions, access to

  16. Acute rheumatic fever in First Nations communities in northwestern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Janet; Kirlew, Mike; Schreiber, Yoko; Saginur, Raphael; Bocking, Natalie; Blakelock, Brittany; Haavaldsrud, Michelle; Kennedy, Christine; Farrell, Terri; Douglas, Lloyd; Kelly, Len

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To document a case series of 8 young First Nations patients diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever (ARF), a preventable disease that resulted in the death of 2 patients, in northwestern Ontario in the context of late diagnosis, overcrowded housing, and inadequate public health response. Design Retrospective case series over an 18-month period. Setting Remote First Nations communities in northwestern Ontario. Participants Eight patients with ARF. Main outcome measures Incidence, mortality, residual rheumatic heart disease, time to diagnosis, barriers to diagnosis and treatment, housing situation of patients, patient demographic characteristics (age, sex), and investigation results. Results The incidence of ARF in this population was 21.3 per 100 000, which is 75 times greater than the overall Canadian estimated incidence. The average patient age was 9.4 years. Most cases developed joint findings, and 5 of the surviving patients had rheumatic heart disease when they received echocardiography. The average time to diagnosis was 88 days. Two 4-year-old children died from ARF. Most patients lived in inadequate and crowded housing. Conclusion This rare disease still exists in remote First Nations communities. These communities demonstrate an incidence equal to that in aboriginal communities in Australia and New Zealand, which have among the highest international incidence of ARF. Primordial prevention, including improved on-reserve housing, is urgently needed. Case detection and ongoing surveillance for primary and secondary prophylaxis requires a well resourced regional strategy. PMID:26759842

  17. Variation in the Structure of Bird Nests between Northern Manitoba and Southeastern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Crossman, Carla A.; Rohwer, Vanya G.; Martin, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Traits that converge in appearance under similar environmental conditions among phylogenetically independent lineages are thought to represent adaptations to local environments. We tested for convergence in nest morphology and composition of birds breeding in two ecologically different locations in Canada: Churchill in northern Manitoba and Elgin in southeastern Ontario. We examined nests from four families of passerine birds (Turdidae: Turdus, Parulidae: Dendroica, Emberizidae: Passerculus and Fringillidae: Carduelis) where closely related populations or species breed in both locations. Nests of American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches had heavier nest masses, and tended to have thicker nest-walls, in northern Manitoba compared with conspecifics or congenerics breeding in southeastern Ontario. Together, all species showed evidence for wider internal and external nest-cup diameters in northern Manitoba, while individual species showed varying patterns for internal nest-cup and external nest depths. American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches in northern Manitoba achieved heavier nest masses in different ways. American Robins increased all materials in similar proportions, and Yellow Warblers and Common Redpolls used greater amounts of select materials. While changes in nest composition vary uniquely for each species, the pattern of larger nests in northern Manitoba compared to southeastern Ontario in three of our four phylogenetically-independent comparisons suggests that birds are adapting to similar selective pressures between locations. PMID:21552515

  18. Integrating Hydrology and Historical Geography in an Interdisciplinary Environmental Masters Program in Northern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Kirsten; James, April

    2016-04-01

    Research in hydrology and other sciences are increasingly calling for new collaborations that "…simultaneously explore the biogeophysical, social and economic forces that shape an increasingly human-dominated global hydrologic system…" (Vorosmarty et al. 2015, p.104). With many environmental programs designed to help students tackle environmental problems, these initiatives are not without fundamental challenges (for example, they are often developed around a single epistemology of positivism). Many environmental graduate programs provide narrow interdisciplinary training (within the sciences, or bridging to the social sciences) but do not necessarily engage with the humanities. Geography however, has a long tradition and history of bridging the geophysical, social sciences, and humanities. In this paper, we reflect on new programming in an Interdisciplinary Master's program in Northern Ontario, Canada, inspired by the rich tradition of geography. As Canada Research Chairs trained in different geographical traditions (historical geography and hydrology), we aim to bring together approaches in the humanities and geophysical sciences to understand hydrological and environmental change over time. We are teaching in a small, predominantly undergraduate University located in Northern Ontario, Canada, a region shaped significantly by colonial histories and resource development. The Masters of Environmental Studies/Masters of Environmental Sciences (MES/MESc) program was conceived from a decade of interdisciplinary dialogue across three undergraduate departments (Geography, Biology and Chemistry, History) to promote an understanding of both humanistic and scientific approaches to environmental issues. In the fall of 2015, as part of our 2015-2020 Canada Research Chair mandates, we introduced new initiatives to further address the integration of humanities and sciences to our graduate program. We believe the new generation of environmental scientists and practioners

  19. Innovations in Literacy Learning: Reaching the Remote Northwestern Communities of Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eady, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    The Sioux Hudson Literacy Council in partnership with AlphaPlus Centre in Toronto, Ontario and Confederation College, Sioux Lookout Campus, is making groundbreaking strides to reach adult learners who reside in remote, isolated communities of Northwestern Ontario. Generous funding from the National Literacy Secretariat in collaboration with…

  20. Le role de l'identite ethnique dans l'acquisition et la retention de competences culturelles et de communication en milieu minoritaire francophone du Nord de l'Ontario (The Role of Ethnic Identity in Acquisition and Retention of Cultural and Communicative Competence in a Francophone Minority Context in Northern Ontario).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duquette, Georges

    A two-and-a-half-year study in northern Ontario (Canada) investigated the relationship between characteristics of the minority French-speaking community, home environment, and the school and classroom environments. Focus was on factors affecting the development and maintenance of cultural awareness, ethnic identity, and communicative competence in…

  1. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Particulate Organic Carbon in the Winisk River, Northern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasauer, S.; Smith, P.; Smith, R. W.

    2016-12-01

    The Winisk River begins in the Precambrian rock of the Canadian Shield in Ontario and traverses the Hudson Bay Lowlands before terminating in Hudson Bay. It drains an area of 67,300 km2that is sparsely populated, with remote communities that depend on natural resources. Accelerated decomposition of organic carbon (OC) in the area due to climate change is supported by higher inputs of particulate and dissolved OC to surface waters (Amon et al, 2012). The Winisk River is a particularly important source of OC to Hudson Bay, shown by high rates of lignin accumulation near the mouth of the river (Kuzyk et al., 2008). Webequie First Nation (WFN) is a small community located on Eastwood Island in Winisk Lake. It is the closest community to the proposed massive development of the "Ring of Fire" chromite and other mineral deposits in the James Bay Lowlands. Mine-related developments can be expected to impact water flows, water chemistry, and carbon cycling in the region. We sampled water and sediment at the major inlets to the lake and at the northern outlet within the territorial boundaries to characterize water chemistry, relate lignin compositional patterns to C and N isotopic signatures, and interpret temporal patterns in advance of development and future climate change. Organic C in the sediments ranged from around 1% to around 30%. Samples were analyzed for lignin compounds using a CuO digestion method coupled to GC-MS to identify lignin-phenol monomers, benzoic acids, and p-hydroxy acid. Ratios of 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, P-hydroxy phenols and cinnamyl phenols to total vanillyl phenols indicate that gymnosperm wood and sphagnum peat dominate the OC pool, although the proportions of gymnosperm- and sphagnum-derived material vary between sites. Stable isotope analysis (δ13C, δ15N) suggests that other inputs of OC may be present that are consistent with OM derived from the erosion of older marine sediments. The results support that the proportion of sphagnum mosses

  2. Recommendations on Distance Education to the Northern Education Project of the Ministry of Education of the Government of Ontario. Submitted by the Distance Education Secondary School Committee of Northern Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGreal, Rory; And Others

    This report of the Distance Education Secondary School Committee of Northern Ontario, which is composed of representatives of the Ministry of Education (MOE), the Independent Learning Centre, Native and French language components of the MOE, and Contact North, discusses the role that the Contact North distance education network can play in the…

  3. The abiotic and biotic factors limiting establishment of predatory fishes at their expanding northern range boundaries in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Alofs, Karen M; Jackson, Donald A

    2015-06-01

    There is a poor understanding of the importance of biotic interactions in determining species distributions with climate change. Theory from invasion biology suggests that the success of species introductions outside of their historical ranges may be either positively (biotic acceptance) or negatively (biotic resistance) related to native biodiversity. Using data on fish community composition from two survey periods separated by approximately 28 years during which climate was warming, we examined the factors influencing the establishment of three predatory centrarchids: Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu), Largemouth Bass (M. salmoides), and Rock Bass (Ambloplites rupestris) in lakes at their expanding northern range boundaries in Ontario. Variance partitioning demonstrated that, at a regional scale, abiotic factors play a stronger role in determining the establishment of these species than biotic factors. Pairing lakes within watersheds where each species had established with lakes sharing similar abiotic conditions where the species had not established revealed both positive and negative relationships between the establishment of centrarchids and the historical presence of other predatory species. The establishment of these species near their northern range boundaries is primarily determined by abiotic factors at a regional scale; however, biotic factors become important at the lake-to-lake scale. Studies of exotic species invasions have previously highlighted how spatial scale mediates the importance of abiotic vs. biotic factors on species establishment. Our study demonstrates how concepts from invasion biology can inform our understanding of the factors controlling species distributions with changing climate. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Developing Partnerships. An Investigation of Library-Based Relationships with Students and Educators Participating in Distance Education in Northern Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burge, Elizabeth J.; And Others

    The Developing Partnerships project is a 5-year program intended to develop distance education programs in institutions of higher education in Northern Ontario, to establish an extensive information network called Contact North/Contact Nord, and to conduct research into areas considered appropriate for quality distance education delivery. The…

  5. The Views of Youth on Their Educational Rights: A Case Study of Secondary Students from Two Northern Ontario High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Sonja

    2005-01-01

    A case study is reported involving 32 applied and academic program student volunteers aged 15-18 years from two high schools located in Northern Ontario, Canada. Students were interviewed regarding a number of educational policy and school climate issues. The study examines perceptions of rights as an aspect of the school learning environment. The…

  6. An Ontario initiative to enhance the effectiveness of AIDS Service Organizations: Community-Linked Evaluation of AIDS Resources.

    PubMed

    Browne, Gina; Browne, Joseph A; McGee, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the rationale, process, and early outcomes of establishing a community-based research unit. The AIDS Bureau of the Ontario Provincial Government established the Community-Linked Evaluation of AIDS Resources Unit (CLEAR), which works in partnership with the AIDS Bureau and 31 of 74 AIDS Service Organizations (ASOs) in Ontario.

  7. The Untold Story: Examining Ontario's Community Health Centres' Initiatives to Address Upstream Determinants of Health

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Patricia A.; Resendes, Sarah J.; Dunn, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Unlike traditional primary care centres, part of the Community Health Centre (CHC) mandate is to address upstream health determinants. In Ontario, CHCs refer to these activities as Community Initiatives (CIs); yet, little is known about how CIs operate. The objective of this study was to examine the scope, resource requirements, partnerships, successes and challenges among selected Ontario CIs. Methods: We conducted qualitative interviews with 10 CHC staff members representing 11 CIs across Ontario. CIs were identified through an online inventory, recruited by e-mail and interviewed between March and June 2011. Results: Most CIs aim to increase community participation, while addressing social isolation and poverty. They draw minimal financial resources from their CHC, and employ highly skilled staff to support implementation. Most enlist support from various partners, and use numerous methods for community engagement. Successes include improved community relations, increased opportunities for education and employment and rewarding partnerships, while insufficient funding was a commonly identified challenge. Conclusions: Despite minimal attention from researchers and funders, our findings suggest that CIs play key capacity-building roles in vulnerable communities across Ontario, and warrant further investigation. PMID:25410693

  8. Antimicrobial activity of natural products from the flora of Northern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Vandal, Janique; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh M; Ferroni, Garry; Leduc, Leo G

    2015-06-01

    The number of multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganisms is increasing and the antimicrobial resistance expressed by these pathogens is generating a rising global health crisis. In fact, there are only a few antimicrobial agents left that can be used against MDR bacteria and fungi. In this study, the antimicrobial activities of selected natural products from the flora of Northern Ontario against selected microorganisms are reported. Plants were collected from Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada, and ethanol extracts were prepared using EtOH:H2O (1:1, v/v). Fungal cultures used in this study were Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Schizosaccharomyces octosporus. Bacterial cultures employed included Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Mycobacterium phlei ATCC 11758, and Streptococcus lactis ATCC 19435. The microplate resazurin assay was used to screen for antimicrobial activity. Extracts of four plant species Chimaphila umbellata L. (Pyrolaceae), Betula papyrifera Marshall (Betulaceae), Rhus typhina L. (Anacardiaceae), and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall (Oleaceae), and six compounds (gallic acid, ethyl gallate, caffeic acid, sinapic acid, gentisic acid, and chlorogenic acid) demonstrated antibacterial or antifungal activities with MICs ranging from 62.5 to 1000 µg/mL, respectively, for a chemical fraction of an extract from Betula papyrifera against the bacterium S. aureus. The present study has shown that certain plant extracts and select fractions and standard chemical compounds exhibit antimicrobial effects. Prince's Pine, Chimaphila umbellate, White Birch, Betula papyrifera, Staghorn Sumac, Rhus typhina, and Green Ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica were the principal extracts exhibiting notable antibacterial and/or antifungal activities; while gallic acid, ethyl gallate, and caffeic acid demonstrated antibacterial activities and sinapic acid, gentisic acid, and chlorogenic acid demonstrated antifungal activities.

  9. Structure and characteristics of community-based multidisciplinary wound care teams in Ontario: an environmental scan.

    PubMed

    Abrahamyan, Lusine; Wong, Josephine; Pham, Ba'; Trubiani, Gina; Carcone, Steven; Mitsakakis, Nicholas; Rosen, Laura; Rac, Valeria E; Krahn, Murray

    2015-01-01

    Multidisciplinary team approach is an essential component of evidence-based wound management in the community. The objective of this study was to identify and describe community-based multidisciplinary wound care teams in Ontario. For the study, a working definition of a multidisciplinary wound care team was developed, and a two-phase field evaluation was conducted. In phase I, a systematic survey with three search strategies (environmental scan) was conducted to identify all multidisciplinary wound care teams in Ontario. In phase II, the team leads were surveyed about the service models of the teams. We identified 49 wound care teams in Ontario. The highest ratio of Ontario seniors to wound team within each Ontario health planning region was 82,358:1; the lowest ratio was 14,151:1. Forty-four teams (90%) participated in the survey. The majority of teams existed for at least 5 years, were established as hospital outpatient clinics, and served patients with chronic wounds. Teams were heterogeneous in on-site capacity of specialized diagnostic testing and wound treatment, team size, and patient volume. Seventy-seven percent of teams had members from three or more disciplines. Several teams lacked essential disciplines. More research is needed to identify optimal service models leading to improved patient outcomes. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  10. Personal Counselling at an Ontario Community College: Client Groups, Service Usage, and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on personal counselling clients in a community college in Ontario. Using archival records from the 2008-2009 academic year, at-risk client groups were identified and compared with respect to usage rates and retention. Significant differences were identified. Overall, first-year students who engaged in personal counselling had a…

  11. The offshore fish community in southern Lake Ontario, 1972-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owens, Randall W.; O'Gorman, Robert; Eckert, Thomas H.; Lantry, Brian F.; Munawar, M.

    2003-01-01

    The authors document the status of Lake Ontario's open-water fish community in 1972, near the beginning of an era of massive fish stocking and when phosphorus levels in the lake from anthropogenic inputs, were near their peak. They then describe changes that occurred in the fish community in 1978-98. This was a period when large numbers of young salmonid piscivores were released annually, sea lamprey control continued to improve, and phosphorus levels were declining due to successful nutrient abatement programs. Coincident with the above, the lower food web was changed by the addition of new exotic invertebrates, the zooplankter Bythotrephes cederstroemi and particularly the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, and quagga mussel, D. bugensis. The picture of the fish community structure is drawn from records of catches in bottom trawls and gill nets during surveys of southern Lake Ontario conducted the the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYDEC), from records of fish stocked in Lake Ontario by the NYDEC, and from a creel census of boat anglers returning to southern Lake Ontario ports conducted by the NYDEC.

  12. Climate trends in northern Ontario and Québec from borehole temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickler, Carolyne; Beltrami, Hugo; Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    2016-12-01

    The ground surface temperature histories of the past 500 years were reconstructed at 10 sites containing 18 boreholes in northeastern Canada. The boreholes, between 400 and 800 m deep, are located north of 51° N and west and east of James Bay in northern Ontario and Québec. We find that both sides of James Bay have experienced similar ground surface temperature histories with a warming of 1.51 ± 0.76 K during the period of 1850 to 2000, similar to borehole reconstructions for the southern portion of the Superior Province and in agreement with available proxy data. A cooling period corresponding to the Little Ice Age was found at only one site. Despite permafrost maps locating the sites in a region of discontinuous permafrost, the ground surface temperature histories suggest that the potential for permafrost was minimal to absent over the past 500 years. This could be the result of air surface temperature interpolation used in permafrost models being unsuitable to account for the spatial variability of ground temperatures along with an offset between ground and air surface temperatures due to the snow cover.

  13. Changes in enzymatic activities in metal contaminated and reclaimed lands in Northern Ontario (Canada).

    PubMed

    Narendrula-Kotha, Ramya; Nkongolo, Kabwe K

    2017-06-01

    Metal and sulfur dioxide (SO2) contaminations in Northern Ontario (Canada), especially in the Greater Sudbury Region (GSR) caused by mining activities have resulted in severe environmental degradations. A long term restoration program has led to significant landscape changes and healthy ecosystems. The objective of this study was to assess variation in enzymatic activities and soil respiration in metal contaminated and reclaimed ecosystems. Soil analysis revealed that respiration rates were higher in metal contaminated limed soils (65ppm) compared to adjacent unlimed areas (35ppm). The respiration rates in metal contaminated sites (55ppm) were significantly lower compared to reference (metal-uncontaminated) areas (90ppm). β-glucosidase (BG), cellobiohydrolase (CBH), β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGase), aryl sulfatase (AS), acid phosphatase (AP), alkaline phosphatase (AlP), glycine aminopeptidase (GAP), and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) activities were significantly higher in limed compared to unlimed sites. Metal contamination significantly reduced the activities of these enzymes with the exception of LAP. An opposite trend was observed for peroxidase (PER) activity that was lower in limed compared to corresponding unlimed areas. Likewise, PER activity values were significantly lower in metal contaminated than in uncontaminated reference sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Velocity structure of the Kapuskasing Uplift, northern Ontario, from seismic refraction studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boland, A. V.; Ellis, R. M.

    1989-06-01

    A crustal scale seismic refraction experiment was conducted over the Kapuskasing structural zone, northern Ontario, in 1984. The zone cuts obliquely across the east-west structural grain of the Superior Province in the Canadian shield and has been proposed as a cross section of Archean crust exposed by thrust faulting along the Ivanhoe Lake cataclastic zone during early Proterozoic time. Five seismic refraction lines of 360-450 km were shot over the area. There were 18 profile shots and two fan shots with a recorder spacing of 2-5 km. We have modeled the travel times and amplitudes of the data from the profile lines and analyzed reflections from the crust-mantle boundary on the fan shots. We have imaged a low-velocity zone under the Abitibi greenstone belt ranging from 4-5 to 9-12 km depth that is underlain by a highly reflective zone. There is a considerable deepening of the Moho from 40-43 km to 50-53 km under and to the west of the southern end of the Kapuskasing structural zone. A high-velocity anomaly of 6.6-6.7 km/s has been imaged in the upper crust down to 20 km depth beneath the Kapuskasing structure with a suggested dip of 15°±2° to the west. This corresponds well to the proposed location of a granulite zone thrust up from the middle or lower crust in the early Proterozoic.

  15. Ground surface temperature histories in northern Ontario and Québec for the past 500 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickler, Carolyne; Beltrami, Hugo; Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    2016-04-01

    We have used 19 temperature-depth profiles measured in boreholes from eastern Canada to reconstruct the ground surface temperature histories of the region. The boreholes are located north of 51oN, and west and east of James Bay in northern Ontario and Québec. The 8 boreholes in northern Ontario come from 3 sites in a region of extensive discontinuous permafrost, while the 11 holes from Québec come from 6 sites in a region of sporadic discontinuous permafrost. The depths of the holes range between 400 and 800 m, allowing a reconstruction of the ground surface temperature histories for the past 500 years. Present ground surface temperatures are higher in Québec, perhaps because the region receives more snowfall as shown by meteorological records and proxy data. The ground surface temperature histories indicate a present-day warming of ˜2-2.5oC in Ontario and ˜1-1.5oC in Québec relative to the reference surface temperature 500 years BP. These results are in agreement with available proxy data for the recent warming in eastern North America. Furthermore, they suggest that the higher snowfall and strong cooling during the Little Ice Age could have muted the borehole temperature record of climate change in Québec.

  16. Water consumption habits of a south-western Ontario community.

    PubMed

    Pintar, K D M; Waltner-Toews, D; Charron, D; Pollari, F; Fazil, A; McEwen, S A; Nesbitt, A; Majowicz, S

    2009-06-01

    A cross-sectional telephone survey (n = 2,332) was performed to better understand the drinking water consumption patterns among residents in Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada. We investigated the daily volume of water consumed (including tap and bottled) and factors related to that consumption. In addition, we investigated the daily volume of cold tap water consumed by those respondents who consumed no bottled water and the factors that influence this consumption. Among study respondents, 51% exclusively drank tap water, 34% exclusively drank bottled water and 14.5% drank both, with 10 to 75% of all cold water consumed in the previous day being bottled. The mean volume of water consumed in a day (including bottled and tap water) was 1.39 l. Among those who reported to exclusively consume tap water, the mean daily volume of tap water consumed was 1.45 l. The daily amount of cold water consumed in a day was lower for older respondents, more markedly for men than women. More educated respondents consumed more water during the day. Roughly 45% of households reported that they used a carbon filter to treat their water. Roughly 5% of respondents used advanced home treatment devices, including ultraviolet light, reverse osmosis, ozonation or distillation.

  17. ESEM Studies of Colloidal Sulfur Deposition in a Natural Microbial Community from a Cold Sulfide Spring Near Ancaster, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, S.; Douglas, D.

    2000-01-01

    We have used a relatively new microscopial technique, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), together with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and light microscopy to investigate a unique microbial community from a temperate climate, cold sulfide spring near Ancaster, Ontario, Canada.

  18. Strategies to overcome physician shortages in northern Ontario: A study of policy implementation over 35 years

    PubMed Central

    Pong, Raymond W

    2008-01-01

    Background Shortages and maldistibution of physicians in northern Ontario, Canada, have been a long-standing issue. This study seeks to document, in a chronological manner, the introduction of programmes intended to help solve the problem by the provincial government over a 35-year period and to examine several aspects of policy implementation, using these programmes as a case study. Methods A programme analysis approach was adopted to examine each of a broad range of programmes to determine its year of introduction, strategic category, complexity, time frame, and expected outcome. A chronology of programme initiation was constructed, on the basis of which an analysis was done to examine changes in strategies used by the provincial government from 1969 to 2004. Results Many programmes were introduced during the study period, which could be grouped into nine strategic categories. The range of policy instruments used became broader in later years. But conspicuous by their absence were programmes of a directive nature. Programmes introduced in more recent years tended to be more complex and were more likely to have a longer time perspective and pay more attention to physician retention. The study also discusses the choice of policy instruments and use of multiple strategies. Conclusion The findings suggest that an examination of a policy is incomplete if implementation has not been taken into consideration. The study has revealed a process of trial-and-error experimentation and an accumulation of past experience. The study sheds light on the intricate relationships between policy, policy implementation and use of policy instruments and programmes. PMID:19014455

  19. Methane emissions from wetlands in the Midboreal region of northern Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Bubier, J.L.; Moore, T.R. ); Roulet, N.T. )

    1993-12-01

    Methane (CH[sub 4]) fluxes were measured by a static chamber technique from May to October 1991 at 19 wetland sites near Cochrane, northern Ontario, representative of the Clay Belt Midboreal region of central Canada. Seasonal average fluxes of CH[sub 4] from the peatlands ranged from 0.4 to 67.5 mg[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]d[sup [minus]1] (0.06-10.1 g[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]yr[sup [minus]1]). Beaver ponds showed the highest fluxes of CH[sub 4], from both the open water section (seasonal average 290 mg[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]d[sup [minus]1], 44 g[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]yr[sup [minus]1]) and the adjacent marsh areas where the water table rose close to or above the soil surface (91-350 mg[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]d[sup [minus]1], 13-53 g[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]yr[sup [minus]1]). Seasonal mean water table position, particularly at the microtopographic scale of hummock and hollow, explained most of the variability in CH[sub 4] emission among wetlands (r[sup 2] = 0.74). Trophic status, such as pore-water Ca, Mg, and pH had little correlation with CH[sub 4] emissions. Broad-scale peatland classifications that do not account for hydrological differences at the microtopographic level are inadequate for predicting CH[sub 4] flux in boreal wetlands, particularly in forested ecosystems where conifer swamps are diverse and comprise the major peatland class. Based on areal estimates of the different wetland types in the Clay Belt, the authors estimate an annual CH[sub 4] flux of 3.4 g[center dot]m[sup [minus]2][center dot]yr[sup [minus]1], generally lower than that used in extrapolations to continental- or global-scale methane budgets. 68 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Evaluation of 6 remote First Nations community-based buprenorphine programs in northwestern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Mamakwa, Solomon; Kahan, Meldon; Kanate, Dinah; Kirlew, Mike; Folk, David; Cirone, Sharon; Rea, Sara; Parsons, Pierre; Edwards, Craig; Gordon, Janet; Main, Fiona; Kelly, Len

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate established opioid addiction treatment programs that use traditional healing in combination with buprenorphine-naloxone maintenance treatment in 6 First Nations communities in the Sioux Lookout region of northwestern Ontario. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Six First Nations communities in northwestern Ontario. Participants A total of 526 First Nations participants in opioid-dependence treatment programs. Intervention Buprenorphine-naloxone substitution therapy and First Nations healing programming. Main outcome measures Retention rates and urine drug screening (UDS) results. Results Treatment retention rates at 6, 12, and 18 months were 84%, 78%, and 72%, respectively. We estimate that the rate at 24 months will also be more than 70%. The UDS programming varied and was implemented in only 1 community. Initially urine testing was voluntary and it then became mandatory. Screening with either method found the proportion of urine samples with negative results for illicit opioids ranged between 84% and 95%. Conclusion The program’s treatment retention rates and negative UDS results were higher than those reported for most methadone and buprenorphine-naloxone programs, despite a patient population where severe posttraumatic stress disorder is endemic, and despite the programs’ lack of resources and addiction expertise. Community-based programs like these overcome the initial challenge of cultural competence. First Nations communities in other provinces should establish their own buprenorphinenaloxone programs, using local primary care physicians as prescribers. Sustainable core funding is needed for programming, long-term aftercare, and trauma recovery for such initiatives. PMID:28209683

  1. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns among healthcare providers in the prevention of recurrent kidney stones in Northern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Bos, Derek; Abara, Emmanuel; Parmar, Malvinder S

    2014-11-01

    Kidney stone recurrence is common. Preventive measures can lead to improved quality of life and costs savings to the individual and healthcare system. Guidelines to prevent recurrent kidney stones are published by various urological societies. Adherence to guidelines amongst healthcare professionals in general is poor, while adherence to preventive management guidelines regarding stone disease is unknown. To understand this issue, we conducted an online study to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns of healthcare practitioners in Northern Ontario. We used the database of healthcare providers affiliated with the Northern Ontario School of Medicine, in Sudbury (East Campus) and Thunder Bay (West Campus), Ontario. We designed the survey based on current best practice guidelines for the management of recurrent kidney stones. Questions covered 3 domains: knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns. Demographic data were also collected. The survey was distributed electronically to all participants. A total of 68 healthcare providers completed the survey. Of these, most were primary care physicians (72%). To keep uniformity, we analyzed the data of this homogenous group. A total of 70% of the respondents were aware of the current guidelines; however, only 43% applied their knowledge in clinical practice. Most participants lacked confidence while answering most items in the attitude domain. Most primary care physician respondents were aware of the appropriate preventive measures for recurrent kidney stones; however, they do not appear to apply this knowledge effectively in clinical practice. A low response rate is a limitation of our study. Further studies involving a larger sample size may lead to information sharing and collaborative care among healthcare providers.

  2. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns among healthcare providers in the prevention of recurrent kidney stones in Northern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Derek; Abara, Emmanuel; Parmar, Malvinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Introducton: Kidney stone recurrence is common. Preventive measures can lead to improved quality of life and costs savings to the individual and healthcare system. Guidelines to prevent recurrent kidney stones are published by various urological societies. Adherence to guidelines amongst healthcare professionals in general is poor, while adherence to preventive management guidelines regarding stone disease is unknown. To understand this issue, we conducted an online study to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns of healthcare practitioners in Northern Ontario. Methods: We used the database of healthcare providers affiliated with the Northern Ontario School of Medicine, in Sudbury (East Campus) and Thunder Bay (West Campus), Ontario. We designed the survey based on current best practice guidelines for the management of recurrent kidney stones. Questions covered 3 domains: knowledge, attitudes, and practice patterns. Demographic data were also collected. The survey was distributed electronically to all participants. Results: A total of 68 healthcare providers completed the survey. Of these, most were primary care physicians (72%). To keep uniformity, we analyzed the data of this homogenous group. A total of 70% of the respondents were aware of the current guidelines; however, only 43% applied their knowledge in clinical practice. Most participants lacked confidence while answering most items in the attitude domain. Conclusions: Most primary care physician respondents were aware of the appropriate preventive measures for recurrent kidney stones; however, they do not appear to apply this knowledge effectively in clinical practice. A low response rate is a limitation of our study. Further studies involving a larger sample size may lead to information sharing and collaborative care among healthcare providers. PMID:25485006

  3. Living MedsCheck: Learning how to deliver MedsCheck in community practice in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Grindrod, Kelly; Sanghera, Niki; Rahmaan, Israa; Roy, Meghna; Tritt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    To share the experiences of graduating students as they learn to deliver a new medication review service in community pharmacies in Ontario, Canada. Four graduating pharmacy students volunteered in different community pharmacies to learn how to navigate a new provincial program called MedsCheck, which pays pharmacists to do medication reviews. Each student selected his or her own practice site, including 2 independent community pharmacies, a grocery store chain pharmacy and a hospital outpatient pharmacy. To help the students learn to deliver the new MedsCheck services, a faculty mentor met with them on a weekly basis. To reflect on doing MedsChecks in the "real world" and to elicit feedback from the online community, each student blogged about his or her experiences. All 4 students felt that peer mentoring improved their ability to deliver MedsCheck services. They also identified a number of barriers to delivering the MedsChecks and helped each other try to overcome the barriers. MedsCheck is a new service in Ontario and is not easily implemented in the current pharmacy model of practice. Peer mentoring is a helpful way to share successes and overcome barriers to delivery. Can Pharm J 2013;146:33-38.

  4. A synthesis of ecological and fish-community changes in Lake Ontario, 1970-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, E.L.; Casselman, J.M.; Dermott, R.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Gal, G.; Holeck, K. T.; Hoyle, J.A.; Johannsson, O.E.; Lantry, B.F.; Makarewicz, J.C.; Millard, E.S.; Munawar, I.F.; Munawar, M.; O'Gorman, R.; Owens, R.W.; Rudstam, L. G.; Schaner, T.; Stewart, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed stressors associated with ecological and fishcommunity changes in Lake Ontario since 1970, when the first symposium on Salmonid Communities in Oligotrophic Lakes (SCOL I) was held (J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 29: 613-616). Phosphorus controls implemented in the early 1970s were undeniably successful; lower food-web studies showed declines in algal abundance and epilimnetic zooplankton production and a shift in pelagic primary productivity toward smaller organisms. Stressors on the fish community prior to 1970 such as exploitation, sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) predation, and effects of nuisance populations of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) were largely ameliorated by the 1990s. The alewife became a pivotal species supporting a multi-million-dollar salmonid sport fishery, but alewife-induced thiamine deficiency continued to hamper restoration and sustainability of native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Expanding salmonine populations dependent on alewife raised concerns about predator demand and prey supply, leading to reductions in salmonine stocking in the early 1990s. Relaxation of the predation impact by alewives and their shift to deeper water allowed recovery of native fishes such as threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides). The return of the Lake Ontario ecosystem to historical conditions has been impeded by unplanned introductions. Establishment of Dreissena spp. led to increased water clarity and increased vectoring of lower trophic-level production to benthic habitats and contributed to the collapse of Diporeia spp. populations, behavioral modifications of key fish species, and the decline of native lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Despite reduced productivity, exotic-species introductions, and changes in the fish community, offshore Mysis relicta populations remained relatively stable. The effects of climate and climate change on the population abundance and dynamics of Lake Ontario

  5. The Evolution of Online Education at a Small Northern Ontario University: Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lorraine; Graham, Robert Douglas

    2012-01-01

    One of the major influences on university education in Ontario is the growing use of Internet technologies. These new technologies have led faculty and learning experts at universities to talk about online and technology-enhanced learning with a fervour not often found on most campuses. Among other things, these discussions have challenged…

  6. The Evolution of Online Education at a Small Northern Ontario University: Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lorraine; Graham, Robert Douglas

    2012-01-01

    One of the major influences on university education in Ontario is the growing use of Internet technologies. These new technologies have led faculty and learning experts at universities to talk about online and technology-enhanced learning with a fervour not often found on most campuses. Among other things, these discussions have challenged…

  7. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to Providing Methadone Maintenance Treatment Among Rural Community Pharmacists in Southwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Joseph; Chang, Andrew; Chang, Feng

    2017-09-05

    Misuse of opioids has become a public health concern across North America. Rural patients have limited access to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), an opioid addiction-treatment service that could be offered by community pharmacists. The aim of this study was to identify rural community pharmacists' perceived barriers, motivations, and solutions to offering MMT to their patients. One-on-one, semistructured interviews were conducted with 11 community pharmacists who practice in rural southwestern Ontario. Interview transcripts were analyzed using inductive qualitative content analysis. Increased workload, extended operating hours, and concerns about safety, theft, burglary, community resistance, and availability of methadone training courses were identified as pharmacist-related barriers to providing MMT services. Professional satisfaction and community service were primary motivations for offering the service. Limited pharmacy staff availability exacerbated concerns about increased workload and security. Slower rural emergency-response times were cited among safety concerns. Participating pharmacists felt that rural regions had fewer MMT prescribers and that rural community members had greater apprehension about addiction-treatment services than those in urban communities. Pharmacists proposed that coordinating MMT service provision across multiple community pharmacies in the region could help improve access to treatment among their patients. Rural community pharmacy practice has unique barriers to implementing and providing MMT services. A coordinated, multipharmacy approach may be an option to provide and expand MMT services in rural regions. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  8. The Ontario CAI Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivier, W. P.

    The evolution and current operation of the Ontario Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) Network are described. Sponsored by the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education and including 11 community colleges in Ontario, the network has computer installations and access devices throughout the province. Initial development work was done using a…

  9. Comprehensive capture of cutaneous melanoma by the Ontario Cancer Registry: validation study using community pathology reports.

    PubMed

    Tran, Jennifer M; Schwartz, Rodrigo; Fung, Kinwah; Rochon, Paula; Chan, An-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is often managed outside hospital settings, creating the potential for underreporting to cancer registries. To our knowledge, completeness of melanoma capture in cancer registries has not been assessed using external data sources since the 1980s. We evaluated the melanoma capture rate from 1993 to 2009 in a provincial cancer registry. We identified all melanoma diagnoses in pathology reports from a major community laboratory in Ontario, Canada. Pathologically confirmed diagnoses were linked to Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR) records using health insurance numbers. We calculated capture rates as the proportion of patients with melanoma confirmed by a pathology report, with a corresponding melanoma diagnosis in OCR. OCR captured 3,798 of 4,275 (88.8, 95 % confidence interval: 87.9, 89.8 %) invasive melanoma diagnoses over the 17-year period. Annual capture rates of 94 % or higher were found for over half the study period. Among all 29,133 melanoma diagnoses in OCR, 27.6 % were registered based on a pathology report alone, compared with 3.4 % for non-cutaneous malignancies. This suggests that comprehensive capture of melanoma cases by a provincial cancer registry is achievable using source data from community laboratories. There is a need for ongoing validation to ensure data remain accurate and complete to reliably inform clinical care, research, and policy.

  10. Experience, training and confidence among small, non-community drinking water system operators in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pons, Wendy; McEwen, Scott A; Pintar, Katarina; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Young, Ian; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    The water operator plays an important role in water safety; however, little published research exists that has examined this role. The purpose of this study was to develop a greater understanding of the experience, existing knowledge, confidence and future training needs of the small, non-community drinking water operator in Ontario in order to help guide future outreach and training opportunities. A cross-sectional telephone survey of 332 small, non-community drinking water operators in Ontario was conducted in July and August 2011. Survey questions pertained to respondents' experience as operators, formal training, perceived importance of water safety issues, confidence in handling water safety issues, and future training needs. Approximately 16% (54/330) of respondents had one year or less experience as a water operator, and 60% (199/332) reported that being a water operator was not a chosen profession. Only 37% (124/332) of operators reported completing operator training. Respondents reported a preference for online training courses or on-site training (compared with a classroom setting). Low training rates, inexperience, and in certain situations, low confidence, among many small water system operators highlight a need to provide continued support to the development of ongoing training opportunities in this population.

  11. Peat landforms along the Albany River, northern Ontario. An ecological study of peat landforms in Canada and Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    During the summer of 1985 a field investigation was started in the Hudson Bay lowland region of northern Ontario, which represents the largest expanse of peatland in North America and is an important sink in the global carbon cycle. A key area in the lowlands is situated along the Albany River near the confluence of the Chepay River. Here the striking vegetation-landforms are transitional between those found on the bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz in northern Minnesota and southern Manitoba and the more northern peatlands in the Hudson Bay lowland region. In peatland studies elsewhere the landform patterns have been used not only to classify different peatland types but also as an indicator of potential developmetnal trends. The study area is generally defined by that covered by the TM scene E-40062-15532 taken on Sept. 16, 1982. The purpose of the field work is to acquire sufficent information to interpret the TM imagery and test various hypotheses on peatland development on the gasis of the pattern transitions.

  12. Temporal changes in mercury concentrations of large-bodied fishes in the boreal shield ecoregion of northern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rex W K; Johnston, Thomas A; Gunn, John M; Bhavsar, Satyendra P

    2013-02-01

    Much of the mercury (Hg) in freshwater fish of the boreal shield ecoregion is believed to originate from atmospheric deposition. As such, declines in fish Hg concentrations would be expected in response to recent declines in atmospheric Hg deposition in this ecoregion. We compared recent (2005-2010) and historic (1974-1981) muscle total mercury concentrations ([THg], standardized to a fish body mass of 1 kg) in seven fish species (five piscivores, two benthivores) from 73 lakes in northern Ontario (Canada) using a paired-comparisons approach. The rate of bioaccumulation (i.e., slopes of log(e)[THg] vs log(e) total length relationship) increased for walleye (Sander vitreus) but did not change significantly for any other species. There was no significant decline in mean [THg] between recent and historic time periods for any species. In fact, recent mean [THg] were slightly higher (<0.08 ppm) than historic mean [THg] for all species, and this difference was significant for northern pike (Esox lucius). The magnitude of the temporal change in northern pike declined significantly from south to north over the study area but there were no discernible geographic patterns in the temporal change in [THg] for any other species. This study shows that [THg] of most large-bodied fish species in boreal shield lakes are not declining in response to the decline in atmospheric Hg deposition.

  13. Adding insult to injury: The development of psychosocial stress in Ontario wind turbine communities.

    PubMed

    Walker, Chad; Baxter, Jamie; Ouellette, Danielle

    2015-05-01

    Though historically dismissed as not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) attitudes, reports of psychosocial stress linked to wind energy developments have emerged in Ontario, Canada. While the debate and rhetoric intensify concerning whether wind turbines 'actually' cause 'health' effects, less sincere attention has been given to the lived experience and mental well-being of those near turbines. Drawing on theories of environmental stress, this grounded theory, mixed-method (n = 26 interviews; n = 152 questionnaires) study of two communities in 2011 and 2012 traces how and why some wind turbine community residents suffer substantial changes to quality of life, develop negative perceptions of 'the other' and in some cases, experience intra-community conflict. Policy-related forces, along with existing community relationships may help explain much of these differences between communities. We suggest a move beyond debating simply whether or not 'annoyance' represents a 'health impact' and instead focus on ways to minimize and attenuate these feelings of threat (risk) and stress at the community level.

  14. Achieving full compliance with standards for assertive community treatment programs in Ontario: does sponsoring agency type matter?

    PubMed

    Randall, Glen E; Wakefield, Patricia A

    2010-01-01

    Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) programs provide community-based services for individuals with severe mental illness. In Ontario, these programs are funded by the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care and administered through sponsoring agencies (hospitals, mental health facilities, and "other" community-based organizations). This article reports on the results of a survey of ACT programs and investigates the relationship between sponsoring agency type and ACT program operations. Findings and implications for policy makers and administrators are discussed.

  15. The Expansion of Dreissena and Long-term Shifts in Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Structure in Lake Ontario, 1998-2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    The introduction of Dreissena to the Great lakes has profoundly impacted benthic ecosystems, resulting in the decline of native species and dramatic community restructuring. In Lake Ontario, long-term monitoring has yielded a wealth of detailed information regarding both the exp...

  16. The Expansion of Dreissena and Long-term Shifts in Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Structure in Lake Ontario, 1998-2008

    EPA Science Inventory

    The introduction of Dreissena to the Great lakes has profoundly impacted benthic ecosystems, resulting in the decline of native species and dramatic community restructuring. In Lake Ontario, long-term monitoring has yielded a wealth of detailed information regarding both the exp...

  17. Wildfires in Northern Siberian Larch Dominated Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khaurk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Im, Sergey T.

    2011-01-01

    The fire history of the northern larch forests within the permafrost zone in a portion of northern Siberia (approx 66 deg N, 100 deg E) was studied. Since there is little to no human activities in this area fires within the study area were mostly caused by lightning. Fire return intervals (FRI) were estimated based on burn marks on tree stems and dates of tree natality. FRI values varied from 130 yr to 350 yr with 200 +/- 50 yr mean. In southerly larch dominated communities FRI was found to be shorter (77 +/- 20 yr at approx 61 deg. N, and 82 +/- 7 at 64 deg N), and longer at the northern boundary (approx 71 deg) of larch stands (320 +/- 50 yr). During the Little Ice Age period in the 16th to 18th centuries FRI was approximately twice as long as recorded in this study. Fire caused changes in the soil including increases in soil drainage and permafrost thawing depth and a radial growth increase of about 2 times (with more than 6 times observed). This effect may simulate the predicted warming impact on the larch growth in the permafrost zone.

  18. Northward migrating trees establish in treefall gaps at the northern limit of the temperate-boreal ecotone, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Leithead, Mark D; Anand, Madhur; Silva, Lucas C R

    2010-12-01

    Climate change is expected to promote migration of species. In ecotones, areas of ecological tension, disturbances may provide opportunities for some migrating species to establish in otherwise competitive environments. The size of and time since disturbance may determine the establishment ability of these species. We investigated gap dynamics of an old-growth red pine (Pinus resinosa Sol. ex Aiton) forest in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence forest in northern Ontario, Canada, a transition zone between temperate and boreal forest. We investigated the effects of gaps of different sizes and ages on tree species abundance and basal area. Our results show that tree species from the temperate forest further south, such as red maple (Acer rubrum L.), red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and white pine (Pinus strobus L.), establish more often in large, old gaps; however, tree species that have more northern distributions, such as black spruce (Picea mariana Mill.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), and red pine show no difference in establishment ability with gap size or age. These differences in composition could not be attributed to autogenic succession. We conclude that treefall gaps in this forest facilitate the establishment of northward migrating species, potentially providing a pathway for future forest migration in response to recent changes in climate.

  19. Quantitative assessment of the hydraulic role of subglaciofluvial interbeds in promoting deposition of deformation till (Northern Till, Ontario)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meriano, Mandana; Eyles, Nick

    2009-04-01

    The Northern Till is a thick (>65 m) deformation till underlying some 7500 km 2 of Southern Ontario, Canada including the Peterborough Drumlin Field. It was deposited below the Lake Ontario ice stream of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. The till rests on glaciotectonized aquifer sediments and consists of multiple beds of till up to 6 m thick. These are separated by boulder lags, sometimes in the form of striated pavements, with thin (<30 cm) interbeds of poorly sorted waterlaid sand. The composite till stratigraphy indicates 'punctuated aggradation' where the subglacial bed was built up incrementally by the repeated 'immobilization' of deforming overpressured till layers. Boulders and sands indicate pauses in subglacial aggradation marked by sluggish sheet flows of water that reworked the top of the underlying till. Interbeds are laterally extensive and correlated using downhole electrical conductivity, core recovery and natural gamma data. A 3-D finite element model (FEFLOW) using data from 200 cored and geophysically logged boreholes, and a large digital water well dataset of 3400 individual records shows that the till functions as a 'leaky aquitard' as a consequence of water flow through interbeds. It is proposed that interbeds played a similar role in the subglacial hydraulic system below the Laurentide Ice Sheet by allowing drainage of excess porewater pressures in deforming sediment and promoting deposition of till. This is in agreement with theoretical studies of deforming bed dynamics and observations at modern glaciers where porewater in the deforming layer is discharged into underlying aquifers. In this way, the presence of interbeds may be fundamental in retarding downglacier transport of deforming bed material thereby promoting the build-up of thick subglacial till successions.

  20. Caribou consumption in northern Canadian communities.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Angie; Goddard, Ellen; Parlee, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) found in both farmed and wild deer, elk, and moose in the United States and Canada. Surveillance efforts in North America identified the geographical distribution of the disease and mechanisms underlying distribution, although the possibility of transmission to other cervids, including caribou, and noncervids, including humans, is not well understood. Because of the documented importance of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) to human populations in the northern regions of Canada, a risk-management strategy for CWD requires an understanding of the extent of potential dietary exposure to CWD. Secondary 24-h dietary recalls conducted among Inuvialuit and Inuit in 4 communities in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut were employed in this study. Econometric demand systems were estimated to model the impacts of individual- and community-level socioeconomic characteristics on expenditures on caribou and other foods, in order to examine the households' ability to consume other foods in response to changing levels of caribou consumption. Thirty-five percent of respondents reported consuming caribou in the survey period, and caribou comprised, on average, 26% of daily dietary intake by weight, or approximately 65 g/d, across individuals in the 4 communities. Consuming caribou was also shown to exert positive impacts on dietary quality, as measured by calorie intake and dietary diversity. Communities with less access to employment, income and food stores are predicted to be constrained in their ability to obtain an adequate diet in the event of scarcity of caribou meat.

  1. High Incidence of Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infections in Remote Indigenous Communities in Northwestern Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Cai-lei; Loewen, Kassandra; Teatero, Sarah; Marchand-Austin, Alex; Gordon, Janet; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; McGeer, Allison

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. Worldwide, indigenous populations appear to be at increased risk for invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) infections. Although there is empirical evidence that the burden of iGAS disease is significant among remote First Nations communities in Northwestern Ontario, Canada, the epidemiology of iGAS infections in the area remains poorly characterized. Methods. Individuals that met case definition for iGAS disease and whose laboratory specimens were processed by Meno Ya Win Health Centre in Sioux Lookout, Canada or who were reported to Thunder Bay District Health Unit, Canada were identified for the period 2009 to 2014. Case demographics, clinical severity, comorbidities, and risk factors were collected through chart review. Strain typing and antibiotic susceptibility were determined when possible. Basic descriptive statistics were calculated. Results. Sixty-five cases of iGAS disease were identified, for an annualized incidence of 56.2 per 100 000. Primary bacteremia was present in 26.2% of cases, and cellulitis was identified in 55.4% of cases. The most common comorbidities identified were diabetes (38.5%) and skin conditions (38.5%). Prevalent risk factors included alcohol dependence (25%). Fourteen different emm types were identified among 42 isolates, with the most common being emm114 (17.4%), emm11 (15.2%), and emm118 (13.0%). Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was found in 24.6% of isolates. Conclusions. Rural and remote First Nations communities in Northwestern Ontario experience iGAS infections at a rate 10 times the provincial and national average. Compared with other North American series, a lower proportion of isolates causing infection were of emm types included in candidate GAS vaccines. PMID:28480241

  2. Maintaining continuity of care: a look at the quality of communication between Ontario emergency departments and community physicians.

    PubMed

    Stiell, Andrew P; Forster, Alan J; Stiell, Ian G; van Walraven, Carl

    2005-05-01

    To maintain continuity of care when a patient's care is transferred between physicians, continuity of patient information is required. This survey determined how, and how well, Ontario emergency departments (EDs) communicate patient information to physicians in the community. We surveyed Ontario ED chiefs to determine the most common media and methods used for disseminating information. We measured the perceived quality of their system, which was regressed against the hospital teaching status and community size using generalized logits modelling. Finally, we elicited the components of an ideal communication system for the ED. One hundred and forty-three (85.6%) Ontario ED chiefs participated. The ED record of treatment was the most commonly used medium (95%). Postal service was the most common (55%) method of disseminating information. Thirty-three chiefs (23%) perceived the quality of communicating patient information from their ED as unsatisfactory or inadequate. This perception was significantly more prevalent in larger communities (excellent v. unsatisfactory [odds ratio (OR) 44.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 13.9-140] and satisfactory v. unsatisfactory [OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.6-5.1]) and in teaching hospitals (satisfactory v. unsatisfactory [OR 9.7, 95% CI 4.7-20.3]). Seventy-eight percent of responding chiefs felt that patient information should be disseminated using electronic means, either through email or server access. To communicate patient information to community physicians, Ontario ED chiefs report that a copy of the ED record of treatment is sent by postal service. More than one-fifth of ED chiefs perceived communication from their department as unsatisfactory or inadequate. Studies that assess the completeness and accuracy of the record of treatment are required as a first step for measuring the quality of patient information communication in the Ontario ED system.

  3. Lake Ontario zooplankton in 2003 and 2008: Community changes and vertical redistribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudstam, Lars G.; Holeck, Kristen T.; Bowen, Kelly L.; Watkins, James M.; Weidel, Brian C.; Luckey, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Lake-wide zooplankton surveys are critical for documenting and understanding food web responses to ecosystem change. Surveys in 2003 and 2008 during the binational intensive field year in Lake Ontario found that offshore epilimnetic crustacean zooplankton declined by a factor of 12 (density) and factor of 5 (biomass) in the summer with smaller declines in the fall. These declines coincided with an increase in abundance of Bythotrephes and are likely the result of direct predation by, or behavioral responses to this invasive invertebrate predator. Whole water column zooplankton density also declined from 2003 to 2008 in the summer and fall (factor of 4), but biomass only declined in the fall (factor of 2). The decline in biomass was less than the decline in density because the average size of individual zooplankton increased. This was due to changes in the zooplankton community composition from a cyclopoid/bosminid dominated community in 2003 to a calanoid dominated community in 2008. The increase in calanoid copepods was primarily due to the larger species Limnocalanus macrurus and Leptodiaptomus sicilis. These cold water species were found in and below the thermocline associated with a deep chlorophyll layer. In 2008, most of the zooplankton biomass resided in or below the thermocline during the day. Increased importance of copepods in deeper, colder water may favor Cisco and Rainbow Smelt over Alewife because these species are better adapted to cold temperatures than Alewife.

  4. Boiling over: A Descriptive Analysis of Drinking Water Advisories in First Nations Communities in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Galway, Lindsay P.

    2016-01-01

    Access to safe and reliable drinking water is commonplace for most Canadians. However, the right to safe and reliable drinking water is denied to many First Nations peoples across the country, highlighting a priority public health and environmental justice issue in Canada. This paper describes trends and characteristics of drinking water advisories, used as a proxy for reliable access to safe drinking water, among First Nations communities in the province of Ontario. Visual and statistical tools were used to summarize the advisory data in general, temporal trends, and characteristics of the drinking water systems in which advisories were issued. Overall, 402 advisories were issued during the study period. The number of advisories increased from 25 in 2004 to 75 in 2013. The average advisory duration was 294 days. Most advisories were reported in summer months and equipment malfunction was the most commonly reported reason for issuing an advisory. Nearly half of all advisories occurred in drinking water systems where additional operator training was needed. These findings underscore that the prevalence of drinking water advisories in First Nations communities is a problem that must be addressed. Concerted and multi-faceted efforts are called for to improve the provision of safe and reliable drinking water First Nations communities. PMID:27196919

  5. Impacts of logging and wildfire on an upland black spruce community in northwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Johnston, M H; Elliott, J A

    1996-01-01

    Plant species composition and community structure were compared among four sites in an upland black spruce community in northwestern Ontario. One site had remained undisturbed since the 1930s and three had been disturbed by either logging, fire, or both logging and fire. Canonical correspondence ordination analyses indicated that herbaceous species composition and abundance differed among the disturbance types while differences in the shrub and tree strata were less pronounced. In the herb stratum Pleurozium schreberi, Ptilium crista-castrensis and Dicranum polysetum were in greatest abundance on the undisturbed forest site, while the wildfire and burned cutover sites were dominated by Epilobium angustifolium and Polytrichum juniperinum. The unburned harvested site was dominated by Epilobium angustifolium, Cornus canadensis and Pleurozium schreberi. Species richness was lower on the undisturbed site than on any of the disturbed sites while species diversity (H') and evenness (Hill's E5) were higher on the unburned harvested site than on the other sites. Results suggest that herb re-establishment is different among harvested and burned sites in upland black spruce communities and we hypothesize that differences in the characteristics of the disturbance were responsible, in particular, the impact of burning on nutrient availability. These differences need to be taken into account in determining the effects of these disturbances on biodiversity and long-term ecosystem management.

  6. Social determinants of older adults' awareness of community support services in Hamilton, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Tindale, J; Denton, M; Ploeg, J; Lillie, J; Hutchison, B; Brazil, K; Akhtar-Danesh, N; Plenderleith, J

    2011-11-01

    Community support services (CSSs) have been developed in Canada and other Western nations to enable persons coping with health or social issues to continue to live in the community. This study addresses the extent to which awareness of CSSs is structured by the social determinants of health. In a telephone interview conducted in February-March 2006, 1152 community-dwelling older adults (response rate 12.4%) from Hamilton, Ontario, Canada were made to read a series of four vignettes and were asked whether they were able to identify a CSS they may turn to in that situation. Across the four vignettes, 40% of participants did name a CSS as a possible source of assistance. Logistic regression was used to determine factors related to awareness of CSSs. Respondents most likely to have awareness of CSS include the middle-aged and higher-income groups. Being knowledgeable about where to look for information about CSSs, having social support and being a member of a club or voluntary organisations are also significant predictors of awareness of CSSs. Study results suggest that efforts be made to improve the level of awareness and access to CSSs among older adults by targeting their social networks as well as their health and social care providers.

  7. Boiling over: A Descriptive Analysis of Drinking Water Advisories in First Nations Communities in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Galway, Lindsay P

    2016-05-17

    Access to safe and reliable drinking water is commonplace for most Canadians. However, the right to safe and reliable drinking water is denied to many First Nations peoples across the country, highlighting a priority public health and environmental justice issue in Canada. This paper describes trends and characteristics of drinking water advisories, used as a proxy for reliable access to safe drinking water, among First Nations communities in the province of Ontario. Visual and statistical tools were used to summarize the advisory data in general, temporal trends, and characteristics of the drinking water systems in which advisories were issued. Overall, 402 advisories were issued during the study period. The number of advisories increased from 25 in 2004 to 75 in 2013. The average advisory duration was 294 days. Most advisories were reported in summer months and equipment malfunction was the most commonly reported reason for issuing an advisory. Nearly half of all advisories occurred in drinking water systems where additional operator training was needed. These findings underscore that the prevalence of drinking water advisories in First Nations communities is a problem that must be addressed. Concerted and multi-faceted efforts are called for to improve the provision of safe and reliable drinking water First Nations communities.

  8. Strategies pedagogiques dans les classes a niveaux multiples du nord de l'Ontario--Un compte rendu (Teaching Strategies for Multigraded Classes in Northern Ontario: An Account).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lataille-Demore, Diane

    2003-01-01

    A training and teaching tools development project aims to help multigrade classroom teachers in remote areas of Ontario. The project presents multiple instructional strategies, such as collaborative learning, differentiated teaching, and subject integration. Sixty teaching activities, created and tested by teachers, are contained on a CD that will…

  9. Molecular analysis of red maple (Acer rubrum) populations from a reclaimed mining region in Northern Ontario (Canada): soil metal accumulation and translocation in plants.

    PubMed

    Kalubi, K N; Mehes-Smith, M; Narendrula, R; Michael, P; Omri, A

    2015-04-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum) species is one of the most widespread deciduous (hardwood) trees of eastern North America. It is among the dominant tree species in the Northern Ontario after land reclamation. To date, the effects of heavy metal contamination from the mining activities on terrestrial ecosystems are not well understood. The main objectives of the present study are (1) to determine the level of phytoavailable metal in soil and accumulation in A. rubrum, and (2) to compare the levels of genetic variation among and within A. rubrum populations from areas with different metal contents in a Northern Ontario region. The total heavy metal levels were found to be high but the availability of these metals were much lower. We found that red maple does not accumulate heavy metals in their leaves as other hardwood species. The translocation factors were 0.05, 0.21, 0.38, 0.90, and 2.8 for Cu, Ni, Fe, Zn, and Mg, respectively. The levels of genetic variation in red maple populations from reclaimed lands in Northern Ontario were moderate to high since the percentage of polymorphic loci varied between 51 and 67%. The mean values for observed number of alleles (Na), effective number of alleles (Ne), Nei's gene diversity (h), and Shannon's information index (I) were 1.60, 1.24, 0.15 and 0.24, respectively. The population differentiation (GST) among the fragmented populations was high (0.28) despite a high level of gene flow (Nm = 1.28). Nevertheless, all the populations within the targeted region were genetically closely related. A specific ISSR marker that was identified in all the samples from the reference sites was absent in most samples from metal contaminated. This specific band was cloned and sequenced. Overall, the present study confirms that red maple populations in Northern Ontario are genetically sustainable despite the high level of total metal content in soil.

  10. Tracking Crop Leaf Area Index and Chlorophyll Content Using RapidEye Data in Northern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, J.; Liu, J.; Ma, B.; Zhao, T.; Kovacs, J. M.; Jiao, X.; Dong, T.; Huffman, T.; Geng, X.; Walters, D.

    2014-12-01

    Information on crop phenological state such as flowering, maturing, drying, senescence, and harvesting is essential for crop production surveillance and yield prediction. Earth Observation data provide an important information source for monitoring crop development at various temporal and spatial scales. In particular, the availability of many high-spatial-resolution space sensors offers a powerful tool for precision farming. This study reports the results of a two-year (2012, 2013) study over spring wheat and canola fields using six different vegetation indices derived from the high-resolution (6.5m) RapidEye optical satellite data in northern Ontario, Canada. The study revealed that for both wheat and canola, significant relationships were observed between the ground-derived leaf area index (LAI) and all 6 vegetation indices tested. For spring wheat, the strongest relationship was found between LAI and the Modified Triangular Vegetation Index 2 (MTVI2), with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.95. For canola, a R2 of 0.92 was achieved. Strong relationships were also found between all six vegetation indices and the chlorophyll concentration index (CCI) measured in the fields using a CCM-200 device. The strongest correlation exists between CCI and the ratio of Modified the Chlorophyll Absorption Reflected Index (MCARI) and the Optimized Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (OSAVI), with an R2 of 0.86. It suggests that RapidEye data can be used to track field-scale crop LAI and monitor crop chlorophyll content.

  11. Apprenticeship 2000: Ontario Community Colleges' Vision for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario, North York.

    In response to the Ministry of Education and Training Discussion Paper on Apprenticeship Reform, the Council of Presidents of the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario presented a new vision for apprenticeship in Ontario. The 21st century apprenticeship system aims to remove barriers and enable workers to successfully adjust and cope…

  12. Comparison of Lake Ontario zooplankton communities between 1967 and 1985: before and after implementation of salmonid stocking and phosphorus control

    SciTech Connect

    Johannsson, O.E.

    1987-01-01

    Two strong, contrasting management strategies were applied to Lake Ontario during the 1970s. There has been a 40 percent reduction in phosphorus loading to the lake and an exponential increase in salmonid stocking. A comparison of zooplankton community structure and abundance from 1981 to 1985 with that of earlier studies (1967 to 1972) found no detectable change in the range of abundances or community composition between the two periods. Clearly, neither management strategy has had a discernible impact on the zooplankton community to date; however, the potential for change in the system remains high. 36 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  13. Giving voice to food insecurity in a remote indigenous community in subarctic Ontario, Canada: traditional ways, ways to cope, ways forward

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Food insecurity is a serious public health issue for Aboriginal people (First Nations [FN], Métis, and Inuit) living in Canada. Food security challenges faced by FN people are unique, especially for those living in remote and isolated communities. Conceptualizations of food insecurity by FN people are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of food insecurity by FN adults living in a remote, on-reserve community in northern Ontario known to have a high prevalence of moderate to severe food insecurity. Methods A trained community research assistant conducted semi-directed interviews, and one adult from each household in the community was invited to participate. Questions addressed traditional food, coping strategies, and suggestions to improve community food security and were informed by the literature and a community advisory committee. Thematic data analyses were carried out and followed an inductive, data-driven approach. Results Fifty-one individuals participated, representing 67% of eligible households. The thematic analysis revealed that food sharing, especially with family, was regarded as one of the most significant ways to adapt to food shortages. The majority of participants reported consuming traditional food (wild meats) and suggested that hunting, preserving and storing traditional food has remained very important. However, numerous barriers to traditional food acquisition were mentioned. Other coping strategies included dietary change, rationing and changing food purchasing patterns. In order to improve access to healthy foods, improving income and food affordability, building community capacity and engagement, and community-level initiatives were suggested. Conclusions Findings point to the continued importance of traditional food acquisition and food sharing, as well as community solutions for food systems change. These data highlight that traditional and store-bought food are both part of the

  14. Giving voice to food insecurity in a remote indigenous community in subarctic Ontario, Canada: traditional ways, ways to cope, ways forward.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Kelly; Hanning, Rhona M; Desjardins, Ellen; Tsuji, Leonard J S

    2013-05-02

    Food insecurity is a serious public health issue for Aboriginal people (First Nations [FN], Métis, and Inuit) living in Canada. Food security challenges faced by FN people are unique, especially for those living in remote and isolated communities. Conceptualizations of food insecurity by FN people are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of food insecurity by FN adults living in a remote, on-reserve community in northern Ontario known to have a high prevalence of moderate to severe food insecurity. A trained community research assistant conducted semi-directed interviews, and one adult from each household in the community was invited to participate. Questions addressed traditional food, coping strategies, and suggestions to improve community food security and were informed by the literature and a community advisory committee. Thematic data analyses were carried out and followed an inductive, data-driven approach. Fifty-one individuals participated, representing 67% of eligible households. The thematic analysis revealed that food sharing, especially with family, was regarded as one of the most significant ways to adapt to food shortages. The majority of participants reported consuming traditional food (wild meats) and suggested that hunting, preserving and storing traditional food has remained very important. However, numerous barriers to traditional food acquisition were mentioned. Other coping strategies included dietary change, rationing and changing food purchasing patterns. In order to improve access to healthy foods, improving income and food affordability, building community capacity and engagement, and community-level initiatives were suggested. Findings point to the continued importance of traditional food acquisition and food sharing, as well as community solutions for food systems change. These data highlight that traditional and store-bought food are both part of the strategies and solutions participants suggested

  15. Changes in the nearshore and offshore zooplankton communities in Lake Ontario: 1981-88

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johannsson, Ora E.; Mills, Edward L.; O'Gorman, Robert

    1991-01-01

    We examined trends and factors influencing changes in nearshore and offshore zooplankton abundance and composition in Lake Ontario between 1981 and 1988. In the nearshore (southshore and eastern basin), zooplankton abundance decreased and shifts occurred in the relative abundances of Bosmina longirostris and Daphnia retrocurva (eastern basin) and Daphnia retrocurva and Daphnia galeata mendotae (southshore). These changes could have resulted from increased vertebrate predation or reduced food resources which intensified the effects of predation. In the offshore, the first appearance (FA) of the larger, less common cladoceran species occurred earlier in the season as of 1985. FA was correlated with cumulative epilimnetic temperature (CET) and the catch per unit effort (CPUE) of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) a?Y165 mm caught in U.S. waters in the spring. In 1987, when CET was high and CPUE of alewife a?Y165 mm was low, large populations of these cladocerans developed in June and July. Bythotrephes cederstroemi, a recent invader in the Great Lakes, was abundant only in 1987 when the CPUE of alewife was lowest. Changes in zooplankton abundance, development, and composition along the nearshore-offshore gradient reflected effects of temperature, habitat, and planktivory on the community.

  16. Impact of long-term flooding on the hydrology and carbon biogeochemistry of a northern bog in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodau, Christian; Welchering, Lieselotte; Kasparbauer, Klaus; Durejka, Stefan; Knorr, Klaus-Holger

    2014-05-01

    Climate change and impoundment construction may lead to rising water tables in many northern peatlands. In this study the hydrological and biogeochemical effects of flooding were analyzed at a peatland in southern Ontario, Canada, that was partly flooded 60 years ago. By a comparison of sites of increasing distance to the lake, the effects of inundation on the peatland biogeochemistry were identified. The approximate range of lake water intrusion into the peatland was determined using 18O in water. Furthermore the local hydrology was analyzed by quantifying distributions of hydraulic conductivity and small-scale groundwater flow patterns. By measuring nitrate, phosphate, ammonium, sulfate and DIC, CH4 and DOC in the lake and groundwater the chemical and biogeochemical influence of the inundation was determined. Gas fluxes of CO2 and CH4 at the site were quantified using a static chamber approach. The findings indicate that the infiltration of water from the lake at these sites occurred in time periods of higher lake levels. During summer these locations were only fed by precipitation and the previously infiltrated surface water was diluted or replaced. Nutrient concentrations in the lake water were generally lower compared to the peat pore water. The main solute entering the peatland with the intrusion was sulfate, which also influenced methane concentration patterns. Vertical flow seemed to be an important hydraulic process and control on solute transport at the study site, which has not been described to this extent previously. Additionally, indications for a discharge of groundwater into the peat during a flow reversal were found, though the assumed low permeability of underlying layers should not allow for this process. While the impact of reservoir creation on hydrologic processes appeared to be limited, the changes in water table, soil moisture and vegetation patterns had large impacts on trance gas fluxes to the atmosphere, especially on methane, whose

  17. Climatic sensitivity, water-use efficiency, and growth decline in boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forests in Northern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Rachel; Bell, F. Wayne; Silva, Lucas C. R.; Cecile, Alice; Horwath, William R.; Anand, Madhur

    2016-10-01

    Rises in atmospheric carbon dioxide (atmCO2) levels are known to stimulate photosynthesis and increase intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) in trees. Stand-level increases in iWUE depend on the physiological response of dominant species to increases in atmCO2, while tree-level response to increasing atmCO2 depends on the balance between the direct effects of atmCO2 on photosynthetic rate and the indirect effects of atmCO2 on drought conditions. The aim of this study was to characterize the response of boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) stands in Northern Ontario to changes in atmCO2 and associated climatic change over the past 100 years. The impact of changes in growing season length, temperature, and precipitation, as well as atmCO2 on tree growth, was determined using stable carbon isotopes and dendrochronological analysis. Jack pine stands in this study were shown to be in progressive decline. As expected, iWUE was found to increase in association with rising atmCO2. However, increases in iWUE were not directly coupled with atmCO2, suggesting that the degree of iWUE improvement is limited by alternative factors. Water-use efficiency was negatively associated with tree growth, suggesting that warming- and drought-induced stomatal closure has likely led to deviations from expected atmCO2-enhanced growth. This finding corroborates that boreal forest stands are likely to face continued stress under future climatic warming.

  18. How do community pharmacists make decisions? Results of an exploratory qualitative study in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Paul A.M.; Whyte, Brenna; Austin, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    Background: As the complexity of pharmacy practice increases, pharmacists are required to make more decisions under ambiguous or information-deficient conditions. There is scant literature examining how pharmacists make decisions and what factors or values influence their choices. The objective of this exploratory research was to characterize decision-making patterns in the clinical setting of community pharmacists in Ontario. Methods: The think-aloud decision-making method was used for this study. Community pharmacists with 3 or more years’ experience were presented with 2 clinical case studies dealing with challenging situations and were asked to verbally reason through their decision-making process while being probed by an interviewer for clarification, justification and further explication. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using a protocol analysis method. Results and Discussion: A total of 12 pharmacists participated in this study. Participants experienced cognitive dissonance in attempting to reconcile their desire for a clear and confrontation-free conclusion to the case discussion and the reality of the challenge presented within each case. Strategies for resolving this cognitive dissonance included strong emphasis on the educational (rather than decision-making) role of the pharmacist, the value of strong interpersonal relationships as a way to avoid conflict and achieve desired outcomes, the desire to seek external advice or defer to others’ authority to avoid making a decision and the use of strict interpretations of rules to avoid ambiguity and contextual interpretation. This research was neither representative nor generalizable but was indicative of patterns of decisional avoidance and fear of assuming responsibility for outcomes that warrant further investigation. Conclusion: The think-aloud method functioned effectively in this context and provided insights into pharmacists’ decision-making patterns in the clinical setting. Can Pharm J (Ott

  19. The social construction of risk in a rural community: Responses of local residents to the 1990 Hagersville (Ontario) tire fire

    SciTech Connect

    Eyles, J.; Taylor, S.M.; Baxter, J.; Sider, D.; Willms, D. )

    1993-06-01

    This paper presents the findings of research relating to the 1990 Hagersville (Ontario) tire fire. After reviewing the literature on risk and risk perception, it begins by describing the event as well as the community in which it occurred. The reasons for adopting a qualitative research design are then established practical, conceptual, and methodological. The residents' accounts of the fire, evacuation, and aftermath in terms of concerns, anxieties, and responses are described. Five themes emerge: economic, community, health, environmental, and governance. The paper concludes by putting forward a case study-derived model of risk appraisal and management, and by relating the findings to policy issues. 48 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Barriers to Adult Learners of an Isolated Northern Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilts, David J.

    In 1991, a study was conducted to determine perceptions regarding the deterrents to college attendance among adult learners in an isolated northern community. The study consisted of a survey of 40 students at the Fort Nelson campus of Northern Lights College (NLC) in British Columbia, and a follow-up interview of eight of the survey respondents.…

  1. Barriers to Adult Learners of an Isolated Northern Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilts, David J.

    In 1991, a study was conducted to determine perceptions regarding the deterrents to college attendance among adult learners in an isolated northern community. The study consisted of a survey of 40 students at the Fort Nelson campus of Northern Lights College (NLC) in British Columbia, and a follow-up interview of eight of the survey respondents.…

  2. Community resources for psychiatric and psychosocial problems. Family physicians' referral patterns in urban Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Craven, M. A.; Allen, C. J.; Kates, N.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document the number and pattern of psychiatric and psychosocial referrals to community resources by family physicians (FPs) and to determine whether referral practices correlate with physician variables. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of referrals by FPs to 34 key psychiatric and psychosocial community resources identified by a panel of FPs, psychiatric social workers, psychiatric nurses, public health nurses, and the local community information service. SETTING: Regional municipality of 434,000 persons in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-seven of 34 (79%) community agencies identified 261 FPs who made 4487 referrals to participating agencies (range 0 to 65, median 15, mean 17.19 +/- 13.42). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of referrals to all agencies; variables, such as physician sex, school of graduation, year of graduation, and certificate status in the College of Family Physicians of Canada, related to referral patterns. RESULTS: Referrals to outpatient psychiatric clinics, support services, and general counseling services accounted for 96% of all referrals. Physicians' average annual referral profile was as follows: 8.6 patients to a support service, 6.3 to an outpatient psychiatric service, 1.6 to a counseling service, and 0.46 to a substance abuse service. Referral profiles of individual physicians varied greatly. Female FPs made fewer referrals than male FPs to support services, but both made similar numbers of referrals to psychiatric, counseling, and substance abuse services. The more recent the year of graduation, the greater the number of referrals to psychiatric (r = 0.158, P = 0.0107) and counseling services (r = 0.137, P = 0.0272) and the higher the fraction of referrals to psychiatric services (r = 0.286, P = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Family physicians in Hamilton-Wentworth made few referrals to psychiatric and psychosocial services. Only physician sex and year of graduation correlated significantly with numbers of referrals made. Recent

  3. The Capacity to Detect Change Stream Fish Communities Characteristics at the Site-Level in the Lake Ontario Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Nicholas Edward; Petreman, Ian Charles

    2012-07-01

    We investigate natural inter-annual variability of fish community measures within streams of the Lake Ontario basin. Given this variability, we examined coefficients of variation (CV) among the community measures and three scenarios pertaining to the capacity of biologists to detect changes in the fish community at the stream site level. Results indicate that Ontario's stream fish communities are highly variable in time. Young-of-the-year rainbow trout growth was the least variable whereas biomass density scored the highest CV of 0.50 among streams (range 0.22-0.99). Given the CVs and relatively equal sample sizes, our measures of the fish community can be ranked from least to most powerful: biomass, density, richness, diversity, and growth of young-of-the-year rainbow trout. Only large changes in measures can typically be detected. For instance, it would take 4-6 years of monitoring before and after a pulse perturbation to detect a 50 % change in species richness or diversity. We suggest that monitoring abundance is unlikely to result in the detection of small impacts within a short period of time and that large effects can be masked by low statistical power. This evidence voices the need for more research into better sampling methods, experimental designs, and choice of indicators to support monitoring programs for flowing waters.

  4. Use of traditional environmental knowledge to assess the impact of climate change on subsistence fishing in the James Bay Region of Northern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hori, Yukari; Tam, Benita; Gough, William A; Ho-Foong, Elise; Karagatzides, Jim D; Liberda, Eric N; Tsuji, Leonard J S

    2012-01-01

    In Canada, unique food security challenges are being faced by Aboriginal people living in remote-northern communities due to the impacts of climate change on subsistence harvesting. This study used traditional environmental knowledge (TEK) to investigate whether there was a temporal relationship between extreme climatic events in the summer of 2005, and fish die-offs in the Albany River, northern Ontario, Canada. Also, TEK was utilized to examine a potential shift in subsistence fish species distribution due to climate change. To investigate whether there was a temporal relationship between the fish die-offs of July 2005 (as identified by TEK) and an extreme climatic event, temperature and daily precipitation data for Moosonee weather station were utilized. To determine if there was an increasing trend in mean maximal summer temperatures with year, temperature data were examined, using regression analysis. Present-day fish distributions were determined using unpublished TEK data collated from previous studies and purposive, semi-directive interviews with elders and experienced bushman. Fish die-offs in 2005 occurred during the time period 11-18 July, as reported by participants. Recorded air-temperature maxima of the two July 2005 heat waves delineate exactly the time period of fish die-offs. Two heat waves occurring during the same summer season and so close together has never before been recorded for this region. A highly significant (p < 0.0009) positive relationship between mean maximal summer temperatures and year was evident. Regionally novel fish species were not apparent, utilizing TEK. Traditional environmental knowledge coupled with climate data revealed temporal relationships between extreme climatic events in 2005, and fish die-offs in the Albany River. Thus, climate change can directly impact food security by decreasing the number of fish through mortality - and indirectly through population dynamics - by impacting the yield of fish subsistence

  5. Microbial Response in Peat Overlying Kimberlite Pipes in The Attawapiskat Area, Northern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkervoort, L. J.; Southam, G.

    2009-05-01

    Exploration for ore deposits occurring under thick, post-mineralized cover requires innovative methods and instrumentation [1]. Buried kimberlite pipes 'produce' geochemical conditions such as increased pH and decreased Eh in overlying peat [2] that intuitively select for bacterial populations that are best able to grow and, which in turn affect the geochemistry producing a linked signal. A microbiological study of peat was conducted over the Zulu kimberlite in the Attawapiskat area of the James Bay Lowlands to determine if the type of underlying rock influences the diversity and populations of microorganisms living in the overlying peat. Peat was sampled along an 800 m transect across the Zulu kimberlite, including samples underlain by limestone. Microbial populations and carbon source utilization patterns of peat samples were compared between the two underlying rock types. Results demonstrate an inverse relationship of increased anaerobic populations and lower biodiversity directly above the kimberlite pipe. These results support a reduced 'column' consistent with the model presented by Hamilton [3]. The combination of traditional bacterial enumeration and community- level profiling represents a cost-effective and efficient exploration technique that can serve to compliment both geophysical and geochemical surveys. [1] Goldberg (1998) J. Geochem. Explor. 61, 191-202 [2] Hattori and Hamilton (2008) Appl. Geochem. 23, 3767-3782 [3] Hamilton (1998) J. Geochem. Explor. 63, 155-172

  6. Survey of consumer and non-consumer mental health service providers on assertive community treatment teams in Ontario.

    PubMed

    White, Helen; Whelan, Chantal; Barnes, J Derrick; Baskerville, Bruce

    2003-06-01

    Reflecting the increasing trend of consumers as providers in mental health services, the standards for Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) teams in Ontario, Canada require the hiring of at least 0.5 full-time equivalent consumer as a service provider. Through a mail-out survey, we explored how the consumer position has been integrated into these ACT teams. It was found that despite some variation in the roles and degree of integration of the consumers on these teams, consumers were generally well-incorporated team members with equal or better job satisfaction as compared to other employees.

  7. Evaluation of specific infection control practices used by companion animal veterinarians in community veterinary practices in southern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Murphy, C P; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; McEwen, S A

    2010-09-01

    This study evaluated specific infection control practices in community veterinary practices in southern Ontario. Environmental disinfection, management of infectious patients and antimicrobial use in clean surgical procedures were investigated. Community companion animal veterinary practices (n=101) in Southern Ontario were recruited, and a questionnaire was administered to one veterinarian and one veterinary technician from each practice. The veterinarian questionnaire gathered data on clinic demographics, management of infectious patients, infectious diseases of concern, environmental disinfection and antimicrobial use in surgical procedures. The veterinary technician questionnaire gathered data on environmental disinfection. None of the veterinary practices had a formal infection control programme. Sixty-five per cent (n=66) of the veterinary practices did not have an isolation area and 61% (n=40) of these practices did not employ any specific infection control measures for infectious cases. The products most frequently used for environmental disinfection were hydrogen peroxide based or quaternary ammonium compounds. Bleach was the agent most commonly used for environmental disinfection of infectious body fluids; however 60% of the veterinarians and 40% of the veterinary technicians did not identify a product for environmental disinfection of infectious body fluids. Twenty-four per cent of the veterinarians reported using antimicrobials in animals undergoing elective sterilization surgeries and 60% reported using antimicrobials in other clean surgical procedures. There is a need for community veterinary practices to develop infection control programmes specific to their individual practice. In addition, veterinarians should discontinue the common use of antimicrobials for clean elective sterilization surgical procedures. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Addressing the realities [correction of realties] of health care in northern aboriginal communities through participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Minore, Bruce; Boone, Margaret; Katt, Mae; Kinch, Peggy; Birch, Stephen

    2004-11-01

    To address concerns about disruptions in the continuity of health care delivered to residents in three remote aboriginal communities in northern Ontario, Canada, the local health authority initiated a study in collaboration with the department of Health Canada responsible for ensuring that aboriginal reserves receive mandatory health services, and an inter-disciplinary team of researchers from two universities. The study focussed on the delivery of oncology, diabetes and mental health care, specifically, as well as systems issues such as recruitment and retention of health human resources and financial costs. The paper discusses the procedures involved, the benefits derived and the challenges encountered in doing this as a community driven participatory action research project. It also summarizes the findings that led to community formulated policy and program recommendations.

  9. Community Resistance to Injustice and Inequality: Ontario, California, 1937-1947.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Enrique M.

    1986-01-01

    Assesses Chicano-Anglo relations in Ontario, California, from 1937-1947, a transitional decade for Chicanos in "semi-rural" areas of American Southwest. Focuses on Chicanos' economic plight, their leadership and organization, civil rights and discrimination, legal issues, and political realities. Studies effect of World War II on Chicano…

  10. Community Literacy Programmes in Northern Ghana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendor-Samuel, David H.; Bendor-Samuel, Margaret M.

    This study describes efforts by the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) to promote literacy among six language groups of northern Ghana during the years 1972-1979. The report is organized into three parts. Part I provides general background for an understanding and evaluation of what took place. It first describes the national and local setting…

  11. The association between income source and met need among community mental health service users in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Anna; Bondy, Susan J; Durbin, Janet

    2012-10-01

    We examined income source and match between recommended and received care among users of community mental health services. We conducted a secondary analysis of needs-based planning data on adults in Ontario community mental health programs from 2000 to 2002. The outcome was whether clients were severely underserved (yes/no) based on the match between level of care recommended and received. A logistic regression model investigated if income source predicted this outcome. 13% of clients were severely underserved. Over 40% were on public assistance and they had a higher risk of being severely undeserved than the others. Men were at greater risk. One aim of mental health reform is to increase access to care for vulnerable individuals. The finding that among users of community mental health services, individuals with public assistance income support are most vulnerable to being severely underserved should be considered by service planners and providers.

  12. Canadian community mental health workers' perceived priorities for supportive housing services in northern and rural contexts.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Karen; Montgomery, Phyllis; Mossey, Sharolyn; Bailey, Patricia

    2015-11-01

    A relationship between mental health and supportive housing has been established, yet there exist enduring challenges in meeting the supportive housing needs of people with severe mental health problems. Furthermore, not all stakeholder viewpoints of supportive housing services are well documented in the research literature, and research has tended to focus on supportive housing provision in large, urban centres. Potentially, distinct challenges and opportunities associated with the provision of supportive housing services in smaller urban and rural communities that define the greater geographical terrain of Canada and other jurisdictions are less developed. This study describes community mental health service workers' priorities for supportive housing services. Using Q methodology, 39 statements about supportive housing services, developed from a mixed-methods parent study, were sorted by 58 service providers working in four communities in northern Ontario, Canada. Data used in this study were collected in 2010. Q analysis was used to identify correlations between service workers who held similar and different viewpoints concerning service priorities. The results yielded four discrete viewpoints about priorities for delivery of supportive housing services including: a functional system, service efficiency, individualised services and promotion of social inclusion. Common across these viewpoints was the need for concrete deliverables inclusive of financial supports and timely access to adequate housing. These findings have the potential to inform the development of housing policy in regions of low population density which address both system and individual variables.

  13. Spring-harvested game birds from the western James Bay region of northern Ontario, Canada: organochlorine concentrations in breast muscle.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Martin, Ian D; Martin, Emily S; LeBlanc, Alain; Dumas, Pierre

    2007-10-15

    Although studies have assessed organochlorine concentration in breast tissue (pectoral muscle) of fall-harvested game birds in Canada, data for spring-harvested game birds are limited, especially for remote sub-arctic areas. Taking into account that most traditional Aboriginal diets include a large number of spring-harvested game birds, there is a need to assess organochlorine concentration in spring-harvested water birds with respect to suitability for human consumption. We examined organochlorine concentrations in breasts of 20 mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), 20 northern pintails (A. acuta), 21 Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior), and 20 lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) harvested in the spring; summer-harvested shorebirds (godwits; Limosa spp.) were also assessed as these water birds are an important part of the game bird harvest for First Nation Cree of the western James Bay region of Ontario, Canada. The most frequently detected organochlorines in striated (pectoral) muscle were SigmaPCBs (sum of 14 congeners [CBs]) and SigmaDDT (sum of DDE and DDT) followed by SigmaCHL (sum of oxy-chlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor) and hexachlorobenzene with beta-hexachlorocyclohexane being the least frequently detected. For organochlorines that had < or =70% of the samples with detectable concentrations of an organochlorine (i.e., CBs 105, 128, 156, 170, 180, 183, cis-nonachlor, DDT, and mirex), log-linear contingency modelling revealed that the dabbling ducks had significantly more than expected detectable concentrations of most organochlorines; by contrast, geese and shorebirds had significantly less than expected detectable concentrations of most organochlorines. ANOVA for organochlorines with frequency of detection > or =70% (i.e., Aroclor 1260, SigmaPCBs, CBs 118, 138, 153, 187, DDE, hexachlorobenzene, oxy-chlordane and trans-nonachlor) revealed significant differences between bird species: Breast tissue in snow geese contained significantly

  14. The effects of tertiary treated municipal wastewater on fish communities of a small river tributary in Southern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Brown, Carolyn J M; Knight, Brendan W; McMaster, Mark E; Munkittrick, Kelly R; Oakes, Ken D; Tetreault, Grald R; Servos, Mark R

    2011-07-01

    Fish community changes associated with a tertiary treated municipal wastewater effluent outfall in the Speed River, Ontario, Canada, were evaluated at nine sites over two seasons (2008) using standardized electrofishing. Habitat evaluations were conducted to ensure that the riffle sites selected were physically similar. The fish community was dominated by several species of darters that differed in their response to the effluent outfall. There was a significant decrease in Greenside Darter (Etheostoma blennioides) but an increase in Rainbow Darter (E. caeruleum) abundance directly downstream of the outfall. Stable isotope signatures (δ(13)C and δ(15)N), which indicate shifts in energy utilization and flow, increased in Rainbow Darter downstream, but showed no change in Greenside Darter. Rainbow Darter may be exploiting a food source that is not as available at upstream sites giving them a competitive advantage over the Greenside Darter immediately downstream of the outfall. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Motivations and Experiences of Teachers in a Northern Manitoba Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janzen, Melanie D.; Cranston, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    This paper utilizes an exploratory case study method to examine the factors that attract and motivate teachers to stay in a remote, northern Canadian community. Bakan's (1966) framework of agency and communion, provides a lens for exploring and understanding teachers' experiences of working in the north where the term "the North" is…

  16. Motivations and Experiences of Teachers in a Northern Manitoba Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janzen, Melanie D.; Cranston, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    This paper utilizes an exploratory case study method to examine the factors that attract and motivate teachers to stay in a remote, northern Canadian community. Bakan's (1966) framework of agency and communion, provides a lens for exploring and understanding teachers' experiences of working in the north where the term "the North" is…

  17. Marketing Plan 1983-1984. Northern Virginia Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmi, Charlotte; And Others

    A 1983-84 marketing plan is presented for Northern Virginia Community College (NVCC), which is designed to maximize the effective use of shrinking resources to meet the needs of the college's clientele. After introductory material discusses the problems and challenges facing NVCC and the role of marketing in understanding the environment in which…

  18. Automotive Educational-Industry Partnerships at Northern Virginia Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartney, H. E.

    Northern Virginia Community College (NVCC) currently enjoys three distinctive automotive training partnership agreements designed to meet the specific educational needs of the participating industries. The first agreement is between NVCC and the Product Service Training Department of General Motors Corporation (GMC), whereby GMC may extend its…

  19. Marketing Plan 1983-1984. Northern Virginia Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmi, Charlotte; And Others

    A 1983-84 marketing plan is presented for Northern Virginia Community College (NVCC), which is designed to maximize the effective use of shrinking resources to meet the needs of the college's clientele. After introductory material discusses the problems and challenges facing NVCC and the role of marketing in understanding the environment in which…

  20. Exploring the relationships between small non-community drinking water system characteristics and water system performance in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pons, Wendy; Young, Ian; Pearl, David; Jones-Bitton, Andria; McEwen, Scott A; Pintar, Katarina; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this work were to investigate the relationships between characteristics of small non-community drinking water systems (SDWSs) and the performance of these systems with respect to Escherichia coli testing and risk ratings. Ontario-wide SDWS data were analysed using regression models with outcomes of (1) having an adverse E. coli test result in the 12 months prior to the last inspection and (2) the SDWS risk rating (high/medium vs. low risk) that is assigned by public health inspectors. Almost 34% (2,364/7,003) of SDWSs did not utilize treatment, more commonly for ground water than surface supplies (P < 0.001). The odds of having a positive E. coli test result were greater in systems using ground water with treatment (OR = 2.00; 95% CI 1.23-3.24) and surface water with treatment (OR = 1.97; 95% CI 1.05-3.71) compared to ground water with no treatment. The odds of having a water system rated high or medium compared to low risk was greater if the water system operated seasonally (OR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.17-1.59), had an adverse E. coli test result (OR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.09-2.53), and in specific facility types. This research helps to inform existing training opportunities available to SDWS operators in Ontario, and to better standardize the SDWS risk assessment process.

  1. Response of phytoplankton communities to acidification and recovery in Killarney Park and the Experimental Lakes Area, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Findlay, David L

    2003-04-01

    It has been widely speculated that controls of SO2 emissions would stimulate recovery of acidified freshwater lakes in Canada, the United States and Europe. Phytoplankton communities from 22 lakes near Killarney Park Ontario, covering a pH range from 4.5-7.7, were studied from 1998-2000 and compared to data from experimentally acidified (pH decreased 6.7 to 4.5) and recovered (pH increased to 6.0) Lake 302 South at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), northwestern Ontario to assess recovery from acidification. Based on historical data, pH levels have rebounded to above 6.0 in several lakes in the Killarney area that were previously acidified to pH 5.0-5.5. Phytoplankton biomass was not correlated to pH, but there was a highly significant relationship between species richness and pH. Recovery trajectories were observed in a subset of 6 lakes, combining species diversity data from the present study with historical data. Correspondence analysis indicated that several of the lakes that experienced increased pH have shifted towards phytoplankton assemblages typical of circumneutral environments.

  2. The Lake Ontario zooplankton community before (1987-1991) and after (2001-2005) invasion-induced ecosystem change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, T.J.; Johannsson, O.E.; Holeck, K.; Sprules, W.G.; O'Gorman, R.

    2010-01-01

    We assessed changes in Lake Ontario zooplankton biomass, production, and community composition before (1987–1991) and after (2001–2005) invasion-induced ecosystem changes. The ecosystem changes were associated with establishment of invasive dreissenid mussels and invasive predatory cladocerans (Bythotrephes and Cercopagis). Whole-lake total epilimnetic plus metalimnetic zooplankton production declined by approximately half from 42.45 (g dry wt∙m−2∙ year−1) during 1987–1991 to 21.91 (g dry wt∙m−2∙ year−1) in 2003 and averaged 21.01 (g dry wt∙m−2∙ year−1) during 2001–2005. Analysis of two independent data sets indicates that the mean biomass and biomass proportion of cyclopoid copepods declined while the same measures increased for the invasive predatory cladocerans. Changes in means and proportions of all other zooplankton groups were not consistent between the data sets. Cyclopoid copepod biomass and production declined by factors ranging from 3.6 to 5.7. Invasive predatory cladoceran biomass averaged from 5.0% to 8.0% of the total zooplankton biomass. The zooplankton community was otherwise resilient to the invasion-induced disruption as zooplankton species richness and diversity were unaffected. Zooplankton production was likely reduced by declines in primary productivity but may have declined further due to increased predation by alewives and invasive predatory cladocerans. Shifts in zooplankton community structure were consistent with increased predation pressure on cyclopoid copepods by alewives and invasive predatory cladocerans. Predicted declines in the proportion of small cladocerans were not evident. This study represents the first direct comparison of changes in Lake Ontario zooplankton production before and after the invasion-induced disruption and will be important to food web-scale investigations of invasion effects.

  3. The Final Report of the "Learning Capacities in the Community and Workplace Project": Unionized Industrial Workplace Site (Ontario), Winter 1998. NALL Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Peter H.

    The Ontario Industrial Workers' research site offered a basic analysis of issues relevant to the Prior Learning Assessment and Recognition (PLAR) research and the labor education community. Project goals revolved around the need to examine development and applications of a new PLAR instrument, the Skills and Knowledge Profile (SKP), which is…

  4. Signs and symptoms of methylmercury contamination in a First Nations community in Northwestern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Shigeru; Fujino, Tadashi; Hotta, Nobuyuki; Ueda, Keishi; Hanada, Masanobu; Tajiri, Masami; Inoue, Yukari

    2014-01-15

    In 1970, fish caught in the English-Wabigoon River system in northwestern Ontario, Canada, were found to be contaminated with mercury coming from a chlor-alkali plant in the province. In the 1970s, patients exhibiting some of the symptoms of the Hunter-Russell syndrome (e.g. paresthesias, visual field constriction, ataxia, impaired hearing, and speech impairment) were reported by some researchers. However attempts to diagnose the patients as suffering from methylmercury poisoning proved to be controversial. In order to research the presence of methylmercury contamination, and show that the patients, through eating contaminated fish, were suffering from methylmercury poisoning, we studied the results of subjective complaints, neurological findings, and quantitative somatosensory measurements gathered in Grassy Narrows Indian Reservation, Ontario, in March, 2010. At that time, the population of the Grassy Narrows settlement was around 900. Ninety-one residents volunteered to be examined. From them, we selected 80 people who were older than 15 years old, and divided them into two groups. Canadian Younger (CY): 36 residents who were from 16 to 45 years old. Canadian Older (CO): 44 residents who were from 46 to 76 years old. We compared them to Japanese Exposed (JE): 88 methylmercury exposed residents from the Minamata district in Japan, and Japanese Control (JC): 164 control residents from non-polluted areas in Japan. Complaints and abnormal neurological findings were more prevalent and quantitative sensory measurements were worse in the two Canadian groups and the Japanese Exposed group than in the Japanese Control group. Complaints, neurological findings and quantitative sensory measurements were similar in Canadian Older and Japanese Exposed. The results for Canadian Younger fell between those of Canadian Older and Japanese Control. These findings indicate that the clinical signs and symptoms of the residents of Grassy Narrows are almost the same as those recorded

  5. Climate change, health, and vulnerability in Canadian northern Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Furgal, Christopher; Seguin, Jacinthe

    2006-12-01

    Canada has recognized that Aboriginal and northern communities in the country face unique challenges and that there is a need to expand the assessment of vulnerabilities to climate change to include these communities. Evidence suggests that Canada's North is already experiencing significant changes in its climate--changes that are having negative impacts on the lives of Aboriginal people living in these regions. Research on climate change and health impacts in northern Canada thus far has brought together Aboriginal community members, government representatives, and researchers and is charting new territory. In this article we review experiences from two projects that have taken a community-based dialogue approach to identifying and assessing the effects of and vulnerability to climate change and the impact on the health in two Inuit regions of the Canadian Arctic. The results of the two case projects that we present argue for a multi-stakeholder, participatory framework for assessment that supports the necessary analysis, understanding, and enhancement of capabilities of local areas to respond and adapt to the health impacts at the local level.

  6. Climate Change, Health, and Vulnerability in Canadian Northern Aboriginal Communities

    PubMed Central

    Furgal, Christopher; Seguin, Jacinthe

    2006-01-01

    Background Canada has recognized that Aboriginal and northern communities in the country face unique challenges and that there is a need to expand the assessment of vulnerabilities to climate change to include these communities. Evidence suggests that Canada’s North is already experiencing significant changes in its climate—changes that are having negative impacts on the lives of Aboriginal people living in these regions. Research on climate change and health impacts in northern Canada thus far has brought together Aboriginal community members, government representatives, and researchers and is charting new territory. Methods and Results In this article we review experiences from two projects that have taken a community-based dialogue approach to identifying and assessing the effects of and vulnerability to climate change and the impact on the health in two Inuit regions of the Canadian Arctic. Conclusions The results of the two case projects that we present argue for a multi-stakeholder, participatory framework for assessment that supports the necessary analysis, understanding, and enhancement of capabilities of local areas to respond and adapt to the health impacts at the local level. PMID:17185292

  7. Supported housing programs for persons with serious mental illness in rural northern communities: A mixed method evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Phyllis; Forchuk, Cheryl; Duncan, Craig; Rose, Don; Bailey, Patricia H; Veluri, Ramamohan

    2008-01-01

    Background During the past two decades, consumers, providers and policy makers have recognized the role of supported housing intervention for persons diagnosed with serious mental illness (SMI) to be able to live independently in the community. Much of supported housing research to date, however, has been conducted in large urban centers rather than northern and rural communities. Northern conditional and contextual issues such as rural poverty, lack of accessible mental health services, small or non-existing housing markets, lack of a continuum of support or housing services, and in some communities, a poor quality of housing challenge the viability of effective supported housing services. The current research proposal aims to describe and evaluate the processes and outcomes of supported housing programs for persons living with SMI in northern and rural communities from the perspective of clients, their families, and community providers. Methods This research will use a mixed method design guided by participatory action research. The study will be conducted over two years, in four stages. Stage I will involve setting up the research in each of the four northern sites. In Stage II a descriptive cross-sectional survey will be used to obtain information about the three client outcomes: housing history, quality of life and housing preference. In Stage III two participatory action strategies, focus groups and photo-voice, will be used to explore perceptions of supported housing services. In the last stage findings from the study will be re-presented to the participants, as well as other key community individuals in order to translate them into policy. Conclusion Supported housing intervention is a core feature of mental health care, and it requires evaluation. The lack of research in northern and rural SMI populations heightens the relevance of research findings for health service planning. The inclusion of multiple stakeholder groups, using a variety of data

  8. Support and intervention groups for adolescents with cancer in two Ontario communities.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Maru; Damore-Petingola, Sheila; Fleming, Carly; Mayer, Judy

    2006-10-01

    Adolescents who are treated for cancer must learn to negotiate challenging developmental tasks in the context of their treatment and adverse effects. Adverse affects of disease and treatment may prevent some of these adolescents from achieving full psychosocial development. Two programs developed independently to address the psychosocial and unique contextual needs of adolescents and young adults from different geographic regions in Ontario, Central urban and Northeastern rural, are described. The program in the urban area consists of eight 2-h sessions that combined structured creative activities and informal discussions of issues generated by adolescents; it includes a pre- post- intervention evaluation with standardized questionnaires. The Northeastern rural program consists of a monthly support open group that encourages sharing personal experiences and an annual expressive art retreat; both components include informal evaluation. Formal evaluation of these programs is in progress. Informal feedback from participants and parents suggest positive effects. These distinct and unique programs continue to evolve, as they address the unique psychosocial needs of adolescents and young adults in urban and rural areas.

  9. Wait Times for Publicly Funded Outpatient and Community Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Services: Implications for the Increasing Number of Persons with Chronic Conditions in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Passalent, Laura A.; Landry, Michel D.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Timely access to publicly funded health services has emerged as a priority policy issue across the continuum of care from hospitals to the home and community sector. The purpose of this study was to examine wait lists and wait times for publicly funded outpatient and community occupational therapy (OT) and physical therapy (PT) services. Methods: A mailed self-administered questionnaire was sent in December 2005 to all publicly funded sites across Ontario that deliver outpatient or community OT or PT services (N = 374). Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study sample and to examine wait lists and wait times by setting and client condition. Results: Overall response rate was 57.2% (n = 214). More than 10,000 people were reported to be waiting for OT or PT services across Ontario. Of these, 16% (n = 1,664) were waiting for OT and 84% (n = 8,842) for PT. Of those waiting for OT, 59% had chronic conditions and half were waiting for home care rehabilitation services. Of those waiting for PT, 73% had chronic conditions and 81% were waiting at hospital outpatient departments. Conclusions: Individuals with chronic conditions experience excessive wait times for outpatient and community OT and PT services in Ontario, particularly if they are waiting for services in hospital outpatient departments. PMID:20145747

  10. Uncovering the hidden part of a large ice stream of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, northern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veillette, J. J.; Roy, M.; Paulen, R. C.; Ménard, M.; St-Jacques, G.

    2017-01-01

    This investigation was prompted by an enigmatic ice-flow anomaly (Area A) on the Glacial Map of Canada which covers about 10 000 km2 in the Hearst/Kapuskasing area of northeastern Ontario. It consists of streamlined landforms and striations indicative of a major ice flow toward 130° oriented at right angle to another toward 220°. Both are late glacial flows but long-lasting disagreement exists regarding their relative age. The analysis of aerial photographs and satellite images in conjunction with a detailed survey of bedrock cross-striated surfaces over an area of about 30 000 km2 within and around Area A clearly indicate that the 130° flow preceded the 220° flow. The earlier conflicting interpretations within Area A are attributed mainly to the sporadic occurrence of relict striated surfaces formed by older southwestward (220°-240°) Wisconsinan ice flows that have locally escaped destruction by late glacial flows, with the result that the southwestward flows are older (Wisconsinan) at some sites and younger (late glacial 220°) at others relative to the 130° flow. When considered with other factors such as the maximum elevation reached by the youngest late glacial flow, these ice-flow relationships indicate that Area A is the outcropping southern part of a much larger ESE ice-flow system, which is probably related to a large fluted belt located to the north and that was identified as the Winisk Ice Stream. The distal part of the ice stream, except for Area A, escaped detection by remote sensing mapping methods because depositional and erosional features associated with it are masked by deposits laid down by the younger (220°, Cochrane) ice flow and/or by postglacial marine and organic deposits (or were destroyed by the younger ice flow). The only reliable indicators of the passage of the ice stream in this "buried" section are ESE relict striations crossed by SW striations. The advancing ice stream toward the ESE not only preceded the late Cochrane 220

  11. CHANGES IN THE FRESHWATER BENTHIC COMMUNITY OF LAKE ONTARIO SINCE THE INVASION OF DREISSENA 1972-1997

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population changes of three major benthic taxa are discussed in relation to Dreissena spp. Lake Ontario was sampled pre-invasion (1972) and post-invasion (1994, 1997) for abundance of benthic organisms. In offshore sediments of Lake Ontario, neither species composition nor abunda...

  12. CHANGES IN THE FRESHWATER BENTHIC COMMUNITY OF LAKE ONTARIO SINCE THE INVASION OF DREISSENA 1972-1997

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population changes of three major benthic taxa are discussed in relation to Dreissena spp. Lake Ontario was sampled pre-invasion (1972) and post-invasion (1994, 1997) for abundance of benthic organisms. In offshore sediments of Lake Ontario, neither species composition nor abunda...

  13. Evaluating the Effectiveness of First-Time Methadone Maintenance Therapy Across Northern, Rural, and Urban Regions of Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Eibl, Joseph K.; Gomes, Tara; Martins, Diana; Camacho, Ximena; Juurlink, David N.; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Dhalla, Irfan A.; Marsh, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Our objective was to determine the impact that a patient's geographic status has on the efficacy of first-time methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) retention. Methods: We conducted an observational cohort study using administrative health care databases for patients who commenced methadone therapy between 2003 and 2012. Patients were stratified on the basis of their location of residence into 1 of 4 groups—Southern Urban, Southern Rural, Northern Urban, or Northern Rural. The primary outcome was continuous retention in treatment, defined as 1 year of uninterrupted therapy on the basis of prescription refill data. Mortality was measured as a secondary outcome. Results: We identified 17,211 patients initiating first-time MMT during this 10-year period. Nearly half of patients initiating therapy in northern regions completed 1 year of treatment (48.9%; N = 258 and 47.0%; N = 761 in Northern Rural and Urban regions, respectively), whereas lower rates of 40.6% (N = 410) and 39.3% (N = 5,518) occurred in Southern Rural and Urban regions, respectively. Patients residing in Northern Rural and Northern Urban regions were 31% (adjusted odds ratio = 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09%–1.58%] and 14% (adjusted odds ratio = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02%–1.27%] more likely to be retained in treatment compared with those residing in Southern Urban regions. There was no significant difference in treatment retention between those residing in Southern Rural and Southern Urban regions. A mortality rate of 3% was observed within 1 year of patients initiating treatment, with patients in the Southern Rural region having the highest rate (4.85%). Conclusions: Our study identified regional differences in retention rates and mortality of first-time MMT. These findings may relate to geographic isolation and limited methadone program availability experienced in northern regions. We interpret the data to suggest that patients who have reduced access to

  14. Early Childhood Development in the Dixie Bloor Community of Mississauga, Ontario. Understanding the Early Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources Development Canada, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the Early Years (UEY) is a national research initiative. It provides communities with information to enable them to make informed decisions about the best policies and most appropriate programs for Canadian families with young children. This report is based on one of seven communities studied in 2001-2002. Children's outcomes were…

  15. Community health profile of Windsor, Ontario, Canada: anatomy of a Great Lakes area of concern.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, M; Brophy, J

    2001-01-01

    The rates of mortality, morbidity as hospitalizations, and congenital anomalies in the Windsor Area of Concern ranked among the highest of the 17 Areas of Concern on the Canadian side of the Great Lakes for selected end points that might be related to pollution in this relatively highly industrialized city. Mortality and morbidity rates from all causes were higher than in the rest of the province. Anomalously high rates of diseases included various cancers; endocrine, nutritional, metabolic, and immunity disorders; diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs, nervous system and sense organs, circulatory and respiratory systems, digestive system, genitourinary system, skin and subcutaneous tissue, musculoskeletal system and connective tissues; congenital anomalies, and infant mortality. Of particular concern was the early onset of the elevated rates of many of these diseases and conditions. Comparison of these incident rates with those in Hamilton, another industrial municipality in southern Ontario, suggested that in addition to a variety of local sources of industrial pollution from automobile manufacturing and use, transboundary air and water pollution from Detroit, Michigan, should be investigated as potentially important causes of these health outcomes in the Windsor Area of Concern. Some of the institutional and political trends of the past decade may need to be reversed before effective remedial programs are implemented for cleaning up contaminated sediments and for containment of leaking hazardous waste sites. This pilot project would seem to be a useful preliminary method of integrating human health concerns and of priority setting for the administration of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement. PMID:11744501

  16. Predicting wetland plant community responses to proposed water-level-regulation plans for Lake Ontario: GIS-based modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, D.A.; Xie, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated, GIS-based, wetland predictive models were constructed to assist in predicting the responses of wetland plant communities to proposed new water-level regulation plans for Lake Ontario. The modeling exercise consisted of four major components: 1) building individual site wetland geometric models; 2) constructing generalized wetland geometric models representing specific types of wetlands (rectangle model for drowned river mouth wetlands, half ring model for open embayment wetlands, half ellipse model for protected embayment wetlands, and ellipse model for barrier beach wetlands); 3) assigning wetland plant profiles to the generalized wetland geometric models that identify associations between past flooding / dewatering events and the regulated water-level changes of a proposed water-level-regulation plan; and 4) predicting relevant proportions of wetland plant communities and the time durations during which they would be affected under proposed regulation plans. Based on this conceptual foundation, the predictive models were constructed using bathymetric and topographic wetland models and technical procedures operating on the platform of ArcGIS. An example of the model processes and outputs for the drowned river mouth wetland model using a test regulation plan illustrates the four components and, when compared against other test regulation plans, provided results that met ecological expectations. The model results were also compared to independent data collected by photointerpretation. Although data collections were not directly comparable, the predicted extent of meadow marsh in years in which photographs were taken was significantly correlated with extent of mapped meadow marsh in all but barrier beach wetlands. The predictive model for wetland plant communities provided valuable input into International Joint Commission deliberations on new regulation plans and was also incorporated into faunal predictive models used for that purpose.

  17. Prevalence of neutralizing antibody to Jamestown Canyon virus (California group) in populations of elk and moose in northern Michigan and Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Grimstad, P R; Schmitt, S M; Williams, D G

    1986-10-01

    Blood samples were collected from free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) harvested in Michigan's northern Lower Peninsula, from moose (Alces alces) relocated from Ontario's Algonquin Provincial Park to Michigan's Upper Peninsula, and from moose from Michigan's Isle Royale National Park. Sera were tested by serum dilution neutralization tests in Vero cell culture for neutralizing antibody to California serogroup viruses, in particular Jamestown Canyon (JC), La Crosse/snowshoe hare (LAC/SSH), and trivittatus (TVT) viruses. Specific neutralizing antibody to JC virus was detected in 71% of 31 and 65% of 20 moose from Algonquin and Isle Royale, respectively. An additional six moose from Algonquin and five from Isle Royale showed evidence of multiple infection. One juvenile moose from Isle Royale had specific neutralizing antibody to TVT virus. Specific neutralizing antibody to JC virus was detected also in 54% of 50 elk from Michigan; 20 of the 50 elk showed evidence of multiple infection. While no single serum sample showed specific neutralizing antibody only to LAC/SSH virus, its presence in sera from some animals may have been masked by the high prevalence of antibody to JC virus.

  18. Effect of lake-wide planktivory by the pelagic prey fish community in Lakes Michigan and Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rand, Peter S.; Stewart, Donald J.; Lantry, Brian F.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Johannsson, Ora E.; Goyke, Andrew P.; Brandt, Stephen B.; O'Gorman, Robert; Eck, Gary W.

    1995-01-01

    We compared predatory demand by pelagic planktivorous prey fish with invertebrate production in Lake Michigan during 1987 and in Lake Ontario during 1990. Predation by the planktivores in Lake Ontario was nearly fourfold higher than in Lake Michigan (approx. 87 g wet weight∙m−2∙year−1). Predation rates on Mysis were comparable in Lakes Michigan and Ontario (approx. 21 g∙m−2∙year−1), while predation on Diporeia was markedly higher in Lake Michigan than in Lake Ontario (21.3 vs. 8.5 g wet weight∙m−2∙year−1). In Lake Ontario, predatory demand on zooplankton exceeded our best estimate of production by a factor of 1.7. Similarly, predation estimates on Mysis in Lake Ontario were 1.2–2.0 times the estimated rate of production, depending on the production model used. Lake Michigan planktivores consumed approximately 55% of available zooplankton production in 1987, indicating that competition for prey resources, if operating, was not as intense as that in Lake Ontario in 1990. It is unclear how to resolve the paradox that predation could markedly exceed available prey production in some cases. There could be sources of error in the estimates of both the supply and demand sides of these trophic relationships.

  19. Nursery practices and research in Ontario

    Treesearch

    Karen E. Watt

    2002-01-01

    A brief history of nursery production of forest tree seedlings in Ontario is presented. The industry dates back to 1904, when the first nursery in the province was established. From 1922 to 1958, eleven additional nurseries were built, the majority of which were situated in northern Ontario. Although the original experiments with containerized seedlings were conducted...

  20. Elder women's perceptions around optimal perinatal health: a constructivist grounded-theory study with an Indigenous community in southern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Sujane; Vanstone, Meredith; Oremus, Mark; Hill, Trista; Wahi, Gita; Wilson, Julie; Davis, A. Darlene; Jacobs, Ruby; Anglin, Rebecca; Anand, Sonia Savitri

    2017-01-01

    Background: Women play important roles in translating health knowledge, particularly around pregnancy and birth, in Indigenous societies. We investigated elder Indigenous women's perceptions around optimal perinatal health. Methods: Using a methodological framework that integrated a constructivist grounded-theory approach with an Indigenous epistemology, we conducted and analyzed in-depth interviews and focus groups with women from the Six Nations community in southern Ontario who self-identified as grandmothers. Our purposive sampling strategy was guided by a Six Nations advisory group and included researcher participation in a variety of local gatherings as well as personalized invitations to specific women, either face-to-face or via telephone. Results: Three focus groups and 7 individual interviews were conducted with 18 grandmothers. The participants' experiences converged on 3 primary beliefs: pregnancy is a natural phase, pregnancy is a sacred period for the woman and the unborn child, and the requirements of immunity, security (trust), comfort, social development and parental responsibility are necessary for optimal postnatal health. Participants also identified 6 communal responsibilities necessary for families to raise healthy children: access to healthy and safe food, assurance of strong social support networks for mothers, access to resources for postnatal support, increased opportunities for children to participate in physical activity, more teachings around the impact of maternal behaviours during pregnancy and more teachings around spirituality/positive thinking. We also worked with the Six Nations community on several integrated knowledge-translation elements, including collaboration with an Indigenous artist to develop a digital story (short film). Interpretation: Elder women are a trusted and knowledgeable group who are able to understand and incorporate multiple sources of knowledge and deliver it in culturally meaningful ways. Thus, tailoring

  1. Elder women's perceptions around optimal perinatal health: a constructivist grounded-theory study with an Indigenous community in southern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Sujane; Vanstone, Meredith; Oremus, Mark; Hill, Trista; Wahi, Gita; Wilson, Julie; Davis, A Darlene; Jacobs, Ruby; Anglin, Rebecca; Anand, Sonia Savitri

    2017-05-18

    Women play important roles in translating health knowledge, particularly around pregnancy and birth, in Indigenous societies. We investigated elder Indigenous women's perceptions around optimal perinatal health. Using a methodological framework that integrated a constructivist grounded-theory approach with an Indigenous epistemology, we conducted and analyzed in-depth interviews and focus groups with women from the Six Nations community in southern Ontario who self-identified as grandmothers. Our purposive sampling strategy was guided by a Six Nations advisory group and included researcher participation in a variety of local gatherings as well as personalized invitations to specific women, either face-to-face or via telephone. Three focus groups and 7 individual interviews were conducted with 18 grandmothers. The participants' experiences converged on 3 primary beliefs: pregnancy is a natural phase, pregnancy is a sacred period for the woman and the unborn child, and the requirements of immunity, security (trust), comfort, social development and parental responsibility are necessary for optimal postnatal health. Participants also identified 6 communal responsibilities necessary for families to raise healthy children: access to healthy and safe food, assurance of strong social support networks for mothers, access to resources for postnatal support, increased opportunities for children to participate in physical activity, more teachings around the impact of maternal behaviours during pregnancy and more teachings around spirituality/positive thinking. We also worked with the Six Nations community on several integrated knowledge-translation elements, including collaboration with an Indigenous artist to develop a digital story (short film). Elder women are a trusted and knowledgeable group who are able to understand and incorporate multiple sources of knowledge and deliver it in culturally meaningful ways. Thus, tailoring public health programming to include elder women

  2. Challenges in assessing food environments in northern and remote communities in Canada.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Kelly; Burnett, Kristin; Williams, Patricia; Martin, Debbie; Stothart, Christopher; LeBlanc, Joseph; Veeraraghavan, Gigi; Sheedy, Amanda

    2016-06-09

    Effective tools for retail food environments in northern and remote communities are lacking. This paper examines the challenges of conducting food environment assessments in northern and remote communities in Canada encountered during our experience with a food costing project. One of the goals of the Paying for Nutrition in the North project is to develop guidelines to improve current food costing tools for northern Canada. Paying for Nutrition illustrates the complex context of measuring food environments in northern and remote communities. Through the development of a food costing methodology guide to assess northern food environments, several contextual issues emerged, including retail store oligopolies in communities; the importance of assessing food quality; informal social food economies; and the challenge of costing the acquisition and consumption of land- and water-based foods. Food environment measures designed for northern and remote communities need to reflect the geographic context in which they are being employed and must include input from local residents.

  3. How do Policy and Institutional Settings Shape Opportunities for Community-Based Primary Health Care? A Comparison of Ontario, Québec and New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Fiona; Breton, Mylaine; Couturier, Yves; Morton-Chang, Frances; Ashton, Toni; Sheridan, Nicolette; Peckham, Alexandra; Williams, A Paul; Kenealy, Tim; Wodchis, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Community-based primary health care describes a model of service provision that is oriented to the population health needs and wants of service users and communities, and has particular relevance to supporting the growing proportion of the population with multiple chronic conditions. Internationally, aspirations for community-based primary health care have stimulated local initiatives and influenced the design of policy solutions. However, the ways in which these ideas and influences find their way into policy and practice is strongly mediated by policy settings and institutional legacies of particular jurisdictions. This paper seeks to compare the key institutional and policy features of Ontario, Québec and New Zealand that shape the ‘space available’ for models of community-based primary health care to take root and develop. Our analysis suggests that two key conditions are the integration of relevant health and social sector organisations, and the range of policy levers that are available and used by governments. New Zealand has the most favourable conditions, and Ontario the least favourable. All jurisdictions, however, share a crucial barrier, namely the ‘barbed-wire fence’ that separates funding of medical and ‘non-medical’ primary care services, and the clear interests primary care doctors have in maintaining this fence. Moves in the direction of system-wide community-based primary health care require a gradual dismantling of this fence. PMID:28970754

  4. Community-acquired respiratory viruses and co-infection among patients of Ontario sentinel practices, April 2009 to February 2010.

    PubMed

    Peci, Adriana; Winter, Anne-Luise; Gubbay, Jonathan B; Skowronski, Danuta M; Balogun, Elizabeth I; De Lima, Cedric; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Rebbapragada, Anu

    2013-07-01

    Respiratory viruses are known to cocirculate but this has not been described in detail during an influenza pandemic. To describe respiratory viruses, including co-infection and associated attributes such as age, sex or comorbidity, in patients presenting with influenza-like illness to a community sentinel network, during the pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 in Ontario, Canada. Respiratory samples and epidemiologic details were collected from 1018 patients with influenza-like illness as part of respiratory virus surveillance and a multiprovincial case-control study of influenza vaccine effectiveness. At least one virus was detected in 668 (65·6%) of 1018 samples; 512 (50·3%) had single infections and 156 (15·3%) co-infections. Of single infections, the most common viruses were influenza A in 304 (59·4%) samples of which 275 (90·5%) were influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, and enterovirus/rhinovirus in 149 (29·1%) samples. The most common co-infections were influenza A and respiratory syncytial virus B, and influenza A and enterovirus/rhinovirus. In multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, comorbidity, and timeliness of sample collection, single infection was less often detected in the elderly and co-infection more often in patients <30 years of age. Co-infection, but not single infection, was more likely detected in patients who had a sample collected within 2 days of symptom onset as compared to 3-7 days. Respiratory viral co-infections are commonly detected when using molecular techniques. Early sample collection increases likelihood of detection of co-infection. Further studies are needed to better understand the clinical significance of viral co-infection. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Waterfowl communities in the northern plains: Chapter 13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Douglas H.; Cody, M.L.; Smallwood, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    ecologists than have many other groups of birds despite the importance attributed to waterfowl by biologists more generally, as well as by the public. Exceptions include work by Nudds and colleagues in Canada and by P?ysS and colleagues in Finland (see Nudds 1992 and references contained therein). Further, waterfowl are important ecologically; in much of the prairie of the North American midcontinent, waterfowl are numerically among the most common bird species and are certainly dominant in terms of biomass. This chapter addresses some influences on waterfowl communities in mixed-grass prairie pothole habitat. It takes a temporal perspective, based on annual censuses of breeding ducks for 25 years on a specific study area at Woodworth, North Dakota. Any changes in the structural features of the habitat that may have occurred during this period at the census site were at most gradual. I examine how the waterfowl communities varied in response to influences that did change annually, such as climate, conditions of the wetlands on the study area, the regional populations of birds from which the communities were constituted, and the population at Woodworth during the previous year. The results of the analyses are interpreted relative to individual characteristics of 11 waterfowl species: Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), Gadwall (Anas strepera), Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca), Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), Northern Pintail (Anas acuta), Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata), American Wigeon (Anas americana), Canvasback (Aythya valisineria), Redhead (Aythya americana), Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis), and Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis).

  6. Establishing the SouthWestern Academic Health Network (SWAHN): A Survey Exploring the Needs of Academic and Community Networks in SouthWestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Kathryn; Randhawa, Jasmine; Steele, Margaret

    2015-10-01

    With the evolving fields of health research, health professional education and advanced clinical care comes a need to bring researchers, educators and health care providers together to enhance communication, knowledge-sharing and interdisciplinary collaboration. There is also a need for active collaboration between academic institutions and community organizations to improve health care delivery and health outcomes in the community setting. In Canada, an Academic Health Sciences Network model has been proposed to achieve such activities. The SouthWestern Academic Health Network (SWAHN) has been established among three universities, three community colleges, community hospitals, community-based organizations and health care providers and two Local Health Integrated Networks (LHINs) in Southwestern Ontario. A survey was conducted to understand the characteristics, activities, existing partnerships, short- and long-term goals of the academic and community health networks in SouthWestern Ontario to inform the development of SWAHN moving forward. A total of 114 health networks were identified from the two participating LHINs, 103 community health networks and 11 academic health networks. A mailed survey was sent to all networks and responses were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The short- and long-term goals of these networks were categorized into five main themes: Public Health, Education, Research, System Delivery and Special Populations. Overall, this study helped to elicit important information from the academic and community based networks, which will inform the future work of SWAHN. This research has also demonstrated the significance of collecting information from both academic and community partners during the formation of other interdisciplinary health networks.

  7. Citizen Support for Northern Ohio Community College Funding Initiatives during an Economic Recession Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The current research, "Citizen Support for Northern Ohio Community College Funding Initiatives during an Economic Recession Recovery", asks the question: Do the citizens of Northern Ohio support community college funding during difficult economic times? Based on the theory of Stakeholder Analysis, the purpose of this concurrent,…

  8. Deep Crustal Structure and Tectonic History of the Northern Kapuskasing Uplift of Ontario: AN Integrated Petrological-Geophysical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percival, J. A.; McGrath, P. H.

    1986-08-01

    The northeast trending Kapuskasing uplift transects the east-west belts of the central Superior Province over a distance of some 500 km. Granulite to upper amphibolite facies rocks of the uplift form three distinct geological-geophysical entities: from south to north, the Chapleau, Groundhog River, and Fraserdale-Moosonee blocks. Uplift of the granulites along a moderately northwest dipping crustal-scale thrust fault is attributed to an early Proterozoic compressional event. Major northeast-striking faults that bound the Kapuskasing zone on the west were examined by modelling of geophysical anomalies to determine dip and by geobarometry of garnet-orthopyroxene-plagioclase-quartz assemblages to determine vertical displacement. Granulites in the Kapuskasing zone have 7- to 9-kbar signatures whereas those in the Quetico belt to the west indicate metamorphic pressure of 4-6 kbar. Individual calibrations of the barometer yield consistent pressure differences of 2-3 kbar, suggesting 7-10 km of west-side-down movement on the faults. Modelling of gravity and aeromagnetic gradients indicates westerly dips of 60°-65°, with west-side-down offset of up to 14 km. These major normal faults probably formed as collapse structures in response to crustal thickening which occurred during the preceding compressional uplift stage. Differences in the configuration of individual blocks of the Kapuskasing zone can be related to variable fault slip and intersection angles between normal and reverse faults. Thus the Groundhog River and southern Fraserdale-Moosonee blocks are perched thrust tips analogous to the Sangre de Cristo Range of the Laramide uplift province, whereas the southern Chapleau block is a tilted slab with similar configuration to the Laramide Wind River Range. Pop-up geometry deduced for the northern Fraserdale-Moosonee block resembles the structure of the Laramide Uinta Mountains. A normal fault crosses the surface trace of the basal thrust fault between the Groundhog

  9. Linking Quality of Life and Standard of Living Priorities with Rates of Return in Education: Implications for Ontario's Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menna, Agostino

    2012-01-01

    This study begins to develop a way to measure the returns and benefits of education using a standard of living and quality of life approach. It sought identification of school priorities among senior level managers at postsecondary institutions in Ontario, Canada, and found that these administrators prioritized standard of living over quality of…

  10. Linking Quality of Life and Standard of Living Priorities with Rates of Return in Education: Implications for Ontario's Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menna, Agostino

    2012-01-01

    This study begins to develop a way to measure the returns and benefits of education using a standard of living and quality of life approach. It sought identification of school priorities among senior level managers at postsecondary institutions in Ontario, Canada, and found that these administrators prioritized standard of living over quality of…

  11. Métis Student Self-Identification in Ontario's K-12 Schools: Education Policy and Parents, Families, and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anuik, Jonathan; Bellehumeur-Kearns, Laura-Lee

    2014-01-01

    The mandate for school boards to develop self-identification policies for First Nation, Métis, and Inuit students is part of the 2007 Ministry of Education's "Ontario First Nation, Métis and Inuit Education Policy Framework." In this paper, we share findings from a larger study on the Framework that examines Métis student…

  12. The Greater Involvement of People Living with AIDS principle: theory versus practice in Ontario's HIV/AIDS community-based research sector.

    PubMed

    Travers, R; Wilson, M G; Flicker, S; Guta, A; Bereket, T; McKay, C; van der Meulen, A; Cleverly, S; Dickie, M; Globerman, J; Rourke, S B

    2008-07-01

    Drawing on the Greater Involvement of People with HIV/AIDS (GIPA) principle, the HIV/AIDS movement began to "democratize" research in Canada in the mid-1990s. To date, there is little evidence about the success of the community-based research (CBR) movement in relation to the implementation of GIPA. We draw on findings from a larger study examining barriers and facilitating factors in relation to HIV-related CBR in Ontario, Canada. An online survey was completed by 39 senior managers in Ontario AIDS service organizations (ASOs). Twenty-five in-depth, semi-structured interviews were then conducted to further explore the survey findings. Survey respondents reported that, compared to researchers and frontline service providers, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) tended to be the least involved in all stages (input, process and outcome) of CBR projects. AIDS service organizations with a mandate that included serving rural and urban communities reported even lower levels of PLWHA involvement in CBR. Qualitative data reveal complex barriers that make meaningful PLWHA engagement in CBR difficult, including: HIV-related stigma; health-related challenges; "credentialism"; lack of capacity to engage in research; other issues taking priority; and mistrust of researchers. Facilitating factors included valuing lived experience; training and mentoring opportunities; financial compensation; trust building; and accommodating PLWHA's needs. While there is strong support for the GIPA principles in theory, practice lags far behind.

  13. An investigation of bacteriological and chemical water quality and the barriers to private well water sampling in a Southwestern Ontario Community.

    PubMed

    Hexemer, April M; Pintar, Katarina; Bird, Tom M; Zentner, Shawn E; Garcia, Henry P; Pollari, Frank

    2008-12-01

    Private well owners in Canada are responsible for maintenance, including routine sampling, of their private drinking water supply. Sampling rates in a Southern Ontario community are well below the public health recommendation. A study with private well owners was conducted to improve private well water sampling rates through the removal of two significant barriers to private well water testing.During the pilot and extended study phases, 549 nitrate and 425 bacteriological water sampling bottles were delivered to private well owners and water samples were collected the following day. A follow-up telephone survey was conducted with both study participants and non-participants to identify barriers to private water sampling that were encountered by the study sample population.Participation rates in the pilot and extended study phases were less than 50% prompting the follow-up telephone survey. Inconvenience and lack of time [statistically significant, P < 0.01] were found to be the main barriers for participation in the study.The findings from this study illustrate the influence that certain barriers have on the frequency of private well water testing in a Southern Ontario community. The findings provide guidance for other health authorities to improve sampling rates. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  14. A community-based participatory approach and engagement process creates culturally appropriate and community informed pandemic plans after the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic: remote and isolated First Nations communities of sub-arctic Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Charania, Nadia A; Tsuji, Leonard J S

    2012-04-03

    Public health emergencies have the potential to disproportionately impact disadvantaged populations due to pre-established social and economic inequalities. Internationally, prior to the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, existing pandemic plans were created with limited public consultation; therefore, the unique needs and characteristics of some First Nations communities may not be ethically and adequately addressed. Engaging the public in pandemic planning can provide vital information regarding local values and beliefs that may ultimately lead to increased acceptability, feasibility, and implementation of pandemic plans. Thus, the objective of the present study was to elicit and address First Nations community members' suggested modifications to their community-level pandemic plans after the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. The study area included three remote and isolated First Nations communities located in sub-arctic Ontario, Canada. A community-based participatory approach and community engagement process (i.e., semi-directed interviews (n = 13), unstructured interviews (n = 4), and meetings (n = 27)) were employed. Participants were purposively sampled and represented various community stakeholders (e.g., local government, health care, clergy, education, etc.) involved in the community's pandemic response. Collected data were manually transcribed and coded using deductive and inductive thematic analysis. The data subsequently informed the modification of the community-level pandemic plans. The primary modifications incorporated in the community-level pandemic plans involved adding community-specific detail. For example, 'supplies' emerged as an additional category of pandemic preparedness and response, since including details about supplies and resources was important due to the geographical remoteness of the study communities. Furthermore, it was important to add details of how, when, where, and who was responsible for implementing recommendations

  15. Literacy for the Northern Workplace: A Guide for Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeever, Pam, Comp.

    Workplace literacy programs are employer- and/or union-sponsored basic skills upgrading programs for workers and their families. Community-based literacy programs can support workplace programs. Several factors should be considered in Northern Ontario workplace literacy programs: (1) technological change; (2) aging population; (3) outmigration of…

  16. Diversity of rickettsiae in a rural community in northern California.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Nicole; Blaney, Alexandra; Clifford, Deana; Gabriel, Mourad; Wengert, Greta; Foley, Patrick; Brown, Richard N; Higley, Mark; Buckenberger-Mantovani, Sarah; Foley, Janet

    2017-02-27

    Far northern California forests are highly biodiverse in wildlife reservoirs and arthropod vectors that may propagate rickettsial pathogens in nature. The proximity of small rural communities to these forests puts people and domestic animals at risk of vector-borne infection due to spillover from wildlife. The current study was conducted to document exposure to rickettsial pathogens in people and domestic animals in a rural community, and identify which rickettsiae are present in sylvatic and peri-domestic environments near this community. Blood samples from people, domestic animals (dogs, cats, and horses) and wild carnivores were tested for Rickettsia spp. antibodies and DNA (people and domestic animals only) by serology and real time (RT)-PCR, respectively. Ectoparasites were collected from dogs, wild carnivores and from vegetation by flagging, and tested for Rickettsia spp. DNA by RT-PCR. DNA sequencing of the rickettsial 17kDa protein gene or the ompA gene was used for species identification. Despite a seroprevalence of 3% in people, 42% in dogs, 79% in cats, 33% in gray foxes, and 83% in bobcats, RT-PCR on blood was consistently negative, likely because the sensitivity of this test is low, as Rickettsia spp. do not often circulate in high numbers in the blood. Rickettsia spp. DNA was found in four flea species collected from bobcats and Ctenocephalides felis collected from domestic dogs. All amplicons sequenced from fleas were R. felis. Ixodes pacificus collected by flagging were commonly infected with a Rickettsia sp. endosymbiont. Rickettsia rhipicephali DNA was found in Dermacentor variabilis from dogs, black bears, a gray fox, and a D. occidentalis collected by flagging. Dermacentor variabilis from dogs and black bears also contained R. montanensis DNA. Multiple Rickettsia spp. (including species with zoonotic and pathogenic potential) were found among human biting arthropod vectors of both wild and domestic carnivores and on flags. Knowledge of the

  17. Regional variation in epiphytic macrolichen communities in northern and central California forests

    Treesearch

    Sarah Jovan; Bruce. McCune

    2004-01-01

    We studied epiphytic macrolichen communities in northern and central California to 1) describe how gradients in community composition relate to climate, topography, and stand structure and 2) define subregions of relatively homogeneous lichen communities and environmental conditions. Non-metric multidimensional scaling was used to characterize landscape-level trends in...

  18. Final Report: Northern Virginia Community College Training for Biotechnology Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Johanna V

    2010-05-31

    The intent of this project was to expand Northern Virginia Community College's capability to offer training to support the Biotechnology Industry in the northern Virginia region. The general goal of this project was to create a College Biotechnology Program; specific goals of the project were to a) design curricula/courses to prepare students to become entry-level lab technicians, b) redesign and equip lab space to better suit the needs of the program, c) develop partnerships with the local industry through outreach and the formation on an advisory board, d) recruit students into the program, and e) provide instructional support for local high school teachers. At the end of the grant period, NOVA has successfully created two new curricula in biotechnology: an Associate of Applied Science (A.A.S.) in Biotechnology (initiated in Fall 2008) and a Career Studies Certificate for Biotechnology Lab Technicians (to be initiated in Fall 2010). These curricula were designed with advice from an external advisory committee which is comprised of representatives from industry, transfer institutions and high school administrators. To date, almost all courses have been designed and piloted; the equipment needed for the courses and the initial supplies were paid for by the grant as was the re-modeling of some lab space to be used for the biotech courses. In order to market the program, the NOVA Biotech Program has also established relationships with the local high schools. Presentations were given at several local high schools and on-site workshops were held for high school students and teachers. As a result, close to 1000 students have attended program open houses, presentations within the high schools, or workshops held in the summer. Over 100 teachers have received information and/or training in biotechnology. These outreach efforts as well as high quality curricula have started to attract a number of students to the program – for example, there are currently 70 students

  19. Use of Geospatial Modeling to Evaluate the Impact of Telestroke on Access to Stroke Thrombolysis in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Jewett, Lauren; Mirian, Ario; Connolly, Ben; Silver, Frank L; Sahlas, Demetrios J

    2017-07-01

    The treatment of acute ischemic stroke in Ontario is coordinated through a network of stroke centers, supplemented by emergency telemedicine consultations to nonstroke centers through the Ontario Telemedicine Network's province-wide Telestroke program. Using geoinformatics, we sought to evaluate the overall impact of Telestroke on access to stroke thrombolysis in Ontario. Ontario population data (census) were used to overlay polygons created by Service Area Analysis using ArcGIS 10.1. Service areas were divided into predefined driving times toward the nearest stroke center. Centers were compared after they were categorized as being able to administer stroke thrombolysis either independently or through the Telestroke program. Of the 12,857,821 people living in Ontario in 2011, 99.83% had timely access to stroke thrombolysis, leaving 21,829 people, exclusively within Northern Ontario, without access. Of the population, 71.86% was within a 30-minute drive of a regional or district stroke center, increasing to 91.28% when the Telestroke program was included, for an additional 2,501,121 people. Of the population, 1.85% had access to stroke thrombolysis only through the extended time window (between 3 and 4.5 hours), increasing to 3.86% with Telestroke, for an additional 258,618 people. The vast majority of people in Ontario have access to stroke thrombolysis. The provincial Telestroke program improves timeliness of access for those living in Southern Ontario, although some remote rural and Northern communities remain without access. Geoinformatics may likewise prove useful in coordinating provincial access to endovascular thrombectomy. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A community-based participatory approach and engagement process creates culturally appropriate and community informed pandemic plans after the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic: remote and isolated First Nations communities of sub-arctic Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Public health emergencies have the potential to disproportionately impact disadvantaged populations due to pre-established social and economic inequalities. Internationally, prior to the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, existing pandemic plans were created with limited public consultation; therefore, the unique needs and characteristics of some First Nations communities may not be ethically and adequately addressed. Engaging the public in pandemic planning can provide vital information regarding local values and beliefs that may ultimately lead to increased acceptability, feasibility, and implementation of pandemic plans. Thus, the objective of the present study was to elicit and address First Nations community members’ suggested modifications to their community-level pandemic plans after the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Methods The study area included three remote and isolated First Nations communities located in sub-arctic Ontario, Canada. A community-based participatory approach and community engagement process (i.e., semi-directed interviews (n = 13), unstructured interviews (n = 4), and meetings (n = 27)) were employed. Participants were purposively sampled and represented various community stakeholders (e.g., local government, health care, clergy, education, etc.) involved in the community’s pandemic response. Collected data were manually transcribed and coded using deductive and inductive thematic analysis. The data subsequently informed the modification of the community-level pandemic plans. Results The primary modifications incorporated in the community-level pandemic plans involved adding community-specific detail. For example, ‘supplies’ emerged as an additional category of pandemic preparedness and response, since including details about supplies and resources was important due to the geographical remoteness of the study communities. Furthermore, it was important to add details of how, when, where, and who was responsible

  1. Landscape variation of seasonal pool plant communities in forests of northern Minnesota, USA

    Treesearch

    Brian Palik; Dwight Streblow; Leanne Egeland; Richard Buech

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal forest pools are abundant in the northern Great Lakes forest landscape, but the range of variation in their plant communities and the relationship of this variation to multi-scale landscape features remains poorly quantified. We examined seasonal pools in forests of northern Minnesota USA with the objective of quantifying the range of variation in plant...

  2. Place Identity, Participation, and Emotional Climate in a Rural Community From the Northern Coast of Peru.

    PubMed

    Freire, Silvana; Espinosa, Agustín; Rottenbacher, Jan Marc

    2015-01-01

    Currently, in rural communities from the Peruvian northern coast, it is common to find a climate of distrust and pessimism that accompanies the lack of coordinated social action and community participation among residents. This study analyzes the relationships that people develop with regard to the place where they live in, how it associates to the ways they participate in their community and the relationship that these two variables have with the perceived emotional climate, in a rural community from the northern coast of Peru (n = 81). Results indicate that place identity is significantly associated with a high community participation and a climate of trust in the community. Finally, a Path Analysis is performed to analyze comprehensively the relationship between these variables. The results suggest that place identity does have an influence on perceived positive climate in the community, being mediated by the dimensions of community participation.

  3. Recommendations for action: a community meeting in preparation for a mass-casualty opioid overdose event in Southeastern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Moore, Kieran Michael; Papadomanolakis-Pakis, Nicholas; Hansen-Taugher, Adrienne; Guan, Tianxiu H; Schwartz, Brian; Stewart, Paula; Leece, Pamela; Bochenek, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Given the steady rise of overdose morbidity and mortality in North America, and increasing frequency of sudden clusters of non-fatal and fatal overdoses in other jurisdictions, regional preparedness plans to respond effectively to clusters of overdoses may reduce the impact of such events on the population. On the 27th of February 2017 in Kingston, Ontario, KFL&A Public Health, in collaboration with public health partners, hosted a full-day workshop involving table-top exercises and discussions for service partners on how to prepare for, respond to, and manage a mass-casualty event secondary to opioid overdose in Southeastern Ontario. The workshop assisted in identifying the various challenges faced by service partners, provided an understanding of the roles and responsibilities of partner agencies, and helped to determine next steps in preparation to address a mass opioid overdose situation at the local level. This report suggests key roles and responsibilities of partners involved in responding to a mass-casualty event secondary to opioid overdose, recommendations to address the feedback and challenges raised throughout the workshop, and a protocol to help determine when to activate an Incident Management System (IMS).

  4. Opportunities, ethical challenges, and lessons learned from working with peer research assistants in a multi-method HIV community-based research study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Logie, Carmen; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R

    2012-10-01

    We discuss ethical challenges and opportunities experienced by peer research assistants (PRAs) in a multi-method HIV community-based research study in Ontario, Canada. We review lessons learned and best practices based on our experience conducting a qualitative investigation of research priorities with diverse women living with HIV (WLWH) and implementation of a cross-sectional survey with African, Caribbean, and Black WLWH. While some opportunities were similar across research phases for PRAs (e.g., skill building), distinct challenges emerged in qualitative and quantitative phases. For example, our training did not adequately prepare PRAs with focus group facilitation skills; at times, survey implementation became counseling sessions. Researchers should assess how best to support PRAs as part of multi-method research processes.

  5. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in northwest Ontario: A five-year report of incidence and antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Muileboom, Jill; Hamilton, Marsha; Parent, Karen; Makahnouk, Donna; Kirlew, Michael; Saginur, Raphael; Lam, Freda; Kelly, Len

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is traditionally high in remote areas of Canada with large Aboriginal populations. Northwestern Ontario is home to 28,000 First Nations people in more than 30 remote communities; rates of CA-MRSA are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the CA-MRSA rates and antibiotic susceptibilities in this region. METHODS: A five-year review of laboratory and patient CA-MRSA data and antibiotic susceptibility was undertaken. RESULTS: In 2012, 56% of S aureus isolates were CA-MRSA strains, an increase from 31% in 2008 (P=0.06). Reinfection rates have been increasing faster than new cases and, currrently, 25% of infections are reinfections. CA-MRSA isolates continue to be susceptible to many common antibiotics (nearly 100%), particularly trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin and tetracycline. Erythromycin susceptibility stands at 58%. DISCUSSION: Rates of CA-MRSA, as a percentage of all S aureus isolates, were higher than those reported in other primary care series. The infection rate per 100,000 is one the highest reported in Canada. Antibiotic susceptibilities were unchanged during the study period; the 99% susceptibility rate to clindamycin differs from a 2010 Vancouver (British Columbia) study that reported only a 79% susceptibility to this antibiotic. CONCLUSION: There are very high rates of CA-MRSA infections in northwestern Ontario. Disease surveillance and ongoing attention to antibiotic resistance is important in understanding the changing profile of MRSA infections. Social determinants of health, specifically improved housing and sanitation, remain important regional issues. PMID:24421817

  6. Evaluating Team Project-Work Using Triangulation: Lessons from Communities in Northern Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Gordon; Jasaw, Godfred Seidu

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses triangulation to assess key aspects of a team-based, participatory action research programme for undergraduates in rural communities across northern Ghana. The perceptions of the programme and its effects on the students, staff and host communities are compared, showing areas of agreement and disagreement. The successes of the…

  7. Evaluating Team Project-Work Using Triangulation: Lessons from Communities in Northern Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Gordon; Jasaw, Godfred Seidu

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses triangulation to assess key aspects of a team-based, participatory action research programme for undergraduates in rural communities across northern Ghana. The perceptions of the programme and its effects on the students, staff and host communities are compared, showing areas of agreement and disagreement. The successes of the…

  8. Using a community of practice model to create change for Northern homeless women

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Nancy; Bopp, Judie

    2016-01-01

    This is a story about three virtual and face-to-face communities which met in the capitals of Canada’s three Northern territorial cities over a two-year period to discuss and act on culturally safe and gender-specific services for Northern women (and their children) experiencing homelessness, mental health and substance use concerns. It is a story of how researchers and community-based advocates can work across distance and culture, using co-learning in virtual communities as a core strategy to create relational system change. The three communities of practice were linked through a pan-territorial action research project entitled Repairing the Holes in the Net, in which all participants: learned together, mapped available services, discussed the findings from interviews with northern women about their trajectories of homelessness, analyzed relevant policy, planned local service enhancements, and generally took inspiration from each other. PMID:27468298

  9. Community engagement: a key to successful rural clinical education.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Roger P

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of rural clinical attachments has demonstrated that the rural setting provides a high-quality clinical learning environment that is of potential value to all medical students. Specifically, rural clinical education provides more 'hands on' experience for students in which they are exposed to a wide range of common health problems and develop a high level of clinical competence. Northern Ontario in Canada is a large rural region that has a chronic shortage of healthcare providers. The Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM) was established with a social accountability mandate to contribute to improving the health of the people and communities of Northern Ontario, and is a joint initiative of Laurentian University, Sudbury, and Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, which are over 1000 km apart. The NOSM has developed a distinctive model of medical education known as distributed community engaged learning (DCEL), which weaves together various recent trends in medical education including case-based learning, community-based medical education, electronic distance education and rural-based medical education (including the preceptor model). The NOSM curriculum is grounded in Northern Ontario and relies heavily on electronic communications to support DCEL. In the classroom and in clinical settings, students explore cases from the perspective of doctors in Northern Ontario. In addition, DCEL involves community engagement through which communities actively participate in hosting students and contribute to their learning.This paper explores the conceptual and practical issues of community engagement, with specific focus on successful rural clinical education. Community engagement takes the notion of 'community' in health sciences education beyond being simply community based in that the community actively contributes to hosting the students and enhancing their learning experiences. This is consistent with the focus on social accountability in medical education

  10. [Overview of acupuncture development in Ontario Canada].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Wu, Bin-jiang

    2012-04-01

    The history of acupuncture in Ontario, Canada was traced, and the current status as welI as the prospection were introduced in this paper. Statistics showed that the history of acupuncture in Ontario started in the 1880s, and it was only popular in China Town and Chinese community. In the 1970s, it gradually merged into the mainstream of the society, and entered into a growing period. With the tide of Chinese immigration in the 1980s and 1990s, acupuncture matured rapidly. In 2006, the "Traditional Chinese Medicine Act" was passed in Ontario, it was considered as a milestone in the history of acupuncture. At present, just like the other 23 health care professions, acupuncture has already be included into the legislation system, and become a component of Ontario's health care system. At the same time, the law and regulation may also promote the establishment of "pure Chinese Medicine" in Ontario.

  11. Uptake of the MedsCheck annual medication review service in Ontario community pharmacies between 2007 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Dolovich, Lisa; Consiglio, Giulia; MacKeigan, Linda; Abrahamyan, Lusine; Pechlivanoglou, Petros; Rac, Valeria E.; Pojskic, Nedzad; Bojarski, Elizabeth A.; Su, Jiandong; Krahn, Murray; Cadarette, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: MedsCheck Annual (MCA) is an Ontario government-funded medication review service for individuals taking 3 or more prescription medications for chronic conditions. Methods: This cohort study analyzed linked administrative claims data from April 1, 2007, to March 31, 2013. Trends in MCA claims and recipient characteristics were examined. Results: A total of 1,498,440 Ontarians (55% seniors, 55% female) received an MCA. One-third (36%) had 2 or more MCAs within 6 years. Service provision increased over time, with a sharper increase from 2010 onward. Almost half of Ontario pharmacies made at least 1 MCA claim in the first month of the program. Hypertension, respiratory disease, diabetes, psychiatric conditions and arthritis were common comorbidities. Recipients older than 65 years were most commonly dispensed an antihypertensive and/or antihyperlipidemic drug in the prior year and received an average of 11 unique prescription medications. Thirty-eight percent of recipients visited an emergency department or were hospitalized in the year prior to their first MCA. Discussion: Over the first 6 years of the program, approximately 1 in 9 Ontarians received an MCA. There was rapid and widespread uptake of the service. Common chronic conditions were well represented among MCA recipients. Older MCA recipients had less emergency department use compared with population-based estimates. Conclusions: Medication reviews increased over time; however, the number of persons receiving the service more than once was low. Service delivery was generally consistent with program eligibility; however, there are some findings possibly consistent with delivery to less complex patients. PMID:27708675

  12. Shared Accents, Divided Speech Community? Change in Northern Ireland English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCafferty, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    Using data from Derry/Londonderry English, the impact of social factors on language variation is examined. Finds that where language change is occurring, ethnicity has an effect on the adoption of innovations. Changes originating in the (predominantly Protestant) east of Northern Ireland tend to be adopted primarily by Protestants, whereas…

  13. The ecology of patterned boreal peatlands of northern Minnesota: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, P.H.

    1987-06-01

    This report reviews the ecological information available for patterned boreal peatlands in northern Minnesota. Although vast areas of Canada and Alaska are covered by boreal forests, they extend southward into the continental United States only in northern Minnesota and to a lesser extent in northern Michigan. In northern Minnesota these peatlands comprise large areas of freshwater wetlands whose unique hydrological characteristics promote the development of patterned vegetation. This publication describes the distribution of peatlands, the physical settings in which they exist, and the processes leading to their development on the landscape. Hydrology, water chemistry, and nutrient cycling in bogs and fens are discussed. The plant communities unique to these types of wetlands, their successional trends, and the animal communities inhabiting them are also described. The profile closes with a summary of past human impacts on peatlands and recommendations for future management.

  14. Mamow Ki-ken-da-ma-win: A Partnership Approach to Child, Youth, Family and Community Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Judy; Hardy, Micheal; Morris, Donny; Nagy, Anna

    2010-01-01

    "Mamow-Sha-way-gi-kay-win": North-South Partnership for Children represents a coalition of individuals and organizations from southern Ontario who have partnered with First Nations Chiefs, community leaders, Elders, youth and community members from 30 remote northern communities. The collective goal of the Partnership is to learn from…

  15. Mamow Ki-ken-da-ma-win: A Partnership Approach to Child, Youth, Family and Community Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlay, Judy; Hardy, Micheal; Morris, Donny; Nagy, Anna

    2010-01-01

    "Mamow-Sha-way-gi-kay-win": North-South Partnership for Children represents a coalition of individuals and organizations from southern Ontario who have partnered with First Nations Chiefs, community leaders, Elders, youth and community members from 30 remote northern communities. The collective goal of the Partnership is to learn from…

  16. Aesthetics and Efficacy in Community Theatre in Contemporary Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Matt

    2010-01-01

    In July 1999, the Wedding Community Play was performed in Belfast. A much-celebrated event at the time, the Wedding Play took audiences into private houses inside Loyalist and Republican estates, then on to a public venue for the performance of a cross-community wedding. Gerri Moriarty has already written about some of the difficulties encountered…

  17. Nonprescribed Hormone Use and Self-Performed Surgeries: “Do-It-Yourself” Transitions in Transgender Communities in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Greta R.; Scanlon, Kyle; Kaay, Matthias; Travers, Robb; Travers, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the extent of nonprescribed hormone use and self-performed surgeries among transgender or transsexual (trans) people in Ontario, Canada. Methods. We present original survey research from the Trans PULSE Project. A total of 433 participants were recruited from 2009 to 2010 through respondent-driven sampling. We used a case series design to characterize those currently taking nonprescribed hormones and participants who had ever self-performed sex-reassignment surgeries. Results. An estimated 43.0% (95% confidence interval = 34.9, 51.5) of trans Ontarians were currently using hormones; of these, a quarter had ever obtained hormones from nonmedical sources (e.g., friend or relative, street or strangers, Internet pharmacy, herbals or supplements). Fourteen participants (6.4%; 95% confidence interval = 0.8, 9.0) reported currently taking nonprescribed hormones. Five indicated having performed or attempted surgical procedures on themselves (orchiectomy or mastectomy). Conclusions. Past negative experiences with providers, along with limited financial resources and a lack of access to transition-related services, may contribute to nonprescribed hormone use and self-performed surgeries. Promoting training initiatives for health care providers and jurisdictional support for more accessible services may help to address trans people’s specific needs. PMID:23948009

  18. Impact of hydroelectric development upon a northern Manitoba native community

    SciTech Connect

    Waldram, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation describes the process of underdevelopment among the Cree Indian people of South Indian Lake, in Northern Manitoba, Canada, following the construction of the Churchill-Nelson River Hydro Project in 1975. The dissertation seeks to link the ecological, political, economic, socio-cultural and health aspects of the impact of the hydro project within the framework of the historical process of underdevelopment as it has occurred in Latin America, among Native people in the United States, and among Native people in Northern Canada. Utilizing both qualitative and quantitative data, a process of increased dependence is described as the product of two related processes. The first process is the impairment of the local commercial and domestic economy caused by the flooding of Southern Indian Lake, which has resulted in a decline in local productivity. The second process is the enhancement of consumerism through rising consumer expectations and a post-project increase in available goods and services which the people are increasingly unable to afford. The overall result has been a process of economic divergence at the local level. The dissertation concludes that the process of underdevelopment which has occurred in South Indian Lake has been the result primarily of changes in the local ecological system caused by the construction of the hydro project. These ecological changes have, in turn, resulted in secondary changes in the socio-economic system.

  19. Changes in smoking during pregnancy in Ontario, 1995 to 2010: results from the Canadian community health survey.

    PubMed

    Brown, Hilary K; Wilk, Piotr

    2014-10-01

    Objectif : Cette étude avait pour objectif (1) d’examiner les modifications des comportements quant au tabagisme avec le temps chez les femmes enceintes de l’Ontario (par comparaison avec les femmes n’étant pas enceintes et les hommes) et (2) de chercher à déterminer si, chez les femmes enceintes, ces modifications avec le temps variaient en fonction de caractéristiques sociodémographiques. Méthodes : Dans le cadre de cette étude, nous avons utilisé des données tirées de l’Enquête sur la santé dans les collectivités canadiennes. L’échantillon d’étude englobait les résidentes de l’Ontario dont l’âge se situait entre 15 et 49 ans. Une régression logistique multivariée (tenant compte des interactions entre la période et la caractéristique d’intérêt) a été utilisée pour chercher à déterminer si les modifications variaient avec le temps en fonction (1) du groupe (femmes enceintes, femmes n’étant pas enceintes, hommes; intervalles de deux ans, 2001-2010) et (2) du sous-groupe de grossesse (âge maternel, état matrimonial maternel, niveau de scolarité maternel; 1995-2000 [n = 3 745], 2001-2005 [n = 5 084] et 2006-2010 [n = 2 900]). Résultats : Bien qu’une baisse de la prévalence du tabagisme avec le temps ait été constatée dans tous les groupes, cette baisse était plus faible chez les femmes enceintes que chez les femmes n’étant pas enceintes (23,5 % vs 30,8 %). Chez les femmes enceintes, les interactions entre la période et l’âge maternel, l’état matrimonial maternel et le niveau de scolarité maternel étaient significatives sur le plan statistique. La prévalence du tabagisme pendant la grossesse connaissait une baisse chez les femmes plus âgées, mariées et disposant d’un niveau de scolarité supérieur, tandis qu’il connaissait une hausse chez les jeunes femmes (de l’ordre de 8,2 %) et chez les femmes disposant d’un niveau de scolarité inférieur (de l’ordre de 12,8 %). Bien

  20. Community-Provider Partnerships to Reduce Immunization Disparities: Field Report From Northern Manhattan

    PubMed Central

    Findley, Sally E.; Irigoyen, Matilde; See, Donna; Sanchez, Martha; Chen, Shaofu; Sternfels, Pamela; Caesar, Arturo

    2003-01-01

    In 1996 we launched a community–provider partnership to raise immunization coverage for children aged younger than 3 years in Northern Manhattan, New York City. The partnership was aimed at fostering provider knowledge and accountability, practice improvements, and community outreach. By 1999 the partnership included 26 practices and 20 community groups. Between 1996 and 1999, immunization coverage rates increased in Northern Manhattan 5 times faster than in New York City and 8 times faster than in the United States (respectively, 3.4% vs 0.4% [t = 6.05, p < 0.001] and vs 0.6% [t = 5.65, p < 0.001]). The coverage rate for Northern Manhattan stayed constant through 2000, although it declined during this period for the United States and New York City. We attribute the success at reducing the gap to the effectiveness of our partnership. PMID:12835176

  1. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in bacterial communities associated with Cladophora glomerata mats along the nearshore of Lake Ontario.

    PubMed

    Ibsen, Michael; Fernando, Dinesh; Kumar, Ayush; Kirkwood, Andrea

    2017-02-13

    The alga Cladophora glomerata can erupt in nuisance blooms throughout the lower Great Lakes. Since bacterial abundance increases with the emergence and decay of Cladophora, we investigated the prevalence of antibiotic resistance (ABR) in Cladophora-associated bacterial communities up-gradient and down-gradient from a large sewage treatment plant (STP) on Lake Ontario. Although STPs are well-known sources of ABR, we also expected detectable ABR from up-gradient wetland communities since they receive surface run-off from urban and agricultural sources. Statistically significant differences in aquatic bacterial abundance and ABR were found between down-gradient beach-samples and up-gradient coastal wetland-samples (ANOVA, Holm-Sidak test p<0.05). Decaying and free-floating Cladophora sampled near the STP had the highest bacterial densities overall, including on ampicillin- and vancomycin-treated plates. However, qPCR analysis of the ABR-genes ampC, tetA, tetB, and vanA from environmental communities showed a different pattern. Some of the highest ABR-gene levels occurred at the two coastal wetland sites (vanA). Overall, bacterial ABR profiles from environmental samples were distinguishable between living and decaying Cladophora, inferring that Cladophora may control bacterial ABR depending on its life-cycle stage. Our results also show how spatially and temporally dynamic ABR is in nearshore aquatic bacteria, which warrants further research.

  2. Blue oak plant communities of southern San Luis Obispo and northern Santa Barbara Counties, California

    Treesearch

    Mark I. Borchert; Nancy D. Cunha; Patricia C. Krosse; Marcee L. Lawrence

    1993-01-01

    An ecological classification system has been developed for the Pacific Southwest Region of the Forest Service. As part of that classification effort, blue oak (Quercus douglasii) woodlands and forests of southern San Luis Obispo and northern Santa Barbara Counties in Los Padres National Forest were classified into I3 plant communities using...

  3. The Governmentality of Reconciliation: Adult Education as a Community Relations Technique in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smala, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Despite a successfully negotiated peace agreement in Belfast in 1998, tensions between different community groups continue to exist in Northern Ireland. This situation creates a governmental need to find solutions to problems such as segregation, inter- and intra-group violence and other forms of sectarian antagonisms. On the one hand, this is…

  4. New Peace, New Teachers: Student Teachers' Perspectives of Diversity and Community Relations in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Alison; McGlynn, Claire

    2009-01-01

    This paper reflects upon student teachers' conceptions of inter-community relations and the preparation they receive to address issues of diversity and mutual understanding. The study in Northern Ireland is set against a backdrop of political, social and educational change, where a shared, peaceful future appears possible. Student teachers at a…

  5. The Governmentality of Reconciliation: Adult Education as a Community Relations Technique in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smala, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Despite a successfully negotiated peace agreement in Belfast in 1998, tensions between different community groups continue to exist in Northern Ireland. This situation creates a governmental need to find solutions to problems such as segregation, inter- and intra-group violence and other forms of sectarian antagonisms. On the one hand, this is…

  6. Small mammal communities and habitat selection in Northern Rocky Mountain bunchgrass: Implications for exotic plant invasions

    Treesearch

    Dean E. Pearson; Yvette K. Ortega; Kevin S. McKelvey; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2001-01-01

    Agriculture and development have dramatically reduced the range of native bunchgrass habitats in the Northern Rocky Mountains, and the invasion of exotic plants threatens to greatly alter the remaining pristine prairie. Small mammals play many important roles in ecosystem functions, but little is known about small mammal community composition and structure in native...

  7. Engendering social suffering: a Chinese diasporic community in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Min

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how reproducing Chineseness has become a source of social suffering through the case study of a group of Yunnan Chinese who escaped Chinese communist rules in the Mainland in 1949 or shortly after and settled in northern Thailand in the 1960s. As self-proclaimed carriers of traditional Chinese culture, they worked arduously to replicate whatever they considered 'authentic' Chinese through a narrow interpretation of the Confucian moral tenets in daily life. The (re)establishment of a patriarchal social order in Thailand - a society with a relatively high level of gender-equality, has inflicted tremendous pain and suffering among women and youth in this reified society. Ethnographic fieldwork, upon which this paper was based, was conducted in Maehong Village, Chiang Mai Province, between 2002 and 2007.

  8. Assessing wildland fire risk transmission to communities in northern Spain

    Treesearch

    Fermín J. Alcasena; Michele Salis; Alan A. Ager; Rafael Castell; Cristina Vega-García

    2017-01-01

    We assessed potential economic losses and transmission to residential houses from wildland fires in a rural area of central Navarra (Spain). Expected losses were quantified at the individual structure level (n = 306) in 14 rural communities by combining fire model predictions of burn probability and fire intensity with susceptibility functions derived from expert...

  9. Gambling, housing conditions, community contexts and child health in remote indigenous communities in the Northern Territory, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent government reports have identified gambling, along with alcohol abuse, drug abuse and pornography, as contributing to child neglect and abuse in Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory (NT). These reports also identify gaps in empirical evidence upon which to base sound policy. To address this shortfall, data from ten remote Indigenous communities was analysed to determine the relationship between gambling problems, housing conditions, community contexts and child health in indigenous communities. Methods Logistic regression was used to assess associations between gambling problems, community contexts, housing conditions and child health. Separate multivariable models were developed for carer reported gambling problems in houses and six child health outcomes. Results Carer reported gambling problems in households across the ten communities ranged from 10% to 74%. Inland tropical communities had the highest level of reported gambling problems. Less access to a doctor in the community showed evidence of a multivariable adjusted association with gambling problems in houses. No housing variables showed evidence for a multivariable association with reported gambling problems. There was evidence for gambling problems having a multivariable adjusted association with carer report of scabies and ear infection in children. Conclusions The analyses provide evidence that gambling is a significant problem in Indigenous communities and that gambling problems in households is related to poor child health outcomes. A comprehensive (prevention, treatment, regulation and education) public health approach to harm minimisation associated with gambling amongst the Indigenous population is required that builds on current normative community regulation of gambling. PMID:22632458

  10. Developing Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices in First Nations Communities: Learning Anishnaabemowin and Land-Based Teachings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oskineegish, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    First Nations schools in northern Ontario have the dual responsibility of providing students with the skills and foundation to thrive in their community as well as in higher education outside of their community. This responsibility requires teachers to be capable of developing and implementing lessons that support academic excellence and cultural…

  11. Developing Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices in First Nations Communities: Learning Anishnaabemowin and Land-Based Teachings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oskineegish, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    First Nations schools in northern Ontario have the dual responsibility of providing students with the skills and foundation to thrive in their community as well as in higher education outside of their community. This responsibility requires teachers to be capable of developing and implementing lessons that support academic excellence and cultural…

  12. Examining the Potential Use of the Collaborative-Geomatics Informatics Tool to Foster Intergenerational Transfer of Knowledge in a Remote First Nation Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isogai, Andrea; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Gardner, Holly L.; Karagatzides, Jim D.; Vandenberg, Skye; Barbeau, Christine; Charania, Nadia; Edwards, Vicky; Cowan, Don; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Northern First Nations in Canada have experienced environmental change throughout history, adapting to these changes based on personal experience interacting with their environment. Community members of Fort Albany First Nation of northern Ontario, Canada, have voiced their concern that their youths' connection to the land is diminishing, making…

  13. Examining the Potential Use of the Collaborative-Geomatics Informatics Tool to Foster Intergenerational Transfer of Knowledge in a Remote First Nation Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isogai, Andrea; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Gardner, Holly L.; Karagatzides, Jim D.; Vandenberg, Skye; Barbeau, Christine; Charania, Nadia; Edwards, Vicky; Cowan, Don; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Northern First Nations in Canada have experienced environmental change throughout history, adapting to these changes based on personal experience interacting with their environment. Community members of Fort Albany First Nation of northern Ontario, Canada, have voiced their concern that their youths' connection to the land is diminishing, making…

  14. Seroprevalence of Sparganosis in Rural Communities of Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kavana, Nicholas; Sonaimuthu, Parthasarathy; Kasanga, Christopher; Kassuku, Ayub; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Fong, Mun Yik; Khan, Mohammad Behram; Mahmud, Rohela; Lau, Yee Ling

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the seroprevalence of sparganosis and its relationship with sociodemographic factors in northern Tanzania have been assessed. A total of 216 serum samples from two rural districts, Monduli and Babati, were tested for sparganosis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The seroprevalence of anti-sparganum IgG antibodies was 62.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 56.1–68.9) in all age groups. There were significant associations between district (relative risk [RR] = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.42–2.69), education (RR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.15–1.70), and pet ownership with seropositivity (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.02–2.16) based on univariate analysis. However, only the district was significantly associated with seropositivity (odds ratio = 4.20, 95% CI = 1.89–9.32) in binary logistic regression analysis. Providing health education to people residing in sparganosis-endemic areas is likely to improve the efficacy of preventative measures and reduce human disease burden. PMID:27481059

  15. Household food insecurity in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Tarasuk, Valerie; Vogt, Janet

    2009-01-01

    To identify socio-demographic factors associated with household food insecurity in the Ontario population. Using data from the Ontario Share File of the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2, multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify the socio-demographic characteristics of households most likely to report food insecurity. Of the estimated 379,100 food-insecure households in Ontario in 2004, 55% were reliant on salaries or wages, 23% on social assistance, and 13% on pensions or seniors' benefits. The prevalence of food insecurity increased markedly as income adequacy declined, rising to 47% in the lowest category of income adequacy. Food insecurity was also more prevalent among tenant households and single-person and single-parent households. When all socio-demographic factors were taken into account, three potent socio-demographic correlates of household food insecurity in Ontario were identified: low income adequacy, social assistance as the main source of income, and not owning one's dwelling. Compared to households whose main source of income was salary or wages, the adjusted odds of experiencing food insecurity was 3.69 (95% CI: 2.33, 5.84) for households reliant on social assistance, but 0.44 (95% CI: 0.29, 0.67) for those reliant on pensions or seniors' benefits. Our findings highlight the need for more adequate social assistance benefit levels, but also point to the need for better income supports for low-waged workers in Ontario so that they have sufficient financial resources to purchase the food they need.

  16. Perceptions of the Impact of Online Learning as a Distance-Based Learning Model on the Professional Practices of Working Nurses in Northern Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Lorraine; Hanna, Mary; Warry, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Nurses in Canada face diverse challenges to their ongoing educational pursuits. As a result, they have been early adopters of courses and programs based on distance education principles and, in particular, online learning models. In the study described in this paper, nurses studying at two northern universities, in programs involving online…

  17. Child Physical and Sexual Abuse in a Community Sample of Young Adults: Results from the Ontario Child Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMillan, Harriet L.; Tanaka, Masako; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with physical, emotional, and social impairment, yet in Canada there is a paucity of community-based information about the extent of this problem and its determinants. We examined the prevalence of child physical and sexual abuse and the associations of child abuse with early contextual,…

  18. Child Physical and Sexual Abuse in a Community Sample of Young Adults: Results from the Ontario Child Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMillan, Harriet L.; Tanaka, Masako; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with physical, emotional, and social impairment, yet in Canada there is a paucity of community-based information about the extent of this problem and its determinants. We examined the prevalence of child physical and sexual abuse and the associations of child abuse with early contextual,…

  19. Roaming of dogs in remote Indigenous communities in northern Australia and potential interaction between community and wild dogs.

    PubMed

    Bombara, C; Dürr, S; Gongora, J; Ward, M P

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the roaming of Indigenous community dogs and potential interaction with wild dogs and dingoes. Cross-sectional survey and longitudinal follow-up study. Six remote Indigenous communities in Cape York Peninsula and Arnhem Land in northern Australia were selected. Hair samples were collected from community dogs and microsatellite DNA analyses were used to determine hybrid (>10% dingo DNA) status. Dogs were fitted with GPS collars and home range (ha) was estimated during monitoring periods of up to 3 days. In Cape York Peninsula, 6% of the 35 dogs sampled were dingo hybrids, whereas in Arnhem Land 41% of the 29 dogs sampled were hybrids. The median extended home range was estimated to be 4.54 ha (interquartile range, 3.40 - 7.71). Seven community dogs were identified with an estimated home range > 20 ha and home ranges included the bushland surrounding communities. No significant difference in home ranges was detected between hybrid and non-hybrid dogs. Study results provide some evidence (dingo hybridisation, bushland forays) of the potential interaction between domestic and wild dogs in northern Australia. The nature of this interaction needs further investigation to determine its role in disease transmission; for example, in the case of a rabies incursion in this region. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  20. Lessons learned from Ontario wind energy disputes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast, Stewart; Mabee, Warren; Baxter, Jamie; Christidis, Tanya; Driver, Liz; Hill, Stephen; McMurtry, J. J.; Tomkow, Melody

    2016-02-01

    Issues concerning the social acceptance of wind energy are major challenges for policy-makers, communities and wind developers. They also impact the legitimacy of societal decisions to pursue wind energy. Here we set out to identify and assess the factors that lead to wind energy disputes in Ontario, Canada, a region of the world that has experienced a rapid increase in the development of wind energy. Based on our expertise as a group comprising social scientists, a community representative and a wind industry advocate engaged in the Ontario wind energy situation, we explore and suggest recommendations based on four key factors: socially mediated health concerns, the distribution of financial benefits, lack of meaningful engagement and failure to treat landscape concerns seriously. Ontario's recent change from a feed-in-tariff-based renewable electricity procurement process to a competitive bid process, albeit with more attention to community engagement, will only partially address these concerns.

  1. Spatial and vertical distribution of bacterial community in the northern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fu-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Wu, Mei-Lin; Sun, Cui-Ci; Cheng, Hao

    2015-10-01

    Microbial communities are highly diverse in coastal oceans and response rapidly with changing environments. Learning about this will help us understand the ecology of microbial populations in marine ecosystems. This study aimed to assess the spatial and vertical distributions of the bacterial community in the northern South China Sea. Multi-dimensional scaling analyses revealed structural differences of the bacterial community among sampling sites and vertical depth. Result also indicated that bacterial community in most sites had higher diversity in 0-75 m depths than those in 100-200 m depths. Bacterial community of samples was positively correlation with salinity and depth, whereas was negatively correlation with temperature. Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria were the dominant groups, which accounted for the majority of sequences. The α-Proteobacteria was highly diverse, and sequences belonged to Rhodobacterales bacteria were dominant in all characterized sequences. The current data indicate that the Rhodobacterales bacteria, especially Roseobacter clade are the diverse group in the tropical waters.

  2. Religious Observance Accommodation in Ontario Universities. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Carole Ann

    This paper highlights the religious accommodations that Ontario (Canada) universities have undertaken to create an inclusive, supportive learning community for all students, faculty, and staff. It outlines the demographic changes and public policy surrounding religious accommodation issues in Canada and in Ontario in particular, focusing on the…

  3. Exploring the Gap between Teacher Certification and Permanent Employment in Ontario: An Integrative Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Allison; Ryan, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    The following integrative literature review illuminates the perceptible time gap that currently exists for new Ontario teachers graduating and moving from teacher preparation programs to permanent members of the Ontario teaching community. At a time of oversupply of teachers, many new teachers within Ontario and beyond its borders become…

  4. Accessibility to Ontario Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Christine K.

    Accessibility to a college education in Ontario, Canada, was assessed by studying the pattern of acceptances and rejections of various choices made by unregistered college applicants. Study concerns included: total offers to programs of choice from any college and from an Ontario college only; offers by institution type and program type for first…

  5. Aboriginal Languages in Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnaby, Barbara J.

    This report outlines the basic characteristics of native languages in Ontario, the degree to which they are being maintained, and the aspirations of native people for their future development. The report covers only the Algonquian and Iroquoian families of languages spoken in Ontario for many generations and still spoken at present, including…

  6. Education: Ontario's Preoccupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, W. G.

    Written as an abridged companion volume to the seven-volume series, Ontario's Educative Society, this book shares the objective of exploring the development of education in Ontario since World War II. The material is presented within an historical framework and uses a broad definition of education which includes organizations and activities beyond…

  7. Tooth loss and dental caries in community-dwelling older adults in northern Manhattan.

    PubMed

    Northridge, Mary E; Ue, Frances V; Borrell, Luisa N; De La Cruz, Leydis D; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Bodnar, Stephanie; Marshall, Stephen; Lamster, Ira B

    2012-06-01

    To examine tooth loss and dental caries by sociodemographic characteristics from community-based oral health examinations conducted by dentists in northern Manhattan. The ElderSmile programme of the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine serves older adults with varying functional capacities across settings. This report is focused on relatively mobile, socially engaged participants who live in the impoverished communities of Harlem and Washington Heights/Inwood in northern Manhattan, New York City. Self-reported sociodemographic characteristics and health and health care information were provided by community-dwelling ElderSmile participants aged 65 years and older who took part in community-based oral health education and completed a screening questionnaire. Oral health examinations were conducted by trained dentists in partnering prevention centres among ElderSmile participants who agreed to be clinically screened (90.8%). The dental caries experience of ElderSmile participants varied significantly by sociodemographic predictors and smoking history. After adjustment in a multivariable logistic regression model, older age, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic race/ethnicity, and a history of current or former smoking were important predictors of edentulism. Provision of oral health screenings in community-based settings may result in opportunities to intervene before oral disease is severe, leading to improved oral health for older adults. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Tooth loss and dental caries in community-dwelling older adults in northern Manhattan

    PubMed Central

    Northridge, Mary E.; Ue, Frances V.; Borrell, Luisa N.; De La Cruz, Leydis D.; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Bodnar, Stephanie; Marshall, Stephen; Lamster, Ira B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine tooth loss and dental caries by sociodemographic characteristics from community-based oral health examinations conducted by dentists in northern Manhattan. Background The ElderSmile programme of the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine serves older adults with varying functional capacities across settings. This report is focused on relatively mobile, socially engaged participants who live in the impoverished communities of Harlem and Washington Heights/Inwood in northern Manhattan, New York City. Materials and Methods Self-reported sociodemographic characteristics and health and health care information were provided by community-dwelling ElderSmile participants aged 65 years and older who took part in community-based oral health education and completed a screening questionnaire. Oral health examinations were conducted by trained dentists in partnering prevention centres among ElderSmile participants who agreed to be clinically screened (90.8%). Results The dental caries experience of ElderSmile participants varied significantly by sociodemographic predictors and smoking history. After adjustment in a multivariable logistic regression model, older age, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic race/ethnicity, and a history of current or former smoking were important predictors of edentulism. Conclusion Provision of oral health screenings in community-based settings may result in opportunities to intervene before oral disease is severe, leading to improved oral health for older adults. PMID:21718349

  9. Telemedicine delivery of patient education in remote Ontario communities: feasibility of an Advanced Clinician Practitioner in Arthritis Care (ACPAC)-led inflammatory arthritis education program

    PubMed Central

    Warmington, Kelly; Flewelling, Carol; Kennedy, Carol A; Shupak, Rachel; Papachristos, Angelo; Jones, Caroline; Linton, Denise; Beaton, Dorcas E; Lineker, Sydney

    2017-01-01

    to remote communities by using telemedicine. Future research with a focus on the sustainability of this and other models of technology-supported patient education for adults with IA across Ontario is warranted. PMID:28280400

  10. Interhospital patient transfers between Ontario's academic and large community hospitals increase the risk of Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    DiDiodato, Giulio; McArthur, Leslie

    2017-09-25

    The objective of this study is to determine the impact of interhospital patient transfers on the risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The number of interhospital patient transfers and CDI cases for 11 academic and 40 large community hospitals (LCHs) were available from 2010-2015. These data were used to compute a CDI score for each sending facility as a measure of CDI pressure on the receiving facility. This CDI score was included as a variable in a multilevel mixed-effect Poisson regression model of CDI cases. Other covariates included year, CDI testing strategy, antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP), and criteria used for patient isolation. Hospital-specific random effects were estimated for the baseline rate of CDI (intercept) and ASP effect (slope). The CDI score ranged from 0-103, with a mean score ± SD of 20.4 ± 21.8. Every 10-point increase in the CDI score was associated with a 4.5% increase in the incidence of CDI in the receiving academic hospital (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9-8.5) and 3.6% increase in the receiving LCHs (95% CI, 0.3-7). The random components of the model varied significantly, with a strong negative correlation of -0.85 (95% CI, -0.94 to -0.65). Our results suggest interhospital patient transfers increase the risk of CDI. ASPs appear to reduce this risk; however, these ASP effects demonstrate significant heterogeneity across hospitals. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in faunal and vegetation communities along a soil calcium gradient in northern hardwood forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beier, Colin M.; Woods, Anne M.; Hotopp, Kenneth P.; Gibbs, James P.; Mitchell, Myron J.; Dovciak, Martin; Leopold, Donald J.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Page, Blair D.

    2012-01-01

    Depletion of Ca from forest soils due to acidic deposition has had potentially pervasive effects on forest communities, but these impacts remain largely unknown. Because snails, salamanders, and plants play essential roles in the Ca cycle of northern hardwood forests, we hypothesized that their community diversity, abundance, and structure would vary with differences in biotic Ca availability. To test this hypothesis, we sampled 12 upland hardwood forests representing a soil Ca gradient in the Adirondack Mountains, New York (USA), where chronic deposition has resulted in acidified soils but where areas of well-buffered soils remain Ca rich due to parent materials. Along the gradient of increasing soil [Ca2+], we observed increasing trends in snail community richness and abundance, live biomass of redback salamanders (Plethodon cinereus (Green, 1818)), and canopy tree basal area. Salamander communities were dominated by mountain dusky salamanders (Desmognathus ochrophaeus Cope, 1859) at Ca-poor sites and changed continuously along the Ca gradient to become dominated by redback salamanders at the Ca-rich sites. Several known calciphilic species of snails and plants were found only at the highest-Ca sites. Our results indicated that Ca availability, which is shaped by geology and acidic deposition inputs, influences northern hardwood forest ecosystems at multiple trophic levels, although the underlying mechanisms require further study.

  12. Motivations and challenges of community-based surveillance volunteers in the northern region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dil, Yasemin; Strachan, Daniel; Cairncross, Sandy; Korkor, Andrew Seidu; Hill, Zelee

    2012-12-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) are an important element of many health systems and programmes for the promotion and delivery of a wide range of health interventions and disease surveillance. Understanding the motivation and retention of CHWs is recognized as essential but there are few data from sub-Saharan Africa. This qualitative study explored factors that motivate, and the challenges faced by community-based surveillance volunteers (CBSVs) in the Northern Region of Ghana through semi-structured interviews with 28 CBSVs, 12 zonal coordinators, nine Ghana Health Service (GHS) sub-district level staff, ten GHS district level staff and two GHS regional level staff in the administrative capital. The community emerged as an important motivating factor in terms of altruism, a sense of duty to the community and gaining community respect and pride. This was enhanced by community selection of the volunteers. Major challenges included incorrect community perceptions of CBSVs, problems with transportation and equipment, difficulties conducting both volunteer and farm work and late or lack of payment for ad hoc tasks such as National Immunization Days. Most CBSVs recognized that they were volunteers, understood the constraints of the health system and were not demanding remuneration. However, CBSVs strongly desired something tangible to show that their work is recognized and appreciated and described a number of low cost items that could be used. They also desired equipment such as raincoats and identifiers such as tee-shirts and certificates.

  13. Iodine status of Eeyou Istchee community members of northern Quebec, Canada, and potential sources.

    PubMed

    Tam, Benita; Tsuji, Leonard J S; Martin, Ian D; Liberda, Eric N; Ayotte, Pierre; Coté, Suzanne; Dewailly, Éric; Nieboer, Evert

    2015-04-01

    A multi community environment-and-health study among six of the nine communities of Eeyou Istchee in northern Quebec, Canada provided greater insight into iodine intake levels among these Cree First Nation communities. Using data from this large population-based study, descriptive statistics of measured urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) and iodine-creatinine ratios (stratified by age, sex, community of residence, and water consumption) were calculated, and the associations between independent variables and iodine concentration measures were examined through a general linear model. Traditional food consumption contributions were examined through Pearson partial correlation tests and linear regression analyses; and the importance of water sources through ANOVA. Generally speaking, urinary iodine levels of Eeyou Istchee community members were within the adequate range set out by the World Health Organization, though sex and community differences existed. However, men in one community were considered to be at risk of iodine deficiency. Older participants had significantly higher mean iodine-creatinine ratios than younger participants (15-39 years = 90.50 μmol mol(-1); >39 years = 124.52 μmol mol(-1)), and consumption of beaver (Castor canadensis) meat, melted snow and ice, and bottled water were predictive of higher iodine excretion. It is concluded that using both urinary iodine indicators can be helpful in identifying subgroups at greater risk of iodine deficiency.

  14. Land use influences arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in the farming-pastoral ecotone of northern China.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Dan; Verbruggen, Erik; Hu, Yajun; Veresoglou, Stavros D; Rillig, Matthias C; Zhou, Wenping; Xu, Tianle; Li, Huan; Hao, Zhipeng; Chen, Yongliang; Chen, Baodong

    2014-12-01

    We performed a landscape-scale investigation to compare the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities between grasslands and farmlands in the farming-pastoral ecotone of northern China. AMF richness and community composition were examined with 454 pyrosequencing. Structural equation modelling (SEM) and multivariate analyses were applied to disentangle the direct and indirect effects (mediated by multiple environmental factors) of land use on AMF. Land use conversion from grassland to farmland significantly reduced AMF richness and extraradical hyphal length density, and these land use types also differed significantly in AMF community composition. SEM showed that the effects of land use on AMF richness and hyphal length density in soil were primarily mediated by available phosphorus and soil structural quality. Soil texture was the strongest predictor of AMF community composition. Soil carbon, nitrogen and soil pH were also significantly correlated with AMF community composition, indicating that these abiotic variables could be responsible for some of the community composition differences among sites. Our study shows that land use has a partly predictable effect on AMF communities across this ecologically relevant area of China, and indicates that high soil phosphorus concentrations and poor soil structure are particularly detrimental to AMF in this fragile ecosystem.

  15. Simulated nitrogen deposition affects community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in northern hardwood forests.

    PubMed

    VAN Diepen, Linda T A; Lilleskov, Erik A; Pregitzer, Kurt S

    2011-02-01

    Our previous investigation found elevated nitrogen deposition caused declines in abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with forest trees, but little is known about how nitrogen affects the AMF community composition and structure within forest ecosystems. We hypothesized that N deposition would lead to significant changes in the AMF community structure. We studied the diversity and community structure of AMF in northern hardwood forests after more than 12 years of simulated nitrogen deposition. We performed molecular analyses on maple (Acer spp.) roots targeting the 18S rDNA region using the fungal-specific primers AM1 and NS31. PCR products were cloned and identified using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing. N addition significantly altered the AMF community structure, and Glomus group A dominated the AMF community. Some Glomus operational taxonomic units (OTUs) responded negatively to N inputs, whereas other Glomus OTUs and an Acaulospora OTU responded positively to N inputs. The observed effect on community structure implies that AMF species associated with maples differ in their response to elevated nitrogen. Given that functional diversity exists among AMF species and that N deposition has been shown to select less beneficial fungi in some ecosystems, this change in community structure could have implications for the functioning of this type of ecosystem. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Increasing Primary Care Access Close to Home for Residents of Remote Communities in Northern Alberta.

    PubMed

    Ross, A Alison; Yap, Tracey L; Nest, Johan van Der; Martin, Keith; Edie, Alison H

    2016-01-01

    Residents of Canada's rural and remote communities know the challenges associated with accessing consistent healthcare. Alberta Health Services uses telehealth technology to minimize travel for rural and remote residents who require follow-up with specialists, however until recently, telehealth was only used in specialty care. This article describes a pilot project introduced in two remote northern Alberta communities to determine the feasibility and sustainability of using telehealth in the delivery of primary healthcare. Included in the article are descriptions of each phase of the project from seeking stakeholder approval through interpretation of findings and continuation of the project after it was determined successful. Jurisdictions interested in attempting their own telehealth program will be interested in the challenges and successes identified during the process. Although the project was successful, further studies are needed to determine if similar findings could be expected in other communities and populations.

  17. The Status of Benthos in Lake Ontario

    EPA Science Inventory

    The benthic community of Lake Ontario was dominated by an amphipod (Diporeia spp.) prior to the 1990’s. Two dreissenid mussel species D. polymorpha (zebra) and D. bugensis (quagga) were introduced in 1989 and 1991 via ballast water exchange. D. bugensis was observed as deep as 85...

  18. Marketing the College Brand in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holgerson, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Since inception of the Ontario college system in 1967, the quality of a diploma or certificate in comparison to a university degree has been perceived as an inferior rather than alternative academic credential. As public institutions, community colleges are mandated to respond to regional labour force needs, and to provide graduates who will…

  19. Financing Education in Ontario--Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    This paper provides an update of the financial reforms that took effect in the province of Ontario for the 1998-99 year. During the 1998-99 school year, a student-focused funding model for the distribution of money to elementary and secondary education was introduced. The model was based on students' needs rather than the local community's wealth…

  20. The Status of Benthos in Lake Ontario

    EPA Science Inventory

    The benthic community of Lake Ontario was dominated by an amphipod (Diporeia spp.) prior to the 1990’s. Two dreissenid mussel species D. polymorpha (zebra) and D. bugensis (quagga) were introduced in 1989 and 1991 via ballast water exchange. D. bugensis was observed as deep as 85...

  1. Natural Sunlight Shapes Crude Oil-Degrading Bacterial Communities in Northern Gulf of Mexico Surface Waters.

    PubMed

    Bacosa, Hernando P; Liu, Zhanfei; Erdner, Deana L

    2015-01-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH site with amendments of crude oil, Corexit dispersant, or both for 36 days under natural sunlight in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bacterial community was analyzed over time for total abundance, density of alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, and community composition via pyrosequencing. Our results showed that, for treatments with oil and/or Corexit, sunlight significantly reduced bacterial diversity and evenness and was a key driver of shifts in bacterial community structure. In samples containing oil or dispersant, sunlight greatly reduced abundance of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus but increased the relative abundances of Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Labrenzia, Sandarakinotalea, Bartonella, and Halomonas. Dark samples with oil were represented by members of Thalassobius, Winogradskyella, Alcanivorax, Formosa, Pseudomonas, Eubacterium, Erythrobacter, Natronocella, and Coxiella. Both oil and Corexit inhibited the Candidatus Pelagibacter with or without sunlight exposure. For the first time, we demonstrated the effects of light in structuring microbial communities in water with oil and/or Corexit. Overall, our findings improve understanding of oil pollution in surface water, and provide unequivocal evidence that sunlight is a key factor in determining bacterial community composition and dynamics in oil polluted marine waters.

  2. Natural Sunlight Shapes Crude Oil-Degrading Bacterial Communities in Northern Gulf of Mexico Surface Waters

    PubMed Central

    Bacosa, Hernando P.; Liu, Zhanfei; Erdner, Deana L.

    2015-01-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH site with amendments of crude oil, Corexit dispersant, or both for 36 days under natural sunlight in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bacterial community was analyzed over time for total abundance, density of alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, and community composition via pyrosequencing. Our results showed that, for treatments with oil and/or Corexit, sunlight significantly reduced bacterial diversity and evenness and was a key driver of shifts in bacterial community structure. In samples containing oil or dispersant, sunlight greatly reduced abundance of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus but increased the relative abundances of Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Labrenzia, Sandarakinotalea, Bartonella, and Halomonas. Dark samples with oil were represented by members of Thalassobius, Winogradskyella, Alcanivorax, Formosa, Pseudomonas, Eubacterium, Erythrobacter, Natronocella, and Coxiella. Both oil and Corexit inhibited the Candidatus Pelagibacter with or without sunlight exposure. For the first time, we demonstrated the effects of light in structuring microbial communities in water with oil and/or Corexit. Overall, our findings improve understanding of oil pollution in surface water, and provide unequivocal evidence that sunlight is a key factor in determining bacterial community composition and dynamics in oil polluted marine waters. PMID:26648916

  3. SEROPREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH Toxoplasma gondii INFECTION AMONG RURAL COMMUNITIES IN NORTHERN IRAN

    PubMed Central

    ROSTAMI, Ali; SEYYEDTABAEI, Seyyed Javad; AGHAMOLAIE, Somayeh; BEHNIAFAR, Hamed; LASJERDI, Zohreh; ABDOLRASOULI, Alireza; MEHRAVAR, Saeed; ALVARADO-ESQUIVEL, Cosme

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Toxoplasmosis is the fourth most common cause of hospitalization and the second cause of death due to food-borne infections. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence, disease awareness and risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis among rural communities in Northern Iran. Data were obtained from serological testing and from participant's questionnaires and were analyzed using a logistic regression. Of the 630 participants, 465 (73.8%), and 12 (1.9%) had IgG and both IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, respectively. In the logistic regression analysis, T. gondii seropositivity was associated with the following factors: age, occupation, consumption of undercooked meat, and of unwashed raw vegetables or fruits (p < 0.001). Our study showed a high prevalence of T. gondii infection in the general population of Northern Iran. A health program is needed to increase the public awareness of toxoplasmosis, and its associated risk factors. PMID:27680175

  4. Project report to STB/UO, Northern New Mexico Community College two- year college initiative: Biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This report summarizes the experiences gained in a project involving faculty direct undergraduate research focused on biotechnology and its applications. The biology program at Northern New Mexico Community College has been involved in screening for mutations in human DNA and has developed the ability to perform many standard and advanced molecular biology techniques. Most of these are based around the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and include the use of single strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) in the screening for mutant DNA molecules, and the capability to sequence PCR generated fragments of DNA using non-isotopic imaging. At Northern, these activities have a two-fold objective: (1) to bring current molecular biology techniques to the teaching laboratory, and (2) to support the training of minority undergraduates in research areas that stimulate them to pursue advanced degrees in the sciences.

  5. Development of a media campaign on fetal alcohol spectrum disorders for Northern Plains American Indian communities.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jessica D; Winberg, Austin; Elliott, Amy

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol-exposed pregnancies are especially of concern for American Indians. The Indian Health Service reported that 47% to 56% of pregnant patients admitted to drinking alcohol during their pregnancy. In addition, rates of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome are estimated to be as high as 3.9 to 9.0 per 1,000 live births among American Indians in the Northern Plains, making prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies an important public health effort for this population. The goal of this article is to add to the literature on universal prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum disorders by describing the development, dissemination, and evaluation of a media campaign on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders that was created by and for American Indian communities in the Northern Plains.

  6. Spring-harvested game birds in the Western James Bay region of Northern Ontario, Canada: the amount of organochlorines in matched samples of breast muscle, skin, and abdominal fat.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Martin, Ian D; Martin, Emily S; LeBlanc, Alain; Dumas, Pierre

    2008-11-01

    We examined matched-tissue samples (the right pectoral muscle plus the associated skin and fat was considered a breast portion) of 81 spring-harvested waterfowl and 19 summer-harvested godwits (Limosa spp.) to assess the potential of these water birds contributing to the body burden of PCBs and DDT noted in First Nation people of the western James Bay region, northern Ontario, Canada. In general, the dabbling ducks (mallard duck, Anas platyrhynchos; and northern pintail, A. acuta) had significantly lower percent lipid (gravimetrically determined) values in skin tissue, fat tissue, and breast muscle compared to the goose species (Canada goose, Branta canadensis; lesser snow goose, Chen caerulescens); godwits had percent lipid values not significantly different than ducks and geese. Also, the percent lipid values in skin for all species of birds examined approached those found in fat tissue. Organochlorine data were expressed as the amount (microg) of each contaminant per breast portion to show contaminant consumption in terms of typical and easily recognizable dietary portions; direct comparisons were made to acceptable daily intake (ADI) or tolerable daily intake (TDI) values as recommended by Health Canada. Significant differences in the amount of organochlorines between bird species for skin, fat tissue, and breast muscle samples were found. In general, breast portions from snow geese contained the least amount of organochlorines, followed by godwits (except for mirex) and then Canada geese; the dabbling ducks had the greatest amount of organochlorines on a breast portion basis. However, on average, no 60 kg person would exceed the calculated organochlorine ADI/TDI values consuming one breast portion (i.e., breast + associated skin and fat), but the maximum value of SigmaPCBs for skin tissue alone in male mallards (47 microg) was more than twice the ADI/TDI (18 microg/day); while, that in fat tissue alone (17 microg) approached the ADI/TDI. Thus, the consumption

  7. Lessons for Aboriginal tobacco control in remote communities: an evaluation of the Northern Territory 'Tobacco Project'.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David; Johnston, Vanessa; Fitz, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate a Northern Territory (NT) government-led pilot 'Tobacco Project' in six remote communities. Monthly surveys of staff, semi-structured interviews with staff and community members, observation of the delivery of tobacco control interventions, review of Project documents, and monitoring of tobacco consumption using sales (or wholesale orders) of tobacco. There was a substantive amount of tobacco control activity delivered in three of the Project communities. In two of these locations, the majority of work was primarily driven and undertaken by resident staff. Overall, most of the Project's efforts related to community education and awareness-raising. There was variable impact of the Project on tobacco consumption across the six communities. More tobacco control activity was consistently associated with a greater reduction in tobacco consumption. An important predictor of local activity was the presence of strong community drivers. A significant obstacle to the Project was the lack of new resources. Despite the minimal impact of this Project on tobacco consumption overall, there was a consistent association between on-the-ground tobacco control activity and reductions in tobacco consumption. New initiatives will not only need to provide new funding, but identify and then support local staff, who are central to improving local tobacco control activity and so reducing smoking and smoking-related illnesses and deaths. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.

  8. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.; Thornton, P. E.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Hanson, P. J.; Mao, J.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Griffiths, N. A.; Bisht, G.

    2015-11-01

    Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. We introduce here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM) which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Our structural and process changes to CLM focus on modifications needed to represent the hydrologic cycle of bogs environment with perched water tables, as well as distinct hydrologic dynamics and vegetation communities of the raised hummock and sunken hollow microtopography characteristic of peatland bogs. The modified model was parameterized and independently evaluated against observations from an ombrotrophic raised-dome bog in northern Minnesota (S1-Bog), the site for the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE). Simulated water table levels compared well with site-level observations. The new model predicts hydrologic changes in response to planned warming at the SPRUCE site. At present, standing water is commonly observed in bog hollows after large rainfall events during the growing season, but simulations suggest a sharp decrease in water table levels due to increased evapotranspiration under the most extreme warming level, nearly eliminating the occurrence of standing water in the growing season. Simulated soil energy balance was strongly influenced by reduced winter snowpack under warming simulations, with the warming influence on soil temperature partly offset by the loss of insulating snowpack in early and late winter. The new model provides improved predictive capacity for seasonal hydrological dynamics in northern

  9. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, X.; Thornton, P. E.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Hanson, P. J.; Mao, J.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Griffiths, N. A.; Bisht, G.

    2015-02-20

    Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. We introduce here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM) which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Our structural and process changes to CLM focus on modifications needed to represent the hydrologic cycle of bogs environment with perched water tables, as well as distinct hydrologic dynamics and vegetation communities of the raised hummock and sunken hollow microtopography characteristic of peatland bogs. The modified model was parameterized and independently evaluated against observations from an ombrotrophic raised-dome bog in northern Minnesota (S1-Bog), the site for the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE). Simulated water table levels compared well with site-level observations. The new model predicts significant hydrologic changes in response to planned warming at the SPRUCE site. At present, standing water is commonly observed in bog hollows after large rainfall events during the growing season, but simulations suggest a sharp decrease in water table levels due to increased evapotranspiration under the most extreme warming level, nearly eliminating the occurrence of standing water in the growing season. Simulated soil energy balance was strongly influenced by reduced winter snowpack under warming simulations, with the warming influence on soil temperature partly offset by the loss of insulating snowpack in early and late winter. The new model provides improved predictive capacity for seasonal hydrological dynamics

  10. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Hanson, Paul J.; Mao, Jiafu; Sebestyen, Stephen D.; Griffiths, Natalie A.; Bisht, Gautam

    2015-11-12

    Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. We introduce here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM) which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Our structural and process changes to CLM focus on modifications needed to represent the hydrologic cycle of bogs environment with perched water tables, as well as distinct hydrologic dynamics and vegetation communities of the raised hummock and sunken hollow microtopography characteristic of peatland bogs. The modified model was parameterized and independently evaluated against observations from an ombrotrophic raised-dome bog in northern Minnesota (S1-Bog), the site for the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE). Simulated water table levels compared well with site-level observations. The new model predicts hydrologic changes in response to planned warming at the SPRUCE site. At present, standing water is commonly observed in bog hollows after large rainfall events during the growing season, but simulations suggest a sharp decrease in water table levels due to increased evapotranspiration under the most extreme warming level, nearly eliminating the occurrence of standing water in the growing season. Simulated soil energy balance was strongly influenced by reduced winter snowpack under warming simulations, with the warming influence on soil temperature partly offset by the loss of insulating snowpack in early and late winter. Furthermore, the new model provides improved predictive capacity for seasonal hydrological dynamics

  11. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, X.; Thornton, P. E.; Ricciuto, D. M.; ...

    2015-02-20

    Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. We introduce here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM) which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Our structural and process changes to CLM focus on modifications needed to representmore » the hydrologic cycle of bogs environment with perched water tables, as well as distinct hydrologic dynamics and vegetation communities of the raised hummock and sunken hollow microtopography characteristic of peatland bogs. The modified model was parameterized and independently evaluated against observations from an ombrotrophic raised-dome bog in northern Minnesota (S1-Bog), the site for the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE). Simulated water table levels compared well with site-level observations. The new model predicts significant hydrologic changes in response to planned warming at the SPRUCE site. At present, standing water is commonly observed in bog hollows after large rainfall events during the growing season, but simulations suggest a sharp decrease in water table levels due to increased evapotranspiration under the most extreme warming level, nearly eliminating the occurrence of standing water in the growing season. Simulated soil energy balance was strongly influenced by reduced winter snowpack under warming simulations, with the warming influence on soil temperature partly offset by the loss of insulating snowpack in early and late winter. The new model provides improved predictive capacity for seasonal hydrological

  12. Representing northern peatland microtopography and hydrology within the Community Land Model

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; ...

    2015-11-12

    Predictive understanding of northern peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth for a vegetated wetland, independent of prescribed regional water tables. We introduce here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM) which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation for a vegetated peatland. Our structural and process changes to CLM focus on modifications needed to representmore » the hydrologic cycle of bogs environment with perched water tables, as well as distinct hydrologic dynamics and vegetation communities of the raised hummock and sunken hollow microtopography characteristic of peatland bogs. The modified model was parameterized and independently evaluated against observations from an ombrotrophic raised-dome bog in northern Minnesota (S1-Bog), the site for the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE). Simulated water table levels compared well with site-level observations. The new model predicts hydrologic changes in response to planned warming at the SPRUCE site. At present, standing water is commonly observed in bog hollows after large rainfall events during the growing season, but simulations suggest a sharp decrease in water table levels due to increased evapotranspiration under the most extreme warming level, nearly eliminating the occurrence of standing water in the growing season. Simulated soil energy balance was strongly influenced by reduced winter snowpack under warming simulations, with the warming influence on soil temperature partly offset by the loss of insulating snowpack in early and late winter. Furthermore, the new model provides improved predictive capacity for seasonal hydrological

  13. Genetic divergence and signatures of natural selection in marginal populations of a keystone, long-lived conifer, Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus) from Northern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Chhatre, Vikram E; Rajora, Om P

    2014-01-01

    Marginal populations are expected to provide the frontiers for adaptation, evolution and range shifts of plant species under the anticipated climate change conditions. Marginal populations are predicted to show genetic divergence from central populations due to their isolation, and divergent natural selection and genetic drift operating therein. Marginal populations are also expected to have lower genetic diversity and effective population size (Ne) and higher genetic differentiation than central populations. We tested these hypotheses using eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) as a model for keystone, long-lived widely-distributed plants. All 614 eastern white pine trees, in a complete census of two populations each of marginal old-growth, central old-growth, and central second-growth, were genotyped at 11 microsatellite loci. The central populations had significantly higher allelic and genotypic diversity, latent genetic potential (LGP) and Ne than the marginal populations. However, heterozygosity and fixation index were similar between them. The marginal populations were genetically diverged from the central populations. Model testing suggested predominant north to south gene flow in the study area with curtailed gene flow to northern marginal populations. Signatures of natural selection were detected at three loci in the marginal populations; two showing divergent selection with directional change in allele frequencies, and one balancing selection. Contrary to the general belief, no significant differences were observed in genetic diversity, differentiation, LGP, and Ne between old-growth and second-growth populations. Our study provides information on the dynamics of migration, genetic drift and selection in central versus marginal populations of a keystone long-lived plant species and has broad evolutionary, conservation and adaptation significance.

  14. Genetic Divergence and Signatures of Natural Selection in Marginal Populations of a Keystone, Long-Lived Conifer, Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus) from Northern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Chhatre, Vikram E.; Rajora, Om P.

    2014-01-01

    Marginal populations are expected to provide the frontiers for adaptation, evolution and range shifts of plant species under the anticipated climate change conditions. Marginal populations are predicted to show genetic divergence from central populations due to their isolation, and divergent natural selection and genetic drift operating therein. Marginal populations are also expected to have lower genetic diversity and effective population size (Ne) and higher genetic differentiation than central populations. We tested these hypotheses using eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) as a model for keystone, long-lived widely-distributed plants. All 614 eastern white pine trees, in a complete census of two populations each of marginal old-growth, central old-growth, and central second-growth, were genotyped at 11 microsatellite loci. The central populations had significantly higher allelic and genotypic diversity, latent genetic potential (LGP) and Ne than the marginal populations. However, heterozygosity and fixation index were similar between them. The marginal populations were genetically diverged from the central populations. Model testing suggested predominant north to south gene flow in the study area with curtailed gene flow to northern marginal populations. Signatures of natural selection were detected at three loci in the marginal populations; two showing divergent selection with directional change in allele frequencies, and one balancing selection. Contrary to the general belief, no significant differences were observed in genetic diversity, differentiation, LGP, and Ne between old-growth and second-growth populations. Our study provides information on the dynamics of migration, genetic drift and selection in central versus marginal populations of a keystone long-lived plant species and has broad evolutionary, conservation and adaptation significance. PMID:24859159

  15. Variability in childhood asthma and body mass index across Northern Plains American Indian communities.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Curtis W; Brown, Blakely D; Bentley, Bonnie; Conway, Kathrene; Corcoran, Mary; FourStar, Kris; Freide, Priscilla; Hemlock, Bethany; Wagner, Sharon; Wilson, Todd

    2010-06-01

    There are sparse data on the variability in childhood asthma across different Native American communities and the corresponding associations with known risk factors such as high body mass index and family history. The purpose of this study is to evaluate cross-sectional data on childhood asthma prevalence, body mass index, and other descriptive variables among Native Americans in five rural Northern Plains Indian reservation communities. A school-based screening program was conducted on four Northern Plains Indian Reservations. The 1852 children (96% Native American, 4th through 12th grades) were screened for asthma status, body mass index (BMI), and family history. Approximately 9.5% of students reported current asthma. Current asthma varied significantly across the four reservation sites, ranging from 5.7% to 12.6%. Current asthma was also positively associated with BMI and family history of asthma. The intertribal differences in asthma prevalence noted here emphasize the need for further understanding the intertribal environmental, social, and behavioral factors that are associated with childhood asthma and obesity. Such knowledge can help inform disease prevention or disease management strategies that encompass the unique characteristics of tribal communities and culture.

  16. Flying Over Ontario Lacus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-15

    This image is from an animation that glides along the shoreline of Ontario Lacus, the largest lake on the southern hemisphere of Saturn moon Titan. The animation is based on overlapping radar images obtained by NASA Cassini spacecraft.

  17. Distance Education in Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David M.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the services of the Ontario Educational Communications Authority (OECA), which has a nine station TV network, a nonbroadcast videotape distribution system, many interactions with cable companies and domestic satellite transmission, and a databank indexing OECA resources. (JEG)

  18. How Do Pre-Service Teachers Cope with a Literacy Intervention Program in a Remote Indigenous Community? The Community Action Support Program in the Northern Territory, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a new community education initiative, Community Action Support (CAS) that helps facilitate learning in Indigenous young people from Tennant Creek in the Northern Territory. CAS is an innovative partnership program between the Australian Literacy and Numeracy Foundation and the University of Western Sydney. The core aim of the…

  19. Molluscan shell communities: a window into the ecological history of the northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallmetzer, Ivo; Haselmair, Alexandra; Tomasovych, Adam; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The historical ecology approach used in the present study sheds light on the younger ecological history of the northern Adriatic Sea, targeting the period of the last 500 to 1500 years. We focus on down-core changes in molluscan death assemblages, where differences between community structures serve as a proxy for ecological shifts over time. The northern Adriatic Sea, with its densely populated shoreline, is among the most degraded marine ecosystems worldwide and is therefore particularly suited to study ecosystem modification under human pressure. Multiple cores of 1.5 m length and diameters of 90 and 160 mm were taken at seven sampling stations throughout the northern Adriatic Sea, covering different sediment types, nutrient conditions and degrees of exploitation. For the mollusc analyses, the cores were sliced into smaller subsamples and analysed for species composition, abundance, taxonomic similarity, evidence for ecological interactions (i.e., frequencies of drilling predation) and taphonomic condition of shells. Sediment analyses include granulometry and radiometric sediment dating using Pb 210. Sediment age analysis revealed one-order-of-magnitude differences in sedimentation rates between stations (34 mm/yr at the Po delta, Italy, 1.5 mm/yr at Brijuni islands, Croatia). In total, 114 bivalve and 112 gastropod species were recorded. Bivalve assemblages showed significant interregional differences that are strongly correlated with sedimentation rates and sediment composition. Down-core changes in molluscan communities are conspicuous in all cores, particularly in the uppermost core sections. This information, together with radiometric shell dating for selected species, helps to specify the timing of major ecological changes in the past and define pristine benthic communities as references for future conservation and management efforts.

  20. Microclimate and limits to photosynthesis in a diverse community of hypolithic cyanobacteria in northern Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tracy, Christopher R.; Streten-Joyce, Claire; Dalton, Robert; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Gibb, Karen S.; Christian, Keith A.

    2010-01-01

    Hypolithic microbes, primarily cyanobacteria, inhabit the highly specialized microhabitats under translucent rocks in extreme environments. Here we report findings from hypolithic cyanobacteria found under three types of translucent rocks (quartz, prehnite, agate) in a semiarid region of tropical Australia. We investigated the photosynthetic responses of the cyanobacterial communities to light, temperature and moisture in the laboratory, and we measured the microclimatic variables of temperature and soil moisture under rocks in the field over an annual cycle. We also used molecular techniques to explore the diversity of hypolithic cyanobacteria in this community and their phylogenetic relationships within the context of hypolithic cyanobacteria from other continents. Based on the laboratory experiments, photosynthetic activity required a minimum soil moisture of 15% (by mass). Peak photosynthetic activity occurred between approximately 8°C and 42°C, though some photosynthesis occurred between −1°C and 51°C. Maximum photosynthesis rates also occurred at light levels of approximately 150–550 μmol m−2 s−1. We used the field microclimatic data in conjunction with these measurements of photosynthetic efficiency to estimate the amount of time the hypolithic cyanobacteria could be photosynthetically active in the field. Based on these data, we estimated that conditions were appropriate for photosynthetic activity for approximately 942 h (∼75 days) during the year. The hypolithic cyanobacteria community under quartz, prehnite and agate rocks was quite diverse both within and between rock types. We identified 115 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), with each rock hosting 8–24 OTUs. A third of the cyanobacteria OTUs from northern Australia grouped with Chroococcidiopsis, a genus that has been identified from hypolithic and endolithic communities from the Gobi, Mojave, Atacama and Antarctic deserts. Several OTUs identified from northern Australia have

  1. Microclimate and limits to photosynthesis in a diverse community of hypolithic cyanobacteria in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Christopher R; Streten-Joyce, Claire; Dalton, Robert; Nussear, Kenneth E; Gibb, Karen S; Christian, Keith A

    2010-03-01

    Hypolithic microbes, primarily cyanobacteria, inhabit the highly specialized microhabitats under translucent rocks in extreme environments. Here we report findings from hypolithic cyanobacteria found under three types of translucent rocks (quartz, prehnite, agate) in a semiarid region of tropical Australia. We investigated the photosynthetic responses of the cyanobacterial communities to light, temperature and moisture in the laboratory, and we measured the microclimatic variables of temperature and soil moisture under rocks in the field over an annual cycle. We also used molecular techniques to explore the diversity of hypolithic cyanobacteria in this community and their phylogenetic relationships within the context of hypolithic cyanobacteria from other continents. Based on the laboratory experiments, photosynthetic activity required a minimum soil moisture of 15% (by mass). Peak photosynthetic activity occurred between approximately 8 degrees C and 42 degrees C, though some photosynthesis occurred between -1 degrees C and 51 degrees C. Maximum photosynthesis rates also occurred at light levels of approximately 150-550 micromol m(-2) s(-1). We used the field microclimatic data in conjunction with these measurements of photosynthetic efficiency to estimate the amount of time the hypolithic cyanobacteria could be photosynthetically active in the field. Based on these data, we estimated that conditions were appropriate for photosynthetic activity for approximately 942 h (approximately 75 days) during the year. The hypolithic cyanobacteria community under quartz, prehnite and agate rocks was quite diverse both within and between rock types. We identified 115 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), with each rock hosting 8-24 OTUs. A third of the cyanobacteria OTUs from northern Australia grouped with Chroococcidiopsis, a genus that has been identified from hypolithic and endolithic communities from the Gobi, Mojave, Atacama and Antarctic deserts. Several OTUs identified

  2. Roaming behaviour of dogs in four remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory, Australia: preliminary investigations.

    PubMed

    Molloy, S; Burleigh, A; Dürr, S; Ward, M P

    2017-03-01

    To estimate the home range (HR) and investigate the potential predictors for roaming of 58 dogs in four Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory. Prospective study. Global positioning system (GPS) collars were attached to the dogs for 1-4 days, recording location fixes every 1-3 min. Utilisation distributions (UDs) and extended (95% isopleth) and core (50% isopleth) HRs of dogs were determined. Potential predictors of roaming were assessed. Estimated core (median, 0.27 ha) and extended (median, 3.1 ha) HRs differed significantly (P = 0.0225 and 0.0345, respectively) between the four communities; dogs in the coastal community travelled significantly (P < 0.0001) more per day than dogs in the three inland communities studied. Significant associations were found between extended HR size and sex (P = 0.0050) and sex + neuter (P = 0.0218), and between core HR size and sex (P = 0.0010), neuter status (P = 0.0255) and sex + neuter (P = 0.0025). Entire males roamed more than neutered females. The core HR of dogs with poor/fair body condition scores (BCSs) was larger than dogs with ideal/obese BCSs (P = 0.0394). Neutered male dogs also travelled more per day than entire female dogs (P = 0.0475). Roaming information can be used to inform the management of dogs in remote communities and to design disease control programs. Widespread data collection across the Northern Territory should be undertaken to further investigate the associations found in this study, considering that data were collected during relatively short periods of time in one season. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  3. Practitioners' Views on Cross-Community Music Education Projects in Northern Ireland: Alienation, Socio-Economic Factors and Educational Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odena, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a qualitative investigation of the perceptions on cross-community music education activities of 14 key practitioners with experience with the two main communities in Northern Ireland (NI), Protestant and Catholic. The segregation of the NI education system is outlined in the first section, which is followed by a review of…

  4. Response of herbaceous plant community diversity and composition to overstorey harvest within riparian management zones in Northern Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Eric K. Zenner; Michelle A. Martin; Brian J. Palik; Jerilynn E. Peck; Charles R. Blinn

    2013-01-01

    Partial timber harvest within riparian management zones (RMZs) may permit active management of riparian forests while protecting stream ecosystems, but impacts on herbaceous communities are poorly understood. We compared herbaceous plant community abundance, diversity and composition in RMZs along small streams in northern Minnesota, USA, among four treatments before...

  5. Practitioners' Views on Cross-Community Music Education Projects in Northern Ireland: Alienation, Socio-Economic Factors and Educational Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odena, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a qualitative investigation of the perceptions on cross-community music education activities of 14 key practitioners with experience with the two main communities in Northern Ireland (NI), Protestant and Catholic. The segregation of the NI education system is outlined in the first section, which is followed by a review of…

  6. Implementing the General Education Development (GED) Program in First Nations Communities: Struggles for Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Tracy Jill; Melville, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an ethnographic case study of eleven First Nations adult learners in a Northern Ontario community attempting to earn secondary school equivalency through the General Education Development (GED) program. The paper maintains a focus on the power differentials at work in both the learners' prior educational endeavours and their…

  7. Implementing the General Education Development (GED) Program in First Nations Communities: Struggles for Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Tracy Jill; Melville, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an ethnographic case study of eleven First Nations adult learners in a Northern Ontario community attempting to earn secondary school equivalency through the General Education Development (GED) program. The paper maintains a focus on the power differentials at work in both the learners' prior educational endeavours and their…

  8. Spatial diversity of bacterioplankton communities in surface water of northern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Jialin; Li, Nan; Li, Fuchao; Zou, Tao; Yu, Shuxian; Wang, Yinchu; Qin, Song; Wang, Guangyi

    2014-01-01

    The South China Sea is one of the largest marginal seas, with relatively frequent passage of eddies and featuring distinct spatial variation in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Here, we report a phylogenetic study of bacterial community structures in surface seawater of the northern South China Sea (nSCS). Samples collected from 31 sites across large environmental gradients were used to construct clone libraries and yielded 2,443 sequences grouped into 170 OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 23 bacterial classes with major components α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria, as well as Cyanobacteria. At class and genus taxon levels, community structure of coastal waters was distinctively different from that of deep-sea waters and displayed a higher diversity index. Redundancy analyses revealed that bacterial community structures displayed a significant correlation with the water depth of individual sampling sites. Members of α-Proteobacteria were the principal component contributing to the differences of the clone libraries. Furthermore, the bacterial communities exhibited heterogeneity within zones of upwelling and anticyclonic eddies. Our results suggested that surface bacterial communities in nSCS had two-level patterns of spatial distribution structured by ecological types (coastal VS. oceanic zones) and mesoscale physical processes, and also provided evidence for bacterial phylogenetic phyla shaped by ecological preferences.

  9. Community resilience factors among indigenous Sámi adolescents: a qualitative study in Northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Nystad, Kristine; Spein, Anna Rita; Ingstad, Benedicte

    2014-10-01

    This qualitative study explores community resilience factors within an indigenous Sámi community in Northern Norway. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 22 informants, 12 females and 10 males, ranging in age from 13 to 19 years old, 12 of whom had reindeer husbandry affiliation. Data analysis used a modified grounded theory approach and narrative analysis. Interpretation of the data was based on ecological perspectives theory and the identification of possible community resilience factors including Sámi language competence, use of recreational and natural resources, and traditional ecological knowledge, such as reindeer husbandry related activities. These cultural factors appear to strengthen adolescents' ethnic identity and pride, which in turn act as potential resilience mechanisms. Land was a significant arena for traditional practices and recreation. The majority of the youth reported support from relationships with extended godparents (fáddarat) and extended family (sohka) networks. The fáttar network was particularly strong among adolescents with reindeer husbandry affiliations. Native language competence and reindeer husbandry were key components in adolescent social networks. Interconnectedness among the community members and with the environment seemed to promote resilience and well-being. Two factors that excluded adolescents from full community membership and participation were being a nonnative Sámi language speaker and the absence of extended Sámi family networks. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Health professionals' perspectives on service delivery in two Northern Ireland communities.

    PubMed

    Mason, C; Orr, J; Harrisson, S; Moore, R

    1999-10-01

    This research builds on the findings of an ethnographic study of health inequalities in two small, rural communities in Northern Ireland. Through further analysis of existing data, this second study aimed to explore health professionals' perspectives on issues of service delivery relevant to government policy on primary care. Anthropological fieldwork was conducted for two consecutive 4-month periods during 1995 and 1996 in one predominantly Catholic and one predominantly Protestant town. To preserve confidentiality, the locations have been given the pseudonyms, respectively, of Ballymacross and Hunterstown. Research tools included fieldwork journals and a fieldwork diary, meetings with key informants, tape-recorded interviews, group discussions, participant observation and use of secondary material such as census data, local newspapers and community health profiles. Interviews with 15 health workers revealed that there was not a coherent approach to achieving health gain, little collaborative enterprise and minimal interaction between the different professional groups. The National Health Service (NHS)-employed primary care professionals, more than local community workers, appeared to be demoralized, exhausted and suspicious of the business-orientated health service. In this respect, the primary care-led NHS appeared not to be working. It is concluded that a shared health agenda should be developed by NHS-employed primary care professionals and local community workers to create a health-inducing environment at community level. This needs to be complemented by the establishment of formal mechanisms for inter-agency working at local, professional and government levels.

  11. Local observations of climate change and impacts on traditional food security in two northern Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    Guyot, Melissa; Dickson, Cindy; Paci, Chris; Furgal, Chris; Chan, Hing Man

    2006-12-01

    Our primary objective was to record participant observations of changes in the local environment, harvesting situations and traditional food species and to explore what impact these may have on traditional food. A participatory study with 2 northern Aboriginal communities in Canada. Focus groups were conducted in both communities. Both specific and open-ended questions were asked, to gather information about the traditional food harvest and a qualitative analysis was conducted. Members from both communities are witnessing variable changes in climate that are affecting their traditional food harvest. New species and changes in migration of species being observed by community members have the potential to affect the consumption of traditional food. Similarly, changes in water levels in and around harvesting areas are affecting access to harvest areas, which in turn affects the traditional food harvest. Community members have been required to change their harvest mechanisms to adapt to changes in climate and ensure an adequate supply of traditional food. A strong commitment to programs that will ensure the protection of traditional food systems is necessary.

  12. Spatial Diversity of Bacterioplankton Communities in Surface Water of Northern South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuchao; Zou, Tao; Yu, Shuxian; Wang, Yinchu; Qin, Song; Wang, Guangyi

    2014-01-01

    The South China Sea is one of the largest marginal seas, with relatively frequent passage of eddies and featuring distinct spatial variation in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Here, we report a phylogenetic study of bacterial community structures in surface seawater of the northern South China Sea (nSCS). Samples collected from 31 sites across large environmental gradients were used to construct clone libraries and yielded 2,443 sequences grouped into 170 OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 23 bacterial classes with major components α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria, as well as Cyanobacteria. At class and genus taxon levels, community structure of coastal waters was distinctively different from that of deep-sea waters and displayed a higher diversity index. Redundancy analyses revealed that bacterial community structures displayed a significant correlation with the water depth of individual sampling sites. Members of α-Proteobacteria were the principal component contributing to the differences of the clone libraries. Furthermore, the bacterial communities exhibited heterogeneity within zones of upwelling and anticyclonic eddies. Our results suggested that surface bacterial communities in nSCS had two-level patterns of spatial distribution structured by ecological types (coastal VS. oceanic zones) and mesoscale physical processes, and also provided evidence for bacterial phylogenetic phyla shaped by ecological preferences. PMID:25402458

  13. A parasitological survey in three selected communities in Luapula Province, Northern Rhodesia

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Fergus; Friis-Hansen, Bent

    1961-01-01

    The authors present the results of a parasitological survey conducted among children living in three rural and geographically separate communities selected for the work of the Health and Nutrition Scheme, Fort Rosebery, Northern Rhodesia. The survey included observations on Plasmodium spp. and other parasites of the blood, Endamoeba spp., and helminth and arthropod parasites. In addition, data on the distribution and taxonomy of local anophelines and fresh-water molluscs are given. As was expected, malaria, urinary bilharziasis and hookworm were the most important parasitic infections recorded, though the prevalence of each varied considerably in each community. Such local variation in prevalence of a particular parasitic infection should prove to be encouraging, rather than discouraging, to the initiation of control measures. The results of the present survey support the view, too frequently forgotten, that for an adequate understanding of the prevalence of different parasitic infections precise, local investigations are imperative; without such investigations, broad conclusions are seldom valid. PMID:13773853

  14. The epidemiology of infections due to Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica in a northern Nigerian community.

    PubMed

    Blakebrough, I S; Greenwood, B M; Whittle, H C; Bradley, A K; Gilles, H M

    1982-11-01

    The epidemiology of infection due to Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria lactamica was studied in a northern Nigerian community. A low meningococcal carriage rate was observed throughout the two-year survey. Initially, most meningococci isolated from nasopharyngeal carriers belonged to serogroup C or to serogroup Y. Following an outbreak of group A meningococcal disease, more group A meningococcal carriers were detected. Antibody studies indicated that infection with group A meningococci had been more widespread in the community than was suggested by regular carrier surveys. Carriage of meningococci was detected most frequently in children one to nine years of age. Children were identified as the first carriers in households more frequently than adults. The half-life of carriage was three months. The meningococcal carriage rate did not increase during the hot dry season when epidemics of meningococcal disease occur most frequently in Nigeria. Neisseria lactamica was isolated from the nasopharynx of children more frequently than were meningococci.

  15. Regional asynchronicity in dairy production and processing in early farming communities of the northern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Debono Spiteri, Cynthianne; Gillis, Rosalind E; Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Castells Navarro, Laura; Guilaine, Jean; Manen, Claire; Muntoni, Italo M; Saña Segui, Maria; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Whelton, Helen L; Craig, Oliver E; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Evershed, Richard P

    2016-11-29

    In the absence of any direct evidence, the relative importance of meat and dairy productions to Neolithic prehistoric Mediterranean communities has been extensively debated. Here, we combine lipid residue analysis of ceramic vessels with osteo-archaeological age-at-death analysis from 82 northern Mediterranean and Near Eastern sites dating from the seventh to fifth millennia BC to address this question. The findings show variable intensities in dairy and nondairy activities in the Mediterranean region with the slaughter profiles of domesticated ruminants mirroring the results of the organic residue analyses. The finding of milk residues in very early Neolithic pottery (seventh millennium BC) from both the east and west of the region contrasts with much lower intensities in sites of northern Greece, where pig bones are present in higher frequencies compared with other locations. In this region, the slaughter profiles of all domesticated ruminants suggest meat production predominated. Overall, it appears that milk or the by-products of milk was an important foodstuff, which may have contributed significantly to the spread of these cultural groups by providing a nourishing and sustainable product for early farming communities.

  16. Regional asynchronicity in dairy production and processing in early farming communities of the northern Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Debono Spiteri, Cynthianne; Gillis, Rosalind E.; Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Castells Navarro, Laura; Guilaine, Jean; Manen, Claire; Muntoni, Italo M.; Whelton, Helen L.; Craig, Oliver E.; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Evershed, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of any direct evidence, the relative importance of meat and dairy productions to Neolithic prehistoric Mediterranean communities has been extensively debated. Here, we combine lipid residue analysis of ceramic vessels with osteo-archaeological age-at-death analysis from 82 northern Mediterranean and Near Eastern sites dating from the seventh to fifth millennia BC to address this question. The findings show variable intensities in dairy and nondairy activities in the Mediterranean region with the slaughter profiles of domesticated ruminants mirroring the results of the organic residue analyses. The finding of milk residues in very early Neolithic pottery (seventh millennium BC) from both the east and west of the region contrasts with much lower intensities in sites of northern Greece, where pig bones are present in higher frequencies compared with other locations. In this region, the slaughter profiles of all domesticated ruminants suggest meat production predominated. Overall, it appears that milk or the by-products of milk was an important foodstuff, which may have contributed significantly to the spread of these cultural groups by providing a nourishing and sustainable product for early farming communities. PMID:27849595

  17. An epidemiological study of asymptomatic neurocysticercosis in a pig farming community in northern India.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kashi N; Verma, Avantika; Srivastava, Sandeep; Gupta, Rakesh K; Pandey, Chandra M; Paliwal, Vimal K

    2011-09-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most frequent parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by the larvae of Taenia solium. The prevalence of NCC is obscured due to variations in the methods used for epidemiological studies and often asymptomatic manifestation. The present study was conducted on 595 apparently healthy individuals belonging to the pig farming community of northern India to estimate the prevalence of asymptomatic NCC and to evaluate risk factors based on questionnaires. Diagnosis of NCC was based on neuroimaging, immunological and epidemiological criteria. Asymptomatic NCC was detected in 90 (15.1%) of 595 individuals. The evaluation of risk factors showed that age >15 years (P=0.001), intake of raw vegetables (P=0.025) and undercooked pork (P=0.005), lack of safe drinking water (P=0.003), inadequate drainage system (P=0.049), no separate place for pigs (P≤0.001), NCC related active epilepsy in the family (P≤0.001) were significantly associated with asymptomatic NCC. The present study shows high prevalence of asymptomatic NCC in pig farming community of northern India. Further, asymptomatic NCC is associated with most variables of poor socio-economic parameters.

  18. The comparative cost of food and beverages at remote Indigenous communities, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Megan; O'Dea, Kerin; Chatfield, Mark; Moodie, Marjory; Altman, Jon; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-04-01

    To determine the average price difference between foods and beverages in remote Indigenous community stores and capital city supermarkets and explore differences across products. A cross-sectional survey compared prices derived from point-of-sale data in 20 remote Northern Territory stores with supermarkets in capital cities of the Northern Territory and South Australia for groceries commonly purchased in remote stores. Average price differences for products, supply categories and food groups were examined. The 443 products examined represented 63% of food and beverage expenditure in remote stores. Remote products were, on average, 60% and 68% more expensive than advertised prices for Darwin and Adelaide supermarkets, respectively. The average price difference for fresh products was half that of packaged groceries for Darwin supermarkets and more than 50% for food groups that contributed most to purchasing. Strategies employed by manufacturers and supermarkets, such as promotional pricing, and supermarkets' generic products lead to lower prices. These opportunities are not equally available to remote customers and are a major driver of price disparity. Food affordability for already disadvantaged residents of remote communities could be improved by policies targeted at manufacturers, wholesalers and/or major supermarket chains. © 2015 The Authors.

  19. Community-based participatory process--climate change and health adaptation program for Northern First Nations and Inuit in Canada.

    PubMed

    McClymont Peace, Diane; Myers, Erin

    2012-05-08

    Health Canada's Program for Climate Change and Health Adaptation in Northern First Nation and Inuit Communities is unique among Canadian federal programs in that it enables community-based participatory research by northern communities. The program was designed to build capacity by funding communities to conduct their own research in cooperation with Aboriginal associations, academics, and governments; that way, communities could develop health-related adaptation plans and communication materials that would help in adaptation decision-making at the community, regional, national and circumpolar levels with respect to human health and a changing environment. Community visits and workshops were held to familiarize northerners with the impacts of climate change on their health, as well as methods to develop research proposals and budgets to meet program requirements. Since the launch of the Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program in 2008, Health Canada has funded 36 community projects across Canada's North that focus on relevant health issues caused by climate change. In addition, the program supported capacity-building workshops for northerners, as well as a Pan-Arctic Results Workshop to bring communities together to showcase the results of their research. Results include: numerous films and photo-voice products that engage youth and elders and are available on the web; community-based ice monitoring, surveillance and communication networks; and information products on land, water and ice safety, drinking water, food security and safety, and traditional medicine. Through these efforts, communities have increased their knowledge and understanding of the health effects related to climate change and have begun to develop local adaptation strategies.

  20. Community-based Participatory Process – Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program for Northern First Nations and Inuit in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Peace, Diane McClymont; Myers, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Health Canada's Program for Climate Change and Health Adaptation in Northern First Nation and Inuit Communities is unique among Canadian federal programs in that it enables community-based participatory research by northern communities. Study design The program was designed to build capacity by funding communities to conduct their own research in cooperation with Aboriginal associations, academics, and governments; that way, communities could develop health-related adaptation plans and communication materials that would help in adaptation decision-making at the community, regional, national and circumpolar levels with respect to human health and a changing environment. Methods Community visits and workshops were held to familiarize northerners with the impacts of climate change on their health, as well as methods to develop research proposals and budgets to meet program requirements. Results Since the launch of the Climate Change and Health Adaptation Program in 2008, Health Canada has funded 36 community projects across Canada's North that focus on relevant health issues caused by climate change. In addition, the program supported capacity-building workshops for northerners, as well as a Pan-Arctic Results Workshop to bring communities together to showcase the results of their research. Results include: numerous films and photo-voice products that engage youth and elders and are available on the web; community-based ice monitoring, surveillance and communication networks; and information products on land, water and ice safety, drinking water, food security and safety, and traditional medicine. Conclusions Through these efforts, communities have increased their knowledge and understanding of the health effects related to climate change and have begun to develop local adaptation strategies. PMID:22584509

  1. Climate Change and Eutrophication Induced Shifts in Northern Summer Plankton Communities

    PubMed Central

    Suikkanen, Sanna; Pulina, Silvia; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Lehtinen, Sirpa; Brutemark, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are undergoing substantial changes due to human-induced pressures. Analysis of long-term data series is a valuable tool for understanding naturally and anthropogenically induced changes in plankton communities. In the present study, seasonal monitoring data were collected in three sub-basins of the northern Baltic Sea between 1979 and 2011 and statistically analysed for trends and interactions between surface water hydrography, inorganic nutrient concentrations and phyto- and zooplankton community composition. The most conspicuous hydrographic change was a significant increase in late summer surface water temperatures over the study period. In addition, salinity decreased and dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations increased in some basins. Based on redundancy analysis (RDA), warming was the key environmental factor explaining the observed changes in plankton communities: the general increase in total phytoplankton biomass, Cyanophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyceae, and decrease in Cryptophyceae throughout the study area, as well as increase in rotifers and decrease in total zooplankton, cladoceran and copepod abundances in some basins. We conclude that the plankton communities in the Baltic Sea have shifted towards a food web structure with smaller sized organisms, leading to decreased energy available for grazing zooplankton and planktivorous fish. The shift is most probably due to complex interactions between warming, eutrophication and increased top-down pressure due to overexploitation of resources, and the resulting trophic cascades. PMID:23776676

  2. Significant and persistent impact of timber harvesting on soil microbial communities in Northern coniferous forests.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Martin; Howes, Charles G; VanInsberghe, David; Yu, Hang; Bachar, Dipankar; Christen, Richard; Henrik Nilsson, Rolf; Hallam, Steven J; Mohn, William W

    2012-12-01

    Forest ecosystems have integral roles in climate stability, biodiversity and economic development. Soil stewardship is essential for sustainable forest management. Organic matter (OM) removal and soil compaction are key disturbances associated with forest harvesting, but their impacts on forest ecosystems are not well understood. Because microbiological processes regulate soil ecology and biogeochemistry, microbial community structure might serve as indicator of forest ecosystem status, revealing changes in nutrient and energy flow patterns before they have irreversible effects on long-term soil productivity. We applied massively parallel pyrosequencing of over 4.6 million ribosomal marker sequences to assess the impact of OM removal and soil compaction on bacterial and fungal communities in a field experiment replicated at six forest sites in British Columbia, Canada. More than a decade after harvesting, diversity and structure of soil bacterial and fungal communities remained significantly altered by harvesting disturbances, with individual taxonomic groups responding differentially to varied levels of the disturbances. Plant symbionts, like ectomycorrhizal fungi, and saprobic taxa, such as ascomycetes and actinomycetes, were among the most sensitive to harvesting disturbances. Given their significant ecological roles in forest development, the fate of these taxa might be critical for sustainability of forest ecosystems. Although abundant bacterial populations were ubiquitous, abundant fungal populations often revealed a patchy distribution, consistent with their higher sensitivity to the examined soil disturbances. These results establish a comprehensive inventory of bacterial and fungal community composition in northern coniferous forests and demonstrate the long-term response of their structure to key disturbances associated with forest harvesting.

  3. Temporal variability of three different macrofauna communities in the northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schückel, Ulrike; Ehrich, Siegfried; Kröncke, Ingrid

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, 2003 and 2007 macrofauna communities were sampled in three different areas ("Boxes") of 10 × 10 nautical miles in the northern North Sea in order to study the temporal changes in community structure in relation to changes in temperature or changes in hydrography. Box D which was influenced by the Fair Isle Current revealed an increase in abundance of sand-licking species between 1999, 2003 and 2007. Significant positive correlations between SST and abundance of characteristic species as well as different feeding types in this mixed water column area seemed to be related to enhanced primary production and SST resulting in higher food supply. Within the East Shetland Basin (Boxes L and M) temporal changes in the macrofaunal communities between 1999 and 2003 were caused by a strong decrease in abundance of surface deposit and suspension feeders which indicated a lower food supply. An increase in abundance of species known for a rapid response to sudden food supply was found in 2007. There is evidence that hydrographic conditions such as stratification and different water masses in this area influence the variability of food supply for the macrofauna and caused changes in community structure.

  4. Composition and diversity of weed communities in Al-Jouf province, northern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Gomaa, Nasr H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the main weed communities in Al-Jouf province in northern Saudi Arabia. Moreover, the composition and diversity of these communities were studied in relation to soil variables and crop type. Some 54 stands representing olive orchards, date palm orchards, wheat crop and watermelon crop were studied, using ten quadrats (1 × 1 m) per stand. A total of 71 species belonging to 22 families and 61 genera were observed. The classification of vegetation using the Two Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) resulted in the recognition of four vegetation groups representing wheat crop, orchards in winter season, orchards in summer season and watermelon crop. These results suggested the importance of both crop and season for the formation of weed community. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) showed that these groups are clearly distinguished by the first two DCA axes. The species richness was higher in both olive and date palm orchards than in wheat and watermelon crops. This pattern of species richness could be related to farm management practices and habitat micro-heterogeneity. Soil electrical conductivity, organic carbon and soil texture showed significant correlations with species richness and the cover values of some dominant species, suggesting the significant role of soil characteristics in weed community structure and diversity. PMID:23961198

  5. Nutrient Limitation in Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM): Phytoplankton Communities and Photosynthesis Respond to Nutrient Pulse

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan; Quigg, Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    Although the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River system exports large amounts of nutrients to the Northern Gulf of Mexico annually, nutrient limitation of primary productivity still occurs offshore, acting as one of the major factors controlling local phytoplankton biomass and community structure. Bioassays were conducted for 48 hrs at two stations adjacent to the river plumes in April and August 2012. High Performance of Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) combined with ChemTax and a Fluorescence Induction and Relaxation (FIRe) system were combined to observe changes in the phytoplankton community structure and photosynthetic activity. Major fluorescence parameters (Fo, Fv/Fm) performed well to reveal the stimulating effect of the treatments with nitrogen (N-nitrate) and with nitrogen plus phosphate (+NPi). HPLC/ChemTax results showed that phytoplankton community structure shifted with nitrate addition: we observed an increase in the proportion of diatoms and prasinophytes and a decrease in cyanobacteria and prymnesiophytes. These findings are consistent with predictions from trait-based analysis which predict that phytoplankton groups with high maximum growth rates (μmax) and high nutrient uptake rates (Vmax) readily take advantage of the addition of limiting nutrients. Changes in phytoplankton community structure, if persistent, could trigger changes of particular organic matter fluxes and alter the micro-food web cycles and bottom oxygen consumption. PMID:24551144

  6. Climate change and eutrophication induced shifts in northern summer plankton communities.

    PubMed

    Suikkanen, Sanna; Pulina, Silvia; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Lehtinen, Sirpa; Brutemark, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are undergoing substantial changes due to human-induced pressures. Analysis of long-term data series is a valuable tool for understanding naturally and anthropogenically induced changes in plankton communities. In the present study, seasonal monitoring data were collected in three sub-basins of the northern Baltic Sea between 1979 and 2011 and statistically analysed for trends and interactions between surface water hydrography, inorganic nutrient concentrations and phyto- and zooplankton community composition. The most conspicuous hydrographic change was a significant increase in late summer surface water temperatures over the study period. In addition, salinity decreased and dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations increased in some basins. Based on redundancy analysis (RDA), warming was the key environmental factor explaining the observed changes in plankton communities: the general increase in total phytoplankton biomass, Cyanophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyceae, and decrease in Cryptophyceae throughout the study area, as well as increase in rotifers and decrease in total zooplankton, cladoceran and copepod abundances in some basins. We conclude that the plankton communities in the Baltic Sea have shifted towards a food web structure with smaller sized organisms, leading to decreased energy available for grazing zooplankton and planktivorous fish. The shift is most probably due to complex interactions between warming, eutrophication and increased top-down pressure due to overexploitation of resources, and the resulting trophic cascades.

  7. mdRNA-Seq analysis of marine microbial communities from the northern Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Shengwei; Pfreundt, Ulrike; Miller, Dan; Berman-Frank, Ilana; Hess, Wolfgang R.

    2016-01-01

    Metatranscriptomic differential RNA-Seq (mdRNA-Seq) identifies the suite of active transcriptional start sites at single-nucleotide resolution through enrichment of primary transcript 5′ ends. Here we analyzed the microbial community at 45 m depth at Station A in the northern Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, during 500 m deep mixing in February 2012 using mdRNA-Seq and a parallel classical RNA-Seq approach. We identified promoters active in situ for five different pico-planktonic genera (the SAR11 clade of Alphaproteobacteria, Synechococcus of Cyanobacteria, Euryarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, and Micromonas as an example for picoeukaryotic algae), showing the applicability of this approach to highly diverse microbial communities. 16S rDNA quantification revealed that 24% of the analyzed community were group II marine Euryarchaeota in which we identified a highly abundant non-coding RNA, Tan1, and detected very high expression of genes encoding intrinsically disordered proteins, as well as enzymes for the synthesis of specific B vitamins, extracellular peptidases, carbohydrate-active enzymes, and transport systems. These results highlight previously unknown functions of Euryarchaeota with community-wide relevance. The complementation of metatranscriptomic studies with mdRNA-Seq provides substantial additional information regarding transcriptional start sites, promoter activities, and the identification of non-coding RNAs. PMID:27759035

  8. Nutrient limitation in Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM): phytoplankton communities and photosynthesis respond to nutrient pulse.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Quigg, Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    Although the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River system exports large amounts of nutrients to the Northern Gulf of Mexico annually, nutrient limitation of primary productivity still occurs offshore, acting as one of the major factors controlling local phytoplankton biomass and community structure. Bioassays were conducted for 48 hrs at two stations adjacent to the river plumes in April and August 2012. High Performance of Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) combined with ChemTax and a Fluorescence Induction and Relaxation (FIRe) system were combined to observe changes in the phytoplankton community structure and photosynthetic activity. Major fluorescence parameters (Fo, Fv/Fm) performed well to reveal the stimulating effect of the treatments with nitrogen (N-nitrate) and with nitrogen plus phosphate (+NPi). HPLC/ChemTax results showed that phytoplankton community structure shifted with nitrate addition: we observed an increase in the proportion of diatoms and prasinophytes and a decrease in cyanobacteria and prymnesiophytes. These findings are consistent with predictions from trait-based analysis which predict that phytoplankton groups with high maximum growth rates (μmax ) and high nutrient uptake rates (Vmax ) readily take advantage of the addition of limiting nutrients. Changes in phytoplankton community structure, if persistent, could trigger changes of particular organic matter fluxes and alter the micro-food web cycles and bottom oxygen consumption.

  9. Composition and diversity of weed communities in Al-Jouf province, northern Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Gomaa, Nasr H

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the main weed communities in Al-Jouf province in northern Saudi Arabia. Moreover, the composition and diversity of these communities were studied in relation to soil variables and crop type. Some 54 stands representing olive orchards, date palm orchards, wheat crop and watermelon crop were studied, using ten quadrats (1 × 1 m) per stand. A total of 71 species belonging to 22 families and 61 genera were observed. The classification of vegetation using the Two Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) resulted in the recognition of four vegetation groups representing wheat crop, orchards in winter season, orchards in summer season and watermelon crop. These results suggested the importance of both crop and season for the formation of weed community. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) showed that these groups are clearly distinguished by the first two DCA axes. The species richness was higher in both olive and date palm orchards than in wheat and watermelon crops. This pattern of species richness could be related to farm management practices and habitat micro-heterogeneity. Soil electrical conductivity, organic carbon and soil texture showed significant correlations with species richness and the cover values of some dominant species, suggesting the significant role of soil characteristics in weed community structure and diversity.

  10. Northern homelands, northern frontier: linking culture and economic security in contemporary livelihoods in boreal and cold temperate forest communities in northern Canada

    Treesearch

    Andrew J. Chapeskie

    2001-01-01

    This paper highlights the environmental pressures that have historically been brought to bear on the northern forests of Canada. It then presents the idea of the northern frontier forests of Canada as Indigenous landscapes whose ecological diversity and abundance have historically been nurtured in no small measure by their original inhabitants. It then proposes how...

  11. Building Ontario: Ontario Colleges' Contribution and Investment. Revised. Briefing Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario, Toronto.

    This paper addresses the issue of educational budgets for Ontario's Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology (Canada). Colleges have supported a 35% increase in enrollment, with a 40% decrease in funding, over the last ten years, while operating costs have increased. In addition, Ontario eliminated the secondary school Ontario Academic Courses…

  12. Hygiene and sanitation promotion strategies among ethnic minority communities in northern Vietnam: a stakeholder analysis.

    PubMed

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2012-10-01

    Effective rural hygiene and sanitation promotion (RHSP) is a major challenge for many low-income countries. This paper investigates strategies and stakeholders' roles and responsibilities in RHSP implementation in a multi-ethnic area of northern Vietnam, in order to identify lessons learned for future RHSP. A stakeholder analysis was performed, based on 49 semi-structured individual interviews and one group interview with stakeholders in RHSP in a northern province of Vietnam. Participants came from three sectors (agriculture, health and education), unions supported by the Vietnamese government and from four administrative levels (village, commune, district and province). The study villages represented four ethnic minority groups including lowland and highland communities. Stakeholders' roles, responsibilities and promotion methods were outlined, and implementation constraints and opportunities were identified and analysed using thematic content analysis. Effective RHSP in Vietnam is severely constrained despite supporting policies and a multi-sectorial and multi-level framework. Four main barriers for effective implementation of RHSP were identified: (1) weak inter-sectorial collaborations; (2) constraints faced by frontline promoters; (3) almost exclusive information-based and passive promotion methods applied; and (4) context unadjusted promotion strategies across ethnic groups, including a limited focus on socio-economic differences, language barriers and gender roles in the target groups. Highland communities were identified as least targeted and clearly in need of more intensive and effective RHSP. It is recommended that the Vietnamese government gives priority to increasing capacities of and collaboration among stakeholders implementing RHSP activities. This should focus on frontline promoters to perform effective behaviour change communication. It is also recommended to support more participatory and community-based initiatives, which can address the

  13. [Determination of stress in fish community obtained from shrimp trawl fishing in Northern Gulf of California].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Valdivia, Eloísa; López-Martínez, Juana; Vargasmachuca, Sergio Castillo

    2015-09-01

    Bottom trawling has been considered a fishing activity that affects and modifies habitats, because of its impacts in species composition and abundance, and the alteration in the structure and function of the eco-system, that generates biodiversity loss. The Northern part of the Gulf of California has been considered a mega diverse zone with high endemism, and it is of growing interest by the international scientific community. In order to assess its potential changes in the fish community components of shrimp by-catch (FAC) in this area, a total of 119 trawls from 13 fishing boats were analyzed in Puerto Peñasco, based on 14 commercial fishing trips made within 9-90 m depth from 2010-2011. A random sample of 20 kg was obtained from each trawl, and was analyzed in the laboratory for species composition. In addition to the Index of Biological Value (IVB), Shannon diversity (H'), and Pielou evenness (J'), comparative abundance-biomass curves (ABC) were also estimated. Eucinostomus dowii showed the highest IVB = 480.25; Porichthys analis showed greater relative abundance; and Pomadasys panamensis showed greater frequency of occurrence. The mean monthly values in diversity H' = 3.05 (2.72 > H' < 3.25) and J' = 0.71 (0.66 < J' >0.81) showed a tendency to decrease as the fishing season progressed. The comparative abundance-biomass curves (ABC), and the value of statistical W showed moderate stress levels in March (W= -0.022) and September (W= -0.02) 2010, and January 2011 (W= -0.042). In conclusion, the Northern Gulf of California showed a well-structured community with a degree of moderate fishing stress.

  14. Aligning Community Engagement With Traditional Authority Structures in Global Health Research: A Case Study From Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Tindana, Paulina O.; Rozmovits, Linda; Boulanger, Renaud F.; Bandewar, Sunita V. S.; Aborigo, Raymond A.; Hodgson, Abraham V. O.; Kolopack, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Despite the recognition of its importance, guidance on community engagement practices for researchers remains underdeveloped, and there is little empirical evidence of what makes community engagement effective in biomedical research. We chose to study the Navrongo Health Research Centre in northern Ghana because of its well-established community engagement practices and because of the opportunity it afforded to examine community engagement in a traditional African setting. Our findings suggest that specific preexisting features of the community have greatly facilitated community engagement and that using traditional community engagement mechanisms limits the social disruption associated with research conducted by outsiders. Finally, even in seemingly ideal, small, and homogeneous communities, cultural issues exist, such as gender inequities, that may not be effectively addressed by traditional practices alone. PMID:21852635

  15. The Ontario Benthos Biomonitoring Network

    Treesearch

    Chris Jones; Brian Craig; Nicole Dmytrow

    2006-01-01

    Canada’s Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Environment Canada (Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network) are developing an aquatic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring network for Ontario’s lakes, streams, and wetlands. We are building the program, called the Ontario Benthos Biomonitoring Network (OBBN), on the principles of partnership, free data sharing, and...

  16. Population predictors of community health and social service use in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed Central

    Warnes, A M; Armstrong, G K; Peters, D

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of elderly populations associated with variations in their use of community health and personal social services and to test the hypotheses that the variations are related to: (a) the age structure of an elderly population; (b) the population's socioeconomic composition, including the level of deprivation; and (c) household or living arrangements. DESIGN: A common file of 1991 population census and 1994 NHS community trust operational variables was constructed for 67 postcode sectors, with the independent variables describing the age-sex groups to be studied. Clear criteria for the exclusion of "empty" sectors were developed. Relationships using bivariate and multivariate correlation and stepwise multiple regression were explored. SETTING: Eastern Health and Social Services Board area, Northern Ireland (Belfast and hinterland). PARTICIPANTS: Population of statutory pensionable age; in aggregate, younger and older age bands. MAIN RESULTS: The age structure or mean age of the elderly population had only a weak association with the community health and social service client rate, but there were strong associations with socio-economic variables, particularly the percentage of those living alone who were without a car and the percentage of pensioner households that included an adult of below pensionable age. Parsimonious multiple regression models accounted for between 46% and 80% of the variation in the NHS community trust client rate. Greater explanations were achieved for the young elderly population than for those aged 75+ years and, when the population was divided between young and old age bands, for men than for women. CONCLUSIONS: Community health and social services for elderly people in eastern Northern Ireland were focused on those with a low income and those who were not co-resident with adults of working age. When local elderly populations are compared, per capita morbidity and dependency are often higher

  17. Genetic diversity of bacterial communities and gene transfer agents in northern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fu-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Wu, Mei-Lin; Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Sun, Cui-Ci; Cheng, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) amplicons was performed to investigate the unique distribution of bacterial communities in northern South China Sea (nSCS) and evaluate community structure and spatial differences of bacterial diversity. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes constitute the majority of bacteria. The taxonomic description of bacterial communities revealed that more Chroococcales, SAR11 clade, Acidimicrobiales, Rhodobacterales, and Flavobacteriales are present in the nSCS waters than other bacterial groups. Rhodobacterales were less abundant in tropical water (nSCS) than in temperate and cold waters. Furthermore, the diversity of Rhodobacterales based on the gene transfer agent (GTA) major capsid gene (g5) was investigated. Four g5 gene clone libraries were constructed from samples representing different regions and yielded diverse sequences. Fourteen g5 clusters could be identified among 197 nSCS clones. These clusters were also related to known g5 sequences derived from genome-sequenced Rhodobacterales. The composition of g5 sequences in surface water varied with the g5 sequences in the sampling sites; this result indicated that the Rhodobacterales population could be highly diverse in nSCS. Phylogenetic tree analysis result indicated distinguishable diversity patterns among tropical (nSCS), temperate, and cold waters, thereby supporting the niche adaptation of specific Rhodobacterales members in unique environments.

  18. Spatial pattern of spring phytoplankton community in the coastal waters of northern Zhejiang, East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ran; Cai, Yanhong; Wei, Yongjie; Li, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    The spatial pattern of phytoplankton community can indicate potential environmental variation in different water bodies. In this context, spatial pattern of phytoplankton community and its response to environmental and spatial factors were studied in the coastal waters of northern Zhejiang, East China Sea using multivariate statistical techniques. Results showed that 94 species belonging to 40 genera, 5 phyla were recorded (the remaining 9 were identified to genus level) with diatoms being the most dominant followed by dinoflagellates. Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), nonmetric multidimentional scaling (NMDS), and analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) all demomstrated that the whole study area could be divided into 3 subareas with significant differences. Indicator species analysis (ISA) further confirmed that the indicator species of each subarea correlated significantly with specific environmental factors. Distance-based linear model (Distlm) and Mantel test revealed that silicate (SiO32-), phosphate (PO43-), pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO) were the most important environmental factors influencing phytoplankton community. Variation portioning (VP) finally concluded that the shared fractions of environmental and spatial factors were higher than either the pure environmental effects or the pure spatial effects, suggesting phytoplankton biogeography were mainly affected by both the environmental variability and dispersal limitation. Additionally, other factors (eg., trace metals, biological grazing, climate change, and time-scale variation) may also be the sources of the unexplained variation which need further study.

  19. Access and Barriers to Healthcare Vary among Three Neighboring Communities in Northern Honduras.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Catherine A; Stevens, Michael P; Sanogo, Kakotan; Bearman, Gonzalo M L

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to describe and compare access and barriers to health services in three proximal yet topographically distinct communities in northern Honduras served by the nonprofit organization the Honduras Outreach Medical Brigada Relief Effort (HOMBRE). Methods. Study personnel employed a 25-item questionnaire in Spanish at the point of care during HOMBRE clinics in Coyoles, Lomitas, and La Hicaca (N = 220). We describe and compare the responses between sites, using Chi-squared and Fisher Exact tests. Results. Respondents in Lomitas demonstrated the greatest limitations in access and greatest barriers to care of all sites. Major limitations in access included "never" being able to obtain a blood test, obtain radiology services, and see a specialist. Major barriers were cost, distance, facility overcrowding, transportation, being too ill to go, inability to take time off work, and lack of alternate childcare. Conclusions. Despite being under the same local health authority, geographically remote Honduran communities experience greater burdens in healthcare access and barriers than neighboring communities of the same region.

  20. Traditional food availability and consumption in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Megan; Brown, Clare; Georga, Claire; Miles, Edward; Wilson, Alyce; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2017-06-01

    To explore availability, variety and frequency consumption of traditional foods and their role in alleviating food insecurity in remote Aboriginal Australia. Availability was assessed through repeated semi-structured interviews and consumption via a survey. Quantitative data were described and qualitative data classified. Aboriginal and non-Indigenous key informants (n=30 in 2013; n=19 in 2014) from 20 Northern Territory (NT) communities participated in interviews. Aboriginal primary household shoppers (n=73 in 2014) in five of these communities participated in a survey. Traditional foods were reported to be available year-round in all 20 communities. Most participants (89%) reported consuming a variety of traditional foods at least fortnightly and 71% at least weekly. Seventy-six per cent reported being food insecure, with 40% obtaining traditional food during these times. Traditional food is consumed frequently by Aboriginal people living in remote NT. Implications for public health: Quantifying dietary contribution of traditional food would complement estimated population dietary intake. It would contribute evidence of nutrition transition and differences in intakes across age groups and inform dietary, environmental and social interventions and policy. Designing and conducting assessment of traditional food intake in conjunction with Aboriginal leaders warrants consideration. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. Longitudinal Relations between Sectarian and non-Sectarian Community Violence and Child Adjustment in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, E. Mark; Merrilees, Christine E.; Taylor, Laura K.; Shirlow, Peter; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cairns, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Although relations between political violence and child adjustment are well-documented, long-term longitudinal research is needed to adequately address the many questions remaining about the contexts and developmental trajectories underlying the effects on children in areas of political violence. The present study examined relations between sectarian and non-sectarian community violence and adolescent adjustment problems over four consecutive years for mother-child dyads (total N = 1015, 485 boys, 517 girls) living in socially deprived neighborhoods in a context of historical and ongoing political violence, that is, Belfast, Northern Ireland. Both sectarian and non-sectarian community violence predicted youth adjustment across four years, consistent with the hypothesis that both of these elements of the social ecology merit consideration with regard to children's well-being in contexts of political violence. The impact of sectarian community violence on adolescent adjustment was further accentuated in neighborhoods characterized by higher crime rates. Discussion considers the implications for evaluating social ecologies pertinent to the impact of political violence on children. PMID:23880380

  2. Genetic Diversity of Bacterial Communities and Gene Transfer Agents in Northern South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fu-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Wu, Mei-Lin; Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Sun, Cui-Ci; Cheng, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) amplicons was performed to investigate the unique distribution of bacterial communities in northern South China Sea (nSCS) and evaluate community structure and spatial differences of bacterial diversity. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes constitute the majority of bacteria. The taxonomic description of bacterial communities revealed that more Chroococcales, SAR11 clade, Acidimicrobiales, Rhodobacterales, and Flavobacteriales are present in the nSCS waters than other bacterial groups. Rhodobacterales were less abundant in tropical water (nSCS) than in temperate and cold waters. Furthermore, the diversity of Rhodobacterales based on the gene transfer agent (GTA) major capsid gene (g5) was investigated. Four g5 gene clone libraries were constructed from samples representing different regions and yielded diverse sequences. Fourteen g5 clusters could be identified among 197 nSCS clones. These clusters were also related to known g5 sequences derived from genome-sequenced Rhodobacterales. The composition of g5 sequences in surface water varied with the g5 sequences in the sampling sites; this result indicated that the Rhodobacterales population could be highly diverse in nSCS. Phylogenetic tree analysis result indicated distinguishable diversity patterns among tropical (nSCS), temperate, and cold waters, thereby supporting the niche adaptation of specific Rhodobacterales members in unique environments. PMID:25364820

  3. A Benthic Community Index for streams in the Northern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butcher, Jason T.; Stewart, Paul M.; Simon, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    Encompassing the northern glaciated section of the Midwest United States, the Northern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion is characterized by mixed conifer and deciduous forests and wetlands. Sites were randomly selected in the ecoregion using the Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program designed to develop an index of biotic integrity for wadeable streams. Macroinvertebrates were sampled during the fall of 1998 and 1999 using a multi-habitat, composite-sample method. Two hundred forty-six invertebrate taxa in 97 families were collected from 94 sites. Ten of 42 candidate metrics satisfied metric selection criteria, including six structural metrics (number of Ephemeroptera taxa, number of Diptera taxa, richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity, percent Trichoptera abundance, and percent Crustacea and Mollusca abundance), two functional metrics (number of Filterer taxa and number of Scraper taxa), and two conditional metrics (number of Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Plecoptera taxa and Hilsenhoff Biotic Index). These metrics were used to develop a Benthic Community Index to assess the biological integrity of wadeable streams in the ecoregion. Index values ranged from 10 to 50, and scores from impaired sites were significantly different than non-impaired sites (P<0.001). Index values were divided into three narrative interpretations of biological integrity (poor, fair, and good). After further testing, the index may provide a useful biological assessment tool for resource managers in the ecoregion.

  4. Species and community response to above normal precipitation following prolonged drought in the northern Mojave Desert

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, B.W.; Ostler, W.K.

    1993-12-31

    Little information is available on how desert plant communities that are dominated by perennial species respond to normal and above normal precipitation following prolonged drought. Intuitively, one would expect total canopy cover to increase. Whether a concomitant increase in the density of perennial species also occurs is unknown. Even less is known about how individual species respond to above normal precipitation following drought. From 1987 through 1991 a prolonged drought occurred in much of the western United States, including the northern Mojave Desert. In March 1991 the northern Mojave Desert received well above normal precipitation. The following two winters (December--March) also had above normal precipitation (150 to 200 % of normal, unpublished data). Ongoing vegetation characterization studies by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, allowed EG&G Energy Measurements to collect data that could be used to infer how both vegetation associations and individual species respond to above normal precipitation following prolonged drought. This paper reports the preliminary results.

  5. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Recommendations from Urban and Reservation Northern Plains American Indian Community Members.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Tracey R; Hanson, Jessica D; Griese, Emily R; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2015-07-03

    Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program effectiveness, few teen pregnancy prevention programs have published on recommendations for adapting these programs to address the specific needs of Northern Plains American Indian youth. We employed a mixed-methods analysis of 24 focus groups and 20 interviews with a combined total of 185 urban and reservation-based American Indian youth and elders, local health care providers, and local school personnel to detail recommendations for the cultural adaptation, content, and implementation of a teen pregnancy prevention program specific to this population. Gender differences and urban /reservation site differences in the types of recommendations offered and the potential reasons for these differences are discussed.

  6. Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Recommendations from Urban and Reservation Northern Plains American Indian Community Members

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Tracey R.; Hanson, Jessica D.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2015-01-01

    Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that community and cultural adaptation enhance program effectiveness, few teen pregnancy prevention programs have published on recommendations for adapting these programs to address the specific needs of Northern Plains American Indian youth. We employed a mixed-methods analysis of 24 focus groups and 20 interviews with a combined total of 185 urban and reservation-based American Indian youth and elders, local health care providers, and local school personnel to detail recommendations for the cultural adaptation, content, and implementation of a teen pregnancy prevention program specific to this population. Gender differences and urban /reservation site differences in the types of recommendations offered and the potential reasons for these differences are discussed. PMID:26550005

  7. The effect of drought on four plant communities in the northern Mojave Desert

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, B.W.; Ostler, W.K.

    1993-12-31

    Desert plant communities contain many perennial plant species that are well adapted to arid environments; therefore, one would intuitively believe that perennial desert species readily survive drought conditions. Abundant research on plant-soil-water relationships in North American deserts has shown that many species can maintain water uptake and growth when the soil-water potential is low. Little research, however, has focused on how prolonged drought conditions affect plant species in vegetation associations in desert ecosystems. A prolonged and widespread drought occurred in much of the western United States, including the Northern Mojave Desert, from 1987 through 1991. During this drought period vegetation characterization studies, initiated in 1990, by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, allowed EG and G Energy Measurements to collect data that could be used to infer how both desert vegetation associations and desert plant species reacted to a prolonged drought. This paper presents the preliminary results.

  8. Vertically migrating micronekton and macrozooplankton communities around Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suntsov, Andrey; Domokos, Réka

    2013-01-01

    The distribution, biomass, and assemblages of vertically migrating micronekton/macrozooplankton were studied in relation to oceanographic conditions around Guam and the adjacent Northern Mariana Islands during Spring 2010, using 3-m2 Isaacs-Kidd Midwater Trawl (IKMT). The study area was located within the oligotrophic waters of the westward flowing North Equatorial Current (NEC). However, southern stations of the survey were situated close to the northern boundary of the more productive North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC), where we observed the highest biomass, abundance, species richness, and diversity of pelagic organisms. Overall, we recorded 85 species from 20 families of mostly mesopelagic species in the area, with lanternfishes (Myctophidae-40 species) and dragonfishes (Stomiidae-18 species) being the most taxonomically diverse groups. Three genera of mesopelagic shrimps, Sergestes, Janicella and Sergia, dominated the decapod crustacean component of the micronekton community numerically and by biomass, while the contribution from cephalopods was relatively minor. Assemblages of major micronekton/macrozooplankton groups, based on biomass and abundance showed principal changes with latitude. However, the classification and ordination analysis, based on taxonomically resolved taxa (fishes and decapod shrimps), indicated additional zonal variation, with areas east and west of the island chain showing different community structure. The mean total micronekton biomass for the area near the productive boundary region between the NEC and NECC was 5.8 mg/m3, with a mean biomass of 1.2 mg/m3 obtained for stations in the oligotrophic NEC area. The corresponding biomass of mesopelagic fishes was 0.88 mg/m3 and 0.24 mg/m3 for these two areas, respectively. We reviewed and compared the available information on the quantitative distribution of midwater fish biomass in the western tropical Pacific and outlined major patterns of variation in the equatorial Pacific in

  9. Regular Exercise and Depressive Symptoms in Community-Dwelling Elders in Northern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Hung; Chien, Nai-Hui; Chen, Miao-Chuan

    2016-12-01

    According to World Health Organization, depressive disorder will be a Top 2 disease in the world by 2020. In light of Taiwan's rapidly increasing elderly population, elderly psychological health is expected to become an increasingly important issue in healthcare. This study examines the association between regular exercise and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling older adults by gender in northern Taiwan. The participants were selected using a probability-proportional-to-size procedure from community-dwelling adults who were aged 65 years or older and living in northern Taiwan. A cross-sectional study and interviews were used to collect information about their exercise behaviors, depressive symptoms, and the factors influencing the depressive symptoms. Percentage, chi-square, t test, and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. One thousand twenty elderly individuals completed the questionnaires. Among the participants with the average age of 73.5 years, 44.5% were men, and 55.5% were women. Two hundred seventeen of the participants (21.3%) had depressive symptoms. Five hundred eighty-five of the participants (57.4%) exercised regularly. The result of logistic regression showed that regular exercise was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms in elderly individuals (odds ratio = 3.54, 95% confidence interval [1.76, 7.12]). Other factors such as gender, chronicle diseases, and health status were not related to depressive symptoms. Moreover, both for male and female individuals, regular exercise was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms (odds ratio = 4.76, 95% confidence interval [1.65, 13.72] and odds ratio = 3.03, 95% confidence interval [1.18, 7.69], respectively). Other factors were not related to depressive symptoms. This study shows regular exercise to be a significant predictor of depressive symptoms in both men and women. Therefore, senior citizens should be encouragedto exercise regularly as a way to promote good mental health.

  10. Community-based birth waiting homes in Northern Sierra Leone: Factors influencing women's use.

    PubMed

    Kyokan, Michiko; Whitney-Long, Melissa; Kuteh, Mabel; Raven, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    to explore the factors influencing women's use of birth waiting homes in the Northern Bombali district, Sierra Leone. this was a descriptive exploratory study using qualitative research methodology, which included in depth interviews, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, document review and observations. two chiefdoms in the Northern Bombali district, Sierra Leone. eight interviews were conducted with women who had delivered in the past one year and used birth waiting homes; eight key informant interviews with a project manager, birth waiting homes hosts, and community members; thirteen women who delivered in the past year without using birth waiting homes (four interviews and two focus group discussions). there are several factors influencing the use of birth waiting homes (BWHs) including: past experience of childbirth, promotion of the birth waiting homes by traditional birth attendance, distance and costs of transport to the homes, child care and other family commitments, family's views of the importance of the homes, the costs of food during women's stay, and information given to women and families about when and how to use the homes. some barriers, especially those related to family commitments and costs of food, are challenging to solve. In order to make a BWH a user-friendly and viable option, it may be necessary to adjust ways in which BWHs are used. Good linkage with the health system is strength of the programme. However, further strengthening of community participation in monitoring and managing the BWHs is needed for the long term success and sustainability of the BWHs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ontario's Ordinary Countryside.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlwraith, Thomas F.

    1984-01-01

    Rural and small-town Ontario, Canada is introduced through illustrations and discussions of seven typical elements that helped shape the province: cemetery, house, barn, hall, fence, roadscape, and main street. Having students make and discuss sketches is an excellent way to help them learn about the human geography of an area. (RM)

  12. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...

  13. Living in Ontario French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadasdi, Terry

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a variationist analysis of verbs meaning "reside" in Ontario French. Four lexical variants are examined: "demeurer," "habiter," "rester" and "vivre." Results reveal that "rester" is used most often by unrestricted speakers and least often by those whose use of French…

  14. Ontario's Student Voice Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This article describes in some detail aspects of the Student Voice initiative funded and championed by Ontario's Ministry of Education since 2008. The project enables thousands of students to make their voices heard in meaningful ways and to participate in student-led research. Some students from grades 7 to 12 become members of the Student…

  15. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Emily G.; Dhand, Navneet; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information–together with model outputs–would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia’s preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA) in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10–20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community. More than

  16. A Survey of Dog Owners in Remote Northern Australian Indigenous Communities to Inform Rabies Incursion Planning.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Emily G; Dhand, Navneet; Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P

    2016-04-01

    Australia is underprepared for a rabies incursion due to a lack of information about how a rabies outbreak would spread within the susceptible canine populations and which control strategies would be best to control it. The aim of this study was to collect information to parameterize a recently developed dog rabies spread model as well as use this information to gauge how the community would accept potential control strategies. Such information-together with model outputs-would be used to inform decision makers on the best control strategies and improve Australia's preparedness against a canine rabies incursion. The parameters this study focussed on were detection time, vaccination rates and dog-culling and dog movement restriction compliance. A cross-sectional survey of 31 dog-owners, using a questionnaire, was undertaken in the five communities of the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA) in northern Australia regarding community dog movements, veterinary visits, reporting systems, perceptions of sick dogs and potential human behaviours during hypothetical rabies outbreaks. It highlighted the significant shortfalls in veterinary care that would need to be vastly improved during an outbreak, who educational programs should be targeted towards and which dog movements should be restricted. The results indicate that men were significantly more likely than women to allow their dogs to roam and to move their dogs. The current low vaccination rate of 12% highlighted the limited veterinary services that would need to be substantially increased to achieve effective rabies control. Participation in mass vaccination was accepted by 100% of the respondents. There was lower acceptance for other possible rabies control strategies with 10-20% of the respondents stating a resistance to both a mass culling program and a ban on dog movements. Consequently, movement bans and mass dog culling would have limited effectiveness as a control strategy in the NPA community. More than half of the

  17. Modeling wetland plant community response to assess water-level regulation scenarios in the Lake Ontario-St. Lawrence River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudon, Christiane; Wilcox, Douglas; Ingram, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The International Joint Commission has recently completed a five-year study (2000-2005) to review the operation of structures controlling the flows and levels of the Lake Ontario - St. Lawrence River system. In addition to addressing the multitude of stakeholder interests, the regulation plan review also considers environmental sustainability and integrity of wetlands and various ecosystem components. The present paper outlines the general approach, scientific methodology and applied management considerations of studies quantifying the relationships between hydrology and wetland plant assemblages (% occurrence, surface area) in Lake Ontario and the Upper and Lower St. Lawrence River. Although similar study designs were used across the study region, different methodologies were required that were specifically adapted to suit the important regional differences between the lake and river systems, range in water-level variations, and confounding factors (geomorphic types, exposure, sediment characteristics, downstream gradient of water quality, origin of water masses in the Lower River). Performance indicators (metrics), such as total area of wetland in meadow marsh vegetation type, that link wetland response to water levels will be used to assess the effects of different regulation plans under current and future (climate change) water-supply scenarios.

  18. Significant and persistent impact of timber harvesting on soil microbial communities in Northern coniferous forests

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Martin; Howes, Charles G; VanInsberghe, David; Yu, Hang; Bachar, Dipankar; Christen, Richard; Henrik Nilsson, Rolf; Hallam, Steven J; Mohn, William W

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems have integral roles in climate stability, biodiversity and economic development. Soil stewardship is essential for sustainable forest management. Organic matter (OM) removal and soil compaction are key disturbances associated with forest harvesting, but their impacts on forest ecosystems are not well understood. Because microbiological processes regulate soil ecology and biogeochemistry, microbial community structure might serve as indicator of forest ecosystem status, revealing changes in nutrient and energy flow patterns before they have irreversible effects on long-term soil productivity. We applied massively parallel pyrosequencing of over 4.6 million ribosomal marker sequences to assess the impact of OM removal and soil compaction on bacterial and fungal communities in a field experiment replicated at six forest sites in British Columbia, Canada. More than a decade after harvesting, diversity and structure of soil bacterial and fungal communities remained significantly altered by harvesting disturbances, with individual taxonomic groups responding differentially to varied levels of the disturbances. Plant symbionts, like ectomycorrhizal fungi, and saprobic taxa, such as ascomycetes and actinomycetes, were among the most sensitive to harvesting disturbances. Given their significant ecological roles in forest development, the fate of these taxa might be critical for sustainability of forest ecosystems. Although abundant bacterial populations were ubiquitous, abundant fungal populations often revealed a patchy distribution, consistent with their higher sensitivity to the examined soil disturbances. These results establish a comprehensive inventory of bacterial and fungal community composition in northern coniferous forests and demonstrate the long-term response of their structure to key disturbances associated with forest harvesting. PMID:22855212

  19. Photophysiology and Light Absorption Properties of the Phytoplankton Community in the Northern Gulf Of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Lohrenz, S. E.; Gundersen, K.

    2016-02-01

    Studies on phytoplankton photophysiology are few in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and are mainly limited to the shallow inner-shelf and the immediate plume area of the Mississippi River. Here we expand our knowledge during the course of five research cruises between January 2009 and March 2010. We explored how variations in phytoplankton optical and photosynthetic properties were related to variability in their community composition. Phytoplankton photosynthesis parameters were quantified from photosynthesis versus irradiance (P-E) curves; phytoplankton community and light absorption properties were also determined from alongside analyses of pigments and spectral absorption. The maximum rate of photosynthesis (PBmax) normalized to chlorophyll-a showed an increasing trend from the plume to offshore waters and was significantly higher (K-S test, p<0.05) in the prochlorophyte and cyanobacteria-dominated communities. Maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic carbon fixation (Φcmax) differed significantly between the zones, Φcmax was significantly higher (K-S test, p<0.05) in diatom-dominated high chlorophyll plume environment. Both PBmax and Φcmax varied significantly (p<0.05) with the blue to red ratio of phytoplankton spectral absorption (aφ(440)/aφ(676)) but in opposite direction (r = 0.5 and r = -0.39 respectively). However, the initial slope of the P-E curve (αB) normalized to chlorophyll-a varied widely across the continental margin and were independent of the community composition. and were positively correlated and were strongly related to the relative abundance of diatoms in comparison to other groups. The results presented in this study will help in understanding the photophysiological basis of variability in regional primary production and thereby improve accuracies of phytoplankton primary production estimates to better predict future changes from remotely sensed data.

  20. The FACE YOUR FEAR Club: Therapeutic Group Work with Young Children as a Response to Community Trauma in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, David; Thomson, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines therapeutic group work with young children in response to acute community trauma in Northern Ireland. The children in question were the focus of a highly publicised dispute concerning access to their school. The work was carried out by NOVA, a Barnardo's trauma support service. Part one outlines the theoretical framework. It…

  1. Towards Educational Inclusion in a Transforming Society: Some Lessons from Community Relations and Special Needs Education in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Sean; Smith, Ron

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the socially constructed ideas that have come to be given the status of taken-for-granted knowledge within not one, but two, fields of professional practice in Northern Irish schools; community relations and special needs education. Dominant discourses were viewed as constructing norms around which educational professionals…

  2. Emergence of sequence type 398 as a community- and healthcare-associated methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus in northern Manhattan.

    PubMed

    Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Hafer, Cory; Miko, Benjamin A; Sowash, Madeleine G; Sullivan, Sean B; Shu, Qiuhu; Lowy, Franklin D

    2013-09-01

    The methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) clone sequence type (ST) 398 has increasingly been identified as a pathogen in diverse geographic settings, yet its epidemiology remains incompletely understood. In this case-control study of MSSA infections, we identified ST398 MSSA as both a major community- and hospital-associated MSSA pathogen in the Dominican neighborhood of northern Manhattan.

  3. Early response of ground layer plant communities to wildfire and harvesting disturbance in forested peatland ecosystems in northern Minnesota, USA

    Treesearch

    Erika R. Rowe; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; John C. Almendinger

    2017-01-01

    A rare, stand-replacing fire in northern Minnesota, USA provided the opportunity to compare the effects of wildfire and timber harvesting in two peatland forest communities, nutrient-poor black spruce (Picea mariana) bogs (BSB) and nutrient-rich tamarack (Larix laricina) swamps (RTS). We found the response between the two...

  4. The Roles of Emerging and Conventional Technologies in Serving Children and Adolescents with Special Needs in Rural and Northern Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Judy; O'Sullivan, Julia; Howard, Joan

    2005-01-01

    More than a century of Canadian and international experience and research in open and distance learning indicates that traditional and emerging technologies can be used effectively, alone or in combination, to provide access to services and education for adults and children living in rural and northern communities. However, although there is an…

  5. Developing a Play-Based Communication Assessment through Collaborative Action Research with Teachers in Northern Canadian Indigenous Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagg Peterson, Shelley

    2017-01-01

    With the goal of developing culturally appropriate approaches for assessing and supporting children's language use, teachers of 4-to 6-year-old children in northern Canadian rural and Indigenous communities are involved in a 6-year collaborative action research project. Teachers video record children's interactions during dramatic and construction…

  6. Developing a Play-Based Communication Assessment through Collaborative Action Research with Teachers in Northern Canadian Indigenous Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagg Peterson, Shelley

    2017-01-01

    With the goal of developing culturally appropriate approaches for assessing and supporting children's language use, teachers of 4-to 6-year-old children in northern Canadian rural and Indigenous communities are involved in a 6-year collaborative action research project. Teachers video record children's interactions during dramatic and construction…

  7. Conceptions of Parenting in Different Cultural Communities: The Case of West African Nso and Northern German Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Heidi; Voelker, Susanne; Yovsi, Relindis Dzeaye

    2005-01-01

    The present study compares conceptions about parenting in two cultural communities that may be expected to hold different views on parent-child relationships. Sociodemographically diverse samples of 46 Northern German and 39 West African Nso women evaluated parenting behavior observed in 10 Nso and 10 German videotaped mother-infant interaction…

  8. Community Management of Endemic Scabies in Remote Aboriginal Communities of Northern Australia: Low Treatment Uptake and High Ongoing Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    La Vincente, Sophie; Kearns, Therese; Connors, Christine; Cameron, Scott; Carapetis, Jonathan; Andrews, Ross

    2009-01-01

    Background Scabies and skin infections are endemic in many Australian Aboriginal communities. There is limited evidence for effective models of scabies treatment in high prevalence settings. We aimed to assess the level of treatment uptake amongst clinically diagnosed scabies cases and amongst their household contacts. In addition, we aimed to determine the likelihood of scabies acquisition within these households over the 4 weeks following treatment provision. Methods and Findings We conducted an observational study of households in two scabies-endemic Aboriginal communities in northern Australia in which a community-based skin health program was operating. Permethrin treatment was provided for all householders upon identification of scabies within a household during home visit. Households were visited the following day to assess treatment uptake and at 2 and 4 weeks to assess scabies acquisition among susceptible individuals. All 40 households in which a child with scabies was identified agreed to participate in the study. Very low levels of treatment uptake were reported among household contacts of these children (193/440, 44%). Household contacts who themselves had scabies were more likely to use the treatment than those contacts who did not have scabies (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.1, 5.4), whilst males (OR 0.6, 95%CI 0.42, 0.95) and individuals from high-scabies-burden households (OR 0.2, 95%CI 0.08, 0.77) were less likely to use the treatment. Among 185 susceptible individuals, there were 17 confirmed or probable new diagnoses of scabies recorded in the subsequent 4 weeks (9.2%). The odds of remaining scabies-free was almost 6 times greater among individuals belonging to a household where all people reported treatment uptake (OR 5.9, 95%CI 1.3, 27.2, p = 0.02). Conclusion There is an urgent need for a more practical and feasible treatment for community management of endemic scabies. The effectiveness and sustainability of the current scabies program was compromised

  9. Patterns in nematode community during and after experimentally induced anoxia in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Mehrshad; Grego, Mateja; Riedel, Bettina; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2015-09-01

    The effect of short and long-term induced anoxia on a benthic nematode community and its potential for recovery after reoxygenation were investigated in an in situ experiment on a silty-sand bottom in the Gulf of Trieste, the northern Adriatic Sea. Anoxia was created artificially by three underwater benthic Plexiglas chambers at a depth of 24 m. Treatments lasted for 2, 23 and 307 days. Control samples (Normoxia) were taken on 3 (Normoxia 1) and 25 (Normoxia 2) August 2010 outside the chambers (4-5 m further). After opening the chambers, recovery cores were taken after 7 days (Anoxia 2D), 30 days (Anoxia 23D) and 90 days (Anoxia 307D). Our results revealed that short-term anoxia (Anoxia 2D) did not affect nematode total density and diversity, community structure and their vertical distribution in the sediment. However, total and vertical nematode density, species richness and diversity decreased at 23 days and decreased further at 307 days anoxia. Some nematode species like Metalinhomoeus effilatus, Paralinhomoeus caxinus and Terschellingia longicaudata even survived at 307 days anoxia treatment. Our results also demonstrated that nematode community exposed to 23 days anoxia did not recover after 30 days sediment reoxygenation but, a full recovery was observed after 90 days for nematode community exposed to 307 days anoxia. Feeding type contribution (functional aspect) of the nematode community also changed at the anoxia treatments and during the recovery process. This change was most drastic at the Anoxia 23D and 307D treatments. At both Normoxia and Anoxia 2D treatments, selective deposit feeders (1A), non-selective deposit feeders (1B) and epistrate (diatom) feeders (2A) nematodes were observed in the dominant nematode community. Epistrate feeders disappeared from in the Anoxia 23D treatment epistrate and also selective deposit feeders did not belong to the dominant nematode species in the Anoxia 307D treatment. After the recovery process, epistrate feeders

  10. Helping northern Ethiopian communities reduce childhood mortality: population-based intervention trial.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammed; Asefaw, Teklehaimanot; Byass, Peter; Beyene, Hagos; Pedersen, F. Karup

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: More than 10 million children die each year mostly from preventable causes and particularly in developing countries. WHO guidelines for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) are intended to reduce childhood mortality and are being implemented in Ethiopia. As well as specific clinical interventions, the role of the community in understanding and acting on childhood sickness is an important factor in improving survival. This trial sought to assess the effect on survival of community-based health promotion activities. METHODS: Two districts in northern Ethiopia were studied, each with a random sample of more than 4000 children less than 5 years old. Regular six-monthly visits were made to document deaths among children. After the first year, communities in one district were educated about issues of good childcare and caring for sick children while the other district received this information only after the trial ended. FINDINGS: Although overall mortality was higher in the post-intervention period, most of the increase was seen in the control area. A Cox proportional hazards model gave an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.66 (95% confidence interval = 0.46-0.95) for the intervention area compared with the control area in the post-intervention period, with no significant pre-intervention difference. Significant survival advantages were found for females, children of younger fathers, those with married parents, those living in larger households, and those whose nearest health facility was a health centre. For all of the children who died, only 44% of parents or caregivers had sought health care before the child's death. CONCLUSION: This non-specific community-based public health intervention, as an addition to IMCI strategies in local health facilities, appears to have significantly reduced childhood mortality in these communities. The possibility that such interventions may not effectively reach certain social groups (for example single parents) is

  11. Cretaceous palaeoenvironmental changes inferred from foraminifera communities in the Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfgring, Erik; Wagreich, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The outcrop at Postalm (Northern Calcareous Alps) exhibits the development of a marine environment from a comparatively shallow shelf to bathyal environment. Cyclic marly limestones with marl intercalations display an almost complete Santonian to Maastrichtian succession. Within this succession a well defined interval, the R. calcarata total range zone has already undergone detailed stratigraphic investigation. The implementation of a cyclostratigraphic model, providing the exact duration of precession cycles (i.e. 19,6 ka), was followed by a high resolution assessment of foraminifera and nannoplankton communities of this interval (Wagreich et al., 2012). Over 300 bed-by-bed samples have been taken alongside the outcrop to give a "per-cycle" resolution. As foraminifera data suggest the outcrop covers an interval ranging from the uppermost Santonian Dicarinella asymetrica to the Maastrichtian Gansserina gansseri Zone (nannofossil zones CC17 to CC22) and indicates several changes in palaeoenvironment. The lowermost part of the section (uppermost Santonian) displays a comparatively shallow shelf environment yielding high percentage of benthic foraminifera. Highly diverse foraminifera communities can be identified. Planktic and shallow water benthic species are present in equal numbers. Furthermore, bivalves, sponges and echinoderms are highly abundant in the lower parts of the section. A distinct deepening can be observed from the basal Campanian to the Maastrichtian. Changes in foraminifera communities are evident. The upper parts of the section display foraminifera packstone yielding predominantly planktic foraminifera. Benthic foraminifera are present in almost every sample in varying numbers but never exceeding a 10 percent share of the total foraminifera community. The taxonomic composition of benthic foraminifera communities shows a high amount of infaunal agglutinating species in the stratigraphically younger sections of the outcrop. The uppermost part of the

  12. Restless legs syndrome in a population of northern Tanzania: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Andrea Sylvia; Trendafilova, Anna; Meindl, Michael; Kaaya, John; Schmutzhard, Erich; Kassubek, Jan

    2010-04-15

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a highly prevalent movement disorder. However, prevalences seem to vary amongst different ethnicities. To date, no community-based prevalence studies on RLS have been reported from the African continent. We have conducted a community-based, door-to-door study in northern Tanzania. Over a period of 16 months, 7,654 people aged 14 years and older were screened for the RLS Essential Diagnostic Criteria. Sampling was performed according to the method of "multistage cluster sampling." People who screened positive where reinterviewed and physically examined by a specialist neurologist. During the screening phase, 10 people answered "yes" to at least one of the screening questions. After reinterviewing those people, the result was confirmed in five people only. After careful re-evaluation of the results, only one person was diagnosed with RLS. Because of methodological limitations a definite prevalence may only be calculated from larger population-based studies of different African ethnicities with screening questions adapted to the cultural context.

  13. Responses of molluscan communities to centuries of human impact in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Gallmetzer, Ivo; Haselmair, Alexandra; Tomašových, Adam; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In sediment cores spanning ~500 years of history in the Gulf of Trieste, down-core changes in molluscan community structure are characterized by marked shifts in species and functional composition. Between the 16th and 19th century, a strong heavy metal contamination of the sediments, most notably by Hg, together with the effects of natural climatic oscillations (increased sedimentation and organic enrichment) drive community changes. Since the early 20th century up to 2013, the combined impacts of cultural eutrophication, frequent hypoxic events and intensifying bottom trawling replace heavy metal contamination and climatic factors as the main drivers. The pollution-tolerant and opportunistic bivalve Corbula gibba and the scavenging gastropod Nassarius pygmaeus significantly increase in abundance during the 20th century, while species more sensitive to disturbances and hypoxia such as Turritella communis and Kurtiella bidentata become rare or absent. An infaunal life habit and scavenging emerge as the dominant life strategies during the late 20th century. Down-core shifts in the proportional abundances of molluscan species and functional groups represent a sensitive proxy for past ecological changes and reveal a century-long anthropogenic impact as the main driver behind these processes in the northern Adriatic Sea, offering also a unique perspective for other shallow marine ecosystems worldwide.

  14. Relationship between subsurface sedimentology and occurrence of vegetation communities of northern Minnesota boreal peatlands

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.P.; Siegel, D.I.; Romanowicz, E.A. . Dept. of Geology); Glaser, P.H. )

    1992-01-01

    A recent hydrologic and pore-water chemistry study of the 7,500 km[sup 2] Lake Agassiz Peatlands in northern Minnesota suggest that local groundwater flow through the peat in the Lake Agassiz Peatland is superimposed on a regional flow system. Discharge of the regional flow system into the peasants through the underlying lacustrine sediments controls the occurrence of vegetation communities. These peatlands have distinct vegetation communities; bogs and fens. Bogs have 0.5 to 3 meters relief above adjacent fens are dominated by Picea mariana, Carex oligosperma, and ericaceous shrubs with a continuous mat of Sphagnum moss. Fens are dominated by sedges, such as Carex lasiocarpa and Rhynchospora alba and various Amblystigeaceae mosses. Bogs and fens are hydrologically distinct. It is commonly thought that bogs are isolated from groundwater, receiving most of the water from precipitation, with fens having lateral groundwater flow. The findings indicate that, contrary to common belief, bogs in Lake Agassiz are located over areas of regional groundwater discharge with a shallow local recharging system. However, during droughts the hydrology of bogs change as the regional flow system begins to dominate while the shallow recharging system diminishes. A grain size distribution study of the lacustrine sediments underlying the peat indicate that sediments under bogs are generally coarser than sediments under adjacent fens. Consequently sediments under the bogs have higher hydraulic conductivity than the adjacent fens. The implication of this study is that placement of bogs may be controlled by regional groundwater discharge through areas of high hydraulic conductivity.

  15. Promising performance of a juvenile justice diversion programme in remote Aboriginal communities, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Clough, Alan R; Kim San Lee, Kylie; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2008-07-01

    Diversion from court and prison has been recommended for Indigenous Australian youth who commit offences. As no evaluations of such programmes have been published, we describe processes and early outcomes of a diversion programme in the Northern Territory. From 2003 to 2006, among 1700 remote Indigenous community residents, 35 young people (aged 11-18 years, median 15 years) committed offences. They were diverted from criminal justice and referred to a community-based diversion initiative. Client assessment records and staff interviews furnished data to examine clients' diversion pathways and early programme results. Eighteen clients were reportedly using a substance at the time of their offence; cannabis (n = 9), petrol (n = 5), alcohol (n = 4). The remaining 17 had histories of using one or more of these. Two clients could not complete local diversion programs because they moved to other regions; one case was not pursued for legal reasons, leaving 32 clients exposed to the local programme. By July 2006, four clients were continuing in their programmes, three had breached them, but 25 had completed them in periods ranging from 2 to 60 weeks (median = 26 weeks), a completion rate of 89% (25/28). Just one client re-offended after completing diversion. A high completion rate was achieved despite: a dearth of locally available drug and alcohol treatment services and diversion options; shifts in police approaches; heavy administrative burdens to meet legal requirements; and difficulties communicating across cultural barriers.

  16. Protecting Place Through Community Alliances: Haida Gwaii Responds to the Proposed Enbridge Northern Gateway Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crist, Valine

    This research contributes to the emerging dialogue concerning power relationships and the alliances that are challenging current frameworks in an attempt to create positive change. Worldwide, local people in rural places are threatened by development paradigms and conflicting social, political, economic, and ecological values. Large-scale development, such as the Enbridge Northern Gateway Project (NGP), provide a tangible example of our failing systems and make the interplay of these elements palpable. Increasingly, communities are coalescing to challenge the current models and economically motivated agendas threatening Indigenous sovereignty and local lifeways. Central to these coalitions are Indigenous peoples who are aligning with non-Indigenous neighbours to renegotiate power relationships. This research examines these dynamic alliances and uses Haida Gwaii's resistance to the NGP as an example of the formidable strength of community coalitions mobilized by intersecting values. To contextualize the NGP within the broader discourse, I problematize Canada's environmental assessment process and consider how media portrays the growing resistance to the proposed project. Drawing on information presented through the environmental assessment, I analyze the main messages and shared values of Haida Gwaii citizens opposed to the NGP. This thesis focuses on this unanimous and galvanizing resistance, which is largely motivated by the reliance on local food sources and an embodied connection to Haida Gwaii shared by Island citizens. The continued denial of Aboriginal title and rights was inherent throughout this consideration and is an underlying theme throughout the analyses.

  17. Asymmetric competition in larval amphibian communities: conservation implications for the northern crawfish frog, Rana areolata circulosa.

    PubMed

    Parris, Matthew J; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    1998-08-01

    Asymmetric competition in larval amphibians can influence population dynamics and community structure. This density-dependent regulatory mechanism may be of particular importance for rare or endangered species such as the northern crawfish frog, Rana areolata circulosa. Interspecific competition of R. areolata with two congenerics, R. blairi and R. sphenocephala, was examined in artificial ponds. Analysis of covariance (differential mortality covariate) indicated that interspecific competition increased larval period length and decreased metamorphic body mass of R. areolata. The number of metamorphs produced was lower for R. blairi ponds when reared with R. areolata at high density. Body mass at metamorphosis was larger for R. sphenocephala when reared with R. areolata, suggesting that R. areolata facilitates larval growth in R. sphenocephala. These results indicate that the larval performance of R. areolata was reduced in the presence of interspecific competitors. Although many conservation efforts emphasize the preservation of critical habitat or particular rare species, interactive effects of biotic components in the focal community may also be important demographic regulators.

  18. Polychaetes associated with the sciaphilic alga community in the northern Aegean Sea: spatial and temporal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniadou, C.; Nicolaidou, A.; Chintiroglou, C.

    2004-10-01

    Polychaete biodiversity has received little attention despite its importance in biomonitoring. This study describes polychaete diversity, and its spatial and temporal variability in infralittoral, hard substrate assemblages. Seven stations were chosen in the central area of the northern Aegean Sea. At each station, one to three depth levels were set (15, 30 and 40 m). Five replicates were collected by scuba diving with a quadrat sampler (400 cm2) from each station and depth level during summer for the spatial analysis, and seasonally for the study of temporal changes. Common biocoenotic methods were employed (estimation of numerical abundance, mean dominance, frequency, Margalef's richness, Shannon-Weaver index and Pielou's evenness). A total of 5,494 individuals, belonging to 79 species, were counted and classified. Diversity indices were always high. Clustering and multidimensional scaling techniques indicated a high heterogeneity of the stations, although these were all characterized by the sciaphilic alga community. A clear seasonal pattern was not detectable. Summer and autumn samples discriminate, while winter and spring form an even group. The abundance/biomass comparison indicated a dominance of k-strategy patterns, characteristic of stable communities.

  19. Phytoplankton pigment patterns and community composition in the northern South China Sea during winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Hongchang; Ning, Xiuren; Tang, Xuexi; Hao, Qiang; Le, Fengfeng; Qiao, Jing

    2011-03-01

    Phytoplankton pigment patterns and community composition were investigated in the northern South China Sea using high-performance liquid chromatography and the CHEMTAX software from February 11 to 23, 2009. We recognized four different vertical distribution patterns of pigments: chlorophyll a (Chi a)-like type, divinyl chlorophyll a (DV Chi a) type, even distribution type, and surface type. The average value of ratios of accessory photo-protective pigments (APP) to accessory photo-synthetic pigments was 0.89±0.63 in the upper 50 m and 0.16±0.06 below 50 m depth. With increasing depth, APP decreased and photo-synthetically active radiation was attenuated. There was an obvious succession in the phytoplankton community from inshore to the open sea. Diatoms were dominant in the inshore region, while pelagophytes, Prochlorococcus, cyanobacteria and prymnesiophytes were dominant in the open sea. The vertical distribution of phytoplankton also differed greatly from inshore to the open sea. In the coastal and shelf region, diatoms were important components in the whole water column. Cyanobacteria also had a high abundance at the Subsurface Chlorophyll a Maxima (SCM) in the shelf region. In the slope and open sea, Prochlorococcus and cyanobacteria were important groups above the SCM, while pelagophytes dominated below the SCM.

  20. Obstetric fistula and sociocultural practices in Hausa community of Northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Amodu, Oluwakemi C; Salami, Bukola; Richter, Solina

    2017-03-07

    Obstetric Fistula is a childbirth injury that disproportionately affects women in sub-Saharan Africa. Although poverty plays an important role in perpetuating obstetric fistula, sociocultural practices has a significant influence on susceptibility to the condition. This paper aims to explore narratives in the literature on obstetric fistula in the context of Hausa ethno-lingual community of Northern Nigeria and the potential role of nurses and midwives in addressing obstetric fistula. Three major cultural practices predispose Hausa women to obstetric fistula: early marriages and early child bearing; unskilled birth attendance and female circumcision and sociocultural constraints to healthcare access for women during childbirth. There is a failure to implement the International rights of the girl child in Nigeria which makes early child marriage persist. The Hausa tradition constrains the decision making power of women for seeking health care during childbirth. In addition, there is a shortage of nurses and midwives to provide healthcare service to women during childbirth. To improve health access for women, there is a need to increase political commitment and budget for health human resource distribution to underserved areas in the Hausa community. There is also a need to advance power and voice of women to resist oppressive traditions and to provide them with empowerment opportunities to improve their social status. The practice of traditional birth attendants can be regulated and the primary health care services strengthened. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Responses of molluscan communities to centuries of human impact in the northern Adriatic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Haselmair, Alexandra; Tomašových, Adam; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In sediment cores spanning ~500 years of history in the Gulf of Trieste, down-core changes in molluscan community structure are characterized by marked shifts in species and functional composition. Between the 16th and 19th century, a strong heavy metal contamination of the sediments, most notably by Hg, together with the effects of natural climatic oscillations (increased sedimentation and organic enrichment) drive community changes. Since the early 20th century up to 2013, the combined impacts of cultural eutrophication, frequent hypoxic events and intensifying bottom trawling replace heavy metal contamination and climatic factors as the main drivers. The pollution-tolerant and opportunistic bivalve Corbula gibba and the scavenging gastropod Nassarius pygmaeus significantly increase in abundance during the 20th century, while species more sensitive to disturbances and hypoxia such as Turritella communis and Kurtiella bidentata become rare or absent. An infaunal life habit and scavenging emerge as the dominant life strategies during the late 20th century. Down-core shifts in the proportional abundances of molluscan species and functional groups represent a sensitive proxy for past ecological changes and reveal a century-long anthropogenic impact as the main driver behind these processes in the northern Adriatic Sea, offering also a unique perspective for other shallow marine ecosystems worldwide. PMID:28723935

  2. A Multivariate Approach for Using Satellite Imagery to Map the Composition and Structure of Forests Susceptible to Insect Disturbance: Application to the Simulation of Carbon Dynamics in Northern Minnesota and Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, P. A.; Wolter, P. T.

    2007-12-01

    Compared to other forest disturbances, insects and disease influence the largest area of forests in both the U.S. and Canada, affecting an estimated 50 million acres in the U.S. with economic costs over $1.5 billion. The successful understanding and modeling of ecosystem impacts of insect disturbances (especially for carbon dynamics) requires good knowledge of the spatial distribution, density and structure of host species on the landscape. In this study, we mapped the distribution of host species for the spruce budworm ( Choristoneura fumiferana) to facilitate landscape scale planning and modeling of outbreak dynamics. Spruce budworm is one of the most destructive indigenous pests in sub-boreal and boreal spruce-fir forests in the United States and Canada. Although periodic outbreaks are part of the natural cycle in these forests, traditional forest management practices may be responsible for increasing the frequency and severity of outbreaks. Currently, accurate spatially explicit forest structure data for such endeavors remains a persistent challenge and considerable research has focused on using remote sensing to identify methodologies to facilitate accurate estimation of stand volume and/or biomass. We used multi-temporal, multi-seasonal Landsat data and over 230 ground truth plots (and 220 additional validation plots) to map basal area (BA), for over two million hectares of forest in northern Minnesota and neighboring Ontario. BA was mapped both overall and for two spruce budworm host tree species ( Picea glauca and Abies balsamea) using partial least squares (PLS) regression applied to raw spectral bands, various spectral derivatives, and ground truth data. Results of the PLS regression yielded reasonable estimates of overall forest BA with an adjusted R2 of 0.62 and RMSE 4.67 m2 ha-1. White spruce relative BA had an adjusted R2 of 0.88 (RMSE 12.57 m2ha-1) and balsam fir relative BA had an adjusted R2 of 0.64 (RMSE 6.08 m2ha-1). The method also produced

  3. College Perspective '75: New Thrusts, New Musts. Proceedings, Annual International Institute on the Community College (6th, Lambton College, Sarnia, Ontario, June 9-12, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgrosso, G. M., Ed.; Allan, G. B., Ed.

    These conference papers deal with many topics of current interest to community college educators in the United States and Canada. Subjects discussed include: staff development as institutional change; adult education; personhood development in the community college; community-based education priorities and alternative futures; community college…

  4. Payments for ecosystem services as a framework for community-based conservation in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Fred; Foley, Charles; Foley, Lara S; Leposo, Abraham; Loure, Edward; Peterson, David; Peterson, Mike; Peterson, Thad; Sachedina, Hassan; Williams, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    Payments for ecosystem services (PES) are an increasingly promoted approach to conservation. These approaches seek to develop financial mechanisms that create economic incentives for the maintenance of ecosystems and associated biodiversity by rewarding those who are responsible for provision of ecological services. There are, however, few cases in which such schemes have been used as a strategy for conserving wildlife in developing countries and very few operational examples of such schemes of any sort in sub-Saharan Africa. In savannah ecosystems, large mammal populations generally depend on seasonal use of extensive areas and are widely declining as a result of habitat loss, overexploitation, and policies that limit local benefits from wildlife. Community-based conservation strategies seek to create local incentives for conserving wildlife, but often have limited impact as a result of persistent institutional barriers that limit local rights and economic benefits. In northern Tanzania, a consortium of tourism operators is attempting to address these challenges through an agreement with a village that possesses part of a key wildlife dispersal area outside Tarangire National Park. The operators pay the community to enforce voluntary restrictions on agricultural cultivation and permanent settlement in a defined area of land. The initiative represents a potentially cost-effective framework for community-based conservation in an ecologically important area and is helping to reconcile historically conflicting local and national interests relative to land tenure, pastoralist livelihoods, and conservation. Wider adaptation of payments for ecosystem services approaches to settings where sustaining wildlife populations depends on local stewardship may help address current challenges facing conservation outside state-protected areas in savannah ecosystems in sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the world.

  5. Qualitative Research to Design Sustainable Community-Based Surveillance for Rabies in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Victoria J; Kennedy, Emma; Dhagapan, Phillipa; Ward, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    Given the proximity and recent spread of rabies in Indonesia, effective rabies surveillance in dogs is a priority in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG). Reporting of potential cases requires community engagement; therefore, the value and acceptability of such a system is critical to ensure sustainable surveillance. We used qualitative research methods to identify factors that influence the acceptability and value of community-based rabies surveillance. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in 16 communities in East Arnhem, the Northern Peninsula Area, the Torres Strait in Australia, and in Western Province, PNG. Thematic analysis identified common themes including the importance of verbal communication, particularly via radio, community meetings, and direct conversation. We also found that dogs have high value to community members through connection to culture, economic (especially hunting), and companionship. The greatest barrier to the reporting of sick dogs was insufficient veterinary services and the subsequent lack of treatment response. In some regions, acceptance that sick dogs are a normal daily occurrence and lack of trust of authorities were also barriers to reporting. The findings from this study will be used to design sustainable rabies surveillance in Northern Australia and PNG by utilizing traditional communication channels and building on existing and valued animal-management services. The methods and findings of this study complement previous quantitative research, so as to target surveillance to high-risk areas within these regions.

  6. Qualitative Research to Design Sustainable Community-Based Surveillance for Rabies in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Brookes, Victoria J.; Kennedy, Emma; Dhagapan, Phillipa; Ward, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Given the proximity and recent spread of rabies in Indonesia, effective rabies surveillance in dogs is a priority in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG). Reporting of potential cases requires community engagement; therefore, the value and acceptability of such a system is critical to ensure sustainable surveillance. We used qualitative research methods to identify factors that influence the acceptability and value of community-based rabies surveillance. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in 16 communities in East Arnhem, the Northern Peninsula Area, the Torres Strait in Australia, and in Western Province, PNG. Thematic analysis identified common themes including the importance of verbal communication, particularly via radio, community meetings, and direct conversation. We also found that dogs have high value to community members through connection to culture, economic (especially hunting), and companionship. The greatest barrier to the reporting of sick dogs was insufficient veterinary services and the subsequent lack of treatment response. In some regions, acceptance that sick dogs are a normal daily occurrence and lack of trust of authorities were also barriers to reporting. The findings from this study will be used to design sustainable rabies surveillance in Northern Australia and PNG by utilizing traditional communication channels and building on existing and valued animal-management services. The methods and findings of this study complement previous quantitative research, so as to target surveillance to high-risk areas within these regions. PMID:28275611

  7. Perceptions and experiences of perinatal mental disorders in rural, predominantly ethnic minority communities in northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Daniel; Nguyen, Liem T; Murphy, Jill; Lee, Younji Angie; Tran, Nhu K; Wiljer, David

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary research has suggested that perinatal mental disorders (PMDs), including post-partum depression, are prevalent in Vietnam. However the extent to which these disorders are recognized at the community level remains largely undocumented in the literature. PMDs have also never been investigated within Vietnam's significant ethnic minority populations, who are known to bear a greater burden of maternal and infant health challenges than the ethnic majority. To investigate knowledge and perceptions of PMDs and their treatments at the community level in a rural, predominantly ethnic minority region of northern Vietnam. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted on the topic of common PMDs. Participant groups were primary health workers (PHWs) working at local community health centers, and pregnant or postpartum women enrolled in a program for maternal and infant health that was not mental health related. Interviews included vignette scenarios that asked respondents to interpret cases of women experiencing PMDs, as well as open-ended questions about mental disorders and their treatments. Twelve PHWs and 14 perinatal women completed the study. Major themes that emerged from the interviews included (1) Family relationships impact psychological well-being, (2) Nutrition contributes to perinatal mental health, (3) Both traditional and western medicine play roles in perinatal health, (4) There was a lack of personal experience with women experiencing PMDs, (5) Descriptions of mental health symptoms focused on behaviours, and (6) Community care is the primary mental health support. PHWs reported having almost never treated a woman with a PMD. However, anecdotal evidence from the women interviewed suggests that there are incidents of mental disorders during the perinatal period that go largely unaddressed. Willingness to present to primary care appears to be high, and presents an opportunity to address this need by training PHWs in effective screening

  8. Traditional medicine practices among community members with diabetes mellitus in Northern Tanzania: an ethnomedical survey.

    PubMed

    Lunyera, Joseph; Wang, Daphne; Maro, Venance; Karia, Francis; Boyd, David; Omolo, Justin; Patel, Uptal D; Stanifer, John W

    2016-08-11

    Diabetes is a growing burden in sub-Saharan Africa where traditional medicines (TMs) remain a primary form of healthcare in many settings. In Tanzania, TMs are frequently used to treat non-communicable diseases, yet little is known about TM practices for non-communicable diseases like diabetes. Between December 2013 and June 2014, we assessed TM practices, including types, frequencies, reasons, and modes, among randomly selected community members. To further characterize TMs relevant for the local treatment of diabetes, we also conducted focus groups and semi-structured interviews with key informants. We enrolled 481 adults of whom 45 (9.4 %) had diabetes. The prevalence of TM use among individuals with diabetes was 77.1 % (95 % CI 58.5-89.0 %), and the prevalence of using TMs and biomedicines concurrently was 37.6 % (95 % CI 20.5-58.4 %). Many were using TMs specifically to treat diabetes (40.3 %; 95 % CI 20.5-63.9), and individuals with diabetes reported seeking healthcare from traditional healers, elders, family, friends, and herbal vendors. We identified several plant-based TMs used toward diabetes care: Moringa oleifera, Cymbopogon citrullus, Hagenia abyssinica, Aloe vera, Clausena anisata, Cajanus cajan, Artimisia afra, and Persea americana. TMs were commonly used for diabetes care in northern Tanzania. Individuals with diabetes sought healthcare advice from many sources, and several individuals used TMs and biomedicines together. The TMs commonly used by individuals with diabetes in northern Tanzania have a wide range of effects, and understanding them will more effectively shape biomedical practitices and public health policies that are patient-centered and sensitive to TM preferences.

  9. Potential Connectivity of Coldwater Black Coral Communities in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Yuley; Ruiz-Ramos, Dannise V.; Baums, Iliana B.; Bracco, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    The black coral Leiopathes glaberrima is a foundation species of deep-sea benthic communities but little is known of the longevity of its larvae and the timing of spawning because it inhabits environments deeper than 50 m that are logistically challenging to observe. Here, the potential connectivity of L. glaberrima in the northern Gulf of Mexico was investigated using a genetic and a physical dispersal model. The genetic analysis focused on data collected at four sites distributed to the east and west of Mississippi Canyon, provided information integrated over many (~10,000) generations and revealed low but detectable realized connectivity. The physical dispersal model simulated the circulation in the northern Gulf at a 1km horizontal resolution with transport-tracking capabilities; virtual larvae were deployed 12 times over the course of 3 years and followed over intervals of 40 days. Connectivity between sites to the east and west of the canyon was hampered by the complex bathymetry, by differences in mean circulation to the east and west of the Mississippi Canyon, and by flow instabilities at scales of a few kilometers. Further, the interannual variability of the flow field surpassed seasonal changes. Together, these results suggest that a) dispersal among sites is limited, b) any recovery in the event of a large perturbation will depend on local larvae produced by surviving individuals, and c) a competency period longer than a month is required for the simulated potential connectivity to match the connectivity from multi-locus genetic data under the hypothesis that connectivity has not changed significantly over the past 10,000 generations. PMID:27218260

  10. Potential Connectivity of Coldwater Black Coral Communities in the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Yuley; Ruiz-Ramos, Dannise V; Baums, Iliana B; Bracco, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    The black coral Leiopathes glaberrima is a foundation species of deep-sea benthic communities but little is known of the longevity of its larvae and the timing of spawning because it inhabits environments deeper than 50 m that are logistically challenging to observe. Here, the potential connectivity of L. glaberrima in the northern Gulf of Mexico was investigated using a genetic and a physical dispersal model. The genetic analysis focused on data collected at four sites distributed to the east and west of Mississippi Canyon, provided information integrated over many (~10,000) generations and revealed low but detectable realized connectivity. The physical dispersal model simulated the circulation in the northern Gulf at a 1km horizontal resolution with transport-tracking capabilities; virtual larvae were deployed 12 times over the course of 3 years and followed over intervals of 40 days. Connectivity between sites to the east and west of the canyon was hampered by the complex bathymetry, by differences in mean circulation to the east and west of the Mississippi Canyon, and by flow instabilities at scales of a few kilometers. Further, the interannual variability of the flow field surpassed seasonal changes. Together, these results suggest that a) dispersal among sites is limited, b) any recovery in the event of a large perturbation will depend on local larvae produced by surviving individuals, and c) a competency period longer than a month is required for the simulated potential connectivity to match the connectivity from multi-locus genetic data under the hypothesis that connectivity has not changed significantly over the past 10,000 generations.

  11. The Determinants of Postsecondary Enrollment Rates in Ontario.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foot, David K.; Pervin, Barry

    1983-01-01

    Application of economic theories of educational supply and demand to Ontario postsecondary enrollments show that community college enrollments are more income-sensitive than university enrollments, and graduate enrollments are more price sensitive than undergraduate enrollments. No competition effects between community colleges and universities…

  12. Local temperatures inferred from plant communities suggest strong spatial buffering of climate warming across Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Graae, Bente Jessen; Aarrestad, Per Arild; Alsos, Inger Greve; Armbruster, W Scott; Austrheim, Gunnar; Bergendorff, Claes; Birks, H John B; Bråthen, Kari Anne; Brunet, Jörg; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Dahlberg, Carl Johan; Decocq, Guillaume; Diekmann, Martin; Dynesius, Mats; Ejrnaes, Rasmus; Grytnes, John-Arvid; Hylander, Kristoffer; Klanderud, Kari; Luoto, Miska; Milbau, Ann; Moora, Mari; Nygaard, Bettina; Odland, Arvid; Ravolainen, Virve Tuulia; Reinhardt, Stefanie; Sandvik, Sylvi Marlen; Schei, Fride Høistad; Speed, James David Mervyn; Tveraabak, Liv Unn; Vandvik, Vigdis; Velle, Liv Guri; Virtanen, Risto; Zobel, Martin; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2013-05-01

    Recent studies from mountainous areas of small spatial extent (<2500 km(2) ) suggest that fine-grained thermal variability over tens or hundreds of metres exceeds much of the climate warming expected for the coming decades. Such variability in temperature provides buffering to mitigate climate-change impacts. Is this local spatial buffering restricted to topographically complex terrains? To answer this, we here study fine-grained thermal variability across a 2500-km wide latitudinal gradient in Northern Europe encompassing a large array of topographic complexities. We first combined plant community data, Ellenberg temperature indicator values, locally measured temperatures (LmT) and globally interpolated temperatures (GiT) in a modelling framework to infer biologically relevant temperature conditions from plant assemblages within <1000-m(2) units (community-inferred temperatures: CiT). We then assessed: (1) CiT range (thermal variability) within 1-km(2) units; (2) the relationship between CiT range and topographically and geographically derived predictors at 1-km resolution; and (3) whether spatial turnover in CiT is greater than spatial turnover in GiT within 100-km(2) units. Ellenberg temperature indicator values in combination with plant assemblages explained 46-72% of variation in LmT and 92-96% of variation in GiT during the growing season (June, July, August). Growing-season CiT range within 1-km(2) units peaked at 60-65°N and increased with terrain roughness, averaging 1.97 °C (SD = 0.84 °C) and 2.68 °C (SD = 1.26 °C) within the flattest and roughest units respectively. Complex interactions between topography-related variables and latitude explained 35% of variation in growing-season CiT range when accounting for sampling effort and residual spatial autocorrelation. Spatial turnover in growing-season CiT within 100-km(2) units was, on average, 1.8 times greater (0.32 °C km(-1) ) than spatial turnover in growing-season GiT (0.18 °C km(-1) ). We

  13. Traditional medicine practices among community members with chronic kidney disease in northern Tanzania: an ethnomedical survey.

    PubMed

    Stanifer, John W; Lunyera, Joseph; Boyd, David; Karia, Francis; Maro, Venance; Omolo, Justin; Patel, Uptal D

    2015-10-23

    In sub-Saharan Africa, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is being recognized as a non-communicable disease (NCD) with high morbidity and mortality. In countries like Tanzania, people access many sources, including traditional medicines, to meet their healthcare needs for NCDs, but little is known about traditional medicine practices among people with CKD. Therefore, we sought to characterize these practices among community members with CKD in northern Tanzania. Between December 2013 and June 2014, we administered a previously-developed survey to a random sample of adult community-members from the Kilimanjaro Region; the survey was designed to measure traditional medicine practices such as types, frequencies, reasons, and modes. Participants were also tested for CKD, diabetes, hypertension, and HIV as part of the CKD-AFRiKA study. To identify traditional medicines used in the local treatment of kidney disease, we reviewed the qualitative sessions which had previously been conducted with key informants. We enrolled 481 adults of whom 57 (11.9 %) had CKD. The prevalence of traditional medicine use among adults with CKD was 70.3 % (95 % CI 50.0-84.9 %), and among those at risk for CKD (n = 147; 30.6 %), it was 49.0 % (95 % CI 33.1-65.0 %). Among adults with CKD, the prevalence of concurrent use of traditional medicine and biomedicine was 33.2 % (11.4-65.6 %). Symptomatic ailments (66.7 %; 95 % CI 17.3-54.3), malaria/febrile illnesses (64.0 %; 95 % CI 44.1-79.9), and chronic diseases (49.6 %; 95 % CI 28.6-70.6) were the most prevalent uses for traditional medicines. We identified five plant-based traditional medicines used for the treatment of kidney disease: Aloe vera, Commifora africana, Cymbopogon citrullus, Persea americana, and Zanthoxylum chalybeum. The prevalence of traditional medicine use is high among adults with and at risk for CKD in northern Tanzania where they use them for a variety of conditions including other NCDs. Additionally, many of these same people

  14. Temporal and spatial trends of mercury in fish collected in the English-Wabigoon river system in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kinghorn, April; Solomon, Patricia; Chan, Hing Man

    2007-01-01

    The First Nations communities of Grassy Narrows and Wabaseemong (Ontario, Canada) have been impacted by mercury pollution since the 1960s. This study was implemented with the objective of providing these communities with information on current mercury concentrations in their catch, in order to make appropriate fish consumption choices. A total of 851 fish samples, including Walleye, Northern Pike, Large-mouth Bass, and Whitefish, were collected from thirteen lakes and rivers. Total mercury was measured and the relationship between fish length, mercury concentration, and lake of origin were assessed. It was found that fish from most of the lakes exhibit a positive relationship between length and mercury accumulation. Mercury concentrations in fish collected from Clay Lake, closest to the original source of contamination, are higher than those from other lakes. Mercury concentrations have declined over the last 25 years but the gradient of contamination was still observed. Results were communicated to the communities for public health purposes.

  15. [Socio-cultural aspects of epilepsy in a rural community in northern Benin in 2011].

    PubMed

    Adoukonou, T; Tognon-Tchegnonsi, F; Gnonlonfoun, D; Djidonou, A; Sego-Sounon, D; Gandaho, P; Houinato, D

    2015-03-01

    Despite the development of knowledge in diagnosis and therapeutic of epilepsy it remains to be cause of rejection and stigma. We aimed to study the knowledge, attitude and practice toward epilepsy and the stigma in a rural community. The cross-sectional study was carried out from 1st to 31st March 2011 in a rural community (Tourou) at Parakou in the northern Benin. It was a door-to-door survey and included 1 031 adults older than 15 years. The diagnosis of epilepsy was based on International League Against Epilepsy. The specific questionnaire was used and comprised 16 items which explored knowledge, attitude and practice toward epilepsy. Another questionnaire was developed to study stigma among epileptics. The associated factors to the misconception toward epilepsy have been studied. All adults have heard about epilepsy and knew the generalized tonic-clonic form of epilepsy and knew someone with epilepsy. Hereditary (98%) and witchcraft (97.9%) and social problems (65.9%) were mentioned as the most cause of epilepsy. Epilepsy was cited as contagious disease by 90.6% of respondents and the associated factors were the sex (p=0.005) and occupational status (0.024). The saliva (98.1%) and witness of the place of seizure (97.8%) were the frequently mentioned modes of transmission. 65% of all mentioned that epileptics can not get marriage and the main associated factors to this belief were the advanced age (p=0.008) and occupational status (0.004). 64.4% believed that children with epilepsy shouldn't be attend to school, age (0.004), ethnicity (0.047) and occupational status were the associated factors with this misconception. Despite 99.4% considered epilepsy as treatable disease only 12.7% would have referred epileptics to the hospital. All the seven epileptics considered themselves as victims of stigma and rejected by their family and the community. The misconceptions associated to the epilepsy can explain the stigma and the therapeutic gap in this rural community.

  16. A community-based thalassemia prevention and control model in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pansatiankul, Boonchian; Saisorn, Supachai

    2003-08-01

    To describe a community-based model for prevention and control of thalassemias and haemoglobinopathies in northern Thailand. Operational research composed of two components. First, a model to test whether thalassemic cases and carriers could be retrospectively detected from school children. Second, a model for prevention of prospective cases of thalassemic babies among pregnant women. Phan District of Chiang Rai Province in northern Thailand. Component one: 5,617 preschool children and 21,123 school children were screened during May and July 1997. Component two: 256 pregnant women, 16 weeks or less gestation were screened during January and December 1997. Component one: Sub-district public health officers and school teachers were trained to use pictures and simple clinical examination to detect suspected thalassemics among preschool and school children. Suspected cases were then referred for further clinical examination and blood testing. Blood smear examination was done at the Phan Community Hospital but Hb typing lusing on electrophoresis was done at the provincial hospital. The cellulose acetate was sent for re-reading at the Department of Medical Sciences. Component two: Osmotic fragility (OF) and dichlorophenol-indolephenol (DCIP) tests were abol in pregnant women (< or = 16 weeks of gestation) in the Phan Community Hospital. If OF test was positive, Hb typing was done at a regional medical sciences center. Their spouses were also located and tested for Hb typing. Prenatal diagnosis was done and therapeutic abortion was offered, if indicated. Cases, carriers, suspected cases, Hb typing, OF and DCIP tests. In Component one: 26,740 children were screened of whom 893 cases were suspected. Out of those suspected, 296 (33.2%) were normal, 140 (15.6%) were diseased, and 457 (51.2%) were carriers. 56 cases had major thalassemia diseases. Their parents were counseled. Forty couples were determined to need some form of family planning and 39 (97.5%) accepted. In

  17. Altitudinal and seasonal differences of tick communities in dogs from pastoralist tribes of Northern Kenya.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Gianluca; Dumitrache, Mirabela O; Široký, Pavel; Albrechtová, Kateřina; Sloboda, Michal; Domşa, Cristian; Sándor, Attila D; Balázsi, Robert; Kanyari, Paul W N; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei D

    2015-09-15

    Studies regarding the distribution and ecology of ticks in dogs from Eastern Africa are scarce. Our research was based on a long-term screening of ticks parasitising the domestic dogs living with indigenous people around Lake Turkana, Mt. Kulal and Mt. Nyiru areas, Northern Kenya. A total of 9977 ticks were collected from 1464 dogs of all ages and both sexes. Identification was performed using morphological keys and data were analyzed using the Repeated Measures ANOVA, post-hoc Scheffe test and F test, relating independent variables as seasons and regions. Final results were translated to maps using GIS software. Five species of ticks were identified: Rhipicephalus pulchellus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.), Rhipicephalus armatus, Amblyomma gemma and Hyalomma truncatum. Our results suggest a statistical difference of the tick community structure related to seasonal and altitudinal distribution. Parasitism with R. armatus and R. pulchellus was higher in September-October than in January, whereas, R. sanguineus s.l. was not influenced by the season. Rhipicephalus armatus was present exclusively on dogs living in semi-desert areas, while R. sanguineus s.l. was the dominant species present on the shores of Lake Turkana. Although R. pulchellus was present in the all studied areas, this species had a significantly higher abundance in the afromontane region of Mt. Kulal and montane xeromorphic forest of Mt. Nyiru; these regions are characterized by elevated humidity and cooler climate. Similar geo-climatic distribution is typical also for A. gemma, which was found in dogs exclusively in Mt. Kulal afromontane area. The current work represents the most extensive study performed on the tick community structure of dogs in Eastern Africa. The results showed a relatively limited tick species diversity, with clear seasonal differences and altitudinal distribution.

  18. Laterality in the first Neolithic and Chalcolithic farming communities in northern Iberia.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Ballesteros, Eder; Arrizabalaga, Alvaro

    2015-05-01

    Laterality is a quality, widespread throughout the vertebrate kingdom. It consists in assigning different roles to each side of the body by granting predominance to one of the sides. Humans too display this quality and the specialization of each hemisphere in our brain was already present in the first vertebrates. We usually refer to right-handed and left-handed people depending on the upper limb that is assigned the dominant role. For a long time, it has been thought that the proportion of left-handed people in a population has remained constant in all cultures and during our evolution. However, laterality is affected by sociocultural influences and varies geographically and chronologically. Using archaeological remains, it is possible to obtain information about the laterality of our ancestors and determine laterality indices for past populations. We developed an experimental programme to determine which characteristics of a polished axe indicate the laterality of its maker. We describe a method based on the orientation of the edge and we study the Neolithic and Chalcolithic farming communities in northern Iberia to evaluate the laterality in those populations. The right/left laterality ratio for the Neolithic and Chalcolithic populations is very similar to the range detected for modern non-industrial societies.

  19. Seasonal variation in the copepod community structure from a tropical Amazon estuary, Northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, André; Leite, Natália da R; Silva, João G S; Pereira, Luci C C; Costa, Rauquírio M da

    2009-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the seasonal variation of copepod community structure during the months of July, September and November 2003 (dry season) and January, March and May 2004 (rainy season) in the Curuçá estuary, northern Brazil. Samples were collected during neap tides via gentle 200microm mesh net tows from a small powerboat. Measurements of surface water conductivity were accomplished in situ using an electronic conductivimeter and salinity was later obtained through the transformation of the conductivity values. Salinity varied seasonally from 7.2 +/- 0.1 to 39.2 +/- 1.8 (mean +/- standard deviation) and was influenced mainly by differences in the amount of rainfall between the studied sampling seasons. In total, 30 Copepoda taxa were identified and Acartia tonsa comprised the most representative species throughout the entire studied period followed by Acartia lilljeborgii, Subeucalanus pileatus and Paracalanus quasimodo. In the present study, the density values, ecological indexes and copepod species dominance presented a clear seasonal pattern, showing that the studied area may be considered seasonally heterogeneous in relation to the investigated parameters.

  20. Representing Northern Peatland Hydrology and Biogeochemistry within the Community Land Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, X.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Xu, X.; Thornton, P. E.; Hanson, P. J.; Mao, J.; Sebestyen, S.; Griffiths, N.

    2015-12-01

    Northern peatlands are projected to become very important in future carbon-climate feedback due to their large carbon storage and vulnerability to changes in hydrology and climate impacts. Understanding the hydrology and biogeochemistry is a fundamental task for projecting the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under future climate change. Models have started to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have considered a prognostic calculation of water table dynamics in vegetated peatlands rather than prescribed regional water tables. We introduced here a new configuration of the Community Land Model (CLM), which includes a fully prognostic water table calculation between hummock and hollow microtopography in a vegetated peatland. We further integrated the hydrology treatment with vertically structured soil organic matter pools, and a newly developed microbial functional group-based methane module. The model was further used to test against observational data obtained within Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change (SPRUCE) project. Results for water table dynamic, carbon profile, and land surface fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane were reasonable. Model simulations showed that warming and elevated CO2 had significant impacts on land surface fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide. The warming-induced hydrological changes are another factors influencing biogeochemistry along soil profiles and land surface gas fluxes. These preliminary results provide some insights for field experiments as well as data-model comparison in next phase of the SPRUCE project.

  1. A Quantitative Food Web Model for the Macroinvertebrate Community of a Northern German Lowland Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poepperl, Rainer

    2003-09-01

    Trophic interactions and cycling of organic carbon within the macroinvertebrate community of a Northern German lowland stream were analyzed based on a compartment model. The network model describes the structure of the food web quantifying biomass, production, and consumption of their elements, of the entire system and between trophic levels. System primary production is 153.7 g C m-2 yr-1 and invertebrate production 53.3 g C m-2 yr-1. Invertebrate consumption amounts to 702.6 g C m-2 yr-1. Main flows are identified between trophic level 1 and 2 and are connected with highly productive compartments. Anodonta and Pseudanodonta and Dreissena polymorpha show the highest consumption of all groups with 269.9 g C m-2 yr-1 and 114.1 g C m-2 yr-1, respectively. System consumption is highest on the import from the upstream lake with 532.5 g C m-2 yr-1, sediment detritus with 135.5 g C m-2 yr-1, and primary producers with 25.7 g C m-2 yr-1. The lowest predation pressure is observed for Bivalvia with an ecotrophic efficiency of <10% and highest for Chironomidae with 91%. Approximately 20% of organic matter entering the detritus pool are recycled to the living groups of the system. Transfer efficiencies between discrete trophic levels are generally low except for transfer of detrital material between level I and II.

  2. Longitudinal relations between sectarian and nonsectarian community violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine E; Taylor, Laura K; Shirlow, Peter; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Cairns, Ed

    2013-08-01

    Although relations between political violence and child adjustment are well documented, longitudinal research is needed to adequately address the many questions remaining about the contexts and developmental trajectories underlying the effects on children in areas of political violence. The study examined the relations between sectarian and nonsectarian community violence and adolescent adjustment problems over 4 consecutive years. Participants included 999 mother-child dyads (482 boys, 517 girls), M ages = 12.18 (SD = 1.82), 13.24 (SD = 1.83), 13.61 (SD = 1.99), and 14.66 (SD = 1.96) years, respectively, living in socially deprived neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland, a context of historical and ongoing political violence. In examining trajectories of adjustment problems, including youth experience with both sectarian and nonsectarian antisocial behaviors, sectarian antisocial behavior significantly predicted more adjustment problems across the 4 years of the study. Experiencing sectarian antisocial behavior was related to increased adolescent adjustment problems, and this relationship was accentuated in neighborhoods characterized by higher crime rates. The discussion considers the implications for further validating the distinction between sectarian and nonsectarian violence, including consideration of neighborhood crime levels, from the child's perspective in a setting of political violence.

  3. Northern perspectives on medical elective tourism: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Coke, Sarah; Kuper, Ayelet; Richardson, Lisa; Cameron, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada recognizes education to be necessary for doctors to provide culturally safe care. Communities in northern Canada have large populations of Aboriginal people and other marginalized groups. Our goal was to identify the elements of appropriate predeparture curricula for these medical trainees. Methods: We conducted our study in Kenora, Ontario. With the help of a core collaborative group and the support of the local Aboriginal Health Access Centre, we interviewed a purposive sample of community members about their interactions with trainees from southern Canada. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal researchers with roots in northern and southern Canada brought perspectives to the inductive analysis. Results: We conducted 17 semistructured interviews between February and March 2014. Participants felt that southern trainees were inadequately educated in northern politics, society and history. They identified 2 more themes: determinants of health affecting the local Aboriginal population, and provider and patient factors affecting delivery of culturally competent care. Participants also shared ideas on how best to implement this content into curricula. Interpretation: Providing culturally competent care to northern communities is a complex process requiring education. Using a collaborative method, we were able to delineate the experiences of members of a northern community and identify knowledge gaps of southern trainees travelling there. Our results provide a foundation for the content and structure of formal predeparture curricula to enable such trainees to provide culturally safe care. PMID:27398374

  4. Northern perspectives on medical elective tourism: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Coke, Sarah; Kuper, Ayelet; Richardson, Lisa; Cameron, Anita

    2016-01-01

    The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada recognizes education to be necessary for doctors to provide culturally safe care. Communities in northern Canada have large populations of Aboriginal people and other marginalized groups. Our goal was to identify the elements of appropriate predeparture curricula for these medical trainees. We conducted our study in Kenora, Ontario. With the help of a core collaborative group and the support of the local Aboriginal Health Access Centre, we interviewed a purposive sample of community members about their interactions with trainees from southern Canada. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal researchers with roots in northern and southern Canada brought perspectives to the inductive analysis. We conducted 17 semistructured interviews between February and March 2014. Participants felt that southern trainees were inadequately educated in northern politics, society and history. They identified 2 more themes: determinants of health affecting the local Aboriginal population, and provider and patient factors affecting delivery of culturally competent care. Participants also shared ideas on how best to implement this content into curricula. Providing culturally competent care to northern communities is a complex process requiring education. Using a collaborative method, we were able to delineate the experiences of members of a northern community and identify knowledge gaps of southern trainees travelling there. Our results provide a foundation for the content and structure of formal predeparture curricula to enable such trainees to provide culturally safe care.

  5. The Relationship between Parental Substance Abuse and Child Maltreatment: Findings from the Ontario Health Supplement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Christine; MacMillan, Harriet L.; Jamieson, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between reported exposure to child abuse and a history of parental substance abuse (alcohol and drugs) in a community sample in Ontario, Canada. Method: The sample consisted of 8,472 respondents to the Ontario Mental Health Supplement (OHSUP), a comprehensive population survey of mental health. The…

  6. Education Network of Ontario: Content/Curriculum Models for the Internet-Connected Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, Mary

    The Education Network of Ontario (ENO) is a telecommunications corporation creating an access and applications network for and by Ontario's 130,000-member education community. When educators register with ENO, they receive full industry-standard Internet and Intranet services in English and French. ENO/REO works from school or home. Statistics…

  7. Education Network of Ontario: Content/Curriculum Models for the Internet-Connected Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, Mary

    The Education Network of Ontario (ENO) is a telecommunications corporation creating an access and applications network for and by Ontario's 130,000-member education community. When educators register with ENO, they receive full industry-standard Internet and Intranet services in English and French. ENO/REO works from school or home. Statistics…

  8. Higher Education Policy and Legitimacy Building: The Making of a New Academic Credential in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Peter; Sa, Creso M.

    2013-01-01

    Canada's province of Ontario introduced a new policy in 2000 allowing community colleges to offer a new type of undergraduate degree. This decision was a significant policy change for the government considering the nature of Ontario's binary system, where a rigid separation has historically prevailed between the university and college sectors.…

  9. Policy Advocacy, Inequity, and School Fees and Fundraising in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue; Milani, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Fundraising and collecting fees are ubiquitous in Ontario, Canada's public schools. Critics assert that these practices perpetuate and exacerbate inequities between schools and communities. In this article we present findings from a critical policy analysis of an advocacy group's efforts to change Ontario's fees and fundraising policies over the…

  10. The Relationship between Parental Substance Abuse and Child Maltreatment: Findings from the Ontario Health Supplement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Christine; MacMillan, Harriet L.; Jamieson, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between reported exposure to child abuse and a history of parental substance abuse (alcohol and drugs) in a community sample in Ontario, Canada. Method: The sample consisted of 8,472 respondents to the Ontario Mental Health Supplement (OHSUP), a comprehensive population survey of mental health. The…

  11. Influence of sediment characteristics on the composition of soft-sediment intertidal communities in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Henkel, Jessica R.; Sigel, Bryan J.; Taylor, Caz M.

    2015-01-01

    Benthic infaunal communities are important components of coastal ecosystems. Understanding the relationships between the structure of these communities and characteristics of the habitat in which they live is becoming progressively more important as coastal systems face increasing stress from anthropogenic impacts and changes in climate. To examine how sediment characteristics and infaunal community composition were related along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, we sampled intertidal infaunal communities at seven sites covering common habitat types at a regional scale. Across 69 samples, the communities clustered into four distinct groups on the basis of faunal composition. Nearly 70% of the variation in the composition of the communities was explained by salinity, median grain size, and total organic content. Our results suggest that at a regional level coarse habitat characteristics are able to explain a large amount of the variation among sites in infaunal community structure. By examining the relationships between infaunal communities and their sedimentary habitats, we take a necessary first step that will allow the exploration of how changes in habitat and community composition influence higher trophic levels and ecosystem scale processes. PMID:26157603

  12. Anthropogenic fire history and red oak forests in south-central Ontario

    Treesearch

    Daniel C. Dey; Richard P. Guyette

    2000-01-01

    The regeneration and dominance of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) has been associated with fire throughout eastern North America. Red oak in central Ontario grows near the northern edge of its distribution in mixed hardwood - coniferous forests under mesic conditions where it competes with more shade-tolerant species. We hypothesized that the...

  13. Chronic illness and functional limitation in Ontario children: findings of the Ontario Child Health Study.

    PubMed Central

    Cadman, D; Boyle, M H; Offord, D R; Szatmari, P; Rae-Grant, N I; Crawford, J; Byles, J

    1986-01-01

    The Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS) was based on interviews of 1869 Ontario families who were selected by means of a stratified, multistaged sampling method from the 1981 census of Canada. Its primary purpose was to determine the prevalence and distribution of mental health problems in Ontario children aged 4 to 16 years and their families, but it also allowed an estimate of other significant medical conditions and provided an overview of these children's use of health care, education and social services. Our results are based on questionnaire responses concerning 3294 children. Limitation of function without a chronic illness or medical condition was reported in 1.9%, the converse in 14.0%, and a chronic illness or medical condition with limitation of function in 3.7%. When the three groups are considered together, 19.6% of Ontario children had a chronic health problem. Children of lower socioeconomic status were much more likely to have chronic health problems. Overall, children with chronic health problems were more likely to use physician, special education, social and mental health services. These findings have implications for those who provide services for children, plan community programs or train professionals in caring for children. PMID:3756702

  14. Longitudinal Pathways between Political Violence and Child Adjustment: The Role of Emotional Security about the Community in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, E. Mark; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Links between political violence and children’s adjustment problems are well-documented. However, the mechanisms by which political tension and sectarian violence relate to children’s well-being and development are little understood. This study longitudinally examined children’s emotional security about community violence as a possible regulatory process in relations between community discord and children’s adjustment problems. Families were selected from 18 working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Participants (695 mothers and children, M=12.17, SD=1.82) were interviewed in their homes over three consecutive years. Findings supported the notion that politically-motivated community violence has distinctive effects on children’s externalizing and internalizing problems through the mechanism of increasing children’s emotional insecurity about community. Implications are considered for understanding relations between political violence and child adjustment from a social ecological perspective. PMID:20838875

  15. Longitudinal pathways between political violence and child adjustment: the role of emotional security about the community in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine E; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2011-02-01

    Links between political violence and children's adjustment problems are well-documented. However, the mechanisms by which political tension and sectarian violence relate to children's well-being and development are little understood. This study longitudinally examined children's emotional security about community violence as a possible regulatory process in relations between community discord and children's adjustment problems. Families were selected from 18 working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Participants (695 mothers and children, M = 12.17, SD = 1.82) were interviewed in their homes over three consecutive years. Findings supported the notion that politically-motivated community violence has distinctive effects on children's externalizing and internalizing problems through the mechanism of increasing children's emotional insecurity about community. Implications are considered for understanding relations between political violence and child adjustment from a social ecological perspective.

  16. Seasonal Variations in CO2 Flux among Arctic Plant Communities in Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kade, A.; Bret-Harte, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    In the context of accelerated warming trends and the potential impacts on net carbon exchange (NEE) from high-latitude systems, we investigated CO2 fluxes of distinct arctic plant communities at the Imnavait Creek watershed in northern Alaska. The goals of this study were to (a) characterize the plant communities found within the footprint of three eddy covariance towers located along a toposequence, (b) study the seasonal variations in plot-level CO2 flux among the vegetation types and (c) relate the plot-level flux measurements to the eddy covariance data. We mapped the vegetation within the footprint of three eddy covariance towers that were installed along a hill slope and selected the major plant communities to measure gross ecosystem productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and NEE during six measurement campaigns from June 2009 to April 2010. We measured midday CO2 concentrations in ecosystem light-response curves with a portable infrared gas analyzer connected to a small clear chamber during the summer and used CO2 concentrations measured at the base of the snow pack to estimate diffusional CO2 flux to the atmosphere during the winter. We scaled plot-level CO2-flux data to the eddy covariance measurements by simply weighting the contribution of the dominant vegetation types according to their mapped percentage cover. The three sites were dominated by frost-disturbed dry heath tundra and moist acidic tundra (MAT) on the hilltop, MAT at mid-slope and MAT and mossy wet sedge tundra in the valley bottom. During the height of the growing season, GEP at 600 μmol/m2/s of light was generally greater at the mid-slope and valley-bottom sites (8.0-9.6 μmol CO2/m2/s), while the dry heath community showed consistently the lowest GEP values (3.3 μmol CO2/m2/s). Similarly, ER was persistently highest in the wet sedge tundra and usually lowest in the dry heath tundra and ridge-top MAT. This resulted in relatively similar NEE values across vegetation types with the

  17. Education and Community: The Collaborative Solution. Proceedings of the International Conference Linking Research and Practice (Toronto, Ontario, Canada, March 3-5, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Stephen B., Ed.; Tanenzapt, Elaine, Ed.; Townsend, Richard G., Ed.

    These proceedings are divided into two sections that explore collaboration between schools and communities. In Part I, the first four papers, analytic frameworks are described that provide different perspectives on collaboration. In Part II, descriptions of concrete programs and advice for developing better school-community relations are offered.…

  18. Indigenous Languages across the Community. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Stabilizing Indigenous Languages (7th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, May 11-14, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnaby, Barbara Jane, Ed.; Reyhner, Jon Allan, Ed.

    Conference papers examine efforts by Indigenous communities, particularly Native American communities, to maintain and revitalize their languages. The 27 papers are: "Ko te reo te mauri o te mana Maori: The Language Is the Life Essence of Maori Existence" (Te Tuhi Robust); "The Preservation and Use of Our Languages: Respecting the…

  19. Retention and sustainability of community-based health volunteers' activities: A qualitative study in rural Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Chatio, Samuel; Akweongo, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Background The shortage of formal health workers has led to the utilization of Community-Based Health Volunteers (CBHV) to provide health care services to people especially in rural and neglected communities. Community-based health volunteers have been effective partners in health care delivery at the community level for many years. The challenge is how to retain these volunteers and also sustain their activities. This study explored factors affecting retention and sustainability of community-based health volunteers’ activities in a rural setting in Northern Ghana. Methods This was a qualitative study comprising thirty-two in-depth interviews (IDIs) with health volunteers and health workers in-charge of health volunteers’ activities. Purposive sampling technique was used to select study participants for the interviews. The interviews were transcribed and coded into themes using Nvivo 10 software. The thematic analysis framework was used to analyze the data. Results Study participants reported that the desire to help community members, prestige and recognition as doctors in community mainly motivated them to work as health volunteers. Lack of incentives and logistical supplies such as raincoats, torch lights, wellington boots and transportation in the form of bicycles to facilitate the movement of health volunteers affected the work. They suggested that lack of these things discouraged them from working as health volunteers. Most of the dropout volunteers said lack of support and respect from community members made them to stop working as health volunteers. They recommended that community support, incentives and logistical supplies such as raincoats, torch light, wellington boots, bicycles, awards to hard working volunteers are mechanisms that can help retain community-based health volunteers and also sustain their activities. Conclusion Providing means of transport and non-monetary incentives would help to retain community-based health volunteers and also

  20. Retention and sustainability of community-based health volunteers' activities: A qualitative study in rural Northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Chatio, Samuel; Akweongo, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The shortage of formal health workers has led to the utilization of Community-Based Health Volunteers (CBHV) to provide health care services to people especially in rural and neglected communities. Community-based health volunteers have been effective partners in health care delivery at the community level for many years. The challenge is how to retain these volunteers and also sustain their activities. This study explored factors affecting retention and sustainability of community-based health volunteers' activities in a rural setting in Northern Ghana. This was a qualitative study comprising thirty-two in-depth interviews (IDIs) with health volunteers and health workers in-charge of health volunteers' activities. Purposive sampling technique was used to select study participants for the interviews. The interviews were transcribed and coded into themes using Nvivo 10 software. The thematic analysis framework was used to analyze the data. Study participants reported that the desire to help community members, prestige and recognition as doctors in community mainly motivated them to work as health volunteers. Lack of incentives and logistical supplies such as raincoats, torch lights, wellington boots and transportation in the form of bicycles to facilitate the movement of health volunteers affected the work. They suggested that lack of these things discouraged them from working as health volunteers. Most of the dropout volunteers said lack of support and respect from community members made them to stop working as health volunteers. They recommended that community support, incentives and logistical supplies such as raincoats, torch light, wellington boots, bicycles, awards to hard working volunteers are mechanisms that can help retain community-based health volunteers and also sustain their activities. Providing means of transport and non-monetary incentives would help to retain community-based health volunteers and also sustain their activities at the community level.

  1. Photophysiological and light absorption properties of phytoplankton communities in the river-dominated margin of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Sumit; Lohrenz, Steven E.; Gundersen, Kjell

    2017-06-01

    Spatial and temporal variability in photophysiological properties of phytoplankton were examined in relationship to phytoplankton community composition in the river-dominated continental margin of the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM). Observations made during five research cruises in the NGOM included phytoplankton photosynthetic and optical properties and associated environmental conditions and phytoplankton community structure. Distinct patterns of spatial and temporal variability in photophysiological parameters were found for waters dominated by different phytoplankton groups. Photophysiological properties for locations associated with dominance by a particular group of phytoplankton showed evidence of photoacclimation as reflected by differences in light absorption and pigment characteristics in relationship to different light environments. The maximum rate of photosynthesis normalized to chlorophyll (PmaxB) was significantly higher for communities dominated (>60% biomass) by cyanobacteria + prochlorophyte (cyano + prochl). The initial slope of the photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) curve normalized to chlorophyll (αB) was not clearly related to phytoplankton community structure and no significant differences were found in PmaxB and αB between different geographic regions. In contrast, maximum quantum yield of carbon fixation in photosynthesis (Φcmax) differed significantly between regions and was higher for diatom-dominated communities. Multiple linear regression models, specific for the different phytoplankton communities, using a combination of environmental and bio-optical proxies as predictor variables showed considerable promise for estimation of the photophysiological parameters on a regional scale. Such an approach may be utilized to develop size class-specific or phytoplankton group-specific primary productivity models for the NGOM.Plain Language SummaryThis study examined the relationships between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22471084','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22471084"><span><span class="hlt">Community</span> occupancy responses of small mammals to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine forests, <span class="hlt">northern</span> Arizona, USA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kalies, E L; Dickson, B G; Chambers, C L; Covington, W W</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In western North American conifer forests, wildfires are increasing in frequency and severity due to heavy fuel loads that have accumulated after a century of fire suppression. Forest restoration treatments (e.g., thinning and/or burning) are being designed and implemented at large spatial and temporal scales in an effort to reduce fire risk and restore forest structure and function. In ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, predominantly open forest structure and a frequent, low-severity fire regime constituted the evolutionary environment for wildlife that persisted for thousands of years. Small mammals are important in forest ecosystems as prey and in affecting primary production and decomposition. During 2006-2009, we trapped eight species of small mammals at 294 sites in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Arizona and used occupancy modeling to determine <span class="hlt">community</span> responses to thinning and habitat features. The most important covariates in predicting small mammal occupancy were understory vegetation cover, large snags, and treatment. Our analysis identified two generalist species found at relatively high occupancy rates across all sites, four open-forest species that responded positively to treatment, and two dense-forest species that responded negatively to treatment unless specific habitat features were retained. Our results indicate that all eight small mammal species can benefit from restoration treatments, particularly if aspects of their evolutionary environment (e.g., large trees, snags, woody debris) are restored. The occupancy modeling approach we used resulted in precise species-level estimates of occupancy in response to habitat attributes for a greater number of small mammal species than in other comparable studies. We recommend our approach for other studies faced with high variability and broad spatial and temporal scales in assessing impacts of treatments or habitat alteration on wildlife species. Moreover, since forest planning efforts are increasingly focusing on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2393425','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2393425"><span>Epidemiology of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in a rural <span class="hlt">community</span> in <span class="hlt">northern</span> India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Grover, A.; Dhawan, A.; Iyengar, S. D.; Anand, I. S.; Wahi, P. L.; Ganguly, N. K.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The epidemiology of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in a rural <span class="hlt">community</span> (total population 114,610) in <span class="hlt">northern</span> India was studied by setting up a registry based on primary health care centres. Health workers and schoolteachers were trained to identify suspected patients in school and village surveys (121 villages). Medical specialists screened 5-15-year-olds (n = 31,200). The population was followed up for 3 years (from March 1988 to March 1991). All suspected and registered cases were investigated by serial echocardiography and Doppler ultrasonography at a tertiary care centre. A total of 102 cases were confirmed to have rheumatic fever/rheumatic heart disease (prevalence, 0.09%); 66 were aged 5-15 years (prevalence, 0.21%). A total of 48 patients (24 males, 24 females; mean age, 12.11 +/- 3.7 years) were diagnosed to have a possible first attack of rheumatic fever (incidence, 0.54 per 1000 per year). Arthritis was observed in 36 (75%) and carditis in 18 (37.5%) of cases. Prolapse of the anterior mitral leaflet into the left atrium occurred in 5 (22%) cases with carditis. Mitral regurgitation was observed in all 18 cases of carditis; over the period of observation it disappeared in three cases and progressed to mitral stenosis in a further three. A total of 22 patients (11 males, 11 females; mean age, 19.41 +/- 8.1 years) were registered as rheumatic fever recurrences, and 32 patients (18 females, 14 males; mean age, 22.1 +/- 10.1 years) had chronic rheumatic heart disease. Of those with recurrences, 9 (41%) had carditis and 11 (50%) had arthritis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8440039</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=multilingual+AND+first+AND+language+AND+acquisition&pg=4&id=EJ822417','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=multilingual+AND+first+AND+language+AND+acquisition&pg=4&id=EJ822417"><span>Acquisition, Loss or Multilingualism? Educational Planning for Speakers of Migrant <span class="hlt">Community</span> Languages in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Ireland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McDermott, Philip</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Debates surrounding linguistic heritage in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Ireland have primarily centred on Irish (Gaelic) and Ulster-Scots. However, closer analysis suggests that there have long been other languages spoken in the region. Cantonese, Mandarin, Polish, Lithuanian and Portuguese are all spoken throughout <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Ireland as the region experiences…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21813428','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21813428"><span><span class="hlt">Community</span>-implemented trauma therapy for former child soldiers in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Uganda: a randomized controlled trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ertl, Verena; Pfeiffer, Anett; Schauer, Elisabeth; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank</p> <p>2011-08-03</p> <p>The psychological rehabilitation of former child soldiers and their successful reintegration into postconflict society present challenges. Despite high rates of impairment, there have been no randomized controlled trials examining the feasibility and efficacy of mental health interventions for former child soldiers. To assess the efficacy of a <span class="hlt">community</span>-based intervention targeting symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in formerly abducted individuals. Randomized controlled trial recruiting 85 former child soldiers with PTSD from a population-based survey of 1113 <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Ugandans aged 12 to 25 years, conducted between November 2007 and October 2009 in camps for internally displaced persons. Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: narrative exposure therapy (n = 29), an academic catch-up program with elements of supportive counseling (n = 28), or a waiting list (n = 28). Symptoms of PTSD and trauma-related feelings of guilt were measured using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. The respective sections of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview were used to assess depression and suicide risk, and a locally adapted scale was used to measure perceived stigmatization. Symptoms of PTSD, depression, and related impairment were assessed before treatment and at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months postintervention. Treatments were carried out in 8 sessions by trained local lay therapists, directly in the <span class="hlt">communities</span>. Change in PTSD severity, assessed over a 1-year period after treatment. Secondary outcome measures were depression symptoms, severity of suicidal ideation, feelings of guilt, and perceived stigmatization. PTSD symptom severity (range, 0-148) was significantly more improved in the narrative exposure therapy group than in the academic catch-up (mean change difference, -14.06 [95% confidence interval, -27.19 to -0.92]) and waiting-list (mean change difference, -13.04 [95% confidence interval, -26.79 to 0.72]) groups. Contrast analyses</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2642494','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2642494"><span>Determining use of preventive health care in <span class="hlt">Ontario</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Li; Jason, X. Nie; Upshur, Ross E.G.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine rates of influenza vaccination, mammography, and Papanicolaou smear by comparing data obtained from the <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> Health Insurance Plan administrative database with rates as self-reported in the Canadian <span class="hlt">Community</span> Health Survey. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study using data from Statistics Canada’s 2000–2001 Canadian <span class="hlt">Community</span> Health Survey and from the <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> Health Insurance Plan administrative database for the same period. SETTING <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>. PARTICIPANTS Those aged 12 and older who had received influenza vaccination, women aged 35 or older who had had mammograms within the past 2 years, and women aged 18 or older who had had Pap smears within the past 3 years who were surveyed during the Canadian <span class="hlt">Community</span> Health Survey in 2001. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Rates of influenza vaccination, mammography, and Pap smear in Ontario’s 14 Local Health Integration Networks by network, age group, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS Rates varied by health network. Analysis by age showed that influenza vaccination rates increased with age and peaked among those 75 and older. Rates of mammography screening increased with age but dropped substantially among those 75 and older. Rates of Pap smear peaked among those 20 to 39 and decreased with increasing age. Rates of mammography and Pap smear increased with rising socioeconomic status, but influenza vaccination rates did not differ substantially by socioeconomic status. Rates for all 3 preventive maneuvers were lower in the <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> Health Insurance Plan data than in the self-reported Canadian <span class="hlt">Community</span> Health Survey data. CONCLUSION There are obstacles to finding out the true rates of preventive health care use in <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>. We need to ascertain these rates in order to establish a criterion standard for delivery of these services. Development of programs to target specific geographic locations, socioeconomic classes, and high-risk groups are needed to increase the overall use of preventive health services</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2760424','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2760424"><span>Context and Cardiovascular Risk Modification in Two Regions of <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>, Canada: A Photo Elicitation Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Angus, Jan E.; Rukholm, Ellen; Michel, Isabelle; Larocque, Sylvie; Seto, Lisa; Lapum, Jennifer; Timmermans, Katherine; Chevrier-Lamoureux, Renée; Nolan, Robert P.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Cardiovascular diseases, which include coronary heart diseases (CHD), remain the leading cause of death in Canada and other industrialized countries. This qualitative study used photo-elicitation, focus groups and in-depth interviews to understand health behaviour change from the perspectives of 38 people who were aware of their high risk for CHD and had received information about cardiovascular risk modification while participating in a larger intervention study. Participants were drawn from two selected regions: Sudbury and District (<span class="hlt">northern</span> <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>) and the Greater Toronto Area (southern <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>). Analysis drew on concepts of place and space to capture the complex interplay between geographic location, sociodemographic position, and people’s efforts to understand and modify their risk for CHD. Three major sites of difference and ambiguity emerged: 1) place and access to health resources; 2) time and food culture; and 3) itineraries or travels through multiple locations. All participants reported difficulties in learning and adhering to new lifestyle patterns, but access to supportive health resources was different in the two regions. Even within regions, subgroups experienced different patterns of constraint and advantage. In each region, “fast” food and traditional foods were entrenched within different temporal and social meanings. Finally, different and shifting strategies for risk modification were required at various points during daily and seasonal travels through neighbourhoods, to workplaces, or on vacation. Thus health education for CHD risk modification should be place-specific and tailored to the needs and resources of specific <span class="hlt">communities</span>. PMID:19826558</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19826558','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19826558"><span>Context and cardiovascular risk modification in two regions of <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>, Canada: a photo elicitation study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Angus, Jan E; Rukholm, Ellen; Michel, Isabelle; Larocque, Sylvie; Seto, Lisa; Lapum, Jennifer; Timmermans, Katherine; Chevrier-Lamoureux, Renée; Nolan, Robert P</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Cardiovascular diseases, which include coronary heart diseases (CHD), remain the leading cause of death in Canada and other industrialized countries. This qualitative study used photo-elicitation, focus groups and in-depth interviews to understand health behaviour change from the perspectives of 38 people who were aware of their high risk for CHD and had received information about cardiovascular risk modification while participating in a larger intervention study. Participants were drawn from two selected regions: Sudbury and District (<span class="hlt">northern</span> <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>) and the Greater Toronto Area (southern <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>). Analysis drew on concepts of place and space to capture the complex interplay between geographic location, sociodemographic position, and people's efforts to understand and modify their risk for CHD. Three major sites of difference and ambiguity emerged: 1) place and access to health resources; 2) time and food culture; and 3) itineraries or travels through multiple locations. All participants reported difficulties in learning and adhering to new lifestyle patterns, but access to supportive health resources was different in the two regions. Even within regions, subgroups experienced different patterns of constraint and advantage. In each region, "fast" food and traditional foods were entrenched within different temporal and social meanings. Finally, different and shifting strategies for risk modification were required at various points during daily and seasonal travels through neighbourhoods, to workplaces, or on vacation. Thus health education for CHD risk modification should be place-specific and tailored to the needs and resources of specific <span class="hlt">communities</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=140424','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=140424"><span>Screening for diabetic retinopathy in James Bay, <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>: a cost-effectiveness analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Maberley, David; Walker, Hugh; Koushik, Anita; Cruess, Alan</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Background Retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus that if detected early by regular retinal examinations can be treated; thus, blindness can be delayed or prevented. Providing high-quality retinal screening is difficult, especially in rural and remote areas. Canada's First Nations population has a higher prevalence of diabetes and is, in general, more geographically isolated than the broader Canadian population. We modelled the cost-effectiveness of retinopathy screening by travelling retina specialists versus retinal photography with a portable digital camera in an isolated First Nations cohort with diabetes. Methods The 2 screening programs were modelled to run concurrently for 5 years, with outcomes evaluated over 10 years. To construct economic models for the population of Cree individuals living in the western James Bay area of <span class="hlt">northern</span> <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>, we used available data on the prevalence of diabetes in the area and estimates of the incidence of retinopathy derived from the published literature. We compared the screening models and calculated total costs, visual outcome, costs per sight-year saved and costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). We also estimated the costs of implementing a screening program for all First Nations individuals in <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> with diabetes and no access to an ophthalmologist. Results From the perspective of the health care system the camera program was preferable to the specialist-based program. Over 10 years, 67 v. 56 sight years were saved, compared with no screening, at costs of $3900 v. $9800 per sight year and $15 000 v. $37 000 per QALY. Generalizing these results to the province of <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>, the camera system could allow most isolated First Nations people with diabetes to be screened for 5 years for approximately $1.2 million. Interpretation A portable retinal camera is a cost-effective means of screening for diabetic retinopathy in isolated <span class="hlt">communities</span> of at-risk individuals. PMID:12538543</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12538543','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12538543"><span>Screening for diabetic retinopathy in James Bay, <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>: a cost-effectiveness analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maberley, David; Walker, Hugh; Koushik, Anita; Cruess, Alan</p> <p>2003-01-21</p> <p>Retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes mellitus that if detected early by regular retinal examinations can be treated; thus, blindness can be delayed or prevented. Providing high-quality retinal screening is difficult, especially in rural and remote areas. Canada's First Nations population has a higher prevalence of diabetes and is, in general, more geographically isolated than the broader Canadian population. We modelled the cost-effectiveness of retinopathy screening by travelling retina specialists versus retinal photography with a portable digital camera in an isolated First Nations cohort with diabetes. The 2 screening programs were modelled to run concurrently for 5 years, with outcomes evaluated over 10 years. To construct economic models for the population of Cree individuals living in the western James Bay area of <span class="hlt">northern</span> <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>, we used available data on the prevalence of diabetes in the area and estimates of the incidence of retinopathy derived from the published literature. We compared the screening models and calculated total costs, visual outcome, costs per sight-year saved and costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). We also estimated the costs of implementing a screening program for all First Nations individuals in <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> with diabetes and no access to an ophthalmologist. From the perspective of the health care system the camera program was preferable to the specialist-based program. Over 10 years, 67 v. 56 sight years were saved, compared with no screening, at costs of 3900 Canadian dollars v. 9800 Canadian dollars per sight year and 15,000 Canadian dollars v. 37,000 Canadian dollars per QALY. Generalizing these results to the province of <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>, the camera system could allow most isolated First Nations people with diabetes to be screened for 5 years for approximately 1.2 million Canadian dollars. A portable retinal camera is a cost-effective means of screening for diabetic retinopathy in isolated <span class="hlt">communities</span> of at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DSRII.139..151R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DSRII.139..151R"><span>Summer microbial <span class="hlt">community</span> composition governed by upper-ocean stratification and nutrient availability in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Marguerite Bay, Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rozema, Patrick D.; Biggs, Tristan; Sprong, Pim A. A.; Buma, Anita G. J.; Venables, Hugh J.; Evans, Claire; Meredith, Michael P.; Bolhuis, Henk</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>The Western Antarctic Peninsula warmed significantly during the second half of the twentieth century, with a concurrent retreat of the majority of its glaciers, and marked changes in the sea-ice field. These changes may affect summertime upper-ocean stratification, and thereby the seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton and bacteria. In the present study, we examined coastal Antarctic microbial <span class="hlt">community</span> dynamics by pigment analysis and applying molecular tools, and analysed various environmental parameters to identify the most important environmental drivers. Sampling focussed on the austral summer of 2009-2010 at the Rothera oceanographic and biological Time Series (RaTS) site in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Marguerite bay, Antarctica. The Antarctic summer was characterized by a salinity decrease (measured at 15 m depth) coinciding with increased meteoric water fraction. Maximum Chl-a values of 35 μg l-1 were observed during midsummer and mainly comprised of diatoms. Microbial <span class="hlt">community</span> fingerprinting revealed four distinct periods in phytoplankton succession during the summer while bacteria showed a delayed response to the phytoplankton <span class="hlt">community</span>. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analyses showed that phytoplankton <span class="hlt">community</span> dynamics were mainly directed by temperature, mixed layer depth and wind speed. Both high and low N/P ratios might have influenced phytoplankton biomass accumulation. The bacterioplankton <span class="hlt">community</span> composition was mainly governed by Chl-a, suggesting a link to phytoplankton <span class="hlt">community</span> changes. High-throughput 16S and 18S rRNA amplicon sequencing revealed stable eukaryotic and bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> with regards to observed species, yet varying temporal relative contributions. Eukaryotic sequences were dominated by pennate diatoms in December followed by polar centric diatoms in January and February. Our results imply that the reduction of mixed layer depth during summer, caused by meltwater-related surface stratification, promotes a succession in diatoms rather</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20439962','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20439962"><span>Sustainability and cost of a <span class="hlt">community</span>-based strategy against Aedes aegypti in <span class="hlt">northern</span> and central Vietnam.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kay, Brian H; Tuyet Hanh, Tran T; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Quy, Tran Minh; Nam, Vu Sinh; Hang, Phan V D; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Hill, Peter S; Vos, Theo; Ryan, Peter A</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>We previously reported a new <span class="hlt">community</span>-based mosquito control that resulted in the elimination of Aedes aegypti in 40 of 46 communes in <span class="hlt">northern</span> and central Vietnam. During 2007 and 2008, we revisited Nam Dinh and Khanh Hoa provinces in <span class="hlt">northern</span> and central Vietnam, respectively, to evaluate whether or not these programs were still being maintained 7 years and 4.5 years after formal project activities had ceased, respectively. Using a previously published sustainability framework, we compared 13 criteria from Tho Nghiep commune in Nam Dinh where the local <span class="hlt">community</span> had adopted our <span class="hlt">community</span>-based project model using Mesocyclops from 2001. These data were compared against a formal project commune, Xuan Phong, where our successful intervention activities had ceased in 2000 and four communes operating under the National Dengue Control Program with data available. In Khanh Hoa province, we compared 2008 data at Ninh Xuan commune with data at project completion in 2003 and benchmarked these, where possible, against an untreated control commune, Ninh Binh, where few control activities had been undertaken. The three communes where the above <span class="hlt">community</span>-based strategy had been adopted were rated as well-sustained with annual recurrent total costs (direct and indirect) of $0.28-0.89 international dollars per person.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24264469','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24264469"><span>Comparative study of endophytic and endophytic diazotrophic bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> across rice landraces grown in the highlands of <span class="hlt">northern</span> Thailand.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rangjaroen, Chakrapong; Rerkasem, Benjavan; Teaumroong, Neung; Sungthong, Rungroch; Lumyong, Saisamorn</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Communities</span> of bacterial endophytes within the rice landraces cultivated in the highlands of <span class="hlt">northern</span> Thailand were studied using fingerprinting data of 16S rRNA and nifH genes profiling by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span>' richness, diversity index, evenness, and stability were varied depending on the plant tissues, stages of growth, and rice cultivars. These indices for the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria within the landrace rice Bue Wah Bo were significantly the lowest. The endophytic bacteria revealed greater diversity by cluster analysis with seven clusters compared to the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria (three clusters). Principal component analysis suggested that the endophytic bacteria showed that the <span class="hlt">community</span> structures across the rice landraces had a higher stability than those of the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria. Uncultured bacteria were found dominantly in both bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span>, while higher generic varieties were observed in the endophytic diazotrophic bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span>. These differences in bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> might be influenced either by genetic variation in the rice landraces or the rice cultivation system, where the nitrogen input affects the endophytic diazotrophic bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=strategic+AND+alliance&pg=7&id=EJ1109812','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=strategic+AND+alliance&pg=7&id=EJ1109812"><span>International Student Support Services at <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> Universities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Smith, Clayton; Whiteside, Brenda; Blanchard, Suzanne; Martin, Chris</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this article, the <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> Committee on Student Affairs and the <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> Undergraduate Student Alliance partnered to examine the availability and use of international student support services at <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> universities. Results of the recently administered <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> Committee on Student Affairs, Canadian Bureau of International Education, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1001023','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1001023"><span>Fish <span class="hlt">community</span> dynamics in northeastern Lake <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> with emphasis on the growth and reproductive success of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and white perch (Morone americana), 1978 to1997</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>O'Gorman, Robert; Burnett, John A.D.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Fishes were assessed in Guffin, Chaumount, and Black River bays in northeastern Lake <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> with a 7.9-m (headrope) bottom trawl during late September and early October, 1978 to 1997. Fish density declined in the early 1990s with sharp declines in abundance of spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus), and johnny darter (Etheostoma nigrum) occurring in 1993 to 1995. Rising numbers of piscivores, walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), increased predation pressure, presumably acting in concert with oligotrophication to lower fish density, particularly after 1991 when large numbers of adult alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) no longer migrated to the northeast basin in spring. Annual mortality of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) from age 2 to 5 rose from 33% in 1980–83 to 65% in 1992–95 and was positively related to piscivore numbers (P = 0.01, r = 0.96, n = 5). Annual mortality of yellow perch from age 0 to 2 also peaked in 1992–95. Abundance of yellow perch YOY in fall varied 40 fold and was not related to water warming in spring (P = 0.45, r = −0.19, n = 18) but was negatively related to the abundance of adult alewives in spring (P = 0.04, r = −0.49, n = 18). Although yellow perch produced moderate to strong year classes each year during 1991–95, stock size failed to increase because of rapidly accelerating mortality. Fully 85% of the variation in mean length of yellow perch YOY was explained by a multiple regression model which included YOY abundance, mean total phosphorus, and cumulative degree days > 13.5°C (P < 0.01, n = 15). Abundance of white perch (Morone americana) YOY varied nearly 200 fold and was not related to water warming or spring alewife abundance (P > 0.15). Variation in mean length of white perch YOY was related to cumulative degree days > 15°C (P < 0.01, r = 0.69).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025129','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025129"><span>Fish <span class="hlt">Community</span> Responses to the Establishment of a Piscivore, <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Pike (Esox lucius), in a Nebraska Sandhill Lake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>DeBates, T.J.; Paukert, C.P.; Willis, D.W.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Northern</span> pike (Esox lucius) was first documented in West Long Lake, Nebraska, in 1998 when two pike <380 mm were collected. In 2002, a Peterson mark-recapture population estimate on <span class="hlt">northern</span> pike revealed density and standing stock (i.e., biomass) estimates of 35.8 fish/ha (95% CI= ?? 8.8) and 22.0 kg/ha (95% CI= ?? 5.4), respectively. Consequently, West Long Lake was sampled in 2002 to compare relative abundance, size structure, and growth of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) prior to and after the establishment of a high-density <span class="hlt">northern</span> pike population. Bluegill, largemouth bass, and yellow perch relative abundances were significantly lower in 2002 than 1998. Similarly, size structures of all three species were significantly different between years. Size structure declined for both bluegill and yellow perch, and increased for largemouth bass. Growth was significantly higher for bluegill, largemouth bass, and yellow perch in 2002 than 1998. While the fish <span class="hlt">community</span> changes were expected with the establishment of <span class="hlt">northern</span> pike, they occurred in a relatively short time period (i.e., four years).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e001703.jpg.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-GSFC_20170927_Archive_e001703.jpg.html"><span>Landsat View: <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2017-09-27</p> <p>Thirty-five miles due east of downtown Los Angeles lies the city of <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>, California. In 1881 two Canadian brothers established the town, naming it after their native city. By 1891 <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>, Calif., was incorporated as a city. The farming-based economy (olives, citrus, dairy) of the city helped it grow to 20,000 by the 1960s. Subsequently, warehousing and freight trafficking took over as the major industry and the city’s population was over 160,000 by 2010. The L.A./<span class="hlt">Ontario</span> International Airport is now America’s 15th busiest cargo airport. In these natural color Landsat 5 images, the massive growth of the city between 1985 and 2010 can be seen. The airport, found in the southwest portion of the images, added a number of runways and large warehousing structures now dominate the once rural areas surrounding the airport. In these images vegetation is green and brown and urban structures are bright white and gray. (Note there is a large dry riverbed in the northeast corner that is also bright white, but its nonlinear appearance sets it apart visually). ---- NASA and the U.S. Department of the Interior through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) jointly manage Landsat, and the USGS preserves a 40-year archive of Landsat images that is freely available over the Internet. The next Landsat satellite, now known as the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) and later to be called Landsat 8, is scheduled for launch in 2013. In honor of Landsat’s 40th anniversary in July 2012, the USGS released the LandsatLook viewer – a quick, simple way to go forward and backward in time, pulling images of anywhere in the world out of the Landsat archive. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC11A0974J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC11A0974J"><span>Diatom <span class="hlt">Community</span> Changes in Five Sub-alpine Mountain Lakes in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, B.; Noble, P. J.; Howard, K.; Heyvaert, A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Sediment cores and/or phytoplankton sampling of five sub-alpine lakes within three <span class="hlt">northern</span> California mountain ranges show a major shift in diatom phytoplankton <span class="hlt">communities</span> over the past 20-60 years; however, specific causes of these changes are still under investigation. Diatom analysis of a 20-cm sediment core taken from Castle Lake, a meso-oligotrophic lake located on the eastern slope of the Klammath Mountains, shows the phytoplankton <span class="hlt">community</span> shifted from being cyclotelloid-dominated to having a larger component of araphids beginning around 1997. In the lower 14 cm of the core, the phytoplankton are dominated by centric diatoms, including the Discostella stelligera-pseudostelligera group (>50% of total diatoms), and the Cyclotella occelata-rossii-tripartita complex (9-18%). The top 6 cm show an increasing shift towards araphids, including Asterionella formosa and the Fragilaria tenera-nanana group, which is consistent with phytoplankton in the lake's epilimnion today. Fallen Leaf Lake (FLL), located at the southern end of the Lake Tahoe basin, has also undergone a similar shift. Presently, A. formosa, the F. tenera-nananna group, and Tabellaria dominate the phytoplankton. Examination of a sediment core from FLL indicates that A. formosa has been present in high abundances since at least 1812. The most prominent shift in the FLL diatom population began in the 1950s when the centric diatoms (eg. Aulacoseira subarctica) declined significantly in favor of araphids. The F. tenera-nanana group was present in trace amounts before 1812 and dramatically increased in abundance after the 1950s. Sediment accumulation rates have increased steadily since 1950 and coincide with increases in lake development and recreational use. A. formosa is also present today in Gilmore Lake, a minimally human-impacted lake located in the watershed above FLL, and in the heavily impacted Manzanita Lake in the northwestern corner of Lassen Volcanic National Park (LAVO) at the southern end</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1079231.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1079231.pdf"><span>Revisiting Constructivist Teaching Methods in <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> Colleges Preparing for Accreditation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schultz, Rachel A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>At the time of writing, the first <span class="hlt">community</span> colleges in <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> were preparing for transition to an accreditation model from an audit system. This paper revisits constructivist literature, arguing that a more pragmatic definition of constructivism effectively blends positivist and interactionist philosophies to achieve both student centred…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ852024.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ852024.pdf"><span>Calculating the College-to-University Transfer Rate in <span class="hlt">Ontario</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Decock, Henry</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Measuring transfer is as varied as it is controversial, particularly in an era of increased accountability and in the case of <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> Colleges, in a time of flux and change. American <span class="hlt">Community</span> Colleges have been grappling with the definition of a transfer rate, continuing to fail on reaching a consensus. The importance of an acceptable transfer…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711794V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711794V"><span>Numerical simulation of tides in <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> Lacus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vincent, David; Karatekin, Ozgür</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Hydrocarbons liquid filled lakes has been recently detected on Titan's surface. Most of these lakes are located in the <span class="hlt">northern</span> latitudes but there is a substantial lake in the southern latitudes: <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> Lacus. This lake gets our attention because of possible shoreline changes suggested by Cassini flybys over <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> Lacus between September 2005 (T7) et January 2010 (T65). The shoreline changes could be due to evaporation-precipitation processes but could also be a consequence of tides. Previous studies showed that the maximal tidal amplitudes of <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> Lacus would be about 0.2m (for an uniform bathymetry of 20m). In this study we simulate tidal amplitude and currents with SLIM (Second-generation Louvain-la-Neuve Ice-ocean Model, http://sites.uclouvain.be/slim/ ) which resolves 2D shallow water equation on an unstructured mesh. Unstructured mesh prevents problems like mesh discontinuities at poles and allows higher accuracy at some place like coast or straits without drastically increasing computing costs. The tide generating force modeled in this work is the gradient of tidal potential due to titan's obliquity and titan's orbital eccentricity around Saturn (other contribution such as sun tide generating force are unheeded). The uncertain input parameters such as the wind direction and amplitude, bottom friction and thermo-physical properties of hydrocarbons liquids are varied within their expected ranges. SAR data analysis can result in different bathymetry according to the method. We proceed simulations for different bathymetries: tidal amplitudes doesn't change but this is not the case for tidal currents. Using a recent bathymetry deduced from most recent RADAR/SAR observations and a finer mesh, the peak-to peak tidal amplitudes are calculated to be up to 0.6 m. which is more than a factor two larger than the previous results. The maximal offshore tidal currents magnitude is about 0.06 m/s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5096943','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5096943"><span>Comparative trends in incident fracture rates for all long-term care and <span class="hlt">community</span>-dwelling seniors in <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>, Canada, 2002–2012</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kennedy, C. C.; Ioannidis, G.; Cameron, C.; Croxford, R.; Adachi, J. D.; Mursleen, S.; Jaglal, S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Summary In this population-based study, we compared incident fracture rates in long-term care (LTC) versus <span class="hlt">community</span> seniors between 2002 and 2012. Hip fracture rates declined more rapidly in LTC than in the <span class="hlt">community</span>. An excess burden of fractures occurred in LTC for hip, pelvis, and humerus fractures in men and hip fractures only in women. Introduction This study compares trends in incident fracture rates between long-term care (LTC) and <span class="hlt">community</span>-dwelling seniors ≥65 years, 2002–2012. Methods This is a population-based cohort study using administrative data. Measurements were age/sex-adjusted incident fracture rates and rate ratios (RR) and annual percent change (APC). Results Over 11 years, hip fracture rates had a marked decline occurring more rapidly in LTC (APC, −3.49 (95% confidence interval (CI), −3.97, −3.01)) compared with the <span class="hlt">community</span> (APC, −2.93 (95 % CI, −3.28, −2.57); p< 0.05 for difference in slopes). Humerus and wrist fracture rates decreased; however, an opposite trend occurred for pelvis and spine fractures with rates increasing over time in both cohorts (all APCs, p <0.05). In 2012, incident hip fracture rates were higher in LTC than the <span class="hlt">community</span> (RRs: women, 1.55 (95 % CI, 1.45, 1.67); men, 2.18 (95 % CI, 1.93, 2.47)). Higher rates of pelvis (RR, 1.48 (95 % CI, 1.22, 1.80)) and humerus (RR, 1.40 (95 % CI, 1.07, 1.84)) fractures were observed in LTC men, not women. In women, wrist (RR, 0.76 (95 % CI, 0.71, 0.81)) and spine (RR, 0.52 (95 % CI, 0.45, 0.61)) fracture rates were lower in LTC than the <span class="hlt">community</span>; in men, spine (RR, 0.75 (95 % CI, 0.57, 0.98) but not wrist fracture (RR, 0.91 (95 % CI, 0.67, 1.23)) rates were significantly lower in LTC than the <span class="hlt">community</span>. Conclusion Previous studies in the <span class="hlt">community</span> have shown declining hip fracture rates over time, also demonstrated in our study but at a more rapid rate in LTC. Rates of humerus and wrist fractures also declined. An excess burden of fractures in LTC occurred for hip</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3630062','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3630062"><span>Rebuilding <span class="hlt">community</span> resilience in a post-war context: developing insight and recommendations - a qualitative study in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Sri Lanka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Individuals, families and <span class="hlt">communities</span> in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Sri Lanka have undergone three decades of war trauma, multiple displacements, and loss of family, kin, friends, homes, employment and other valued resources. The objective of the study was understanding common psychosocial problems faced by families and <span class="hlt">communities</span>, and the associated risk and protective factors, so that practical and effective <span class="hlt">community</span> based interventions can be recommended to rebuild strengths, adaptation, coping strategies and resilience. Methods This qualitative, ecological study is a psychosocial ethnography in post-war <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Sri Lanka obtained through participant observation; case studies; key- informant interviews; and focus groups discussions with mental health and psychosocial <span class="hlt">community</span> workers as well as literature survey of media and organizational reports. Qualitative analysis of the data used ethnography, case studies, phenomenology, grounded theory, hermeneutics and symbolic interactionism techniques. Quantitative data on suicide was collected for Jaffna and Killinochchi districts. Results Complex mental health and psychosocial problems at the individual, family and <span class="hlt">community</span> levels in a post-war context were found to impair recovery. These included unresolved grief; individual and collective trauma; insecurity, self-harm and suicides; poverty and unemployment; teenage and unwanted pregnancies; alcoholism; child abuse and neglect; gender based violence and vulnerability including domestic violence, widows and female headed-household, family conflict and separation; physical injuries and handicap; problems specific for children and elderly; abuse and/or neglect of elderly and disabled; anti-social and socially irresponsible behaviour; distrust, hopelessness, and powerlessness. Protective factors included families; female leadership and engagement; cultural and traditional beliefs, practices and rituals; and creative potential in narratives, drama and other arts. Risk</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23305538','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23305538"><span>Rebuilding <span class="hlt">community</span> resilience in a post-war context: developing insight and recommendations - a qualitative study in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Sri Lanka.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Somasundaram, Daya; Sivayokan, Sambasivamoorthy</p> <p>2013-01-11</p> <p>Individuals, families and <span class="hlt">communities</span> in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Sri Lanka have undergone three decades of war trauma, multiple displacements, and loss of family, kin, friends, homes, employment and other valued resources. The objective of the study was understanding common psychosocial problems faced by families and <span class="hlt">communities</span>, and the associated risk and protective factors, so that practical and effective <span class="hlt">community</span> based interventions can be recommended to rebuild strengths, adaptation, coping strategies and resilience. This qualitative, ecological study is a psychosocial ethnography in post-war <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Sri Lanka obtained through participant observation; case studies; key- informant interviews; and focus groups discussions with mental health and psychosocial <span class="hlt">community</span> workers as well as literature survey of media and organizational reports. Qualitative analysis of the data used ethnography, case studies, phenomenology, grounded theory, hermeneutics and symbolic interactionism techniques. Quantitative data on suicide was collected for Jaffna and Killinochchi districts. Complex mental health and psychosocial problems at the individual, family and <span class="hlt">community</span> levels in a post-war context were found to impair recovery. These included unresolved grief; individual and collective trauma; insecurity, self-harm and suicides; poverty and unemployment; teenage and unwanted pregnancies; alcoholism; child abuse and neglect; gender based violence and vulnerability including domestic violence, widows and female headed-household, family conflict and separation; physical injuries and handicap; problems specific for children and elderly; abuse and/or neglect of elderly and disabled; anti-social and socially irresponsible behaviour; distrust, hopelessness, and powerlessness. Protective factors included families; female leadership and engagement; cultural and traditional beliefs, practices and rituals; and creative potential in narratives, drama and other arts. Risk factors that were impeding</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7380G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7380G"><span>Changes in the <span class="hlt">northern</span> Adriatic molluscan <span class="hlt">community</span> from the Holocene transgression up to the present</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gallmetzer, Ivo; Haselmair, Alexandra; Tomasovych, Adam; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">northern</span> Adriatic Sea is one of the few modern, epicontinental seas comparable to typical Palaeozoic shelf environments. It has a shallow average water depth (<50 m) and was formed at the end of the last glaciation when the sea level rose. Since historical times this part of the Adriatic has been strongly influenced by human activities through multiple direct or indirect impacts (e.g. fishing, coastal building development, pollution, eutrophication, increased sedimentation), making it one of the most degraded marine ecosystems worldwide. Our study was designed to reconstruct major environmental changes here since the onset of the Holocene transgression using down-core changes in death assemblages of molluscs as indicators for ecological shifts. The sediment cores were taken at three different stations (Brijuni Islands, Croatia, off Piran, Slovenia, and off Venice, Italy), each representative of specific sediment and nutrient conditions and degrees of habitat exploitation. The cores were 1.5 m long and had diameters of 90 or 160 mm. For the molluscan shell analyses, sediment subsamples were examined for species composition, abundance, taxonomic similarity and ecological interactions (e.g. frequencies of drilling predation). In total, 98,700 valves and shells were investigated and 113 bivalve and 178 gastropod species recorded. Sedimentation rates derived from 210Pb dating are very low, between 0.15 cm/yr at Brijuni and 0.25 cm/yr at Piran. The dating of Lucinella divaricata, Timoclea ovata and Gouldia minima shells with 14C calibrated amino-acid racemisation (AAR) revealed that the cores at all three stations cover at least 6000 to 8000 years, i.e. the whole Holocene transgression period. Time averaging is high, especially in the lower core layers of Piran station, probably due to strong bioturbation. Surface mixed-layer assemblages tend to show right-skewed postmortem age-frequency distributions, whereas subsurface assemblages show unimodal or uniform shapes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16310835','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16310835"><span>Extracellular enzyme activity and dynamics of bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> in mucilaginous aggregates of the <span class="hlt">northern</span> Adriatic Sea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zoppini, Annamaria; Puddu, Alberto; Fazi, Stefano; Rosati, Michela; Sist, Paola</p> <p>2005-12-15</p> <p>Bacterial degradation of mucilaginous aggregates (creamy layers, stringers and macroflocs) collected during two summer events (2001-2002) was tested. The objective was to describe the temporal trend of the bacterial activity, abundance and composition in the aggregated and dissolved organic matter under different trophic conditions. In the native aggregates proteins and organic phosphorous were actively hydrolyzed as aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase activities represented up to 87% and 25% of total activity, respectively; polysaccharides were less hydrolyzed and the highest activities were observed for beta-glucosidase (5% of the total). This hydrolysation pattern tends to a progressive accumulation of long persistent polysaccharides. During short term incubations nutrient addition (P, N and Glucose) differently stimulated bacterial growth in the seawater: P played the main role in stimulating bacterial production from 3 to 6 folds higher than in the control, whereas a secondary C-limitation was observed only for bacteria growing on seawater from macroflocs. This scarce dissolved organic carbon (DOC) bioavailability was confirmed by the lower DOC removal (13% macroflocs, 36% stringers). The total amount of carbon incorporated by bacteria living on aggregates was similar (0.58 mg C L(-1)) both in the control and under P enrichments showing a more balanced condition with respect to the seawater. Hence the well-known P limitation in the <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Adriatic Sea affects only dissolved organic carbon uptake without influencing the uptake of aggregated organic matter. Organic matter limitation was observed only on stringers--total C incorporated raised to 0.96 mg C L(-1) after PNG addition. Macroflocs release of refractory compounds leads to DOC accumulation (73 microM DOC) contributing to inflate the pool of refractory DOC in the surrounding waters. Several evidences, including different monosaccharide composition of stringers and macroflocs (glucose 15% and 56% on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26343702','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26343702"><span>Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Two Small-Scale Mining <span class="hlt">Communities</span> in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Ghana.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cobbina, Samuel J; Duwiejuah, Abudu B; Quansah, Reginald; Obiri, Samuel; Bakobie, Noel</p> <p>2015-08-28</p> <p>The study assessed levels of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining <span class="hlt">communities</span> (Nangodi and Tinga) in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Ghana. Seventy-two (72) water samples were collected from boreholes, hand dug wells, dug-out, and a stream in the two mining <span class="hlt">communities</span>. The levels of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Mean levels (mg/l) of heavy metals in water samples from Nangodi and Tinga <span class="hlt">communities</span> were 0.038 and 0.064 (Hg), 0.031 and 0.002 (As), 0.250 and 0.031 (Pb), 0.034 and 0.002 (Zn), and 0.534 and 0.023 (Cd), respectively, for each <span class="hlt">community</span>. Generally, levels of Hg, As, Pb, Zn, and Cd in water from Nangodi exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) stipulated limits of 0.010 for Hg, As, and Pb, 3.0 for Zn and 0.003 for Cd for drinking water, and levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd recorded in Tinga, exceeded the stipulated WHO limits. Ingestion of water, containing elevated levels of Hg, As, and Cd by residents in these mining <span class="hlt">communities</span> may pose significant health risks. Continuous monitoring of the quality of drinking water sources in these two <span class="hlt">communities</span> is recommended.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25955669','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25955669"><span>Correlates of physical activity in First Nations youth residing in First Nations and <span class="hlt">northern</span> <span class="hlt">communities</span> in Canada.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lévesque, Lucie; Janssen, Ian; Xu, Fei</p> <p>2015-02-03</p> <p>Physical activity (PA) can help youth achieve balance among physical, mental, emotional and spiritual dimensions of health. The objective was to identify individual, family and <span class="hlt">community</span> factors associated with PA among First Nations (FN) youth residing in on-reserve and <span class="hlt">northern</span> FN <span class="hlt">communities</span>. Participants were 4,837 youth (12-17 years of age) responding to the 2008/10 First Nations Regional Health Survey. Through in-person interviews, youth responded to questions about moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), participation in traditional physical activities, and individuallevel, family and <span class="hlt">community</span> factors. When averaged across all days of the year, 65% of FN youth accumulated at least 60 min/day of MVPA and 48% of youth participated in at least one traditional FN PA in the previous year. Being male, having a lower number of chronic conditions, living in balance physically, living with at least one biological parent, having more relatives help youth understand their culture, having more <span class="hlt">community</span> challenges and having more leisure/recreation facilities were independently associated with an increased likelihood of accumulating ≥ 60 min of MVPA. Younger age, being male, knowledge and use of FN language, living in balance spiritually, living with at least one biological parent, having more relatives help youth understand their culture, living in a <span class="hlt">community</span> of ≤ 300 people, and perceiving the natural environment and <span class="hlt">community</span> health programs as strengths were independently associated with participation in traditional FN physical activities. There are several correlates of PA from diverse ecological levels among FN youth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4586632','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4586632"><span>Comparative Assessment of Heavy Metals in Drinking Water Sources in Two Small-Scale Mining <span class="hlt">Communities</span> in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Ghana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cobbina, Samuel J.; Duwiejuah, Abudu B.; Quansah, Reginald; Obiri, Samuel; Bakobie, Noel</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The study assessed levels of heavy metals in drinking water sources in two small-scale mining <span class="hlt">communities</span> (Nangodi and Tinga) in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Ghana. Seventy-two (72) water samples were collected from boreholes, hand dug wells, dug-out, and a stream in the two mining <span class="hlt">communities</span>. The levels of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Mean levels (mg/l) of heavy metals in water samples from Nangodi and Tinga <span class="hlt">communities</span> were 0.038 and 0.064 (Hg), 0.031 and 0.002 (As), 0.250 and 0.031 (Pb), 0.034 and 0.002 (Zn), and 0.534 and 0.023 (Cd), respectively, for each <span class="hlt">community</span>. Generally, levels of Hg, As, Pb, Zn, and Cd in water from Nangodi exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) stipulated limits of 0.010 for Hg, As, and Pb, 3.0 for Zn and 0.003 for Cd for drinking water, and levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd recorded in Tinga, exceeded the stipulated WHO limits. Ingestion of water, containing elevated levels of Hg, As, and Cd by residents in these mining <span class="hlt">communities</span> may pose significant health risks. Continuous monitoring of the quality of drinking water sources in these two <span class="hlt">communities</span> is recommended. PMID:26343702</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=product+AND+quality+AND+customer+AND+satisfaction&pg=4&id=ED342423','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=product+AND+quality+AND+customer+AND+satisfaction&pg=4&id=ED342423"><span>Effectiveness and Student Success: Transforming <span class="hlt">Community</span> Colleges for the 1990's. Proceedings from the Conference. (Toronto, <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>, Canada, June 24-26, 1990).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Walleri, Dan, Ed.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>The 27 papers included in this proceedings report focus on various aspects of institutional effectiveness and student outcomes. The papers are: (1) "Assessment Update: Ends, Means and Results" (Banta); (2) "The Top Ten Issues Facing America's <span class="hlt">Community</span> Colleges" (Lorenzo and Banach); (3) "Assessing Institutional Effectiveness in Continuing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=GRATTON&pg=2&id=ED342423','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=GRATTON&pg=2&id=ED342423"><span>Effectiveness and Student Success: Transforming <span class="hlt">Community</span> Colleges for the 1990's. Proceedings from the Conference. (Toronto, <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>, Canada, June 24-26, 1990).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Walleri, Dan, Ed.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>The 27 papers included in this proceedings report focus on various aspects of institutional effectiveness and student outcomes. The papers are: (1) "Assessment Update: Ends, Means and Results" (Banta); (2) "The Top Ten Issues Facing America's <span class="hlt">Community</span> Colleges" (Lorenzo and Banach); (3) "Assessing Institutional Effectiveness in Continuing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=salinger&pg=3&id=ED154872','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=salinger&pg=3&id=ED154872"><span>College Perspective '77: Confrontation or Collegiality. Proceedings, Annual International Institute on the <span class="hlt">Community</span> College (8th, Lambton College, Sarnia, <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>, Canada, June 13-16, 1977).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Delgrosso, George M., Ed.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>Papers and addresses on aspects of confrontation affecting <span class="hlt">community</span> college productivity and viability are presented. Keynote speeches include: "Learning to Live While Learning to Make a Living" by George J. Bullied; "Communication and Collegiality" by Charles M. Galloway; "Is Education the One Profession Immune to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED431893.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED431893.pdf"><span>Pan-Canadian Forum on <span class="hlt">Community</span> Learning Networks Conference Proceedings [and] A Discussion Guide (1st, Ottawa, <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>, March 27-29, 1998).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Human Resources Development Canada, Hull (Quebec). Office of Learning Technologies.</p> <p></p> <p>This document contains information from and about the Pan-Canadian Forum on <span class="hlt">Community</span> Learning Networks (CLNs) that was conducted to identify existing and emerging needs of CLNs and identify emerging trends and issues related to CLNs. The document begins with a discussion of role played by CLNs in building a lifelong learning culture. Presented…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=human+AND+resources+AND+st+AND+practices&pg=6&id=ED431893','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=human+AND+resources+AND+st+AND+practices&pg=6&id=ED431893"><span>Pan-Canadian Forum on <span class="hlt">Community</span> Learning Networks Conference Proceedings [and] A Discussion Guide (1st, Ottawa, <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>, March 27-29, 1998).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Human Resources Development Canada, Hull (Quebec). Office of Learning Technologies.</p> <p></p> <p>This document contains information from and about the Pan-Canadian Forum on <span class="hlt">Community</span> Learning Networks (CLNs) that was conducted to identify existing and emerging needs of CLNs and identify emerging trends and issues related to CLNs. The document begins with a discussion of role played by CLNs in building a lifelong learning culture. Presented…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED092199.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED092199.pdf"><span>Education in Transition--Search for a New Balance. Proceedings, Fourth Annual International Institute on the <span class="hlt">Community</span> College, June 11-14, 1973, Lambton College, Sarnia, <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>, Canada.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Delgrosso, George M., Ed.; Allan, George B., Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>The papers in this volume are: Learning to Be; Staff Development for Student Development; A Humanistic Approach to Educational Management; Inservice Education, A Total Staff Involvement; <span class="hlt">Community</span> Colleges as Political Institutions; Student Development--Where Are We Going; Of Time and Modules--The Organization of Instruction; Measuring Student…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22443194','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22443194"><span>Considering the risk of infection by cryptosporidium via consumption of municipally treated drinking water from a surface water source in a Southwestern <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> <span class="hlt">community</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pintar, K D M; Fazil, A; Pollari, F; Waltner-Toews, D; Charron, D F; McEwen, S A; Walton, T</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Through the use of case-control analyses and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), relative risks of transmission of cryptosporidiosis have been evaluated (recreational water exposure vs. drinking water consumption) for a Canadian <span class="hlt">community</span> with higher than national rates of cryptosporidiosis. A QMRA was developed to assess the risk of Cryptosporidium infection through the consumption of municipally treated drinking water. Simulations were based on site-specific surface water contamination levels and drinking water treatment log₁₀ reduction capacity for Cryptosporidium. Results suggested that the risk of Cryptosporidium infection via drinking water in the study <span class="hlt">community</span>, assuming routine operation of the water treatment plant, was negligible (6 infections per 10¹³ persons per day--5th percentile: 2 infections per 10¹⁵ persons per day; 95th percentile: 3 infections per 10¹² persons per day). The risk is essentially nonexistent during optimized, routine treatment operations. The study <span class="hlt">community</span> achieves between 7 and 9 log₁₀ Cryptosporidium oocyst reduction through routine water treatment processes. Although these results do not preclude the need for constant vigilance by both water treatment and public health professionals in this <span class="hlt">community</span>, they suggest that the cause of higher rates of cryptosporidiosis are more likely due to recreational water contact, or perhaps direct animal contact. QMRA can be successfully applied at the <span class="hlt">community</span> level to identify data gaps, rank relative public health risks, and forecast future risk scenarios. It is most useful when performed in a collaborative way with local stakeholders, from beginning to end of the risk analysis paradigm. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27217416','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27217416"><span>An Opportunity for Healing and Holistic Care: Exploring the Roles of Health Care Providers Working Within <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Canadian Aboriginal <span class="hlt">Communities</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rahaman, Zaida; Holmes, Dave; Chartrand, Larry</p> <p>2016-05-22</p> <p>The purpose of this qualitative study was exploring what the roles and challenges of health care providers working within <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Canadian Aboriginal <span class="hlt">communities</span> are and what resources can help support or impede their efforts in working toward addressing health inequities within these <span class="hlt">communities</span>. The qualitative research conducted was influenced by a postcolonial epistemology. The works of theorists Fanon on colonization and racial construction, Kristeva on semiotics and abjection, and Foucault on power/knowledge, governmentality, and biopower were used in providing a theoretical framework. Critical discourse analysis of 25 semistructured interviews with health care providers was used to gain a better understanding of their roles and challenges while working within <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Canadian Aboriginal <span class="hlt">communities</span>. Within this research study, three significant findings emerged from the data. First, the Aboriginal person's identity was constructed in relation to the health care provider's role of delivering essential health services. Second, health care providers were not treating the "ill" patient, but rather treating the patient for being "ill." Third, health care providers were treating the Aboriginal person for being "Aboriginal" by separating the patient from his or her identity. The treatment involved reforming the Aboriginal patient from the condition of being "Aboriginal." © The Author(s) 2016.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp..123L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp..123L"><span>Future changes of temperature and heat waves in <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>, Canada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Zhong; Huang, Guohe; Huang, Wendy; Lin, Qianguo; Liao, Renfei; Fan, Yurui</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Apparent changes in the temperature patterns in recent years brought many challenges to the province of <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>, Canada. As the need for adapting to climate change challenges increases, the development of reliable climate projections becomes a crucial task. In this study, a regional climate modeling system, Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies (PRECIS), is used to simulate the temperature patterns in <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>. Three PRECIS runs with a resolution of 25 km × 25 km are carried out to simulate the present (1961-1990) temperature variations. There is a good match between the simulated and observed data, which validates the performance of PRECIS in reproducing temperature changes in <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>. Future changes of daily maximum, mean, and minimum temperatures during the period 2071-2100 are then projected under the IPCC SRES A2 and B2 emission scenarios using PRECIS. Spatial variations of annual mean temperature, mean diurnal range, and temperature seasonality are generated. Furthermore, heat waves defined based on the exceedance of local climatology and their temporal and spatial characteristics are analyzed. The results indicate that the highest temperature and the most intensive heat waves are most likely to occur at the Toronto-Windsor corridor in Southern <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>. The <span class="hlt">Northern</span> <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>, in spite of the relatively low projected temperature, would be under the risk of long-lasting heat waves, and thus needs effective measures to enhance its climate resilience in the future. This study can assist the decision makers in better understanding the future temperature changes in <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> and provide decision support for mitigating heat-related loss.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CSR....99...12R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CSR....99...12R"><span>Linking macrobenthic <span class="hlt">communities</span> structure and zonation patterns on sandy shores: Mapping tool toward management and conservation perspectives in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> France</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rolet, Céline; Spilmont, Nicolas; Dewarumez, Jean-Marie; Luczak, Christophe</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>In a context of intensifying anthropogenic pressures on sandy shores, the mapping of benthic habitat appears as an essential first step and a fundamental baseline for marine spatial planning, ecosystem-based management and conservation efforts of soft-sediment intertidal areas. Mapping allows representing intertidal habitats that are basically characterised by abiotic (e.g sediments, exposure to waves…) and biotic factors such as macrobenthic <span class="hlt">communities</span>. Macrobenthic <span class="hlt">communities</span> are known to show zonation patterns across sandy beaches and many studies highlighted the existence of three biological zones. We tested this general model of a tripartite biological division of the shore at a geographical scale of policy, conservation and management decisions (i.e. <span class="hlt">Northern</span> France coastline), using multivariate analyses combined with the Direct Field Observation (DFO) method. From the upper to the lower shores, the majority of the beaches exhibited three macrobenthic <span class="hlt">communities</span> confirming the existence of the tripartite biological division of the shore. Nevertheless, in some cases, two or four zones were found: (1) two zones when the drying zone located on the upper shore was replaced by littoral rock or engineering constructions and (2) four zones on beaches and estuaries where a muddy-sand <span class="hlt">community</span> occurred from the drift line to the mid shore. The correspondence between this zonation pattern of macrobenthic <span class="hlt">communities</span> and the EUNIS habitat classification was investigated and the results were mapped to provide a reference state of intertidal soft-sediment beaches and estuaries. Our results showed evidence of the applicability of this EUNIS typology for the beaches and estuaries at a regional scale (<span class="hlt">Northern</span> France coastline) with a macroecological approach. In order to fulfil the requirements of the European Directives (WFD and MFSD), this mapping appears as a practical tool for any functional study on these coastal ecosystems, for the monitoring of anthropogenic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3753140','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3753140"><span>The use of remote presence for health care delivery in a <span class="hlt">northern</span> Inuit <span class="hlt">community</span>: a feasibility study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mendez, Ivar; Jong, Michael; Keays-White, Debra; Turner, Gail</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objective To evaluate the feasibility of remote presence for improving the health of residents in a remote <span class="hlt">northern</span> Inuit <span class="hlt">community</span>. Study design A pilot study assessed patient's, nurse's and physician's satisfaction with and the use of the remote presence technology aiding delivery of health care to a remote <span class="hlt">community</span>. A preliminary cost analysis of this technology was also performed. Methods This study deployed a remote presence RP-7 robot to the isolated Inuit <span class="hlt">community</span> of Nain, Newfoundland and Labrador for 15 months. The RP-7 is wirelessly controlled by a laptop computer equipped with audiovisual capability and a joystick to maneuver the robot in real time to aid in the assessing and care of patients from a distant location. Qualitative data on physician's, patient's, caregiver's and staff's satisfaction were collected as well as information on its use and characteristics and the number of air transports required to the referral center and associated costs. Results A total of 252 remote presence sessions occurred during the study period, with 89% of the sessions involving direct patient assessment or monitoring. Air transport was required in only 40% of the cases that would have been otherwise transported normally. Patients and their caregivers, nurses and physicians all expressed a high level of satisfaction with the remote presence technology and deemed it beneficial for improved patient care, workloads and job satisfaction. Conclusions These results show the feasibility of deploying a remote presence robot in a distant <span class="hlt">northern</span> <span class="hlt">community</span> and a high degree of satisfaction with the technology. Remote presence in the Canadian North has potential for delivering a cost-effective health care solution to underserviced <span class="hlt">communities</span> reducing the need for the transport of patients and caregivers to distant referral centers. PMID:23984292</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23984292','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23984292"><span>The use of remote presence for health care delivery in a <span class="hlt">northern</span> Inuit <span class="hlt">community</span>: a feasibility study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mendez, Ivar; Jong, Michael; Keays-White, Debra; Turner, Gail</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>To evaluate the feasibility of remote presence for improving the health of residents in a remote <span class="hlt">northern</span> Inuit <span class="hlt">community</span>. A pilot study assessed patient's, nurse's and physician's satisfaction with and the use of the remote presence technology aiding delivery of health care to a remote <span class="hlt">community</span>. A preliminary cost analysis of this technology was also performed. This study deployed a remote presence RP-7 robot to the isolated Inuit <span class="hlt">community</span> of Nain, Newfoundland and Labrador for 15 months. The RP-7 is wirelessly controlled by a laptop computer equipped with audiovisual capability and a joystick to maneuver the robot in real time to aid in the assessing and care of patients from a distant location. Qualitative data on physician's, patient's, caregiver's and staff's satisfaction were collected as well as information on its use and characteristics and the number of air transports required to the referral center and associated costs. A total of 252 remote presence sessions occurred during the study period, with 89% of the sessions involving direct patient assessment or monitoring. Air transport was required in only 40% of the cases that would have been otherwise transported normally. Patients and their caregivers, nurses and physicians all expressed a high level of satisfaction with the remote presence technology and deemed it beneficial for improved patient care, workloads and job satisfaction. These results show the feasibility of deploying a remote presence robot in a distant <span class="hlt">northern</span> <span class="hlt">community</span> and a high degree of satisfaction with the technology. Remote presence in the Canadian North has potential for delivering a cost-effective health care solution to underserviced <span class="hlt">communities</span> reducing the need for the transport of patients and caregivers to distant referral centers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=308597&keyword=dna+AND+evidence&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91043081&CFTOKEN=44666564','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=308597&keyword=dna+AND+evidence&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91043081&CFTOKEN=44666564"><span>Changes in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Gulf of Mexico sediment bacterial and archaeal <span class="hlt">communities</span> exposed to hypoxia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Biogeochemical changes in marine sediments during coastal water hypoxia are well described, but less is known about underlying changes in microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span>. Bacterial and archaeal <span class="hlt">communities</span> in Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) hypoxic zone sediments were characterized by py...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=308597&keyword=mexico+AND+2017&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=308597&keyword=mexico+AND+2017&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Changes in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Gulf of Mexico sediment bacterial and archaeal <span class="hlt">communities</span> exposed to hypoxia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Biogeochemical changes in marine sediments during coastal water hypoxia are well described, but less is known about underlying changes in microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span>. Bacterial and archaeal <span class="hlt">communities</span> in Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) hypoxic zone sediments were characterized by py...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=303958','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=303958"><span>Soil microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span> and metabolic function of a <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Alabama forest ecosystem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Thinning, prescribed burning, and their combinations, are common forest management practices to restore degraded forest <span class="hlt">communities</span> and to prevent uncontrollable wildfires. However, their impacts on soil microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span>, which are vital to global element cycling, are traditionally overlooked. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED445867.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED445867.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Community</span>-Based Native Teacher Education Programs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Heimbecker, Connie; Minner, Sam; Prater, Greg</p> <p></p> <p>This paper describes two exemplary school-based Native teacher education programs offered by <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Arizona University (NAU) to serve Navajo students and by Lakehead University (<span class="hlt">Ontario</span>) to serve members of the Nishnabe Nation of <span class="hlt">northern</span> <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>. The Reaching American Indian Special/Elementary Educators (RAISE) program is located in Kayenta,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23265374','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23265374"><span>Breaking <span class="hlt">community</span> barriers to polio vaccination in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Nigeria: the impact of a grass roots mobilization campaign (Majigi).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nasiru, Sani-Gwarzo; Aliyu, Gambo G; Gasasira, Alex; Aliyu, Muktar H; Zubair, Mahmud; Mandawari, Sunusi U; Waziri, Hassana; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; El-Kamary, Samer S</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>This paper examines the impact of a <span class="hlt">community</span>-based intervention on the trends in the uptake of polio vaccination following a <span class="hlt">community</span> mobilization campaign for polio eradication in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Nigeria. Uptake of polio vaccination in high-risk <span class="hlt">communities</span> in this region has been considerably low despite routine and supplemental vaccination activities. Large numbers of children are left unvaccinated because of <span class="hlt">community</span> misconceptions and distrust regarding the cause of the disease and the safety of the polio vaccine. The Majigi polio campaign was initiated in 2008 as a pilot trial in Gezawa, a local council with very low uptake of polio vaccination. The average monthly increase in the number of vaccinated children over the subsequent six months after the pilot trial was 1,047 [95% confidence interval (CI): 647-2045, P = 0·001]. An increasing trend in uptake of polio vaccination was also evident (P = 0·001). The outcome was consistent with a decrease or no trend in the detection of children with zero doses. The average monthly decrease in the number of children with zero doses was 6·2 (95% CI: -21 to 24, P = 0·353). Overall, there was a relative increase of approximately 310% in the polio vaccination uptake and a net reduction of 29% of never vaccinated children. The findings of this pilot test show that polio vaccination uptake can be enhanced by programs like Majigi that promote effective communication with the <span class="hlt">community</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4001576','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4001576"><span>Breaking <span class="hlt">community</span> barriers to polio vaccination in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Nigeria: the impact of a grass roots mobilization campaign (Majigi)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nasiru, Sani-Gwarzo; Aliyu, Gambo G; Gasasira, Alex; Aliyu, Muktar H; Zubair, Mahmud; Mandawari, Sunusi U; Waziri, Hassana; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; El-Kamary, Samer S</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines the impact of a <span class="hlt">community</span>-based intervention on the trends in the uptake of polio vaccination following a <span class="hlt">community</span> mobilization campaign for polio eradication in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Nigeria. Uptake of polio vaccination in high-risk <span class="hlt">communities</span> in this region has been considerably low despite routine and supplemental vaccination activities. Large numbers of children are left unvaccinated because of <span class="hlt">community</span> misconceptions and distrust regarding the cause of the disease and the safety of the polio vaccine. The Majigi polio campaign was initiated in 2008 as a pilot trial in Gezawa, a local council with very low uptake of polio vaccination. The average monthly increase in the number of vaccinated children over the subsequent six months after the pilot trial was 1,047 [95% confidence interval (CI): 647–2045, P = 0.001]. An increasing trend in uptake of polio vaccination was also evident (P = 0.001). The outcome was consistent with a decrease or no trend in the detection of children with zero doses. The average monthly decrease in the number of children with zero doses was 6.2 (95% CI: −21 to 24, P = 0.353). Overall, there was a relative increase of approximately 310% in the polio vaccination uptake and a net reduction of 29% of never vaccinated children. The findings of this pilot test show that polio vaccination uptake can be enhanced by programs like Majigi that promote effective communication with the <span class="hlt">community</span>. PMID:23265374</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17128816','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17128816"><span>[Sporotrichosis among rural <span class="hlt">communities</span> in the <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Sierra in Puebla. Report of 55 cases September 1995 - December 2005].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Macotela-Ruiz, Ernesto; Nochebuena-Ramos, Eloina</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Fifty five cases of cutaneous sporotrichosis collected from 35 <span class="hlt">communities</span> located in the southeast region of the <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Sierra of Puebla are described. The disease was more prevalent in males (60:40), but this difference was restricted to younger subjects (aged 0-15 years) where 14 cases were male and only 3 were female. No statistical difference regarding gender was observed in elder patients. The prevalence of the disease was significantly lower among patients aged 31 to 45. The most common clinical forms of the disease were lymphocutaneous and fixed. The drug of choice for the treatment of patients in rural <span class="hlt">communities</span> was potassium iodide. When available, Itraconazol proved to be an excellent option.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3814931','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3814931"><span>Comparison of high- versus low-intensity <span class="hlt">community</span> health worker intervention to promote newborn and child health in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Nigeria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Findley, Sally E; Uwemedimo, Omolara T; Doctor, Henry V; Green, Cathy; Adamu, Fatima; Afenyadu, Godwin Y</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background In <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Nigeria, infant mortality rates are two to three times higher than in the southern states, and, in 2008, a partnership program to improve maternal, newborn, and child health was established to reduce infant and child mortality in three <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Nigeria states. The program intervention zones received government-supported health services plus integrated interventions at primary health care posts and development of <span class="hlt">community</span>-based service delivery (CBSD) with a network of <span class="hlt">community</span> volunteers and <span class="hlt">community</span> health workers (CHWs), who focus on educating women about danger signs for themselves and their infants and promoting appropriate responses to the observation of those danger signs, consistent with the approach of the World Health Organization Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness strategy. Before going to scale in the rest of the state, it is important to identify the relative effectiveness of the low-intensity volunteer approach versus the more intensive CBSD approach with CHWs. Methods We conducted stratified cluster sample household surveys at baseline (2009) and follow-up (2011) to assess changes in newborn and sick child care practices among women with births in the five prior years (baseline: n = 6,906; follow-up: n = 2,310). The follow-up respondents were grouped by level of intensity of the CHW interventions in their <span class="hlt">community</span>, with “low” including group activities led only by a trained <span class="hlt">community</span> volunteer and “high” including the <span class="hlt">community</span> volunteer activities plus CBSD from a CHW providing one-on-one advice and assistance. t-tests were used to test for significant differences from baseline to follow-up, and F-statistics, which adjust for the stratified cluster design, were used to test for significant differences between the control, low-intensity, and high-intensity intervention groups at follow-up. These analyses focused on changes in newborn and sick child care practices. Results Anti-tetanus vaccination</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27299291','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27299291"><span>Genetic assessment of meiobenthic <span class="hlt">community</span> composition and spatial distribution in coastal sediments along <span class="hlt">northern</span> Gulf of Mexico.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brannock, Pamela M; Wang, Lei; Ortmann, Alice C; Waits, Damien S; Halanych, Kenneth M</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Meiobenthic (meiofauna and micro-eukaryotes) organisms are important contributors to ecosystem functioning in aquatic environments through their roles in nutrient transport, sediment stability, and food web interactions. Despite their ecological importance, information pertaining to variation of these <span class="hlt">communities</span> at various spatial and temporal scales is not widely known. Many studies in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) have focused either on deep sea or continental shelf areas, while little attention has been paid to bays and coastal regions. Herein, we take a holistic approach by using high-throughput sequencing approaches to examine spatial variation in meiobenthic <span class="hlt">communities</span> within Alabama bays and the coastal <span class="hlt">northern</span> GOM region. Sediment samples were collected along three transects (Mississippi Sound: MS, FOCAL: FT, and Orange Beach: OB) from September 2010 to April 2012 and <span class="hlt">community</span> composition was determined by metabarcoding the V9 hypervariable region of the nuclear18S rRNA gene. Results showed that Stramenopiles (diatoms), annelids, arthropods (copepods), and nematodes were the dominate groups within samples, while there was presence of other phyla throughout the dataset. Location played a larger role than time sampled in <span class="hlt">community</span> composition. However, samples were collected over a short temporal scale. Samples clustered in reference to transect, with the most eastern transect (OB) having a distinct <span class="hlt">community</span> composition in comparison to the other two transects (MS and FT). <span class="hlt">Communities</span> also differed in reference to region (Bay versus Shelf). Bulk density and percent inorganic carbon were the only measured environmental factors that were correlated with <span class="hlt">community</span> composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/49779','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/49779"><span>Representing <span class="hlt">northern</span> peatland microtopography and hydrology within the <span class="hlt">Community</span> Land Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>X. Shi; P.E. Thornton; D.M. Ricciuto; P J. Hanson; J. Mao; Stephen Sebestyen; N.A. Griffiths; G. Bisht</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Predictive understanding of <span class="hlt">northern</span> peatland hydrology is a necessary precursor to understanding the fate of massive carbon stores in these systems under the influence of present and future climate change. Current models have begun to address microtopographic controls on peatland hydrology, but none have included a prognostic calculation of peatland water table depth...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED457912.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED457912.pdf"><span>American Indian Completers and Noncompleters in a Tribal and <span class="hlt">Community</span> College in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Minnesota.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ness, Jean Kelly Echternacht</p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore and identify societal, institutional, organizational, family, and individual factors associated with American Indian students' completion and noncompletion rates in a tribal college in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Minnesota. Data collection included a series of in-depth interviews and two focus groups with seven…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=taxation&pg=4&id=EJ910786','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=taxation&pg=4&id=EJ910786"><span>From Pentecostalism to Politics: Mass Literacy and <span class="hlt">Community</span> Development in Late Colonial <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Ghana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Skinner, Kate</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This article takes as its starting point a strike among African trainee literacy workers in the <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Territories of the Gold Coast (now Ghana) in 1952. While the existing literature tends to concentrate on the tensions and contradictions in British colonial education policy, this article uses the strike to investigate how these agendas were…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=contact&pg=7&id=EJ1087725','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=contact&pg=7&id=EJ1087725"><span>"Plugging the Gap": Shared Education and the Promotion of <span class="hlt">Community</span> Relations through Schools in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Ireland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hughes, Joanne; Loader, Rebecca</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Although there is no consensus among educationalists as to the role schools play as drivers of hostilities in divided societies, there is broad agreement that they can facilitate more positive intergroup relations. In <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Ireland the promotion of school based intergroup contact has been offered as a means through which this can happen. Until…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ageing+AND+changes&pg=5&id=EJ989618','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ageing+AND+changes&pg=5&id=EJ989618"><span>Ageing in Changing <span class="hlt">Community</span> Contexts: Cross-Border Perspectives from Rural Ireland and <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Ireland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Walsh, Kieran; O'Shea, Eamon; Scharf, Thomas; Murray, Michael</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Ongoing demographic, social, economic and cultural changes point to the dynamic and continually changing contexts of rural areas in Ireland and <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Ireland. However, the influence of such changes on the lives of older people remains under-explored, particularly the question of how older people perceive, connect to and engage in their…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cameroon&pg=3&id=EJ918313','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cameroon&pg=3&id=EJ918313"><span>Implications of Local Literacy Practices for Literacy Programmes in a Multilingual <span class="hlt">Community</span> in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Cameroon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cheffy, Ian</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Research in a rural area of <span class="hlt">northern</span> Cameroon where most adults describe themselves as illiterate reveals a complex picture in which three languages are used in different ways and in different domains of life. The profile of the literacy practices associated with these languages is correspondingly complex. This paper argues that it is important…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=contact&pg=6&id=EJ1087725','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=contact&pg=6&id=EJ1087725"><span>"Plugging the Gap": Shared Education and the Promotion of <span class="hlt">Community</span> Relations through Schools in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Ireland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hughes, Joanne; Loader, Rebecca</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Although there is no consensus among educationalists as to the role schools play as drivers of hostilities in divided societies, there is broad agreement that they can facilitate more positive intergroup relations. In <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Ireland the promotion of school based intergroup contact has been offered as a means through which this can happen. Until…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=taxation&pg=5&id=EJ910786','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=taxation&pg=5&id=EJ910786"><span>From Pentecostalism to Politics: Mass Literacy and <span class="hlt">Community</span> Development in Late Colonial <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Ghana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Skinner, Kate</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This article takes as its starting point a strike among African trainee literacy workers in the <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Territories of the Gold Coast (now Ghana) in 1952. While the existing literature tends to concentrate on the tensions and contradictions in British colonial education policy, this article uses the strike to investigate how these agendas were…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4818551','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4818551"><span>Demand Creation for Polio Vaccine in Persistently Poor-Performing <span class="hlt">Communities</span> of <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Nigeria: 2013–2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Warigon, Charity; Mkanda, Pascal; Muhammed, Ado; Etsano, Andrew; Korir, Charles; Bawa, Samuel; Gali, Emmanuel; Nsubuga, Peter; Erbeto, Tesfaya B.; Gerlong, George; Banda, Richard; Yehualashet, Yared G.; Vaz, Rui G.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Introduction. Poliomyelitis remains a global threat despite availability of oral polio vaccine (OPV), proven to reduce the burden of the paralyzing disease. In Nigeria, children continue to miss the opportunity to be fully vaccinated, owing to factors such as unmet health needs and low uptake in security-compromised and underserved <span class="hlt">communities</span>. We describe the implementation and evaluation of several activities to create demand for polio vaccination in persistently poor-performing local government areas (LGAs). Methods. We assessed the impact of various polio-related interventions, to measure the contribution of demand creation activities in 77 LGAs at very high risk for polio, located across 10 states in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Nigeria. Interventions included provision of commodities along with the polio vaccine. Results. There was an increasing trend in the number of children reached by different demand creation interventions. A total of 4 819 847 children were vaccinated at health camps alone. There was a reduction in the number of wards in which >10% of children were missed by supplementary immunization activities due to noncompliance with vaccination recommendations, a rise in the proportion of children who received ≥4 OPV doses, and a decrease in the proportion of children who were underimmunized or unimmunized. Conclusions. Demand creation interventions increased the uptake of polio vaccines in persistently poor-performing high-risk <span class="hlt">communities</span> in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Nigeria during September 2013–November 2014. PMID:26908717</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JSR....37..153B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JSR....37..153B"><span><span class="hlt">Community</span> structure and spatial variation of benthic invertebrates associated with Zostera marina (L.) beds in the <span class="hlt">northern</span> Baltic Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boström, Christoffer; Bonsdorff, Erik</p> <p>1997-05-01</p> <p>The distribution and bed structure of eelgrass ( Zostera marina L.), and its importance for associated faunal <span class="hlt">communities</span> in the coastal areas of the <span class="hlt">northern</span> Baltic Sea are poorly known. The spatial distribution of the fauna associated with Zostera was studied at five localities in SW Finland in 1993-1994. Zostera was common on all localities, but the beds varied in terms of area (1-5 m diameter), density (50-500 shoots/m 2) and blade length (20-110 cm). A total of about 40 species or taxa were recorded. The zoobenthic infauna showed significant spatial differences, and total abundance and species diversity were significantly higher in the Zostera beds than in adjacent bare sand. The total abundance in Zostera ranged from 25 000 to 50 000 ind/m 2 and in sand from 2500 to 15 000 ind/m 2 The mean number of species in Zostera ranged from 5.9 to 8.8 spp ( H' = 1.76-2.54) and in sand from 2.2 to 5.5 spp ( H' = 1.67-2.31). The epifauna in Zostera was numerically dominated by grazing gastropods (Hydrobiidae) and copepods. The epifauna is an important <span class="hlt">community</span> component, which contributes to the total diversity of the Zostera assemblage. These systems are among the most species-rich components of the shallow soft-bottom ecosystems in the <span class="hlt">northern</span> Baltic Sea. The mechanisms structuring both the Zostera and the ambient sand-bottom habitats are presented.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26908717','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26908717"><span>Demand Creation for Polio Vaccine in Persistently Poor-Performing <span class="hlt">Communities</span> of <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Nigeria: 2013-2014.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Warigon, Charity; Mkanda, Pascal; Muhammed, Ado; Etsano, Andrew; Korir, Charles; Bawa, Samuel; Gali, Emmanuel; Nsubuga, Peter; Erbeto, Tesfaya B; Gerlong, George; Banda, Richard; Yehualashet, Yared G; Vaz, Rui G</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Poliomyelitis remains a global threat despite availability of oral polio vaccine (OPV), proven to reduce the burden of the paralyzing disease. In Nigeria, children continue to miss the opportunity to be fully vaccinated, owing to factors such as unmet health needs and low uptake in security-compromised and underserved <span class="hlt">communities</span>. We describe the implementation and evaluation of several activities to create demand for polio vaccination in persistently poor-performing local government areas (LGAs). We assessed the impact of various polio-related interventions, to measure the contribution of demand creation activities in 77 LGAs at very high risk for polio, located across 10 states in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Nigeria. Interventions included provision of commodities along with the polio vaccine. There was an increasing trend in the number of children reached by different demand creation interventions. A total of 4 819 847 children were vaccinated at health camps alone. There was a reduction in the number of wards in which >10% of children were missed by supplementary immunization activities due to noncompliance with vaccination recommendations, a rise in the proportion of children who received ≥4 OPV doses, and a decrease in the proportion of children who were underimmunized or unimmunized. Demand creation interventions increased the uptake of polio vaccines in persistently poor-performing high-risk <span class="hlt">communities</span> in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Nigeria during September 2013-November 2014. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27718106','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27718106"><span>Challenges for beef production in smallholder <span class="hlt">communities</span> with low reproductive management skills: a case study from <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Lao PDR.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matsumoto, N; Nampanya, S; Khounsy, S; Young, J R; Ashley, K A; Bush, R D; Windsor, P A</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Improved large ruminant productivity is increasingly acknowledged as a pathway for the alleviation of rural poverty and food insecurity in smallholder <span class="hlt">communities</span> in Southeast Asia; yet, in much of Laos, bovine reproductive management is practically absent. Large ruminant reproduction skills were studied, using face-to-face surveys (n=60) of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of farmers, plus an extension of an examination of parameters of reproductive efficiency (n = 1786 cattle and 434 buffalo) in the <span class="hlt">northern</span> provinces of Luang Prabang and Xieng Khouang. The surveys particularly involved female farmers to provide gender-disaggregated data, with females making up 38.3 % of participants. Results confirmed that KAPs of smallholder farmers on bovine reproductive management were low (34-46 %) with trends toward higher KAP scores in male survey respondents. Poor reproductive parameters were identified in both provinces, with low calving percentages of 54-75 and 45-54 % in cattle and buffalo groups, respectively, and prolonged inter-calving intervals of 14.1-19.8 and 26.0 months for the cattle and buffalo groups, respectively. Improving the reproductive efficiency of large ruminants in the <span class="hlt">northern</span> upland regions would enable smallholder farmers to be more effectively engaged in the dramatic economic growth of the Southeast Asia region, although these findings indicate that intensive training and supportive interventions are required to improve large ruminant reproductive outcomes in <span class="hlt">communities</span> that have low-level large ruminant husbandry skills.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4740503','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4740503"><span>Spatial and Temporal Examination of Bivalve <span class="hlt">Communities</span> in Several Estuaries of Southern California and <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Baja California, MX</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Crooks, Jeffrey A.; Reyns, Nathalie B.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A combination of historical bivalve surveys spanning 30–50 years and contemporary sampling were used to document the changes in bivalve <span class="hlt">community</span> structure over time at four southern California and one <span class="hlt">northern</span> Baja California estuaries. While there are limitations to the interpretation of historic data, we observed generally similar trends of reduced total bivalve species richness, losses of relatively large and/or deeper-dwelling natives, and gains of relatively small, surface dwelling introduced species across the southern California estuaries, despite fairly distinct bivalve <span class="hlt">communities</span>. A nearly 50-year absence of bivalves from two wetlands surveyed in a Baja California estuary continued. A combination of site history and current characteristics (e.g., location, depth) likely contributes to maintenance of distinct <span class="hlt">communities</span>, and both episodic and gradual environmental changes likely contribute to within-estuary temporal shifts (or absences). We highlight future research needed to determine mechanisms underlying patterns so that we can better predict responses of bivalve <span class="hlt">communities</span> to future scenarios, including climate change and restoration. PMID:26840744</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22354313','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22354313"><span>Aquatic hyphomycete <span class="hlt">communities</span> associated with decomposing alder leaf litter in reference headwater streams of the Basque Country (<span class="hlt">northern</span> Spain).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pérez, Javier; Descals, Enrique; Pozo, Jesús</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">community</span> of aquatic hyphomycetes associated with decomposing alder leaf litter was studied during autumn-winter in nine headwater reference streams of the Basque Country (<span class="hlt">northern</span> Spain). In order to study the spatial variability in composition and <span class="hlt">community</span> structure, three streams from each of three different river basins were compared. The colonization dynamics and <span class="hlt">community</span> changes throughout the decomposition process were also followed in three of the rivers (one per basin). The taxonomic richness and <span class="hlt">community</span> structure of these fungi varied among rivers, including similar streams of a given watershed. However, neither species diversity nor total abundance was statistically related to environmental variables. Only the conidial production of two of the species, Flagellospora curvula and Lunulospora curvula appeared to be enhanced by nitrate availability in the water. The taxonomic richness and the reproductive activity (sporulation rate) were positively related to the leaf litter decomposition rate. The changes in conidial production along the process were similar for all the streams and helped explain leaf litter quality dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME34A0777G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSME34A0777G"><span>Applications of Ecophylogenetics to Benthic <span class="hlt">Communities</span> in the <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Gulf of Mexico: Do Functional Traits Follow Phylogeny?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gadeken, K.; Dorgan, K. M.; Moore, J.; Berke, S. K.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Evolutionary relationships may shed light on observed patterns of diversity and functional traits when viewed through the lens of phylogeny. The potential for phylogenetic information to be used to explain patterns in <span class="hlt">community</span> structure, such as niche partitioning and responses to stress, is extensive. Differential distribution of related species with similar functional traits suggests niche partitioning, and local redundancy in functional traits may indicate the potential for interspecific competition. In this study, we investigated phylogenetic and functional diversity as a function of habitat for sites with varying levels of oil contamination in the <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Gulf of Mexico. Our study was conducted in a shallow benthic <span class="hlt">community</span> at the Chandeleur Islands, a group of uninhabited barrier islands. Infauna were sampled from seagrass (Halodule wrightii) and bare sediment at three sites along the island chain that experienced variable levels of oil impact from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Individuals were preserved and 18S and COI genes sequenced, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed of the local <span class="hlt">community</span> using maximum likelihood. Phylogenetic diversity and evenness were quantified. Ecologically important functional traits were then compiled into respective distance matrices, evaluated through different functional diversity indices, and assessed for correlation with the phylogeny. This integration of functional and phylogenetic diversity has the potential to provide greater insight into factors driving <span class="hlt">community</span> structure than either metric alone. Determining relevant metrics of diversity is critical to understanding the ecological effects of major disturbances such as oil spills.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17672926','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17672926"><span>Impacts of agriculture on the parasite <span class="hlt">communities</span> of <span class="hlt">northern</span> leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) in southern Quebec, Canada.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>King, K C; McLaughlin, J D; Gendron, A D; Pauli, B D; Giroux, I; Rondeau, B; Boily, M; Juneau, P; Marcogliese, D J</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Given that numerous amphibians are suffering population declines, it is becoming increasingly important to examine the relationship between disease and environmental disturbance. Indeed, while many studies relate anthropogenic activity to changes in the parasitism of snails and fishes, little is known of the impact on the parasites of amphibians, particularly from agriculture. For 2 years, the parasite <span class="hlt">communities</span> of metamorphic <span class="hlt">northern</span> leopard frogs from 7 agricultural wetlands were compared with those from 2 reference wetlands to study differences in parasite <span class="hlt">community</span> diversity and abundance of various species under pristine conditions and 3 categories of disturbance: only agricultural landscape, only pesticides, and agricultural landscape with pesticides. Agricultural (and urban) area was negatively related to species richness, and associated with the near absence of adult parasites and species that infect birds or mammals. We suggest that agriculture and urbanization may hinder parasite transmission to frogs by limiting access of other vertebrate hosts of their parasites to wetlands. The only parasite found at all localities was an unidentified echinostome infecting the kidneys. This parasite dominated <span class="hlt">communities</span> in localities surrounded by the most agricultural land, suggesting generalist parasites may persist in disrupted habitats. <span class="hlt">Community</span> composition was associated with dissolved organic carbon and conductivity, but few links were found with pesticides. Pollution effects may be masked by a strong impact of land use on parasite transmission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998Geo....26.1011C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998Geo....26.1011C"><span>Mammalian <span class="hlt">community</span> response to the latest Paleocene thermal maximum: An isotaphonomic study in the <span class="hlt">northern</span> Bighorn Basin, Wyoming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clyde, William C.; Gingerich, Philip D.</p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>New stratigraphic and paleontological information from the McCullough Peaks, <span class="hlt">northern</span> Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, is incorporated into an isotaphonomic faunal database and used to investigate the impact of the latest Paleocene thermal maximum and coincident earliest Wasatchian immigration event on local mammalian <span class="hlt">community</span> structure. Surface collections from Willwood Formation overbank deposits provide taphonomically consistent and stratigraphically resolved samples of the medium- to large-sized components of underlying mammalian <span class="hlt">communities</span>. Rarefaction shows that the immigration event caused an abrupt and dramatic increase in species richness and evenness. After this initial increase, diversity tapered off to more typical Wasatchian levels that were still higher than those in the preceding Clarkforkian. Wasatchian immigrants were rapidly incorporated into the new <span class="hlt">community</span> organization, representing ˜20% of the taxa and ˜50% of the individuals. Immigrant taxa generally had larger body sizes and more herbivorous and frugivorous dietary habits compared to endemic taxa, causing significant turnover in body-size structure and trophic structure. There was a significant short-term body-size decrease in many lineages that may have been prompted by the elevated temperatures and/or decreased latitudinal thermal gradients during the latest Paleocene thermal maximum. Rapid short-term climatic change (transient climates) and associated biotic dispersal can have abrupt and long-lasting effects on mammalian <span class="hlt">community</span> evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26840744','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26840744"><span>Spatial and Temporal Examination of Bivalve <span class="hlt">Communities</span> in Several Estuaries of Southern California and <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Baja California, MX.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Novoa, Anai; Talley, Theresa S; Talley, Drew M; Crooks, Jeffrey A; Reyns, Nathalie B</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A combination of historical bivalve surveys spanning 30-50 years and contemporary sampling were used to document the changes in bivalve <span class="hlt">community</span> structure over time at four southern California and one <span class="hlt">northern</span> Baja California estuaries. While there are limitations to the interpretation of historic data, we observed generally similar trends of reduced total bivalve species richness, losses of relatively large and/or deeper-dwelling natives, and gains of relatively small, surface dwelling introduced species across the southern California estuaries, despite fairly distinct bivalve <span class="hlt">communities</span>. A nearly 50-year absence of bivalves from two wetlands surveyed in a Baja California estuary continued. A combination of site history and current characteristics (e.g., location, depth) likely contributes to maintenance of distinct <span class="hlt">communities</span>, and both episodic and gradual environmental changes likely contribute to within-estuary temporal shifts (or absences). We highlight future research needed to determine mechanisms underlying patterns so that we can better predict responses of bivalve <span class="hlt">communities</span> to future scenarios, including climate change and restoration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4370865','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4370865"><span>Highly Heterogeneous Soil Bacterial <span class="hlt">Communities</span> around Terra Nova Bay of <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Victoria Land, Antarctica</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lim, Hyoun Soo; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ji Hee; Lee, Joohan; Choi, Taejin; Ahn, Tae Seok; Kim, Ok-Sun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Given the diminished role of biotic interactions in soils of continental Antarctica, abiotic factors are believed to play a dominant role in structuring of microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span>. However, many ice-free regions remain unexplored, and it is unclear which environmental gradients are primarily responsible for the variations among bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span>. In this study, we investigated the soil bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> around Terra Nova Bay of Victoria Land by pyrosequencing and determined which environmental variables govern the bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> structure at the local scale. Six bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, were dominant, but their relative abundance varied greatly across locations. Bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> structures were affected little by spatial distance, but structured more strongly by site, which was in accordance with the soil physicochemical compositions. At both the phylum and species levels, bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> structure was explained primarily by pH and water content, while certain earth elements and trace metals also played important roles in shaping <span class="hlt">community</span> variation. The higher heterogeneity of the bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> structure found at this site indicates how soil bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> have adapted to different compositions of edaphic variables under extreme environmental conditions. Taken together, these findings greatly advance our understanding of the adaption of soil bacterial populations to this harsh environment. PMID:25799273</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25799273','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25799273"><span>Highly heterogeneous soil bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> around Terra Nova Bay of <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Victoria Land, Antarctica.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Mincheol; Cho, Ahnna; Lim, Hyoun Soo; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Ji Hee; Lee, Joohan; Choi, Taejin; Ahn, Tae Seok; Kim, Ok-Sun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Given the diminished role of biotic interactions in soils of continental Antarctica, abiotic factors are believed to play a dominant role in structuring of microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span>. However, many ice-free regions remain unexplored, and it is unclear which environmental gradients are primarily responsible for the variations among bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span>. In this study, we investigated the soil bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> around Terra Nova Bay of Victoria Land by pyrosequencing and determined which environmental variables govern the bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> structure at the local scale. Six bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, were dominant, but their relative abundance varied greatly across locations. Bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> structures were affected little by spatial distance, but structured more strongly by site, which was in accordance with the soil physicochemical compositions. At both the phylum and species levels, bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> structure was explained primarily by pH and water content, while certain earth elements and trace metals also played important roles in shaping <span class="hlt">community</span> variation. The higher heterogeneity of the bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> structure found at this site indicates how soil bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> have adapted to different compositions of edaphic variables under extreme environmental conditions. Taken together, these findings greatly advance our understanding of the adaption of soil bacterial populations to this harsh environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28944133','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28944133"><span>Photophysiological and light absorption properties of phytoplankton <span class="hlt">communities</span> in the river-dominated margin of the <span class="hlt">northern</span> Gulf of Mexico.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chakraborty, Sumit; Lohrenz, Steven E; Gundersen, Kjell</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Spatial and temporal variability in photophysiological properties of phytoplankton were examined in relationship to phytoplankton <span class="hlt">community</span> composition in the river-dominated continental margin of the <span class="hlt">northern</span> Gulf of Mexico (NGOM). Observations made during five research cruises in the NGOM included phytoplankton photosynthetic and optical properties and associated environmental conditions and phytoplankton <span class="hlt">community</span> structure. Distinct patterns of spatial and temporal variability in photophysiological parameters were found for waters dominated by different phytoplankton groups. Photophysiological properties for locations associated with dominance by a particular group of phytoplankton showed evidence of photoacclimation as reflected by differences in light absorption and pigment characteristics in relationship to different light environments. The maximum rate of photosynthesis normalized to chlorophyll ( PmaxB) was significantly higher for <span class="hlt">communities</span> dominated (>60% biomass) by cyanobacteria + prochlorophyte (cyano + prochl). The initial slope of the photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) curve normalized to chlorophyll ( αB) was not clearly related to phytoplankton <span class="hlt">community</span> structure and no significant differences were found in PmaxB and αB between different geographic regions. In contrast, maximum quantum yield of carbon fixation in photosynthesis (Φcmax) differed significantly between regions and was higher for diatom-dominated <span class="hlt">communities</span>. Multiple linear regression models, specific for the different phytoplankton <span class="hlt">communities</span>, using a combination of environmental and bio-optical proxies as predictor variables showed considerable promise for estimation of the photophysiological parameters on a regional scale. Such an approach may be utilized to develop size class-specific or phytoplankton group-specific primary productivity models for the NGOM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22454189','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22454189"><span>Protocol for the <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Manhattan Diabetes <span class="hlt">Community</span> Outreach Project. A randomised trial of a <span class="hlt">community</span> health worker intervention to improve diabetes care in Hispanic adults.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Palmas, Walter; Teresi, Jeanne A; Findley, Sally; Mejia, Miriam; Batista, Milagros; Kong, Jian; Silver, Stephanie; Luchsinger, Jose A; Carrasquillo, Olveen</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Hispanics in the USA are affected by the diabetes epidemic disproportionately, and they consistently have lower access to care, poorer control of the disease and higher risk of complications. This study evaluates whether a <span class="hlt">community</span> health worker (CHW) intervention may improve clinically relevant markers of diabetes care in adult underserved Hispanics. The <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Manhattan Diabetes <span class="hlt">Community</span> Outreach Project (NOCHOP) is a two-armed randomised controlled trial to be performed as a <span class="hlt">community</span>-based participatory research study performed in a Primary Care Setting in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Manhattan (New York City). 360 Hispanic adults with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (haemoglobin A1c >8%), aged 35-70 years, will be randomised at a 1:1 ratio, within Primary Care Provider clusters. The two study arms are (1) a 12-month CHW intervention and (2) enhanced usual care (educational materials mailed at 4-month intervals, preceded by phone calls). The end points, assessed after 12 months, are primary = haemoglobin A1c and secondary = blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. In addition, the study will describe the CHW intervention in terms of components and intensity and will assess its effects on (1) medication adherence, (2) medication intensification, (3) diet and (4) physical activity. All participants will provide informed consent; the study protocol has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of Columbia University Medical Center. CHW interventions hold great promise in improving the well-being of minority populations who suffer from diabetes mellitus. The NOCHOP study will provide valuable information about the efficacy of those interventions vis-à-vis clinically relevant end points and will inform policy makers through a detailed characterisation of the programme and its effects. NCT00787475 at clinicaltrials.gov.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Manhattan+AND+project&pg=3&id=EJ808196','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Manhattan+AND+project&pg=3&id=EJ808196"><span>Creating and Sustaining Healthy <span class="hlt">Community</span> Environments for Children: Lessons from <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Manhattan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Prakash, Swati; Jordan, Jamillah</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Children and adults in <span class="hlt">communities</span> of color and low-income <span class="hlt">communities</span> face disproportionately high exposures to environmental hazards and, consequently, greater risk of experiencing adverse health impacts from these exposures. Almost two thirds of children under 6 with elevated blood lead levels are children of color living in disadvantaged…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=190949&keyword=texas+AND+water+AND+data&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91043797&CFTOKEN=20468109','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=190949&keyword=texas+AND+water+AND+data&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91043797&CFTOKEN=20468109"><span>Summer Fish <span class="hlt">Communities</span> in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Gulf of Mexico Estuaries: Indices of Ecological Condition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We used fish <span class="hlt">community</span> data from trawl samples in >100 estuaries, bayous, and coastal lagoons of the Louisianan Biogeographic Province (Gulf of Mexico) to develop indicators of ecological condition. One data set, from which we derived reference values for fish <span class="hlt">community</span> indicator...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ970453.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ970453.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Community</span>-Based Participatory Research to Improve Preconception Health among <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Plains American Indian Adolescent Women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Richards, Jennifer; Mousseau, Alicia</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background: Sacred Beginnings is a <span class="hlt">community</span>-based participatory research project that examines the effectiveness of a culturally appropriate preconception health educational intervention developed by tribal <span class="hlt">community</span> members and elders. The primary goal is to increase knowledge of preconception health and its benefits among adolescent females and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Environmental+AND+Justice&pg=5&id=EJ808196','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Environmental+AND+Justice&pg=5&id=EJ808196"><span>Creating and Sustaining Healthy <span class="hlt">Community</span> Environments for Children: Lessons from <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Manhattan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Prakash, Swati; Jordan, Jamillah</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Children and adults in <span class="hlt">communities</span> of color and low-income <span class="hlt">communities</span> face disproportionately high exposures to environmental hazards and, consequently, greater risk of experiencing adverse health impacts from these exposures. Almost two thirds of children under 6 with elevated blood lead levels are children of color living in disadvantaged…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/42807','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/42807"><span>Assessing net carbon sequestration on urban and <span class="hlt">community</span> forests of <span class="hlt">northern</span> New England, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Daolan Zheng; Mark J. Ducey; Linda S. Heath</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Urban and <span class="hlt">community</span> forests play an important role in the overall carbon budget of the USA. Accurately quantifying carbon sequestration by these forests can provide insight for strategic planning to mitigate greenhouse gas effects on climate change. This study provides a new methodology to estimate net forest carbon sequestration (FCS) in urban and <span class="hlt">community</span> lands of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/38958','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/38958"><span>Simulated nitrogen deposition affects <span class="hlt">community</span> structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in <span class="hlt">northern</span> hardwood forests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Linda T.A. Van Diepen; Erik Lilleskov; Kurt S. Pregitzer</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Our previous investigation found elevated nitrogen deposition caused declines in abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with forest trees, but little is known about how nitrogen affects the AMF <span class="hlt">community</span> composition and structure within forest ecosystems. We hypothesized that N deposition would lead to significant changes in the AMF <span class="hlt">community</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychosomatic&id=EJ910036','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychosomatic&id=EJ910036"><span>Ethnic Identity, Sense of <span class="hlt">Community</span>, and Psychological Well-Being among <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Plains American Indian Youth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Carter, Jessica S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Limited research has examined how ethnic identity and sense of <span class="hlt">community</span> may be associated with psychological well-being in American Indian adolescents. Via survey data, we examined the relationships among ethnic identity, sense of <span class="hlt">community</span>, psychosomatic symptoms, positive affect, and feelings of depression with students from a tribal high…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=190949&keyword=Biological+AND+invasions&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=190949&keyword=Biological+AND+invasions&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Summer Fish <span class="hlt">Communities</span> in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Gulf of Mexico Estuaries: Indices of Ecological Condition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>We used fish <span class="hlt">community</span> data from trawl samples in >100 estuaries, bayous, and coastal lagoons of the Louisianan Biogeographic Province (Gulf of Mexico) to develop indicators of ecological condition. One data set, from which we derived reference values for fish <span class="hlt">community</span> indicator...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/30008','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/30008"><span>Landscape assessment of tree <span class="hlt">communities</span> in the <span class="hlt">northern</span> karst region of Puerto Rico.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Juliann E. Aukema; Tomas A. Carlo; Jaime A. Collazo</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">northern</span> karst of Puerto Rico is a unique formation that contains one of the island’s largest remaining forested tracts. The region is under ever-increasing human pressure, but large portions of it are being considered for conservation. Forest classification of the region is at a coarse scale, such that it is considered one vegetation type. We asked whether there...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27195681','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27195681"><span>CITIZEN SCIENTISTS MONITOR A DEADLY FUNGUS THREATENING AMPHIBIAN <span class="hlt">COMMUNITIES</span> IN <span class="hlt">NORTHERN</span> COASTAL CALIFORNIA, USA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Group, Ecoclub Amphibian; Pope, Karen L; Wengert, Greta M; Foley, Janet E; Ashton, Donald T; Botzler, Richard G</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Ecoclub youth and supervising family members conducted citizen science to assess regional prevalence and distribution of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) among amphibians at Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) and Redwood National and State Parks (Parks), Humboldt County, California, US, May 2013 through December 2014. Using quantitative real-time PCR, 26 (17%) of 155 samples were positive for Bd. Positive samples occurred in four frog and toad species: foothill yellow-legged frog ( Rana boylii ), <span class="hlt">northern</span> red-legged frog ( Rana aurora ), Pacific chorus frog ( Pseudacris regilla ), and western toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] boreas); no salamanders or anuran larvae were positive. Except for R. aurora , all infected anurans were first-time species reports for coastal <span class="hlt">northern</span> California. At the Refuge, significantly fewer (6/71) postmetamorphic amphibians were positive compared to the Parks (20/69; P=0.0018). We assessed the association of being PCR-positive for Bd, season of sampling, and age of sampler (child, teen, or adult). The full model with season, species, and sampler age had the greatest support. Frogs tested in winter or spring were more likely to be positive than those tested in summer or fall; foothill yellow-legged frogs, <span class="hlt">northern</span> red-legged frogs, and western toads were more likely to be positive than were Pacific chorus frogs; and the probability of being positive nearly doubled when a child (≤12 yr old) collected the sample compared to a teen or adult. Our results support other chytrid studies that found amphibians are more susceptible to Bd when temperatures are cool and that species differ in their susceptibility. The Ecoclub's findings provide new information important to conservation of <span class="hlt">northern</span> California's coastal amphibians and demonstrate the value of involving children in citizen science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20206436','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20206436"><span>Assessing the sustainability of forest management: an application of multi-criteria decision analysis to <span class="hlt">community</span> forests in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Ethiopia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Balana, Bedru Babulo; Mathijs, Erik; Muys, Bart</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Continuous deterioration of the natural resource base has become a serious threat to both the ecological systems and economic production in Ethiopia. Many of these problems have been attributed directly or indirectly to the rapid dwindling of the country's forest cover which is associated with unsustainable forest use and management. Closing <span class="hlt">community</span> woodlands from human and livestock intervention to promote natural regeneration of forests has been one of the environmental restoration strategies pursued in the degraded highland areas of <span class="hlt">northern</span> Ethiopia. However, local pressure to use reforested <span class="hlt">community</span> lands for economic benefit has become a major threat to forest sustainability. Using locally identified sets of criteria and indicators for sustainable <span class="hlt">community</span> forest management, this paper applies a multi-criteria decision analysis tool to evaluate forest management problems in the <span class="hlt">northern</span> province of Tigray, Ethiopia. Three MCA methods - ranking, pair-wise comparison, and scoring - were used in evaluating the sets of criteria and indicators and alternative forest management scenarios. Results from the study indicate a number of noteworthy points: 1) MCA techniques both for identifying local level sustainability criteria and indicators and evaluating management schemes in a participatory decision environment appear to be effective tools to address local resource management problems; 2) Evaluated against the selected sets of criteria and indicators, the current forest management regime in the study area is not on a sustainable path; 3) Acquainting local people with adequate environmental knowledge and raising local awareness about the long-term consequences of environmental degradation ranked first among the set of sustainability criteria; and 4) In order to harmonize both environmental and economic objectives, the present 'ecological-biased' forest management regime needs to be substituted by an appropriate holistic scheme that takes into account</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70059772','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70059772"><span>Hydrologic connectivity of floodplains, <span class="hlt">northern</span> Missouri: implications for management and restoration of floodplain forest <span class="hlt">communities</span> in disturbed landscapes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Jacobson, R.; Faust, T.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Hydrologic connectivity between the channel and floodplain is thought to be a dominant factor determining floodplain processes and characteristics of floodplain forests. We explored the role of hydrologic connectivity in explaining floodplain forest <span class="hlt">community</span> composition along streams in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Missouri, USA. Hydrologic analyses at 20 streamgages (207–5827 km2 area) document that magnitudes of 2-year return floods increase systematically with increasing drainage area whereas the average annual number and durations of floodplain-connecting events decrease. Flow durations above the active-channel shelf vary little with increasing drainage area, indicating that the active-channel shelf is in quasi-equilibrium with prevailing conditions. The downstream decrease in connectivity is associated with downstream increase in channel incision. These relations at streamflow gaging stations are consistent with regional channel disturbance patterns: channel incision increases downstream, whereas upstream reaches have either not incised or adjusted to incision by forming new equilibrium floodplains. These results provide a framework to explain landscape-scale variations in composition of floodplain forest <span class="hlt">communities</span> in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Missouri. Faust (2006) had tentatively explained increases of flood-dependent tree species, and decreases of species diversity, with a downstream increase in flood magnitude and duration. Because frequency and duration of floodplain-connecting events do not increase downstream, we hypothesize instead that increases in relative abundance of flood-dependent trees at larger drainage area result from increasing size of disturbance patches. Bank-overtopping floods at larger drainage area create large, open, depositional landforms that promoted the regeneration of shade-intolerant species. Higher tree species diversity in floodplains with small drainage areas is associated with non-incised floodplains that are frequently connected to their channels and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25310189','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25310189"><span>Riparian Ficus tree <span class="hlt">communities</span>: the distribution and abundance of riparian fig trees in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Thailand.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Fig trees (Ficus) are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Thailand were investigated in 2010-2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1) calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2) measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha) were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious) from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from <span class="hlt">northern</span> Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4195654','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4195654"><span>Riparian Ficus Tree <span class="hlt">Communities</span>: The Distribution and Abundance of Riparian Fig Trees in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Thailand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G.; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Fig trees (Ficus) are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Thailand were investigated in 2010–2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1) calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2) measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha) were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious) from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from <span class="hlt">northern</span> Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance. PMID:25310189</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19851532','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19851532"><span>Filing for workers' compensation among <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> cases of mesothelioma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Payne, Jennifer Isabelle; Pichora, Erin</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>For many types of cancer, disease attribution to occupational exposures is difficult. Mesothelioma, however, is a 'sentinel' occupational cancer associated with asbestos exposure. The present study linked workers' compensation claims data with cancer registry data to explore the completeness of reporting of mesothelioma to the <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB) according to characteristics of cases diagnosed among <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> residents. Two data sources were linked at the person level: the WSIB Occupational Disease Information and Surveillance System and the <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> Cancer Registry. Filing rates were calculated as the proportion of <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> Cancer Registry mesothelioma cases (International Classification of Diseases - Oncology code 905) that linked to a WSIB-filed cancer claim. Filing rates were calculated for the period 1980 to 2002, and trends were calculated by year, age and county of residence at diagnosis. The filing rate for compensation has increased little over the past 20 years, reaching a high of 43% in 2000. Overall, filing rates were highest among pleural mesothelioma cases among men (range 27% to 57%). Filing rates were highest among individuals 50 to 59 years of age and declined substantially throughout the retirement years. There was substantial variation in filing rates by area of residence, with the highest rate being in Lambton County, <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>. The filing rate for compensation in <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> was much lower than the estimated proportion of cases eligible for compensation. The increased filing rate in Lambton County was likely related to this <span class="hlt">community</span>'s awareness of the association between asbestos and mesothelioma. Physicians can play an important role in educating patients of their potential entitlement to compensation benefits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=80342','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=80342"><span>Novel cases of blastomycosis acquired in Toronto, <span class="hlt">Ontario</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lester, Robert S.; DeKoven, Joel G.; Kane, Julius; Simor, Andrew E.; Krajden, Sigmund; Summerbell, Richard C.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Blastomycosis, a potentially fatal fungal disease, is well known from defined areas of endemicity in <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>, primarily in the <span class="hlt">northern</span> part of the province. We present 2 unusual cases that appear to extend the area of endemicity into urban southern <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>, specifically Toronto. Both patients presented to a dermatology clinic with skin lesions. Chest radiography, history and general physical evaluation indicated no disease at other body sites. Both cases appeared to represent “inoculation blastomycosis” connected with minor gardening injuries and a cat scratch respectively. Atypical dissemination could not be completely excluded in either case. Neither patient had travelled recently to a known area of high endemicity for blastomycosis, nor had the cat that was involved in one of the cases. Physicians must become aware that blastomycosis may mimic other diseases, including dermal infections, and may occur in patients whose travel histories would not normally suggest this infection. PMID:11107469</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1000107','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1000107"><span>Origins of rainbow smelt in Lake <span class="hlt">Ontario</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bergstedt, Roger A.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The first rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) to enter Lake <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> were probably migrants from an anadromous strain introduced into New York's Finger Lakes. Since the upper Great Lakes were originally stocked with a landlocked strain from Green Lake, Maine, subsequent migration to Lake <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> from Lake Erie makes Lake <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> unique among the Great Lakes in probably having received introductions from two distinct populations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fall+AND+1984&pg=4&id=ED264756','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fall+AND+1984&pg=4&id=ED264756"><span>Accessibility to <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> Universities, Fall 1984.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Davis, Christine K.</p> <p></p> <p>Accessibility to <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> universities in 1984 was studied to replicate a 1983 study. The study population consisted of 7,798 <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> secondary school students who were qualified to seek admission to an <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> university in fall 1984 but who failed to register. To identify acceptance and rejection patterns, data are provided on: the number of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Davis+AND+1983&pg=3&id=ED264756','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Davis+AND+1983&pg=3&id=ED264756"><span>Accessibility to <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> Universities, Fall 1984.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Davis, Christine K.</p> <p></p> <p>Accessibility to <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> universities in 1984 was studied to replicate a 1983 study. The study population consisted of 7,798 <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> secondary school students who were qualified to seek admission to an <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> university in fall 1984 but who failed to register. To identify acceptance and rejection patterns, data are provided on: the number of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=after+AND+care&pg=2&id=EJ1027305','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=after+AND+care&pg=2&id=EJ1027305"><span>Reforming <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> Early Learning: A Review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ryan, Thomas; Date, Gavin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Herein, we address the reformation of <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> early learning. Over the next 3 years, all 4- and 5-year-olds in <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> (Canada) will be able to attend full-day early learning with child care, before and after school provided by the Government of <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> Ministry of Education. The benefits of such a change are both academic and societal and are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26374800','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26374800"><span>Task Shifting Provision of Contraceptive Implants to <span class="hlt">Community</span> Health Extension Workers: Results of Operations Research in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Nigeria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Charyeva, Zulfiya; Oguntunde, Olugbenga; Orobaton, Nosa; Otolorin, Emmanuel; Inuwa, Fatima; Alalade, Olubisi; Abegunde, Dele; Danladi, Saba'atu</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Contraceptive use remains low in Nigeria, with only 11% of women reporting use of any modern method. Access to long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) is constrained by a severe shortage of human resources. To assess feasibility of task shifting provision of implants, we trained <span class="hlt">community</span> health extension workers (CHEWs) to insert and remove contraceptive implants in rural <span class="hlt">communities</span> of Bauchi and Sokoto states in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Nigeria. We conducted 2- to 3-week training sessions for 166 selected CHEWs from 82 facilities in Sokoto state (September 2013) and 84 health facilities in Bauchi state (December 2013). To assess feasibility of the task shifting approach, we conducted operations research using a pretest-posttest design using multiple sources of information, including surveys with 151 trained CHEWs (9% were lost to follow-up) and with 150 family planning clients; facility observations using supply checklists (N = 149); direct observation of counseling provided by CHEWs (N = 144) and of their clinical (N = 113) skills; as well as a review of service statistics (N = 151 health facilities). The endline assessment was conducted 6 months after the training in each state. CHEWs inserted a total of 3,588 implants in 151 health facilities over a period of 6 months, generating 10,088 couple-years of protection (CYP). After practicing on anatomic arm models, most CHEWs achieved competency in implant insertions after insertions with 4-5 actual clients. Clinical observations revealed that CHEWs performed implant insertion tasks correctly 90% of the time or more for nearly all checklist items. The amount of information that CHEWs provided clients increased between baseline and endline, and over 95% of surveyed clients reported being satisfied with CHEWs' services in both surveys. The study found that supervisors not only observed and corrected insertion skills, as needed, during supervisory visits but also encouraged CHEWs to conduct more <span class="hlt">community</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4570013','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4570013"><span>Task Shifting Provision of Contraceptive Implants to <span class="hlt">Community</span> Health Extension Workers: Results of Operations Research in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Nigeria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Oguntunde, Olugbenga; Orobaton, Nosa; Otolorin, Emmanuel; Inuwa, Fatima; Alalade, Olubisi; Abegunde, Dele; Danladi, Saba’atu</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: Contraceptive use remains low in Nigeria, with only 11% of women reporting use of any modern method. Access to long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) is constrained by a severe shortage of human resources. To assess feasibility of task shifting provision of implants, we trained <span class="hlt">community</span> health extension workers (CHEWs) to insert and remove contraceptive implants in rural <span class="hlt">communities</span> of Bauchi and Sokoto states in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Nigeria. Methods: We conducted 2- to 3-week training sessions for 166 selected CHEWs from 82 facilities in Sokoto state (September 2013) and 84 health facilities in Bauchi state (December 2013). To assess feasibility of the task shifting approach, we conducted operations research using a pretest–posttest design using multiple sources of information, including surveys with 151 trained CHEWs (9% were lost to follow-up) and with 150 family planning clients; facility observations using supply checklists (N = 149); direct observation of counseling provided by CHEWs (N = 144) and of their clinical (N = 113) skills; as well as a review of service statistics (N = 151 health facilities). The endline assessment was conducted 6 months after the training in each state. Results: CHEWs inserted a total of 3,588 implants in 151 health facilities over a period of 6 months, generating 10,088 couple-years of protection (CYP). After practicing on anatomic arm models, most CHEWs achieved competency in implant insertions after insertions with 4–5 actual clients. Clinical observations revealed that CHEWs performed implant insertion tasks correctly 90% of the time or more for nearly all checklist items. The amount of information that CHEWs provided clients increased between baseline and endline, and over 95% of surveyed clients reported being satisfied with CHEWs’ services in both surveys. The study found that supervisors not only observed and corrected insertion skills, as needed, during supervisory visits but also encouraged</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ChJOL.tmp...57M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ChJOL.tmp...57M"><span>Comparative analysis on microbial <span class="hlt">community</span> associated with different gastrointestinal regions of wild <span class="hlt">northern</span> snakehead Channa argus Cantor, 1842</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miao, Shuyan; Zhao, Chenze; Zhu, Jinyu; Pan, Mingzhu</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span> in different gastrointestinal regions (stomach, foregut, midgut, and hindgut) of the <span class="hlt">northern</span> snakehead Channa argus (Cantor, 1842) were compared by polymerase chain reaction and partial 16S rDNA sequencing. A total of 194, 140, 212, and 122 OTUs were detected in the stomach, foregut, midgut, and hindgut, respectively. Significant differences were found in the Sobs, ACE, Shannon, and Simpson indices among samples (P <0.05). The gastrointestinal microbial <span class="hlt">community</span> of C. argus consisted predominantly of Proteobacteria with either Halomonas, Shewanella, Plesiomonas, or Sphingomonas. Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes also existed in the gastrointestinal tracts. However, significant differences were found in the compositions of microbial <span class="hlt">community</span> among the four regions (P <0.05). Cyanobacteria and Spirochetes were significantly higher in the midgut and hindgut (P <0.05). Fusobacteria and Firmicutes were dominant in the hindgut and foregut, respectively (P <0.05). Proteobacteria was the lowest in the hindgut (P <0.05). At genus level, Cetobacterium and Plesiomonas were significantly higher in the hindgut than in the other three samples (P <0.05). Clostridium and Prevotella were the highest in the midgut (P <0.05). Halomonas, Shewanella, and Sphingomonas were the highest in the foregut (P <0.05). Paracoccus and Vibrio were the highest in the stomach. Several genera were only detected in certain regions, as follows: stomach, Paracoccus and Vibrio; foregut, Halomonas, Shewanella, and Sphingomonas; midgut, Clostridium and Prevotella; and hindgut, Cetobacterium and Plesiomonas (P <0.05). At the species level, Acinetobacter rhizosphaerae was only detected in the stomach. Prevotella copri and Clostridium perfring were not detected in the foregut and midgut, respectively, whereas Prevotella copri and Faecalibacterium pra were not detected in the hindgut. These findings provide valuable information on the microbial <span class="hlt">community</span> in each</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26738314','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26738314"><span>Geothermal Gases--<span class="hlt">Community</span> Experiences, Perceptions, and Exposures in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> California.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chiu, Cindy H; Lozier, Matthew J; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Tait, Karen; Barreau, Tracy; Copan, Lori; Roisman, Rachel; Jackson, Rebecca; Smorodinsky, Svetlana; Kreutzer, Richard A; Yip, Fuyuen; Wolkin, Amy</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Lake County, California, is in a high geothermal-activity area. Over the past 30 years, the city of Clearlake has reported health effects and building evacuations related to geothermal venting. Previous investigations in Clearlake revealed hydrogen sulfide at levels known to cause health effects and methane at levels that can cause explosion risks. The authors conducted an investigation in multiple cities and towns in Lake County to understand better the risk of geothermal venting to the <span class="hlt">community</span>. They conducted household surveys and outdoor air sampling of hydrogen sulfide and methane and found <span class="hlt">community</span> members were aware of geothermal venting and some expressed concerns. The authors did not, however, find hydrogen sulfide above the California Environmental Protection Agency air quality standard of 30 parts per billion over one hour or methane above explosive thresholds. The authors recommend improving risk communication, continuing to monitor geothermal gas effects on the <span class="hlt">community</span>, and using <span class="hlt">community</span> reports and complaints to monitor and document geothermal venting incidents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26211054','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26211054"><span>[Effects of nitrogen and water addition on soil bacterial diversity and <span class="hlt">community</span> structure in temperate grasslands in <span class="hlt">northern</span> China].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Shan; Li, Xiao-bing; Wang, Ru-zhen; Cai, Jiang-ping; Xu, Zhu-wen; Zhang, Yu-ge; Li, Hui; Jiang, Yong</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>In this study, we measured the responses of soil bacterial diversity and <span class="hlt">community</span> structure to nitrogen (N) and water addition in the typical temperate grassland in <span class="hlt">northern</span> China. Results showed that N addition significantly reduced microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) under regular precipitation treatment. Similar declined trends of MBC and MBN caused by N addition were also found under increased precipitation condition. Nevertheless, water addition alleviated the inhibition by N addition. N addition exerted no significant effects. on bacterial α-diversity indices, including richness, Shannon diversity and evenness index under regular precipitation condition. Precipitation increment tended to increase bacterial α-diversity, and the diversity indices of each N gradient under regular precipitation were much lower than that of the corresponding N addition rate under increased precipitation. Correlation analysis showed that soil moisture, nitrate (NO3(-)-N) and ammonium (NH4+-N) were significantly negatively correlated with bacterial evenness index, and MBC and MBN had a significant positive correlation with bacterial richness and evenness. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination illustrated that the bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> were significantly separated by N addition rates, under both water ambient and water addition treatments. Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that soil MBC, MBN, pH and NH4+-N were the key environmental factors for shaping bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020505','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020505"><span>Winter and early spring CO2 efflux from tundra <span class="hlt">communities</span> of <span class="hlt">northern</span> Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fahnestock, J.T.; Jones, M.H.; Brooks, P.D.; Walker, D.A.; Welker, J.M.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Carbon dioxide concentrations through snow were measured in different arctic tundra <span class="hlt">communities</span> on the North Slope of Alaska during winter and early spring of 1996. Subnivean CO2 concentrations were always higher than atmospheric CO2. A steady state diffusion model was used to generate conservative estimates of CO2 flux to the atmosphere. The magnitude of CO2 efflux differed with tundra <span class="hlt">community</span> type, and rates of carbon release increased from March to May. Winter CO2 efflux was highest in riparian and snow bed <span class="hlt">communities</span> and lowest in dry heath, upland tussock, and wet sedge <span class="hlt">communities</span>. Snow generally accrues earlier in winter and is deeper in riparian and snow bed <span class="hlt">communities</span> compared with other tundra <span class="hlt">communities</span>, which are typically windswept and do not accumulate much snow during the winter. These results support the hypothesis that early and deep snow accumulation may insulate microbial populations from very cold temperatures, allowing sites with earlier snow cover to sustain higher levels of activity throughout winter compared to <span class="hlt">communities</span> that have later developing snow cover. Extrapolating our estimates of CO2 efflux to the entire snow-covered season indicates that total carbon flux during winter in the Arctic is 13-109 kg CO2-C ha-1, depending on the vegetation <span class="hlt">community</span> type. Wintertime CO2 flux is a potentially important, yet largely overlooked, part of the annual carbon cycle of tundra, and carbon release during winter should be accounted for in estimates of annual carbon balance in arctic ecosystems. Copyright 1998 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5061419','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5061419"><span>Bird <span class="hlt">Communities</span> and Environmental Correlates in Southern Oregon and <span class="hlt">Northern</span> California, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dinger, Eric C.; Alexander, John D.; Mohren, Sean R.; Ralph, C. John; Sarr, Daniel A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We examined avian <span class="hlt">community</span> ecology in the Klamath Ecoregion and determined that individual bird species co-exist spatially to form 29 statistically distinguishable bird groups. We identified climate, geography, and vegetation metrics that are correlated with these 29 bird groups at three scales: Klamath Ecoregion, vegetation formation (agriculture, conifer, mixed conifer/hardwood, shrubland), and National Park Service unit. Two climate variables (breeding season mean temperature and temperature range) and one geography variable (elevation) were correlated at all scales, suggesting that for some vegetation formations and park units there is sufficient variation in climate and geography to be an important driver of bird <span class="hlt">communities</span>, a level of variation we expected only at the broader scale. We found vegetation to be important at all scales, with coarse metrics (environmental site potential and existing vegetation formation) meaningful across all scales and structural vegetation patterns (e.g. succession, disturbance) important only at the scale of vegetation formation or park unit. Additionally, we examined how well six National Park Service units represent bird <span class="hlt">communities</span> in the broader Klamath Ecoregion. Park units are inclusive of most bird <span class="hlt">communities</span> with the exception of the oak woodland <span class="hlt">community</span>; mature conifer forests are well represented, primarily associated with conifer canopy and lacking multi-layered structure. Identifying environmental factors that shape bird <span class="hlt">communities</span> at three scales within this region is important; such insights can inform local and regional land management decisions necessary to ensure bird conservation in this globally significant region. PMID:27732625</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27732625','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27732625"><span>Bird <span class="hlt">Communities</span> and Environmental Correlates in Southern Oregon and <span class="hlt">Northern</span> California, USA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stephens, Jaime L; Dinger, Eric C; Alexander, John D; Mohren, Sean R; Ralph, C John; Sarr, Daniel A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We examined avian <span class="hlt">community</span> ecology in the Klamath Ecoregion and determined that individual bird species co-exist spatially to form 29 statistically distinguishable bird groups. We identified climate, geography, and vegetation metrics that are correlated with these 29 bird groups at three scales: Klamath Ecoregion, vegetation formation (agriculture, conifer, mixed conifer/hardwood, shrubland), and National Park Service unit. Two climate variables (breeding season mean temperature and temperature range) and one geography variable (elevation) were correlated at all scales, suggesting that for some vegetation formations and park units there is sufficient variation in climate and geography to be an important driver of bird <span class="hlt">communities</span>, a level of variation we expected only at the broader scale. We found vegetation to be important at all scales, with coarse metrics (environmental site potential and existing vegetation formation) meaningful across all scales and structural vegetation patterns (e.g. succession, disturbance) important only at the scale of vegetation formation or park unit. Additionally, we examined how well six National Park Service units represent bird <span class="hlt">communities</span> in the broader Klamath Ecoregion. Park units are inclusive of most bird <span class="hlt">communities</span> with the exception of the oak woodland <span class="hlt">community</span>; mature conifer forests are well represented, primarily associated with conifer canopy and lacking multi-layered structure. Identifying environmental factors that shape bird <span class="hlt">communities</span> at three scales within this region is important; such insights can inform local and regional land management decisions necessary to ensure bird conservation in this globally significant region.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26640281','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26640281"><span>DETERMINANTS OF FIRST ANTENATAL CARE VISIT BY PREGNANT WOMEN AT <span class="hlt">COMMUNITY</span> BASED EDUCATION, RESEARCH AND SERVICE SITES IN <span class="hlt">NORTHERN</span> UGANDA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Turyasiima, M; Tugume, R; Openy, A; Ahairwomugisha, E; Opio, R; Ntunguka, M; Mahulo, N; Akera, P; Odongo-Aginya, E</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Antenatal care (ANC) aims mainly at prevention, early detection and management of general medical and pregnancy associated disorders. Early booking is recommended for maximum utilisation. To investigate the determinants of first ANC visit and trimesters at which pregnant mothers enrol for ANC at the COBERS sites of <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Uganda. A descriptive cross-sectional study. Five <span class="hlt">community</span> based Education, Research and Service sites (COBERS) of Atiak, Madi Opei, Mungula, Namukora and Pajule health centre, fours (HC IV) in the five respective districts of Amuru, Lamwo, Adjumani, Kitgum and Pader, <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Uganda, from April to July 2013. Four hundred and seventeen (417) pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) in five health centres and ten purposively selected midwives were interviewed using questionnaires. Of the 417 respondents, only 11.5% (n = 48) had their first ANC at the recommended period of 0-16 weeks. Prevalence of late entry to ANC was 88.5% (n = 369). Mean gestational age at booking was 22.6 ± 5.7 weeks. Paternal level of education, outcome of previous pregnancy, previous ANC attendance, weeks of amenorrhea, convenience of opening hours at ANC facility, commuting distance from home to health facility, knowing the right time for ANC enrollment and pregnancy planning remained significant predictors governing early booking. Late ANC booking is still a major public health concern that demands public enlightenment and paternal education coupled with women empowerment will reduce the magnitude of the problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14965893','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14965893"><span>Policy approaches to support local <span class="hlt">community</span> control over the supply and distribution of kava in the <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Territory (Australia).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clough, Alan R; Jones, Peter J</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>The health consequences of kava abuse in Arnhem Land Aboriginal populations in the <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Territory (NT) and the persistence of an illegal kava trade with its associated social harms have been a cause for concern for 20 years. Despite these concerns, some Arnhem Land groups seek to continue using kava and to control its sale, distribution and the profits from the enterprise. In response, policy makers in the NT have embraced principles of harm reduction and created regulatory mechanisms to address broader public concerns and to support local management of kava supply while reinforcing control over the consequences of its use. This paper describes the kava regulatory system now being implemented in the NT which features kava management plans developed in consultation between Aboriginal <span class="hlt">communities</span> and licensing authorities. It complements the earlier Harm Reduction Digest 9 by McDonald & Jowitt which looked at Kava in the South Pacific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSMNB33I..09M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSMNB33I..09M"><span>Leaf Litter Composition and Benthic Macroinvertebrate <span class="hlt">Community</span> Assemblages in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Forested Watersheds With Differing Land Use Histories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Myers, L.; Mihuc, T.; Woodcock, T.; Mihuc, J.</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">northern</span> forested ecosystems, the autumnal leaf fall constitutes the majority of carbon and nitrogen that enters headwater streams annually. This study compared small upland watersheds located in two types of land use categories in the Adirondack Park; State Forest Preserve Lands, and lands that have been logged during the past 25 years. Riparian litter quality and biomass amounts were estimated for each stream. Leaf Litter quality was determined from the results of previous studies on individual species of litter. In-stream leaf packs were also sampled to assess invertebrate <span class="hlt">community</span> assemblages, and leaf pack species composition. Leaf packs in managed streams were composed mainly of high quality litter, although leaf packs in Preserve streams had a higher abundance of macroinvertebrates. These data may have many important implications for ecosystem energetics as it relates to land use practices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPC54B2261J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPC54B2261J"><span>Influence of Coral <span class="hlt">Community</span> Structure and Thermal Stress Exposure on Observed Patterns of Bleaching across the <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Mariana Islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnston, L.; Heron, S. F.; Johnson, S.; Okano, R.; Benavente, D.; Iguel, J.; Perez, D. I.; Liu, G.; Geiger, E.; Eakin, C. M.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>In 2013 and 2014, the Mariana Archipelago experienced consecutive thermal stress events that resulted in widespread coral bleaching and mortality. Using in situ survey data collected across seven of the <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Mariana Islands during the 2014 event, we undertook the first quantitative comparison between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Coral Reef Watch 5 km satellite monitoring products and coral bleaching observations. Analysis of coral <span class="hlt">community</span> characteristics, historical temperature conditions and thermal stress revealed a strong influence of coral biodiversity in the patterns of observed bleaching. This illustrates the importance of using local benthic characteristics to interpret the level of impact from thermal stress exposure. In an era of continuing climate change, accurate monitoring of thermal stress and prediction of coral bleaching are essential for resource managers and stakeholders to direct resources to the most effective management actions to conserve coral reefs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/26668','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/26668"><span>Red Oak Research and Demonstration Area in Phelps Township, North Bay, <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>-2004 to 2005</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Dave Deugo; Andrée Morneault; Dianne Othmer; Megan Smith; Al Stinson; Murray Woods; Ian Kovacs; Ian Aho; Bill Parker; Rob Baker; Marinus Verwey; Guylaine Thauvette; Don Willis; Jeff Dech</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In July 2004, a large stand of red oak (Quercus rubra) was harvested in Phelps Township, North Bay District, North Bay, <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> using the uniform shelterwood system. Most of the stand was harvested to retain 40 percent crown closure, while a very small portion was harvested to retain 70 percent crown closure. During tree marking, an active <span class="hlt">Northern</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=origin+AND+philosophy&pg=7&id=EJ866845','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=origin+AND+philosophy&pg=7&id=EJ866845"><span>Choosing a School in a "Double-Minority" Context: Language, Migration and Ideologies in French <span class="hlt">Ontario</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Forlot, Gilles</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Based on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in Toronto, <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>, this article examines the schooling behaviour of parents who have migrated from France to Canada. The population under study, engaged in a "<span class="hlt">northern</span>" kind of migration, generally benefits from an education acquired in the pre-migration period and from the legitimacy of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/12408','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/12408"><span>Overstory density affects field performance of underplanted red oak (Quercus rubra L.) in <span class="hlt">Ontario</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Daniel C. Dey; William C. Parker</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Red oak seedlings were underplanted in a closed-canopy mature <span class="hlt">northern</span> hardwood stand and an adjacent shelterwood in central <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>. Overstory density effects on seedling survival and growth were assessed 2 yr after planting. After 2 yr, seedling survival was 90% in the uncut stand and over 99% in the shelterwood. Seedlings in the uncut stand experienced negligible or...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=otitis+AND+media&pg=5&id=EJ394122','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=otitis+AND+media&pg=5&id=EJ394122"><span>Effect of Otitis Media upon Reading Scores of Indian Children in <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Scaldwell, William A.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Finds that lower reading scores were related to evidence of past or present middle ear infection among 524 American Indian children in <span class="hlt">northern</span> and southern <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>. Discusses the high incidence of otitis media among young Indian children, and educational implications. Contains 29 references. (SV)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=otitis+AND+media&pg=5&id=EJ394122','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=otitis+AND+media&pg=5&id=EJ394122"><span>Effect of Otitis Media upon Reading Scores of Indian Children in <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Scaldwell, William A.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Finds that lower reading scores were related to evidence of past or present middle ear infection among 524 American Indian children in <span class="hlt">northern</span> and southern <span class="hlt">Ontario</span>. Discusses the high incidence of otitis media among young Indian children, and educational implications. Contains 29 references. (SV)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24496805','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24496805"><span>Results of the <span class="hlt">northern</span> Manhattan diabetes <span class="hlt">community</span> outreach project: a randomized trial studying a <span class="hlt">community</span> health worker intervention to improve diabetes care in Hispanic adults.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Palmas, Walter; Findley, Sally E; Mejia, Miriam; Batista, Milagros; Teresi, Jeanne; Kong, Jian; Silver, Stephanie; Fleck, Elaine M; Luchsinger, Jose A; Carrasquillo, Olveen</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE The <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Manhattan Diabetes <span class="hlt">Community</span> Outreach Project evaluated whether a <span class="hlt">community</span> health worker (CHW) intervention improved clinically relevant markers of diabetes care in adult Hispanics. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were adult Hispanics, ages 35-70 years, with recent hemoglobin A1c (A1C) ≥8% (≥64 mmol/mol), from a university-affiliated network of primary care practices in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Manhattan (New York City, NY). They were randomized to a 12-month CHW intervention (n = 181), or enhanced usual care (educational materials mailed at 4-month intervals, preceded by phone calls, n = 179). The primary outcome was A1C at 12 months; the secondary outcomes were systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, and LDL-cholesterol levels. RESULTS There was a nonsignificant trend toward improvement in A1C levels in the intervention group (from unadjusted mean A1C of 8.77 to 8.40%), as compared with usual care (from 8.58 to 8.53%) (P = 0.131). There was also a nonsignificant trend toward an increase in SBP and LDL cholesterol in the intervention arm. Intervention fidelity, measured as the number of contacts in the intervention arm (visits, phone contacts, group support, and nutritional education), showed a borderline association with greater A1C reduction (P = 0.054). When assessed separately, phone contacts were associated with greater A1C reduction (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS The trend toward A1C reduction with the CHW intervention failed to achieve statistical significance. Greater intervention fidelity may achieve better glycemic control, and more accessible treatment models, such as phone-based interventions, may be more efficacious in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3964489','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3964489"><span>Results of the <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Manhattan Diabetes <span class="hlt">Community</span> Outreach Project: A Randomized Trial Studying a <span class="hlt">Community</span> Health Worker Intervention to Improve Diabetes Care in Hispanic Adults</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Palmas, Walter; Findley, Sally E.; Mejia, Miriam; Batista, Milagros; Teresi, Jeanne; Kong, Jian; Silver, Stephanie; Fleck, Elaine M.; Luchsinger, Jose A.; Carrasquillo, Olveen</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE The <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Manhattan Diabetes <span class="hlt">Community</span> Outreach Project evaluated whether a <span class="hlt">community</span> health worker (CHW) intervention improved clinically relevant markers of diabetes care in adult Hispanics. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were adult Hispanics, ages 35–70 years, with recent hemoglobin A1c (A1C) ≥8% (≥64 mmol/mol), from a university-affiliated network of primary care practices in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Manhattan (New York City, NY). They were randomized to a 12-month CHW intervention (n = 181), or enhanced usual care (educational materials mailed at 4-month intervals, preceded by phone calls, n = 179). The primary outcome was A1C at 12 months; the secondary outcomes were systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, and LDL-cholesterol levels. RESULTS There was a nonsignificant trend toward improvement in A1C levels in the intervention group (from unadjusted mean A1C of 8.77 to 8.40%), as compared with usual care (from 8.58 to 8.53%) (P = 0.131). There was also a nonsignificant trend toward an increase in SBP and LDL cholesterol in the intervention arm. Intervention fidelity, measured as the number of contacts in the intervention arm (visits, phone contacts, group support, and nutritional education), showed a borderline association with greater A1C reduction (P = 0.054). When assessed separately, phone contacts were associated with greater A1C reduction (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS The trend toward A1C reduction with the CHW intervention failed to achieve statistical significance. Greater intervention fidelity may achieve better glycemic control, and more accessible treatment models, such as phone-based interventions, may be more efficacious in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. PMID:24496805</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3302806','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3302806"><span>Addressing the Neglected Tropical Disease Podoconiosis in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Ethiopia: Lessons Learned from a New <span class="hlt">Community</span> Podoconiosis Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tomczyk, Sara; Tamiru, Abreham; Davey, Gail</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Despite its great public health importance, few control initiatives addressing podoconiosis (non-filarial elephantiasis, a geochemical neglected tropical disease) exist. In June 2010, the first podoconiosis program in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Ethiopia, consisting of prevention, awareness, and care and support activities, began in Debre Markos, <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Ethiopia. This study aims to document and disseminate the lessons learned from a new <span class="hlt">community</span> podoconiosis program in Debre Markos. Methods/Principal Findings We used a content analysis approach to examine and evaluate data from a series of sources. These sources include conducted interview transcripts, a focus group discussion transcript and secondary sources including monitoring and evaluation field reports, observation notes, and research obtained from a literature review. Themes were identified and grouped into matrix tables. Overall, sixteen program steps were identified and grouped into 6 domains: Initial preparation, training and sensitization, foundation building, treatment activity implementation, awareness, and follow-up. Emphasis is placed on the need for baseline data, effective training, local leadership, experience-sharing, mass-awareness, cross-cutting sector issues (i.e., water and waste management), and integration with government health systems. Related successes and challenges are also described, as are stakeholder roles and misconceptions and socio-cultural challenges affecting the program start-up. Many of the identified successes and challenges are relevant to the aim of the podoconiosis program to be sustainable and <span class="hlt">community</span>-led. Conclusions/Significance Much of this information has already been used to improve the Debre Markos program. We also anticipate that the domains and steps identified will be useful in guiding new programs in other settings where podoconiosis is highly prevalent. We hope to encourage partnerships and collaboration among podoconiosis stakeholders in future growth and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3680132','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3680132"><span>GENETIC STRUCTURE OF TRIATOMA INFESTANS POPULATIONS IN RURAL <span class="hlt">COMMUNITIES</span> OF SANTIAGO DEL ESTERO, <span class="hlt">NORTHERN</span> ARGENTINA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Marcet, PL; Mora, MS; Cutrera, AP; Jones, L; Gürtler, RE; Kitron, U; Dotson, EM</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>To gain an understanding of the genetic structure and dispersal dynamics of T. infestans populations, we analyzed the multilocus genotype of 10 microsatellite loci for 352 T. infestans collected in 21 houses of 11 rural <span class="hlt">communities</span> in October 2002. Genetic structure was analyzed at the <span class="hlt">community</span> and house compound levels. Analysis revealed that vector control actions affected the genetic structure of T. infestans populations. Bug populations from <span class="hlt">communities</span> under sustained vector control (core area) were highly structured and genetic differentiation between neighboring house compounds was significant. In contrast, bug populations from <span class="hlt">communities</span> with sporadic vector control actions were more homogeneous and lacked defined genetic clusters. Genetic differentiation between population pairs did not fit a model of isolation by distance at the microgeographical level. Evidence consistent with flight or walking bug dispersal was detected within and among <span class="hlt">communities</span>, dispersal was more female-biased in the core area and results suggested that houses received immigrants from more than one source. Putative sources and mechanisms of re-infestation are described. These data may be use to design improved vector control strategies PMID:18773972</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22131198','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22131198"><span>Stigmatization of people with mental illness among inhabitants of a rural <span class="hlt">community</span> in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Nigeria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Audu, Ishaq A; Idris, Suleiman H; Olisah, Victor O; Sheikh, Taiwo L</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Despite the fact that mental illness is a common problem in society, people's perception of the mentally ill and <span class="hlt">community</span> attitude towards them is still rather poor, making their rehabilitation and reintegration into society an uphill task. To examine the stigmatization of people with mental illness within a rural <span class="hlt">community</span> and identify the socio-demographic variables involved. A cross-sectional descriptive study using a multi-stage random sampling technique to obtain data through an interviewer-administered questionnaire to 325 adult inhabitants of a rural <span class="hlt">community</span> in Nigeria. The results showed widespread ignorance about causation, mode of transmission and remedies available for mental illness, with only 0.9% of respondents attributing mental illness to brain disease. The others attributed it to spiritual attack, punishment for evil doing and illicit psychoactive substance use, among other things. Negative views about the mentally ill were also widely expressed resulting in discriminatory practices. Stigmatization of people with mental illness is still rampant in our <span class="hlt">community</span>. There is a need for adequate public education about the causes and mode of transmission of mental illness and the treatment options available in the <span class="hlt">community</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3482570','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3482570"><span>Clean delivery practices in rural <span class="hlt">northern</span> Ghana: a qualitative study of <span class="hlt">community</span> and provider knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Knowledge, attitudes and practices of <span class="hlt">community</span> members and healthcare providers in rural <span class="hlt">northern</span> Ghana regarding clean delivery are not well understood. This study explores hand washing/use of gloves during delivery, delivering on a clean surface, sterile cord cutting, appropriate cord tying, proper cord care following delivery, and infant bathing and cleanliness. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results 253 respondents participated, including women with newborn infants, grandmothers, household and compound heads, <span class="hlt">community</span> leaders, traditional birth attendants, and formally trained health care providers. There is widespread understanding of the need for clean delivery to reduce the risk of infection to both mothers and their babies during and shortly after delivery. Despite this understanding, the use of gloves during delivery and hand washing during and after delivery were mentioned infrequently. The need for a clean delivery surface was raised repeatedly, including explicit discussion of avoiding delivering in the dirt. Many activities to do with cord care involved non-sterile materials and practices: 1) Cord cutting was done with a variety of tools, and the most commonly used were razor blades or scissors; 2) Cord tying utilized a variety of materials, including string, rope, thread, twigs, and clamps; and 3) Cord care often involved applying traditional salves to the cord - including shea butter, ground shea nuts, local herbs, local oil, or “red earth sand.” Keeping babies and their surroundings clean was mentioned repeatedly as an important way to keep babies from falling ill. Conclusions This study suggests a widespread understanding in rural <span class="hlt">northern</span> Ghana of the need for clean delivery. Nonetheless, many recommended clean delivery practices are ignored. Overarching themes emerging from this study included the increasing use of facility-based delivery, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=hydroelectric&pg=5&id=ED235055','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=hydroelectric&pg=5&id=ED235055"><span><span class="hlt">Ontario</span>. Reference Series No. 29.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).</p> <p></p> <p>This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography, climate, history, agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, manufacturing, transportation, energy, arts and culture, sports and recreation, and people and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=railway&pg=6&id=ED235055','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=railway&pg=6&id=ED235055"><span><span class="hlt">Ontario</span>. Reference Series No. 29.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).</p> <p></p> <p>This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography, climate, history, agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, manufacturing, transportation, energy, arts and culture, sports and recreation, and people and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.glfc.org/pubs/TechReports/Tr14.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.glfc.org/pubs/TechReports/Tr14.pdf"><span>Planktonic diatoms of Lake <span class="hlt">Ontario</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Reinwand, Jerry F.</p> <p>1969-01-01</p> <p>The major species of diatoms in surface collections from Lake <span class="hlt">Ontario</span> in September 1964 were Asterionella formosa, Fragilaria crotonensis, and Tabellaris fenestrata. Dominant species in the deep-water samples were Stephanodiscus astraea, S. astraea var. mintula, and F. crotonensis. The diatom flora in surface collections varied among several stations in the eastern end of the lake.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22147336','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22147336"><span>Measuring the success of <span class="hlt">community</span> science: the <span class="hlt">northern</span> California Household Exposure Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown, Phil; Brody, Julia Green; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Tovar, Jessica; Zota, Ami R; Rudel, Ruthann A</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Environmental health research involving <span class="hlt">community</span> participation has increased substantially since the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) environmental justice and <span class="hlt">community</span>-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships began in the mid-1990s. The goals of these partnerships are to inform and empower better decisions about exposures, foster trust, and generate scientific knowledge to reduce environmental health disparities in low-income, minority <span class="hlt">communities</span>. Peer-reviewed publication and clinical health outcomes alone are inadequate criteria to judge the success of projects in meeting these goals; therefore, new strategies for evaluating success are needed. We reviewed the methods used to evaluate our project, "Linking Breast Cancer Advocacy and Environmental Justice," to help identify successful CBPR methods and to assist other teams in documenting effectiveness. Although our project precedes the development of the NIEHS Evaluation Metrics Manual, a schema to evaluate the success of projects funded through the Partnerships in Environmental Public Health (PEPH), our work reported here illustrates the record keeping and self-reflection anticipated in NIEHS's PEPH. Evaluation strategies should assess how CBPR partnerships meet the goals of all partners. Our partnership, which included two strong <span class="hlt">community</span>-based organizations, produced a team that helped all partners gain organizational capacity. Environmental sampling in homes and reporting the results of that effort had <span class="hlt">community</span> education and constituency-building benefits. Scientific results contributed to a court decision that required cumulative impact assessment for an oil refinery and to new policies for chemicals used in consumer products. All partners leveraged additional funding to extend their work. An appropriate evaluation strategy can demonstrate how CBPR projects can advance science, support <span class="hlt">community</span> empowerment, increase environmental health literacy, and generate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3295345','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3295345"><span>Measuring the Success of <span class="hlt">Community</span> Science: The <span class="hlt">Northern</span> California Household Exposure Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Brody, Julia Green; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Tovar, Jessica; Zota, Ami R.; Rudel, Ruthann A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background: Environmental health research involving <span class="hlt">community</span> participation has increased substantially since the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) environmental justice and <span class="hlt">community</span>-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships began in the mid-1990s. The goals of these partnerships are to inform and empower better decisions about exposures, foster trust, and generate scientific knowledge to reduce environmental health disparities in low-income, minority <span class="hlt">communities</span>. Peer-reviewed publication and clinical health outcomes alone are inadequate criteria to judge the success of projects in meeting these goals; therefore, new strategies for evaluating success are needed. Objectives: We reviewed the methods used to evaluate our project, “Linking Breast Cancer Advocacy and Environmental Justice,” to help identify successful CBPR methods and to assist other teams in documenting effectiveness. Although our project precedes the development of the NIEHS Evaluation Metrics Manual, a schema to evaluate the success of projects funded through the Partnerships in Environmental Public Health (PEPH), our work reported here illustrates the record keeping and self-reflection anticipated in NIEHS’s PEPH. Discussion: Evaluation strategies should assess how CBPR partnerships meet the goals of all partners. Our partnership, which included two strong <span class="hlt">community</span>-based organizations, produced a team that helped all partners gain organizational capacity. Environmental sampling in homes and reporting the results of that effort had <span class="hlt">community</span> education and constituency-building benefits. Scientific results contributed to a court decision that required cumulative impact assessment for an oil refinery and to new policies for chemicals used in consumer products. All partners leveraged additional funding to extend their work. Conclusions: An appropriate evaluation strategy can demonstrate how CBPR projects can advance science, support <span class="hlt">community</span> empowerment</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25874424','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25874424"><span>Endolithic microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span> in carbonate precipitates from serpentinite-hosted hyperalkaline springs of the Voltri Massif (Ligurian Alps, <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Italy).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Quéméneur, Marianne; Palvadeau, Alexandra; Postec, Anne; Monnin, Christophe; Chavagnac, Valérie; Ollivier, Bernard; Erauso, Gaël</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The Voltri Massif is an ophiolitic complex located in the Ligurian Alps close to the city of Genova (<span class="hlt">Northern</span> Italy) where several springs discharge high pH (up to 11.7), low salinity waters produced by the active serpentinization of the ultramafic basement. Mixing of these hyperalkaline waters with the river waters along with the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide forms brownish carbonate precipitates covering the bedrock at the springs. Diverse archaeal and bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> were detected in these carbonate precipitates using 454 pyrosequencing analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Archaeal <span class="hlt">communities</span> were dominated by members of potential methane-producing and/or methane-oxidizing Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota) together with ammonia-oxidizing Nitrososphaerales (Thaumarchaeota) similar to those found in other serpentinization-driven submarine and terrestrial ecosystems. Bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> consisted of members of the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Verrucomicrobia phyla, altogether accounting for 92.2% of total retrieved bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Amongst Bacteria, potential chemolithotrophy was mainly associated with Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria classes, including nitrogen-fixing, methane-oxidizing or hydrogen-oxidizing representatives of the genera Azospirillum, Methylosinus, and Hydrogenophaga/'Serpentinomonas', respectively. Besides, potential chemoorganotrophy was attributed mainly to representatives of Actinobacteria and Planctomycetales phyla. The reported 16S rRNA gene data strongly suggested that hydrogen, methane, and nitrogen-based chemolithotrophy can sustain growth of the microbial <span class="hlt">communities</span> inhabiting the carbonate precipitates in the hyperalkaline springs of the Voltri Massif, similarly to what was previously observed in other serpentinite-hosted ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27769527','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27769527"><span>Spatial variability of soft-bottom macrobenthic <span class="hlt">communities</span> in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Sicily (Western Mediterranean): Contrasting trawled vs. untrawled areas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Romano, C; Fanelli, E; D'Anna, G; Pipitone, C; Vizzini, S; Mazzola, A; Badalamenti, F</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>This study examines the impact of bottom trawl fishing on the macrobenthic <span class="hlt">communities</span> inhabiting the coastal terrigenous mud off the <span class="hlt">northern</span> coast of Sicily (Western Mediterranean). Two intensely trawled gulfs were compared with two gulfs from which trawling has been excluded for 15 years. The results show a significant effect of trawling on the faunal assemblage and when comparing the mean biomass and the whole isotopic composition of the benthic <span class="hlt">communities</span>. A similar pattern, although not significant, was found for total abundance, biomass, production/biomass ratio and diversity. Higher abundance and lower biomass were found in the untrawled areas, attributable to the presence of more numerous yet smaller individuals, possibly a consequence of more abundant larger predators that are not removed by trawling, and consequent higher predatory pressure on the benthic macrofauna. The SIMPER analysis evidenced a dominance of burrowing deposit feeding worms (Paraonidae and Cossuridae) in trawled areas, as a result of increased mechanical alteration and hence more organic matter available as food. In contrast, the response to trawling as drawn by the use of trophic markers (i.e., stable isotopes) was less clear. While δ(15)N of benthic taxa did not vary significantly between untrawled and trawled areas, δ(13)C was higher in trawled areas possibly due to high sediment resuspension and consequent intense microbial activity. Mixing models confirmed higher reliance to a detritus-based food web for benthic organisms in the trawled areas. Standard Ellipse Areas (SEAc) as a measure of <span class="hlt">community</span> niche width were slightly larger in trawled areas, likely due to higher generalism triggered by alteration/removal of the original benthic <span class="hlt">community</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23237008','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23237008"><span>Patterns of variation in parasite component <span class="hlt">communities</span> and infracommunities of a littoral fish species from the <span class="hlt">northern</span> coast of Chile.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Henríquez, Vania; González, M Teresa</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>The structure and similarity of the parasite <span class="hlt">communities</span> of fish can be evaluated at the component <span class="hlt">community</span> (CC) and infracommunity (IC) levels. Both hierarchical levels have been used to assess parasite variations in fish at large (biogeographic) scales. However, studies evaluating the consistency between these two hierarchical levels at smaller geographical scales are scarce. In this study, the parasite assemblages of 124 Paralabrax humeralis collected by local fishermen by spear fishing at four sites (El Fierro, EF; P. Angamos, PA; Santa María, ISM; San Jorge, BSJ) in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Chile were compared to assess the variability (or similarity) of their CCs and ICs at a limited geographical scale using multivariate analysis. At the IC level, discriminant analyses showed that P. humeralis parasite <span class="hlt">communities</span> varied significantly among sites; 70% of ectoparasite ICs were correctly assigned to each site, but only 55% of helminth parasite ICs were correctly classified. At the CC level, the composition of parasite <span class="hlt">communities</span> as assessed by correspondence analyses varied significantly between sites. Tagia sp., Neobenedenia sp. and Philometra sp. were associated with BSJ, ISM and PA, respectively; Corynosoma sp. and most digeneans were associated with both ISM and EF. Analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) showed significant variations in the degree of similarity between P. humeralis CCs from different sites, but not between ICs. Variations between CCs from different sites reflect fish population processes (e.g., population age, reproductive segregation) and the particular conditions of their respective habitats, whereas ICs reflect individual host movements. This study demonstrated that, when examined at a limited geographical scale, IC is better than CC at capturing the local pool of parasite assemblages when host populations are spatially segregated. Therefore, in this study, it is demonstrated that at a small geographic scale, CC variations are not reflected by IC, when</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27047661','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27047661"><span>Nutritional status of children 0-59 months in selected intervention <span class="hlt">communities</span> in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Ghana from the africa RISING project in 2012.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Glover-Amengor, Mary; Agbemafle, Isaac; Hagan, Lynda Larmkie; Mboom, Frank Peget; Gamor, Gladys; Larbi, Asamoah; Hoeschle-Zeledon, Irmgard</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Poor nutritional status during childhood and its long-term impact on economic growth and wellbeing is well known. This study assessed the nutritional status of children in selected <span class="hlt">communities</span> in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Ghana, to serve as baseline data for the Africa Research in Sustainable Intensification for the Next Generation (Africa RISING) project that sought to improve farm-household nutrition through agriculture. A cross-sectional study was conducted among children 0-59 months in selected <span class="hlt">communities</span> in the <span class="hlt">Northern</span> (Tibali and Cheyohi No. 2), Upper West (Goli and Zanko) and Upper East (Bonia and Sambulgu) regions of <span class="hlt">northern</span> Ghana. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on background characteristics of caregivers and children. Weight and height were measured for children following World Health Organization (WHO) procedures and transformed into z-scores using the WHO Anthro. All the caregivers (522) were females; majority (73.4 %) had no formal education, 82.7 % were married and 70.5 % engaged in farming. In all, 533 children were recruited: <span class="hlt">Northern</span> region (38.6 %), Upper West (33.4 %) and Upper East (28.0 %). Majority (52.5 %) of the children were males. The mean age was 32 ± 19 months. Levels of stunting, underweight and wasting were 27.2, 17.6 and 8.2 % respectively. Stunting, underweight and wasting levels increased within the first two years of life. Overall, 33.8 % of the children in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Ghana were malnourished; 20.2 % were from the <span class="hlt">Northern</span> region, 7.0 and 6.8 % were from Upper East and Upper West respectively. Different forms of malnutrition still exist as a public health problem in various <span class="hlt">communities</span> in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Ghana and need to be curtailed using effective agriculture-nutrition sensitive interventions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/40968','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/40968"><span>Ground-layer plant <span class="hlt">community</span> responses to even-age and uneven-age silvicultural treatments in Wisconsin <span class="hlt">northern</span> hardwood forests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Cristel C. Kern; Brian J. Palik; Terry F. Strong</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>We evaluated ground-layer plant diversity and <span class="hlt">community</span> composition in <span class="hlt">northern</span> hardwood forests among uncut controls and stands managed with even-age or uneven-age silvicultural systems. Even-age treatments included diameter-limit cuttings (20-cm diameter at 30-cm stem height) in 1952 and shelterwood removals in 1964. Uneven-age treatments included three intensities...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/38902','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/38902"><span>Simulated nitrogen deposition causes a decline of intra- and extraradical abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and changes in microbial <span class="hlt">community</span> structure in <span class="hlt">northern</span> hardwood forests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Linda T.A. van Diepen; Erik A. Lilleskov; Kurt S. Pregitzer; R. Michael. Miller</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Increased nitrogen (N) deposition caused by human activities has altered ecosystem functioning and biodiversity. To understand the effects of altered N availability, we measured the abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and the microbial <span class="hlt">community</span> in <span class="hlt">northern</span> hardwood forests exposed to long-term (12 years) simulated N deposition (30 kg N ha-1...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=educacion&id=EJ916579','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=educacion&id=EJ916579"><span>Programa de Fortalecimiento de Capacidades: Reflections on a Case Study of <span class="hlt">Community</span>-Based Teacher Education Set in Rural <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Peru</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alsop, Steve; Ames, Patricia; Arroyo, Graciela Cordero; Dippo, Don</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This article explores distinctive features of a 5-year international education development project set in rural <span class="hlt">northern</span> Peru (PROMEB, the "Proyecto de Mejoramiento de la Educacion Basica"). Grounded within a partnership between teacher educators from Peru, Mexico and Canada, and rural Peruvian teachers, students and their <span class="hlt">communities</span>,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=proyectos&id=EJ916579','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=proyectos&id=EJ916579"><span>Programa de Fortalecimiento de Capacidades: Reflections on a Case Study of <span class="hlt">Community</span>-Based Teacher Education Set in Rural <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Peru</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alsop, Steve; Ames, Patricia; Arroyo, Graciela Cordero; Dippo, Don</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This article explores distinctive features of a 5-year international education development project set in rural <span class="hlt">northern</span> Peru (PROMEB, the "Proyecto de Mejoramiento de la Educacion Basica"). Grounded within a partnership between teacher educators from Peru, Mexico and Canada, and rural Peruvian teachers, students and their <span class="hlt">communities</span>,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16521545','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16521545"><span>[Transformation of soil organic matter in microarthropod <span class="hlt">community</span> from the <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Taiga of West Siberia].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mordkovich, V G; Berezina, O G; Liubechanskiĭ, I I; Andrievskiĭ, V S; Marchenko, I I</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Recolonization of defaunated soil by springtails as well as by gamasid and oribatid mites and the changes in organic matter content of soil were studied in the <span class="hlt">northern</span> taiga. After a one-year exposure in gauze bags (1.7 mm mesh), the abundance of microarthropods was higher but the number of species was lower compared to the surrounding soil. Large surface and litter forms did not colonize the samples, while the number of small and/or soil forms was higher. Soil samples inaccessible for microarthropods (0.15 mm mesh) were depleted of organic carbon compared to both surrounding soil and recolonized samples. The content of humic and fulvic acids was higher in the samples inaccessible to microarthropods. Humification processes prevailed in soils in the absence of microarthropods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=250926','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=250926"><span>Plant <span class="hlt">Community</span> and Soil Environment Response to Summer Fire in the <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Great Plains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Fire is a keystone process in many ecosystems, especially grasslands. However, documentation of plant <span class="hlt">community</span> and soil environment responses to fire is limited for semiarid grasslands relative to that for mesic grasslands. Replicated summer fire research is lacking, but much needed because summe...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5546047','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5546047"><span>Zooplankton <span class="hlt">communities</span> and Bythotrephes longimanus in lakes of the montane region of the <span class="hlt">northern</span> Alps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Horváth, Zsófia; Vad, Csaba F.; Preiler, Christian; Birtel, Julia; Matthews, Blake; Ptáčníková, Radka; Ptáčník, Robert</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Lakes in the Alps represent a considerable fraction of nutrient-poor lakes in Central Europe, with unique biodiversity and ecosystem properties. Although some individual lakes are well studied, less knowledge is available on large-scale patterns essential to general understanding of their functioning. Here, we aimed to describe crustacean zooplankton <span class="hlt">communities</span> (Cladocera, Copepoda) and identify their environmental drivers in the pelagic zone of 54 oligotrophic lakes in the montane region of the Alps (400–1200 m) in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland, covering a spatial scale of 650 km. Moreover, we aimed to provide data on the distribution and ecological requirements of the North American invader Bythotrephes longimanus in its Central European native range. <span class="hlt">Communities</span> were mainly dominated by widespread species typical of lowland habitats, and only a few true specialists of oligotrophic alpine lakes were present. The most frequent taxa were the Daphnia longispina complex and Eudiaptomus gracilis, with 48 and 45 occurrences, respectively. Species richness decreased with altitude and increased with lake area. The main structuring factors of <span class="hlt">community</span> composition were chlorophyll a concentration and depth, which drove an apparent separation of mesotrophic and oligotrophic <span class="hlt">communities</span>. Bythotrephes had 13 occurrences, showing a preference for deep oligotrophic lakes. Its presence was not coupled with lower crustacean species richness, as was repeatedly observed in North America. Additionally, it frequently co-occurred with the other large predatory cladoceran, Leptodora kindtii. B. longimanus might be considered a truly montane species in Central Europe, given its absence in lowland and alpine lakes. PMID:28824797</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/6597','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/6597"><span>Songbird <span class="hlt">Community</span> Variation Among Five Levels of Overstory Retention in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Alabama</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Adrian A. Lesak; Yong Wang; Callie Jo Schweitzer</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>We compared songbird <span class="hlt">communities</span> among varying degrees of overstory tree retention in the oak-hickory forest of the southern Mid-Cumberland Plateau region. Three 20-ha complete block replicates of 5 experimental treatments (15 treatment units, 4 ha per unit) were used. The five treatments were operational shelterwood stands with target overstory retention levels of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/31268','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/31268"><span>Influence of elevation on bark beetle <span class="hlt">community</span> structure in ponderosa pine stands of <span class="hlt">northern</span> Arizona</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Andrew Miller; Kelly Barton; Joel McMillin; Tom DeGomez; Karen Clancy; John Anhold</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>(Please note, this is an abstract only) Bark beetles killed more than 20 million ponderosa pine trees in Arizona during 2002-2004. Historically, bark beetle populations remained endemic and ponderosa pine mortality was limited to localized areas in Arizona. Consequently, there is a lack of information on bark beetle <span class="hlt">community</span> structure in ponderosa pine stands of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/26121','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/26121"><span>Environmental relationships of native Garry oak (Quercus garryana) <span class="hlt">communities</span> at their <span class="hlt">northern</span> migration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Wayne R. Erickson</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Knowledge of relationships among plant <span class="hlt">communities</span> and environmental variables can be used in restoration, ecological assessments, predictive mapping and conservation planning. This information would be particularly important in the conservation of endangered ecosystems, such as those of Garry oak in British Columbia. To investigate relationships, sixteen environmental...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22gated+communities%22&id=EJ1006163','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22gated+communities%22&id=EJ1006163"><span>Sorting Procedures in Enclosed Rural <span class="hlt">Communities</span>: Admitting "People like Us" into Renewing Kibbutzim in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Israel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Charney, Igal; Palgi, Michal</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines the attempts made by the renewing kibbutzim to maintain their way of life as much as possible through the adjustment of their gating mechanisms. In this type of a rural gated <span class="hlt">community</span>, sorting procedures and admittance criteria of nonmembers are the most notable elements. Background material and interviews with informants at…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5004109','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5004109"><span>Bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> structure and function shift across a <span class="hlt">northern</span> boreal forest fire chronosequence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sun, Hui; Santalahti, Minna; Pumpanen, Jukka; Köster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Raffaello, Tommaso; Asiegbu, Fred O.; Heinonsalo, Jussi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Soil microbial responses to fire are likely to change over the course of forest recovery. Investigations on long-term changes in bacterial dynamics following fire are rare. We characterized the soil bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> across three different times post fire in a 2 to 152-year fire chronosequence by Illumina MiSeq sequencing, coupled with a functional gene array (GeoChip). The results showed that the bacterial diversity did not differ between the recently and older burned areas, suggesting a concomitant recovery in the bacterial diversity after fire. The differences in bacterial <span class="hlt">communities</span> over time were mainly driven by the rare operational taxonomic units (OTUs < 0.1%). Proteobacteria (39%), Acidobacteria (34%) and Actinobacteria (17%) were the most abundant phyla across all sites. Genes involved in C and N cycling pathways were present in all sites showing high redundancy in the gene profiles. However, hierarchical cluster analysis using gene signal intensity revealed that the sites with different fire histories formed separate clusters, suggesting potential differences in maintaining essential biogeochemical soil processes. Soil temperature, pH and water contents were the most important factors in shaping the bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span> structures and function. This study provides functional insight on the impact of fire disturbance on soil bacterial <span class="hlt">community</span>. PMID:27573440</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=pregnancy&id=EJ1074468','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=pregnancy&id=EJ1074468"><span>Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Recommendations from Urban and Reservation <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Plains American Indian <span class="hlt">Community</span> Members</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McMahon, Tracey R.; Hanson, Jessica D.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Despite declines over the past few decades, the United States has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy compared to other industrialized nations. American Indian youth have experienced higher rates of teen pregnancy compared to the overall population for decades. Although it's known that <span class="hlt">community</span> and cultural adaptation enhance program…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25022154','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25022154"><span><span class="hlt">Community</span>-level distribution of misoprostol to prevent postpartum hemorrhage at home births in <span class="hlt">northern</span> Nigeria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ejembi, Clara; Shittu, Oladapo; Moran, Molly; Adiri, Faraouk; Oguntunde, Olugbenga; Saadatu, Babalafia; Aku-Akai, Larai; Abdul, Mohammed A; Ajayi, Victor; Williams, Natalie; Prata, Ndola</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>In Nigeria, most deaths due to postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) occur in the absence of skilled birth attendants. A study using <span class="hlt">community</span> mobilization and the training of <span class="hlt">community</span> drug keepers to increase access to misoprostol for PPH prevention was conducted in five <span class="hlt">communities</span> around Zaria in Kaduna State, Nigeria. <span class="hlt">Community</span>-oriented resource persons (CORPs) and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) recruited and counseled pregnant women on bleeding after delivery, the importance of delivery at a health facility, and the role of misoprostol. Drug keepers stored and dispensed misoprostol during a woman's third trimester of pregnancy. TBAs and CORPs enrolled 1,875 women from January through December 2009. These results are based on 1,577 completed postpartum interviews. Almost all women delivered at home (95%) and skilled attendance at delivery was low (7%). The availability of misoprostol protected 83% of women who delivered at home against PPH who otherwise would not have been protected. Policymakers working in similar contexts should consider utilizing commuity-level distribution models to reach women with this life-saving intervention.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Area+AND+51&pg=5&id=EJ1011075','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Area+AND+51&pg=5&id=EJ1011075"><span>Adolescents' Educational Outcomes in a Social Ecology of Parenting, Family, and <span class="hlt">Community</span> Risks in <span class="hlt">Northern</span> Ireland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Cummings, E. Mark; Cairns, Ed; Shirlow, Peter</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study examines the influence of social ecological risks within the domains of parenting, family environment, and <span class="hlt">community</span> in the prediction of educational outcomes for 770 adolescents (49% boys, 51% girls, "M"?=?13.6 years, "SD"?=?2.0) living in a setting of protracted political conflict, specifically working class areas…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/53236','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/53236"><span>Bird <span class="hlt">communities</span> and environmental correlates in southern Oregon and <span class="hlt">northern</span> California, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Jaime L. Stephens; Eric C. Dinger; John D. Alexander; Sean R. Mohren; C. John Ralph; Daniel A. Sarr</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We examined avian <span class="hlt">community</span> ecology in the Klamath Ecoregion and determined that individual bird species co-exist spatially to form 29 statistically distinguishable bird groups. We identified climate, geography, and vegetation metrics that are correlated with these 29 bird groups at three scales: Klamath Ecoregion, vegetation formation (agriculture, conifer, mixed...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.</small> </div> </center> <div id="footer-wrapper"> <div class="footer-content"> <div id="footerOSTI" class=""> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-push-4 footer-content-center"><small><a href="http://www.science.gov/disclaimer.html">Privacy and Security</a></small> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-pull-4 footer-content-left"> <img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/DOE_SC31.png" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" usemap="#doe" height="31" width="177"><map style="display:none;" name="doe" id="doe"><area shape="rect" coords="1,3,107,30" href="