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Sample records for northern portugal moving

  1. Health professionals moving to... and from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Joana Sousa; Conceição, Claudia; Pereira, Joel; Leone, Cláudia; Mendonça, Pedro; Temido, Marta; Vieira, Carlota Pacheco; Dussault, Gilles

    2014-02-01

    The mobility of health professionals in the European Union is a phenomenon which policy-makers must take into account to provide the conditions to adjust for demand and supply of health services. This paper presents the case of Portugal, a country which at the same time imports and exports health workers. Since the early 1990s Portugal became a destination country receiving foreign health care professionals. This situation is now changing with the current economic situation as fewer immigrants come and more Portuguese emigrate. Foreigners coming to Portugal do so in part for similar reasons that bring Portuguese to want to emigrate, mainly the search for better work conditions and professional development opportunities. The emigration of Portuguese health professionals is also stimulated by the difficulty for recently graduated nurses, dentists and diagnostic and therapeutic technicians to find employment, low salaries in the public and private sectors, heavy workloads, remuneration not related to performance and poor career prospects. The paradoxes described in this study illustrate the consequences of the absence of a policy for the health professions. Strategies based on evidence, and on an integrated information system that captures the dynamic evolution of the workforce in health are not only necessary but also a good investment.

  2. Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckles, David; Toro, Leonor, Ed.

    Brief information is provided on the region, climate, agriculture and industry of 10 provinces in Portugal: Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, located in Portugal's northeastern region; Beira Alta, the province with Portugal's highest elevation point; Beira Baixa, one of Portugal's poorest regions; Beira Litoral, located in central Portugal along the…

  3. Portugal.

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    Portugal's 1983 population of 10.04 million was growing at .7%/year. 97% were Roman Catholic, 80% were literate, and 4.1 million were in the labor force in 1984. Portugal is mountainous north of the Tagus River and consists of rolling plains in the central south. The Azores and Madeira islands belong to Portugal but enjoy considerable autonomy. Portugal's dependency of Macau on the Chinese coast is an autonomous entity under Portuguese administration. The former teritories of Goa and Portuguese Timor were annexed by India and Indonesia respectively in 1961 and 1976, and the former territories in Africa achieved independence in 1974 and 1975. Portugal, 1 of the oldest states in Europe, traces its modern history to A.D. 1140 when the 1st king was crowned. The approximate present day boundaries were secured in 1249. Portugal eventually became a massive colonial empire with territories in Africa and Latin America and outposts in the Far East. The Portuguese Republic replaced the monarchy in 1910. After some years of instability, Antonio Salazar became prime minister, and with his successor, ruled Portugal as an authoritarian "corporate" state for 42 years. An almost bloodless coup in 1974 led to establishment of a parliamentary democracy. The 4 main organs of national government are the presidency, the prime minister and council of ministers, the assembly of the republic, and the courts. Portugal's gross domestic product (GDP) in 1984 was $19.4 billion, and per capita income was $1930. After almost a decade of rapid growth, the economy declined in the mid 1970s due to disruption after the 1974 revolution and the large influx of refugees from Portugal's former colonies in Africa. Growth resumed in the late 1970s, but structural problems and an often adverse international economic climate have slowed progress. The proportion of the labor force in agriculture has dropped from 42% to 24.4% since 1960. Agricultural production now contributes only 8.8% to the GDP, and a

  4. Portugal.

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    Portugal's 1983 population of 10.04 million was growing at .7%/year. 97% were Roman Catholic, 80% were literate, and 4.1 million were in the labor force in 1984. Portugal is mountainous north of the Tagus River and consists of rolling plains in the central south. The Azores and Madeira islands belong to Portugal but enjoy considerable autonomy. Portugal's dependency of Macau on the Chinese coast is an autonomous entity under Portuguese administration. The former teritories of Goa and Portuguese Timor were annexed by India and Indonesia respectively in 1961 and 1976, and the former territories in Africa achieved independence in 1974 and 1975. Portugal, 1 of the oldest states in Europe, traces its modern history to A.D. 1140 when the 1st king was crowned. The approximate present day boundaries were secured in 1249. Portugal eventually became a massive colonial empire with territories in Africa and Latin America and outposts in the Far East. The Portuguese Republic replaced the monarchy in 1910. After some years of instability, Antonio Salazar became prime minister, and with his successor, ruled Portugal as an authoritarian "corporate" state for 42 years. An almost bloodless coup in 1974 led to establishment of a parliamentary democracy. The 4 main organs of national government are the presidency, the prime minister and council of ministers, the assembly of the republic, and the courts. Portugal's gross domestic product (GDP) in 1984 was $19.4 billion, and per capita income was $1930. After almost a decade of rapid growth, the economy declined in the mid 1970s due to disruption after the 1974 revolution and the large influx of refugees from Portugal's former colonies in Africa. Growth resumed in the late 1970s, but structural problems and an often adverse international economic climate have slowed progress. The proportion of the labor force in agriculture has dropped from 42% to 24.4% since 1960. Agricultural production now contributes only 8.8% to the GDP, and a

  5. Homogenisation of minimum and maximum air temperature in northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, L.; Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Mendes, L.; Amorim, L.; Nunes, L.

    2012-04-01

    Homogenization of minimum and maximum air temperature has been carried out for northern Portugal for the period 1941-2010. The database corresponds to the values of the monthly arithmetic averages calculated from daily values observed at stations within the network of stations managed by the national Institute of Meteorology (IM). Some of the weather stations of IM's network are collecting data for more than a century; however, during the entire observing period, some factors have affected the climate series and have to be considered such as, changes in the station surroundings and changes related to replacement of manually operated instruments. Besides these typical changes, it is of particular interest the station relocation to rural areas or to the urban-rural interface and the installation of automatic weather stations in the vicinity of the principal or synoptic stations with the aim of replacing them. The information from these relocated and new stations was merged to produce just one but representative time series of that site. This process starts at the end 90's and the information of the time series fusion process constitutes the set of metadata used. Two basic procedures were performed: (i) preliminary statistical and quality control analysis; and, (ii) detection and correction of problems of homogeneity. In the first case, was developed and used software for quality control, specifically dedicated for the detection of outliers, based on the quartile values of the time series itself. The analysis of homogeneity was performed using the MASH (Multiple Analysis of Series for Homogenisation) and HOMER, which is a software application developed and recently made available within the COST Action ES0601 (COST-ES0601, 2012). Both methods provide a fast quality control of the original data and were developed for automatic processing, analyzing, homogeneity testing and adjusting of climatological data, but manual usage is also possible. Obtained results with both

  6. Occurrence of springs in massifs of crystalline rocks, northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Fernando António Leal; Alencoão, Ana Maria Pires

    2002-02-01

    An inventory of artesian springs emerging from fractures (fracture springs) was conducted in the Pinhão River Basin and Morais Massif, northern Portugal, comprising an area of approximately 650 km2. Over 1,500 springs were identified and associated with geological domains and fracture sets. Using cross-tabulation analysis, spring distributions by fracture sets were compared among geological environments, and the deviations related to differences in rock structure and, presumably, to differences in deformational histories. The relation between spring frequencies and rock structures was further investigated by spectral determination, the model introduced in this study. Input data are the spring frequencies and fracture lengths in each geological domain, in addition to the angles between fracture strikes and present-day stress-field orientation (θ). The model's output includes the so-called intrinsic densities, a parameter indexing spring occurrence to factors such as fracture type and associated deformational regime and age. The highest densities (12.2 springs/km of lineament) were associated with young shear fractures produced by brittle deformation, and the lowest (0.1) with old tensional and ductile fractures. Spectral determination also relates each orientation class to a dominant structural parameter: where spring occurrence is controlled by θ, the class is parallel to the present-day stress-field orientation; where the control is attributed to the length of fractures, the spring occurrence follows the strike of large-scale normal faults crossing the region. Résumé. Un inventaire des sources artésiennes émergeant de fractures (sources de fractures) a été réalisé dans le bassin de la rivière Pinhão et dans le massif de Morais, dans le nord du Portugal, dans une région couvrant environ 650 km2. Plus de 1,500 sources ont été identifiées et associées à des domaines géologiques et à des ensembles de fractures. Grâce à une analyse de tableaux

  7. Occurrence of springs in massifs of crystalline rocks, northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Fernando António Leal; Alencoão, Ana Maria Pires

    2002-02-01

    An inventory of artesian springs emerging from fractures (fracture springs) was conducted in the Pinhão River Basin and Morais Massif, northern Portugal, comprising an area of approximately 650 km2. Over 1,500 springs were identified and associated with geological domains and fracture sets. Using cross-tabulation analysis, spring distributions by fracture sets were compared among geological environments, and the deviations related to differences in rock structure and, presumably, to differences in deformational histories. The relation between spring frequencies and rock structures was further investigated by spectral determination, the model introduced in this study. Input data are the spring frequencies and fracture lengths in each geological domain, in addition to the angles between fracture strikes and present-day stress-field orientation (θ). The model's output includes the so-called intrinsic densities, a parameter indexing spring occurrence to factors such as fracture type and associated deformational regime and age. The highest densities (12.2 springs/km of lineament) were associated with young shear fractures produced by brittle deformation, and the lowest (0.1) with old tensional and ductile fractures. Spectral determination also relates each orientation class to a dominant structural parameter: where spring occurrence is controlled by θ, the class is parallel to the present-day stress-field orientation; where the control is attributed to the length of fractures, the spring occurrence follows the strike of large-scale normal faults crossing the region. Résumé. Un inventaire des sources artésiennes émergeant de fractures (sources de fractures) a été réalisé dans le bassin de la rivière Pinhão et dans le massif de Morais, dans le nord du Portugal, dans une région couvrant environ 650 km2. Plus de 1,500 sources ont été identifiées et associées à des domaines géologiques et à des ensembles de fractures. Grâce à une analyse de tableaux

  8. Bedforms and sediment distribution in the Minho estuary (Northern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Henrique

    2010-05-01

    Here are presented preliminary results of the MINHO09 cruise, carried out within the scope of the paleoclimatic research task of the MINHO project (PROYECTO 0234_NATURA_MIÑO_MINHO). Bed features and sediment distribution were mapped in the Minho estuary (Northern Portugal) using a dual frequency sidescan sonar mosaic (EdgeTech 4200-MP), and bottom sediment texture data from 71 sites sampled with a winch operated sediment grab (Van Veen type). The survey was done within 5 days, in low flow energy conditions of summer dry weather and neap tides, close to optimal conditions for correlating the acoustic imagery with the bottom sediment data. A DGPS (Omnistar 8200HP) was used to determine the horizontal position of the acoustic imagery and the sediment sample sites with sub-meter accuracy. Uncorrected water depths were determined with a depth echo-sounder (Odom HYDROTRAC echo sounder), and the water depths referred to the local datum was later determined using data from a tidal gauge (Valeport model 740) deployed specifically for this survey. Overall the sampled sediments were mostly poorly calibrated, with grain sizes ranging from gravel to mud coexisting in the same sample, probably reflecting the great seasonal contrast in flow conditions in the Minho River. The predominantly muddy sediments were observed along the river margins (frequently charged with gas) and, locally, along relatively deeper portions of the channel bed. The bedforms observed in the sidescan sonar data are dominated by 2D and 3D dunes and ripples. There are several locations were the bedforms suddenly change from larger dunes (wave lengths greater than 5m) to smaller ripples (wave lengths smaller than 1m). These changes may be related to the occurrence of supercritical flow conditions (Froude number > 1): hydraulic jumps in places were there is a sudden change in depth without any change in channel width, or chutes and pools in places were there is a sudden change in channel width; future work is

  9. Cutaneous leishmaniosis in a horse from northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gama, Adelina; Elias, Joana; Ribeiro, Ana J; Alegria, Nuno; Schallig, Henk D F H; Silva, Filipe; Santarém, Nuno; Cardoso, Luís; Cotovio, Mário

    2014-02-24

    The first case of cutaneous leishmaniosis in a horse from the north of Portugal, with a 1.5 cm in diameter ulcerated nodular lesion on the left face, is reported. The skin nodule was surgically excised and assessed by histopathology, including an immunohistochemistry method applied for the first time to equine tissues which clearly demonstrated leishmanial amastigote forms. Two serological determinations with the direct agglutination test performed 13 months apart showed seroconversion specific for Leishmania from a <25 to a 200 antibody titre. Polymerase chain reaction followed by kinetoplast DNA sequencing provided a 116-bp sequence with 98% identity to Leishmania infantum closest sequence deposited in GenBank. No recurrence was observed after complete surgical excision. Leishmaniosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous nodular or papular lesions in the equine species in Portugal. PMID:24388338

  10. Cutaneous leishmaniosis in a horse from northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gama, Adelina; Elias, Joana; Ribeiro, Ana J; Alegria, Nuno; Schallig, Henk D F H; Silva, Filipe; Santarém, Nuno; Cardoso, Luís; Cotovio, Mário

    2014-02-24

    The first case of cutaneous leishmaniosis in a horse from the north of Portugal, with a 1.5 cm in diameter ulcerated nodular lesion on the left face, is reported. The skin nodule was surgically excised and assessed by histopathology, including an immunohistochemistry method applied for the first time to equine tissues which clearly demonstrated leishmanial amastigote forms. Two serological determinations with the direct agglutination test performed 13 months apart showed seroconversion specific for Leishmania from a <25 to a 200 antibody titre. Polymerase chain reaction followed by kinetoplast DNA sequencing provided a 116-bp sequence with 98% identity to Leishmania infantum closest sequence deposited in GenBank. No recurrence was observed after complete surgical excision. Leishmaniosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous nodular or papular lesions in the equine species in Portugal.

  11. Eucisia schist a natural stone from Northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aires, Silvia; Carvalho, Cristina; Noronha, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    : CS 53 Mpa, FS 16.3 MPa, AD 25220 kg/m3 , OP 9.3%, WA 1,2 % AR 26.0mm and RTS resistant. For settling the recommended applications, European standards for natural stone products were considered. Considering the technical specifications that exist in some European countries, "Eucisia schist" can be applied on rustic masonary units, on colums, on paving (low traffic, mainly indoors) and on cladding (mainly indoors). This work was performed under the project PTDC/CTE-GIN/70704/2006, "SCHISTRESOURCE funded by FCT (Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation). SFRH/BD/86641/2012 a FCT grant financially supports Silvia Aires. [1] A.Ribeiro, E. Pereira and R. Dias, in Pre-Mesozoic Geology of Iberia edited by R.D. Dallmeyer and E. Martinez-Garcia, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. (1990). [2] E. Pereira, in: E. Pereira, coord. Carta Geológica de Portugal. Notícia Explicativa da Folha 2. (2006) [3] E. Pereira, A. Ribeiro, in: E. Pereira, coord. Carta Geológica de Portugal. Notícia Explicativa da Folha 2. (2006).

  12. Seroprevalence of heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) in feline and canine hosts from central and northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vieira, L; Silvestre-Ferreira, A C; Fontes-Sousa, A P; Balreira, A C; Morchón, R; Carretón, E; Vilhena, H; Simón, F; Montoya-Alonso, J A

    2015-09-01

    Dirofilaria immitis is endemic in Portugal. Several studies have reported the presence of canine heartworm disease, although no previous studies on feline infections have been published. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of D. immitis in cats and dogs from central and northern Portugal. Blood samples from 434 cats were tested for circulating anti-D. immitis and anti-Wolbachia antibodies. Furthermore, 386 dogs were tested for circulating D. immitis antigens. Overall feline seroprevalence was 15%, while canine prevalence was 2.1%. The highest feline seroprevalences of 18.7% and 17.6% were found in Aveiro and Viseu, respectively, while the highest canine prevalences of 8.8% and 6.8% were found in Coimbra and Aveiro, respectively. Cats and dogs showing respiratory signs presented higher prevalences of 24.4% and 17%, respectively, while 50% of cats with gastrointestinal signs were seropositive. The present study confirms the seropositivity of D. immitis in the feline population in central and northern Portugal, and suggests the importance of including heartworm disease in the list of differential diagnoses of cats and dogs showing clinical signs compatible with the disease.

  13. An exploratory study of spatial annual maximum of monthly precipitation in the northern region of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prata Gomes, D.; Neves, M. M.; Moreira, E.

    2016-08-01

    Adequately analyzing and modeling the extreme rainfall events is of great importance because of the effects that their magnitude and frequency can have on human life, agricultural productivity and economic aspects, among others. A single extreme event may affect several locations, and their spatial dependence has to be appropriately taken into account. Classical geostatistics is a well-developed field for dealing with location referenced data, but it is largely based on Gaussian processes and distributions, that are not appropriate for extremes. In this paper, an exploratory study of the annual maximum of monthly precipitation recorded in the northern area of Portugal from 1941 to 2006 at 32 locations is performed. The aim of this paper is to apply max-stable processes, a natural extension of multivariate extremes to the spatial set-up, to briefly describe the models considered and to estimate the required parameters to simulate prediction maps.

  14. Prevalence and pattern of cognitive impairment in rural and urban populations from Northern Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite worldwide recognition of the burden of dementia, no epidemiological data is yet available in Portugal. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence and describe the pattern of cognitive impairment with dementia or no dementia (CIND) in rural and urban populations from Northern Portugal. Methods Two random samples of residents aged 55 to 79 years in rural and urban communities were drawn from the health centres registries to be screened for cognitive impairment. The screening criteria for dementia were an abnormal Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score or a Blessed Dementia Scale score. After excluding those who tested positive for dementia, cut-off points for CIND were set at 1 standard deviation below the mean of the MMSE according to educational level. All those who screened positive either for dementia or CIND were examined by a neurologist for establishing a definitive diagnosis. Results The prevalence of cognitive impairment was higher in rural than in urban populations, 16.8% (95% CI: 14.3-19.8%) vs. 12.0% (95%CI: 9.3-15.4%), with a rural/urban prevalence ratio (PR) of 2.16 (95% CI: 1.04-4.50) in the eldest and 2.19 (95% CI: 1.01-4.76) in persons with vascular risk factors. The prevalence of dementia was 2.7% (95% CI: 1.9-3.8%) with a rural/urban PR = 2.1 and the prevalence of CIND was 12.3% (95% CI: 10.4-14.4%) and PR = 1.3. The prevalence of dementia increases exponentially with age and in those with cerebrovascular disease or other comorbid conditions while the prevalence of CIND, besides these factors, is also higher in persons with low levels of education or vascular risk factors. Alzheimer's and vascular disease were equally likely aetiologies of dementia (38.7%), the later more common in men PR(F:M = 0.3) as opposed to the former PR(F:M = 2.0). Vascular CIND, associated either with cerebrovascular disease or vascular risk factors was more frequent (39.7%) then depression (18.4%) or any other aetiology. Conclusions

  15. Historical damaging flood records for 1871-2011 in Northern Portugal and underlying atmospheric forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Mónica; Santos, J. A.; Fragoso, M.

    2015-11-01

    A long time series of damaging flood records in Northern Portugal for 1871-2011, gathered from a large number of documentary sources, is analyzed. The relationships between damaging floods (DFs) and relevant circulation weather types (CWTs) are also assessed. The DFs database has 1861 records and CWTs are identified using the 20th century reanalysis dataset v2. A coefficient of effectiveness (CE) is calculated for each weather type in order to assess DF-CWT relationships. Furthermore, conditions in the 10 days preceding a DF outbreak, type of flood and season were taken into account in CE calculations. The DF occurrences were responsible for 186 killed people, 59 injured, 29 missing, 1873 displaced and 15,924 homeless people. The monthly frequencies each CWT show that anticyclonic (A) and easterly wind (E) types are prevalent in winter, whereas R tends to prevail in the summer half of the year. However, the results show that the cyclonic (C) type has a positive frequency with DF occurrence (i.e. anomalously frequent), both on the DF day and on the nine previous days. The C type is commonly associated with southwesterly flow and unsettled weather conditions over Portugal, which are favorable to rain-generating mechanisms. The results also highlight some seasonal variation: in autumn, winter and spring, the C type is largely related to DFs, while the A and E types acquire higher preponderance in the summer. In effect, the latter two CWTs may trigger thunderstorms and heavy precipitation episodes in the Douro River catchment in summer.

  16. Precipitation thresholds for triggering floods in Corgo hydrographic basin (Northern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Monica; Fragoso, Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    The precipitation is a major cause of natural hazards and is therefore related to the flood events (Borga et al., 2011; Gaál et al., 2014; Wilhelmi & Morss, 2013). The severity of a precipitation event and their potential damage is dependent on the total amount of rain but also on the intensity and duration event (Gaál et al., 2014). In this work, it was established thresholds based on critical combinations: amount / duration of flood events with daily rainfall data for Corgo hydrographic basin, in northern Portugal. In Corgo basin are recorded 31 floods events between 1865 and 2011 (Santos et al., 2015; Zêzere et al., 2014). We determined the minimum, maximum and pre-warning thresholds that define the boundaries so that an event may occur. Additionally, we applied these thresholds to different flood events occurred in the past in the study basin. The results show that the ratio between the flood events and precipitation events that occur above the minimum threshold has relatively low probability of a flood happen. These results may be related to the reduced number of floods events (only those that caused damage reported by the media and produced some type of damage). The maximum threshold is not useful for floods forecasting, since the majority of true positives are below this limit. The retrospective analysis of the thresholds defined suggests that the minimum and pre warning thresholds are well adjusted. The application of rainfall thresholds contribute to minimize possible situations of pre-crisis or immediate crisis, reducing the consequences and the resources involved in emergency response of flood events. References Borga, M., Anagnostou, E. N., Blöschl, G., & Creutin, J. D. (2011). Flash flood forecasting, warning and risk management: the HYDRATE project. Environmental Science & Policy, 14(7), 834-844. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2011.05.017 Gaál, L., Molnar, P., & Szolgay, J. (2014). Selection of intense rainfall events based on intensity thresholds and

  17. Prevalence of Leptospira antibodies in wild boars (Sus scrofa) from Northern Portugal: risk factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Vale-Gonçalves, H M; Cabral, J A; Faria, M C; Nunes-Pereira, M; Faria, A S; Veloso, O; Vieira, M L; Paiva-Cardoso, Md N

    2015-07-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, caused by infection with pathogenic spirochaetes of the genus Leptospira. The wild boar (Sus scrofa), an important hunting species in Europe, seems to play a significant role in the epidemiological cycle of leptospirosis. A total of 101 serum samples from wild boar hunted in Northern Portugal were analysed for leptospiral antibodies detection by microscopic agglutination test. Sera were collected during hunting seasons (2011-2013) and tested with 17 different pathogenic serovars of Leptospira. Antibodies against nine serovars were detected in 66 (65·4%) of these sera. Serovars Tarassovi and Altodouro exhibited the highest seroreactivity rates (23·8% and 16·8%, respectively), followed by Autumnalis (7·9%) and Bratislava (6·9%). Age and district of origin were found to be risk factors for the presence of leptospiral antibodies in contrast to gender. From a One Health perspective, this study revealed that wild boar should be considered as a potential source of leptospirosis dissemination for humans and animal species (domestic and wild) in shared environments, particularly in the Trás-os-Montes region.

  18. The occurrence of zoonotic parasites in rural dog populations from northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, A S; Costa, I M H; Figueiredo, C; Castro, A; Conceição, M A P

    2014-06-01

    A survey of intestinal parasites in dogs was carried out in a rural region around Cantanhede, in northern Portugal, where 301 dog faecal samples were collected from small-ruminant farms. Saturated salt flotation and formol-ether sedimentation techniques were used. An enquiry was conducted in 234 farms and a risk factor evaluation for zoonotic helminths was determined among the 195 farmers who owned dogs. The overall parasite prevalence in faecal samples of dogs was 58.8%, with specific prevalences for Ancylostomidae being 40.9% followed by species of Trichuris (29.9%), Toxocara (8%), Isospora (4%), Capillaria (0.7%) and Spirometra (0.3%). Taeniidae eggs were present in five samples (1.7%) which were analysed with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique and revealed to be from Taenia sp., and not Echinococcus granulosus. This rural region has a traditional small-farm system, in which farm products are mainly for in-house consumption and home slaughtering is a current practice (57%). Analysis showed home slaughtering to be a statistically significant risk factor for the presence of Ancylostomidae (P= 0.007) and Toxocara sp. (P= 0.049). Owning cattle was found to be a significant risk factor for Taenia sp. (P= 0.031).

  19. Accidents at work and its impact on a hospital in Northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Martins, Matilde Delmina da Silva; Silva, Norberto Anibal Pires da; Correia, Teresa Isaltina Gomes

    2012-01-01

    In order to describe accidents at work at a hospital in Northern Portugal and analyze their main impact in the period from 2008 to 2010, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study. The information was obtained from the notification records of accidents at work for 387 workers. The highest prevalence levels of accidents referred to superior health technician (56.1%), female workers (81.9%), in the age group 30-39 years (37.2%), with a secondary education degree (55.8%), working in shifts (72.4%) and in-patient services (35.9%). Needle pricks were the main cause (45.7%) and hands were the main injury location (37.5%). Wounds (32.6%) were the most frequent type of injury, followed by sprains and strains (23%). In total, 27.4% resulted in absence from work, with sprains and strains as the main reason. Preventive strategies should be adopted, aiming to promote these workers' health.

  20. Organic matter characterization of sediments in two river beaches from northern Portugal for forensic application.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Áurea; Ribeiro, Helena; Mayes, Robert; Guedes, Alexandra; Abreu, Ilda; Noronha, Fernando; Dawson, Lorna

    2013-12-10

    In a forensic investigation, the analysis of earth materials such as sediments and soils have been used as evidence at a court of law, relying on the study of properties such as color, particle size distribution and mineral identification, among others. In addition, the analysis of the organic composition of sediments and soils is of particular value, since these can be used as complementary independent evidence to the inorganic component. To investigate the usefulness of organic indicators in sediment characterization and discrimination, seventy-seven samples were collected during a period of one year in two river beaches located at the southern bank of the Douro River estuary in the North of Portugal. Isotopes of total carbon, pollen and plant wax-marker analyses were performed. In both beaches, an increase of the organic matter concentrations was noticeable, moving landward, related with the higher cover of associated plant material. The results obtained showed that the combination of all the techniques adopted showed a clear discrimination between samples from the two beaches, and also showed a differentiation of samples in relation to distance from the river in both beaches. The results also show that seasonality in these beaches was not a determining factor for discrimination, at the times considered. In addition, the effects of time was not marked.

  1. Moving sands along a headland-embayed beach system (Algarve, Southern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Sónia; Horta, João; Nascimento, Ana; Gomes, Ana; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Moura, Delminda

    2015-04-01

    Resilience of embayed and pocket beaches located at the southernmost coast of Portugal is currently a major question to coastal management of this region. In fact, several among those beaches have been artificially fed aiming to increase the width of the beach allowing people to maintain a safe distance to the unstable rocky cliffs. The sand is dredged from the offshore (ca. 2 miles from the shoreline) representing high costs for the Portuguese government. For how long will the artificial feeding solve the problem? Which beaches are worth being nourished taking into account the morphosedimentary processes? The present work is the result of a field experiment aiming to study the efficiency of the alongshore sedimentary transport between successive embayed beaches. The experiment was performed in the very indented rocky coast of the Algarve region (Southern Portugal) and comprised two field campaigns, both in 2014, during spring tides in March and November. The Algarve coast experiences a semi-diurnal meso-tidal regime ranging from 1.3 m during neap tides to 3.5 m at spring tides and the waves approach from WSW (232°) during 72% of observations along the year, almost normal to the study area shoreline. The wave and current characteristics (significant height-Hs and Period-T for waves, velocity and direction for currents) were measured during three and six tidal cycles respectively for the first and second campaign, using two pressure transducers and one electromagnetic current meter. We used sand painted with orange fluorescent dye (100 kg in March and 200 kg in November) as tracer to track the movement of the sand along the coast. The marked sand was placed on the beach face of the westernmost beach of the study area during the first low tide of each campaign. Following, hundreds of sediment samples were collected during low tide, through the monitored period, in the nodes of a georeferenced square mesh of 10 x 20 m covering three embayed beaches. Later in the

  2. The GIS Database of floods in Northern Portugal, between 1865 and 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Monica; Bateira, Carlos; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Matos, Fátima

    2014-05-01

    Natural hazards, such as floods, cause considerable damage to the human life, material and functional damages every year. Thus, we created a GIS (Geographic Information System) database of floods recorded in the Northern Region of Portugal between 1865 and 2011. The research focused on the study of occurrences in newspapers of national and regional reference that caused some kind of damage. The results show that of the total of 1867 records in 147 years in analysis, 27% of occurrences have resulted in direct consequences on the population, i.e., killed, injured, missing, displaced or evacuated. These occurrences, 65% correspond to river flooding, 16% to flash floods and 18% to urban flooding. In period of analyses, there were 201 killed, 58 injured, 34 missing, 1813 evacuated, and 15924 displaced. By the natural breaks method of classification of data, we can divide the data series into 3 classes: until 1930, 1931-1971 and 1972-2011. Until 1930, the average number of occurrences per year is 5. Thereafter, until 1971, there was a significant increase for 24 occurrences per year. In the period 1972-2011, the average number of occurrences is 13.5 per year. The entire series, we highlight the years 1909, 1939, 1955 and 2001 with over 80 occurrences / year. We applied the Mann-Kendall (Kendall, 1976; Salmi, Määttä, Anttila, Ruoho-Airola, & Amnell, 2002) non-parametric test to detect long term trends in the occurrences. In order to estimate the magnitude of the trends, we used the algorithm that corresponds to an extension of the original test put forward by Theil (1950) and Sen (1968)(Sen, 1968). The results suggest a small upward trend, statistically significant, between 1865 and 2011, an increase of 0,066 occurrences per year. However, this general trend presents significant oscillations, when analysed over shorter periods of time. In terms of geographical distribution, the urban centres and the areas along major rivers concentrate most of the occurrences. The

  3. Changes in Physical and Chemical Soil Properties on Burnt Shrub Areas in Mediterranean Mountains, Northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Felícia; de Figueiredo, Tomás; Leite, Micaela

    2014-05-01

    Human induced fire in scrublands to obtain better pastures for cattle is a relatively common practice in North Portugal. During burning, plant cover and litter layers are consumed, and the mineral soil is heated, resulting in changes to physical, chemical, mineralogical, and biological soil properties. Aiming at evaluating the effect of this kind of fires on a set of physical and chemical soil properties, two study areas were selected in contrasting mountain environments: Edroso, Vinhais municipality, NE Portugal, with typical Mediterranean climate, and Revelhe, Fafe, NW Portugal, with a strong ocean-influenced climate. In both, sampling was carried out in contiguous areas burnt and not burnt, covered by shrub vegetation, predominantly Cytisus multiflorus and Ulex europeus. In each study area (Edroso and Revelhe) 16 locations were selected for soil sampling (8 in the burned area and 8 in the not burnt area), six months after fire occurrence. Disturbed soil samples were collected in the layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20 and 20-30 cm depth, for assessing organic matter, N, P and K concentration, cation exchange capacity and related determinations, soil pH, electrical conductivity and soil texture. Undisturbed samples were collected, in 100 cm3 cylinders, to determine bulk density in the same above mentioned layers, and permeability in the 0-5 cm layer. Compared results of burnt and not burnt areas in Edroso and Revelhe study sites, show that coarse elements content and permeability decreased and bulk density slightly increased with the fire effect. Chemical properties in both sites changed with after fire, as organic matter content, exchangeable Al and cation exchange capacity increased, the opposite trend being found for phosphorus, sum of exchangeable bases and electrical conductivity. Potassium, total nitrogen and exchangeable acidity showed different soil responses to fire in the two study areas. Results stress the clear effects of fire on fertility related soil

  4. Morphological and molecular studies on life cycle stages of Diphtherostomum brusinae (Digenea: Zoogonidae) from northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pina, S; Tajdari, J; Russell-Pinto, F; Rodrigues, P

    2009-12-01

    Diphtherostomum brusinae was first recorded by the present study in the north of Portugal. Sporocysts, containing cercariae and encysted metacercariae, were observed in the gonads and digestive gland of the gastropod Nassarius reticulatus. Metacercariae were also found infecting the foot, mantle border and gills of the cockle Cerastoderma edule. The adult form was lodged in the rectum of the definitive host Diplodus sargus. The morphology of the three parasitic stages was studied by light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Despite the close similarity between cercaria and metacercaria, SEM data provided information that allowed their differentiation, namely the presence of a dense crown of microvilli around the oral cavity of the cercariae, which was absent in the metacercariae. In addition, the metacercariae presented a specific pre-acetabular rectangular band with conspicuous triangular spines. The adult showed characteristics of D. brusinae species, in particular the presence of acetabular lips, compact vitellaria and large elliptical eggs. Sequenced ITS1 data clearly demonstrated that the cercariae and metacercarial cysts from N. reticulatus, the cysts from C. edule and the adult isolated from D. sargus were life cycle stages that belonged to the same species, i.e. D. brusinae. Two transmission strategies in the life cycle of this species were observed: (1) cercariae encyst within the sporocysts of N. reticulatus and await ingestion by the definitive host; and (2) N. reticulatus naturally emits cercariae; they encyst in C. edule or the environment and are ingested by the definitive host.

  5. Forecasting ARIMA models for atmospheric vineyard pathogens in Galicia and Northern Portugal: Botrytis cinerea spores.

    PubMed

    Fernández-González, María; Rodríguez-Rajo, Francisco Javier; Jato, Victoria; Aira, María Jesús; Ribeiro, Helena; Oliveira, Manuela; Abreu, Iida

    2012-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is the cause of the most common disease in the Galician and Portuguese vineyards. Knowledge of the spore levels in the atmosphere of vineyards is a tool for forecasting models of the concentration of spores in order to adjust the phytosanitary treatments to real risk infection periods. The presented study was conducted in two vineyards, one located in Cenlle (Spain) and other in Amares (Portugal), from 2005-2007. A volumetric trap, model Lanzoni VPPS-2000, was used for the aerobiological study. Phenological observations were conducted on 20 vines of three grape varieties in Cenlle (Treixadura, Godello and Loureira) and in Amares (Trajadura, Loureiro and Pedernã), by using the BBCH scale. The highest total spore concentrations during the grapevine cycle were recorded in 2007 in both locations (Cenlle:16,145 spores; Amares:1,858 spores), and the lowest, in 2005 in Cenlle (1,700 spores) and in Amares (800 spores) in 2006. In Cenlle, the best adjusted model was an ARIMA (0,2,2), including the relative humidity four days earlier, while in Amares there was an ARIMA (1,2,3), considering the relative humidity three days earlier and rainfall two days earlier. The t-test showed no significant difference between observed and predicted data by the model. PMID:22742797

  6. GIS-based RUSLE modelling of Leça River Basin, Northern Portugal, in two different grid scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petan, S.; Barbosa, J. L. P.; Mikoš, M.; Pinto, F. T.

    2009-04-01

    Soil erosion is the mechanical degradation caused by the natural forces and it is also influenced by human activities. The biggest threats are the related loss of fertile soil for food production and disturbances of aquatic ecosystems which could unbalance the environment in a wider range. Thus, precise predictions of the soil erosion processes are of a major importance for preventing any kind of environmental degradations. Spatial GIS modelling and erosion maps greatly support the policymaking for land planning and environmental management. Leça River Basin, with a surface of 187 km2, is located in the Northern part of Portugal and it was chosen for testing RUSLE methodology for soil loss prediction and identifying areas with high potential erosion. The model involves daily rainfall data for rainfall erosivity estimation, topographic data for slope length and steepness factor calculation, soil type data, CORINE land cover and land use data. The raster layer model was structured in two different scales: with a grid cell size of 10 and 30 meters. The similarities and differences between the model results of both scales were evaluated.

  7. Indoor radon risk associated to post-tectonic biotite granites from Vila Pouca de Aguiar pluton, northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Martins, L M O; Gomes, M E P; Teixeira, R J S; Pereira, A J S C; Neves, L J P F

    2016-11-01

    At Vila Pouca de Aguiar area, northern Portugal, crops out a post-tectonic Variscan granite pluton, related with the Régua-Vila Real-Verín fault zone, comprising three types of biotite granites. Among these granites, PSG granite yield the highest average contents of U, probably due to its enrichment in accessory U-bearing minerals such as zircon. In the proximity of faults and joints, these granites are often affected by different degrees of hydrothermal alteration, forming reddish altered rocks, commonly known as "episyenites". These altered rocks are probably associated to the occurrence of hydrothermal processes, which led to uranium enrichment in the most advanced stages of episyenitization. In these granites, both average gamma absorbed dose rates in outdoor and indoor air are higher than those of the world average. Furthermore, even in the worst usage scenario, all these granites can be used as a building material, since their annual effective doses are similar to the limit defined by the European Commission. The geometric mean of radon activity of 91 dwellings located at the Vila Pouca de Aguiar pluton is 568Bqm(-3), exceeding that of other northern Portuguese granites. Measurements carried out during a winter season, indicate that 62.6% of the analysed dwellings yield higher indoor radon average values than the Portuguese legislation limit (400Bqm(-3)), and annual effective doses due higher than the world's average value (1.2mSvy(-1)). The interaction of geogenic, architectural and anthropogenic features is crucial to explain the variance in the geometric mean of radon activity of dwellings from Vila Pouca de Aguiar pluton, but the role of geologic faults is probably the most important decisive factor to increase the indoor radon concentration in dwellings. Hence, the development of awareness campaigns in order to inform population about the incurred radiological risks to radon exposure are highly recommended for this specific area. PMID:27448957

  8. Indoor radon risk associated to post-tectonic biotite granites from Vila Pouca de Aguiar pluton, northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Martins, L M O; Gomes, M E P; Teixeira, R J S; Pereira, A J S C; Neves, L J P F

    2016-11-01

    At Vila Pouca de Aguiar area, northern Portugal, crops out a post-tectonic Variscan granite pluton, related with the Régua-Vila Real-Verín fault zone, comprising three types of biotite granites. Among these granites, PSG granite yield the highest average contents of U, probably due to its enrichment in accessory U-bearing minerals such as zircon. In the proximity of faults and joints, these granites are often affected by different degrees of hydrothermal alteration, forming reddish altered rocks, commonly known as "episyenites". These altered rocks are probably associated to the occurrence of hydrothermal processes, which led to uranium enrichment in the most advanced stages of episyenitization. In these granites, both average gamma absorbed dose rates in outdoor and indoor air are higher than those of the world average. Furthermore, even in the worst usage scenario, all these granites can be used as a building material, since their annual effective doses are similar to the limit defined by the European Commission. The geometric mean of radon activity of 91 dwellings located at the Vila Pouca de Aguiar pluton is 568Bqm(-3), exceeding that of other northern Portuguese granites. Measurements carried out during a winter season, indicate that 62.6% of the analysed dwellings yield higher indoor radon average values than the Portuguese legislation limit (400Bqm(-3)), and annual effective doses due higher than the world's average value (1.2mSvy(-1)). The interaction of geogenic, architectural and anthropogenic features is crucial to explain the variance in the geometric mean of radon activity of dwellings from Vila Pouca de Aguiar pluton, but the role of geologic faults is probably the most important decisive factor to increase the indoor radon concentration in dwellings. Hence, the development of awareness campaigns in order to inform population about the incurred radiological risks to radon exposure are highly recommended for this specific area.

  9. Geochemistry of biotite granites from the Lamas de Olo Pluton, northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Susana; Gomes, Maria; Teixeira, Rui; Corfu, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    .21, and display isotopic signatures of (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7044-0.7077 and Nd = -2.2 to -1.1. Six samples of LO define a whole rock isochron age of 285±15 Ma with (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7051±0.001 (MSWD = 0.11). Two monazite analyses for the LO granite yield an weighted average 207Pb/235U age of 297.19±0.73 Ma, consistent with the preliminary ID-TIMS U-Pb analyses of two transparent and euhedral prisms of zircon that define a concordia age of 296.37 ±0.52 Ma (MSWD = 0.66). The linear trends of major and trace elements variation diagrams of LO and AC granites and their similar mean values of (87Sr/86Sr)i point, at this stage, to an involvement of mid-crustal sources, probably mixed with asthenospheric material. Therefore, LOP consists of post-D3 biotite granites installed in higher structural crustal levels, testifying the occurrence of a crustal growth episode after the major recycling processes that occurred during the deformation phase D3. We thank Prof. J.F. Santos and Dr. S. Ribeiro and Petrochron project (PTDC/CTE-GIX/112561/2009) for the Rb-Sr isotopic data obtained at LGI of University of Aveiro, Portugal. Dias, G. et al. 1998. Lithos, 45, 349-369. Pereira, E., 1989. Serviços Geológicos de Portugal.

  10. [A community-based study of stroke code users in northern Portugal].

    PubMed

    Moutinho, Mariana; Magalhães, Rui; Correia, Manuel; Silva, M Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: Em 2002 Portugal detinha uma das mais altas taxas de mortalidade por doenças cerebrovasculares entre os países europeus. Várias estratégias foram adoptadas para melhorar a prevenção da doença e o seu tratamento na fase aguda, entre as quais a criação da Via Verde do Acidente Vascular Cerebral. O objectivo deste trabalho é descrever a utilização e resultados desta estratégia no contexto de um registo prospectivo comunitário na Região Norte de Portugal. Material e Métodos: Foram registados todos os AVCs ocorridos entre 1 de Outubro de 2009 e 30 de Setembro de 2010 nos utentes inscritos no agrupamento de centros de saúde do Porto Ocidental e nos de Mirandela e Vila Pouca de Aguiar. Para a detecção de casos utilizaram-se múltiplas fontes de informação: notificação via WEB, e-mail, Alerta P1 e pesquisas sistemáticas em registos disponibilizados pelas entidades envolvidas - urgências hospitalares, listas de altas, procedimentos de diagnóstico, óbitos, Via Verde do Acidente Vascular Cerebral e serviço de atendimento de situações urgentes. Resultados: Ocorreram 600 AVCs em 241 000 habitantes (taxa de incidência de 250 / 100 000), dos quais 434 foram primeiros na vida (180 / 100 000). Foram registados 72 acessos à Via Verde do Acidente Vascular Cerebral, dos quais 66,7% foram diagnosticados como AVC. Considerando os quatro critérios de activação (idade ≤ 80 anos, independência funcional, sinais/sintomas do AVC e tempo após episódio ≤ 3 horas), só 15,9% dos doentes a poderiam utilizar e, dos utilizadores, apenas 56,3% satisfaziam esses critérios. Dos doentes com critérios de activação, foram internados 96,3% pela VV pré-hospitalar, 83,3% pela VV intra/inter-hospitalar e 64,0% dos restantes; a fibrinólise foi realizada em 77,3%, 36,4% e 17,4% dos doentes com enfarte cerebral, respectivamente. O Rankin pós- AVC é mais grave nos utilizadores da VV pré-hospitalar (70,3% vs. 35,3%), mas estes apresentam mais

  11. "Projeto Rios" (Rivers Project) a methodology of classroom of the future (northern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Ana

    2013-04-01

    The rivers and the surrounding land drained by them are very important wildlife habitats. The water itself provides the environment for plants and animals, while the banks and nearby land support creatures such as otters, water lizards, dragonflies and a variety of water-loving plants. Using a different teaching strategy, on the latest three years, students of the eighth grade of the EB 2.3 Agrela school have been implementing the project "Nós e o Leça" (We and the river Leça). This initiative is part of a nationwide project in Portugal, the "Projeto Rios", which is a tool that aims the adoption and monitoring of a 500 meter river section, promoting society's awareness for the problems and the need of protection and recovery of the riparian systems. These students adopted a section of the Leça River, which is the one that is passing nearby our school. Throughout the mentioned school years, the children made field trips for characterization, knowledge and observation of some happenings on the section adopted, with the aid of a complete kit of materials (galoshes, loupes, tweezers, trays, fishnets, tape measure, tape of pH...). Token fields for identifications of plants and animals and specific data sheets/questionnaires, were also used and fulfilled. While in the river, it is done the collection of macro invertebrates to conclude about the water quality of the section under study. Youth also detect disturbances in the balance of the riverine ecosystem, either naturally occurring or of human origin. Aiming the sustained development and the citizenship education, the students performed a final action for improvement, which consisted in the uprooting of an invasive plant, in this case "the herb-of-fortune" and also gathering the "trash" founded along the adopted stretch of the river. Back to the classroom, we selected photographs and the collected data is treated and discussed to produce information (summaries, reports, tables, charts,...) which will be published

  12. Hydrological and erosion processes in terraced agricultural fields: observations from a wet Mediterranean region in northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Rodriguez-Blanco, María Luz; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Oliveira Alves Coelho, Celeste; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2015-04-01

    Traditional agriculture in the mountainous humid regions of the northwestern Iberian peninsula has relied on terraces for soil retention. In the last decades, a strong afforestation (in many cases with commercial species) has led to the appearance of large forest areas coexisting with traditional agricultural landscapes. Soil erosion research in this region has therefore focused on the impact of forest management practices and associated disturbances such as wildfires. However, there has been little research on the impacts of traditional terracing practices on erosion, and therefore it has been difficult to connect forest research with the wider issue of sediment connectivity in this complex agroforestry landscape. This work tried to address this research gap by monitoring an agricultural terrace in the Caramulo mountains, northern Portugal, during two years. The field site is located in a humid Mediterranean climate region, with c. 1500 mm/y rainfall, overlaying granite bedrock; agricultural practices are a traditional rotation between winter pasture and summer (irrigated) corn cultivation. During this period, the soil properties of the terrace were characterized, and there was a continuous monitoring of rainfall, soil moisture and surface runoff at the outlet, as well as 1 or 2-weekly collections of runoff to measure sediment yield. Occasional measurements of vegetation cover and erosion features (rills) within the plot were also made. Preliminary results indicate that runoff generation occurred mostly due to saturation-excess, possibly linked with the accumulation of groundwater in the lower layers of the soil. After one of the largest events, there was a clear inflow of runoff from outside the terrace, through either the irrigation network linking all terraces or by resurfacing of groundwater. Sediment yield was linked with runoff, but sediment concentration was linked with vegetation cover and was highest during the early stages of pasture growth. However

  13. Biomonitoring of environmental stress in Pollicipes pollicipes from the northern coast of Portugal: a non-destructive approach using haemolymph.

    PubMed

    Ramos, A S; Antunes, S C; Nunes, B

    2016-04-01

    In the intertidal area, the interactions between anthropogenic contaminants and natural variations (biotic and abiotic factors) are poorly understood. Consequently, there is a great need for new assessment procedures to characterize the biological responses occurring in organisms from this extreme environment. Considering the intrinsic inter-individual variations among organisms from a single population, it is important to propose new methods that address this variability, by validating a sampling strategy in target groups of organisms, encompassing seasonal fluctuations. This strategy must however be less invasive than traditional methods, avoiding the mandatory sacrifice of the sampled organisms. By doing so, it is also possible to increase the ecological relevance of obtainable data, and contribute to minimize damage to endangered species. The main purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of seasonal variations in the responses elicited by anthropogenic compounds on a marine crustacean species, by using a biomarker-based approach. According to this purpose, the seasonal variations in key physiological responses (biomarkers) were investigated in the crustacean Pollicipes pollicipes from the Northern coast of Portugal. Biomarkers used for this purpose were the activity of the phase II biotransformation isoenzymes glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), the activity of cholinesterases (ChEs), and the levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS). All biomarkers were quantified in distinct tissues (such as cirri, and peduncle) and haemolymph (a non-destructive source of biological samples). The glycogen content in peduncle tissue, and the variation in haemocyte number in haemolymph were also analyzed. Samples were collected monthly, during a year, in Lavadores, located in the proximity of an estuarine area (Douro River). The results showed a seasonal pattern in all tested biomarkers. The results also showed a significant increase in GSTs activities, and in

  14. Biomonitoring of environmental stress in Pollicipes pollicipes from the northern coast of Portugal: a non-destructive approach using haemolymph.

    PubMed

    Ramos, A S; Antunes, S C; Nunes, B

    2016-04-01

    In the intertidal area, the interactions between anthropogenic contaminants and natural variations (biotic and abiotic factors) are poorly understood. Consequently, there is a great need for new assessment procedures to characterize the biological responses occurring in organisms from this extreme environment. Considering the intrinsic inter-individual variations among organisms from a single population, it is important to propose new methods that address this variability, by validating a sampling strategy in target groups of organisms, encompassing seasonal fluctuations. This strategy must however be less invasive than traditional methods, avoiding the mandatory sacrifice of the sampled organisms. By doing so, it is also possible to increase the ecological relevance of obtainable data, and contribute to minimize damage to endangered species. The main purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of seasonal variations in the responses elicited by anthropogenic compounds on a marine crustacean species, by using a biomarker-based approach. According to this purpose, the seasonal variations in key physiological responses (biomarkers) were investigated in the crustacean Pollicipes pollicipes from the Northern coast of Portugal. Biomarkers used for this purpose were the activity of the phase II biotransformation isoenzymes glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), the activity of cholinesterases (ChEs), and the levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS). All biomarkers were quantified in distinct tissues (such as cirri, and peduncle) and haemolymph (a non-destructive source of biological samples). The glycogen content in peduncle tissue, and the variation in haemocyte number in haemolymph were also analyzed. Samples were collected monthly, during a year, in Lavadores, located in the proximity of an estuarine area (Douro River). The results showed a seasonal pattern in all tested biomarkers. The results also showed a significant increase in GSTs activities, and in

  15. COOL YOUNG STARS IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE: {beta} PICTORIS AND AB DORADUS MOVING GROUP CANDIDATES

    SciTech Connect

    Schlieder, Joshua E.; Simon, Michal; Lepine, Sebastien E-mail: schlieder@mpia-hd.mpg.de

    2012-04-15

    As part of our continuing effort to identify new, low-mass members of nearby, young moving groups (NYMGs), we present a list of young, low-mass candidates in the northern hemisphere. We used our proven proper-motion selection procedure and ROSAT X-ray and GALEX-UV activity indicators to identify 204 young stars as candidate members of the {beta} Pictoris and AB Doradus NYMGs. Definitive membership assignment of a given candidate will require a measurement of its radial velocity and distance. We present a simple system of indices to characterize the young candidates and help prioritize follow-up observations. New group members identified in this candidate list will be high priority targets for (1) exoplanet direct imaging searches, (2) the study of post-T-Tauri astrophysics, (3) understanding recent local star formation, and (4) the study of local galactic kinematics. Information available now allows us to identify eight likely new members in the list. Two of these, a late-K and an early-M dwarf, we find to be likely members of the {beta} Pic group. The other six stars are likely members of the AB Dor moving group. These include an M dwarf triple system, and three very cool objects that may be young brown dwarfs, making them the lowest-mass, isolated objects proposed in the AB Dor moving group to date.

  16. A geochemical and geophysical approach to derive a conceptual circulation model of CO2-rich mineral waters: A case study of Vilarelho da Raia, northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, J. M.; Santos, Monteiro; Graça, R. C.; Castro, R.; Aires-Barros, L.; Mendes Victor, L. A.

    2001-11-01

    The Vilarelho da Raia-Chaves region, located in northern Portugal adjacent to the Spanish border, is characterized by both hot and cold CO2-rich mineral waters issuing from springs and drilled wells. The present paper updates the conceptual circulation model of the Vilarelho da Raia cold CO2-rich mineral waters. Vilarelho da Raia mineral waters, dominated by Na and HCO3 ions, have formed mainly by interaction with CO2 of deep-seated mantle origin. The δ18O, δ2H and 3H values indicate that these waters are the result of meteoric waters infiltrating into Larouco Mountain, NW of Vilarelho da Raia, circulating at shallow depths in granitic rocks and moving into Vilarelho da Raia area. The conceptual geochemical and geophysical circulation model indicates that the hot and cold CO2-rich mineral waters of Chaves (76 °C) and Vilarelho da Raia (17 °C) should be considered manifestations of similar but not the same geohydrological systems. Résumé. La région de Vilarelho da Raia - Chaves, située au Portugal près de la frontière Espagnole, est caractérisée par des eaux carbogazeuses, chaudes et froides, émergeant à des sources et dans des puits. Ce travail constitue une mise au point du modèle conceptuel de circulation des eaux minérales carbogazeuses froides de Vilarelho da Raia. Les eaux minérales de Vilarelho da Raia, dans lesquelles les ions Na and HCO3 sont dominants, résultent principalement d'interactions avec du CO2 d'origine mantellique. Les δ18O, les δ2H, et les teneurs en 3H indiquent que ces eaux proviennent de l'infiltration d'eaux météoriques dans le Mont Larouco au NW de Vilarelho da Raia, circulant à faible profondeur dans les granites en direction de la région de Vilarelho da Raia. Le modèle de circulation géochimique et géophysique conduit à penser que les eaux minérales carbogazeuses chaudes et froides de Chaves (76 °C) et de Vilarelho da Raia (17 °C) doivent être considérées comme des manifestations de systèmes hydrog

  17. Geochronology and geochemistry of lithologies of the Tabuaço W-prospect area (Northern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerejo, Tiago; Francisco Santos, Jose; Sousa, Joao Carlos; Castanho, Nuno; Sergio, Gabriel; Ribeiro, Sara

    2016-04-01

    This work is focussed on lithologies occurring at Quinta de São Pedro das Águias, which is located in the Tabuaço prospect (an area of 45 km2 where exploration for W-skarn deposits is taking place, in northern Portugal, close to the Douro valley). At Quinta de São Pedro das Águias several lithologies are recognized: "normal" phyllites, black phyllites (graphite-bearing), marbles, calcsilicate (s.s.) rocks and skarns (sometimes, scheelite-bearing), belonging to the Bateiras Formation, of the Douro Group (one of the two major subdivisions of the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Dúrico-Beirão Supergroup); Paredes da Beira-Tabuaço granite; several aplitic and pegmatitic bodies. The studied area belongs to the Central Iberian Zone, a geotectonic unit of the Iberian Variscan Chain. Rb-Sr isotope analyses done in the scope of this work, provided a 316 ± 7 Ma whole-rock isochron (MSWD = 1.7; initial 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7146) for the granitoids, using the 87Rb decay constant recently recommended by IUPAC-IUGS (Villa et al., 2015). This date is interpreted here as the emplacement age of those rocks, during a late stage of the Variscan D3. The granite revealed a S-type nature, namely because it is a muscovite granite, it shows a peraluminous composition (average A/CNK = 1.28), and the Sr and Nd isotope fingerprints (-8.9 ≤ ɛNd(316Ma) ≤ -7.8; +0.7105 ≤ 87Sr/86Sr(316Ma) ≤ 0.7182) fit into the composition of metasedimentary crust. The analysed phyllites show the following isotopic compositions: -9.7 ≤ ɛNd(316Ma) ≤ -8.2; +0.7148 ≤ 87Sr/86Sr(316Ma) ≤ 0.7188. Therefore, the isotope signatures, at 316 Ma, of the granite and of the studied metapelites overlap, suggesting that the parental magma was generated by anatexis of Grupo do Douro metasediments. According to their petrographic, geochemical and isotopic features, aplites and pegmatites are viewed as extreme differentiates from the granite. São Pedro das Águias metapelites show biotite zone parageneses

  18. Deformation responses of slow moving landslides to precipitation in the Northern Apennines (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Benedikt; Simoni, Alessandro; Schmidt, David; Bertello, Lara; Berti, Matteo

    2016-04-01

    Slow moving landslides are a frequent feature in the Northern Apennines of Italy and one of the main landscape forming agents. Among the most common landslide types are complex earth flows that occur in chaotic clay-shales and complex rock slides in highly fractured flysch. We present the results of an InSAR-based survey in the Reno and Panaro river catchments, which are located South of Bologna and Modena in the Northern Apennines of Italy. We processed Envisat and Cosmo-SkyMed radar data using the Stanford Method of Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) and documented movement on 62 deep-seated landslides. These landslides were compared to the regional landslide inventory that contains information about the type of landslide, its state of activity and the lithological characteristics of the host rock. Of the landslides found using InSAR, 42 % correspond to active landslide bodies in the regional inventory, while 48 % are mapped as dormant and 10% are not previously mapped. InSAR-derived landslides often do not correspond to the exact extent of mapped landslide bodies. InSAR results show two recurring styles of deformation: (1) earthflows involving chaotic clay-shale units that exhibit steady state displacement, or exhibit long-term (multi-annual) accelerations and decelerations, or (2) complex landslides in flysch units that are characterized by distinct increases in displacement rate following periods (weeks-to-months) of intense precipitation. Such differences in behavior might be due to inherent differences in the mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of the material in relation to the specific climatic forcing experienced during the observation period (2003 and 2015). Flysch units are relatively more fragile and have higher permeability when compared to clay-shale units. Hence the deformation response to the precipitation is likely faster and characterized by more abrupt accelerations and decelerations.

  19. Geochemistry of urban sediments from small urban areas and potential impact on surface waters: a case study in Northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Anabela; Oliveira, Ana Isabel; Pinto, João; Parker, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Urban sediments are an important source of contaminants in urban catchments with impact on river ecosystems. Surface runoff from impermeable surfaces transfers sediments and associated contaminants to water bodies affecting the quality of both water and sediment compartments. This study aims to evaluate the metal contents in urban sediments (road deposited sediments) in a small sized urban area, located in a rural mountainous region with no significant industrial units, or mining activities in the vicinity, and subsequently have an insight on the potential contribution to the metal loads transported by fluvial sediments in the streams from the surrounding drainage network. The area under investigation locates in the northeast Portugal, in the Trás-os-Montes region (NE Portugal). Vila Real is a rural city, with 52781 inhabitants, and in the urban area there are dispersed parks with forest and gardens; locally and in the surroundings of the city there are agricultural terrains. The industry is concentrated, in general, in the industry park. Major pollutant activities can be considered the agriculture (pollution by sediments, metals and use of fertilizers) and urban activities such as atmospheric deposition, vehicular traffic, residential activities, soil erosion and industrial activities. According to the aim of the study, road deposited sediment samples were collected in urban and periurban areas as well as in public playgrounds and in the industrial area. The samples were decomposed with aqua regia, and the concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and V were obtained by ICP-AES. The total concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and V, in road-deposited sediments, indicate relative enrichments in samples collected in the main streets and roads, showing spatial variability. The association of Cu, Pb and Zn is observed in samples collected in the streets with high traffic density and industrial activity; in general, higher relative contents

  20. Nitrate probability mapping in the northern aquifer alluvial system of the river Tagus (Portugal) using Disjunctive Kriging.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, Luís

    2010-02-01

    The Water Framework Directive and its daughter directives recognize the urgent need to adopt specific measures against the contamination of water by individual pollutants or a group of pollutants that present a significant risk to the quality of water. Probability maps showing that the nitrate concentrations exceed a legal threshold value in any location of the aquifer are used to assess risk of groundwater quality degradation from intensive agricultural activity in aquifers. In this paper we use Disjunctive Kriging to map the probability that the Nitrates Directive limit (91/676/EEC) is exceeded for the Nitrate Vulnerable Zone of the River Tagus alluvium aquifer. The Tagus alluvial aquifer system belongs to one of the most productive hydrogeological unit of continental Portugal and it is used to irrigate crops. Several groundwater monitoring campaigns were carried out from 2004 to 2006 according to the summer crops cycle. The study reveals more areas on the west bank with higher probabilities of contamination by nitrates (nitrate concentration values above 50mg/L) than on the east bank. The analysis of synthetic temporal probability map shows the areas where there is an increase of nitrates concentration during the summers. PMID:19932915

  1. Nitrate probability mapping in the northern aquifer alluvial system of the river Tagus (Portugal) using Disjunctive Kriging.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, Luís

    2010-02-01

    The Water Framework Directive and its daughter directives recognize the urgent need to adopt specific measures against the contamination of water by individual pollutants or a group of pollutants that present a significant risk to the quality of water. Probability maps showing that the nitrate concentrations exceed a legal threshold value in any location of the aquifer are used to assess risk of groundwater quality degradation from intensive agricultural activity in aquifers. In this paper we use Disjunctive Kriging to map the probability that the Nitrates Directive limit (91/676/EEC) is exceeded for the Nitrate Vulnerable Zone of the River Tagus alluvium aquifer. The Tagus alluvial aquifer system belongs to one of the most productive hydrogeological unit of continental Portugal and it is used to irrigate crops. Several groundwater monitoring campaigns were carried out from 2004 to 2006 according to the summer crops cycle. The study reveals more areas on the west bank with higher probabilities of contamination by nitrates (nitrate concentration values above 50mg/L) than on the east bank. The analysis of synthetic temporal probability map shows the areas where there is an increase of nitrates concentration during the summers.

  2. Zircon crystal morphology and internal structures as a tool for constraining magma sources: Examples from northern Portugal Variscan biotite-rich granite plutons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brites Martins, Helena C.; Simões, Pedro P.; Abreu, Joana

    2014-09-01

    In northern Portugal, large volumes of granitoids were emplaced during the last stage (D3) of the Variscan orogeny and display a wide range of petrological signatures. We studied the morphologies and internal structures of zircons from syn-, late- and post-D3 granitoids. The sin-D3 granitoids include the Ucanha-Vilar, Lamego, Felgueiras, Sameiro, and Refoios do Lima plutons, the late- and post-D3 granitoids are represented by the Vieira do Minho and the Vila Pouca de Aguiar plutons, respectively. Typological investigations after Pupin (1980) along with scanning electron microprobe imaging reveal that the external morphology of zircon changes consistently with a decrease in the crystallization temperature. Zircon populations from the Refoios do Lima and the Vieira do Minho granites show gradual changes in the internal morphologies and their typologic evolution trends are consistent with their mainly crustal origin. The Sameiro, Felgueiras, Lamego and Ucanha-Vilar granites have more complex internal and external morphology and typological evolution trends that cross the domain of the calc-alkaline to the aluminous granites compatible with a mixing process. Finally, the morphological types of the Vila Pouca de Aguiar granites are found both in calc-alkaline and sub-alkaline granites and their typological evolutionary trends follow the calc-alkaline/sub-alkaline trend, suggesting crustal sources with some mantle contribution.

  3. Alcohol consumption among patients with hepatitis B infection in northern Portugal considering gender and hepatitis B virus genotype differences.

    PubMed

    Mota, Ana; Guedes, Fátima; Areias, Jorge; Pinho, Luciana; Cardoso, Margarida Fonseca

    2010-03-01

    Alcohol abuse is an important public health problem. In Portugal with a population of 10 millions of inhabitants, there are around 10% of alcoholics or excessive alcohol drinkers and 1% of chronically infected patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV). To examine the characteristics of patients with higher levels of alcohol consumption and to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and liver damage a total of 298 chronically infected individuals, with HBV genotyped and submitted to liver biopsy, were classified with Child's grading and separated by habits of alcohol intake, less and greater than 20g/day. No significant differences were observed about genotype but genotypes A and D were predominant in both of them. A higher percentage of males (P<.001) were observed in the group with alcohol intake above 20g/day, as well a lower proportion of patients with HBeAg negativity (P< or =.035). In this group, biochemistry parameters, such as alanine aminotransferase (P=.006), aspartate aminotransferase (P=.001), gamma-glutamyl transferase (P<.001) were elevated in a significantly higher proportion than in the other group. The analysis of hematological parameters showed significantly lower values of platelets (P=.042) and mean corpuscular volume (P<.001) and significantly higher values of prothrombin time (P<.001) in the group with higher levels of alcohol consumption. The characteristics of biopsy (P<.001) and Child-Phug's classification (P=.002) revealed more severe results in this group. Logistic regression showed a positive association between liver damage and alcohol intake, increasing with age. In female patients, a strong positive association between alcohol intake and liver damage was also found (odds ratio: 9.379; 95% confidence interval: 0.859-468.422; P = .037); however, the most severe cases were only observed in women older than 45 years. In patients with HBV infection, alcohol is associated with a more severe liver disease. No evidence was found

  4. The Children's Lab at Northern State University. Elementary Teachers Moving toward Scientific Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knecht, Paul S.

    The Children's Lab at Northern State University (South Dakota) is a science concept development laboratory for use by students in a physical science course for preservice elementary teachers. Its function is to develop science content knowledge in preservice elementary teachers, with the ultimate goal of developing science literacy in children.…

  5. Variscan Collisional Magmatism and Deformation In The Viseu Area (northern Central Portugal) - Constraints From U-pb Geochronology of Granitoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, M. R.; Aguado, B. V.; Scaltegger, U.; Nolan, J.; Martins, M. R.; Medina, J.

    The Viseu area is located in the innermost zone of the Iberian Variscan Fold Belt (the Central Iberian Zone). It consists of abundant post-thickening, collision related grani- toids intruded into upper and middle crustal levels. The ascent of granite magmas took place after an extensional tectonic event (D2) and is coeval with D3 dextral and sinis- tral crustal-scale transcurrent shear zones. In the northern part of the area, the presence of a well preserved Upper Carboniferous tectonic basin filled with deformed conti- nental clastic sediments, bounded by contemporaneously exhumed deep crustal rocks and intruded by late-tectonic granites documents an episode of extension involving basin subsidence, uplift and erosion of the basement and granite magmatism in a post- thickening, but syn-convergent scenario. Convergence is manifested by strike-slip tec- tonics and basin inversion. According to structural criteria, the Variscan granitoids can be subdivided into two major groups: (1) syn-D3 granitoids including two dif- ferent petrological associations, highly peraluminous leucogranite and granodiorite- monzogranite intrusions and (2) late-D3 granitoids comprising slightly metaluminous to peraluminous granodiorites and monzogranites. Four plutons representing the syn- D3 leucogranites (Junqueira) and monzogranites (Maceira and Casal Vasco) and the late-D3 biotite granites (Cota) yielded U-Pb zircon + monazite or monazite ages of 310 Ma, 311 Ma, 311 Ma and 306 Ma, respectively. This points to a synchronous emplacement of the different syn-D3 plutons shortly followed by the intrusion of the late-D3 granites and suggests that the Upper Carboniferous plutonism occurred within a short time span of ca. 5 myr. Stratigraphic markers show that the oldest continental sediments in the Carboniferous basin are Westphalian whilst field relationships in- dicate that the deformation occurred prior to the intrusion of the late-D3 granitoids. Precise U-Pb geochronology proves that basin

  6. Do suspended sediment and bedload move progressively from the summit to the sea along Magela Creek, northern Australia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erskine, W. D.; Saynor, M. J.; Turner, K.; Whiteside, T.; Boyden, J.; Evans, K. G.

    2015-03-01

    Soil erosion rates on plots of waste rock at Ranger uranium mine and basin sediment yields have been measured for over 30 years in Magela Creek in northern Australia. Soil erosion rates on chlorite schist waste rock are higher than for mica schist and weathering is also much faster. Sediment yields are low but are further reduced by sediment trapping effects of flood plains, floodouts, billabongs and extensive wetlands. Suspended sediment yields exceed bedload yields in this deeply weathered, tropical landscape, but the amount of sand transported greatly exceeds that of silt and clay. Nevertheless, sand is totally stored above the topographic base level. Longitudinal continuity of sediment transport is not maintained. As a result, suspended sediment and bedload do not move progressively from the summit to the sea along Magela Creek and lower Magela Creek wetlands trap about 90.5% of the total sediment load input.

  7. Land cover and future climate effects on the provision of hydrological services: SWAT applied to a medium-sized watershed of northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho-Santos, Claudia; Nunes, João Pedro; Monteiro, António T.; Hein, Lars; Honrado, João

    2015-04-01

    Land cover change and future climate conditions may influence the provision of hydrological services. Therefore, it is important to understand how these drivers will affect water supplies and water hazards mitigation, in order to support the planning and management of water resources. In this study, the separated and combined effects of land cover and future climate on the hydrology of the Vez watershed, northern Portugal, were evaluated. The Vez watershed (252 Km2) has a humid climate regime where precipitation is abundant all over the year (1500mm/yr), with exception of a summer with almost no rain. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was calibrated against daily discharge, sediments and nitrates, with good agreements between model predictions and field observations related with discharge; the calibration of sediments and nitrates can be considered adequate given the limitations of observed data. Four hypothetical land cover scenarios were applied under current climate conditions (eucalyptus/pine, oak, agriculture/vine and low vegetation). Results for land cover revealed that the option for one particular scenario would not compromise the overall provision of hydrological services. However, the eucalyptus/pine scenario could reduce the annual water quantity by 7%, and up to 17% in the summer period; and the agriculture/vine scenario could increase soil erosion and nitrate exports. For the future climate scenario, a statistical downscaling of four ensemble GCMs (General Circulation Models), bias-corrected with ground observations was done for 2021-40 and 2041-60, using the RCP 4.5 medium emissions scenario. An increase in temperature (annual: 1.6°C; summer: 2.02°C) and a decrease in precipitation (annual: -3.9%), more pronounced in summer (-25%) are expected in the Vez watershed. Although climate change has only a modest effect in the reduction of the total annual discharge (-7%), the effect on streamflow during summer can be more pronounced (between

  8. Brain cholinesterase reactivation as a marker of exposure to anticholinesterase pesticides: a case study in a population of yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis (Naumann, 1840) along the northern coast of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cátia S A; Monteiro, Marta S; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Between late 2010 to early 2011, an increased mortality in gulls was observed along the northern coast of Portugal, with individuals exhibiting neurologic disorders consistent with an eventual anticholinesterase pesticide poisoning event. To clarify if this mortality was related to organophosphate (OP) and/or carbamate (CB) poisoning, chemical and spontaneous cholinesterase (ChE) reactivation was tested in the brain of the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis). Initial brain ChE activity in L. michahellis was 40.92 ± 5.23 U/mg of protein (average ± SE). Following chemical and spontaneous reactivation, ChE activity increased in average 70.38 ± 48.59% and 131.95 ± 92.64%, respectively. ChE reactivation was found to decrease at increasing concentrations of the oxime pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride and dilution factor, underscoring the importance of first optimizing the assay conditions prior to its use on bird species. These results suggest that birds analysed could have been exposed to OP and CB pesticide compounds and that in most cases CB exposure appeared to be the main cause of birds poisoning. These results are an important contribution to environmental monitoring as it demonstrates the suitability of L. michaellis as sentinel species of OP and CB pesticides within an urban environment.

  9. Brain cholinesterase reactivation as a marker of exposure to anticholinesterase pesticides: a case study in a population of yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis (Naumann, 1840) along the northern coast of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cátia S A; Monteiro, Marta S; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Between late 2010 to early 2011, an increased mortality in gulls was observed along the northern coast of Portugal, with individuals exhibiting neurologic disorders consistent with an eventual anticholinesterase pesticide poisoning event. To clarify if this mortality was related to organophosphate (OP) and/or carbamate (CB) poisoning, chemical and spontaneous cholinesterase (ChE) reactivation was tested in the brain of the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis). Initial brain ChE activity in L. michahellis was 40.92 ± 5.23 U/mg of protein (average ± SE). Following chemical and spontaneous reactivation, ChE activity increased in average 70.38 ± 48.59% and 131.95 ± 92.64%, respectively. ChE reactivation was found to decrease at increasing concentrations of the oxime pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride and dilution factor, underscoring the importance of first optimizing the assay conditions prior to its use on bird species. These results suggest that birds analysed could have been exposed to OP and CB pesticide compounds and that in most cases CB exposure appeared to be the main cause of birds poisoning. These results are an important contribution to environmental monitoring as it demonstrates the suitability of L. michaellis as sentinel species of OP and CB pesticides within an urban environment. PMID:26564198

  10. Two new FUT2 (fucosyltransferase 2 gene) missense polymorphisms, 739G→A and 839T→C, are partly responsible for non-secretor status in a Caucasian population from Northern Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Secretor status is defined by the expression of H type 1 antigen on gastric surface epithelium and external secretions. The H type 1 structure, and other fucosylated carbohydrates (Lea, sialyl-Lea, Leb, Lex, sialyl-Lex and Ley), can serve as ligands for several pathogens, including Helicobacter pylori, and are cancer-associated antigens. Secretor individuals are more susceptible to some bacterial and viral infections of the genito-urinary and digestive tracts. The aim of the present study was to examine FUT2 (fucosyltransferase 2 gene) polymorphisms in a Caucasian population of non-secretor individuals (n=36) from northern Portugal and to evaluate the activity of the mutant FUT2 enzymes. The secretor status was determined by UEAI [Ulex europaeus (gorse) lectin] histochemistry in gastric mucosa, and FUT2 polymorphisms were studied by restriction-fragment-length polymorphism and direct sequencing. The majority of non-secretors (88.9%) were homozygous for 428G→A polymorphism; 5.6% were homozygous for 571C→T and 5.6% were homozygous for two new missense polymorphisms, 739G→A (2.8%) and 839T→C (2.8%). By kinetic studies it was demonstrated that the two new FUT2 mutants (739G→A and 839T→C) are almost inactive and are responsible for some non-secretor cases. PMID:15250822

  11. Evaluation of soil erosion as a basis of sediment yield in mountainous catchments: a preliminary study in the River Douro Basin (Northern Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Anabela; Martinho Lourenço, José M.; Parker, Andrew; Alencoão, Ana

    2013-04-01

    The River Corgo drains a meso-scale mountainous rural catchment with an area of 295 km2, underlain by crystalline rocks, in a temperate climate, which integrates the transboundary River Douro Basin, in the northeast of Portugal. A geochemical survey on oxic fluvial sediments of the river network shows considerable contents of metals associated to the finer particles (< 63um). The results on the study of the sediment properties indicate that these are essentially detrital in origin, derived from soils and weathering products. Moreover, taking into account the hydrological pattern of the catchment, the seasonal and spatial variability of metal contents associated to the sediments suggests that the control of metal in the sediments by their mineralogical, geochemical and physical properties is governed primarily at the level of the basin soils system, especially in the Wet Period, when the sediments are frequently remobilised (Reis, 2010). Although the soil particles are a common pathway of transport and entrance of metals in the fluvial network by runoff derived erosion, this mechanism is naturally more marked in mountainous catchments. Modelling sediment and adsorbed contaminant transport within catchments can help to identify possible contaminant sources, as well as to estimate the delivered quantities of eroded material and associated contaminants. In catchments with the described morphological features, monitoring the transport of sediments poses some issues concerning: (a) the low mass yield of suspended sediment from river water, under low-flow conditions; (b) the maintenance of the sediment sampler's devices in the streams, in periods of high-flow or storm events. This study describes the preliminary results of a GIS-based mass balance model of overland sediment transport to the River. The erosion, the first step of sediment transport, was estimated by an empirical model - The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The objective was to construct a GIS based

  12. Lessons from Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Vickie; Mechling, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Portugal has long been touted as a popular destination for savvy travelers, but now educators are touting it as something else--a professional development (PD) powerhouse for inquiry-based science! This article describes Portugal's ongoing efforts to reform its country's elementary science education program through a project known as the…

  13. Tertiary Education in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Portugal's tertiary education sector has expanded significantly over the last 20 years, but participation and overall educational attainment levels remain below European standards and enrolment rates have begun to decline. The OECD review recommends that Portugal's national government should focus on strategic direction and leave higher education…

  14. New insights from U Pb zircon dating of Early Ordovician magmatism on the northern Gondwana margin: The Urra Formation (SW Iberian Massif, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solá, A. R.; Pereira, M. F.; Williams, I. S.; Ribeiro, M. L.; Neiva, A. M. R.; Montero, P.; Bea, F.; Zinger, T.

    2008-12-01

    The Central Iberian-Ossa-Morena transition zone (SW Iberian Massif) represents a segment of the northern Gondwana margin with a long geodynamic evolution, characterized by the superposition of Cadomian and Variscan events. The Early Ordovician is mainly represented by porphyritic felsic volcaniclastic rocks (the Urra Formation) that pass up into a siliciclastic sediments typical of the Central Iberian Zone (Lower Ordovician Armorican Quartzite Formation). The Urra Formation unconformably overlies the previously deformed and metamorphosed Ediacaran sediments of the Série Negra (with Ossa-Morena Zone paleogeographic affinity). New SHRIMP zircon data obtained from the Urra Formation volcaniclastic rocks indicate an Early Ordovician age ( 206Pb/ 238U ages ranging from 494.6 ± 6.8 Ma to 488.3 ± 5.2 Ma) for this magmatic event. The inherited zircon cores indicate the presence of multicycle protoliths with different Precambrian ages: Neoproterozoic (698-577 Ma), Paleoproterozoic (2.33 Ga) and Paleoarchean (3.2-3.3 Ga). There is a noticeable lack of Meso- to Neoarchean and Mesoproterozoic ages. The data support the hypothesis that the volcaniclastic rocks were derived by partial melting of Cadomian basement (linked to a West African Craton provenance). The Urra Formation volcaniclastic rocks have rhyolitic to dacitic compositions, are peraluminous and similar to calc-alkaline high-K series suites elsewhere. Isotopic signatures present a wide range of values ( 87Sr/ 86Sr) t = 0.7085-0.7190, more restricted ɛNd t (- 2.65 to - 0.35) and δ18O = 9.63-10.34‰, compatible with magmas derived from crustal rocks, including portions of the lower crust. Some samples show disturbance of the Rb-Sr system as shown by unrealistic values for ( 87Sr/ 86Sr) t < 0.703, probably due to Variscan deformation and metamorphism. The volcaniclastic rocks with a significant sedimentary contribution (upper unit) are distinguished from the others by the lowest values of ɛNd t (- 5.53 to - 4

  15. Moving window analysis and riparian boundary delineation on the Northern Plains of Kruger National Park, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröger, Robert; Khomo, Lesego M.; Levick, Shaun; Rogers, Kevin H.

    2009-09-01

    Landscapes commonly comprise of mosaics, patches and boundaries. Riparian boundaries are complex to delineate and characterize, with a multitude of variables available for delineation. Multiple methods exist for boundary delineation such as two-dimensional wombling, constrained classification techniques and discontinuity detection. One method that has proven to be reliable in boundary delineation with one-dimensional transect data is the moving split window (MSW) analysis. This study demonstrates the efficacy of MSW to delineate grass species turnover and environmental boundaries across two geologically dissimilar riparian zones in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. There are few studies that have delineated riparian boundaries of Kruger National Park, and none that have used the MSW analysis. MSW detects significant changes in dissimilarity indices of variables along gradients. Significant shifts in dissimilarity designate boundaries at various spatial scales dictated by window sizes. Significant boundaries emerge by altering window sizes, increasing quadrat width and removing infrequent herbaceous species. By utilizing these three methods, MSW background variance was reduced and riparian and wetland/upland boundaries were sharper and more easily defined.

  16. Colorectal cancer in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Carlos Gouveia; Paquete, Ana Teresa; Pissarra, Irene

    2010-01-01

    Increasing diagnosis and deaths caused by colorectal cancer (CRC) warrant closer examination of affected patients and focus on management of CRC in Portugal. In order to assess the extent and quality of the information available in Portugal, we first analyse Portuguese cancer registries and then the management of CRC by discussing the diagnostic process and medical care provided, especially pharmaceuticals. Other cancer indications are mentioned in order to illustrate current approaches of cancer in Portugal. Current national data on cancer patients are scarce and there are divergencies in methods of data collection and treatment amongst regional cancer registries. However, the available data is sufficient enough to understand the dimension of CRC, with age-standardised incidence of 37 per 100,000 and mortality of 31 per 100,000 annually. An ongoing project is restructuring health services to improve efficiency and quality, however, some problems exist. The regional inequity of access to health care facilities and long waiting times for diagnostic examinations and surgery are major examples. Despite the non-availability of clinical guidelines, a pilot screening programme started at the beginning of 2009 in the Centre Region of the country. It is hoped that this overview will provide the basis for discussion on improvements in CRC management in Portugal and lead to better outcomes.

  17. Modernising Portugal's Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.

    2008-01-01

    Portugal has a total of 477 public secondary schools. Some date from the end of the 19th century but the majority were built after 1970, reflecting the period of expansion in the school network and the extension of compulsory schooling. The schools are heterogeneous in terms of building types, architectural features and quality. An assessment of…

  18. Moving Hands, Moving Entities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setti, Annalisa; Borghi, Anna M.; Tessari, Alessia

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated with a priming paradigm whether uni and bimanual actions presented as primes differently affected language processing. Animals' (self-moving entities) and plants' (not self-moving entities) names were used as targets. As prime we used grasping hands, presented both as static images and videos. The results showed an…

  19. Portugal and United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 3. Reference reports, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Statistical data on energy production and consumption and supporting information were obtained from US Bureau of Mines records supplemented by additional data obtained in Portugal. Geologic descriptions and analysis of known areas and of areas having possible future potential have been prepared by the US Geological Survey. Portugal lacks sufficient indigenous supplies of organic fuels to meet its energy demands, and so must import large quantities of petroleum and coal. Approximately 80% of Portugal's electric energy is produced by hydroelectric stations; thermal stations produce the other 20%. Portugal has produced no crude oil, natural gas, or condensate; no resources or reserves in these categories are listed for Portugal in the 1976 World Energy Conference report. Until the last year or so (1980), no significant onshore petroleum exploration had been done in Portugal since 1963. Production of coal in Portugal has declined steadily to the present annual yield of about 200,000 metric tons. On the basis of estimates in only three coal fields, resources of coal of all ranks in Portugal total at least 76 million (10/sup 6/) metric tons. Uranium is mined near Viseu and Guarda in the northern part of Portugal; the Nisa mine in east-central Portugal will begin producing uranium ore in 1985 after installation of a processing plant. Portugal produced 95 metric tons of uranium oxide (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/) from ore stocks in each year from 1972 through 1974; production is assumed to have continued at the same rate since then. Geothermal energy has not been developed in mainland Portugal; however, hot springs that may have geothermal energy potential are known in the Minho district in the northwest. Geothermal energy resources exist in the Azores and a program of evaluation and exploration with technical assistance from the USGS is presently in progress there.

  20. Feline thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Soares, Carla; Ramalho Sousa, Sérgio; Anastácio, Sofia; Goreti Matias, Maria; Marquês, Inês; Mascarenhas, Salvador; João Vieira, Maria; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-09-23

    Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) is a nematode that lives in the conjunctival sac of domestic and wild carnivores, rabbits and humans causing mild to severe symptoms (e.g., conjunctivitis, lacrimation, epiphora, blepharospasm, keratitis and even corneal ulceration) in infected animals. This report describes an autochthonous case of thelaziosis in a cat from the central region of Portugal, representing the most occidental record of thelaziosis in Europe. Adult nematodes recovered from alive animal were morphological identified as T. callipaeda. A portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox 1) from nematode specimens was amplified by PCR. Cox1 sequences of all specimens were identical to T. callipaeda haplotype 1. Additionally to these findings, a recent description of thelaziosis in the northern region of Portugal suggests that T. callipaeda has successfully established in Portugal.

  1. Teaching Medicine in Medieval Portugal.

    PubMed

    Moisão, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the teaching of Medicine in Portugal in the Middle Ages, concerning the Visigoth, Moslem and Christian periods. With the foundation of Portugal in 1143, Medicine was initially taught by priests, but lately was settled in Lisbon the General Study and the activity of physicians, surgeons and apothecaries was ruled by the king.

  2. Teaching Medicine in Medieval Portugal.

    PubMed

    Moisão, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the teaching of Medicine in Portugal in the Middle Ages, concerning the Visigoth, Moslem and Christian periods. With the foundation of Portugal in 1143, Medicine was initially taught by priests, but lately was settled in Lisbon the General Study and the activity of physicians, surgeons and apothecaries was ruled by the king. PMID:27172734

  3. Phytoplankton Bloom Off Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Turquoise and greenish swirls marked the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom off the coast of Portugal on April 23, 2002. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. There are also several fires burning in northwest Spain, near the port city of A Coruna. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of this scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapidfire site.

  4. Early Childhood Education in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasconcelos, Teresa

    This booklet provides an overview of the policy and status of early childhood education in Portugal and includes the text of Law 5/97, the Framework Law for Pre-School Education, as well as the Curriculum Guidelines for Pre-School Education adopted by Portugal's government. Two of Law 5/97's nine main goals are: (1) to promote the child's personal…

  5. Women in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, M

    1981-01-01

    Prior to 1974, women in Portugal were restricted by the Penal Code and had little organizational power. Women's groups were formed within the Catholic Church to teach women about cooking, child care, and home economics. There was no contact with international women's groups. The press only reported events such as bra burning. 80% of all illiterates in Portugal are women. The conditions of Portuguese women are described after the revolution of April 25, 1974. Present roles are discussed for work, health, education, religion, trade unions and political parties, and women's organizations. The Women's Liberation Movement (WLM) appeared in May 1974 among a heterogenous group of women in Lisbon who were concerned about the oppression of women. WLM made feminist issues public amid ridicule and promoted the declaration of equal rights for women in the 1976 Republic Constitution and in the Family Code. Wage discrimination became illegal in 1979. Women represent 32.8% of the labor force. Unemployment is particularly high among women and is increasing. Women's wages and levels of skill are the lowest. The Christian Democratic government is actively engaged in a campaign to keep women at home and has formed the special Ministry of Family Affairs, which encourages large families and women's home activity in order to save jobs for men. There is a crisis in education: large class sizes and limited number of schools. Child care for the working mother is expensive when available and rarely available. An obstacle to women's rights has been the role of the Catholic Church, which fought equal rights legislation, condemned the Family Code and divorce laws, forbade the practice of contraception, and supported the movement against abortion. Only 1 member of government is a women, and she is considered a token. Trade unions have a women's section, but little attention is given to the problems of women. Women's groups within larger organizations have little autonomy. Those with autonomy

  6. Moving from pixels to parcels: Modeling agricultural scenarios in the northern Great Plains using a hybrid raster- and vector-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohl, T.; Wika, S.; Dornbierer, J.; Sayler, K. L.; Quenzer, R.

    2015-12-01

    Policy and economic driving forces have resulted in a higher demand for biofuel feedstocks in recent years, resulting in substantial increases in cultivated cropland in the northern Great Plains. A cellulosic-based biofuel industry could potentially further impact the region, with grassland and marginal agricultural land converted to perennial grasses or other feedstocks. Scenarios of projected land-use change are needed to enable regional stakeholders to plan for the potential consequences of expanded agricultural activity. Land-use models used to produce spatially explicit scenarios are typically raster-based and are poor at representing ownership units on which land-use change is based. This work describes a hybrid raster/vector-based modeling approach for modeling scenarios of agricultural change in the northern Great Plains. Regional scenarios of agricultural change from 2012 to 2050 were constructed, based partly on the U.S. Department of Energy's Billion Ton Update. Land-use data built from the 2012 Cropland Data Layer and the 2011 National Land Cover Database was used to establish initial conditions. Field boundaries from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Common Land Unit dataset were used to establish ownership units. A modified version of the U.S. Geological Survey's Forecasting Scenarios of land-use (FORE-SCE) model was used to ingest vector-based field boundaries to facilitate the modeling of a farmer's choice of land use for a given year, while patch-based raster methodologies were used to represent expansion of urban/developed lands and other land use conversions. All modeled data were merged to a common raster dataset representing annual land use from 2012 to 2050. The hybrid modeling approach enabled the use of traditional, raster-based methods while integrating vector-based data to represent agricultural fields and other ownership-based units upon which land-use decisions are typically made.

  7. Sex education in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Frade, A; Vilar, D

    1991-05-01

    The article on sex education in Portugal covers background, the educational system, the clashes of the 1960's over sex education, the Committee for the Study of Sexuality and Education (CSSE), the policies, politics and social movements during the period 1974 - 1984, the discussions in Parliament, the 1988 Reform of the Educational System, the Family Planning Association (FPA) and sex education, and the future role of the FPA. It was not until the institution of the multiparity parliamentary system in 1974 that discussing social and political changes was possible, culminating in 1984 with new legislation on abortion, family planning, and sex education. School reform came in 1987/8 with the Ministry of Education primarily responsible for curricula. The 1960's brought with it the influence of the Catholic Church. Change came in the form of progressivism among Catholics who replaced dogma with dialogue and listening. Sex education was considered as preparation for marriage, but masturbation, contraception, and prostitution were also discussed. In addition, the founder of FPA chaired the CSSE in 1971 and opened up debate on sex issues and drafted a bill to establish co-education in Portuguese schools. The revolution of 1974 brought an end to censorship and brought forth a policy of developing family planning. Changed in the Family Code gave women greater equality. UNFPA supported teacher training in non-sexist education. With human reproduction included in the natural sciences, there was still no school sex education policy and contraception was only sometimes represented in the biology curriculum. The focus of FPA was on contraception and abortion. Finally in the 1980's, the first sex education programs were developed for out-of-school youth. Even though in the 1970's there were leftists groups promoting sex education, it took leftist parliamentary power to get legislation on sex education in the schools adopted. The Ministry of Education however was pressured by the

  8. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights the…

  9. Child Labour and Educational Success in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulart, Pedro; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2008-01-01

    The current debate on child labour focuses on developing countries. However, Portugal is an example of a relatively developed country where child labour is still a matter of concern as between 8% and 12% of Portuguese children may be classified as workers. This paper studies the patterns of child labour in Portugal and assesses the consequences of…

  10. Moving Minds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Terry; Hiett, Sandra; Marley, Donna

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores and examines a case study based at Ivy Bank Business and Enterprise College, The Imperial War Museum North, and Liverpool John Moores University. This collaboration took place from November 2004 until February 2005 culminating in an exhibition of children's artwork as part of the "Moving Minds" project at the IWM North. This…

  11. Smart Moves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannaford, Carla

    1996-01-01

    Students learn more when they are up, moving, and actively participating. The article discusses what teachers can do to incorporate movement into the classroom every day and describes several exercises from "Brain Gym." A sidebar illustrates the connections between muscular activity, the neural network, and the brain. (SM)

  12. Geology and religion in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Ana; Simoes, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Mota, Teresa Salomé

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between geology and religion in Portugal by focusing on three case studies of naturalists who produced original research and lived in different historical periods, from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. Whereas in non-peripheral European countries religious themes and even controversies between science and religion were dealt with by scientists and discussed in scientific communities, in Portugal the absence of a debate between science and religion within scientific and intellectual circles is particularly striking. From the historiographic point of view, in a country such as Portugal, where Roman Catholicism is part of the religious and cultural tradition, the influence of religion in all aspects of life has been either taken for granted by those less familiar with the national context or dismissed by local intellectuals, who do not see it as relevant to science. The situation is more complex than these dichotomies, rendering the study of this question particularly appealing from the historiographic point of view, geology being by its very nature a well-suited point from which to approach the theme. We argue that there is a long tradition of independence between science and religion, agnosticism and even atheism among local elites. Especially from the eighteenth century onwards, they are usually portrayed as enlightened minds who struggled against religious and political obscurantism. Religion—or, to be more precise, the Roman Catholic Church and its institutions—was usually identified with backwardness, whereas science was seen as the path to progress; consequently men of science usually dissociated their scientific production from religious belief.

  13. Hurricane Isaac Moving Towards Northern Gulf Coast

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is an animation of GOES-13 satellite imagery from Aug. 26-28, 2012 of Hurricane Isaac's track through the Gulf of Mexico. Isaac is headed for New Orleans, exactly 7 years after hurricane Katri...

  14. Moving plants means moving pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ornamentals industry must recognize not only that it is at direct risk from invasive species and resistant pests, but also that there is increased public awareness about the movement of any pest species on ornamental plants, and increased concern that these pests will move from ornamental plants...

  15. Astronomy Week in Madeira, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augusto, P.; Sobrinho, J. L.

    2012-05-01

    The outreach programme Semanas da Astronomia (Astronomy Weeks) is held in late spring or summer on the island of Madeira, Portugal. This programme has been attracting enough interest to be mentioned in the regional press/TV/radio every year and is now, without doubt, the astronomical highlight of the year on Madeira. We believe that this programme is a good case study for showing how to attract the general public to astronomy in a small (population 250 000, area 900 km2) and fairly isolated place such as Madeira. Our Astronomy Weeks have been different each year and have so far included exhibitions, courses, talks, a forum, documentaries, observing sessions (some with blackouts), music and an astro party. These efforts may contribute towards putting Madeira on the map with respect to observational astronomy, and have also contributed to the planned installation of two observatories in the island.

  16. Optometry in Portugal: a historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Eduardo; Baptista, António M. G.; Sousa, Raul A. R. C.

    2011-05-01

    The establishment and development of optometry in Portugal resulted from the committed work of many individuals and institutions. These efforts have had good results in terms of raising the public's awareness of the major role played by optometrists in primary eye care. Back in the late 80's higher education in optometry was started. Ten years ago the results of scientific research on the topic first became available and are now also contributing to the success of optometry in Portugal. In regard to the optometry profession, specific regulations are to be discussed in the national parliament. The Associação de Profissionais Licenciados de Optometria (APLO), as the professional organization representing optometrists in Portugal, has been critically important in this process. This article will present an overview of the history of optometry in Portugal, of change in the foreseeable future and of the APLO's experience and activities.

  17. sup 40 Ar- sup 39 Ar dating of the Beja gabbro: Timing of the accretion of southern Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffet, G. )

    1990-11-01

    The {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar dating of the amphibole from the Beja gabbro (Southern Portugal) yields a plateau age at 336.4 {plus minus} 0.8 Ma (2{sigma} level). The corresponding calculated isotopic closure temperature is around 800C. The comparison of this temperature with the magnetic blocking temperature ({approximately}570C) allows an estimation of a probable thermoremanent acquisition age for the characteristic magnetization component of the Beja gabbro between 335Ma and 315Ma, assuming cooling rates between 10C/Ma and 100C/Ma. These results, combined wtih paleomagnetic results from the Beja gabbro and Late Paleozoic rocks from Southern Portugal (Perroud et al., 1985), suggest that the southermost part of Spain and Portugal was separated from Northern Iberia in Early Carboniferous times and was accreted to Europe during the Late Carboniferous.

  18. Basic Needs and Education in Portugal. The Portugal Project. Document No. XIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erasmie, Thord

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare the socio-economic factors that can be expected to influence the education system in Portugal, where urbanization has been very slow. The report examines basic needs in Portugal's 18 districts and makes recommendations about resource allocation to planners of adult education programs. Extensive…

  19. Ecole et communaute au Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Alberto

    1980-09-01

    Since 1974 Portugal has experienced some dramatic changes in educational practices at the local level. The school has been opened to the community and the community to the school. Teacher education now includes community studies, designed to prepare teachers for an active role in this process and for the better understanding of the social background of pupils. One new practice is the publication of local newspapers or news-sheets to enhance the understanding of the community by teachers and pupils. The development of a school garden for the cultivation of flowers and vegetables serves as another bridge between school and community. Other examples of community action are adult literacy classes, the creation of voluntary organisations for women, the running of youth clubs, the formation of co-operatives, and local projects like the purchase of an old tram-car to be converted into a library. The introduction of `Civic and Polytechnic Education' for 13-16 year olds was an important innovation. One half-day a week was to be devoted to the integration of the school with the locality, young people's participation in society as agents of change, the linking of study and productive work, and the involvement of young people in the solution of national problems, working from a concrete knowledge of local and regional life. However, since 1976 there has been a more conservative approach, and only in places with a strong consensus amongst teachers has the new relationship between school and community been maintained.

  20. Taking New Paths: Experiential Education in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Katia

    2008-01-01

    Pressley Ridge is a non-profit organization that provides an array of treatment services to at-risk and developmentally delayed children that allow them to remain close to their families and communities. In 2007 Pressley Ridge Portugal started an experiential education and adventure therapy center. This pilot project aims to help participants…

  1. Child Poverty in Portugal: Dimensions and Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastos, Amelia; Nunes, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the extent and persistence of child poverty in Portugal between 1995 and 2001. Data from the Portuguese component of the European Community Household Panel Survey (ECHP) are used to estimate child poverty rates and children's flows in and out of poverty. The article focuses upon an analysis based on family income and on a set…

  2. Rickettsia slovaca infection in humans, Portugal.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Rita; Pereira, Branca Isabel; Nazareth, Claúdia; Cabral, Susana; Ventura, Conceição; Crespo, Pedro; Marques, Nuno; da Cunha, Saraiva

    2013-10-01

    Fifteen years after the initial detection of Rickettsia slovaca in ticks in Portugal, 3 autochthonous cases of R. slovaca infection were diagnosed in humans. All patients had an eschar on the scalp and lymphadenopathy; 2 patients had facial edema. R. slovaca infection was confirmed by serologic testing, culture, and PCR.

  3. Ammonia emissions from naturally ventilated dairy cattle buildings and outdoor concrete yards in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, José; Misselbrook, Tom H.; Chadwick, David R.; Coutinho, João; Trindade, Henrique

    2010-09-01

    There is a lack of information on ammonia (NH 3) emissions from cattle housing systems in Mediterranean countries, with most published data deriving from NW Europe. An investigation was carried out in NW Portugal to quantify NH 3 emissions for the main types of dairy cattle buildings in Portugal, i.e. naturally ventilated buildings and outdoor concrete yards, and to derive robust emission factors (EFs) for these conditions and compare with EFs used elsewhere in Europe. Measurements were made throughout a 12-month period using the passive flux sampling method in the livestock buildings and the equilibrium concentration technique in outdoor yards. The mean NH 3 emission factor for the whole housing system (buildings + outdoor yards) was 43.7 g NH 3-N LU -1 day -1 and for outdoor concrete yards used by dairy cattle was 26.6 g NH 3-N LU -1 day -1. Expressing NH 3 emission in terms of the quantity of liquid milk produced gave similar values across the three dairy farms studied (with a mean of 2.3 kg N ton-milk -1 produced) and may have advantages when comparing different farming systems. In dairy houses with outdoor yards, NH 3 emissions from the yard area contributed to 69-92% of total emissions from this housing system. Emissions were particularly important during spring and summer seasons from outdoor yards with NH 3 emitted in this period accounting for about 72% of annual emissions from outdoor yards. Mean NH 3 emission factors derived for this freestall housing system and outdoor concrete yards used by dairy cattle in Portugal were higher than those measured in northern Europe. In addition, values of animal N excretion estimated in this study were greater than official National standard values. If these emissions are typical for Portuguese dairy systems, then the current National inventory underestimates emissions from this source in NW of Portugal, because of the use of lower standard values of N excretion by dairy cattle.

  4. Portugal: setting new goals for growth.

    PubMed

    Cutler, B

    1987-11-01

    Portugal has entered a period of economic recovery spearheaded by Prime Minister Anibal Cavaco Silva. A slow but steady rise in the standard of living may finally offset the 0.9% annual growth in the country's population. Growth in the gross national product (GNP) reached 5% in 1987 and fixed capital investment increased 9.5% in 1986. Cavaco Silva's economic recovery program has included entry into the Common Market, foreign investment in industry, attention to the enormous public debt, and dismantling of the state-centered economy of the 1970s. Per capita GNP increased from US$743 in 1985 to $1970 in 1986 and unemployment had fallen to 8.5% by 1988. The prolongation of average life expectancy to 68 years for men and 75 years for women indicates a general improvement in the health and lifestyle of most Portuguese. By the year 2000, the population of Portugal is expected to reach 11.1 million, with the largest rates of growth occurring in the west and coastal areas. Half of the population falls into the 25-64-year age group, suggesting potential for economic growth and spending. A low rate of urbanization (30%) has complicated attempts to raise the level of technology in industry. Strong adherence to Catholicism is largely responsible for the exceptionally high marriage rate and low divorce rate in Portugal. The average birth rate was 14.5/1000 in 1987 and the average total fertility rate was 2.1. 34% of all births are to women 20-24 years old. The annual mortality rate is 9.6/1000, while infant mortality stands at 17.8/1000. A significant change occurring in Portugal in the current period is the rise of a new middle class. PMID:12268922

  5. Establishment of heart teams in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Sousa Uva, M; Leite Moreira, A; Gavina, C; Pereira, H; Lopes, M G

    2014-01-01

    Whenever several therapeutic options exist, multidisciplinary decision-making is beneficial for the patient and for society at large. The main obstacles to the establishment of heart teams in Portugal are organizational and logistical. Implementing a heart team approach entails definition of the situations requiring multidisciplinary discussion, creation of clear lines of communication, written protocols and obtaining patient informed consent. The European Society of Cardiology guidelines define the clinical scenarios where intervention of the heart team is recommended.

  6. Poverty, social exclusion and health in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santana, Paula

    2002-07-01

    People in Portugal have never been so healthy. Nevertheless, there are great differences in health status between social groups and regions. In 1994, Portugal was the country with the second worst level of inequality in terms of income distribution and with the highest level of poverty in the European Union (EU). Poverty in Portugal affects mainly the elderly and women (especially in single parent families). Beyond these groups, there are the children, the ethnic minorities and the homeless. Substance abusers, the unemployed, and ex-prisoners are also strongly affected by situations of social exclusion and poverty. Although poverty has been an important issue on the political agenda in Portugal, it shows a worrying tendency to resist traditional Social Security interventions. In the late 1990s, however, welfare coverage rates appear to have risen. To what extent can poverty cause a worsening of health status? Is there any sustainable positive association between welfare and improved health status? How, to whom and when should actions to improve the health status of the disadvantaged be addressed, without subverting the health status of the rest of the population. It is also necessary to reveal the consequences of poor health to individuals, families and communities in terms of income, social empowerment and the ability to fulfil other needs. Finally, reflection on the role and effectiveness of traditional social security models is necessary, in order to improve the impact and adequacy of its interventions. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the knowledge about disadvantage, the current health situation of the most vulnerable groups in Portuguese society-those affected by poverty, deprivation and social exclusion-and to detect the constraints on access to health and health care. PMID:12137187

  7. [Portugal in the face of immigration].

    PubMed

    Guibentif, P

    1996-01-01

    The relatively recent phenomenon of migration into Portugal is broken down into three components: foreign immigrants, return of emigrants, and repatriation of those from the old African colonies in Angola and Mozambique. Changes in the flow of migrants since 1960 are noted, and the economic and social situation of the various groups of immigrants is examined. Changes in public policies aimed at addressing migration-related issues are also discussed. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  8. Multivariate statistical analysis of wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Ricardo; Caramelo, Liliana; Pereira, Mário

    2013-04-01

    Several studies demonstrate that wildfires in Portugal present high temporal and spatial variability as well as cluster behavior (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). This study aims to contribute to the characterization of the fire regime in Portugal with the multivariate statistical analysis of the time series of number of fires and area burned in Portugal during the 1980 - 2009 period. The data used in the analysis is an extended version of the Rural Fire Portuguese Database (PRFD) (Pereira et al, 2011), provided by the National Forest Authority (Autoridade Florestal Nacional, AFN), the Portuguese Forest Service, which includes information for more than 500,000 fire records. There are many multiple advanced techniques for examining the relationships among multiple time series at the same time (e.g., canonical correlation analysis, principal components analysis, factor analysis, path analysis, multiple analyses of variance, clustering systems). This study compares and discusses the results obtained with these different techniques. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005: "Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal". Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 This work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-022692, the project FLAIR (PTDC/AAC-AMB/104702/2008) and the EU 7th Framework Program through FUME (contract number 243888).

  9. Population diversity of Theileria annulata in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Jacinto; Salgueiro, Patrícia; Inácio, João; Amaro, Ana; Pinto, João; Tait, Andy; Shiels, Brian; Pereira da Fonseca, Isabel; Santos-Gomes, Gabriela; Weir, William

    2016-08-01

    The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria annulata causes tropical theileriosis, a severe disease of cattle that occurs across the Mediterranean littoral, the Middle East and Southern Asia. In the Mediterranean region, the disease has long been perceived as being a constraint to livestock production in North Africa and Turkey but was believed to have minimal impact in Southern European countries. It has recently been demonstrated that in Southern Portugal the prevalence of T. annulata is approximately 30%. While the population genetics of the parasite and the multiplicity of infection in the bovine host have been studied in a number of countries, no information is currently available on the composition of the parasite population in Southern Europe or its relationship to populations in bordering regions. A parasite genotyping system, based on micro- and mini-satellite amplification, was used to perform genetic analysis of T. annulata populations from T. annulata infected cattle in twelve farms in Southern Portugal. A diversity of genotypes and a high multiplicity of infection were found, suggesting that the parasite possesses a panmictic population in this region. In comparison with genotypes found in Tunisia and Turkey, parasites from Portugal form a genetically distinct group and show lower genetic diversity. PMID:27109468

  10. Population diversity of Theileria annulata in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Jacinto; Salgueiro, Patrícia; Inácio, João; Amaro, Ana; Pinto, João; Tait, Andy; Shiels, Brian; Pereira da Fonseca, Isabel; Santos-Gomes, Gabriela; Weir, William

    2016-08-01

    The tick-borne protozoan parasite Theileria annulata causes tropical theileriosis, a severe disease of cattle that occurs across the Mediterranean littoral, the Middle East and Southern Asia. In the Mediterranean region, the disease has long been perceived as being a constraint to livestock production in North Africa and Turkey but was believed to have minimal impact in Southern European countries. It has recently been demonstrated that in Southern Portugal the prevalence of T. annulata is approximately 30%. While the population genetics of the parasite and the multiplicity of infection in the bovine host have been studied in a number of countries, no information is currently available on the composition of the parasite population in Southern Europe or its relationship to populations in bordering regions. A parasite genotyping system, based on micro- and mini-satellite amplification, was used to perform genetic analysis of T. annulata populations from T. annulata infected cattle in twelve farms in Southern Portugal. A diversity of genotypes and a high multiplicity of infection were found, suggesting that the parasite possesses a panmictic population in this region. In comparison with genotypes found in Tunisia and Turkey, parasites from Portugal form a genetically distinct group and show lower genetic diversity.

  11. Population structure of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) in Portugal over a 19-year period (1992-2011).

    PubMed

    Tavares, A; Faria, N A; de Lencastre, H; Miragaia, M

    2014-03-01

    Despite their clinical relevance, few studies have addressed the epidemiology of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). In particular, it is not clear how MSSA population structure has evolved over time and how it might have been shaped by the emergence of MRSA in the community (CA-MRSA). In the present study we have evaluated the MSSA population structure over time, its geographical distribution and relatedness with MRSA in Portugal. A total of 465 MSSA from infection and colonization, collected over a 19-year period (1992-2011) in the northern, central and southern regions of Portugal were analyzed. Isolates were characterized by spa typing and multilocus-sequence typing (MLST). Isolates with predominant spa types were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates relatedness was analyzed by eBURST and BURP. The 172 spa types found among the 465 MSSA were grouped into 18 spa-CC (clonal complexes). Ten clonal types were more prevalent (40 %): one major clone (ST30-t012) was present in the entire study period and all over the country and the other nine were intermittently detected over time (ST5-t002, ST8-t008, ST15-t084, ST34-t166, ST72-t148, ST1-t127, ST7-t091, ST398-t571 and ST34-t136). Interestingly, three MSSA clonal types observed only after 1996 were closely related with CA-MRSA epidemic strains (ST8-t008, ST72-t148 and ST1-t127) found currently in Portugal. The MSSA population in Portugal is genetically diverse; however, some dominant clonal types have been established and widely disseminated for almost two decades. We identified MSSA isolates that were related with emergent CA-MRSA clones found in Portugal.

  12. Immigration and Supplementary Ethnic Schooling: Ukrainian Students in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tereshchenko, Antonina; Grau Cárdenas, Valeska Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Immigration from Eastern European countries to Portugal is a recent phenomenon. Within the last decade, economic migrants from Ukraine, Russia, Romania and Moldova set up a number of supplementary schools across the country. No academic attention has been given to the phenomenon of supplementary ethnic schools in Portugal, whilst there is a…

  13. First autochthone case of sporotrichosis by Sporothrix globosa in Portugal.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Veríssimo, Cristina; Sabino, Raquel; Aranha, João; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Sampaio, Paula; Pais, Célia

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we characterize the first autochthone case of human sporotrichosis reported in Lisbon, Portugal. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization revealed that the infection was caused by Sporothrix globosa. We conclude that sporotrichosis may be underdiagnosed particularly in Southern Europe and suggest Portugal as an emerging area for this fungal infection.

  14. OECD Review of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyth, Alastair

    2010-01-01

    On 26 February in Lisbon a team from the OECD's Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) presented its first review of a national school building programme. The school building renovation programme in Portugal, which began in March 2007, involves the renovation of 332 schools by 2015. However, Portugal plans to complete 205 by the end of…

  15. Pre-School Education in Portugal = Educacao Pre-Escolar em Portugal. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Lisbon (Portugal).

    This report, containing both English and Portuguese text, describes the historical background and current state of preschool education systems in Portugal, and presents recommendations on guideline consolidation in the implementation of a common preschool education policy. Part 1 of the report, "Historical Background," discusses the social,…

  16. [Forensic telepsychiatry in Portugal: a few reflections].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Bruno; Cintra, Pedro; Vieira, Fernando; Santos, Jorge Costa

    2011-01-01

    Forensic Telepsychiatry has had growing usage in countries such as the USA and England in the last decade, due to ongoing development of technologies which allow a better access to mental health care in needed populations, and improve the outcome of technicians' work, while facing a more demanding performance of Mental Health facilities. In this article we make a revision of literature concerning applications of Forensic Telepsychiatry, analyzing its potencialities and limits in Portugal. The literature shows positive evidence about efficiency, cost and acceptance, to both patients and doctors. On the other hand, several authors rise issues related to technical, ethical and legal aspects, such as restrictions to its application in forensics; privacy, confidentiality, safety, consent, diagnostic skills and professional responsibility. Forensic Telepsychiatry has shown special utility in remote rural populations with poor access to mental health care, victims of domestic violence, victims of sexual abuse, minor inpatients in correctional facilities and convicts in prisons. It may improve exchange of information with courts and penitentiaries, and production of evidence through quick and efficacious auditing. It has also been used in court to communicate forensic reports concerning mental health patients, to clarify issues related to psychiatric evaluations and testify in criminal and civil courts. Besides the literature revision, three areas of applicability for Forensic Telepsychiatry in Portugal are discussed in this article: teleconference for experts - psychiatrists and psychologists - testifying in court sessions; psychiatric and psychological evaluations through teleconference; expert auditions through a hotline, designed to provide specialized support to courts - both for urgent guidance and clarification. The reflections and proposals included in this article aim to make way to empirical studies which could evaluate the applicability of a more widespread

  17. Characterization of Heterodera zeae Populations from Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Correia, F. J. S.; de O. Abrantes, I. M.

    2005-01-01

    Three populations of the corn cyst nematode Heterodera zeae, one found in the rhizosphere of a fig tree and two infecting corn, were studied using the morphology and morphometry of cysts and second-stage juveniles, and compared with other populations. The intrapopulation and intraspecific variability are discussed. A simple and improved technique to prepare vulval cones for SEM is described. The non-specific esterase patterns of females, isolated from infected corn, were analyzed by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. Two bands of esterase activity were detected. The occurrence of H. zeae is reported for the first time in Portugal and Europe. PMID:19262881

  18. The determinants of lottery sales in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Kaizeler, Maria João; Faustino, Horácio C; Marques, Rafael

    2014-09-01

    In sum, this paper examines the core determinants of lottery sales in Portugal. With panel data analysis covering 18 Portuguese districts and 5 years, this study explains the variations in a district's per-capita lottery sales in terms of key theoretical hypotheses such as per capita district income, age, education index, gender and religion. This paper concludes that the richer Portuguese districts spend more than the poorer districts and there is an inverted-U relationship between lottery sales and per capita income. The paper also concludes that married Catholic citizens spend more on lottery products than others and that the level of education returns a negative effect on lottery spending.

  19. A case of imported neurocysticercosis in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Valadas, Emilia; Badura, Robert; Marques, Tiago; Neno, Miguel; Boura, Márcia; Sutre, Ana Filipa; Beato, Sílvia; Grácio, Maria Amélia; Neves, José Cordeiro

    2015-01-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common cause of acquired epilepsy in resource-poor countries. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman born and residing in Guinea-Bissau, who was transferred to Portugal two months after the onset of a possible meningitis (fever, headache, seizures, and coma) that did not respond to antibiotic treatment. The diagnosis of NCC was confirmed by MR imaging, which showed multiple lesions compatible with cysticercus, and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the cerebrospinal fluid. After 28 days on albendazole and dexamethasone without improvement, she was started on praziquantel, which she completed in six weeks with progressive recovery.

  20. Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    The anti-choice lobby has expressed concern that the government may consider reviewing or reforming abortion law in Northern Ireland. The legal status of abortion is similar to that in Britain before the introduction of the 1967 Abortion Act. However, the commemoration of the 30th anniversary of abortion law reform in Britain presents an opportunity to discuss the benefits of such change in Northern Ireland. Such discussion may cause ministers to reconsider the status of abortion. Anticipating possible discussion, some anti-choice Northern Ireland Members of Parliament tabled Early Day Motion (EDM) 352 "Northern Ireland and the Abortion Act," opposing the introduction of abortion services into Northern Ireland. Member of Parliament Harry Barnes tabled an amendment to the motion noting that current abortion law in Northern Ireland violates the standards of international human rights law and that about 2000 women travel from Northern Ireland annually for abortions. EDM 352 has been signed by 17 Members of Parliament; the amendment, by 13. PMID:12321442

  1. Interpersonal violence among immigrants in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Dias, Sónia; Fraga, Sílvia; Barros, Henrique

    2013-02-01

    To assess prevalence of interpersonal violence among a mixed gender sample of immigrants in Portugal, describing the type of violence and associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2008 and May 2009, evaluating a sample of 702 immigrants residing in the Lisbon region. Information was obtained by trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire. Overall, 15.1 % (15.5 % females and 14.7 % males; p = 0.844) of the immigrants reported to be victims of at least one episode of violence during the last year, regardless of which type of violence was involved. The prevalence of intimate-partner violence was 4.1 %, and it was significantly higher among women than men (7.1 % vs. 0.9 %, respectively, p < 0.001). Women who reported being victims of violence during the previous year stated that the episodes occurred more often at home (54.4 %) with the partner as the perpetrator (43.9 %). On the other hand, male victims stated that the violent episodes occurred mostly in public spaces (40.8 %); men indicated that the perpetrator was frequently a stranger (28.6 %) or a co-worker (18.4 %). Violence is a frequent problem among both female and male immigrants living in Portugal, with different gender patterns regarding the perpetrators and settings of abuse.

  2. Space Radar Image of Lisbon, Portugal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image of Lisbon, Portugal illustrates the different land use patterns that are present in coastal Portugal. Lisbon, the national capital, lies on the north bank of the Rio Tejo where the river enters the Atlantic Ocean. The city center appears as the bright area in the center of the image. The green area west of the city center is a large city park called the Parque Florestal de Monsanto. The Lisbon Airport is visible east of the city. The Rio Tejo forms a large bay just east of the city. Many agricultural fields are visible as a patchwork pattern east of the bay. Suburban housing can be seen on the southern bank of the river. Spanning the river is the Ponte 25 de Abril, a large suspension bridge similar in architecture to San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge. The image was acquired on April 19, 1994 and is centered at 38.8 degrees north latitude, 9.2 degrees west longitude. North is towards the upper right. The image is 50 kilometers by 30 kilometers (31 miles by 19 miles). The colors in this image represent the following radar channels and polarizations: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  3. Post-fire vegetation dynamics in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    The number of fires and the extent of the burned surface in Mediterranean Europe have increased significantly during the last three decades. This may be due either to modifications in land-use (e.g. land abandonment and fuel accumulation) or to climatic changes (e.g. reduction of fuel humidity), both factors leading to an increase of fire risk and fire spread. As in the Mediterranean ecosystems, fires in Portugal have an intricate effect on vegetation regeneration due to the complexity of landscape structures as well as to the different responses of vegetation to the variety of fire regimes. A thorough evaluation of vegetation recovery after fire events becomes therefore crucial in land management. In the above mentioned context remote sensing plays an important role because of its ability to monitor and characterise post-fire vegetation dynamics. A number of fire recovery studies, based on remote sensing, have been conducted in regions characterised by Mediterranean climates and the use of NDVI to monitor plant regeneration after fire events was successfully tested (Díaz-Delgado et al., 1998). In particular, several studies have shown that rapid regeneration occurs within the first 2 years after the fire occurrences, with distinct recovery rates according to the geographical facing of the slopes (Pausas and Vallejo, 1999). In 2003 Portugal was hit by the most devastating sequence of large fires, responsible by a total burnt area of 450 000 ha (including 280 000 ha of forest), representing about 5% of the Portuguese mainland (Trigo et al., 2006). The aim of the present work is to assess and monitor the vegetation behaviour over Portugal following the 2003 fire episodes. For this purpose we have used the regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument, from 1999 to 2008. We developed a methodology to identify large burnt scars in Portugal for the 2003 fire season. The vegetation dynamics was then

  4. Moving and Being Moved: Implications for Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretchmar, R. Scott

    2000-01-01

    Uses philosophical writings, a novel about baseball, and a nonfiction work on rowing to analyze levels of meaning in physical activity, showing why three popular methods for enhancing meaning have not succeeded and may have moved some students away from deeper levels of meaning. The paper suggests that using hints taken from the three books could…

  5. Spatial and temporal distribution of Culicoides species in mainland Portugal (2005-2010). Results of the Portuguese Entomological Surveillance Programme.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rita; Wilson, Anthony J; Nunes, Telmo; Ramilo, David W; Amador, Rita; Madeira, Sara; Baptista, Filipa M; Harrup, Lara E; Lucientes, Javier; Boinas, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges and causes an infectious, non-contagious disease of ruminants. It has been rapidly emerging in southern Europe since 1998. In mainland Portugal, strains of BTV belonging to three serotypes have been detected: BTV-10 (1956-1960), BTV-4 (2004-2006 and 2013) and BTV-1 (2007-2012). This paper describes the design, implementation and results of the Entomological Surveillance Programme covering mainland Portugal, between 2005 and 2010, including 5,650 caches. Culicoides imicola Kieffer was mostly found in central and southern regions of Portugal, although it was sporadically detected in northern latitudes. Its peak activity occurred in the autumn and it was active during the winter months in limited areas of the country. Obsoletus group was present at the highest densities in the north although they were found throughout the country in substantial numbers. Culicoides activity occurred all year round but peaked in the spring. A generalized linear mixed model was developed for the analysis of the environmental factors associated with activity of the species of Culicoides suspected vectors of BTV in the country. For C. imicola Kieffer, the most important variables were month, diurnal temperature range (DTR), the number of frost days (FRS) and median monthly temperature (TMP). For the Obsoletus group, the most important factors were month, diurnal temperature range (DTR), and linear and quadratic terms for median monthly temperature (TMP). The results reported can improve our understanding of climatic factors in Culicoides activity influencing their distribution and seasonal pattern.

  6. Moving? A Relocation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rackliffe, Gary; Pearson, Nancy

    This guide answers questions for high school graduates moving away from home for the first time. The question and answer format begins with reasons for moving and offers ways of finding information about a new town before leaving, meeting people, and fighting homesickness and indecision. Practical advice is presented on money management and…

  7. Plants on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Living things respond to a stimulus, which is a change in the surroundings. Some common stimuli are noises, smells, and things the people see or feel, such as a change in temperature. Animals often respond to a stimulus by moving. Because plants can't move around in the same way animals do, plants have to respond in a different way. Plants can…

  8. Occupational exposure in Portugal in 1999.

    PubMed

    Alves, J G; Martins, M B; Amaral, E M

    2001-01-01

    This study reports the occupational radiation doses for external exposure received in 1999 by the radiation workers monitored by the Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety Department (DPRSN) in Portugal. Occupational exposures arise from conventional industry, research laboratories, the health or medical sector, and mining. There are no nuclear power plants in the country. There are two dosimetry systems running simultaneously at DPRSN, one based on film dosimetry and the other on thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). In 1999, 8400 persons were monitored, 3100 with film and 5300 with TLD and the data presented in this report were obtained by using both technologies. The annual mean effective doses received from external radiation in the different fields of activity and the distribution of the annual effective dose by dose intervals are presented. The collective annual dose by field of activity is estimated and the contribution to the total annual collective dose is determined. PMID:11586752

  9. Embodied affectivity: on moving and being moved

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Thomas; Koch, Sabine C.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of research indicating that bodily sensation and behavior strongly influences one's emotional reaction toward certain situations or objects. On this background, a framework model of embodied affectivity1 is suggested: we regard emotions as resulting from the circular interaction between affective qualities or affordances in the environment and the subject's bodily resonance, be it in the form of sensations, postures, expressive movements or movement tendencies. Motion and emotion are thus intrinsically connected: one is moved by movement (perception; impression; affection2) and moved to move (action; expression; e-motion). Through its resonance, the body functions as a medium of emotional perception: it colors or charges self-experience and the environment with affective valences while it remains itself in the background of one's own awareness. This model is then applied to emotional social understanding or interaffectivity which is regarded as an intertwinement of two cycles of embodied affectivity, thus continuously modifying each partner's affective affordances and bodily resonance. We conclude with considerations of how embodied affectivity is altered in psychopathology and can be addressed in psychotherapy of the embodied self. PMID:24936191

  10. Embodied affectivity: on moving and being moved.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Thomas; Koch, Sabine C

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of research indicating that bodily sensation and behavior strongly influences one's emotional reaction toward certain situations or objects. On this background, a framework model of embodied affectivity is suggested: we regard emotions as resulting from the circular interaction between affective qualities or affordances in the environment and the subject's bodily resonance, be it in the form of sensations, postures, expressive movements or movement tendencies. Motion and emotion are thus intrinsically connected: one is moved by movement (perception; impression; affection) and moved to move (action; expression; e-motion). Through its resonance, the body functions as a medium of emotional perception: it colors or charges self-experience and the environment with affective valences while it remains itself in the background of one's own awareness. This model is then applied to emotional social understanding or interaffectivity which is regarded as an intertwinement of two cycles of embodied affectivity, thus continuously modifying each partner's affective affordances and bodily resonance. We conclude with considerations of how embodied affectivity is altered in psychopathology and can be addressed in psychotherapy of the embodied self. PMID:24936191

  11. [Long-distance migration and its contexts: Portugal and Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rowland, R

    1992-08-01

    The author reviews migratory flows from Portugal to Brazil from the sixteenth century to the present. The focus is on the effect on each country's economic development, social characteristics, and demographic profile. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  12. Accumulation of mercury by Artemia populations of different salinas of Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Boia, C.M.; Duarte, A.C.

    1995-12-31

    The total mercury content in samples of the brine shrimp Artemia, sediments, water, suspended matter and, when available, algae, from nine salines of Portugal, was evaluated, to find out how mercury present in its natural habitat accumulates in Artemia. This study, carried out between 1990 and 1993, was part of a larger research project aiming to contribute to the knowledge on mercury accumulation and its effects on Artemia. This crustacean is used worldwide for marine species feeding in aquafarms, including in Portugal. The following sampling sites were chosen: some salinas of the lagoon of Aveiro, situated in the northern region of Portugal and partially contaminated with mercury-, the salt-mines of Rio Maior, in the interior of the central region of the country, where there are no sediments (the floor is cemented); and salt-marshes in the Algarve, in the south of Portugal. Mercury was determined by cold vapor absorption espectrofotometry after digestion of samples with sulfuric acid and potassium permanganate, and reference materials have been used to control the analytical performance. The concentrations of total Hg varied from 0.014 to 0.36 mg/Kg in the sediments, 0 to 0.30 {micro}g/g in the Artemia, 0.17 to 0.84 {micro}g/l in the suspended matter and 0.09 to 0.56 {micro}g/l in the water. The content of mercury in the artemias was strongly related to the concentration in the sediments, except when the algae were present, because they also accumulate a significantly percentage of the mercury. No relationships could be established with the Hg in water or in suspended matter (in mass of Hg/volume of filtered water), because their, content in Hg varied a lot with time and weather conditions, such as the wind strength. The presence of Hg in the sediments was due either to significant containing Hg discharges or to the composition of the sediments, being more important in the case of clays.

  13. TL dating of Upper Palaeolithic sites in the Coa Valley (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valladas, Hélène; Mercier, Norbert; Froget, Laurence; Joron, Jean Louis; Louis Reyss, Jean; Aubry, Thierry

    2001-12-01

    In 1992, numerous animal engravings in styles associated with the Upper Palaeolithic (Gravetian to Magdalenian) were discovered along a long stretch of the schist cliffs bordering the Côa Valley (Northern Portugal). This suggested that not only caves and rock-shelters but also open-air Pleistocene sites may have been decorated in this manner more often than previously believed. Attempts to date the engravings themselves (radiocarbon of patination, micro-erosion analysis) were unsatisfactory, yielding contradictory and widely scattered dates. We are now reporting thermoluminescence ages of 15 burnt quartzite pebbles excavated in 1997 at three sites (Cardina, Olga Grande Sul, Quinta da Barca Sul) near the decorated cliffs. The ages of the Cardina and Olga Grande Sul pebbles indicated human presence at the sites between 30 and 27 ka ago, during the Gravetian period. The Quinta da Barca Sul pebbles were 13-10 ka old, indicating that humans were also present in the Valley during the Magdalenian period.

  14. Cancer incidence predictions in the North of Portugal: keeping population-based cancer registration up to date.

    PubMed

    Castro, Clara; Antunes, Luís; Lunet, Nuno; Bento, Maria José

    2016-09-01

    Decision making towards cancer prevention and control requires monitoring of trends in cancer incidence and accurate estimation of its burden in different settings. We aimed to estimate the number of incident cases in northern Portugal for 2015 and 2020 (all cancers except nonmelanoma skin and for the 15 most frequent tumours). Cancer cases diagnosed in 1994-2009 were collected by the North Region Cancer Registry of Portugal (RORENO) and corresponding population figures were obtained from Statistics Portugal. JoinPoint regression was used to analyse incidence trends. Population projections until 2020 were derived by RORENO. Predictions were performed using the Poisson regression models proposed by Dyba and Hakulinen. The number of incident cases is expected to increase by 18.7% in 2015 and by 37.6% in 2020, with lower increments among men than among women. For most cancers considered, the number of cases will keep rising up to 2020, although decreasing trends of age-standardized rates are expected for some tumours. Cervix was the only cancer with a decreasing number of incident cases in the entire period. Thyroid and lung cancers were among those with the steepest increases in the number of incident cases expected for 2020, especially among women. In 2020, the top five cancers are expected to account for 82 and 62% of all cases diagnosed in men and women, respectively. This study contributes to a broader understanding of cancer burden in the north of Portugal and provides the basis for keeping population-based incidence estimates up to date.

  15. Genetic Counseling in Portugal: Education, Practice and a Developing Profession.

    PubMed

    Paneque, Milena; Mendes, Álvaro; Saraiva, Jorge; Sequeiros, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    Portugal is one of the European countries where genetic counseling is emerging as an independent clinical and scientific field, paralleling the international expansion of this profession. Important steps have been consistently made towards establishing safe and ethical genetic counseling, delivered by adequately trained professionals. In 1998, Clinical Genetics was recognized in Portugal as a medical specialty. Eleven years later, the first generation of Portuguese (non MD) genetic counselors started a master level training programme at the University of Porto.

  16. KLIMHIST: A Project on Historical Climatology in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Santos, João A.

    2013-04-01

    Climatic variability from the beginning of regular meteorological observations is now acknowledged. However, climate change prior to 1900 is far from being well known in Portugal, except for the 1675-1800 period in Southern Portugal. An interdisciplinary team is working in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", since May 2012. The main objectives of the project are: (i) to contribute to the creation of a long-term history of climate in Portugal by producing databases of documentary evidence and of instrumental data since 1645, a period of natural climate variability that includes the Maunder Minimum and the Dalton Minimum; (ii) to search systematically for the first simultaneous documentary and instrumental data in order to calibrate the series; (iii) to analyse simulated multi-decadal trends over Portugal generated by climate models; (iv) to compare results with those obtained from dendroclimatology and from geothermal studies regarding Portugal and (v) to study extreme events of the past, their impacts and the vulnerability of societies to weather during the last 350 years, and compare them with current analogues. With these tasks, we expect to help completing the spatial coverage of past European climate, as the data gap over SW Europe is often mentioned. As the team members come from four different Universities in Portugal (Évora, Lisbon, Oporto and UTAD), we expect to obtain a good spatial representation of documentary evidence. Teams are now progressing in data search activities in archives. An Access database frame was constructed. Some 18th century extreme events have been and are being studied (Barbara storm, Dec.1739, among others). The first workshop took place in Lisbon (October 2012): Prof Brázdil and Dr. Domínguez-Castro (two of our consultants) were keynote speakers. Key-words: Climate reconstruction, Documentary

  17. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  18. Are Your Bowels Moving?

    MedlinePlus

    ... how to prevent accidents in the future. continue Diarrhea Diarrhea means you have to move your bowels often, ... eat or if you're taking certain medicines. Diarrhea also can happen when you don't wash ...

  19. [Career Satisfaction of Medical Residents in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Martins, Maria João; Laíns, Inês; Brochado, Bruno; Oliveira-Santos, Manuel; Teixeira, Pedro Pinto; Brandão, Mariana; Cerqueira, Rui João; Castro-Ferreira, Ricardo; Bernardes, Carlos; Menezes, Miguel Nobre; Baptista, Bernardo Soares; Ladeiras-Lopes, Ricardo; Rei, Mariana Cruz; Rosa, Gilberto Pires da; Martins, José Luís; Mendonça Sanches, Maria; Ferreira-Pinto, Manuel J; Rato, Margarida; Costa e Silva, Miguel; Policiano, Catarina; Beato, João; Barbosa-Breda, João; Torres, João Pimentel; Leal, Inês; Rosa, Sílvia Aguiar; Ribeiro, Bárbara Carvalho; Costa, Francisco Rego; Palmela, Carolina; Gonçalves, Tiago Cúrdia; Morais, Luis; Marques, Tiago Reis

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A satisfação com a profissão médica tem sido apontada como um fator essencial para a qualidade assistencial, o bemestar dos doentes e a estabilidade dos sistemas de saúde. Estudos recentes têm vindo a enfatizar um crescente descontentamento dos médicos, principalmente como consequência das alterações das relações laborais.Objetivos: Avaliar a perceção dos médicos de formação específica em Portugal, sobre as expectativas e grau de satisfação com a profissão, especialidade e local de formação; razões da insatisfação e intenção de emigrar.Material e Métodos: Estudo transversal. A colheita de dados foi efetuada entre Maio e Agosto de 2014 através de um Inquérito online sobre a âÄúSatisfação com a EspecialidadeâÄù.Resultados: De uma população total de 5788 médicos, foram obtidas 804 respostas (12,25% do total de médicos internos). Desta amostra, 77% das respostas correspondem a internos dos três primeiros anos de formação. Verificou-se que 90% dos médicos se encontram satisfeitos com a especialidade, tendo-se encontrado também níveis elevados de satisfação com a profissão (85%) e local de formação (86%). Por outro lado, constatou-se que estes diminuíam com a progressão ao longo dos anos de internato. A avaliação global sobre o panorama da prática médica foi negativa e 65% dos médicos responderam que consideram emigrar após conclusão do internato.Conclusão: Os médicos internos em Portugal apresentam níveis positivos de satisfação com a sua profissão. No entanto, a sua opinião sobre o panorama da Medicina e os resultados relativos à intenção de emigrar alertam para a necessidade de tomada de medidas para inverter este cenário.

  20. Real-Time Seismology in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custodio, S.; Marreiros, C.; Carvalho, S.; Vales, D.; Lima, V.; Carrilho, F.

    2012-12-01

    Portugal is located next to the plate boundary between Eurasia (Iberia) and Africa (Nubia). The country has been repeatedly affected by some of the largest earthquakes, both onshore and offshore, in the historical European record, including the largest historical European earthquake, the great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 (~M8.5). The Portuguese territory has suffered directly the consequences of strong ground shaking (collapse of buildings, etc) and also some of the most destructive consequences of earthquakes (e.g. tsunamis, fires, etc). However, the rate of tectonic deformation in the Portuguese territory is low (the Eurasian-African plates converge at a rate of ~ 5 mm/yr), which results in long recurrence intervals between earthquakes. This low to moderate rate of seismic activity has two major negative effects: 1) it is difficult to study the regional seismo-tectonics with traditional passive methods; 2) the population is little aware of earthquake risk and unprepared to react in case of disaster. In this scenario, real-time seismology is key to monitoring earthquake crisis in real-time, providing early warnings about potentially destructive events, and assisting in the channeling of recovery efforts in case of disaster. In this paper we will present the real-time algorithms implemented at Instituto de Meteorologia (IM), the institution responsible for seismic monitoring in Portugal. In particular, we will focus on the following aspects: 1) Data collection and real-time transmission to the headquarters. Broadband seismological stations are owned and operated by five different institutions. The last years have witnessed an effort for integration, and presently most data arrives at IM lab in real-time. 2) Earthquake location and local magnitude determination. Data is automatically analyzed in order to obtain a first earthquake hypocenter and ML. While this process is mostly automatic, it still requires the revision by an operator, who is available 24h. 3

  1. CAM within a field force of countervailing powers: The case of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Joana; Gabe, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines the extent to which the position of the medical profession and the state towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners has changed since the late 1990s, taking Portugal as a case study. Using Light's concept of countervailing powers, we consider the alliances, interests, rhetoric and degrees of control between these three actors over time, focussing particularly on the extent to which CAM practitioners have acted as a countervailing force in their relationship with the medical profession and the state. It also brings to the fore the position of supra-state agencies concerning CAM regulation. A critical discourse analysis was conducted on data derived from a systematic search of information dating from the late 1990s up to 2015. Our analysis suggests that CAM has emerged as an active player and a countervailing power in that it has had significant influence on the process of state policy-making. The medical profession, in turn, has moved from rejecting to 'incorporating' CAM, while the state has acted as a 'broker', trying to accommodate the demands and preferences of both actors while simultaneously demonstrating its power and autonomy in shaping health policy. In sum, the history of countermoves of CAM, the medical profession and the state in recasting power relations regarding CAM regulation in Portugal has highlighted the explanatory value of Light's countervailing power theory and the need to move away from a professional dominance and corporatist approach, in which CAM has simply been seen as subjugated to the power of the medical profession and the state.

  2. CAM within a field force of countervailing powers: The case of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Joana; Gabe, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    This paper examines the extent to which the position of the medical profession and the state towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners has changed since the late 1990s, taking Portugal as a case study. Using Light's concept of countervailing powers, we consider the alliances, interests, rhetoric and degrees of control between these three actors over time, focussing particularly on the extent to which CAM practitioners have acted as a countervailing force in their relationship with the medical profession and the state. It also brings to the fore the position of supra-state agencies concerning CAM regulation. A critical discourse analysis was conducted on data derived from a systematic search of information dating from the late 1990s up to 2015. Our analysis suggests that CAM has emerged as an active player and a countervailing power in that it has had significant influence on the process of state policy-making. The medical profession, in turn, has moved from rejecting to 'incorporating' CAM, while the state has acted as a 'broker', trying to accommodate the demands and preferences of both actors while simultaneously demonstrating its power and autonomy in shaping health policy. In sum, the history of countermoves of CAM, the medical profession and the state in recasting power relations regarding CAM regulation in Portugal has highlighted the explanatory value of Light's countervailing power theory and the need to move away from a professional dominance and corporatist approach, in which CAM has simply been seen as subjugated to the power of the medical profession and the state. PMID:26990177

  3. Aflatoxins in spices marketed in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Martins, H M; Bernardo, F

    2001-04-01

    Seventy-nine prepackaged samples of 12 different types of spice powders (five cardamom, five cayenne pepper, eight chilli, five cloves, seven cumin, five curry) powder, five ginger, five mustard, 10 nutmeg, 12 paprika, five saffron and seven white pepper) were selected from supermarkets and ethnic shops in Lisbon (Portugal) for estimation of aflatoxins by immunoaffinity column clean-up followed by HPLC. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was detected in 34 samples of prepackaged spices (43.0%). All of the cayenne pepper samples were contaminated with levels ranging from 2 to 32 microg AFB1/kg. Three nutmeg samples contained levels ranging from 1 to 5 microg/kg, three samples had levels ranging from 6 to 20 microg/kg, and there were two with 54 microg/kg and 58 microg/ kg. Paprika contained levels of aflatoxin B1 ranging from 1 to 20 microg/kg. Chilli, cumin, curry powder, saffron and white pepper samples had levels ranging from 1 to 5 microg/kg. Aflotoxins were not detected in cardamon, cloves, ginger and mustard. None of the samples analysed contained aflatoxins B2, G1 and G2. PMID:11339266

  4. Spatial and temporal variability of droughts in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, JoãO. Filipe; Pulido-Calvo, Inmaculada; Portela, Maria Manuela

    2010-03-01

    An analysis of droughts in mainland Portugal based on monthly precipitation data, from September 1910 to October 2004, in 144 rain gages distributed uniformly over the country is presented. The drought events were characterized by means of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) applied to different time scales (1, 6, and 12 consecutive months and 6 months from April to September and 12 months from October to September). To assess spatial and temporal patterns of droughts, a principal component analysis (PCA) and K-means clustering (KMC) were applied to the SPI series. In this way, three different and spatially well-defined regions with different temporal evolution of droughts were identified (north, central, and south regions of Portugal). A spectral analysis of the SPI patterns obtained with principal component analysis and clusters analysis, using the fast Fourier transform algorithm (FFT), showed that there is a manifest 3.6-year cycle in the SPI pattern in the south of Portugal and evident 2.4-year and 13.4-year cycles in the north of Portugal. The observation of the drought periods supports the occurrence of more frequent cycles of dry events in the south (droughts from moderate to extreme approximately every 3.6 years) than in the north (droughts from severe to extreme approximately every 13.4 years). These results suggest a much stronger immediate influence of the NAO in the south than in the north of Portugal, although these relations remain a challenging task.

  5. Making Images That Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The history of the moving image (the cinema) is well documented in books and on the Internet. This article offers a number of activities that can easily be carried out in a science class. They make use of the phenomenon of "Persistence of Vision." The activities presented herein demonstrate the functionality of the phenakistoscope, the…

  6. Who Moved the Lighthouse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keim, William A.

    1991-01-01

    Traces the early development of the National Council on Community Services, pointing to important changes in the focus of the council since 1968. Identifies major figures in the movement. Opposes the move toward a more stylized academic existence for community services designed to meet institutional rather than community needs. (DMM)

  7. Who Moved the Lighthouse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keim, William A.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the early development of the National Council on Community Services and Continuing Education from the creation of the National Council on Community Services in 1968. Opposes the move toward a more stylized academic existence for community services designed to meet institutional rather than community needs. (DMM)

  8. Let's Keep Moving!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obama, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    First Lady Michelle Obama lauds educators for following the lead of her Let's Move! program and taking action to curtail childhood obesity. The battle to make children healthier is being waged on a number of fronts by food companies, restaurants and schools. Progress has been made, she says, but more is needed.

  9. Moving up in industry.

    PubMed

    Covell, Charlotte

    2016-01-23

    Charlotte Covell is commercial business manager at Virbac UK, a role that gives her responsibility for the company's sales to corporate practices, some buying groups and internet pharmacies. She began her career as a veterinary nurse, but moved into industry and now has a role in senior business management.

  10. Aboard the "Moving School."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainscow, Mel; Hopkins, David

    1992-01-01

    In many countries, education legislation embodies contradictory pressures for centralization and decentralization. In the United Kingdom, there is growing government control over policy and direction of schools; schools are also being given more responsibility for resource management. "Moving" schools within Improving the Quality of Education for…

  11. A Moving Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) mathematicians have discovered how certain insects can climb what to them are steep, slippery slopes in the water's surface without moving their limbs, and do it at high speed. Welcome to the world of the tiny creatures that live on the surface of ponds, lakes, and other standing bodies of water. For the…

  12. A Good Move

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakota, Gregory J.; Essary, Andrew; Bast, William D.; Dicaprio, Ralph; Symmes, Arthur H.; McDonald, Edward T.

    2006-11-01

    An underground exhibit space constructed at Chicago's Museum of Science and Industry now serves as the home of the German submarine U-505 -- the only vessel of its class captured by the United States during World War II. The careful lifting and moving of the vessel required precise coordination and meticulous reviews.

  13. Geoconservation education: the leading role of the University of Minho (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilha, J.; Pereira, D.; Pereira, P.

    2012-04-01

    The University of Minho (with two campuses in Braga and Guimarães, northern Portugal) is a middle-size university created in 1973 and today with around 18,000 students and 1,100 academic staff members. The first works concerning geoconservation were developed in 1996 in the Earth Sciences Department. The research was related with the inventory of geological heritage in Alvão Natural Park, under the scope of a master thesis on Environmental Sciences. But it was only in 2005 that a major step was taken by this university with the creation of the master course on Geological Heritage and Geoconservation. Since that time, around 70 students were enrolled with an average of 10 new students each year. This 2-years course (120 ECTS) is the only post-graduation degree totally dedicated to this domain. During the first year, students have to complete several multidisciplinary modules like: Geodiversity; GIS and computers applied to geoconservation; Inventorying, conservation and interpretation of geological heritage; Environmental legislation; Geotourism; Education for sustainable development; and Mining heritage. The second year is dedicated to the preparation of a dissertation or project. This experience on geoconservation education has been motivating internationalisation with other universities with the support of different grant programmes like Erasmus and AlBan (both from the European Union) and Gulbenkian (Portugal): Students exchange (to Brazil and Greece; from Argentina, Brazil, Cape Verde, Chile, Mozambique, and Thailand) and staff exchange (to/from Greece, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and United States of America). After finishing their master degree, students are finding jobs as geoconservationist experts in geoparks, protected areas, natural history museums, and also as teachers in secondary schools and universities. The University of Minho is also engaged with geoconservation at the PhD level. Several theses have been produced focused of themes

  14. Identification of H-type BSE in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Orge, Leonor; Machado, Carla Guedes; Ramalho, Luísa; Carvalho, Renata; Silva, João; Almeida, Paula; Tavares, Paula; Ochoa, Cristina; Lima, Carla; Pinto, Maria J Marques; Simas, J Pedro

    2015-01-01

    During the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic, Portugal was the third most affected country. As a result of a successful national eradication plan, the number of BSE affected animals has been progressively declining in Portugal with no cases identified in 2013. However, within the scope of this active surveillance scheme, we have identified the first H-type BSE case born after the introduction of the reinforced ban in fallen stock. Here, we report the phenotypic features of this case and the analysis of the protein coding sequence of prnp as well as the prnp promoter and intron 1 insertion-deletions.

  15. Modes of low frequency variability and effect on dry and wet episodes in mainland Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, I. P.; Espírito Santo, F.; Silva; Pires, V.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns and their persistence are known to drive inter-annual variability of precipitation in Europe, though differently depending on geographical location; this includes precipitation extremes and their trends. The vast range of time and space scales involved inherently leads sometimes to precipitation deficits and surpluses which might affect the society, the environment and the economy at the local and regional scales, depending on specific conditions. In this study we focus on mainland Portugal. We discuss the relation between the variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which is the most important teleconnection pattern in the Northern Hemisphere and the only one evident throughout the year, and the spatio-temporal variability of dry/wet hydro-meteorological episodes in this region and their persistence at different scales. Some of these dry/wet episodes affect different aspects of the hydrologic cycle and are likely to lead to drought and soil wetness conditions that can enhance flood events. These episodes were evaluated using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), which was calculated at short (3 and 6-month) and long (12 and 24-month) time scales from monthly precipitation data recorded in the 1941-2012 period (72 years) at 50 precipitation stations scattered across the area. Outcoming data were interpolated for the whole territory using deterministic and geostatistical methods, and the zonal statistics results were mapped; the spatial interpolation, analysis and mapping were implemented in ArcGIS. Results confirm that the precipitation in this region is strongly influenced by the NAO, in particular in winter season. The observed SPI trends and the future projections of the NAO based on GCM's are discussed, namely the uncertainties for the precipitation regime in the southern and western parts of the Iberian Peninsula, which includes mainland Portugal.

  16. Domestic water uses: characterization of daily cycles in the north region of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Matos, Cristina; Teixeira, Carlos A; Duarte, A A L S; Bentes, I

    2013-08-01

    Nowadays, there is an increasing discussion among specialists about water use efficiency and the best measures to improve it. In Portugal, there have been a few attempts to expand the implementation of in situ water reuse projects. However, there is a lack of information about indoor water uses and how they are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. There are several studies that investigate per capita global water usage, but the partitioning of this volume per domestic device and daily cycles is yet unknown. Identified as one of the key questions in sustainable building design, the water end-use is of primary importance to the design of hydraulic networks in buildings. In order to overcome this lack, a quantitative characterization of daily water uses for each domestic device was performed, based on a weekly monitoring program in fifty-two different dwellings in the northern region of Portugal (Vila Real, Valpaços and Oporto). For forty of them, each water usage of different domestic devices of each dwelling was recorded. At the same time, the remaining twelve dwellings were also monitored in order to register the volume of water consumed in each utilization of each domestic device. This paper presents the results of this complete monitoring program, using collected data to establish indoor water use patterns for each domestic device, aiming to support a more realistic approach to residential water use. The daily cycles in the different cities, where the monitoring program was performed, are also presented, in order to evaluate possible influences of sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:23685370

  17. Detecting moving objects under a moving camera in complex environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Genyuan; Yu, Qin; Yang, Sisi; Zhou, Hong

    2015-03-01

    Robust detection of moving objects in image sequences is an essential part of many vision applications. However, it is not easily achievable with a moving camera since the camera and moving objects motions are mixed together. In this paper we propose a method to detect moving objects under a moving camera. The camera ego-motion is compensated by the corresponding feature sets. The difference image between two consecutive images that ego-motion is compensated is transformed into a binary image using k-means algorithm. According to the clustering results, the region of interest where moving objects are likely to exist is searched by the projection approach. Then local threshold and contour filling methods are applied to detect the accurate moving objects. Experimental results on real image sequences demonstrate that our method can get intact moving objects in the case of a moving camera efficiently.

  18. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Culicoides Species in Mainland Portugal (2005–2010). Results of the Portuguese Entomological Surveillance Programme

    PubMed Central

    Ramilo, David W.; Amador, Rita; Madeira, Sara; Baptista, Filipa M.; Harrup, Lara E.; Lucientes, Javier; Boinas, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges and causes an infectious, non-contagious disease of ruminants. It has been rapidly emerging in southern Europe since 1998. In mainland Portugal, strains of BTV belonging to three serotypes have been detected: BTV-10 (1956-1960), BTV-4 (2004-2006 and 2013) and BTV-1 (2007-2012). This paper describes the design, implementation and results of the Entomological Surveillance Programme covering mainland Portugal, between 2005 and 2010, including 5,650 caches. Culicoides imicola Kieffer was mostly found in central and southern regions of Portugal, although it was sporadically detected in northern latitudes. Its peak activity occurred in the autumn and it was active during the winter months in limited areas of the country. Obsoletus group was present at the highest densities in the north although they were found throughout the country in substantial numbers. Culicoides activity occurred all year round but peaked in the spring. A generalized linear mixed model was developed for the analysis of the environmental factors associated with activity of the species of Culicoides suspected vectors of BTV in the country. For C. imicola Kieffer, the most important variables were month, diurnal temperature range (DTR), the number of frost days (FRS) and median monthly temperature (TMP). For the Obsoletus group, the most important factors were month, diurnal temperature range (DTR), and linear and quadratic terms for median monthly temperature (TMP). The results reported can improve our understanding of climatic factors in Culicoides activity influencing their distribution and seasonal pattern. PMID:25906151

  19. Emerging Models of Teacher Training: The Case of Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandre, Fernando; Ferreira, Manuela; Miranda, Branca

    2004-01-01

    The structural reforms of geography teacher training in Portugal have been justified by the global evolution of the educational system and took into account: (1) the political will to extend the period of compulsory schooling, which now covers the whole of lower secondary education, but will soon cover upper secondary education as well; (2) the…

  20. Iridovirus-like viruses in erythrocytes of lacertids from Portugal.

    PubMed

    de Matos, António P Alves; Caeiro, M Filomena; Vale, Filipa F; Crespo, Eduardo; Paperna, Ilan

    2013-10-01

    Icosahedral nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV)-like viruses, which forminclusions in the erythrocyte cytoplasm of reptiles, were previously presented as candidates for a new genus of the Iridoviridae family. The present work describes the distribution of infected lizard hosts and ultrastructural characteristics of the viral inclusions of NCLDV-like viruses from Portugal and adjacent locations in Spain. Giemsa-stained blood smears of 235 Lacerta schreiberi from Portugal and Spain, 571 Lacerta monticola from the mountain Serra da Estrela (Portugal), 794 Podarcis hispanica from several localities in Portugal and Spain, and 25 Lacerta dugesii from Madeira Island, were studied. Infection in L. schreiberi was only found in mountain populations, up to 30% in Serra da Estrela and 9-11% elsewhere. It was absent in lizards from lowlands. Prevalence of infection among L. monticola in Serra da Estrela was 10%; infected lizards were found during March to July and October but not in August and September. Infection in P. hispanica was below 3.3%. Only one infected specimen of L. dugesii was identified by light microscopy. Ultrastructural examination of infected samples revealed that the inclusions are virus assembly sites of icosahedral cytoplasmic iridovirus-like virions. Virions from different host species have different ultrastructural features and probably represent different related viruses.

  1. LIS Education in Portugal between Academia and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Fernanda

    2008-01-01

    There is a brief exposition, in a historical perspective, about the evolution of the professional education in Portugal, in the area of Library and Information Science, since the creation of the Curso de Bibliotecario-Arquivista, in 1887, until its closure in 1982, when it was replaced by the Curso de Especializacao em Ciencias Documentais (CECD).…

  2. Research Management in Portugal: A Quest for Professional Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trindade, Margarida; Agostinho, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Research managers at science-intensive institutions appear as a continuously evolving group of professionals whose identity is somewhat fragmented, even to themselves. In Portugal, specialized research manager roles have rapidly emerged over the last years alongside the development of a small but consolidated scientific system. In order to get an…

  3. Making Sense of TV for Children: The Case of Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Sara; Pinto, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Empowering children for a critical and judicious use and consumption of media is a main objective of media literacy. This paper aims to examine the range of television programs available for children in Portugal through a comparative analysis of the programming for children broadcast by the four Portuguese terrestrial channels (RTP1, RTP2, SIC and…

  4. Predicting Child Outcomes from Preschool Quality in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abreu-Lima, Isabel M. P.; Leal, Teresa B.; Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana Madalena

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyze whether quality of preschool classrooms relates to 4- and 5-year-old children developmental outcomes. The study was conducted in 60 classrooms in Porto Metropolitan Area, Portugal. Children (N = 215) were evaluated in the literacy, math, and behavior domains. Preschool quality was assessed through…

  5. Technological Specialisation Courses in Portugal: Description and Suggested Improvements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Costa, Nilza Maria Vilhena Nunes; Simoes, Ana Raquel; Pereira, Giselia Antunes; Pombo, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    This study is a part of the "Post-secondary Vocational Training in Portugal Project: from a description through to suggestions to improve training quality", which ran from 2003 to 2006. This article, which makes use of data obtained from interviews with Directors of Schools which offer technological specialisation courses (CETs) and from…

  6. Early Intervention in Portugal: Family Support and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia Leite, Carina Sofia; Da Silva Pereira, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the support and benefits of early intervention (EI) in families with children with special needs. Data were gathered through a written questionnaire, "Family Benefits Inventory," completed by 126 families with children with special needs supported by EI teams, with ages from six months to six years in Portugal.…

  7. Pests of Blueberries on Sao Miguel, Azores, Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In February and March 2006, two plots of 154 plants of two southern high bush blueberries cultivars, Vaccinium corymbosum cv. ‘Emerald’ and ‘Jewel,’ a rabbiteye cultivar, V. virgatum cv. ‘Spring High,’ were planted in two locations on São Miguel Island, Açores, Portugal. One plot was planted near t...

  8. School-Based Sexuality Education in Portugal: Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Ana Cristina; Leal, Cláudia; Duarte, Cidália

    2016-01-01

    Portugal, like many other countries, faces obstacles regarding school-based sexuality education. This paper explores Portuguese schools' approaches to implementing sexuality education at a local level, and provides a critical analysis of potential strengths and weaknesses. Documents related to sexuality education in a convenience sample of 89…

  9. Science Policy and the Internationalisation of Research in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patricio, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    This article will examine Portuguese and European science and higher education policies and their impact on international collaborations. It will do so by looking at two key indicators: international academic mobility and the coauthored international scientific publications. The data show Portugal as an attractive country for foreign students and…

  10. Syphilis hospitalisations in Portugal over the last decade.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Pinto, B; Freitas, A; Lisboa, C

    2016-02-01

    Although several studies have reported an increase of syphilis incidence over the last decade in Western Europe, information concerning syphilis epidemiology in Portugal remains scarce. Therefore, we sought to characterise acquired syphilis-associated hospitalisations in Portugal according to demographic and clinical data. We used a database containing all hospitalisations that occurred in mainland Portugal public hospitals with discharges between 2000 and 2014. We analysed all hospitalisations associated with ICD-9-CM codes 091-097.x (corresponding to acquired syphilis diagnosis) concerning inpatients' gender, age and comorbidities. The median length of stay and in-hospital mortality rates were also studied. Between 2000 and 2014, there were a total of 8974 syphilis-related hospitalisations in mainland Portugal. The rate of acquired syphilis hospitalisations per 100,000 inhabitants increased by 33 % during the studied period. Syphilis hospitalisation rates increased by 70 % in males and 139 % among patients aged over 55 years. On the other hand, they declined by 10 % in females and 20 % among patients younger than 55 years old. The percentage of syphilis episodes presenting cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric comorbidities increased, while the percentage of syphilis episodes presenting HIV co-infection decreased by 69 %. A fatal outcome was reported in 5 % of episodes; 4.6 % of them had acquired syphilis as the main reason for hospitalisation. This study illustrates that, despite being a preventable infection, syphilis remains a public health problem. The analysis of hospitalisation and administrative data helps to understand syphilis epidemiology and provides a supplement to traditional case notifications.

  11. Factors Affecting Students' Choice of Science and Engineering in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Almeida, Maria Jose B. M.; Leite, Maria Salete S. C. P.; Woolnough, Brian E.

    This paper presents the results of a study undertaken in Portugal to determine the influence of different factors on students' (n=499) decisions to study or refuse to study in one of the physical sciences or engineering. Some influencing factors are related to what goes on in school and during science lessons, and other factors are related to the…

  12. School Psychology in Portugal: Practitioners' Characteristics and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, Sofia A.; Abreu-Lima, Isabel; Almeida, Leandro S.; Simeonsson, Rune J.

    2014-01-01

    Little empirical evidence is available on the professional characteristics and practices of school psychologists in Portugal. This study surveyed a total of 477 Portuguese school psychologists employed in public (80%) and private schools (20%). Portuguese school psychologists are described with regard to demographic, professional, and educational…

  13. Quality of Life in Ageing Societies: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arun, Ozgur; Cevik, Aylin Cakiroglu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the quality of life of the elderly in three aging countries: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. This was done by using data provided by the European Quality of Life Survey completed in 2004. By doing so, we could then operationalize the conditions of the elderly in Turkey who have a rapid aging process…

  14. GPS Moving Vehicle Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oaks, O. J.; Reid, Wilson; Wright, James; Duffey, Christopher; Williams, Charles; Warren, Hugh; Zeh, Tom; Buisson, James

    1996-01-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in the development of timing systems for remote locations, had a technical requirement for a Y code (SA/AS) Global Positioning System (GPS) precise time transfer receiver (TTR) which could be used both in a stationary mode or mobile mode. A contract was awarded to the Stanford Telecommunication Corporation (STEL) to build such a device. The Eastern Range (ER) als had a requirement for such a receiver and entered into the contract with NRL for the procurement of additional receivers. The Moving Vehicle Experiment (MVE) described in this paper is the first in situ test of the STEL Model 5401C Time Transfer System in both stationary and mobile operations. The primary objective of the MVE was to test the timing accuracy of the newly developed GPS TTR aboard a moving vessel. To accomplish this objective, a joint experiment was performed with personnel from NRL and the er at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) test range at Andros Island. Results and discussion of the test are presented in this paper.

  15. MOVES2014: Evaporative Emissions Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicle evaporative emissions are now modeled in EPA’s MOVES according to physical processes, permeation, tank vapor venting, liquid leaks, and refueling emissions. With this update, the following improvements are being incorporated into MOVES evaporative emissions methodology, a...

  16. Moving Single Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Dustin

    2016-05-01

    Single neutral atoms are promising candidates for qubits, the fundamental unit of quantum information. We have built a set of optical tweezers for trapping and moving single Rubidium atoms. The tweezers are based on a far off-resonant dipole trapping laser focussed to a 1 μm spot with a single aspheric lens. We use a digital micromirror device (DMD) to generate dynamic holograms of the desired arrangement of traps. The DMD has a frame rate of 20 kHz which, when combined with fast algorithms, allows for rapid reconfiguration of the traps. We demonstrate trapping of up to 20 atoms in arbitrary arrangements, and the transport of a single-atom over a distance of 14 μm with continuous laser cooling, and 5 μm without. In the meantime, we are developing high-finesse fibre-tip cavities, which we plan to use to couple pairs of single atoms to form a quantum network.

  17. [The treatment of burn patients. What are the prospects for the northern area of Portugal?].

    PubMed

    Santa-Comba, A; Amarante, J; Malheiro, E

    1993-11-01

    The AA studied the distribution of age, sex, aetiology, and destiny of the 173 in-patients at the S. João Hospital (Central hospital that has no Burn Unit). In what concerns age, 38.1% are children less than 10 years old; the male/female ratio was 1.7:1. The fire and scalds are the most important aetiology. These findings are similar to those found in other countries (except in the Arabian Countries). Of these 99 burn patients have been treated in S. João Hospital, 71 patients were sent to the Burn Unit of Prelada Hospital and 3 to the Burn Unit of Coimbra University Hospital. These findings were compared to a Burn Unit of a Spanish Hospital (Alicante) which has 18 beds for adults and children, normally interning 132 patients per year. As the WHO suggest one special bed per 30,000 persons, we should be expected to have at least 110 beds for burn patients (we only have 9 beds at Prelada Hospital), the AA suggest the establishment of a Burn Unit at S. João Hospital, also due to the fact that is the only hospital that has a permanent emergency care for Plastic Surgery. PMID:8140918

  18. Gaseous pollutants on rural and urban nursery schools in Northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Nunes, R A O; Branco, P T B S; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G; Sousa, S I V

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality in nursery schools is different from other schools and this has been largely ignored, particularly in rural areas. Urban and rural nursery schools have different environmental characteristics whose knowledge needs improvement. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate continuously the concentrations of CO2, CO, NO2, O3, CH2O and total VOC in three rural nursery schools and one urban, being the only one comparing urban and rural nurseries with continuous measurements, thus considering occupation and non-occupation periods. Regarding CO2, urban nursery recorded higher concentrations (739-2328 mg m(-3)) than rural nurseries (653-1078 mg m(-3)). The influence of outdoor air was the main source of CO, NO2 and O3 indoor concentrations. CO and NO2 concentrations were higher in the urban nursery and O3 concentrations were higher in rural ones. CH2O and TVOC concentrations seemed to be related to internal sources, such as furniture and flooring finishing and cleaning products.

  19. Antimony and arsenic behaviours in soils from three abandoned gold mining areas in northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Paula; Neiva, Ana; Silva, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The Valongo anticline located 18 km at East of Porto is characterized by the occurrence of several gold deposits, which were exploited until the end of the nineteenth century. This anticline comprises Cambrian to Carboniferous metasediments. The Cambrian schist-graywacke complex crops out in the western limb of the anticline and is intersected by several Sb-Au quartz veins, mainly Montalto and Tapada. At the eastern limb of the anticline, As-Au quartz veins cut Ordovician black slates and were exploited at the Banjas mine. The Sb-Au quartz veins contain mainly quartz, arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, marcasite, sphalerite, chalcophyrite, galena, gold, tetrahedrite, jamesonite, plagionite, berthierite, stibnite, antimony and carbonates. The As-Au quartz veins consist of quartz, arsenopyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, cobaltite, glaucodote, sphalerite, boulangerite, tetrahedrite and siderite. Stibnite and arsenopyrite are the most abundant sulphides in Sb-Au and As-Au quartz veins, respectively. Therefore, antimony and arsenic are potential contaminants in the surrounding environments of these old mines. The principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to organic matter, pH, cation exchange capacity, clay size particle and reducible, oxidizable and aqua regia Fe, Mn, As and Sb concentrations obtained by the BCR method in 29 soil samples. The PCA shows a substantial distinction between Sb and As behaviours in soils from the old mining areas of Montalto, Tapada and Banjas. The arsenic concentration ranges between 16.98 mg/kg and 1116 mg/kg, whereas the Sb concentration ranges from 6.4 mg/kg to 21775 mg/kg. The antimony is statistically more correlated with Fe and Mn in the oxides fraction, whereas As in the reducible fraction dependents on pH values. Moreover, Fe and Mn concentrations in the oxidizable fraction are highly correlated with the organic matter, suggesting that pyrite, the main host mineral of Fe, was probably totally altered. However, the As concentration in the oxidizable fraction is in a distinct component axis, suggesting possible association to arsenopyrite or amorphous sulphides. The bioavailable concentrations (exchangeable + reducible fractions) of Sb in soils from the three old mining areas range from 2.35 mg/kg to 112.81 mg/kg, whereas those of As range from 1.81 mg/kg to 58.75 mg/kg.

  20. Human case of West Nile neuroinvasive disease in Portugal, summer 2015.

    PubMed

    Zé-Zé, Líbia; Proença, Paula; Osório, Hugo C; Gomes, Salomé; Luz, Teresa; Parreira, Paulo; Fevereiro, Miguel; Alves, Maria João

    2015-01-01

    A case of West Nile virus (WNV) infection was reported in the Algarve region, Portugal, in the first week of September 2015. WNV is known to circulate in Portugal, with occasional reports in horses and birds (2004 to 2011) and very sporadically human cases (in 2004 and in 2010). Here we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first human case of West Nile neuroinvasive disease reported in Portugal.

  1. Human case of West Nile neuroinvasive disease in Portugal, summer 2015.

    PubMed

    Zé-Zé, Líbia; Proença, Paula; Osório, Hugo C; Gomes, Salomé; Luz, Teresa; Parreira, Paulo; Fevereiro, Miguel; Alves, Maria João

    2015-01-01

    A case of West Nile virus (WNV) infection was reported in the Algarve region, Portugal, in the first week of September 2015. WNV is known to circulate in Portugal, with occasional reports in horses and birds (2004 to 2011) and very sporadically human cases (in 2004 and in 2010). Here we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first human case of West Nile neuroinvasive disease reported in Portugal. PMID:26535915

  2. Zika virus infections imported from Brazil to Portugal, 2015.

    PubMed

    Zé-Zé, L; Prata, M B; Teixeira, T; Marques, N; Mondragão, A; Fernandes, R; Saraiva da Cunha, J; Alves, M J

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus transmitted by Aedes sp. mosquitoes like the Dengue and Chikungunya viruses. Zika virus was until recently considered a mild pathogenic mosquito-borne flavivirus with very few reported benign human infections. In 2007, an epidemic in Micronesia initiated the turnover in the epidemiological history of Zika virus and more recently, the potential association with congenital microcephaly cases in Brazil 2015, still under investigation, led the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. Here, we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first four imported human cases of Zika virus in Portugal from Brazil, and alert, regarding the high level of traveling between Portugal and Brazil, and the ongoing expansion of this virus in the Americas, for the threat for Zika virus introduction in Europe and the possible introduction to Madeira Island where Aedes aegypti is present. PMID:27134823

  3. Detection of Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in a dog from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, Carla; Lorentz, Susanne; Cardoso, Luís; Otranto, Domenico; Naucke, Torsten J

    2016-01-01

    Dirofilaria repens causes subcutaneous infection in dogs and cats, and is the main agent of human dirofilariosis in Europe. Detection of D. repens is described in a dog from Portugal, a finding that simultaneously represents the first presumable case of autochthonous infection with the parasite in any animal host species in the country. A mixed D. repens/Dirofilaria immitis infection (20:1 ratio) was found, with an overall density of 1267 microfilariae per millilitre of blood. Morphological features, including morphometry, and acid phosphatase histochemical staining confirmed identity of the two filarioids. Distribution of D. repens in Portugal should be further assessed at the population level both in vertebrate hosts and in vectors. Due to the zoonotic potential of the parasite, preventive measures such as the administration of microfilaricides and insect repellents should be put into practice to protect animals and public health.

  4. Detection of Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in a dog from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, Carla; Lorentz, Susanne; Cardoso, Luís; Otranto, Domenico; Naucke, Torsten J

    2016-01-01

    Dirofilaria repens causes subcutaneous infection in dogs and cats, and is the main agent of human dirofilariosis in Europe. Detection of D. repens is described in a dog from Portugal, a finding that simultaneously represents the first presumable case of autochthonous infection with the parasite in any animal host species in the country. A mixed D. repens/Dirofilaria immitis infection (20:1 ratio) was found, with an overall density of 1267 microfilariae per millilitre of blood. Morphological features, including morphometry, and acid phosphatase histochemical staining confirmed identity of the two filarioids. Distribution of D. repens in Portugal should be further assessed at the population level both in vertebrate hosts and in vectors. Due to the zoonotic potential of the parasite, preventive measures such as the administration of microfilaricides and insect repellents should be put into practice to protect animals and public health. PMID:26486944

  5. Zika virus infections imported from Brazil to Portugal, 2015.

    PubMed

    Zé-Zé, L; Prata, M B; Teixeira, T; Marques, N; Mondragão, A; Fernandes, R; Saraiva da Cunha, J; Alves, M J

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus transmitted by Aedes sp. mosquitoes like the Dengue and Chikungunya viruses. Zika virus was until recently considered a mild pathogenic mosquito-borne flavivirus with very few reported benign human infections. In 2007, an epidemic in Micronesia initiated the turnover in the epidemiological history of Zika virus and more recently, the potential association with congenital microcephaly cases in Brazil 2015, still under investigation, led the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on February 1, 2016. Here, we present the clinical and laboratory aspects related to the first four imported human cases of Zika virus in Portugal from Brazil, and alert, regarding the high level of traveling between Portugal and Brazil, and the ongoing expansion of this virus in the Americas, for the threat for Zika virus introduction in Europe and the possible introduction to Madeira Island where Aedes aegypti is present.

  6. Viticultural zoning in Portugal: current conditions and future scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, H.; Santos, J. A.; Malheiro, A. C.; Moutinho-Pereira, J.

    2012-04-01

    Viticulture and wine production represent a main economic activity of the agro-production sector in Portugal, particularly over some world famous winemaking regions, such as the Port Wine / Douro Valley, Minho and Alentejo. As viticultural zoning provides valuable information regarding the suitability of a given grapevine variety to local climatic conditions, it is thus of great interest to the Portuguese winemaking sector. Furthermore, projected future climates are also likely to have important impacts on this zoning. Therefore, in the current study we aim at 1) discussing the current viticultural zoning in Portugal, and 2) assessing its future changes under anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing (A1B SRES scenario) in the 2011-2070 time period. A set of appropriate bioclimatic indices, computed using temperatures and precipitations defined on a daily basis, is used for viticultural zoning. For the assessment of the recent-past conditions an observational gridded dataset (E-OBS) is used, while for future climate change projections, a 16-member ensemble of model experiments (ENSEMBLES project dataset), is considered. Overall, statistically significant increases (decreases) in the thermally-based (humidity-based) indices are projected to occur in the future throughout the country, particularly over its southern and innermost regions. All these changes are in agreement with the widely accepted projections for warmer and dryer Southern European climates. High impacts are found in the most important winemaking regions in Portugal, highlighting the urgent need for developing suitable adaptation and mitigation measures so as to cope with a changing climate. A reshaping of the viticultural regions is thereby expected to occur within the next decades over Portugal.

  7. [Patterns and specific features of immigration in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Machado, F L

    1997-06-01

    "With...present international migration trends as its scenario, this article analyses the growth of immigration in Portugal, emphasising four main aspects: the balance between immigration and the recent resumption of emigration; the factors which have favoured the entry of immigrants; the composition of these immigrants in terms of country of origin; and the specific characteristics of Portuguese immigration in the context of the European Union." (EXCERPT)

  8. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, A P; Dubey, J P; Dardé, M-L; Cardoso, L

    2014-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. However, data from Portugal are limited and a considerable part of the literature is in Portuguese. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Portugal is unknown, and almost nothing is known of sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. There is no recent general population-based serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in humans in Portugal. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii in animals and humans. In the present paper, we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Portugal. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, physicians and veterinarians.

  9. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from wild birds in southern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Tomás, André; Palma, Ricardo L; Rebelo, Maria Teresa; da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out to determine chewing louse species of wild birds in the Ria Formosa Natural Park, located in southern Portugal. In addition, the hypothesis that bird age, avian migration and social behaviour have an impact on the louse prevalence was tested. Between September and December of 2013, 122 birds (belonging to 10 orders, 19 families, 31 genera and 35 species) captured in scientific ringing sessions and admitted to the Wildlife Rehabilitation and Investigation Centre of Ria Formosa were examined for lice. Twenty-six (21.3%) birds were found to be infested with at least one chewing louse species. The chewing lice identified include 18 species. Colonial birds (34.9%) and migratory birds (29.5%) had statistically significant higher prevalence than territorial birds (6.8%) and resident birds (13.1%), respectively. This paper records 17 louse species for the first time in southern Portugal: Laemobothrion maximum, Laemobothrion vulturis, Actornithophilus piceus lari, Actornithophilus umbrinus, Austromenopon lutescens, Colpocephalum heterosoma, Colpocephalum turbinatum, Eidmanniella pustulosa, Nosopon casteli, Pectinopygus bassani, Pseudomenopon pilosum, Trinoton femoratum, Trinoton querquedulae, Craspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva, Falcolipeurus quadripustulatus, Lunaceps schismatus. Also a nymph of the genus Strigiphilus was collected from a Eurasian eagle-owl. These findings contribute to the knowledge of avian chewing lice from important birds areas in Portugal. PMID:26899014

  10. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) from wild birds in southern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Tomás, André; Palma, Ricardo L; Rebelo, Maria Teresa; da Fonseca, Isabel Pereira

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out to determine chewing louse species of wild birds in the Ria Formosa Natural Park, located in southern Portugal. In addition, the hypothesis that bird age, avian migration and social behaviour have an impact on the louse prevalence was tested. Between September and December of 2013, 122 birds (belonging to 10 orders, 19 families, 31 genera and 35 species) captured in scientific ringing sessions and admitted to the Wildlife Rehabilitation and Investigation Centre of Ria Formosa were examined for lice. Twenty-six (21.3%) birds were found to be infested with at least one chewing louse species. The chewing lice identified include 18 species. Colonial birds (34.9%) and migratory birds (29.5%) had statistically significant higher prevalence than territorial birds (6.8%) and resident birds (13.1%), respectively. This paper records 17 louse species for the first time in southern Portugal: Laemobothrion maximum, Laemobothrion vulturis, Actornithophilus piceus lari, Actornithophilus umbrinus, Austromenopon lutescens, Colpocephalum heterosoma, Colpocephalum turbinatum, Eidmanniella pustulosa, Nosopon casteli, Pectinopygus bassani, Pseudomenopon pilosum, Trinoton femoratum, Trinoton querquedulae, Craspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva, Falcolipeurus quadripustulatus, Lunaceps schismatus. Also a nymph of the genus Strigiphilus was collected from a Eurasian eagle-owl. These findings contribute to the knowledge of avian chewing lice from important birds areas in Portugal.

  11. Environmental levels of Linear alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) in sediments from the Tagus estuary (Portugal): environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Hampel, M; Canário, J; Branco, V; Vale, C; Blasco, J

    2009-02-01

    Sediments from the Tagus estuary (Portugal) were collected at 40 stations in July and December 2004. Total LAS concentrations ranged between 0.03 and 17.76 mg LAS.kg(-1) dry weight in July, and between 0.09 and 9.57 mg LAS.kg(-1) in December. Highest LAS concentrations were found at the upper northern part of the estuary, coincident with the localisation of an important waste water treatment station. According to the Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) of 8.1 mg.kg(-1) derived for this compound, Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) identified a hazard for the ecosystem at the station with the highest LAS concentration, and similar results are obtained by Equilibrium Partitioning Method (EPM). Nevertheless, LAS concentrations decreased significantly between samplings in the stations with the highest LAS concentrations in July, whereas increased LAS concentrations at adjacent stations were found in December. In the remaining stations, LAS concentrations were up to three orders of magnitude lower, representing no hazard for the sediment community. PMID:18228153

  12. Inclusive design in the implementation of projects for schools modernization in Portugal - case studies.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Lígia; Aguiar, Carlos; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2012-01-01

    The Project for Schools Modernization taking place in Portugal, with an estimated total investment of 2450 million for the intervention in the first 205 schools, provide the reclassification of 332 secondary schools by 2015. One of the questions we can pose is if the authorities and the teams of architects selected to design these schools considered fundamental for the correctness of architectural barriers within the school and its accessibility the implementation of standards and principles of inclusion of children/teenagers with special needs within their school environment. As most of the projects are already being implemented, the main aim of this paper is to present the outcomes of a comparative analysis and synthesis of six schools located in the northern part of the country. This analysis occurs from the of Participatory Design perspective which appeals to the experience of the disable children to look (or evaluate) the negative and positive factors in terms of physical space, interpreted by inclusive design rules and orientations. Therefore, the evaluation of schools modernization project, and its discussion, is central for the understanding how these children are addressed in projects which are directed at them. PMID:22317620

  13. ALS renewal moves forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcone, R. W.; Feinberg, B.; Hussain, Z.; Kirz, J.; Krebs, G. F.; Padmore, H. A.; Robin, D. S.; Robinson, A. L.

    2007-11-01

    As the result of an extensive long-term planning process involving all its stakeholders—management, staff, and users—the ALS has seen its future and is aggressively moving ahead to implement its vision for keeping the facility at the cutting edge for the next 2-3 decades. The evolving strategic plan now in place aims to renew the ALS so it can address a new generation of fundamental questions about size dependent and dimensional-confinement phenomena at the nanoscale; correlation and complexity in physical, biological, and environmental systems; and temporal evolution, assembly, dynamics and ultrafast phenomena. The renewal spans three areas: (1) increased staffing at beamlines to support the growing user community and safety professionals to keep an increasingly complex facility hazard free; (2) implementing advances in accelerator, insertion device, beamline, and detector technology that will make it possible for ALS users to address emerging grand scientific and technological challenges with incisive world-class tools; and (3) construction of a user support building and guest housing that will increase the safety and user friendliness of the ALS by providing users office, meeting, experiment staging, and laboratory space for their work and on-site accommodations at reasonable rates.

  14. Dust on the Move

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA06763 Dust on the Move

    This dust avalanche is located on the rim material of an unnamed crater to the east of Tikhonravov Crater.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 15.0N, Longitude 43.1E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Atmospheric circulation classification comparison based on wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric circulation classifications are not a simple description of atmospheric states but a tool to understand and interpret the atmospheric processes and to model the relation between atmospheric circulation and surface climate and other related variables (Radan Huth et al., 2008). Classifications were initially developed with weather forecasting purposes, however with the progress in computer processing capability, new and more robust objective methods were developed and applied to large datasets prompting atmospheric circulation classification methods to one of the most important fields in synoptic and statistical climatology. Classification studies have been extensively used in climate change studies (e.g. reconstructed past climates, recent observed changes and future climates), in bioclimatological research (e.g. relating human mortality to climatic factors) and in a wide variety of synoptic climatological applications (e.g. comparison between datasets, air pollution, snow avalanches, wine quality, fish captures and forest fires). Likewise, atmospheric circulation classifications are important for the study of the role of weather in wildfire occurrence in Portugal because the daily synoptic variability is the most important driver of local weather conditions (Pereira et al., 2005). In particular, the objective classification scheme developed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000) to classify the atmospheric circulation affecting Portugal have proved to be quite useful in discriminating the occurrence and development of wildfires as well as the distribution over Portugal of surface climatic variables with impact in wildfire activity such as maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. This work aims to present: (i) an overview the existing circulation classification for the Iberian Peninsula, and (ii) the results of a comparison study between these atmospheric circulation classifications based on its relation with wildfires and relevant meteorological

  16. Historical tsunami in the Azores archipelago (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, C.; Borges, P.; Freitas, M. C.

    2006-08-01

    Because of its exposed northern mid-Atlantic location, morphology and plate-tectonics setting, the Azores Archipelago is highly vulnerable to tsunami hazards associated with landslides and seismic or volcanic triggers, local or distal. Critical examination of available data - written accounts and geologic evidence - indicates that, since the settlement of the archipelago in the 15th century, at least 23 tsunami have struck Azorean coastal zones. Most of the recorded tsunami are generated by earthquakes. The highest known run-up (11-15 m) was recorded on 1 November 1755 at Terceira Island, corresponding to an event of intensity VII-VIII (damaging-heavily damaging) on the Papadopolous-Imamura scale. To date, eruptive activity, while relatively frequent in the Azores, does not appear to have generated destructive tsunami. However, this apparent paucity of volcanogenic tsunami in the historical record may be misleading because of limited instrumental and documentary data, and small source-volumes released during historical eruptions. The latter are in contrast with the geological record of massive pyroclastic flows and caldera explosions with potential to generate high-magnitude tsunami, predating settlement. In addition, limited evidence suggests that submarine landslides from unstable volcano flanks may have also triggered some damaging tsunamigenic floods that perhaps were erroneously attributed to intense storms. The lack of destructive tsunami since the mid-18th century has led to governmental complacency and public disinterest in the Azores, as demonstrated by the fact that existing emergency regulations concerning seismic events in the Azores Autonomous Region make no mention of tsunami and their attendant hazards. We suspect that the coastal fringe of the Azores may well preserve a sedimentary record of some past tsunamigenic flooding events. Geological field studies must be accelerated to expand the existing database to include prehistoric events

  17. The Financing of Vocational Education and Training in Portugal. Financing Portrait. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centeno, Luis Gomes; Sarmento, Ana Leonor

    The financing of vocational education and training (VET) in Portugal was examined. The examination focused on the following topics: (1) the economic, political, legal, and administrative contexts of funding; (2) the funding framework for VET in Portugal; (3) initial vocational training (IVT); (4) continuing vocational training (CVT); and (5)…

  18. Training in the Retail Trade in Portugal. Report for the FORCE Programme. Retail Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerdeira, Maria Conceicao; And Others

    A study examined training in the retail trade in Portugal. Employment, work, and training patterns in Portugal's retail sector were researched, and case studies of two firms in the supermarket/hypermarket group, one firm in the stationary/cigarette shop sector, and one clothing manufacturer/retailer were conducted. Teams of researchers interviewed…

  19. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. However, data from Portugal are limited and a considerable part of the literature is in Portuguese. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Portugal is unknown, and almost nothing is known of sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. There is no general popu...

  20. Developmental Dyslexia: Perspectives on Teacher Training and Learning Disabilities in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalhais, Lenia; da Silva, Carlos Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was to explore primary teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward their training experiences, instructional practices, and supports received in their schools toward working with students with dyslexia in Portugal. Primary school teachers from the centre of Portugal, working with children between the first and fourth grades,…

  1. Assessing International Product Design and Development Graduate Courses: The MIT-Portugal Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Yehudit Judy; Silva, Arlindo

    2010-01-01

    The Product Design and Development (PDD) course is part of the graduate curriculum in the Engineering Design and Advanced Manufacturing (EDAM) study in the MIT-Portugal Program. The research participants included about 110 students from MIT, EDAM, and two universities in Portugal, Instituto Superior Técnico-Universidade Técnica de Lisboa (IST) and…

  2. Analysis of the effectiveness of the NEC Directive on the tropospheric ozone levels in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, N.; Fontes, T.; Silva, M. P.; Manso, M. C.; Carvalho, A. C.

    2015-04-01

    The National Emission Ceilings Directive 2001/81/CE (NEC Directive) was adopted in the European Community in 2001 and went through a revision process in 2005. One of its main objectives is to improve the protection of the environment and human health against the risks of adverse effects from ground-level ozone, moving towards the long-term objective of not exceeding critical levels proved to effectively protect the populations and ecosystems. Considering such objectives, national emission ceilings were established imposing the years 2010 and 2020 as benchmarks. Ten years later, what was the effectiveness of this Directive concerning the control of tropospheric ozone levels in Portugal? In order to answer the previous question, annual ozone precursors' emissions (NOx, NMVOC) and annual atmospheric concentrations (NOx and O3) were analyzed between 1990 and 2011. The background concentrations were assessed in each environment type of air quality station (urban, suburban and rural) through their annual mean ozone concentration and the hourly information threshold exceedances (episodic peak levels). To evaluate the statistical differences in the inter-annual episodic peak levels, a Peak Ozone Index (POIx) was defined and calculated. The results show that, despite the achievement on the emissions NEC Directive goals, associated to the reduction of ozone precursors' emissions, and the decrease of ozone episodic peak levels, the mean tropospheric ozone concentrations significantly increased between 2003 and 2007 (p < 0.05) although the number of exceedances to the information threshold (180 μg m-3) has decreased. During the period of 1990-2000, before the implementation of the NEC Directive, the mean ozone values were 25% lower in rural stations, 26% in urban stations and 12% in suburban stations, demonstrating that the NEC policy based on NOx and NMVOCs emissions reduction does not lead to an effective overall reduction of ozone concentrations considering the reduction

  3. Autosomal SNPs study of a population sample from north of Portugal and a sample of immigrants from the Eastern Europe living in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lurdes Pontes, M; Pinheiro, M F

    2014-03-01

    The use of autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for forensic research has been widely discussed in recent years, mainly because SNPs have important advantages compared to short tandem repeats (STRs). In this study a total of 131 non related individuals from the North of Portugal and 85 immigrant individuals from the Eastern Europe, mainly Ukrainians, equally non related and residing in Portugal, were typed for 52 loci included in the in the SNP for ID 52plex with the SNaPshot™ assay.

  4. Determinants of birth weight in Portugal: 1988 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Fuster, Vicente; Santos, Carlota

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse temporal birth weight variation, its relationship to the frequency of premature births in Portugal, and the influence of native and immigrant mothers' characteristics as well as to determine the possible existence of a pattern of temporal change in birth weight in the Iberian Peninsula as a whole. Individual mother-child data from the Portuguese National Institute of Statistics regarding live births (N = 2,661,542) permitted an analysis, for the first time, of weight at birth in Portugal from a bio-demographic perspective. The results obtained show that from 1988 to 2011 there was a gradual decline in the average weight at birth in Portugal that may be related to shifts in the duration of gestation. An initial rapid decline in the relative frequency of post-term births took place, followed by small variations from 1995 on. Logistic regressions indicated a pattern unaffected by maternal origin or the sex of the newborn. With regard to weeks of gestation, the odds values obtained were < 1 when the reference category was < 28 weeks. For this factor, no significant differences were found in relation to the mother's origin. Portuguese mothers over 35 years were associated with a higher incidence of low birth weight. Regardless of maternal origin, being a newborn of parity 1, and with the mother not in a couple, resulted in unfavourable outcomes with regard to low birth weight. On the other hand, long gestation periods and having secondary or university education constituted a protective factor.

  5. Weather types and the regime of wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2009-04-01

    An objective classification scheme, as developed by Trigo and DaCamara (2000), was applied to classify the daily atmospheric circulation affecting Portugal between 1980 and 2007 into a set of 10 basic weather types (WTs). The classification scheme relies on a set of atmospheric circulation indices, namely southerly flow (SF), westerly flow (WF), total flow (F), southerly shear vorticity (ZS), westerly shear vorticity (ZW) and total vorticity (Z). The weather-typing approach, together with surfacemeteorological variables (e.g. intensity and direction of geostrophic wind, maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation) were then associated to wildfire events as recorded in the official Portuguese fire database consisting of information on each fire occurred in the 18 districts of Continental Portugal within the same period (>450.000 events). The objective of this study is to explore the dependence of wildfire activity on weather and climate and then evaluate the potential of WTs to discriminate among recorded wildfires on what respects to their occurrence and development. Results show that days characterised by surface flow with an eastern component (i.e. NE, E and SE) account for a high percentage of daily burnt area, as opposed to surface westerly flow (NW, W and SW), which represents about a quarter of the total number of days but only accounts for a very low percentage of active fires and of burnt area. Meteorological variables such as minimum and maximum temperatures, that are closely associated to surface wind intensity and direction, also present a good ability to discriminate between the different types of fire events.. Trigo R.M., DaCamara C. (2000) "Circulation Weather Types and their impact on the precipitation regime in Portugal". Int J of Climatology, 20, 1559-1581.

  6. Prevalence and seasonal variations of canine dirofilariosis in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Landum, Miguel; Ferreira, Cátia; Meireles, José; Gonçalves, Luzia; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira; Belo, Silvana

    2014-11-15

    Dirofilariosis is a severe vector-borne emergent disease that is spreading worldwide and becoming a serious threat to human and veterinary public health. Portugal, a Mediterranean country, has favorable climate conditions for mosquito development and survival. At present, accurate data on the prevalence and epidemiological pattern of dirofilariosis in Portugal is scarce and outdated. To study these trends, a project was developed to assess the current prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in shelter dogs as well as the prevalence of Dirofilaria species present in three coastal regions in central Portugal: Coimbra, Santarém, and Setúbal. Blood samples were collected from 696 shelter dogs during three consecutive years: 2011, 2012, and 2013. A rapid immunomigration technique was performed to detect female D. immitis antigens. Concurrently, to detect and identify circulating microfilariae, a modified Knott's technique and acid phosphatase histochemical staining were also performed. Of the 696 dogs sampled, 105 were positive for D. immitis, with an overall prevalence of 15.1%. Forty of the 105 dogs were antigen negative but were positive for D. immitis microfilariae. Three animals were co-infected with D. immitis and Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides, and there was also one dog infected only with A. dracunculoides, all confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. The highest prevalence of canine heartworm during the 3-y period was in Setúbal (24.8%), followed by Coimbra (13.8%), and Santarém (13.2%), with significant inter-district differences. Our results demonstrate a higher prevalence of dirofilariosis compared with findings of previous studies and show an increasing rate of infection in the southern areas of Portugal attributed, at least in part, to bioclimatic and ecological factors. The present study updates the epidemiological situation and correlates the risk of dirofilariosis transmission within each region. These findings are highly relevant to both human

  7. Ochratoxin A in Portugal: A Review to Assess Human Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Sofia C.; Pena, Angelina; Lino, Celeste M.

    2010-01-01

    In Portugal, the climate, dietary habits, and food contamination levels present the characteristics for higher population susceptibility to ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the known mycotoxins with the greatest public health and agro-economic importance. In this review, following a brief historical insight on OTA research, a summary of the available data on OTA occurrence in food (cereals, bread, wine, meat) and biological fluids (blood, urine) is made. With this data, an estimation of intake is made to ascertain and update the risk exposure estimation of the Portuguese population, in comparison to previous studies and other populations. PMID:22069635

  8. Outbreak of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus in Portugal, 2015.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, J R; Hakze-van der Honing, R; Almeida, A; Lourenço, M; van der Poel, W H M; Nascimento, M S J

    2015-12-01

    An outbreak of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in the South of Portugal in January 2015 and the spread of PEDV northwards in the territory are described. Comparative analysis of the amplified sequences showed a very high (99.0%) identity with the PEDV variant most recently reported in the United States and also show complete (100%) identity to the strains recently reported in Germany, supporting the hypothesis that a unique strain is currently circulating in Europe. The origin of this PEDV variant still needs to be elucidated and further studies in the remaining European countries may contribute to the knowledge.

  9. Possible Functional Moving Toes Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vanegas-Arroyave, Nora; Panyakaew, Pattamon; Lamichhane, Dronacharya; Shulman, Lisa; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background Moving toes syndrome has been classically described as an organic movement disorder, on occasion related to peripheral nerve injuries. The association between nerve trauma and movement disorders has become a controversial topic, and the functional etiology of moving toes syndrome has recently been proposed. Case Report We describe two cases of moving toes syndrome with clinical features typically suggestive of a functional movement disorder. Discussion The presence of entrainability and distractibility in the described patients is an indication of attentional influences on their involuntary movements. However, it is possible that if there is a subcortical origin, the toe movements could be influenced by voluntary commands. PMID:27144090

  10. Forecasting human exposure to atmospheric pollutants in Portugal - A modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrego, C.; Sá, E.; Monteiro, A.; Ferreira, J.; Miranda, A. I.

    2009-12-01

    Air pollution has become one main environmental concern because of its known impact on human health. Aiming to inform the population about the air they are breathing, several air quality modelling systems have been developed and tested allowing the assessment and forecast of air pollution ambient levels in many countries. However, every day, an individual is exposed to different concentrations of atmospheric pollutants as he/she moves from and to different outdoor and indoor places (the so-called microenvironments). Therefore, a more efficient way to prevent the population from the health risks caused by air pollution should be based on exposure rather than air concentrations estimations. The objective of the present study is to develop a methodology to forecast the human exposure of the Portuguese population based on the air quality forecasting system available and validated for Portugal since 2005. Besides that, a long-term evaluation of human exposure estimates aims to be obtained using one-year of this forecasting system application. Additionally, a hypothetical 50% emission reduction scenario has been designed and studied as a contribution to study emission reduction strategies impact on human exposure. To estimate the population exposure the forecasting results of the air quality modelling system MM5-CHIMERE have been combined with the population spatial distribution over Portugal and their time-activity patterns, i.e. the fraction of the day time spent in specific indoor and outdoor places. The population characterization concerning age, work, type of occupation and related time spent was obtained from national census and available enquiries performed by the National Institute of Statistics. A daily exposure estimation module has been developed gathering all these data and considering empirical indoor/outdoor relations from literature to calculate the indoor concentrations in each one of the microenvironments considered, namely home, office/school, and other

  11. Palaeoenvironmental significance of organic facies variation across the Lower Toarcian in the northeastern sector of the Lusitanian Basin, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Bruno; Duarte, Luís V.; Graciano Mendonça Filho, João; Guilherme Santos, Luiz

    2015-04-01

    The Pliensbachain - Toarcian is particularly well represented in the Lusitanian Basin (central western Portugal), dominated by benthic and necktonic marl-limestone succession, well dated by ammonites. In this general context, and besides all aspects related to the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE), the Polymorphum (=Tenuicostatum) - Levisoni (= Serpentinum) ammonite zone boundary marks one of the most sedimentological changes occurred in the whole basin (Duarte, 1997). Among all well known available sections for this interval (e.g. Peniche and Rabaçal), the Alcabideque section shows at the base of Levisoni Zone a singular record of brownish marls very poor in macrofauna (the "Chocolate Marls"), unit that is exclusive of northern part of the basin (see Pittet et al., 2014). With the aim to improve the understand about the sedimentary vertical changes occurred between the late Pliensbachian (Emaciatum Zone) and the base of Levisoni Zone, and to clarify the palaeoenvironment of such unit, we developed an organic facies analysis, including palynofacies and organic geochemistry [total organic carbon (TOC), sulfur and biomarkers]. Results confirm that sediments are particularly poor in organic matter, with the highest TOC value reaching 0.41 wt.% around the top of Polymorphum Zone. In the studied succession (around 20 m thick) the organic content is represented mainly by components from palynomorph (essentially sporomorphs) and phytoclast (both opaque and non-opaque) groups (>85%). A strong change occurs at the base of Chocolate Marls, through a clear increase of sporomorphs under the form of tetrads and agglomerates and the lowest occurrence (<2%) of amorphous organic matter, after a peak of this group and marine palynomorphs recorded at the top of Polymorphum Zone. This continental influence occurred at the base of Levisoni Zone is also confirmed by the η-alkanes distribution profile and several biomarkers such as isoprenoides, terpanes and steranes. With these

  12. Rehabilitation Counselor Certification: Moving Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Jodi L.; Barros-Bailey, Mary; Chapman, Cindy; Nunez, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification and presents recent changes and strategic goals for moving forward. Challenges and opportunities for the profession in relation to certification are also discussed. (Contains 3 tables.)

  13. Mobile Launcher Moves for Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    In anticipation of launching NASA’s Space Launch System heavy-lift rocket later in this decade, engineers wanted to check the mobile launcher, or ML, to see how it would behave moving atop a craw...

  14. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Carolina M; Bio, Ana; Amat, Francisco; Vieira, Natividade

    2011-01-01

    Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend.It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others. Furthermore, with an adequate management, biodiversity can be restored to abandoned salinas, which constitute important feeding and breeding grounds for resident and migratory aquatic birds, many of which are protected by European Community Directives.The aims of this manuscript are to present a brief overview on the current state of sea salt exploitation in Portugal and to stress the importance of recovering these salinas for the conservation of this particular environment, for the regional economy, the scientific community and the general public. The Aveiro salina complex is presented in detail, to exemplify salina structure and functioning, as well as current problems and potential solutions for artisanal salinas. PMID:22053788

  15. Trichinella britovi in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João; Coutinho, Teresa; Cardoso, Luís; Gottstein, Bruno; Müller, Norbert; Cortes, Helder C E

    2015-06-15

    Trichinellosis is one of the most important foodborne parasitic zoonoses, caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Pigs and other domestic and wild animals, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), are sources of Trichinella infection for human beings. Trichinella britovi is the major agent of infection in sylvatic animals and the most important species circulating in the European wildlife. The present study aimed at assessing Trichinella spp. infection in red foxes from the North of Portugal. Forty-seven carcasses of wild red foxes shot during the official hunting season or killed in road accidents were obtained between November 2008 and March 2010. In order to identify the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae in red foxes, an individual artificial digestion was performed using approximately 30 g of muscle samples. Larvae of Trichinella spp. were detected in one (2.1%) out of the 47 assessed foxes. After a multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis, T. britovi was molecularly identified as the infecting species. The recognition of T. britovi in a red fox confirms that a sylvatic cycle is present in the North of Portugal and that the local prevalence of Trichinella infection in wildlife must not be ignored due to its underlying zoonotic risks. PMID:25934252

  16. Trichinella britovi in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João; Coutinho, Teresa; Cardoso, Luís; Gottstein, Bruno; Müller, Norbert; Cortes, Helder C E

    2015-06-15

    Trichinellosis is one of the most important foodborne parasitic zoonoses, caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Pigs and other domestic and wild animals, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), are sources of Trichinella infection for human beings. Trichinella britovi is the major agent of infection in sylvatic animals and the most important species circulating in the European wildlife. The present study aimed at assessing Trichinella spp. infection in red foxes from the North of Portugal. Forty-seven carcasses of wild red foxes shot during the official hunting season or killed in road accidents were obtained between November 2008 and March 2010. In order to identify the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae in red foxes, an individual artificial digestion was performed using approximately 30 g of muscle samples. Larvae of Trichinella spp. were detected in one (2.1%) out of the 47 assessed foxes. After a multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis, T. britovi was molecularly identified as the infecting species. The recognition of T. britovi in a red fox confirms that a sylvatic cycle is present in the North of Portugal and that the local prevalence of Trichinella infection in wildlife must not be ignored due to its underlying zoonotic risks.

  17. Toscana virus meningitis in Portugal, 2002-2005.

    PubMed

    Santos, L; Simões, J; Costa, R; Martins, S; Lecour, H

    2007-06-01

    Toscana virus infection is endemic in Italy, but has also been documented in other Mediterranean countries. Our aim was to investigate the occurrence of Toscana virus (TOSV) meningitis in children and young adults in a metropolitan area in the north of Portugal. Cerebrospinal fluid samples from 308 patients with the diagnosis of meningitis and with negative bacterial culture were tested for enteroviruses and herpesviruseses by reverse transcription PCR. Those samples that proved negative for enterovirus and herpesvirus were tested for Toscana virus with a commercial reverse transcription nested PCR assay. In total, we investigated 106 samples, collected between May and September during the four-year period between 2002 and 2005 from patients younger than 30 years old. Toscana virus was the cause of meningitis in six (5.6%) of the cases, three children and three young adults. All had a benign course and self-limited disease. Since a first case report of TOSV infection 1985 and another in 1996, both in foreign tourists, these six cases of Toscana virus meningitis are, to our knowledge, the first diagnosed in Portuguese inhabitants, and they underline the need for more studies on the prevalence of this virus in Portugal.

  18. Upper-air balloon-borne observations in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Luis F.; Henriques, Diamantino; Carvalho, Renato; Prior, Vitor

    2001-08-01

    The Portuguese Meteorological Institute (IM), operates regular and non-regular programmes of upper-air observations using balloons and radiosondes for measuring meteorological variables and atmospheric ozone concentration. The regular programmes consists in daily observations of upper-air pressure, temperature, humidity and wind using balloons and electronic radiosondes, carried out at 3 fixed stations in Portugal, which reach more than 30 km of altitude. IM has also 2 portable systems that are occasionally used for temporary observations during field campaigns, which have been taken several times in different regions of Portugal. The radiosondes used include electrical sensors for the PTU measurements and GPS-module for balloon tracking, which signals are used for wind computation at the ground station. Except for the Azores station, where helium is used, the balloons at all other sites are filled with hydrogen. There are also non-regular programmes that have been carried out weekly for the observation of the vertical profile of ozone up to about 35 km of altitude, using 1200 grams balloons and "Brewer-Mast" ozonesondes.

  19. Ditched enclosures in Southern Portugal: an Archaeoastronomical view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejuto, A J.; Valera, A. Carlos; Castaño, J. Gómez; Rodríguez-Caderot, G.; Becker, Helmut

    2015-05-01

    Since the very first ages, human beings have attempted to understand and manage their environment in order to survive. This is the case regarding wildlife, weather cycles and gathering periods. This is also reflected in the areas surrounding sites where individuals live; they changed the landscape with different aims. This type of archaeology has risen very recently - in the last few years - and is usually called Landscape Archaeology. Traditional landscape archaeology has dealt with earth and location related studies; the relationship of ancient peoples with the sky has been disregarded. The archaeoastronomical studies have mitigated this fact. Archaeoastronomy has revealed an important number of archaeological sites; many of them reveal a clear intention of astronomically designed buildings or structures. This implies a planned detailed design and obviously a deep understanding of astronomical knowledge. As examples of these sites a number of megalithic ditched enclosures sited in Portugal will be shown which were studied inside the project "Ditched enclosures plants and Neolithic cosmologies: A landscape, archaeoastronomical and geophysical perspective". The ideological and astronomical aspects inside the architecture of these types of sites will be explained. In this paper we present a new methodology applied in the archaeoastronomical calculations for southern Portugal sites. It includes GIS techniques and the development of an archaeoastronomical layer that can be used to display the computations over cartographic information from the archaeological sites. A Spatial Data Infrastructure is also created in order to expose the results.

  20. Psychiatry training towards a global future: trainees' perspective in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pinto da Costa, Mariana; Guerra, Cátia; Malta, Rui; Moura, Manuela; Carvalho, Serafim; Mendonça, Denisa

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A psiquiatria é influenciada pelas mudanças que ocorrem na sociedade, devendo estar em constante renovação, antevendo futuros comportamentos e doenças. Este estudo pretende descrever a opinião dos internos de psiquiatria em Portugal relativamente ao seu internato e às modificações que nele gostariam de assistir no futuro próximo.Material e Métodos: Um questionário estruturado de 26 perguntas foi desenvolvido pela Associação Portuguesa de Internos de Psiquiatria e enviado por email.Resultados: A percentagem de respostas obtidas foi de 41,5%. A maioria dos internos estava satisfeita com a sua formação. Contudo, algumas mudanças foram sugeridas no que diz respeitos aos estágios obrigatórios e opcionais. A maior parte dos internos requer que as psicoterapias sejam incluídas no âmbito do internato, solicitando também um acesso mais fácil à investigação e a oportunidades de estágio no estrangeiro.Discussão e Conclusão: Esta perspectiva detalhada pode facilitar a transformação dos currículos do internato em Portugal e naEuropa, permitindo a melhoria do internato de psiquiatria, bem como dos cuidados de saúde mental.

  1. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential wood combustion in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, Mário; Gomes, Luís; Tarelho, Luís; Pio, Casimiro

    2013-06-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to characterize formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential combustion of common wood species growing in Portugal. Five types of wood were investigated: maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), cork oak (Quercus suber), holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) and pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica). Laboratory experiments were performed with a typical wood stove used for domestic heating in Portugal and operating under realistic home conditions. Aldehydes were sampled from diluted combustion flue gas using silica cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The average formaldehyde to acetaldehyde concentration ratio (molar basis) in the stove flue gas was in the range of 2.1-2.9. Among the tested wood types, pyrenean oak produced the highest emissions for both formaldehyde and acetaldehyde: 1772 ± 649 and 1110 ± 454 mg kg-1 biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. By contrast, maritime pine produced the lowest emissions: 653 ± 151 and 371 ± 162 mg kg-1 biomass (dry basis) burned, respectively. Aldehydes were sampled separately during distinct periods of the holm oak wood combustion cycles. Significant variations in the flue gas concentrations were found, with higher values measured during the devolatilization stage than in the flaming and smoldering stages.

  2. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend. It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others. Furthermore, with an adequate management, biodiversity can be restored to abandoned salinas, which constitute important feeding and breeding grounds for resident and migratory aquatic birds, many of which are protected by European Community Directives. The aims of this manuscript are to present a brief overview on the current state of sea salt exploitation in Portugal and to stress the importance of recovering these salinas for the conservation of this particular environment, for the regional economy, the scientific community and the general public. The Aveiro salina complex is presented in detail, to exemplify salina structure and functioning, as well as current problems and potential solutions for artisanal salinas. PMID:22053788

  3. African horse sickness in Portugal: a successful eradication programme.

    PubMed Central

    Portas, M.; Boinas, F. S.; Oliveira E Sousa, J.; Rawlings, P.

    1999-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) was diagnosed for the first time in southern Portugal in autumn 1989, following outbreaks in Spain. AHS virus presence was confirmed by virus isolation and serotyping. An eradication campaign with four sanitary zones was set up by Central Veterinary Services in close collaboration with private organizations. Vaccination began on 6 October. In February 1990, vaccination was extended to all Portuguese equines (170000 animals). There were 137 outbreaks on 104 farms: 206 of the equidae present died (16%) or were slaughtered (14%); 81.5% were horses, 10.7% were donkeys and 7.8% were mules. Clinical AHS occurred more frequently in horses than donkeys and mules. In the vaccinated population, 82 animals (62.2% horses and 37.8% mules and donkeys), died or were slaughtered due to suspected or confirmed AHS. One year after ending vaccination, December 1991, Portugal was declared free of AHS. Cost of eradication was US$1955513 (US$11.5/Portuguese equine). PMID:10579455

  4. Artisanal salt production in Aveiro/Portugal - an ecofriendly process.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Carolina M; Bio, Ana; Amat, Francisco; Vieira, Natividade

    2011-11-04

    Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend.It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others. Furthermore, with an adequate management, biodiversity can be restored to abandoned salinas, which constitute important feeding and breeding grounds for resident and migratory aquatic birds, many of which are protected by European Community Directives.The aims of this manuscript are to present a brief overview on the current state of sea salt exploitation in Portugal and to stress the importance of recovering these salinas for the conservation of this particular environment, for the regional economy, the scientific community and the general public. The Aveiro salina complex is presented in detail, to exemplify salina structure and functioning, as well as current problems and potential solutions for artisanal salinas.

  5. 25 CFR 700.169 - Fixed payment for moving expenses-residential moves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fixed payment for moving expenses-residential moves. 700... RELOCATION PROCEDURES Moving and Related Expenses, Temporary Emergency Moves § 700.169 Fixed payment for moving expenses—residential moves. The fixed payment for moving and related expenses of a...

  6. Moving Shadows, Moving Sun. Early Modem Sundials Restaging Miracles.

    PubMed

    Mersmann, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    Irrespective of geo- or heliocentric presuppositions, the functioning of sundials is based on the observation of moving shadows or light spots. Even though the cast shadow was often simply used to indicate the time, it could also remind the users of the ephemerality of earthly things or function as an index of planetary movements. This article examines the various ways in which early modem sundials visually interpret the moving shadow or light spot. The instruments address the shadow in inscriptions, integrate it into their design (e.g., in cruciform dials) or even manipulate its course (as in the so-called Horologium Ahaz). Both the crucifix and the Ahaz dials not only refer to astronomical miracles but actually restage them. Even though by means of the horologium it was not possible to explain the Old Testament miracle of the shadow moving backward, adepts were able to recreate it on a terrestrial scale.

  7. Serological Evidence for Schmallenberg Virus Infection in Sheep of Portugal, 2014.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Fernando; Mesquita, João R; Vala, Helena; Abreu-Silva, Joana; van der Poel, Wim H M; Nascimento, Maria S J

    2016-01-01

    Between November and December of 2014, a serosurvey was set up to evaluate the presence of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) antibodies in sheep of Portugal. Sera (n = 1068) were tested using an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ID Screen(®) Schmallenberg virus indirect, IDvet Innovative Diagnostics, Montpellier, France). The estimated occurrence of immunogobulin G (IgG) antibodies against SBV in sheep of Portugal was 12.8% (95% confidence interval 11.0-15.0%). This is the first study reporting the presence of SBV antibodies in sheep of Portugal.

  8. 77 FR 2286 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Meeting a. Date and Time of... Hydropower, LLC to discuss potentially moving the powerhouse location for the Brandon Road Project No....

  9. [Shaken Baby Syndrome: fact or fiction in Portugal?].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sandra; Magalhães, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) is an unquestionable and current worldwide problem, as it is considered one of the most severe forms of child abuse, with significant morbidity and mortality among children under one year of age. In Portugal the actual incidence of SBS is still unknown and probably undervalued and underdiagnosed, but international literature reports incidences between 14 and 40.5 per 100.000 children a year in several different countries. It is classically considered SBS to consist of shaking a child repeatedly and violently, inducing a cervical whiplash like movement. Due to the child's development stage, this external force of acceleration/deceleration acting on the head and cervical musculature may cause several lesions, specially subdural, subarachnoid and retinal hemorrhage, and sometimes even bone fractures. However, there is no unanimity concerning this trauma mechanism, especially on the requirement of direct trauma to the head leading to intracranial lesions, since a satisfactory biomechanical model to test it is still lacking. Its diagnosis is controversial, difficult and has important legal and family implications, always adding an emotional element to it, susceptible of withholding the necessary objectivity. In order to substantiate a strong suspicion it is thus mandatory to correlate the clinical history, the physical examination and all the diagnostic auxiliary exams. Consequences may range from mild to fatal, encompassing the child's psychological, cognitive, physical and sensory-motor development, on a short or long term basis. Nevertheless, from a global perspective, its prognosis is almost always poor. So, education and prevention assume primary importance in order to reduce incidence, morbidity and mortality of the SBS. Countries like the U.S.A, Scotland, France, Germany, Switzerland, Canada, Estonia and Japan have long been interested in studying this syndrome's trauma mechanism and incidence, as well as in the development of

  10. Integration of care systems in Portugal: anatomy of recent reforms

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Silvina; Szczygiel, Nina; Redondo, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    Background Integrated care is increasingly present in the agenda of policy-makers, health professionals and researchers as a way to improve care services in relation to access, quality, user satisfaction and efficiency. These are overarching objectives of most sectoral reforms. However, health care and social care services and systems are more and more dependent on the performance of each other, imposing the logic of network. Demographic, epidemiologic and cultural changes result in pressure to increase efficiency and efficacy of services and organisations in both sectors and that is why integrated care has become so relevant in the last years. Methods We first used concept maps to organise and systematise information that we had gathered through deep literature review in order to set a framework where to base the subsequent work. Then, we interviewed informants at several levels of the health and social care systems and we built a list of major recent reforms addressing integrated care in Portugal. In a third step, we conducted two independent focus groups where those reforms were discussed and evaluated within the context of the concepts and frameworks identified from the literature. Results were confronted and reconciled, giving place to a list of requisites and guidelines that oriented further search for documentation on those reforms. Results Several important health reforms are in course in primary and hospital care in Portugal, while a so-called third level of care has been introduced with the launch of the National Network of Long-Term Integrated Care (RNCCI – Rede Nacional de Cuidados Continuados Integrados). The social care sector has itself been a subject of alternative models springing from opposite political orientations. All these changes are having repercussions on the way the systems work with each other as they are leading to ongoing and ill-evaluated reformulations on the way they are governed, financed, structured and operated. Conclusions Care

  11. Prevalence of Late Preterm and Early Term Birth in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Barros, Joana G; Clode, Nuno; Graça, Luís M

    2016-04-01

    Introdução: Nos últimos anos, vários autores evidenciaram a morbilidade associada aos partos ocorridos entre as 34 e 36 semanas (pré-termo tardio) e entre as 37 e 38 semanas de gestação (termo precoce). Neste sentido, pretendemos realizar um estudo epide-miológico dos partos que ocorrem nestas idades gestacionais, em Portugal. Material e Métodos: Realizámos um inquérito, que foi aplicado a todos os hospitais públicos de Portugal, acerca da prevalência e via de parto nos partos pré-termo tardios e de termo precoce, e morbilidade e mortalidade neonatal associada. As questões referiam-se apenas a gestações de feto único e a partos ocorridos em 2013. Resultados: Incluímos 14 hospitais, correspondendo a 33,5% dos partos ocorridos em Portugal, em 2013. Verificámos que 5,4% dos partos ocorreram no período pré-termo tardio e 27% no termo precoce. Aproximadamente dois terços dos partos pré-termo tardio e três quartos dos partos de termo precoce foram espontâneos. A taxa de cesariana foi mais elevada entre as 34 e 36 semanas de gestação (39,1%) do que entre as 37 e 38 semanas (26,4%). As complicações neonatais foram mais frequentes após um parto pré-termo tardio (34,2%), quando comparadas com os de termo precoce (14,2%). Discussão: Na nossa amostra, a prevalência de parto pré-termo tardio e de termo precoce, ainda que ligeiramente inferior, é comparável à publicada em estudos anteriores. Conclusão: Á importante que a comunidade obstétrica nacional adote atitudes no sentido de limitar os partos antes das 39 semanas de gestação. Assim, nestas idades gestacionais os partos devem possuir uma indicação médica válida.

  12. The Ançã limestones, Coimbra, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinta-Ferreira, Mário; Gil Catarino, Lídia; Delgado Rodrigues, José

    2016-04-01

    Ançã is located in the Lusitanian Basin (western Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary basin), in the municipality of Cantanhede, close to Coimbra, Portugal. This constitutes the northernmost Dogger (Bajocian) limestone sequence in Portugal. The use of the Ançã limestones is documented since the Roman occupation of the Iberian Peninsula. It was used for the construction of houses, palaces, churches, fine sculptures, carving, paving and for the production of lime. These limestones vary from white and very soft varieties, with very high porosity used for sculpture and carving to white and hard varieties used for masonry and as aggregates and to white to bluish with low porosity and high strength varieties, mainly used for paving. The softer and whiter variety is worldwide known as Ançã Stone (Pedra de Ançã) exhibiting a porosity of 26-29 %. It became famous after being largely used by Coimbra most famous Renaissance sculptors like João de Ruão and Nicolau de Chanterenne. The Pedra de Ançã was used mainly in the region of Coimbra, but also in several other places in Portugal, in Santiago de Compostela, Spain, and Brazil. Some examples of heritage in Coimbra using the Pedra de Ançã are the renaissance portal of the Saint Cross Church, the tombs of the first two Portuguese kings located in this church, the altar of the Saint Cross Church or of the Old Cathedral, or in sculptures at the University of Coimbra. It is quite prone to deteriorate when exposed to atmospheric agents and to soluble salts, mainly due to its high porosity. Deteriorated surfaces needing treatment constitute difficult conservation problems, especially when consolidation and protection treatments are required. The less porous varieties of the Ançã limestones (< 20 % porosity) were mainly used for masonry, paving and production of lime. The royal Palace of Buçaco is a remarkable masonry building constructed at the end of the XIX century with the less porous varieties of the Ançã limestones

  13. Anisotropic Tomography of Portugal (West Iberia) from ambient seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, Graça; Stutzmann, Éléonore; Schimmel, Martin; Dias, Nuno; Kiselev, Sergey; Custódio, Susana; Dundar, Suleyman

    2016-04-01

    Located on the western Iberian Peninsula, Portugal constitutes a key area for accretionary terrane and basin research, providing the best opportunity to probe a crustal formation shaped by the Paleozoic Variscan orogeny followed by the Mesozoic-Cenozoic extensions. The geology of Portugal documents a protracted history from Paleozoic basement formation to the Mesozoic opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. The inheritance of such complex geologic history is yet to be fully determined, playing an important role in the current geodynamic framework influencing, for example, the observed regional seismicity. The physical properties of its crust have largely remained undetermined so far, with unevenly distributed knowledge on the spatial distributions of a detailed crustal structure. Also, the deep seismic reflection/refraction surveys conducted in Western Iberia do not provide a clear picture of the regional characteristics of the crust. Using Seismic Broad Band observations from a dense temporary deployment, conducted between 2010 and 2012 in the scope of the WILAS project and covering the entire Portuguese mainland, we computed a 3D anisotropic model from ambient seismic noise. The dispersion measurements were computed for each station pair using empirical Green's functions generated by cross-correlating one-day-length seismic ambient-noise records. After dispersion analysis, group velocity measurements were regionalized to obtain 2D anisotropic tomographic images. Afterwards, the dispersion curves, extracted from each cell of the 2D group velocity maps, were inverted as a function of depth to obtain a 3D shear wave anisotropic model, using a bayesian approach. A simulated annealing method, in which the number of splines that describes the model, is adapted within the inversion. The models are jointly interpreted with the models gathered from Ps receiver functions as well as with the regional seismicity, enabling to obtain a more detailed picture of the crustal

  14. [Shaken Baby Syndrome: fact or fiction in Portugal?].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sandra; Magalhães, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) is an unquestionable and current worldwide problem, as it is considered one of the most severe forms of child abuse, with significant morbidity and mortality among children under one year of age. In Portugal the actual incidence of SBS is still unknown and probably undervalued and underdiagnosed, but international literature reports incidences between 14 and 40.5 per 100.000 children a year in several different countries. It is classically considered SBS to consist of shaking a child repeatedly and violently, inducing a cervical whiplash like movement. Due to the child's development stage, this external force of acceleration/deceleration acting on the head and cervical musculature may cause several lesions, specially subdural, subarachnoid and retinal hemorrhage, and sometimes even bone fractures. However, there is no unanimity concerning this trauma mechanism, especially on the requirement of direct trauma to the head leading to intracranial lesions, since a satisfactory biomechanical model to test it is still lacking. Its diagnosis is controversial, difficult and has important legal and family implications, always adding an emotional element to it, susceptible of withholding the necessary objectivity. In order to substantiate a strong suspicion it is thus mandatory to correlate the clinical history, the physical examination and all the diagnostic auxiliary exams. Consequences may range from mild to fatal, encompassing the child's psychological, cognitive, physical and sensory-motor development, on a short or long term basis. Nevertheless, from a global perspective, its prognosis is almost always poor. So, education and prevention assume primary importance in order to reduce incidence, morbidity and mortality of the SBS. Countries like the U.S.A, Scotland, France, Germany, Switzerland, Canada, Estonia and Japan have long been interested in studying this syndrome's trauma mechanism and incidence, as well as in the development of

  15. Multivariate cluster analysis of forest fire events in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, Marj; Pereira, Mario; Vega Orozco, Carmen; Parente, Joana

    2015-04-01

    Portugal is one of the major fire-prone European countries, mainly due to its favourable climatic, topographic and vegetation conditions. Compared to the other Mediterranean countries, the number of events registered here from 1980 up to nowadays is the highest one; likewise, with respect to the burnt area, Portugal is the third most affected country. Portuguese mapped burnt areas are available from the website of the Institute for the Conservation of Nature and Forests (ICNF). This official geodatabase is the result of satellite measurements starting from the year 1990. The spatial information, delivered in shapefile format, provides a detailed description of the shape and the size of area burnt by each fire, while the date/time information relate to the ignition fire is restricted to the year of occurrence. In terms of a statistical formalism wildfires can be associated to a stochastic point process, where events are analysed as a set of geographical coordinates corresponding, for example, to the centroid of each burnt area. The spatio/temporal pattern of stochastic point processes, including the cluster analysis, is a basic procedure to discover predisposing factorsas well as for prevention and forecasting purposes. These kinds of studies are primarily focused on investigating the spatial cluster behaviour of environmental data sequences and/or mapping their distribution at different times. To include both the two dimensions (space and time) a comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis is needful. In the present study authors attempt to verify if, in the case of wildfires in Portugal, space and time act independently or if, conversely, neighbouring events are also closer in time. We present an application of the spatio-temporal K-function to a long dataset (1990-2012) of mapped burnt areas. Moreover, the multivariate K-function allowed checking for an eventual different distribution between small and large fires. The final objective is to elaborate a 3D

  16. Move!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Bronwen

    Designed as a practical guide for teachers, this handbook presents ways of introducing drama and movement into secondary school curricula. A basic program for a movement class is offered, based on three objectives: one's own movement, secondary or underlying motives, and the balance of freedom and discipline. In the first section of the book,…

  17. SEEDS Moving Group Status Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElwain, Michael

    2011-01-01

    I will summarize the current status of the SEEDS Moving Group category and describe the importance of this sub-sample for the entire SEEDS survey. This presentation will include analysis of the sensitivity for the Moving Groups with general a comparison to other the other sub-categories. I will discuss the future impact of the Subaru SCExAO system for these targets and the advantage of using a specialized integral field spectrograph. Finally, I will present the impact of a pupil grid mask in order to produce fiducial spots in the focal plane that can be used for both photometry and astrometry.

  18. Matters on a Moving Brane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koivisto, Tomi Sebastian; Wills, Danielle Elizabeth

    2013-10-01

    A novel generalization of the Dirac-Born-Infeld string scenario is described. It is shown that matter residing on the moving brane is dark and has the so-called disformal coupling to gravity. This gives rise to cosmologies where dark matter stems from the oscillations of the open strings along the brane and the transverse oscillations result in dark energy. Furthermore, due to a new screening mechanism that conceals the fifth force from local experiments, one may even entertain the possibility that the visible sector is also moving along the extra dimensions.

  19. Indoor and outdoor suspended particulate matter and associated carbonaceous species at residential homes in northwestern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Custódio, Danilo; Pinho, Isabel; Cerqueira, Mário; Nunes, Teresa; Pio, Casimiro

    2014-03-01

    Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter equal to or less than 10 μm (PM10), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations were measured simultaneously in the indoor and outdoor air of 4 residences located in urban and sub-urban areas in northwestern Portugal. The residences were studied with occupants. One residence was also studied without any indoor activity, taking advantage of the fact that the occupants had moved into a new home. First, 48-h aerosol samples were collected on quartz fiber filters with low-volume samplers equipped with size selective inlets. The filters were weighed and then analyzed for OC and EC using a thermal-optical transmittance method. The average indoor and outdoor PM10 concentrations in the occupied residences were 71.9 ± 38.3 μg/m(3) and 54.0 ± 13.3 μg/m(3), respectively. Despite the higher concentration of PM10 indoors, outdoor sources were found to be a significant contributor to indoor concentrations. An estimate based on data from the residence studied under different occupancy conditions indicated that outdoor sources can account for 68% of the indoor PM10 mass concentration. Average indoor to outdoor (I/O) ratios for OC ranged from 1.7 to 5.6 in occupied residences, showing that indoor sources, such as cooking, smoking, biomass burning and movement of people, strongly influenced indoor OC concentrations. In contrast, I/O ratios for EC were close to 1, except for a smokers' residence, suggesting that indoor concentrations were mainly controlled by outdoor sources, most likely from vehicular emissions and biomass burning.

  20. SEEDS Moving Groups and CHARIS Status Updates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElwain, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We present the status update for the SEEDS Moving Groups category. To date, we have observed 59 targets and currently have more than 20 candidates. We also present the expected scientific capabilities of CHARIS, the Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph, which is being built for the Subaru 8.2 m telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. CHARIS will be implemented behind the new extreme adaptive optics system at Subaru, SCExAO, and the existing 188-actuator system AO188. CHARIS will offer three observing modes over nearinfrared wavelengths from 0.9 to 2.4 microns (the y-, J-, H-, and K-bands), including a low-spectral-resolution mode covering this entire wavelength range and a high-resolution mode within a single band. With these capabilities, CHARIS will offer exceptional sensitivity for discovering giant exoplanets, and will enable detailed characterization of their atmospheres, CHARIS, the only planned high-contrast integral field spectrograph on an 8m-class telescope in the Northern Hemisphere, will complement the similar instruments such as Project 1640 at Palomar, and GPI and SPHERE in Chile.

  1. Study of organic honey from the Northeast Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Teresa; Feás, Xesús; Iglesias, Antonio; Estevinho, Leticia M

    2011-06-27

    Concerns about traces of numerous toxic substances and authenticity have prompted consumer demand for honey that is certified as organic, based on strict ecological, natural principles and traceability. The present study aims to characterize organic honey samples (n = 73) from Northeast Portugal, with respect to floral nectar origin, physicochemical parameters and microbial safety. The phenols and flavonoids contents, often referred to as responsible for honey's bioactive properties, were also assessed. All organic honey samples were classified as monofloral lavender (Lavandula sp.), exceeded in quality the international physicochemical standards and showed low microbiological counts (yeast, moulds and aerobic mesophiles), with negative results in respect to fecal coliforms, Salmonella and sulphite-reducing Clostridium spp. Correlation of the palynological, physicochemical and microbiological results is necessary to check the authenticity, quality and sanitation of honey. Although not required by international legislation, results of those assessments provide a complete outlook and elucidation of the organic honey's properties, which could promote its valorisation.

  2. Conservation and sustainability in freshwater ecosystems in Tavira (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Esmeralda; Fonseca, José; Lopes, Luís; João Costa, Maria; Cunha, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    This interdisciplinary project carried out with 8th and 9th grade students involved five teachers from three different subjects (Physics and Chemistry, Natural Science and Geography). Framed in the Water Framework Directive, it aimed at verifying the ecological quality of water in two rivers in the municipality of Tavira (South Portugal). The development of this project has been structured in accordance with the following objectives: evaluate the quality of freshwater ecosystems through the existence of certain living organisms; present proposals on ways to preserve water resources in a sustainable perspective; sensitize students to the importance of their participation in collective action by volunteering for ecological protection. This is an innovative educational experience that allowed students an integrated approach to content and procedures applied to real problems in their local environment.

  3. Comparing Consumer Resistance to Mobile Banking in Finland and Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laukkanen, Tommi; Cruz, Pedro

    This study compares two distinct European countries namely Finland and Portugal in terms of consumer resistance to mobile banking services. We explored how the five adoption barriers namely usage, value, risk, tradition and image, derived from the earlier literature, differ between these two countries. Using an Internet questionnaire a total of 3.597 usable responses was collected. A confirmatory factor analysis was implemented with SEM to build the constructs’ latent score levels. Using non-parametric difference tests we concluded that the resistance is significantly lower among the Portuguese online bank customers in terms of four out of the five barriers. The results can be used for a better understanding and enhancement of adoption of this specific case of mobile communication.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Northern epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Northern epilepsy Northern epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Northern epilepsy is a genetic condition that causes recurrent seizures ( ...

  5. Southward Migration Season: New Arab Teachers from North Move to Southern Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz-Oppenheimer, Orna

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses intercultural differences among novice teachers (K-12) who graduated Arab academic teachers' colleges and lived in northern and central Israel before moving south to teach in Israel's Bedouin diaspora. The source material consists of stories they entered in a contest, describing the personal and professional aspects of their…

  6. Will new gender policies stop the decrease of women physicists in Portugal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Carla Carmelo; Peña, Maria Teresa; Saavedra, Luisa; Providência, Constança

    2013-03-01

    The present context of women physicists in Portugal is discussed, updating our report for the 2002 IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, in which the 30 years prior to 2000 were analyzed.

  7. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lusitanian Basin Province, Portugal, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Paxton, Stanley T.

    2016-11-04

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 121 million barrels of oil and 212 billion cubic feet of gas in the Lusitanian Basin Province, Portugal.

  8. Influence of meteorological conditions on RSV infection in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira-Santos, M.; Santos, J. A.; Soares, J.; Dias, A.; Quaresma, M.

    2016-04-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis is a common cause for infant hospital admissions. Of all etiological agents, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is commonly the most frequent. The present study assesses relationships between atmospheric factors and RSV infections in under 3-year-old patients admitted to the Inpatient Paediatric Service of Vila Real (North of Portugal). For this purpose, (1) clinical files of children admitted with a diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis from September 2005 to December 2015 (>10 years) were scrutinised and (2) local daily temperature/precipitation series, as well as six weather types controlling meteorological conditions in Portugal, were used. Fifty-five percent of all 770 admitted children were effectively infected with a given virus, whilst 48 % (367) were RSV+, i.e. 87 % of virus-infected children were RSV+. The bulk of incidence is verified in the first year of age (82 %, 302), slightly higher in males. RSV outbreaks are typically from December to March, but important inter-annual variability is found in both magnitude and shape. Although no clear connections were found between monthly temperatures/precipitation and RSV outbreaks apart from seasonality, a linkage to wintertime cold spells is apparent on a daily basis. Anomalously low minimum temperatures from the day of admittance back to 10 days before are observed. This relationship is supported by anomalously high occurrences of the E and AA weather types over the same period, which usually trigger dry and cold weather. These findings highlight some predictability in the RSV occurrences, revealing potential for modelling and risk assessments.

  9. Linguistic isolates in Portugal: insights from the mitochondrial DNA pattern.

    PubMed

    Mairal, Quim; Santos, Cristina; Silva, Marina; Marques, Sofia L; Ramos, Amanda; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Amorim, Antonio; Prata, Maria João; Alvarez, Luis

    2013-12-01

    Miranda do Douro, located in the northeastern region of Portugal, has notable characteristics not only from a geographic or naturalistic point of view, but also from a cultural perspective. A remarkable one is the coexistence of two different languages: Portuguese and Mirandese, the second being an Astur-Leonese dialect. The current persistence of the Astur-Leonese dialect in this population falls on the singularity of the region: relative isolation, implying difficulties to communicate with other Portuguese regions, while the same location facilitated the establishment of social and commercial relationships with adjacent Spanish territories, origin of the Astur-Leonese language. The objective of this study was to characterize the population from Miranda through the analysis of maternal lineages in order to evaluate whether its mitochondrial DNA diversity fitted the patterns previously reported for other populations from the Iberian Peninsula. Viewing that, the entire control region of mitochondrial DNA from 121 individuals was examined. Miranda showed a haplogroup composition usual for a Western European population, in the sense that as high as 63.6% of sequences belonged to macro-haplogroup R0. Lineages ascribed to have an African (L2a and L1b) origin, were detected, but reaching an amount commonly found in Portugal. Miranda also presented a few haplogroups typically found in Jewish populations, while rarely observed in other Iberian populations. The finding can be explained by gene flow with crypto-Jew communities that since long are known to be established in the region where Miranda is located. In Miranda, both genetic and nucleotide diversities presented low values (0.9292 ± 0.0180 and 0.01101 ± 0.00614 respectively) when compared to populations from its micro-geographical framework, which constitute a sign of population isolation that certainly provided conditions for the survival of the Astur-Leonese dialect in the region. PMID:24041913

  10. Spatio-temporal clustering of wildfires in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, R.; Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Vega Orozco, C.; Kanevski, M.

    2012-04-01

    Several studies have shown that wildfires in Portugal presenthigh temporal as well as high spatial variability (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). The identification and characterization of spatio-temporal clusters contributes to a comprehensivecharacterization of the fire regime and to improve the efficiency of fire prevention and combat activities. The main goalsin this studyare: (i) to detect the spatio-temporal clusters of burned area; and, (ii) to characterize these clusters along with the role of human and environmental factors. The data were supplied by the National Forest Authority(AFN, 2011) and comprises: (a)the Portuguese Rural Fire Database, PRFD, (Pereira et al., 2011) for the 1980-2007period; and, (b) the national mapping burned areas between 1990 and 2009. In this work, in order to complement the more common cluster analysis algorithms, an alternative approach based onscan statistics and on the permutation modelwas used. This statistical methodallows the detection of local excess events and to test if such an excess can reasonably have occurred by chance.Results obtained for different simulations performed for different spatial and temporal windows are presented, compared and interpreted.The influence of several fire factors such as (climate, vegetation type, etc.) is also assessed. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005:"Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal".Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 AFN, 2011: AutoridadeFlorestalNacional (National Forest Authority). Available at http://www.afn.min-agricultura.pt/portal.

  11. Parasite communities in stray cat populations from Lisbon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Waap, H; Gomes, J; Nunes, T

    2014-12-01

    Stray cats live in high-density colonies in urban areas and pose a health hazard to household cats and humans. In Portugal, information on the parasitic fauna of stray cats is limited and relies mostly on results from faecal analysis. The present survey aimed to determine the prevalence, diversity and intensity of parasites in stray cats from the urban area of Lisbon by means of parasitological necropsy. Internal organs were collected from 162 cats captured in different areas of the city and systematically subjected to parasitological dissection. Helminths were identified by macro- and microscopic examination and protozoa by faecal floatation and sedimentation techniques. The overall prevalence of parasites was 90.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85.3-94.6%). A total of 12 parasite species was recorded: Cystoisospora felis (14.2%), Cystoisospora rivolta (46.3%), Sarcocystis sp. (1.2%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (19.1%), Toxocara cati (38.3%), Ollulanus tricuspis (30.9%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (12.4%), Eucoleus aerophilus (0.6%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3.1%), Dipylidium caninum (53.1%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei (15.4%) and Diplopylidium nölleri (3.7%). Overall mean species richness was 2.36 ±  1.52. Helminth mean intensity was highest for O. tricuspis (285.8), followed by D. caninum (42.4), J. pasqualei (14.4), A. tubaeforme (8.1) and T. cati (5.9). The prevalence and variety of parasites found in our sampling are substantially higher than the numbers previously reported in Portugal. Some of the parasites, including T. cati and A. tubaeforme, are zoonotic, which emphasizes the need for parasite control strategies based on demographic containment of stray cat populations in urban areas to promote public health protection.

  12. Tsunami flooding along Tagus estuary, Portugal, the 1531 event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.; Batlo, J.; Ferreira, H.

    2012-04-01

    TSUNAMI FLOODING ALONG TAGUS ESTUARY (PORTUGAL), THE 1531 EVENT The city of Lisbon one of the main towns in Europe between the XVI and XVIII centuries was severely damaged by two strong earthquakes: 1531-01-26 and 1755-11-01 and the companion tsunamis. In this study we present a re-evaluation of the data available for this event. The 26 January 1531 earthquake occurred between 4 and 5 am and was felt mainly in Lisbon and surroundings dwellings along the Tagus river estuary. The shock heavily destroyed Lisbon downtown causing approximately 1000 casualties Two foreshocks preceded the event: on the 2nd and the 7th January 1531, respectively. The maximum MSK intensity is IX, making it one of the most disastrous earthquakes in the recent history of Portugal. The historical descriptions clearly describe the observation of high waves and the ships touching the riverbed. Although, the difference between tsunamis and storms is sometimes unclear in some historical documents, in this case, the occurrence of the of the earthquake definitively states clearly excludes the hypothesis of a storm. Moreover, the king's chronicle clearly states the observation of high waves and the lack of wind. Other reports consistent with the occurrence of a tsunami are the observation of strong fluxes and refluxes in the river the division of islands into smaller ones and the observation of the riverbed. In this study we present a re-appraisal of the historical information available, a new isoseismal map and the relocation of the epicentre. Finally, we present a tsunami simulation and propagation along a section of 70 km along Tagus estuary compatible with the earthquake data and the historical accounts.

  13. Seasonal drought predictability in Portugal using statistical-dynamical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, A. F. S.; Pires, C. A. L.

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric forecasting and predictability are important to promote adaption and mitigation measures in order to minimize drought impacts. This study estimates hybrid (statistical-dynamical) long-range forecasts of the regional drought index SPI (3-months) over homogeneous regions from mainland Portugal, based on forecasts from the UKMO operational forecasting system, with lead-times up to 6 months. ERA-Interim reanalysis data is used for the purpose of building a set of SPI predictors integrating recent past information prior to the forecast launching. Then, the advantage of combining predictors with both dynamical and statistical background in the prediction of drought conditions at different lags is evaluated. A two-step hybridization procedure is performed, in which both forecasted and observed 500 hPa geopotential height fields are subjected to a PCA in order to use forecasted PCs and persistent PCs as predictors. A second hybridization step consists on a statistical/hybrid downscaling to the regional SPI, based on regression techniques, after the pre-selection of the statistically significant predictors. The SPI forecasts and the added value of combining dynamical and statistical methods are evaluated in cross-validation mode, using the R2 and binary event scores. Results are obtained for the four seasons and it was found that winter is the most predictable season, and that most of the predictive power is on the large-scale fields from past observations. The hybridization improves the downscaling based on the forecasted PCs, since they provide complementary information (though modest) beyond that of persistent PCs. These findings provide clues about the predictability of the SPI, particularly in Portugal, and may contribute to the predictability of crops yields and to some guidance on users (such as farmers) decision making process.

  14. Thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children in Spain and Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Nñnez, A. Rodríguez; Fonte, M.; Faustino, E.V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although critically ill children may be at risk from developing deep venous thrombosis (DVT), data on its incidence and effectiveness of thromboprophylaxis are lacking. Objective To describe the use of thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children in Spain and Portugal, and to compare the results with international data. Material and methods Secondary analysis of the multinational study PROTRACT, carried out in 59 PICUs from 7 developed countries (4 from Portugal and 6 in Spain). Data were collected from patients less than 18 years old, who did not receive therapeutic thromboprophylaxis. Results A total of 308 patients in Spanish and Portuguese (Iberian) PICUS were compared with 2176 admitted to international PICUs. Risk factors such as femoral vein (P = .01), jugular vein central catheter (P < .001), cancer (P = .03), and sepsis (P < .001), were more frequent in Iberian PICUs. The percentage of patients with pharmacological thromboprophylaxis was similar in both groups (15.3% vs. 12.0%). Low molecular weight heparin was used more frequently in Iberian patients (P < .001). In treated children, prior history of thrombosis (P = .02), femoral vein catheter (P < .001), cancer (P = .02) and cranial trauma or craniectomy (P = .006), were more frequent in Iberian PICUs. Mechanical thromboprophylaxis was used in only 6.8% of candidates in Iberian PICUs, compared with 23.8% in the international PICUs (P < .001). Conclusions Despite the presence of risk factors for DVT in many patients, thromboprophylaxis is rarely prescribed, with low molecular weight heparin being the most used drug. Passive thromboprophylaxis use is anecdotal. There should be a consensus on guidelines of thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children. PMID:24907863

  15. Experimental Introduction to Moving Bodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lars Ostrup; Justesen, Uffe

    1996-01-01

    Presents a simple experiment--a marble rolling on a tilted desk--to introduce students to moving bodies. Makes difficult subjects such as measurement, calculus, modeling, and uncertainty easier to identify by putting them into a simple context. Discusses misconceptions, models, and measurements. (JRH)

  16. Raw eggs-moving target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, Doug

    1999-09-01

    High school physics students often have difficulty with understanding when and where to use an appropriate calculation to solve a problem. In this activity students have to solve a real problem using formulas they have seen before, but in a context with which they are unfamiliar; namely dropping a raw egg on a moving target-their instructor.

  17. Constructing a Moving Cube Illusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corey, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the construction of a classroom demonstration of the moving cube illusion. Gives details for building this three-dimensional figure that appears to be a solid cube but is actually a hollow figure. Suggests ways in which this display may be used in the classroom or as a permanent exhibit. (KO)

  18. Hurricane Irene on the Move

    NASA Video Gallery

    GOES-13 satellite imagery in 15 minute intervals from August 25, 2011, at 9:40 a.m. EDT to August 27 at 9:40 a.m. EDT. The animations show Hurricane Irene moving through the Bahamas and making land...

  19. Moving with mediocrity and excellence.

    PubMed

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt

    2014-10-01

    Through the use of story, this article explores the notion of moving with mediocrity and excellence. Insights gleaned from the stories presented are identified for nursing and healthcare. Parse's humanbecoming community change model and family model are utilized as the perspectives for developing a deeper understanding of mediocrity and excellence.

  20. Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Emily L C; Ross, Andrew N; Portugal, Steven J

    2016-09-26

    One of the defining features of the aerial environment is its variability; air is almost never still. This has profound consequences for flying animals, affecting their flight stability, speed selection, energy expenditure and choice of flight path. All these factors have important implications for the ecology of flying animals, and the ecosystems they interact with, as well as providing bio-inspiration for the development of unmanned aerial vehicles. In this introduction, we touch on the factors that drive the variability in airflows, the scales of variability and the degree to which given airflows may be predictable. We then summarize how papers in this volume advance our understanding of the sensory, biomechanical, physiological and behavioural responses of animals to air flows. Overall, this provides insight into how flying animals can be so successful in this most fickle of environments.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'.

  1. Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Emily L C; Ross, Andrew N; Portugal, Steven J

    2016-09-26

    One of the defining features of the aerial environment is its variability; air is almost never still. This has profound consequences for flying animals, affecting their flight stability, speed selection, energy expenditure and choice of flight path. All these factors have important implications for the ecology of flying animals, and the ecosystems they interact with, as well as providing bio-inspiration for the development of unmanned aerial vehicles. In this introduction, we touch on the factors that drive the variability in airflows, the scales of variability and the degree to which given airflows may be predictable. We then summarize how papers in this volume advance our understanding of the sensory, biomechanical, physiological and behavioural responses of animals to air flows. Overall, this provides insight into how flying animals can be so successful in this most fickle of environments.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. PMID:27528772

  2. Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Emily L. C.; Portugal, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the defining features of the aerial environment is its variability; air is almost never still. This has profound consequences for flying animals, affecting their flight stability, speed selection, energy expenditure and choice of flight path. All these factors have important implications for the ecology of flying animals, and the ecosystems they interact with, as well as providing bio-inspiration for the development of unmanned aerial vehicles. In this introduction, we touch on the factors that drive the variability in airflows, the scales of variability and the degree to which given airflows may be predictable. We then summarize how papers in this volume advance our understanding of the sensory, biomechanical, physiological and behavioural responses of animals to air flows. Overall, this provides insight into how flying animals can be so successful in this most fickle of environments. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight’. PMID:27528772

  3. The moving plate capacitor paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, B. R.; Abbott, D.; Parrondo, J. M. R.

    2000-03-01

    For the first time we describe an apparent paradox concerning a moving plate capacitor driven by thermal noise from a resistor. A demon restores the plates of the capacitor to their original position, only when the voltage across the capacitor is small—hence only small forces are present for the demon to work against. The demon has to work harder than this to avoid the situation of perpetual motion, but the question is how? We explore the concept of a moving plate capacitor, driven by noise, a step further by examining the case where the restoring force on the capacitor plates is provided by a simple spring, rather than some unknown demon. We display simulation results with interesting behavior, particularly where the capacitor plates collide with each other.

  4. Coupling device for moving vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudmann, A. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A mechanical system is disclosed to capture and/or deploy a device or vehicle having relative motion with respect to another vehicle. The mechanism includes an onboard controlled collapsible iris assembly located at the end of a controlled manipulator system carried by one moving vehicle. The iris assembly by means of the manipulator system encircles a probe located on the other moving vehicle whereupon the iris assembly is activated and one or more iris elements close around the probe, thus capturing, and axially aligning the other vehicle with the iris assembly. Additionally, a rotator assembly is included for spinning the iris assembly in a manner adapted to engage the probe of a spinning vehicle. Deployment of the other vehicle is accomplished by reversing the capture procedure.

  5. Moving past sleight of hand.

    PubMed

    Mintken, Paul E; Derosa, Carl; Little, Tamara; Smith, Britt

    2010-05-01

    Medical care historically has had a strong association with magic, illusion, and secrecy. Although we profess to be modern healthcare practitioners, utilizing manual therapy techniques, and strive for evidence-based practice, the reality is that one of the most ubiquitous of all manual therapy techniques, manipulation, is obscured by illusive and ill-defined terminology. As a first step in moving from magician to modern clinician, we recently proposed a nomenclature intended to standardize and clarify the terminology used in describing specific manual therapy techniques, recommending the use of 6 key characteristics. The persistent obfuscations appear to be aimed at obscuring the differentiation of manipulation from mobilization. The time has come for a more precise delineation between manipulation and mobilization and to move beyond seeing these valuable interventions simply as some sleight-of-hand technique.J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2010;40(5):253-255. doi:10.2519/jospt.2010.0105.

  6. The moving mesh code SHADOWFAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbroucke, B.; De Rijcke, S.

    2016-07-01

    We introduce the moving mesh code SHADOWFAX, which can be used to evolve a mixture of gas, subject to the laws of hydrodynamics and gravity, and any collisionless fluid only subject to gravity, such as cold dark matter or stars. The code is written in C++ and its source code is made available to the scientific community under the GNU Affero General Public Licence. We outline the algorithm and the design of our implementation, and demonstrate its validity through the results of a set of basic test problems, which are also part of the public version. We also compare SHADOWFAX with a number of other publicly available codes using different hydrodynamical integration schemes, illustrating the advantages and disadvantages of the moving mesh technique.

  7. Moved by a Rapid Transit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueter, C.

    2013-04-01

    Enticing by virtue of its predictability, historical utility, and spectacle, the transit of Venus is a niche event among astronomical phenomena. Though the value of a transit for scientific purposes is now diminished, the brief appearance of Venus silhouetted against the background of the Sun in 2004 moved the artistic community to celebrate the rare alignment. Artists of all ages combined old traditions with fresh technology to create a 21st-century tapestry of music, sculpture, paintings, glasswork, quilts, sky shows, and digital imagery. A full catalog of transit-related art generated over the centuries would feature the sampling of entries presented here and at the Moved by a Rapid Transit website.

  8. Nitrogen oxides and ozone in Portugal: trends and ozone estimation in an urban and a rural site.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Guisuraga, José Manuel; Castro, Amaya; Alves, Célia; Calvo, Ana; Alonso-Blanco, Elisabeth; Blanco-Alegre, Carlos; Rocha, Alfredo; Fraile, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    This study provides an analysis of the spatial distribution and trends of NO, NO2 and O3 concentrations in Portugal between 1995 and 2010. Furthermore, an estimation model for daily ozone concentrations was developed for an urban and a rural site. NO concentration showed a significant decreasing trend in most urban stations. A decreasing trend in NO2 is only observed in the stations with less influence from emissions of primary NO2. Several stations showed a significant upward trend in O3 as a result of the decrease in the NO/NO2 ratio. In the northern rural region, ozone showed a strong correlation with wind direction, highlighting the importance of long-range transport. In the urban site, most of the variance is explained by the NO2/NOX ratio. The results obtained by the ozone estimation model in the urban site fit 2013 observed data. In the rural site, the estimated ozone during extreme events agrees with observed concentration. PMID:27215985

  9. Nitrogen oxides and ozone in Portugal: trends and ozone estimation in an urban and a rural site.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Guisuraga, José Manuel; Castro, Amaya; Alves, Célia; Calvo, Ana; Alonso-Blanco, Elisabeth; Blanco-Alegre, Carlos; Rocha, Alfredo; Fraile, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    This study provides an analysis of the spatial distribution and trends of NO, NO2 and O3 concentrations in Portugal between 1995 and 2010. Furthermore, an estimation model for daily ozone concentrations was developed for an urban and a rural site. NO concentration showed a significant decreasing trend in most urban stations. A decreasing trend in NO2 is only observed in the stations with less influence from emissions of primary NO2. Several stations showed a significant upward trend in O3 as a result of the decrease in the NO/NO2 ratio. In the northern rural region, ozone showed a strong correlation with wind direction, highlighting the importance of long-range transport. In the urban site, most of the variance is explained by the NO2/NOX ratio. The results obtained by the ozone estimation model in the urban site fit 2013 observed data. In the rural site, the estimated ozone during extreme events agrees with observed concentration.

  10. Early Childhood Education and Care Policy in Portugal = A Educacao Pre-Escolar e os Cuidados para a Infancia em Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education, Lisbon (Portugal).

    Based on the view that the rapid expansion and development of preschool education requires careful scrutiny of both educational policy and practices, this book presents information on current early childhood education and care policy in Portugal. Section 1 of the book provides a historical framework for the development of early childhood education…

  11. Salt Fluxes in a Complex River Mouth System of Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Nuno; Lencart e Silva, João D.; Dias, João Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of velocity and salinity near the mouth and head of the Espinheiro channel (Ria de Aveiro lagoon, Portugal) are used to study the local variation of physical water properties and to assess the balance, under steady conditions, between the seaward salt transport induced by river discharge and the landward dispersion induced by various mixing mechanisms. This assessment is made using data sampled during complete tidal cycles. Under the assumption that the estuarine tidal channel is laterally homogeneous and during moderate tidal periods (except for one survey), currents and salinity data were decomposed into various spatial and temporal means and their deviations. Near the channel's mouth, the main contributions to the salt transport are the terms due to freshwater discharge and the tidal correlation. Near the channel's head, this last term is less important than the density driven circulation, which is enhanced by the increase in freshwater discharge. The remaining terms, which are dependent on the deviations from the mean depth have a smaller role in the results of salt transport. The computed salt transport per unit width of a section perpendicular to the mean flow is in close agreement to the sum of the advective and dispersive terms (within or very close to 12%). An imbalance of the salt budget across the sections is observed for all the surveys. Considerations are made on how this approach can inform the management of hazardous contamination and how to use these results to best time the release of environmental flows during dry months. PMID:23071793

  12. Burkholderia pseudomallei: First case of melioidosis in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pelerito, Ana; Nunes, Alexandra; Coelho, Susana; Piedade, Cátia; Paixão, Paulo; Cordeiro, Rita; Sampaio, Daniel; Vieira, Luís; Gomes, João Paulo; Núncio, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacillus and the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious infection associated with high mortality rate in humans. It can be naturally found as an environmental saprophyte in soil or stagnant water, and rice paddies that predominate in regions of endemicity such as Northeast Thailand. B. pseudomallei is a Biosafety Level 3 organism due to risks of aerosolization and severe disease and is now included in formal emergency preparedness plans and guidelines issued by various authorities in the United States and Europe. Here, we report the first case of imported melioidosis in Portugal. B. pseudomallei was isolated from the patient's blood as well as from a left gluteal abscess pus. The isolate strain showed the unusual resistance profile to first-line eradication therapy trimethroprim/sulfamethoxazole. Whole genome sequencing revealed its similarity with isolates from Southeast Asia, suggesting the Thai origin of this Portuguese isolate, which is in agreement with a recent patient's travel to Thailand. PMID:26962474

  13. The Great Recession in Portugal: impact on hospital care use.

    PubMed

    Perelman, Julian; Felix, Sónia; Santana, Rui

    2015-03-01

    The Great Recession started in Portugal in 2009, coupled with severe austerity. This study examines its impact on hospital care utilization, interpreted as caused by demand-side effects (related to variations in population income and health) and supply-side effects (related to hospitals' tighter budgets and reduced capacity). The database included all in-patient stays at all Portuguese NHS hospitals over the 2001-2012 period (n=17.7 millions). We analyzed changes in discharge rates, casemix index, and length of stay (LOS), using a before-after methodology. We additionally measured the association of health care indicators to unemployment. A 3.2% higher rate of discharges was observed after 2009. Urgent stays increased by 2.5%, while elective in-patient stays decreased by 1.4% after 2011. The LOS was 2.8% shorter after the crisis onset, essentially driven by the 4.5% decrease among non-elective stays. A one percentage point increase in unemployment rate was associated to a 0.4% increase in total volume, a 2.3% decrease in day cases, and a 0.1% decrease in LOS. The increase in total and urgent cases may reflect delayed out-patient care and health deterioration; the reduced volume of elective stays possibly signal a reduced capacity; finally, the shorter stays may indicate either efficiency-enhancing measures or reduced quality.

  14. Exploratory study of air quality in elementary schools, Coimbra, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana Maria Conceição; Cardoso, Salvador Massano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the air quality in elementary schools and their structural and functional conditions. METHODS Air quality in 51 elementary schools (81 classrooms) in the city of Coimbra, Portugal, both inside and outside of the rooms was evaluated during the four seasons, from 2010 to 2011. Temperature (T°), relative humidity (Hr), concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), compounds were evaluated, as were volatile organics (VOC), formaldehyde and particulate matter (PM10), from November 2010 to February 2011 (autumn/winter) and March 2011 to June 2011 (spring/summer). A grid characterizing the structural and functional conditions of the schools was created. The statistical Student t test for paired samples and the Wilcoxon t test were applied. RESULTS In 47 schools, the average CO2concentrations were above the maximum reference concentration (984 ppm) mentioned in Portuguese legislation. The maximum concentration values found inside the rooms were critical, especially in the fall/winter (5,320 ppm). In some schools the average concentrations of VOC and PM10within the maximum concentration exceeded the reference legislated. The values (risk) of CO, formaldehyde, NO2, SO2and O3detected were not relevant. CONCLUSIONS There was a higher concentration of pollutants inside the rooms compared with outside. Inadequate ventilation is associated with high CO2concentration in the classroom. PMID:24626544

  15. [A sociography of elderly victims of family violence in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Gil, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana João; Kislaya, Irina; Santos, César; Mascoli, Luísa; Ferreira, Alexandra Inácio; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2015-06-01

    This article presents data on violence against persons aged 60 years or older and living in Portugal for at least 12 months. The cross-sectional descriptive study collected data with a face-to-face questionnaire applied to victims that had sought assistance at three government institutions and one non-governmental support service for victims. The non-probabilistic sample included 510 victims of violence in family settings. Physical and psychological violence were the most common (87.8% and 69.6%, respectively). Financial violence was reported by 47.5% of the victims, followed by sexual assault (7.5%) and neglect (6.5%). The majority of victims (74.1%) reported more than one type of violence. Victims were mostly women, and mean age was 70.7 years. Most of the perpetrators belonged to the nuclear family, namely spouses or partners, sons/sons-in-law, and daughters/daughters-in-law. However, differences were observed according to victim's gender. The results indicate that violence is not a uniform phenomenon, presenting different configurations. PMID:26200371

  16. Perspectives on contemporary history of science in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Simões, Ana; Carneiro, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula

    2008-01-01

    The task of writing about historiography of science in a European periphery such as Portugal is particularly difficult due to the unavailability of a systematic inventory of sources for the history of science. In this paper we select a group of 20th-century sources, having in view the extended timeline available to the sorts of questions which can be posed to the historical material. We opted to analyze representative probes for four different categories of sources: a journal (1937-1951); the proceedings of a congress organized in the context of a commemorative event (1940); the works of two historians of science (1950s onward); and finally commemorative volumes celebrating the anniversary of the Academy of Sciences of Lisbon (1986, 1992). Besides briefly describing authors' profiles, professional backgrounds, historical periods and scientific areas covered, we discuss the type of historical account produced. We conclude with a brief overview of the state of the discipline in the past fifteen years bearing in mind historiographical orientations.

  17. Anaplasma marginale and Theileria annulata in questing ticks from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Antunes, S; Ferrolho, J; Domingues, N; Santos, A S; Santos-Silva, M M; Domingos, A

    2016-09-01

    Ticks are ubiquitous arthropods and vectors of several pathogenic agents in animals and humans. Monitoring questing ticks is of great importance to ascertain the occurrence of pathogens and the potential vector species, offering an insight into the risk of disease transmission in a given area. In this study 428 host-seeking ticks, belonging to nine species of Ixodidae and collected from 17 of the 23 Portuguese mainland subregions, were screened for several tick-borne agents with veterinary relevance: Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma ovis, Anaplasma centrale, Babesia spp., Coxiella burnetii and Theileria spp. Prevalence was assessed by PCR and amplified amplicons sequenced for validation of results. Twenty ticks, in a total of 428, were found positive: one Ixodes ventalloi for Theileria annulata and four Dermacentor marginatus, one Haemaphysalis punctata, five Ixodes ricinus, five I. ventalloi, and four Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato for A. marginale. According to the reviewed literature, this is the first report of A. marginale and T. annulata detection in I. ventalloi. Furthermore, the amplification of A. marginale DNA in several tick species suggests a broad range for this agent in Portugal that might include other uncommon species as R. sanguineus s.l. This work provides new data towards a better understanding of tick-pathogen associations and also contributes to the surveillance of tick-borne agents in geographic areas with limited information. PMID:27394441

  18. The Great Recession in Portugal: impact on hospital care use.

    PubMed

    Perelman, Julian; Felix, Sónia; Santana, Rui

    2015-03-01

    The Great Recession started in Portugal in 2009, coupled with severe austerity. This study examines its impact on hospital care utilization, interpreted as caused by demand-side effects (related to variations in population income and health) and supply-side effects (related to hospitals' tighter budgets and reduced capacity). The database included all in-patient stays at all Portuguese NHS hospitals over the 2001-2012 period (n=17.7 millions). We analyzed changes in discharge rates, casemix index, and length of stay (LOS), using a before-after methodology. We additionally measured the association of health care indicators to unemployment. A 3.2% higher rate of discharges was observed after 2009. Urgent stays increased by 2.5%, while elective in-patient stays decreased by 1.4% after 2011. The LOS was 2.8% shorter after the crisis onset, essentially driven by the 4.5% decrease among non-elective stays. A one percentage point increase in unemployment rate was associated to a 0.4% increase in total volume, a 2.3% decrease in day cases, and a 0.1% decrease in LOS. The increase in total and urgent cases may reflect delayed out-patient care and health deterioration; the reduced volume of elective stays possibly signal a reduced capacity; finally, the shorter stays may indicate either efficiency-enhancing measures or reduced quality. PMID:25583679

  19. Burkholderia pseudomallei: First case of melioidosis in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Pelerito, Ana; Nunes, Alexandra; Coelho, Susana; Piedade, Cátia; Paixão, Paulo; Cordeiro, Rita; Sampaio, Daniel; Vieira, Luís; Gomes, João Paulo; Núncio, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacillus and the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious infection associated with high mortality rate in humans. It can be naturally found as an environmental saprophyte in soil or stagnant water, and rice paddies that predominate in regions of endemicity such as Northeast Thailand. B. pseudomallei is a Biosafety Level 3 organism due to risks of aerosolization and severe disease and is now included in formal emergency preparedness plans and guidelines issued by various authorities in the United States and Europe. Here, we report the first case of imported melioidosis in Portugal. B. pseudomallei was isolated from the patient's blood as well as from a left gluteal abscess pus. The isolate strain showed the unusual resistance profile to first-line eradication therapy trimethroprim/sulfamethoxazole. Whole genome sequencing revealed its similarity with isolates from Southeast Asia, suggesting the Thai origin of this Portuguese isolate, which is in agreement with a recent patient's travel to Thailand. PMID:26962474

  20. Distribution of materials in construction and demolition waste in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge

    2011-08-01

    It may not be enough simply to know the global volume of construction and demolition waste (CDW) generated in a certain region or country if one wants to estimate, for instance, the revenue accruing from separating several types of materials from the input entering a given CDW recycling plant. A more detailed determination of the distribution of the materials within the generated CDW is needed and the present paper addresses this issue, distinguishing different buildings and types of operation (new construction, retrofitting and demolition). This has been achieved by measuring the materials from buildings of different ages within the Portuguese building stock, and by using direct data from demolition/retrofitting sites and new construction average values reported in the literature. An attempt to establish a benchmark with other countries is also presented. This knowledge may also benefit industry management, especially that related to CDW recycling, helping to optimize procedures, equipment size and operation and even industrial plant spatial distribution. In an extremely competitive market, where as in Portugal low-tech and high environmental impact procedures remain the norm in the construction industry (in particular, the construction waste industry), the introduction of a successful recycling industry is only possible with highly optimized processes and based on a knowledge-based approach to problems. PMID:20498131

  1. Marine macrostomorpha (platyhelminthes, rhabditophora) from the algarve (southern portugal).

    PubMed

    Schockaert, Ernest R

    2014-10-13

    Ten species of Macrostomorpha were found in marine environments of the Algarve (Portugal). Six of them were found in the Ria Formosa, a vast intertidal euryhaline lagoon system that dominates the most Eastern coast of the Algarve: two unidentified species of Microstomum Schmidt, 1848, Macrostomum cf. rubrocinctum Ax, 1951 and two unidentified species of Macrostomum Schmidt, 1848, Paromalostomum dubium (de Beauchamps, 1927), Paromalostomum minutum Rieger, 1971 and Cylindromacrostomum faroensis n.sp.. Comparison of this species with C. mediterraneum (Ax, 1955) and the species from Venice, considered to be C. mediterraneum by Rieger (1977), leads to the conclusion that the individuals studied by Rieger are in fact representatives of a separate species, C. riegeri n.sp.. Acanthomacrostomum spiculiferum Papi & Swedmark, 1959 was found in the Atlantic, 10-15 m deep, near the western coast of the Algarve. Haplopharynx papii n. sp. occurs on the beach exposed to the Atlantic as well as in the Ria Formosa. All identified and previously known (marine) species found in the Algarve had been found before, either in the Atlantic or in the Mediterranean basin. 

  2. Litter in submarine canyons off the west coast of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordecai, Gideon; Tyler, Paul A.; Masson, Douglas G.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

    2011-12-01

    Marine litter is of global concern and is present in all the world's oceans, including deep benthic habitats where the extent of the problem is still largely unknown. Litter abundance and composition were investigated using video footage and still images from 16 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives in Lisbon, Setúbal, Cascais and Nazaré Canyons located west of Portugal. Litter was most abundant at sites closest to the coastline and population centres, suggesting the majority of the litter was land sourced. Plastic was the dominant type of debris, followed by fishing gear. Standardised mean abundance was 1100 litter items km -2, but was as high as 6600 litter items km -2 in canyons close to Lisbon. Although all anthropogenic material may be harmful to biota, debris was also used as a habitat by some macro-invertebrates. Litter composition and abundance observed in the canyons of the Portuguese margin were comparable to those seen in other deep sea areas around the world. Accumulation of litter in the deep sea is a consequence of human activities both on land and at sea. This needs to be taken into account in future policy decisions regarding marine pollution.

  3. A strategic approach for Water Safety Plans implementation in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Jose M P

    2011-03-01

    Effective risk assessment and risk management approaches in public drinking water systems can benefit from a systematic process for hazards identification and effective management control based on the Water Safety Plan (WSP) concept. Good results from WSP development and implementation in a small number of Portuguese water utilities have shown that a more ambitious nationwide strategic approach to disseminate this methodology is needed. However, the establishment of strategic frameworks for systematic and organic scaling-up of WSP implementation at a national level requires major constraints to be overcome: lack of legislation and policies and the need for appropriate monitoring tools. This study presents a framework to inform future policy making by understanding the key constraints and needs related to institutional, organizational and research issues for WSP development and implementation in Portugal. This methodological contribution for WSP implementation can be replicated at a global scale. National health authorities and the Regulator may promote changes in legislation and policies. Independent global monitoring and benchmarking are adequate tools for measuring the progress over time and for comparing the performance of water utilities. Water utilities self-assessment must include performance improvement, operational monitoring and verification. Research and education and resources dissemination ensure knowledge acquisition and transfer.

  4. Distribution of materials in construction and demolition waste in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge

    2011-08-01

    It may not be enough simply to know the global volume of construction and demolition waste (CDW) generated in a certain region or country if one wants to estimate, for instance, the revenue accruing from separating several types of materials from the input entering a given CDW recycling plant. A more detailed determination of the distribution of the materials within the generated CDW is needed and the present paper addresses this issue, distinguishing different buildings and types of operation (new construction, retrofitting and demolition). This has been achieved by measuring the materials from buildings of different ages within the Portuguese building stock, and by using direct data from demolition/retrofitting sites and new construction average values reported in the literature. An attempt to establish a benchmark with other countries is also presented. This knowledge may also benefit industry management, especially that related to CDW recycling, helping to optimize procedures, equipment size and operation and even industrial plant spatial distribution. In an extremely competitive market, where as in Portugal low-tech and high environmental impact procedures remain the norm in the construction industry (in particular, the construction waste industry), the introduction of a successful recycling industry is only possible with highly optimized processes and based on a knowledge-based approach to problems.

  5. Hereditary anaemias in Portugal: epidemiology, public health significance, and control.

    PubMed Central

    Martins, M C; Olim, G; Melo, J; Magalhães, H A; Rodrigues, M O

    1993-01-01

    A countrywide prospective study aimed at establishing the prevalence of the haemoglobinopathy genes in the Portuguese population was carried out by screening 15,208 randomly selected blood samples from young males. This male based survey provided the opportunity of assessing simultaneously the prevalence of the red cell enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, thus giving a picture of these important hereditary anaemias in Portugal. The results showed a low average frequency of beta thalassaemia (0.45%) and haemoglobin S (0.32%) carriers as well as G6PD deficiency (0.51%). However, these disorders are unevenly distributed throughout the country with a higher prevalence in some areas, mainly in the south. The relationship of this pattern of haemoglobinopathies to the known haplotypes linked to beta thalassaemia and sickle cell disease, relevant historical events, and local selective pressure was investigated. Hb D and Hb J are the commonest other structural variants. The implemented programme for control of these hereditary anaemias is described. PMID:8474108

  6. Moving walls and geometric phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchi, Paolo; Garnero, Giancarlo; Marmo, Giuseppe; Samuel, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    We unveil the existence of a non-trivial Berry phase associated to the dynamics of a quantum particle in a one dimensional box with moving walls. It is shown that a suitable choice of boundary conditions has to be made in order to preserve unitarity. For these boundary conditions we compute explicitly the geometric phase two-form on the parameter space. The unboundedness of the Hamiltonian describing the system leads to a natural prescription of renormalization for divergent contributions arising from the boundary.

  7. Confirmation of the Northern Delta Aquariids (NDA, IAU #26) and the Northern June Aquilids (NZC, IAU #164)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, David; Jenniskens, Peter

    2012-10-01

    This paper resolves confusion surrounding the Northern delta-Aquariids (NDA, IAU #26). Low-light level video observations with the Cameras for All-sky Meteor Surveillance project in California show distinct showers in the months of July and August. The July shower is identified as the Northern June Aquilids (NZC, IAU #164), while the August shower matches most closely prior data on the Northern delta-Aquariids. This paper validates the existence of both showers, which can now be moved to the list of established showers. The August beta-Piscids (BPI, #342) is not a separate stream, but identical to the Northern delta-Aquariids, and should be discarded from the IAU Working List. We detected the Northern June Aquilids beginning on June 14, through its peak on July 11, and to the shower's end on August 2. The meteors move in a short-period sun grazing comet orbit. Our mean orbital elements are: q = 0.124 ± 0.002 AU, 1/a = 0.512 ± 0.014 AU^{-1}, i = 37°63 ± 0°35, omega = 324°90 ± 0°27, and Omega = 107°93 ± 0°91 (N = 131). This orbit is similar to that of sungrazer comet C/2009 U10.

  8. Gamma-ray spectrometry across the Aalenian-Bajocian boundary in the Lusitanian Basin (Western Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Marisa; Henriques, Helena; Pena, Rui

    2016-04-01

    The Aalenian - Bajocian boundary was logged for the first time at the Murtinheira (Bajocian GSSP) and the Serra da Boa Viagem II sections, located in the Lusitanian Basin (West Central Portugal) using a portable gamma ray spectrometer, and well calibrated with the ammonite-based biostratigraphical zonation. These two coeval outcrops are represented by a prograding succession of greyish marl and limestone alternations, corresponding to the distal part of a carbonate ramp, which provides rich and diversified fossil (ammonoids, brachiopods) and microfossil (benthic foraminifera, calcareous nannoplancton) record. Different bioevents have been already described for the Concavum Zone (upper Aalenian) - Discites Zone (lower Bajocian) transition in both sections, namely among the ammonites, brachiopods, calcareous nannofossils and especially among the benthic foraminiferal assemblages, which record a remarkable decrease on abundance and diversity, also detected in other coeval sections of different basins located at the northern hemisphere. The gamma-ray data across these sections shows generally low values and variability, 13 to 60 API at Murtinheira section, and 26 to 59 API at Serra da Boa Viagem II section, which are typical of these carbonate hemipelagic facies. Moreover, the Th/U ratio is generally higher than 2 throughout the two sections suggesting well-oxygenated environmental conditions (also documented by the composition of the foraminiferal assemblages), which would have prevented significant organic matter accumulation; some levels displaying low Th/U ratio may reflect depletion in thorium (typical of many marine carbonates) rather than an increase in authigenic uranium, that usually is lower than 1 ppm. Before and after the faunal impoverishment bioevent of Late Concavum - Early Discites Biochron, the K%, Th (ppm) and Th/U ratio at the two sections display a relative increase, probably related to an increment in the detrital supply, and therefore nutrient

  9. Geomorphological analysis of the Lower Tagus Valley Fault Zone, Central Portugal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canora-Catalan, Carolina; Besana-Ostman, Glenda; Vilanova, Susana; Fonseca, Joao; Pinto, Luis; Domingues, Ana; Narciso, Joao; Pinheiro, Patricia

    2013-04-01

    The Lower Tagus Valley Fault Zone (LTVFZ) is a northeast-southwest trending tectonic structure located within the Lower Tagus Valley (LTV), in central Portugal associated with at least two historical events: the 1909 Mw 6.0-6.2 Benavente earthquake and the 1531 Mw 6.9 earthquake. Recent investigations indicate that the relatively linear valley associated with the Lower Tagus River is controlled by active faults in varying geometry and slip rates. Based on mapped traces, LTVFZ is about 80 kilometers long and transects Miocene to late Quaternary deposit. The east and west strands of the fault zone may have different level of activity based on the variable clarity of mapped morphological expressions. In this work, new fault strands were identified using aerial photos on eastern side of LTV. These eastern faults has a trend that almost parallel those active traces previously mapped by Besana-Ostman et al., 2012 on the western side of the valley. The newly-mapped faults has left-lateral strike-slip movements and can be separated into two segments based on the kinematic indicators like offsets on river, ridges, and valley together with fluvial terraces displacements. Until this study, no Holocene fault scarps have been identified on the eastern portion of the LTV. Quaternary activity of faults can be assessed by the evaluation of morphometric indexes. In case of LTVFZ, the most characteristic landforms are fault-generated mountain fronts and valleys where the mountain front sinuosity index Smf is measured for fault activity evaluation. Through this morphometric index, mountain fronts are classified into Class I (Smf 1-1.4); active, Class II (Smf 1.4-2.5); intermediate, and Class III (Smf >2.5); inactive. In this paper, the Smf is calculated for the western and eastern sides of LTV as 1.3 and 1.8, respectively. These Smf values indicate that the western mountain front of the LTV corresponds to Class I while the eastern mountain front is Class II. However, considering the

  10. Indoor mite allergens in patients with respiratory allergy living in Porto, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Plácido, J L; Cuesta, C; Delgado, L; da Silva, J P; Miranda, M; Ventas, P; Vaz, M

    1996-09-01

    We investigated the levels of mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der 2, and Lep d 1) in dust samples from the homes of 59 patients with asthma, 36 sensitized to house-dust mites (HDM) and 23 to grass pollen (controls), living in Porto, northern Portugal. The relationship between exposure and sensitization to HDM and the influence of housing conditions on mite-allergen levels were also evaluated. Der p 1 (median 9.2 micrograms/g) and Der 2 (4.6 micrograms/g) were the main allergens, while Der f 1 and Lep d 1 levels were always < 1 microgram/g dust and undetectable in 11% and 47% of samples, respectively. All HDM-sensitized asthmatics were exposed to Der p 1 levels > 2 micrograms/g and their homes contained significantly higher levels of Der p 1 (median 12.5 vs 6.4 micrograms/g; P = 0.008) and Der 2 (6.2 vs 3.0 micrograms/g; P = 0.004) when compared to the control group. A significant correlation was observed between the exposure to Der p 1 and the wheal area at skin testing with the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) extract (P = 0.01) as well as with serum specific IgE levels to Dp (P = 0.03). Patients with higher levels of serum specific IgE (> or = 17.5 HRU/ml) were also more frequently exposed to Der p 1 levels > or = 10 micrograms/g (P = 0.002). Old homes, presence of carpets, and signs of dampness were conditions associated with significantly higher levels of mite allergens. In conclusion, we found high levels of Der p 1 and Der 2 particularly in the homes of HDM-sensitized patients and we confirm the relationship between exposure and sensitization to HDM, assessed by both in vivo and in vitro methods. In additional to a favorable outdoor climate, we found in our region housing conditions propitious to mite growth, suggesting that specific geographic characteristics must also be taken into account for the correct planning of mite-avoidance measures. PMID:8899115

  11. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2009-01-01

    The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) conducts integrated research to fulfill the Department of the Interior's responsibilities to the Nation's natural resources. Located on 600 acres along the James River Valley near Jamestown, North Dakota, the NPWRC develops and disseminates scientific information needed to understand, conserve, and wisely manage the Nation's biological resources. Research emphasis is primarily on midcontinental plant and animal species and ecosystems of the United States. During the center's 40-year history, its scientists have earned an international reputation for leadership and expertise on the biology of waterfowl and grassland birds, wetland ecology and classification, mammalian behavior and ecology, grassland ecosystems, and application of statistics and geographic information systems. To address current science challenges, NPWRC scientists collaborate with researchers from other U.S. Geological Survey centers and disciplines (Biology, Geography, Geology, and Water) and with biologists and managers in the Department of the Interior (DOI), other Federal agencies, State agencies, universities, and nongovernmental organizations. Expanding upon its scientific expertise and leadership, the NPWRC is moving in new directions, including invasive plant species, restoration of native habitats, carbon sequestration and marketing, and ungulate management on DOI lands.

  12. The emergence of psychiatry in Portugal: from its roots to now.

    PubMed

    Palha, António; Marques-Teixeira, João

    2012-08-01

    The authors describe the panorama of psychiatry in Portugal. Starting with the emergence of psychiatry with a humanizing stamp, in 1848, cover the six major periods of development of this speciality in Portugal, proposed by Barahona Fernandes, and add a seventh period that corresponds to the last quarter of the 20th century. They highlight the figures with greater emphasis during these periods, as well as their contributions to the speciality, not forgetting the essential role of Ordens Hospitaleiras (Hospitallers Orders). The transition period for mental health is examined in the light of the socio-political conditions of that time. The authors then describe both the teaching of psychiatry, and the actual training program of that medical speciality in Portugal. In this regard, the authors address the on-going mental health policies and their consequences on the current situation on the ground. Aspects such as the prevalence of mental disorders in Portugal, the current status of training in psychiatry, the sub-specialities of psychiatry and allied professions, the main areas of research, workforce issues and human rights issues are also analysed. Finally, the authors end with a few words about the future and the challenges of psychiatry in Portugal.

  13. New insights into the reconstructed temperature in Portugal over the last 400 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. A.; Carneiro, M. F.; Correia, A.; Alcoforado, M. J.; Zorita, E.; Gómez-Navarro, J. J.

    2015-06-01

    The consistency of an existing reconstructed annual (December-November) temperature series for the Lisbon region (Portugal) from 1600 onwards, based on a European-wide reconstruction, with (1) five local borehole temperature-depth profiles; (2) synthetic temperature-depth profiles, generated from both reconstructed temperatures and two regional paleoclimate simulations in Portugal; (3) instrumental data sources over the twentieth century; and (4) temperature indices from documentary sources during the late Maunder Minimum (1675-1715) is assessed. The low-frequency variability in the reconstructed temperature in Portugal is not entirely consistent with local borehole temperature-depth profiles and with the simulated response of temperature in two regional paleoclimate simulations driven by reconstructions of various climate forcings. Therefore, the existing reconstructed series is calibrated by adjusting its low-frequency variability to the simulations (first-stage adjustment). The annual reconstructed series is then calibrated in its location and scale parameters, using the instrumental series and a linear regression between them (second-stage adjustment). This calibrated series shows clear footprints of the Maunder and Dalton minima, commonly related to changes in solar activity and explosive volcanic eruptions, and a strong recent-past warming, commonly related to human-driven forcing. Lastly, it is also in overall agreement with annual temperature indices over the late Maunder Minimum in Portugal. The series resulting from this post-reconstruction adjustment can be of foremost relevance to improve the current understanding of the driving mechanisms of climate variability in Portugal.

  14. Distribution of Cryptosporidium subtypes in humans and domestic and wild ruminants in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Alves, Margarida; Xiao, Lihua; Antunes, Francisco; Matos, Olga

    2006-08-01

    To investigate the transmission of cryptosporidiosis in Portugal, Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum from HIV-infected patients, cattle, and wild ruminants were characterized by sequence analysis of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60) gene. Fourteen subtypes within nine subtype families were identified, and three of the subtype families (If, IIb, and IId) were restricted or largely limited to Portugal. Parasites from cattle from various regions in Portugal and wild ruminants in Lisbon showed limited genetic heterogeneity (only two subtype families). All wild ruminants had the same subtype, which was also the predominant subtype in cattle all over Portugal and was found in nine HIV-infected patients in Lisbon. Two other C. parvum subtypes were only restricted to limited locations. In contrast, human parasites displayed 13 subtypes in nine subtype families, with most of the infections caused by parasites in Ib, IIa, IIc, and IId families. Two of the C. parvum subtype families (IIc and IIb) had only been found in humans. The high overall parasite diversity and high percentage of C. hominis infections attributable to Ib and C. parvum infections to IId represent unique characteristics of Cryptosporidium transmission in humans in Portugal.

  15. Preparing Your Child for a Move

    MedlinePlus

    ... certificate, and medical records. previous continue Moving With Teens It's common for teens to actively rebel against a move. Your teen has probably invested considerable energy in a particular ...

  16. The fir trees have moved

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oki, Y.; Otaka, S.

    1988-01-01

    Two minutes before noon on the morning of September 1, 1923, the Great Kanto earthquake occurred with a magnitude of 7.9 in the northern part of Mizukuma in Sagmi Prefecture, Japan. Fires broke out immediately following the earthquake, causing great damage in Tokyo and in Kanagawa. Deaths totaled 99,331 persons, with 43,476 missing; 128,266 houses partially destroyed, and 447,128 houses were destroyed by fire. Large earth movements occurred and there were innumerable landslides. Along the Kanto coastline, waves came crashing into the harbors; at Misaki the height of the waves was six meters, and 8.1 meters at Sunozaki. At Tokyo the amplitude of the vibrations renged from 14 to 20 centimeters and at Odawara they were estimated to have reached 80 centimeters. 

  17. Northern Plains 'Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 December 2004 The lower left (southwest) corner of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the location of a somewhat filled and buried meteor impact crater on the northern plains of Mars. The dark dots are boulders. A portion of a similar feature is seen in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image. This picture, showing landforms (including the odd mound north/northeast of the crater) that are typical of the martian northern lowland plains, was obtained as part of the MGS MOC effort to support the search for a landing site for the Phoenix Mars Scout lander. Phoenix will launch in 2007 and land on the northern plains in 2008. This image is located near 68.0oN, 227.4oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  18. The Eclipse, the Astronomer and His Audience: Frederico Oom and the Total Solar Eclipse of 28 May 1900 in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolino, Luis Miguel; Simoes, Ana

    2012-01-01

    This study offers a detailed analysis of an episode of the popularization of astronomy which took place in Portugal, a peripheral country of Europe, and occurring in the early twentieth century. The episode was driven by the 28 May 1900 total solar eclipse which was seen on the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain). Instead of focusing on one of…

  19. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria, and Israel reveals higher genetic variability within the type II lineage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Portugal, Austria and Israel. For this, we genotyped 90 T. gondii isolates (16 from Portugal, 67 from Austria and 7 from Israel) using 10 nested PCR-restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) genetic markers and 15 microsatellite (...

  20. Microscopic features of moving traffic jams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Boris S.; Klenov, Sergey L.; Hiller, Andreas; Rehborn, Hubert

    2006-04-01

    Empirical and numerical microscopic features of moving traffic jams are presented. Based on a single vehicle data analysis, it is found that within wide moving jams, i.e., between the upstream and downstream jam fronts there is a complex microscopic spatiotemporal structure. This jam structure consists of alternations of regions in which traffic flow is interrupted and flow states of low speeds associated with “moving blanks” within the jam. Moving blanks within a wide moving jam resemble electron holes in the valence band of semiconductors: As the moving blanks that propagate upstream appear due to downstream vehicle motion within the jam, so appearance of electron holes moving with the electric field results from electron motion against the electric field in the valence band of semiconductors. Empirical features of moving blanks are found. Based on microscopic models in the context of the Kerner’s three-phase traffic theory, physical reasons for moving blanks emergence within wide moving jams are disclosed. Microscopic nonlinear effects of moving jam emergence, propagation, and dissolution as well as a diverse variety of hysteresis effects in freeway traffic associated with phase transitions and congested traffic propagation are numerically investigated. Microscopic structure of moving jam fronts is numerically studied and compared with empirical results.

  1. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Trailer or rental truck—(i) Trailer. If household goods and personal effects are moved by trailer, the... customarily used for moving household goods and personal effects, the rental fee for each day reasonably... truck. If household goods and personal effects are moved by rental truck of the type customarily...

  2. Surveillance of norovirus in Portugal and the emergence of the Sydney variant, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Costa, I; Mesquita, J R; Veiga, E; Oleastro, M; Nascimento, M J S

    2015-09-01

    This report presents the results of the national surveillance system of diarrhea etiology of the National Institute of Health of Portugal concerning norovirus (NoV) during a two-year period, May 2011-2013. Of the total 580 stool samples collected from patients hospitalized for acute diarrhea in 13 Hospitals of Portugal, 67 (11.6%) tested positive for NoV. From May 2011 to March 2012 the GII.4 variant New Orleans 2009 was the most predominant strain having been replaced by the new GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 since then till the end of the survey. To our knowledge this is the first study showing the circulation of GII.4 as the norovirus strain most commonly associated to gastroenteritis and the first to report the replacement of GII.4 New Orleans by GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant in Portugal.

  3. The impact of winter cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, João; Freire, Elisabete; Almendra, Ricardo; Silva, Giovani L; Santana, Paula

    2013-12-01

    Mortality due to cardiovascular diseases shows a seasonal trend that can be associated with cold weather. Portugal is the European country with the highest excess winter mortality, but nevertheless, the relationship between cold weather and health is yet to be assessed. The main aim of this study is to identify the contribution of cold weather to cardiovascular diseases within Portugal. Poisson regression analysis based on generalized additive models was applied to estimate the influence of a human-biometeorological index (PET) on daily hospitalizations for myocardial infarction. The main results revealed a negative effect of cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal. For every degree fall in PET during winter, there was an increase of up to 2.2% (95% CI = 0.9%; 3.3%) in daily hospital admissions. This paper shows the need for public policies that will help minimize or, indeed, prevent exposure to cold.

  4. Surveillance of norovirus in Portugal and the emergence of the Sydney variant, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Costa, I; Mesquita, J R; Veiga, E; Oleastro, M; Nascimento, M J S

    2015-09-01

    This report presents the results of the national surveillance system of diarrhea etiology of the National Institute of Health of Portugal concerning norovirus (NoV) during a two-year period, May 2011-2013. Of the total 580 stool samples collected from patients hospitalized for acute diarrhea in 13 Hospitals of Portugal, 67 (11.6%) tested positive for NoV. From May 2011 to March 2012 the GII.4 variant New Orleans 2009 was the most predominant strain having been replaced by the new GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 since then till the end of the survey. To our knowledge this is the first study showing the circulation of GII.4 as the norovirus strain most commonly associated to gastroenteritis and the first to report the replacement of GII.4 New Orleans by GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant in Portugal. PMID:26305815

  5. Mathematics diagnostic testing in engineering: an international comparison between Ireland and Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, M.; Fidalgo, C.; Bigotte de Almeida, M. E.; Branco, J. R.; Santos, V.; Murphy, E.; Fhloinn, E. Ní

    2015-09-01

    Concern has been expressed throughout Europe about the significant deficiencies in the basic mathematical skills of many engineering undergraduates. Mathematics diagnostic tests in the UK, Ireland and Portugal have shown these shortcomings, which provide a challenge to those striving to introduce more innovative educational practices into engineering education, such as projects or real-world problems. Every year, in the Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland) and the Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Coimbra (Portugal), a diagnostic test is given to incoming first-year students. A comparison showed some potentially interesting differences between these students. In September 2013, a project was undertaken to compare mathematical competencies of incoming engineering students in both countries. A modified diagnostic test was devised and the results were then compared to ascertain if there are common areas of difficulty between students in Ireland and Portugal, or evidence of one group significantly outperforming the other in a particular area.

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 recombinant B/G subtypes circulating in Coimbra, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Duque, V; Holguín, A; Silvestre, M; González-Lahoz, J; Soriano, V

    2003-05-01

    An increasing prevalence of HIV-1 non-B variants is being noticed in several European regions, particularly in countries such as Portugal, which have closer contacts with African endemic areas, where multiple HIV subtypes cocirculate. HIV-1 subtyping by phylogenetic analyses of reverse transcriptase, protease and env (C2-V3) genomic regions was carried out in plasma collected from 18 HIV-1-infected subjects living in Coimbra, Portugal, and suspected to be infected with non-B variants. Three (16.7%) subjects carried recombinant B/G viruses (BV3/BRT/Gpro; GV3/URT/Bpro; AV3/GRT/Bpro), whereas all the remaining individuals were infected with HIV-1 subtype B. This is the first report of recombinant B/G subtypes in Portugal. PMID:12848757

  7. Optical fiber sensors: a route from University of Kent to Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, José L.; Lobo Ribeiro, António B.

    2011-06-01

    In this work the authors first summarily describe the main topics that were the subject of their post-graduate activity in fiber sensing at the Applied Optics Group of University of Kent in the late 1980s and early 1990s. After their return to Porto, Portugal, the know-how acquired during their stay at Kent and the collaboration paths that followed between the University of Porto and University of Kent were instrumental in the start-up and progress of optical fiber sensing activity in Portugal. The main topics addressed in this field, the description of some of the relevant developments achieved in recent years, the present situation and the guidelines for the future research and development activity in Portugal in fiber sensing will be the core of this work.

  8. The impact of winter cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, João; Freire, Elisabete; Almendra, Ricardo; Silva, Giovani L; Santana, Paula

    2013-12-01

    Mortality due to cardiovascular diseases shows a seasonal trend that can be associated with cold weather. Portugal is the European country with the highest excess winter mortality, but nevertheless, the relationship between cold weather and health is yet to be assessed. The main aim of this study is to identify the contribution of cold weather to cardiovascular diseases within Portugal. Poisson regression analysis based on generalized additive models was applied to estimate the influence of a human-biometeorological index (PET) on daily hospitalizations for myocardial infarction. The main results revealed a negative effect of cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal. For every degree fall in PET during winter, there was an increase of up to 2.2% (95% CI = 0.9%; 3.3%) in daily hospital admissions. This paper shows the need for public policies that will help minimize or, indeed, prevent exposure to cold. PMID:23410618

  9. Interculturality and Intercultural Education in Portugal: Recent Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratas, Maria Helena

    2010-01-01

    The Portuguese approach to cultural diversity anchors on the principle of Interculturality; within the framework of mutual respect, it embraces the value and richness of diversity and dialogue. This intercultural approach is embedded in the paradigm of an equal value of all cultures and cultural miscegenation, moving thus far beyond a…

  10. Moving frames and prolongation algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, F. B.

    1982-01-01

    Differential ideals generated by sets of 2-forms which can be written with constant coefficients in a canonical basis of 1-forms are considered. By setting up a Cartan-Ehresmann connection, in a fiber bundle over a base space in which the 2-forms live, one finds an incomplete Lie algebra of vector fields in the fields in the fibers. Conversely, given this algebra (a prolongation algebra), one can derive the differential ideal. The two constructs are thus dual, and analysis of either derives properties of both. Such systems arise in the classical differential geometry of moving frames. Examples of this are discussed, together with examples arising more recently: the Korteweg-de Vries and Harrison-Ernst systems.

  11. Contribution of spoligotyping to the characterization of the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Portugal.

    PubMed

    David, Suzana; Ribeiro, Diana Raposo; Antunes, Abílio; Portugal, Clara; Sancho, Luísa; de Sousa, José Germano

    2007-09-01

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in Portugal. To begin characterizing the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, spoligotyping was used for the systematic typing, through consecutive sampling, of patient isolates from the Amadora-Sintra area of Greater Lisbon. Distribution amongst major spoligotype families, including the Latin American Mediterranean (LAM), T, Haarlem and Beijing, was compared to that of the international spoligotype database SpolDB4 and to the European countries of traditional Portuguese immigration represented in SpolDB4. Spoligotypes from 665 isolates were analyzed and 97 shared international types (SITs) identified. In SpolDB4 Portugal is represented by part of the spoligotypes from this study explaining the reduced number of unidentified patterns. The importance of the LAM family, and especially of LAM1 and LAM9 sub-families that alone represented 38% of all the isolates in this study as compared to 8% relative to the European sub group, led us to believe that at least in this respect the population structure was closer to that of Africa and South America than to Europe. Spoligotypes characteristic of Portugal or Portuguese related settings were identified. These included SIT244 a T1 sub-family predominant in Portugal and Bangladesh, SIT64 a LAM 6 sub-family common to Portugal and Brazil, and SIT1106 a LAM 9 sub-family. These studies were the first in Portugal stressing the importance of monitoring the population structure of M. tuberculosis isolates, an important step towards gaining an understanding of tuberculosis and the dynamics of this disease.

  12. Rehabilitation of adobe buildings. Understanding different materials from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Cristiana; Rocha, Fernando; Velosa, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Earth construction is the oldest building material known, with documented cases of the use of earth bricks since Mesopotamia around 10 000 BC (Heathcote, 1995). The earth construction exists throughout the majority of the world in different cultures, and for some countries, nowadays it continues to be the main process of construction (Vega et al, 2011). Around 30% of the world's population lives in buildings made of earth materials. Earthen construction is an environmentally friendly technique with a social and cultural contribution; this advantage is increased when this type of construction is applied in developing countries where the material costs counterbalance with labour costs, and where other materials and techniques cannot be available (Ciancio et al, 2013). Studies of materials characterization are required in order to understand the composition and specific properties of the earth buildings, their heterogeneity and their degradation mechanisms. Some adobes from different buildings, ages and regions of Portugal were collected in order to characterize them (mineralogically, chemically and physically). It was possible to understand the composition of these materials and their differences. Main minerals are quartz, feldspars, calcite and phyllosilicates (mica and kaolinite). The mechanical behaviour of these materials isn't the best, but it is possible to improve it with some simple and cheap natural additives (kaolinitic soils). The characterization of these materials allows us to understand the differences between the materials from the different regions (controlled by locally available raw materials). Understanding these materials, and their properties, it is possible to formulate new ones for repair, conservation and rehabilitation works. The adobe bricks are an alternative of kiln baked bricks which has several advantages and one of the most important is that these materials are recyclable. Adobes are an excellent option for building rehabilitation, if

  13. The integrated management for renal replacement therapy in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Anabela P; Sá, Helena O; Diniz, José A; Dussault, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Portugal was the first European country to introduce an integrated management of end-stage renal disease (IM ESRD). This new program integrates various dialysis services and products, which are reimbursed at a fixed rate/patient/week called "comprehensive price payment." This initiative restructured the delivery of dialysis services, the monitoring of outcomes, and the funding of renal replacement therapy. This article described the implementation of a new model of comprehensive provision of hemodialysis (HD) services and aimed to assess its impact on dialysis care. Quality assessments and reports of patient satisfaction, produced by the Ministry of Health since 2008, as well as national registries and reports, provided the data for this review. Indicators of HD services in all continental facilities show positive results that have successively improved along the period of 2009-2011, in spite of an average annual growth of 3% of the population under HD treatment. Mortality rates for HD patients were 12.7%, 12%, and 11%, respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011; annual hospitalization rates were 4.9%, 3.8%, and 4.4% for the same years; key performance indicators showed averages above the reference values such as hemoglobin, serum phosphorus, eKt/V, water quality, number of days of hospitalization per patient per year, and number of weekly dialysis sessions. The financing analysis of IM ESRD demonstrates a sustained control of global costs, without compromising quality. The IM ERSD program is an innovative and quality-driven approach that benefits both dialysis patients and providers, contributing toward the rationalization of service provision and the efficient use of resources.

  14. Modeling fecal contamination in the Aljezur coastal stream (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Marta; Oliveira, Anabela; Guerreiro, Martha; Fortunato, André Bustorff; Menaia, José; David, Luís Mesquita; Cravo, Alexandra

    2011-06-01

    This study aims at understanding the fecal contamination behavior in a small coastal stream (Aljezur, Portugal), which has significant economic and ecological values. Like in most small coastal systems, circulation and water renewal in the Aljezur stream exhibit a strong variability due to their dependence on tides, waves, intermittent river flows, and a highly variable morphology. Hence, the problem was approached through a combination of field surveys and the development and application of a hard-coupled three-dimensional hydrodynamic and fecal contamination model. Salinity and temperature results have shown that mixing and transport in the stream are very sensitive to the river flow and wind forcing. The model is able to represent the main patterns and trends observed in Escherichia coli and fecal enterococcus concentrations along the stream, for different environmental and contamination conditions, suggesting die-off rates on the order of 0.50-0.55 day-1. Die-off rate and the representation of the sediment-associated processes were identified as the major remaining sources of uncertainty in the model. Results show that, owing to the processes that occur along the stream, fecal bacteria reach the beaches water in numbers that comply with the European Bathing Waters Directive, even during the summer periods when the upstream concentrations are larger. In particular, results suggest a direct relation between the tidal propagation upstream and the reduction of the fecal bacteria concentrations along the stream that can be relevant for the development of a strategy for the management of the system's water safety.

  15. Late Pleistocene raised beaches of coastal Estremadura, central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Michael M.; Haws, Jonathan A.; Funk, Caroline L.; Daniels, J. Michael; Hesp, Patrick A.; Bicho, Nuno F.; Minckley, Thomas A.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Forman, Steven L.

    2009-12-01

    We present new stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronological data for a suite of tectonically raised beaches dating to Marine Isotope Stages 5, 4, and 3 along the Estremadura coast of west-central Portugal. The beach deposits are found in association with ancient tidal channels and coastal dunes, pollen bearing mud and peat, and Middle Paleolithic archaeological sites that confirm occupation of the coastal zone by Neanderthal populations. The significance of these deposits is discussed in terms of the archaeological record, the tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the coast, and correlation with reconstructions of global climate and eustatic sea-level change. Direct correlation between the Estremadura beach sections is complicated by the tectonic complexity of the area and the age of the beach deposits (which are near or beyond the limit of radiocarbon dating). Evidence from multiple sites dated by AMS radiocarbon and optical luminescence methods suggests broad synchroneity in relative sea-level changes along this coast during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Two beach complexes with luminescence and radiocarbon age control date to about 35 ka and 42 ka, recording a rise in relative sea level around the time of Heinrich Event 4 at 39 ka. Depending on assumptions about eustatic sea level at the time they were deposited, we estimate that these beaches have been uplifted at rates of 0.4-4.3 mm yr -1 by the combined effects of tectonic, halokinetic, and isostatic processes. Uplift rates of 1-2 mm yr -1 are likely if the beaches represent sea level stands at roughly 40 m below modern, as suggested by recent eustatic sea level reconstructions. Evidence from coastal bluffs and the interior of the study area indicates extensive colluvial, fluvial, and aeolian sedimentation beginning around 31 ka and continuing into the Holocene. These geomorphic adjustments are related to concomitant changes in climate and sea level, providing context that improves our understanding of Late

  16. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions from a Eucalyptus plantation in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Street, Rachel A.; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Mennicken, Stefan

    1997-07-01

    Measurements of isoprene and monoterpene emission rates were made from a mature and an immature Eucalyptus globulus tree in a commercial monoculture plantation in central Portugal in 1994 using a branch enclosure sampling system with analysis by gas chromatography/flame ionization and gas chromatography/mass selective methods. Isoprene was the dominant compound emitted and represented over 90% of the total assigned volatile organic compound plant emissions during the day. Other identified species were α-pinene, sabinene, β-pinene, myrcene, limonene, cineole, linalool, α-terpineol, and, tentatatively, cis- and trans-ocimine and an unidentified octatriene. When they were adjusted to standard conditions of temperature (30°C) and light (1000 μmol-2 ms-1) VOC emissions from a 1 year old sapling were 5 times higher (49 and 5.2 μg Cg-1 dry wt h-1 for isoprene and total monoterpenes, respectively) than those from a 7-year-old tree (15 and 0.7 μg C g-1 dry wt h-1 respectively). On a projected leaf area basis these differences were not so apparent (isoprene; 5 and 4 mg m-2 h-1, young and old trees, respectively; monoterpenes, 0.6 and 0.2 mg m-2 h-1, respectively). Emission rates from both trees were closely correlated with incident light flux and temperature, with daytime maxima, and with nighttime minima. Existing models describing emissions in terms of light, temperature, and empirical coefficients were found to adequately predict emissions from the young tree but to grossly overestimate emission rates from the mature tree. This finding has implications for the extrapolation of emission data obtained in the laboratory with immature trees to the canopy, regional, or global scales, although additional measurements are required to determine whether the results presented here can be generalized.

  17. Surveillance of imported hospital requiring malaria in Portugal: can it be improved?

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ana Glória; Simões Dias, Sara; Baptista, João Luís; Torgal, Jorge

    2016-06-01

    Although eradicated in Portugal, malaria keeps taking its toll on travellers and migrants from endemic countries. Completeness of hospital requiring malaria notification in Portugal 2000-11 was estimated, using two-source capture-recapture method. Data sources were: national surveillance database of notifiable diseases and the national database of the Diagnosis-Related Groups resulting from National Health Service (NHS) hospital episodes. The completeness of notification was 21,2% for all malaria cases and 26,5% for malaria deaths, indicating significant underreporting and urging for complementary data source in surveillance, for disease burden estimates and retrospective monitoring, namely hospital episodes statistics.

  18. Summary of results of a comparative study of alcohol problems and solutions: Spain and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Nunes-Dinis, M C; Lowe, L

    1992-06-01

    This study explores through a mail questionnaire alcohol problems and solutions in Spain and Portugal including: drunk-driving, treatment services and prevention, economic issues, alcohol consumption, cultural aspects, and supply of alcoholic beverages. Consumption of alcohol in both countries is lower for men and women with college educations. Marital status has minimal effects on the consumption level of men and women in Spain and of men in Portugal. For Portuguese married women, consumption is higher. Too many bars and feasts are primary cultural adjuncts contributing to alcohol problems. PMID:1612818

  19. Parasites of marine, freshwater and farmed fishes of Portugal: a review.

    PubMed

    Eiras, Jorge da Costa

    2016-01-01

    An extensive literature review is made of the parasites in marine and freshwater fish in mainland Portugal, the Portuguese archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, as well as in farmed fish. The host(s) of each parasite species, its location in the host, site of capture of the host, whenever possible, and all the available bibliographic references are described. The economic importance of some parasites and the zoonotic relevance of some parasitic forms are discussed. A general overview of the data is provided, and some research lines are suggested in order to increase and complement the current body of knowledge about the parasites of fish from Portugal. PMID:27683841

  20. Abundance of litter on Condor seamount (Azores, Portugal, Northeast Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, C. K.; Gomes-Pereira, J. N.; Isidro, E. J.; Santos, R. S.; Morato, T.

    2013-12-01

    Marine litter is an emerging problem for the world's ocean health but little is known on its distribution and abundance on seamounts and how it affects deep-sea ecosystems. The scientific underwater laboratory set up on Condor seamount offered an ideal case study for the first documentation of litter distribution on a shallow seamount with historical fishing. A total of 48 video transects deployed on the summit (n=45) and the northern flank (n=3) covered an area of 0.031 and 0.025km2, respectively, revealing 55 litter items. Litter density on the summit was 1439 litter items km-2, whilst on the deeper northern flank, estimates indicate densities of 397 litter items km-2. Lost fishing line was the dominant litter item encountered on both areas (73% of total litter on the summit and 50% on northern flank), all being entirely or partly entangled in the locally abundant gorgonians Dentomuricea cf. meteor and Viminella flagellum. Other items included lost weights, anchors and glass bottles. The predominance of lost fishing gear identifies the source of litter on Condor seamount as exclusively ocean-based and related to fishing activities. Abundance of litter on the Condor seamount was much lower than that reported from other locations closer to populated areas.

  1. Northern Pintail (Anas acuta)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Miller, M.R.; Poole, A.; Gill, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Northern Pintail is a medium-sized dabbling duck of slender, elegant lines and conservative plumage coloration. It is circumpolar in distribution and abundant in North America, with core nesting habitat in Alaska and the Prairie Pothole Region of southern Canada and the northern Great Plains. Breeders favor shallow wetlands interspersed throughout prairie grasslands or arctic tundra. An early fall migrant, the species arrives on wintering areas beginning in August, after wing molt, often forming large roosting and feeding flocks on open, shallow wetlands and flooded agricultural fields. The birds consume grains, marsh plant seeds, and aquatic invertebrates throughout the fall and winter. Northern Pintails are among the earliest nesting ducks in North America, beginning shortly after ice-out in many northern areas. Individuals form new pair bonds each winter but are highly promiscuous during the nesting season, with mated and unmated males often involved in vigorous, acrobatic Pursuit Flights. Annual nest success and productivity vary with water conditions, predation, and weather. Females build nests on the ground, often long distances from water. Only the female incubates; her mate leaves shortly after incubation begins. Ducklings hatch together in one day, follow the female to water after a day in the nest, and fledge by July or August. Adults and ducklings consume mainly aquatic invertebrates during the breeding season. Predators and farming operations destroy many thousands of Northern Pintail nests annually; farming has also greatly reduced the amount of quality nesting cover available. Winter habitats are threatened by water shortages, agricultural development, contamination, and urbanization. Periods of extended drought in prairie nesting regions have caused dramatic population declines, usually followed by periods of recovery. Over the long term, however, the continental population of Northern Pintails has declined significantly from 6 million birds in

  2. Mars’ Northern Dunes: Volatiles and Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Candice; Bridges, N.; Bourke, M.; Byrne, S.; Diniega, S.; Dundas, C.; Herkenhoff, K.; McEwen, A.; Portyankina, G.; Thomas, N.; Colon, C.

    2010-10-01

    Mars has a vast sea of sand dunes at high northern latitudes known as the north polar erg. These dunes are blanketed with seasonal CO2 frost in the winter and early spring. Sharp dune crests, steep slipfaces and lack of craters suggest that these northern dunes have experienced geologically recent resurfacing. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) imaged a limited number of sites in the dunes with resolution better than 1 m to look for changes. New HiRISE images show extensive erosion of northern hemisphere dunes associated with seasonal CO2 ice sublimation in the spring. With 2 Mars years of observations we have observed the CO2-ice-free state of the dunes in the first year, frost-covered in late winter, the spring sublimation process, and the ice-free state of the dunes again in the second year. Temporal sequences of images of individual sites were acquired to monitor the sublimation process throughout spring. Ice-free images have been compared between northern summer in MRO year 1 (Mars Year 29) and MRO year 2. New alcoves and aprons are detected on numerous dunes in several sites. In one particular barchan dune field 20% of the dunes show substantial changes and 20% show minor changes. These changes can be traced to locations of early enhanced CO2 ice sublimation. The sublimation activity manifests itself on the dunes as cracks along the dune crest from which dark streaks of sand and dust move down the slipface. The sand travels out onto patterned ground, enabling measurement of the extent of the new aprons, in some cases meters from the dune boundary one year earlier. In order to maintain fresh dunes against such erosion the dune-building processes must still be at work on Mars today. This work was partially supported by JPL/CIT/NASA.

  3. Devil's tongue weed (Grateloupia turuturu Yamada) in northern Portugal: Passenger or driver of change in native biodiversity?

    PubMed

    Mulas, Martina; Bertocci, Iacopo

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying biological invasions is essential to separate their actual ecological effects from those of other human disturbances. This study examined experimentally whether the non-native red seaweed Grateloupia turuturu is an opportunistic species taking advantage of degraded local conditions (passenger model), or the primary driver of changes in the structure of benthic assemblages (driver model). In a first experiment, traits of G. turuturu likely associated to its invasion success were compared between unmanipulated controls and treatments subjected to the removal of canopy-forming macroalgae to test for the passenger model. In a second experiment, rock pool assemblages where G. turuturu was selectively removed were compared with initially similar control (unmanipulated) assemblages to test for the driver model. Over a period of four months, G. turuturu showed larger cover, higher number of individuals and longer fronds in the canopy-removed compared to the control pools, while no significant differences were detected between assemblages where G. turuturu was continuously removed and those where invasion was allowed to occur. Present findings suggest that G. turuturu would rely on disturbances removing potential native competitors to spread into the recipient habitat, rather than being the main driver of ecological alterations. PMID:27110653

  4. U Pb zircon and monazite geochronology of Variscan magmatism related to syn-convergence extension in Central Northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle Aguado, B.; Azevedo, M. R.; Schaltegger, U.; Martínez Catalán, J. R.; Nolan, J.

    2005-05-01

    The Viseu area is located in the Central Iberian Zone of the Iberian Variscan Belt and hosts numerous post-thickening, collision-related granitoids intruded into upper and middle crustal levels. The present paper reports high precision U-Pb zircon and monazite ages for four plutons of the Viseu area: the syn-kinematic granitoids of Maceira (314±5 Ma), Casal Vasco (311±1 Ma) and Junqueira (307.8±0.7 Ma) and the late-kinematic biotite monzogranites of Cota (306±9 Ma). This points to a synchronous emplacement of the different syn-kinematic plutons shortly followed by the intrusion of the late-kinematic granites and shows that the Upper Carboniferous plutonism occurred within a short time span of ca. 10 million years. The ascent of granite magmas took place after an extensional tectonic event (D 2) and is coeval with dextral and sinistral crustal-scale transcurrent shearing (D 3). Field and petrographical evidence suggest a narrow time-span between peak T metamorphic conditions and the intrusion of granitic melts which implies very fast uplift rates accommodated through active tectonic exhumation. Magma compositions evolve through time, reflecting an increasing involvement of mid-crustal sources and the underplating effect of an upwelling asthenospheric mantle at the base of a thinning and stretching continental crust.

  5. Method and apparatus for a combination moving bed thermal treatment reactor and moving bed filter

    DOEpatents

    Badger, Phillip C.; Dunn, Jr., Kenneth J.

    2015-09-01

    A moving bed gasification/thermal treatment reactor includes a geometry in which moving bed reactor particles serve as both a moving bed filter and a heat carrier to provide thermal energy for thermal treatment reactions, such that the moving bed filter and the heat carrier are one and the same to remove solid particulates or droplets generated by thermal treatment processes or injected into the moving bed filter from other sources.

  6. Gulf Canada moves ahead with unique drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.D.

    1982-12-01

    Describes a system developed for Gulf's Beaufort Sea exploration program, which consists of a mobile arctic caisson (MAC), conical drilling unit (CDU), 2 icebreakers, and 2 supply boats, all designed for heavy ice conditions. The MAC will operate in water depths between 60 and 110 ft, while the CDU is destined for deeper waters. The CDU, a circular barge with a special ice-deflecting hull, has a main hull angle sloping at 31 degrees to deflect ice downward. The MAC will replace conventional artificial islands. The 2 icebreakers' primary function is to manage the ice surrounding the drilling units, protecting the drilling system and providing an escort to new well sites. In addition to moving bulk materials and equipment from the northern supply base to the drilling units, the vessels will help in anchoring or setting the drilling units.

  7. Flow visualization using moving textures

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.; Becker, B.

    1995-04-01

    An intuitive way to visualize a flow is to watch particles or textures move in the flow. In this paper, the authors show how texture mapping hardware can produce near-real-time texture motion, using a polygon grid, and one fixed texture. However, the authors make no attempt to indicate the flow direction in a still frame. As discussed here, any anisotropic stretching comes from the velocity gradient, not the velocity itself. The basic idea is to advect the texture by the flow field. In a cited paper, they gave an indication of the wind velocity by advecting the 3D texture coordinates on the polygon vertices of a cloudiness contour surface in a climate simulation. This was slow, because the 3D texture was rendered in software, and because advecting the texture was difficult for time-varying flows. In this paper, they replace the 3D textures by 2D texture maps compatible with hardware rendering, and give techniques for handling time-varying flows more efficiently. The next section gives their technique for the case of 2D steady flows, and the following one discusses the problems of texture distortion. Then they discuss the problems with extending method to time-varying flows, and two solutions. Next they develop compositing methods for visualizing 3D flows. The final section gives their results and conclusions.

  8. Gene therapy on the move

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Kerstin B; Büning, Hildegard; Galy, Anne; Schambach, Axel; Grez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The first gene therapy clinical trials were initiated more than two decades ago. In the early days, gene therapy shared the fate of many experimental medicine approaches and was impeded by the occurrence of severe side effects in a few treated patients. The understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to treatment- and/or vector-associated setbacks has resulted in the development of highly sophisticated gene transfer tools with improved safety and therapeutic efficacy. Employing these advanced tools, a series of Phase I/II trials were started in the past few years with excellent clinical results and no side effects reported so far. Moreover, highly efficient gene targeting strategies and site-directed gene editing technologies have been developed and applied clinically. With more than 1900 clinical trials to date, gene therapy has moved from a vision to clinical reality. This review focuses on the application of gene therapy for the correction of inherited diseases, the limitations and drawbacks encountered in some of the early clinical trials and the revival of gene therapy as a powerful treatment option for the correction of monogenic disorders. PMID:24106209

  9. Euphotic Zone Study moves forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denman, Kenneth

    The Global Ocean Euphotic Zone Study (GOEZS), a potential core program of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) being planned jointly with the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), was recently given the go-ahead by IGBP's Scientific Committee to move on to the next level of developing its scientific program.The GOEZS program will focus on the coupled physical, biological, and chemical processes operating in the euphotic zone, which is the ocean surface layer where sufficient light penetrates for photosynthesis by phytoplankton to exceed their metabolic energy losses. The upper ocean is extremely important to understanding the atmosphereocean system because it mediates exchanges of heat, momentum, carbon dioxide, sulphur, and nitrogen between the atmosphere and the ocean interior. For the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide for example, there is more carbon in the upper ocean than in the whole atmosphere. Essentially all carbon dioxide from the atmosphere that passes from the upper ocean to the ocean interior has been transformed chemically or biologically in the upper ocean. Moreover, the upper ocean is the site of all marine shipping and most recreation and industrial activity and contains the planktonic food chain and most fish stocks.

  10. Ground Penetrating Radar technique for railway track characterization in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Chiara, Francesca; Fontul, Simona; Fortunato, Eduardo; D'Andrea, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Maintenance actions are significant for transport infrastructures but, today, costs have to be necessary limited. A proper quality control since the construction phase is a key factor for a long life cycle and for a good economy policy. For this reason, suitable techniques have to be chosen and non-destructive tests represent an efficient solution, as they allow to evaluate infrastructure characteristics in a continuous or quasi-continuous way, saving time and costs, enabling to make changes if tests results do not comply with the project requirements. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a quick and effective technique to evaluate infrastructure condition in a continuous manner, replacing or reducing the use of traditional drilling method. GPR application to railways infrastructures, during construction and monitoring phase, is relatively recent. It is based on the measuring of layers thicknesses and detection of structural changes. It also enables the assessment of materials properties that constitute the infrastructure and the evaluation of the different types of defects such as ballast pockets, fouled ballast, poor drainage, subgrade settlement and transitions problems. These deteriorations are generally the causes of vertical deviations in track geometry and they cannot be detected by the common monitoring procedures, namely the measurements of track geometry. Moreover, the development of new GPR systems with higher antenna frequencies, better data acquisition systems, more user friendly software and new algorithms for calculation of materials properties can lead to a regular use of GPR. Therefore, it represents a reliable technique to assess track geometry problems and consequently to improve maintenance planning. In Portugal, rail inspection is performed with Plasser & Theurer EM120 equipment and recently 400 MHz IDS antennas were installed on it. GPR tests were performed on the Portuguese rail network and, as case study in this paper, a renewed track was

  11. Assessment of post forest fire reclamation in Algarve, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Rita; Panagopoulos, Thomas; Guerrero, Carlos; Martins, Fernando; Zdruli, Pandi; Ladisa, Gaetano

    2014-05-01

    Fire is a common phenomenon in Mediterranean landscapes and it plays a crucial role in its transformations, making the determination of its impact on the ecosystem essential for land management. During summer of 2012, a wildfire took place in Algarve, Portugal, on an area mainly covered by sclerophyllous vegetation (39.44%, 10080ha), broad-leaved forest (20.80%, 5300ha), agriculture land with significant areas of natural vegetation (17.40%, 4400ha) and transitional woodlands-shrubs (16.17%, 4100ha). The objective of the study was to determine fire severity in order to plan post-fire treatments and to aid vegetation recovery and land reclamation. Satellite imagery was used to estimate burn severity by detecting physical and ecological changes in the landscape caused by fire. Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (DNBR) was used to measure burn severity with pre and post fire data of four Landsat images acquired in October 2011, February and August 2012 and April 2013. The initial and extended differenced normalized burn ratio (DiNBR and DeNBR) were calculated. The calculated burned area of 24291 ha was 552ha lower than the map data determined with field reports. The 19.5% of that area was burned with high severity, 45% with moderate severity and 28.3% with low severity. Comparing fire severity and regrowth with land use, it is shown in DiNBR that the most severely burned areas were predominantly sclerophyllous vegetation (37.6%) and broad-leaved forests (31.1%). From the DeNRB it was found that the reestablishment of vegetation was slower in mixed forests and higher in sclerophyllous vegetation and in land with significant areas of natural vegetation. Faster recovery was calculated for the land uses of sclerophyllous vegetation (46.7%) and significant regrowth in areas of natural vegetation and lands occupied by agriculture (25.4%). Next steps of the study are field validation and crossing with erosion risk maps before to take land reclamation decisions.

  12. Physically-Based Shallow Landslide Susceptibility Mapping, NW of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Manuel; Bateira, Carlos; Soares, Laura

    2013-04-01

    Two physically-based models - Shallow Landslide Stability Analysis (SHALSTAB) and Safety Factor (SF) - are applied in Serra da Peneda (northwest of Portugal) to evaluate shallow landslide susceptibility in Tibo drainage basin. This small basin is located in an area of granitic and metasedimentary substrate, covered by different types of surficial formations (weathering mantles and slope deposits). The application of the selected models requires the determination of a set of mechanical and hydrological parameters, and the use of high resolution topographic information to create an accurate DTM. To fulfill this goal we have applied the Shallow Landslide Stability Analysis (SHALSTAB) and the SF (Safety Factor) models. The shallow landslide area was inventoried on the field. The cohesion was assessed by back analysis and the other mechanical and hydrological soil parameters were assessed on the field survey. Several susceptibility scenarios were tested with SHALSTAB model. The best SHALSTAB scenario used to assess the susceptibility is achieved using the following parameters: cohesion (c) = 2000 N/m2, soil thickness (z) = 1,2 m, internal friction (?)=32o and soil weight (?s)=14,7 KN/m3. Shallow landslide susceptibility mapping using the SF model, was based on the cartography of the factors registered on the field survey and used the following parameters: cohesion (c) = 2000 - 6000 N/m2, soil thickness (z) =1,2 m, internal friction (?)=30 - 40o; soil volumic weight (?m) = 13,7 - 15,7 KN/m3 and Hydraulic conductivity = 0 - 3,9-03 kfs. SHALSTAB scenarios were validated by overlaying the shallow landslide area (scar concentration) and selected the better susceptibility modeling. The parameters used on the SF model applied spatially variable values registered in the field survey (using the superficial formation cartography). To validate the SF model we used the AUC (Area Under the Curve) method. The two models were compared by the scar concentration and landslide potential

  13. Teaching Writing to Middle School Students in Portugal and in Brazil: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga Simão, Ana Margarida; Malpique, Anabela Abreu; Frison, Lourdes Maria Bragagnolo; Marques, André

    2016-01-01

    Learning how to write is a challenging process, typically developed in schools. Teachers' practices in teaching writing, however, have been under researched. The aim of this study was to survey a sample of teachers from Portugal (n = 96) and Brazil (n = 99) about their practices for and perceptions about writing instruction. Teachers reported on…

  14. Research in Foreign Language Education in Portugal (2006-2011): Its Transformative Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Flávia; Moreira, Maria Alfredo; Peralta, Helena

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews a selective corpus of empirical and theoretical texts on foreign language pedagogy and teacher education, produced in Portugal between 2006 and 2011. A descriptive and interpretative approach is adopted to inquire into the transformative potential of research, with a focus on its scope, purposes, conceptual and methodological…

  15. Echinococcus granulosus in Portugal: the first report of the G7 genotype in cattle.

    PubMed

    Beato, Sílvia; Parreira, Ricardo; Roque, Cláudio; Gonçalves, Matilde; Silva, Liliana; Maurelli, Maria Paola; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Grácio, Maria Amélia

    2013-11-15

    Although cystic echinococcosis (CE) has been a recognized public health problem in Portugal, molecular data regarding the types and prevalence of infecting strains of its etiological agent (Echinococcus granulosus) are still scarce. Over the last years we have been evaluating the prevalence of CE in the country, and in this report we determined the parasite genotypes infecting sheep, goats, cattle and human in Portugal, based on 209 hydatid cysts recovered from liver (n=96), lung (n=95), pancreas (n=17) and kidney (n=1) samples obtained between 2008 and 2011. Protoscoleces or germinal layers were collected from individual cysts, DNA was extracted, and a part of the mitochondrial DNA encoding the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 was amplified by PCR. Overall, the results confirm the overall dominance of the G1-G3 cluster of strains, which are particularly prevalent in southern Portugal in livestock ruminants. Unexpectedly, one parasite sequence with cattle origin was found to correspond to E. granulosus G7 genotype (also known as E. intermedius), here reported for the first time in bovine, in Portugal.

  16. SNP typing reveals similarity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic diversity between Portugal and Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Joao S; Marques, Isabel; Soares, Patricia; Nebenzahl-Guimaraes, Hanna; Costa, Joao; Miranda, Anabela; Duarte, Raquel; Alves, Adriana; Macedo, Rita; Duarte, Tonya A; Barbosa, Theolis; Oliveira, Martha; Nery, Joilda S; Boechat, Neio; Pereira, Susan M; Barreto, Mauricio L; Pereira-Leal, Jose; Gomes, Maria Gabriela Miranda; Penha-Goncalves, Carlos

    2013-08-01

    Human tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Although spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR are standard methodologies in MTBC genetic epidemiology, recent studies suggest that Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) are advantageous in phylogenetics and strain group/lineages identification. In this work we use a set of 79 SNPs to characterize 1987 MTBC isolates from Portugal and 141 from Northeast Brazil. All Brazilian samples were further characterized using spolygotyping. Phylogenetic analysis against a reference set revealed that about 95% of the isolates in both populations are singly attributed to bacterial lineage 4. Within this lineage, the most frequent strain groups in both Portugal and Brazil are LAM, followed by Haarlem and X. Contrary to these groups, strain group T showed a very different prevalence between Portugal (10%) and Brazil (1.5%). Spoligotype identification shows about 10% of mis-matches compared to the use of SNPs and a little more than 1% of strains unidentifiability. The mis-matches are observed in the most represented groups of our sample set (i.e., LAM and Haarlem) in almost the same proportion. Besides being more accurate in identifying strain groups/lineages, SNP-typing can also provide phylogenetic relationships between strain groups/lineages and, thus, indicate cases showing phylogenetic incongruence. Overall, the use of SNP-typing revealed striking similarities between MTBC populations from Portugal and Brazil.

  17. Stomach cancer incidence in Southern Portugal 1998-2006: a spatio-temporal analysis.

    PubMed

    Papoila, Ana L; Riebler, Andrea; Amaral-Turkman, Antónia; São-João, Ricardo; Ribeiro, Conceição; Geraldes, Carlos; Miranda, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Stomach cancer belongs to the most common malignant tumors in Portugal. Main causal factors are age, dietary habits, smoking, and Helicobacter pylori infections. As these factors do not only operate on different time dimensions, such as age, period, or birth cohort, but may also vary along space, it is of utmost interest to model temporal and spatial trends jointly. In this paper, we analyze incidence of stomach cancer in Southern Portugal between 1998 and 2006 for females and males jointly using a spatial multivariate age-period-cohort model. Thus, we avoid age aggregation and allow the exploration of heterogeneous time trends between males and females across age, period, birth cohort, and space. Model estimation is performed within a Bayesian setting assuming (gender specific) smoothing priors. Our results show that the posterior expected rate of stomach cancer is decreasing for all counties in Southern Portugal and that males around 70 have a two times higher risk of getting stomach cancer compared with their female counterparts. We further found that, except for some few counties, the spatial influence is almost constant over time and negligible in the southern counties of Southern Portugal.

  18. Genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among Legionella pneumophila clinical isolates, Portugal, 1987 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Chasqueira, M J; Rodrigues, L; Nascimento, M; Ramos, M; Marques, T

    2014-11-20

    The genetic diversity of 89 clinical Legionella isolates, collected between 1987 and 2012, in 22 hospitals from the five regions of Portugal, was analysed in this study using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) of the Dresden panel and the sequence-based typing (SBT) protocol. The eBURST algorithm was used to infer levels of relatedness between isolates. All isolates collected were Legionella pneumophila, which were further characterised into four subgroups by MAbs, and 30 sequence types (STs) by SBT. Twelve of the STs were unique to Portugal; one of them (ST100) was represented by 32 epidemiologically related isolates. The ST44 was the profile with the highest number of epidemiologically unrelated isolates. The eBURST analyses indicate that, within the group formed by the 30 STs identified in this study, 17 STs were genetically close to at least another ST in the group. The comparison between the eBURST diagrams obtained with the STs from this study and the entire SBT database of the European Working Group for Legionella, showed that 24 (seven of them unique to Portugal) of our 30 STs were related with STs identified in others countries. These results suggest that the population of L. pneumophila clinical strains in Portugal includes both worldwide and local strains.

  19. Career Adapt-Abilities Scale--Portugal Form: Psychometric Properties and Relationships to Employment Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, M. Eduarda; Soares, M. C.; Fraga, S.; Rafael, M.; Lima, M. R.; Paredes, I.; Agostinho, R.; Djalo, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Career-Adaptabilities Scale (CAAS)--Portugal Form consists of four scales, each with seven items, which measure concern, control, curiosity, and confidence as psychosocial resources for managing occupational transitions, developmental tasks, and work traumas. Internal consistency estimates for the subscale and total scores ranged from good to…

  20. Situation Report - Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Denmark, France, German Federal Republic, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, and Switzerland. Information is provided in the following areas where appropriate and if it is available: (1) statistics…

  1. Associations between Early Family Risk, Children's Behavioral Regulation, and Academic Achievement in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana M.; McClelland, Megan; Peixoto, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined concurrent associations between family sociodemographic risk, self-regulation, and early literacy and mathematics in young children from Azores, Portugal (N = 186). Family sociodemographic risk was indexed by low maternal education, low family income, and low occupational status. Behavioral aspects of…

  2. Education and Gender Wage Differentials in Portugal: What Can We Learn from an Age Cohort Analysis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Pilar; Santos, Luis Delfim; Santos, Maria Clementina

    2009-01-01

    Important changes characterize the recent evolution of the schooling of workers in Portugal. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the consequences of those changes in the gender wage gap. In particular, we analyze and compare the way that this process has evolved in the groups of young workers and older workers. Our findings suggest that…

  3. Waves of (Dis)Satisfaction: Effects of the "Numerus Clausus" System in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca, Madalena; Dias, Diana; Sá, Carla; Amaral, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Access to higher education in Portugal is governed by a quota system (numerus clausus). The purpose of this article is to answer two questions: First, how does the "numerus clausus" system shape the demand for medical studies? Second, how do non-enrolled medical candidates influence the global allocation system and generate waves of…

  4. 62 FR 61036 - Changes in Disease Status of Belgium, France, Greece, Luxembourg, Portugal, and Spain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-11-14

    ... specified conditions, based on the regions' disease status (see 62 FR 56000-56033, October 28, 1997, Dockets..., Greece, Luxembourg, Portugal, and Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION...-mouth disease; Greece free of rinderpest; France, Greece, Luxembourg, and Spain free of exotic...

  5. European Gender Lessons: Girls and Boys at Scout Camps in Denmark, Portugal, Russia and Slovakia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Harriet Bjerrum

    2004-01-01

    The article investigates the tensions between and within models of gender equality and gender complementarity by studying children who are in the midst of learning to apply these gender models in practice. Children (aged 11-15 years) were observed and interviewed while they participated in scout camps in Denmark, Portugal, Slovakia and Russia.…

  6. Early Childhood Intervention in Portugal: An Overview Based on the Developmental Systems Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Ana Isabel; Grande, Catarina; Aguiar, Cecilia; de Almeida, Isabel Chaves; Felgueiras, Isabel; Pimentel, Julia Serpa; Serrano, Ana Maria; Carvalho, Leonor; Brandao, Maria Teresa; Boavida, Tania; Santos, Paula; Lopes-dos-Santos, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Research studies on early childhood intervention (ECI) in Portugal are diffuse regarding both program components and the geographical area under scrutiny. Since the 1990s, a growing body of knowledge and evidence in ECI is being gathered, based on postgraduate teaching, in-service training, and research. This article draws on the systems theory…

  7. Mathematics Diagnostic Testing in Engineering: An International Comparison between Ireland and Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, M.; Fidalgo, C.; Bigotte de Almeida, M. E.; Branco, J. R.; Santos, V.; Murphy, E.; Ní Fhloinn, E.

    2015-01-01

    Concern has been expressed throughout Europe about the significant deficiencies in the basic mathematical skills of many engineering undergraduates. Mathematics diagnostic tests in the UK, Ireland and Portugal have shown these shortcomings, which provide a challenge to those striving to introduce more innovative educational practices into…

  8. Internal Quality Assurance Systems in Portugal: What Their Strengths and Weaknesses Reveal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavares, Orlanda; Sin, Cristina; Amaral, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In Portugal, the agency for assessment and accreditation of higher education has recently included in its remit, beyond programme accreditation, the certification of internal quality assurance systems. This implies lighter touch accreditation and aims to direct institutions towards improvement, in addition to accountability. Twelve institutions…

  9. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in women from the North of Portugal in their childbearing years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and associated risk factors were investigated in 401 women of childbearing age from the North of Portugal. Among the 98 (24.4%) seropositive women, 92 (93.9%) were detected as positive only for imunoglobulin (Ig) G, two women (2.0%) were positive only fo...

  10. The Induction and Mentoring of New Teachers in Portugal: Contradictions, Needs and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Maria Assuncao; Ferreira, Fernando Ilidio

    2009-01-01

    In this article, policy and research on teacher induction in Portugal are examined. The lack of a formal induction system (despite recognition of its relevance in legal policy documents) and the mismatch between national regulations and practice are also discussed. The authors argue the need for a coherent and sustained induction and support…

  11. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in dogs from northeastern Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in 673 domestic dogs from northeastern Portugal, by using the modified agglutination test (MAT) with 1:20 as cut-off for seropositivity; antibodies were found in 256 dogs (38.0%). Differences between seroprevalence levels in males (36.7%...

  12. Student Perceptions of the Employability of the First Degree in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina; Tavares, Orlanda; Amaral, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The paper presents and analyses quantitative data on student perceptions about the employability of the first degree, and their trajectory choices on graduation. The purpose of this paper is to assess the value of the first degree as a positional good in Portugal, further to the degree's reduced duration after the implementation of the…

  13. Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in horses from the north of Portugal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii are protozoa with zoonotic and economic importance. Prevalences of antibodies to these agents were assessed in 173 horses from the north of Portugal. Findings Antibodies to L. infantum were detected by the direct agglutination test (DAT); seven (...

  14. Higher Education Distance Learning in Portugal--State of the Art and Current Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Abrar; Laaser, Wolfram

    2010-01-01

    The paper is based on a recent report given to the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education on "Reforming Higher Education Distance Learning in Portugal" (Hasan et. al. 2009). The report was grounded on on-site visits of leading Portuguese Universities, Polytechnics and Business Schools as well as on written statements of…

  15. Construction and Modification of the Autonomy of School Mathematical Knowledge in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matos, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    During the second half of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century the discipline of secondary mathematics was gradually built in Portugal and certified teachers, textbooks, programs, special teaching techniques emerge. This consolidation process ends with the emergency of school subjects that develop some kind of autonomy as Chervel…

  16. Changing Patterns in the Middle Management of Higher Education Institutions: The Case of Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Rui; Carvalho, Teresa; Amaral, Alberto; Meek, V. Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Much of the writing on higher education in recent years has tended to assume that the new management push in higher education is both universal and irreversible. This paper, however, presents evidence from Portugal to challenge that assumption. While elements of the new managerialism are clearly evident in the perceptions and attitudes of…

  17. Emergy analysis of a silvo-pastoral system, a case study in southern Portugal

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mediterranean silvo-pastoral system known as Montado, in Portugal, is a complex land use system composed of an open tree stratum in various densities and an herbaceous layer, used for livestock grazing. Livestock also profit from the acorns, and the grazing contributes to avo...

  18. Educational Journals and Worldwide Circulation of Pedagogical Knowledge: Brazil and Portugal (1921?1935)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francisco, Jaime; Cordeiro, Parreira; Carvalho, Luis Miguel

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the circulation of educational models between Portugal and Brazil (from 1920 to 1935), within a broader context of an intensive international transfer of "ways of thinking" about education. It describes and analyses the results from research on two educational journals, one Portuguese (Revista Escolar) the other from the…

  19. First Impressions of the Reorganisation of the School Network in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Jorge Miguel Fonseca Pinto

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide a retrospective on the reorganisation of the school network in Portugal between 2005 and 2007. Underlying measures predicted the closure of approximately 2000 primary schools, mainly situated in rural areas. This is a current topic of considerable controversy considering the reform which is being implemented and…

  20. Translating University-Industry Relations: The Development of a Knowledge Link in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graca, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    INESC was created in 1980 in Portugal to link universities with industry. Starting within a university as the initiative of three young academics, the organization soon became a pivotal player in the modernization of the country through the development of applied research in science and technology to enhance the competitiveness of Portuguese…

  1. The Democratisation of Access and Success in Higher Education: The Case of Portugal and Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Diana; Marinho-Araujo, Claisy; Almeida, Leandro; Amaral, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Given that higher education systems everywhere have opened to the masses, this paper analyses to what extent this phenomenon has really been accompanied by an effective democratisation of access and success in Portugal and Brazil. It looks at the expansion of higher education and discusses how the political system and higher education institutions…

  2. Continuing Vocational Training in Local Government in Portugal, 2000-05--What Has Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrito, Belmiro Gil; Simao, Ana Margarida Veiga; Alves, Mariana Gaio; Almeida, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Local government in Portugal had a good opportunity to modernise through the Programa de Formacao para as Autarquias Locais (Foral) [Training programme for local authorities], implemented between 2000 and 2005. Substantial financial resources were made available through the programme to retrain local government human resources in order to improve…

  3. Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Portugal: Prevalence, Clinical Characterization, and Medical Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Guiomar; Ataide, Assuncao; Marques, Carla; Miguel, Teresa S.; Coutinho, Ana Margarida; Mota-Vieira, Luisa; Goncalves, Esmeralda; Lopes, Nazare Mendes; Rodrigues, Vitor; Carmona da Mota, Henrique; Vicente, Astrid Moura

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and identify its clinical characterization, and medical conditions in a paediatric population in Portugal. A school survey was conducted in elementary schools, targeting 332 808 school-aged children in the mainland and 10 910 in the Azores islands.…

  4. European Social Fund in Portugal: A Complex Question for Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tome, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to review the application of the funds awarded by the European Social Fund (ESF) to Portugal, since 1986, from a human resource development (HRD) perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Several variables are analyzed: investment, absorption, people, impact of investment, evolution of skills, main programs, supply and…

  5. School Effectiveness Research Findings in the Portuguese Speaking Countries: Brazil and Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrão, Maria Eugénia

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides findings of research on school effectiveness and discusses implications for evaluation in Brazil and Portugal. Most findings reported over the last decade have been published in Brazilian or Portuguese refereed journals. Thus, a brief literature review of such studies enables that knowledge to reach international scholars and…

  6. Epistemological Awareness and Geographical Education in Portugal: The Practice of Newly Qualified Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandre, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Geographical education in Portugal has undergone many reforms since the late 1970s. Reforms have affected mainly the content and the goals of the discipline's national curriculum, in a process designed to reflect the evolution of geography at academic level. However, the reforms seem to have had little effect on what teachers believe geography and…

  7. Learning Transfer--Validation of the Learning Transfer System Inventory in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velada, Raquel; Caetano, Antonio; Bates, Reid; Holton, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the construct validity of learning transfer system inventory (LTSI) for use in Portugal. Furthermore, it also aims to analyze whether LTSI dimensions differ across individual variables such as gender, age, educational level and job tenure. Design/methodology/approach: After a rigorous translation…

  8. Reinterpreting Lifelong Learning: Meanings of Adult Education Policy in Portugal, 1999-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimaraes, Paula

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses Portugal's adult education policy between 1999 and 2010. Our empirical material consists of Portuguese as well as supranational policy documents. We use a theoretical framework which distinguishes three models of public policy, with different views on the roles of public policy and of education: (1) participative…

  9. Lessons Learnt from a Secondary School Sex Education Program in Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Ana Paula; Soares, Isabel; Vilar, Duarte

    2007-01-01

    Based on a developmental framework, a study was conducted in Portugal in two groups of youth in terms of relevant aspects related to adolescent psychosexual development: one group participated in an Experimental Project of Sex Education and Health Promotion during high school, whereas the other did not receive any formal sex education in school.…

  10. Northern Plains Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-513, 14 October 2003

    Patterns are common on the northern plains of Mars. Like their terrestrial counterparts in places like Siberia, Alaska, and northern Canada, patterned ground on Mars might be an indicator of the presence of ground ice. Whether it is true that the patterns on Mars are related to ground ice and whether the ice is still present beneath the martian surface are unknown. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows an example of patterned ground on the martian northern plains near 72.4oN, 252.6oW. The dark dots and lines are low mounds and chains of mounds. The circular feature near the center of the image is the location of a buried meteor impact crater; its presence today is marked only by the dark boulders on its rim and ejecta blanket that have managed to remain uncovered at the martian surface. The area shown is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  11. Microscale hydrodynamics near moving contact lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garoff, Stephen; Chen, Q.; Rame, Enrique; Willson, K. R.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrodynamics governing the fluid motions on a microscopic scale near moving contact lines are different from those governing motion far from the contact line. We explore these unique hydrodynamics by detailed measurement of the shape of a fluid meniscus very close to a moving contact line. The validity of present models of the hydrodynamics near moving contact lines as well as the dynamic wetting characteristics of a family of polymer liquids are discussed.

  12. Diverse geno- and phenotypes of persistent Listeria monocytogenes isolates from fermented meat sausage production facilities in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, V; Barbosa, J; Stasiewicz, M; Vongkamjan, K; Moreno Switt, A; Hogg, T; Gibbs, P; Teixeira, P; Wiedmann, M

    2011-04-01

    The persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in food-associated environments represents a key factor in transmission of this pathogen. To identify persistent and transient strains associated with production of fermented meat sausages in northern Portugal, 1,723 L. monocytogenes isolates from raw material and finished products from 11 processors were initially characterized by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), PCR-based molecular serotyping, and epidemic clone characterization, as well as cadmium, arsenic, and tetracycline resistance typing. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing of 240 representative isolates provided evidence for persistence of L. monocytogenes for periods of time ranging from 10 to 32 months for all seven processors for which isolates from different production dates were available. Among 50 L. monocytogenes isolates that included one representative for each PFGE pattern obtained from a given sample, 12 isolates showed reduced invasion efficiency in Caco-2 cells, including 8 isolates with premature stop codons in inlA. Among 41 isolates representing sporadic and persistent PFGE types, 22 isolates represented lysogens. Neither strains with reduced invasion nor lysogens were overrepresented among persistent isolates. While the susceptibility of isolates to lysogenic phages also did not correlate with persistence, it appeared to be associated with molecular serotype. Our data show the following. (i) RAPD may not be suitable for analysis of large sets of L. monocytogenes isolates. (ii) While a large diversity of L. monocytogenes subtypes is found in Portuguese fermented meat sausages, persistence of L. monocytogenes in this food chain is common. (iii) Persistent L. monocytogenes strains are diverse and do not appear to be characterized by unique genetic or phenotypic characteristics. PMID:21378045

  13. Long-range ozone transport and its impact on respiratory and cardiovascular health in the north of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Jezabel M.; Gonçalves, Fabio L. T.; de Fátima Andrade, Maria

    2011-03-01

    Ozone dynamics depend on meteorological characteristics such as wind, radiation, sunshine, air temperature and precipitation. The aim of this study was to determine ozone trajectories along the northern coast of Portugal during the summer months of 2005, when there was a spate of forest fires in the region, evaluating their impact on respiratory and cardiovascular health in the greater metropolitan area of Porto. We investigated the following diseases, as coded in the ninth revision of the International Classification of Diseases: hypertensive disease (codes 401-405); ischemic heart disease (codes 410-414); other cardiac diseases, including heart failure (codes 426-428); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and allied conditions, including bronchitis and asthma (codes 490-496); and pneumoconiosis and other lung diseases due to external agents (codes 500-507). We evaluated ozone data from air quality monitoring stations in the study area, together with data collected through HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model analysis of air mass circulation and synoptic-scale zonal wind from National Centers for Environmental Prediction data. High ozone levels in rural areas were attributed to the dispersion of pollutants induced by local circulation, as well as by mesoscale and synoptic scale processes. The fires of 2005 increased the levels of pollutants resulting from the direct emission of gases and particles into the atmosphere, especially when there were incoming frontal systems. For the meteorological case studies analyzed, peaks in ozone concentration were positively associated with higher rates of hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases, although there were no significant associations between ozone peaks and admissions for respiratory diseases.

  14. Diverse geno- and phenotypes of persistent Listeria monocytogenes isolates from fermented meat sausage production facilities in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, V; Barbosa, J; Stasiewicz, M; Vongkamjan, K; Moreno Switt, A; Hogg, T; Gibbs, P; Teixeira, P; Wiedmann, M

    2011-04-01

    The persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in food-associated environments represents a key factor in transmission of this pathogen. To identify persistent and transient strains associated with production of fermented meat sausages in northern Portugal, 1,723 L. monocytogenes isolates from raw material and finished products from 11 processors were initially characterized by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), PCR-based molecular serotyping, and epidemic clone characterization, as well as cadmium, arsenic, and tetracycline resistance typing. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing of 240 representative isolates provided evidence for persistence of L. monocytogenes for periods of time ranging from 10 to 32 months for all seven processors for which isolates from different production dates were available. Among 50 L. monocytogenes isolates that included one representative for each PFGE pattern obtained from a given sample, 12 isolates showed reduced invasion efficiency in Caco-2 cells, including 8 isolates with premature stop codons in inlA. Among 41 isolates representing sporadic and persistent PFGE types, 22 isolates represented lysogens. Neither strains with reduced invasion nor lysogens were overrepresented among persistent isolates. While the susceptibility of isolates to lysogenic phages also did not correlate with persistence, it appeared to be associated with molecular serotype. Our data show the following. (i) RAPD may not be suitable for analysis of large sets of L. monocytogenes isolates. (ii) While a large diversity of L. monocytogenes subtypes is found in Portuguese fermented meat sausages, persistence of L. monocytogenes in this food chain is common. (iii) Persistent L. monocytogenes strains are diverse and do not appear to be characterized by unique genetic or phenotypic characteristics.

  15. Diverse Geno- and Phenotypes of Persistent Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Fermented Meat Sausage Production Facilities in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, V.; Barbosa, J.; Stasiewicz, M.; Vongkamjan, K.; Moreno Switt, A.; Hogg, T.; Gibbs, P.; Teixeira, P.; Wiedmann, M.

    2011-01-01

    The persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in food-associated environments represents a key factor in transmission of this pathogen. To identify persistent and transient strains associated with production of fermented meat sausages in northern Portugal, 1,723 L. monocytogenes isolates from raw material and finished products from 11 processors were initially characterized by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), PCR-based molecular serotyping, and epidemic clone characterization, as well as cadmium, arsenic, and tetracycline resistance typing. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing of 240 representative isolates provided evidence for persistence of L. monocytogenes for periods of time ranging from 10 to 32 months for all seven processors for which isolates from different production dates were available. Among 50 L. monocytogenes isolates that included one representative for each PFGE pattern obtained from a given sample, 12 isolates showed reduced invasion efficiency in Caco-2 cells, including 8 isolates with premature stop codons in inlA. Among 41 isolates representing sporadic and persistent PFGE types, 22 isolates represented lysogens. Neither strains with reduced invasion nor lysogens were overrepresented among persistent isolates. While the susceptibility of isolates to lysogenic phages also did not correlate with persistence, it appeared to be associated with molecular serotype. Our data show the following. (i) RAPD may not be suitable for analysis of large sets of L. monocytogenes isolates. (ii) While a large diversity of L. monocytogenes subtypes is found in Portuguese fermented meat sausages, persistence of L. monocytogenes in this food chain is common. (iii) Persistent L. monocytogenes strains are diverse and do not appear to be characterized by unique genetic or phenotypic characteristics. PMID:21378045

  16. Tridimensional modelling and resource estimation of the mining waste piles of São Domingos mine, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Alexandre; Matos, João; Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

    2016-04-01

    Located in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) northern sector, near the Portuguese/Spanish border, the outcropping São Domingos deposit was mined since Roman time. Between 1854 and 1966 the Mason & Barry Company developed open pit excavation until 120 m depth and underground mining until 420 m depth. The São Domingos subvertical deposit is associated with felsic volcanics and black shales of the IPB Volcano-Sedimentary Complex and is represented by massive sulphide and stockwork ore (py, cpy, sph, ga, tt, aspy) and related supergene enrichment ore (hematite gossan and covellite/chalcocite). Different mine waste classes were mapped around the old open pit: gossan (W1), felsic volcanic and shales (W2), shales (W3) and mining waste landfill (W4). Using the LNEG (Portuguese Geological Survey) CONASA database (company historical mining waste characterization based on 162 shafts and 160 reverse circulation boreholes), a methodology for tridimensional modelling mining waste pile was followed, and a new mining waste resource is presented. Considering some constraints to waste removal, such as the Mina de São Domingos village proximity of the wastes, the industrial and archaeological patrimony (e.g., mining infrastructures, roman galleries), different resource scenarios were considered: unconditioned resources (total estimates) and conditioned resources (only the volumes without removal constraints considered). Using block modelling (SURPAC software) a mineral inferred resource of 2.38 Mt @ 0.77 g/t Au and 8.26 g/t Ag is estimated in unconditioned volumes of waste. Considering all evaluated wastes, including village areas, an inferred resource of 4.0 Mt @ 0.64 g/t Au and 7.30 g/t Ag is presented, corresponding to a total metal content of 82,878 oz t Au and 955,753 oz t Ag. Keywords. São Domingos mine, mining waste resources, mining waste pile modelling, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Portugal

  17. Early diagenesis and clay mineral adsorption as driving factors of metal pollution in sediments: the case of Aveiro Lagoon (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Martins, Maria Virgínia Alves; Mane, Miguel Ângelo; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Santos, José Francisco; da Silva, Frederico Sobrinho; Terroso, Denise; Miranda, Paulo; Figueira, Rubens; Laut, Lazaro Luiz Mattos; Bernardes, Cristina; Filho, João Graciano Mendonça; Coccioni, Rodolfo; Dias, João M Alveirinho; Rocha, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    This work aims to define the factors driving the accumulation of metals in the sediment of the lagoon of Aveiro (Portugal). The role of initial diagenetic processes in controlling trace metal retention in surface sediment is traced by mineralogy, magnetic susceptibility and geochemical analyses. Although several studies have focused on the metal distribution in this polihaline and anthropized coastal lagoon, most of them have been solely focused on the total metal concentrations. This study instead represents the first attempt to evaluate in a vast area of the Aveiro Lagoon the role of biogeochemical processes in metal availability and distribution in three extracted phases: exchangeable cations adsorbed by clay and elements co-precipitated with carbonates (S1), organic matter (S2) and amorphous Mn hydroxides (S3). According to the sediment guideline values, the sediment is polluted by, for instance, As and Hg in the inner area of the Murtosa Channel, Pb in the Espinheiro Channel, Aveiro City canals and Aveiro Harbour, and Zn in the northern area of the Ovar Channel. These sites are located near the source areas of pollutants and have the highest total available concentrations in each extracted phase. The total available concentrations of all toxic metals are however associated, firstly, with the production of amorphous Mn hydroxides in most of the areas and, secondly, with adsorption by organic compounds. The interplay of the different processes implies that not all of the sites near pollution sources have polluted surface sediment. The accumulation of metals depends on not only the pollution source but also the changing in the redox state of the sediments that may cause alterations in the sediment retention or releasing of redox-sensitive metals. Results of this work suggest that the biogeochemical processes may play a significant role in the increase of the pollutants in the sediment of the Aveiro Lagoon.

  18. Long-range ozone transport and its impact on respiratory and cardiovascular health in the north of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Jezabel M; Gonçalves, Fabio L T; de Fátima Andrade, Maria

    2011-03-01

    Ozone dynamics depend on meteorological characteristics such as wind, radiation, sunshine, air temperature and precipitation. The aim of this study was to determine ozone trajectories along the northern coast of Portugal during the summer months of 2005, when there was a spate of forest fires in the region, evaluating their impact on respiratory and cardiovascular health in the greater metropolitan area of Porto. We investigated the following diseases, as coded in the ninth revision of the International Classification of Diseases: hypertensive disease (codes 401-405); ischemic heart disease (codes 410-414); other cardiac diseases, including heart failure (codes 426-428); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and allied conditions, including bronchitis and asthma (codes 490-496); and pneumoconiosis and other lung diseases due to external agents (codes 500-507). We evaluated ozone data from air quality monitoring stations in the study area, together with data collected through HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model analysis of air mass circulation and synoptic-scale zonal wind from National Centers for Environmental Prediction data. High ozone levels in rural areas were attributed to the dispersion of pollutants induced by local circulation, as well as by mesoscale and synoptic scale processes. The fires of 2005 increased the levels of pollutants resulting from the direct emission of gases and particles into the atmosphere, especially when there were incoming frontal systems. For the meteorological case studies analyzed, peaks in ozone concentration were positively associated with higher rates of hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases, although there were no significant associations between ozone peaks and admissions for respiratory diseases.

  19. Imagine Moving Off the Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfrey, Priscilla R.

    2006-01-01

    Moving off the planet will be a defining moment of this century as landing on the Moon was in the last. For that to happen for humans to go where humans cannot go-- simulation is the sole solution. NASA supports simulation for life-cycle activities: design, analysis, test, checkout, operations, review and training. We contemplate time spans of a century and more, teams dispersed to different planets and the need for systems that endure or adapt as missions, teams and technology change. Without imagination such goals are impossible. But with imagination we can go outside our present perception of reality to think about and take action on what has been, is and, especially, what might be. Consciously maturing an imagined, possibly workable, idea through framing it to optimization to design, and building the product provides us with a new approach to innovation and simulation fidelity. We address options, analyze, test and make improvements in how we think and work. Each step includes increasingly exact information about costs, schedule, who will be needed, where, when and how. NASA i integrating such thinking into its Exploration Product Realization Hierarchy for simulation and analysis, test and verification, and stimulus response goals. Technically NASA follows a timeline of studies, analysis, definition, design, development and operations with concurrent documentation. We have matched this Product Realization Hierarchy with a continuum from image to realization that incorporates commitment, current and needed research and communication to ensure superior and creative problem solving as well as advances in simulation. One result is a new approach to collaborative systems. Another is a distributed observer network prototyped using game engine technology bringing advanced 3-D simulation of a simulation to the desktop enabling people to develop shared consensus of its meaning. Much of the value of simulation comes from developing in people their ability to make good

  20. Range Imaging without Moving Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, J. Bryan; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Range-imaging instruments of a type now under development are intended to generate the equivalent of three-dimensional images from measurements of the round-trip times of flight of laser pulses along known directions. These instruments could also provide information on characteristics of targets, including roughnesses and reflectivities of surfaces and optical densities of such semi-solid objects as trees and clouds. Unlike in prior range-imaging instruments based on times of flight along known directions, there would be no moving parts; aiming of the laser beams along the known directions would not be accomplished by mechanical scanning of mirrors, prisms, or other optical components. Instead, aiming would be accomplished by using solid-state devices to switch input and output beams along different fiber-optic paths. Because of the lack of moving parts, these instruments could be extraordinarily reliable, rugged, and long-lasting. An instrument of this type would include an optical transmitter that would send out a laser pulse along a chosen direction to a target. An optical receiver coaligned with the transmitter would measure the temporally varying intensity of laser light reflected from the target to determine the distance and surface characteristics of the target. The transmitter would be a combination of devices for generating precise directional laser illumination. It would include a pulsed laser, the output of which would be coupled into a fiber-optic cable with a fan-out and solid-state optical switches that would enable switching of the laser beam onto one or more optical fibers terminated at known locations in an array on a face at the focal plane of a telescope. The array would be imaged by the telescope onto the target space. The receiver optical system could share the aforementioned telescope with the transmitter or could include a separate telescope aimed in the same direction as that of the transmitting telescope. In either case, light reflected

  1. Post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal based on spot/vegetation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2010-04-01

    A procedure is presented that allows identifying large burned scars and the monitoring of vegetation recovery in the years following major fire episodes. The procedure relies on 10-day fields of Maximum Value Composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MVC-NDVI), with a 1 km×1 km spatial resolution obtained from the VEGETATION instrument. The identification of fire scars during the extremely severe 2003 fire season is performed based on cluster analysis of NDVI anomalies that persist during the vegetative cycle of the year following the fire event. Two regions containing very large burned scars were selected, located in Central and Southwestern Portugal, respectively, and time series of MVC-NDVI analysed before the fire events took place and throughout the post-fire period. It is shown that post-fire vegetation dynamics in the two selected regions may be characterised based on maps of recovery rates as estimated by fitting a monoparametric model of vegetation recovery to MVC-NDVI data over each burned scar. Results indicated that the recovery process in the region located in Central Portugal is mostly related to fire damage rather than to vegetation density before 2003, whereas the latter seems to have a more prominent role than vegetation conditions after the fire episode, e.g. in the case of the region in Southwestern Portugal. These differences are consistent with the respective predominant types of vegetation. The burned area located in Central Portugal is dominated by Pinus Pinaster whose natural regeneration crucially depends on the destruction of seeds present on the soil surface during the fire, whereas the burned scar in Southwestern Portugal was populated by Eucalyptus that may quickly re-sprout from buds after fire. Besides its simplicity, the monoparametric model of vegetation recovery has the advantage of being easily adapted to other low-resolution satellite data, as well as to other types of vegetation indices.

  2. Trends in gastric cancer mortality and in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Morais, Samantha; Ferro, Ana; Bastos, Ana; Castro, Clara; Lunet, Nuno; Peleteiro, Bárbara

    2016-07-01

    Portugal has the highest gastric cancer mortality rates in Western Europe, along with high prevalences of Helicobacter pylori infection. Monitoring their trends is essential to predict the burden of this cancer. We aimed to quantify time trends in gastric cancer mortality in Portugal and in each administrative region, and to compute short-term predictions, as well as to describe the prevalence of H. pylori infection, through a systematic review. Joinpoint analyses were used to identify significant changes in sex-specific trends in gastric cancer age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) and to estimate annual percent changes (APC). The most recent trends were considered to compute estimates up to 2020 by adjusting Poisson regression models. We searched PubMed and IndexRMP to identify studies carried out in Portugal reporting the prevalence of H. pylori. Gastric cancer mortality has been decreasing in Portugal since 1971 in men (from ASMR=55.3/100 000; APC=-2.4, 95% confidence interval: -2.5 to -2.3) and since 1970 in women (from ASMR=28.0/100 000; APC=-2.8, 95% confidence interval: -2.9 to -2.7), although large regional differences were observed. Predicted ASMR for 2015 and 2020 were 18.8/100 000 and 16.7/100 000 for men and 8.5/100 000 and 7.4/100 000 for women, respectively. The prevalence of H. pylori varied from almost 5% at 0.5-2 years to just over 90% at 70 years or more. No consistent variation was observed since the 1990s. The downward trends in mortality rates are expected to remain in the next decades. The high prevalence of H. pylori infection across age groups and studies from different periods shows a large potential for decrease in the burden of gastric cancer in Portugal. PMID:26186469

  3. Trends in gastric cancer mortality and in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Morais, Samantha; Ferro, Ana; Bastos, Ana; Castro, Clara; Lunet, Nuno; Peleteiro, Bárbara

    2016-07-01

    Portugal has the highest gastric cancer mortality rates in Western Europe, along with high prevalences of Helicobacter pylori infection. Monitoring their trends is essential to predict the burden of this cancer. We aimed to quantify time trends in gastric cancer mortality in Portugal and in each administrative region, and to compute short-term predictions, as well as to describe the prevalence of H. pylori infection, through a systematic review. Joinpoint analyses were used to identify significant changes in sex-specific trends in gastric cancer age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) and to estimate annual percent changes (APC). The most recent trends were considered to compute estimates up to 2020 by adjusting Poisson regression models. We searched PubMed and IndexRMP to identify studies carried out in Portugal reporting the prevalence of H. pylori. Gastric cancer mortality has been decreasing in Portugal since 1971 in men (from ASMR=55.3/100 000; APC=-2.4, 95% confidence interval: -2.5 to -2.3) and since 1970 in women (from ASMR=28.0/100 000; APC=-2.8, 95% confidence interval: -2.9 to -2.7), although large regional differences were observed. Predicted ASMR for 2015 and 2020 were 18.8/100 000 and 16.7/100 000 for men and 8.5/100 000 and 7.4/100 000 for women, respectively. The prevalence of H. pylori varied from almost 5% at 0.5-2 years to just over 90% at 70 years or more. No consistent variation was observed since the 1990s. The downward trends in mortality rates are expected to remain in the next decades. The high prevalence of H. pylori infection across age groups and studies from different periods shows a large potential for decrease in the burden of gastric cancer in Portugal.

  4. Cenozoic rift formation in the northern Caribbean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, P.; Burke, K.

    1984-01-01

    Rifts form in many different tectonic environments where the lithosphere is put into extension. An outline is provided of the distribution, orientation, and relative ages of 16 Cenozoic rifts along the northern edge of the Caribbean plate and it is suggested that these structures formed successively by localized extension as the Caribbean plate moved eastward past a continental promontory of North America. Evidence leading to this conclusion includes (1) recognition that the rifts become progressively younger westward; (2) a two-phase subsidence history in a rift exposed by upthrusting in Jamaica; (3) the absence of rifts east of Jamaica; and (4) the observation that removal of 1400 km of strike-slip displacement on the Cayman Trough fault system places the Paleogene rifts of Jamaica in an active area of extension south of Yucatan where the rifts of Honduras and Guatemala are forming today.

  5. Salt tongues in northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.F.

    1988-01-01

    Salt tongues are generally flat-lying tongue-shaped salt sheets that have been found in the deep-slope area in the northern Gulf of Mexico. These tongues, usually buried at shallow depth, are embedded in Pleistocene, possibly in Pliocene or older, sediments. Their size varies greatly from 5 to over 100 km in length, and from a few tons to over 4,500 m in thickness. Most of the salt tongues are marked by high-amplitude seismic reflectors at the top and sometimes at the base. A typical salt tongue consists of a feeder, a bulging neck and butt, and a tapering tongue pointing downslope. The salt tongues in the northern gulf are believed to be extrusive in origin. These tongues were formed as a result of updip sedimentary loading from the shelf and upper slope. A salt tongue probably originates from a diapiric salt dome or from a fault connecting it to the buried mother salt. As the sedimentary wedge progrades downdip toward the slope, the mother salt is mobilized and moves upward. When salt approaches the sea floor, it expands laterally and creeps gradually down-slope under the influence of gravity. The advance of the tongue is sustained by the continuing supply of salt from the feeder, which is mobilized by loading and buoyancy. The eventual cessation of tongue advancement comes when the sedimentary cover reaches a critical thickness and/or the salt supply is depleted. In the event that the mother salt supply remains plentiful and loading continues, the salt moves vertically and the feeder evolves into a salt dome.

  6. Salt tongues in northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yun Fei

    1988-02-01

    Salt tongues are generally flat-lying tongue-shaped salt sheets that have been found in the deep-slope area in the northern Gulf of Mexico. These tongues, usually buried at shallow depth, are embedded in Pleistocene, possibly in Pliocene or older, sediments. Their size varies greatly from 5 to over 100 km in length, and from a few tens to over 4500 m in thickness. Most of the salt tongues are marked by high-amplitude seismic reflectors at the top and sometimes at the base. A typical salt tongue consists of a feeder, a bulging neck and butt, and a tapering tongue pointing downslope. The salt tongues in the northern gulf are believed to be extrusive in origin. These tongues were formed as a result of updip sedimentary loading from the shelf and upper slope. A salt tongue probably originates from a diapiric salt dome or from a fault connecting it to the buried mother salt. As the sedimentary wedge progrades downdip toward the slope, the mother salt is mobilized and moves upward. When salt approaches the sea floor, it expands laterally and creeps gradually down-slope under the influence of gravity. The advance of the tongue is sustained by the continuing supply of salt from the feeder, which is mobilized by loading and buoyancy. The eventual cessation of the tongue advancement comes when the sedimentary cover reaches a critical thickness and/or the salt supply is depleted. In the event that the mother salt supply remains plentiful and loading continues, the salt moves vertically and the feeder will evolve into a salt dome.

  7. Controls on the seasonal deformation of slow-moving landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handwerger, Alexander L.; Roering, Joshua J.; Schmidt, David A.

    2013-09-01

    Precipitation drives seasonal velocity changes in slow-moving landslides by increasing pore-water pressure and reducing the effective normal stress along basal shear zones. This pressure change is often modeled as a pore-water pressure wave that diffuses through the landslide body, such that the minimum time required for landslides to respond to rainfall should vary as the square of landslide depth (which often approximates the saturated thickness) and inversely with hydraulic diffusivity. Here, we assess this model with new observations from the landslide-prone Eel River catchment, Northern California. Using satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) time series, precipitation data, and high-resolution topographic data from airborne lidar, we quantify the seasonal dynamics of 10 slow-moving landslides, which share the same lithologic, tectonic, and Mediterranean climate conditions. These slope failures have areas ranging from 0.16 to 3.1 km2, depths that vary from 8 to 40 m, and average downslope velocities of 0.2 to 1.2 m/yr. Each slide exhibits well-defined seasonal velocity changes with a periodicity of ˜1 yr and responds (i.e., accelerates) within 40 days following the onset of rainfall. Despite a five-fold variation in landslide depth, we do not detect systematic differences in response time within the resolution of our observations. Our results could imply that: 1) slides in our study area are sensitive to subtle hydrologic perturbations, 2) the 'effective' diffusivity governing slide behavior is much higher than field-derived values because pore pressure transmission and slide dynamics are facilitated by preferential flow paths, particularly cracks related to deformation and seasonal shrink-swell cycles, or 3) a simple one-dimensional linear diffusion model may fail to capture the three-dimensional time-dependent hydrologic changes inherent in an evolving mechanical-hydrologic system, such as a slow-moving landslide.

  8. Novel Simulated moving bed technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Purdue University

    2003-12-30

    Cellulose and hemicellulose from plants and other biomass can be hydrolyzed to produce sugars (i.e. glucose and xylose). Once these sugars are separated from other impurities, they can serve as feedstock in fermentation to produce ethanol (as fuels), lactic acid, or other valuable chemicals. The need for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass has become abundantly clear over the last decade. However, the cost of producing fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate using existing technology is relatively high and has been a major obstacle. The objective of this project is to develop an efficient and economical simulated moving bed (SMB) process to recover fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate. Sulfuric acid can hydrolyze the cellulose and hemicellulose in biomass to sugars, but this process can generate byproducts such as acetic acid, and can lead to further degradation of the xylose to furfural and glucose to hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Also, lignin and other compounds in the biomass will degrade to various phenolic compounds. If the concentrations of these compounds exceed certain threshold levels, they will be toxic to the downstream fermentation, and will severely limit the usefulness of the derived sugars. Standard post-hydrolysis processing involves neutralization of sulfuric acid, usually with lime (calcium hydroxide). A study by Wooley et al.showed that the limed hydrolyzate gave a low ethanol yield in fermentation test (20% of theoretical yield compared to 77% of theoretical yield from fermentation of pure sugars). They showed that instead of adding lime, an ion exclusion chromatography process could be used to remove acids, as well as to isolate the sugars from the biomass hydrolyzate. In this project, we investigated the feasibility of developing an economical SMB process based on (1) a polymeric adsorbent, Dowex99, which was used by Wooley et al., (2) a second polymeric adsorbent, poly-4-vinyl pyridine (or PVP in short, Reilly

  9. Temperature Distribution in a Uniformly Moving Medium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Joseph D.; Petrov, Nikola P.

    2009-01-01

    We apply several physical ideas to determine the steady temperature distribution in a medium moving with uniform velocity between two infinite parallel plates. We compute it in the coordinate frame moving with the medium by integration over the "past" to account for the influence of an infinite set of instantaneous point sources of heat in past…

  10. Moving core beam energy absorber and converter

    DOEpatents

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2012-12-18

    A method and apparatus for the prevention of overheating of laser or particle beam impact zones through the use of a moving-in-the-coolant-flow arrangement for the energy absorbing core of the device. Moving of the core spreads the energy deposition in it in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions, thus increasing the effective cooling area of the device.

  11. On Your Mark, Get Set, Move!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, Sydney

    2007-01-01

    Moving a library collection is no easy feat. The librarian will need time, energy, and plenty of help to accomplish this enormous job. Although seldom easy or painless, the job can be simplified if the librarian and her staff plan carefully, prepare the collection, and organize the move. This article describes the planning, preparation and…

  12. Improvisation: Another Way to Move and Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Using improvisation in movement and dance classes is an ideal way to help students relate to how their bodies move. Students can learn confidence from the way they move by experimenting with unconventional and different methods. Improvisation, as such, is responding spontaneously to stimuli (music) in order to create a composition that allows for…

  13. Theses "Discussion" Sections: A Structural Move Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Khakbaz, Nafiseh

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed at finding the probable differences between the move structure of Iranian MA graduates' thesis discussion subgenres and those of their non-Iranian counterparts, on the one hand, and those of journal paper authors, on the other. It also aimed at identifying the moves that are considered obligatory, conventional, or optional…

  14. Fixing the Shadows While Moving the Gnomon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangui, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    It is a common practice to fix a vertical gnomon and study the moving shadow cast by it. This shows our local solar time and gives us a hint regarding the season in which we perform the observation. The moving shadow can also tell us our latitude with high precision. In this paper we propose to exchange the roles and while keeping the shadows…

  15. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Disaggregation Analysis for the South of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, I.; Sousa, M.; Teves-Costa, P.

    2010-12-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard disaggregation analysis was performed and seismic scenarios were identified for Southern Mainland Portugal. This region’s seismicity is characterized by small and moderate magnitude events and by the sporadic occurrence of large earthquakes (e.g. the 1755 Lisbon earthquake). Thus, the Portuguese Civil Protection Agency (ANPC) sponsored a collaborative research project for the study of the seismic and tsunami risks in the Algarve (project ERSTA). In the framework of this project, a series of new developments were obtained, namely the revision of the seismic catalogue (IM, 2008), the delineation of new seismogenic zones affecting the Algarve region, which reflects the growing knowledge of this region's seismotectonic context, the derivation of new spectral attenuation laws (Carvalho and Campos Costa, 2008) and the revision of the probabilistic seismic hazard (Sousa et al. 2008). Seismic hazard was disaggregated considering different spaces of random variables, namely, bivariate conditional hazard distributions of X-Y (seismic source latitude and longitude) and multivariate 4D conditional hazard distributions of M-(X-Y)-ɛ (ɛ - deviation of ground motion to the median value predicted by an attenuation model). These procedures were performed for the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and for the 5% damped 1.0 and 2.5 Hz spectral acceleration levels of three return periods: 95, 475 and 975 years. The seismic scenarios controlling the hazard of a given ground motion level, were identified as the modal values of the 4D disaggregation analysis for each of the 84 parishes of the Algarve region. Those scenarios, based on a probabilistic analysis, are meant to be used in the emergency planning as a complement to the historical scenarios that severely affected this region. Seismic scenarios share a few number of geographical locations for all return periods. Moreover, seismic hazard of most Algarve’s parishes is dominated by the seismicity located

  16. Vegetation stress and summer fire activity in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlos, DaCamara; Sílvia, Nunes

    2013-04-01

    Fire activity in Mediterranean Europe is closely related to the climatological background where the occurrence of rainy and mild winters, followed by warm and dry summers, may induce high levels of vegetation stress over the different regions making them prone to the occurrence of fire events. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether years of very high or very low levels of fire activity over forests in Portugal are linked to contrasting vegetation cycles associated to high and low degrees of vegetation stress during the summer season. The present study relies on time series of yearly amounts of burned areas provided by Instituto de Conservação da Natureza e das Florestas (ICNF), the national authority for forests as well as on monthly values of NDVI and of brightness temperature as obtained from the Mediterranean Extended Daily One Km AVHRR Data Set (MEDOKADS) product provided by the Free University of Berlin. Both datasets cover the 16-year period from 1990 to 2005. The area of forest is first identified by means of a k-means cluster analysis that is performed on climatological yearly means of NDVI and brightness temperature. Monthly means of NDVI and of brightness temperature are then evaluated over the area of forest and composites are made for severe and mild years of fire activity defined as those with yearly burned areas respectively above the third quartile and below the first quartile. The composite of severe years presents a brightness temperature cycle with values above average during spring and summer together with values of NDVI below average during summer, the behavior of both parameters providing an indication of vegetation stress. In contrast, the composite of mild years of fire activity presents an NDVI cycle with values well below average during spring, an indication of lack of biomass, and a brightness temperature cycle with values below average during spring and summer, an indication that vegetation is not under stress. Results

  17. All Christians? Experiences of science educators in Northern Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Colette; Hickey, Ivor; Beggs, Jim

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we respond to Staver's article (this issue) on an attempt to resolve the discord between science and religion. Most specifically, we comment on Staver's downplaying of difference between Catholics and Protestants in order to focus on the religion-science question. It is our experience that to be born into one or other of these traditions in some parts of the world (especially Northern Ireland) resulted in starkly contrasting opportunities, identities and practices in becoming and being science educators. The paper starts with a short contextual background to the impact of religion on schooling and higher education in Northern Ireland. We then explore the lives and careers of three science/religious educators in Northern Ireland: Catholic (Jim) and Protestant (Ivor) males who are contemporaries and whose experience spans pre-Troubles to post-conflict and a Catholic female (Colette) who moved to Northern Ireland during the Troubles as a teenager. Finally, we discuss the situation regarding the teaching of creationism and evolution in Northern Ireland—an issue has recently generated high public interest. The Chair of the Education Committee of the Northern Ireland Assembly recently stated that "creationism is not for the RE class because I believe that it can stand scientific scrutiny and that is a debate which I am quite happy to encourage and be part of…" (News Letter 2008). It could be the case that the evolution debate is being fuelled as a deliberate attempt to undermine some of the post-conflict collaboration projects between schools and communities in Northern Ireland.

  18. Seismicity in Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, Monika; Gestermann, Nicolai; Plenefisch, Thomas; Bönnemann, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Northern Germany is a region of low tectonic activity, where only few and low-magnitude earthquakes occur. The driving tectonic processes are not well-understood up to now. In addition, seismic events during the last decade concentrated at the borders of the natural gas fields. The source depths of these events are shallow and in the depth range of the gas reservoirs. Based on these observations a causal relationship between seismicity near gas fields and the gas production is likely. The strongest of these earthquake had a magnitude of 4.5 and occurred near Rotenburg in 2004. Also smaller seismic events were considerably felt by the public and stimulated the discussion on the underlying processes. The latest seismic event occurred near Langwedel on 22nd November 2012 and had a magnitude of 2.8. Understanding the causes of the seismicity in Northern Germany is crucial for a thorough evaluation. Therefore the Seismological Service of Lower Saxony (NED) was established at the State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) of Lower Saxony in January 2013. Its main task is the monitoring and evaluation of the seismicity in Lower Saxony and adjacent areas. Scientific and technical questions are addressed in close cooperation with the Seismological Central Observatory (SZO) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). The seismological situation of Northern Germany will be presented. Possible causes of seismicity are introduced. Rare seismic events at greater depths are distributed over the whole region and probably are purely tectonic whereas events in the vicinity of natural gas fields are probably related to gas production. Improving the detection threshold of seismic events in Northern Germany is necessary for providing a better statistical basis for further analyses answering these questions. As a first step the existing seismic network will be densified over the next few years. The first borehole station was installed near Rethem by BGR

  19. The invasive kelp Undaria pinnatifida (Laminariales, Ochrophyta) along the north coast of Portugal: distribution model versus field observations.

    PubMed

    Veiga, P; Torres, A C; Rubal, M; Troncoso, J; Sousa-Pinto, I

    2014-07-15

    After the first report of Undaria pinnatifida in north Portugal (between 1999 and 2007), a rapid spread of this species could be expected due to the presence of a stable population and the favourable environmental conditions proposed by distribution models. However, field surveys showed that U. pinnatifida was not present in most of the rocky shores in north Portugal. It seems that U. pinnatifida cannot outcompete native species outside of marinas in north Portugal. The only population in natural rocky shores was found in Buarcos, where this species was frequent. This study provides density data of U. pinnatifida that will be useful in the future to monitor changes on its abundance and distribution in the centre and south of Portugal.

  20. Shallow translational slides hazard evaluation in Santa Marta de Penaguião (Douro valley - Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Susana; Luís Zêzere, José; Bateira, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    The present study is developed for the municipality of Santa Marta de Penaguião (70 square kilometers), located in the Douro Valley region (Northern Portugal). In the past, several destructive landslides occurred in this area, and were responsible for deaths and destruction of houses and roads. Despite these losses, mitigation and landslide zonation programs are missing, and the land use planning at the municipal level did not solve yet the problem. The study area is mainly composed by metamorphic rocks (e.g., schist and quartzite). These rocks are strongly fractured, and weathered materials are abundant in clayed schist, mainly in those areas where agricultural terraces were constructed centuries ago for the vineyard monoculture. From the geomorphologic point of view, the study area is characterized by deep incised valleys, tectonic depressions and slopes controlled by the geological structure. Elevation ranges from 49 m to 1416 m. The main landslide triggering factor is rainfall and the mean annual precipitation ranges from 700 mm (in the bottom of fluvial valleys) to 2500 mm (in the mountains top). A landslide inventory was performed in 2005-2009 using aerial photo-interpretation (1/5.000 scale) and field work. The inventory includes 848 landslides, most of shallow translational slide type (85% of total slope movements). The landslide density is 10.5 events/square kilometers, and the average landslide area is 535 square meters. The susceptibility to shallow translational slide occurrence was assessed at the 1: 10 000 scale in a GIS environment. Two different bivariate statistical methods were used to evaluate landslide susceptibility: the Information Value and the Fuzzy Logic Gamma operator. Eight conditioning factors were weighted and integrated to model susceptibility: slope angle, slope aspect, slope curvature, lithology, geomorphologic units, fault density, land use and terrace structures build in slopes. The susceptibility results were validated using a

  1. Quantitative paleogeography and accretionary history, northern Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Pluijm, B.A. van der; Voo, R. van der . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Ongoing paleomagnetic work on Early and Middle Paleozoic units provides quantitative data on paleogeography, latitudinal separation and latitudinal drift rates of tectonic elements that characterize the history of the northern segment of the Appalachian orogen. Following rifting and opening of Iapetus, the southern margin of Laurentia moved from ca 15S in the Ordovician to ca. 30S in the late Silurian: the northern margin of Avalon drifted northward (separate from Gondwana) from > 50--30S during the same time interval. Paleolatitudes from volcanic units of the intervening Central Mobile Belt that yield primary magnetizations are: Newfoundland: Ordovician arc-back arc basin: 11[degree]S; Ordovician ocean island/arc: 31[degree]S; Silurian continental cover: Botwood Gp: 24[degree]S, Springdale Gp: 17[degree]S New Brunswick: Ordovician rift-subduction complex: 53[degree]S. Maine: Munsungun Volcanic Terrane 18[degree]S; Winterville Volcanic Terrane 15--20[degree]S; upper part Lunksoos Composite Terrane: 20[degree]S. The Ordovician results indicate several near-Laurentian volcanic terranes and back-arc basins, landward-dipping subduction complexes on opposite margins of Iapetus, and intra-Iapetus ocean islands/arcs. Silurian paleogeographic and tectonostratigraphic data show that closure of Iapetus and progressive outboard accretion in the northern portion of the Appalachian orogen was complete by the late Silurian. This closure is accompanied by considerable Ordovician to Early Silurian left-lateral strike slip and subsequent right-lateral displacement based on the relative positions of Laurentia, Avalon and Gondwana in Early and Middle Paleozoic times.

  2. 25 CFR 700.157 - Actual reasonable moving and related expenses-nonresidential moves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Moving and Related Expenses, Temporary Emergency Moves § 700.157 Actual... of § 700.151(c) a certified eligible business, farm operation or nonprofit organization is entitled...-moves his business, farm operation, or nonprofit organization, the Commission may approve a payment...

  3. 25 CFR 700.157 - Actual reasonable moving and related expenses-nonresidential moves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Moving and Related Expenses, Temporary Emergency Moves § 700.157 Actual... of § 700.151(c) a certified eligible business, farm operation or nonprofit organization is entitled...-moves his business, farm operation, or nonprofit organization, the Commission may approve a payment...

  4. 25 CFR 700.157 - Actual reasonable moving and related expenses-nonresidential moves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Moving and Related Expenses, Temporary Emergency Moves § 700.157 Actual... of § 700.151(c) a certified eligible business, farm operation or nonprofit organization is entitled...-moves his business, farm operation, or nonprofit organization, the Commission may approve a payment...

  5. Real-time detection of moving objects in a dynamic scene from moving robotic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansar, A.; Talukder, S.; Goldberg, L.; Matthies, A.

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic scene perception is currently limited to detection of moving objects from a static platform or scenes with flat backgrounds. We discuss novel methods to segment moving objects in the motion field formed by a moving camera/robotic platform in real time.

  6. Moving Matters: The Causal Effect of Moving Schools on Student Performance. Working Paper #01-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Stiefel, Leanna; Cordes, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of existing research on mobility indicates that students do worse in the year of a school move. This research, however, has been unsuccessful in isolating the causal effects of mobility and often fails to distinguish the heterogeneous impacts of moves, conflating structural moves (mandated by a school's terminal grade) and…

  7. 49 CFR 24.305 - Fixed payment for moving expenses-nonresidential moves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... equitable. Net earnings include any compensation obtained from the business or farm operation by its owner... Related Expenses § 24.305 Fixed payment for moving expenses—nonresidential moves. (a) Business. A displaced business may be eligible to choose a fixed payment in lieu of the payments for actual moving...

  8. Testing continuous earthquake detection and location in Alentejo (South Portugal) by waveform coherency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, Catarina; Grigoli, Francesco; Cesca, Simone; Custódio, Susana

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade a permanent seismic network of 30 broadband stations, complemented by dense temporary deployments, covered Portugal. This extraordinary network coverage enables now the computation of a high-resolution image of the seismicity of Portugal, which in turn will shed light on the seismotectonics of Portugal. The large data volumes available cannot be analyzed by traditional time-consuming manual location procedures. In this presentation we show first results on the automatic detection and location of earthquakes occurred in a selected region in the south of Portugal Our main goal is to implement an automatic earthquake detection and location routine in order to have a tool to quickly process large data sets, while at the same time detecting low magnitude earthquakes (i.e., lowering the detection threshold). We present a modified version of the automatic seismic event location by waveform coherency analysis developed by Grigoli et al. (2013, 2014), designed to perform earthquake detections and locations in continuous data. The event detection is performed by continuously computing the short-term-average/long-term-average of two different characteristic functions (CFs). For the P phases we used a CF based on the vertical energy trace, while for S phases we used a CF based on the maximum eigenvalue of the instantaneous covariance matrix (Vidale 1991). Seismic event detection and location is obtained by performing waveform coherence analysis scanning different hypocentral coordinates. We apply this technique to earthquakes in the Alentejo region (South Portugal), taking advantage from a small aperture seismic network installed in the south of Portugal for two years (2010 - 2011) during the DOCTAR experiment. In addition to the good network coverage, the Alentejo region was chosen for its simple tectonic setting and also because the relationship between seismicity, tectonics and local lithospheric structure is intriguing and still poorly understood. Inside

  9. An overview of the RAIDEN project: a study of lightning in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; Leite, Solange; Sousa, João; Correia, Sandra; Reis, Margarida; Santos, João Andrade

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric lightning is an important atmospheric hazard, as cloud-to-ground discharges (CGD) can affect people, can lead to severe damages in buildings, equipment, and can trigger forest fires. The potential damages directly linked to CGD have been increasing as society develops (e.g. due to greater use of electronic equipment). However, an adequate risk assessment requires an analysis in depth of the CGD spatial-temporal distributions. Further, the climate change impacts on the lightning activity still present many uncertainties. Nevertheless, there is a wide agreement in the scientific community that climate change in Europe is likely to impact on frequency, severity and location of extreme events. The Portuguese meteorological office (IPMA) maintains a lightning detection network (LDN) over mainland Portugal since June 2002. Due to the recent and short time period of available data, there are only few studies using this dataset. The RAIDEN project (contract number PTDC/CTE-ATM/101931/2008) - Lightning activity in Portugal: variability patterns and socioeconomic impacts - aims (1) to characterize the spatial-temporal variability of the lightning activity over mainland Portugal and (2) to assess its corresponding risks and socioeconomic impacts. This study is based on data provided by the Portuguese LDN and follows a multidisciplinary approach. As such, the project is focused on a 7-year period (2003-2009) of CGD data and the research program started studying the main climatological aspects of lightning activity, regarding the spatial patterns of the CGD occurrences, as well as their temporal variability at different time scales (inter-annual, seasonal and daily variability). The spatial patterns of the CGD occurrences over Portugal have also been categorized taking into account their spatial spread and strength using a clustering methodology. Furthermore, the dynamical mechanisms underlying the CGD occurrences, including the identification of the main lightning

  10. Disastrous floods and landslides in Portugal in the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaresma, Ivânia; Zêzere, José Luis

    2010-05-01

    The record and analysis of statistical information on disaster occurrence, impacts and losses have been made worldwide in recent years. The development of natural disasters databases is crucial for risk management purposes, because it allows improving systems of indicators on disaster risk and vulnerability at national and sub-national scales. During the last century, Portugal was affected by several destructive natural disasters, namely of hydrologic (floods) and geomorphologic (landslides) origin. However, only recently risk prevention and management was assumed to be a national priority by the Portuguese Government. The basic information on past floods and landslides that occurred in Portugal is disperse and incomplete, and this is a shortcoming for the implementation of effective disaster mitigation measures, particularly when it is expectable an increase of frequency, magnitude, dimension and complexity of the hydro-geomorphologic phenomena resulting from climate change. In this work we present a preliminary assessment of hydro-geomorphologic disasters occurred in Portugal during the 20th century, based on the systematic survey of daily national newspapers. We included into a database those floods and landslides that produced, alternatively, dead people, injured people, missing people, evacuated and homeless. A total of 937 hydro-geomorphologic events were registered. In addition to physical and material damages, these events produced economic losses amounting to millions Euros. Our attention will focus on the geographic distribution and the temporal dimension of disastrous floods and landslides occurred in Portugal, and the temporal trends of hydro-geomorphologic disasters will be presented. The preliminary results shown that disastrous floods and landslides have been more frequent on the most populated regions of Portugal: the metropolitan areas of Lisbon and Oporto. In addition, data shows that disastrous hydrologic and geomorphologic phenomena were more

  11. Northern plants and ozone.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Sirkku; Huttunen, Satu; Tømmervik, Hans; Hole, Lars R; Solberg, Sverre

    2009-12-01

    Forests in northern Fennoscandia are mainly composed of the O3-sensitive species--Scots pine and downy, mountain, and silver birches. Seminatural vegetation also contributes to biodiversity, carbon cycling, and ecosystem services as a part of forests, mires, meadows, and road verges. Fumigation experiments show that current O3 concentrations of 30-50 ppb reduce plant biomass production and reproduction. Visible foliar injury is attributable to peak O3 concentrations and relates to fast phenological development and high growth rate. Trees can acclimate to O3-induced water stress by producing more xeromorphic leaves or needles. The direct effects of O3 on grassland vegetation also translate to changes in the structure and size of the soil microbial community, and ecosystem N cycling. It is necessary to reduce the emission of O3 precursors and maintain high biodiversity to protect northern ecosystems. Regular, systematic, countrywide monitoring and validation as well as quantification of the effects of O3 on plants in the Nordic countries are also necessary. PMID:20175438

  12. Exoplanet Caught on the Move

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-06-01

    For the first time, astronomers have been able to directly follow the motion of an exoplanet as it moves from one side of its host star to the other. The planet has the smallest orbit so far of all directly imaged exoplanets, lying almost as close to its parent star as Saturn is to the Sun. Scientists believe that it may have formed in a similar way to the giant planets in the Solar System. Because the star is so young, this discovery proves that gas giant planets can form within discs in only a few million years, a short time in cosmic terms. Only 12 million years old, or less than three-thousandths of the age of the Sun, Beta Pictoris is 75% more massive than our parent star. It is located about 60 light-years away towards the constellation of Pictor (the Painter) and is one of the best-known examples of a star surrounded by a dusty debris disc [1]. Earlier observations showed a warp of the disc, a secondary inclined disc and comets falling onto the star. "Those were indirect, but tell-tale signs that strongly suggested the presence of a massive planet, and our new observations now definitively prove this," says team leader Anne-Marie Lagrange. "Because the star is so young, our results prove that giant planets can form in discs in time-spans as short as a few million years." Recent observations have shown that discs around young stars disperse within a few million years, and that giant planet formation must occur faster than previously thought. Beta Pictoris is now clear proof that this is indeed possible. The team used the NAOS-CONICA instrument (or NACO [2]), mounted on one of the 8.2-metre Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), to study the immediate surroundings of Beta Pictoris in 2003, 2008 and 2009. In 2003 a faint source inside the disc was seen (eso0842), but it was not possible to exclude the remote possibility that it was a background star. In new images taken in 2008 and spring 2009 the source had disappeared! The most recent

  13. From Stories to Stewardship: Reflecting on Place in the Northern Forest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Through school-based programs and community interviews, the Northern Forest Center has documented the history of place names in rural eastern Maine. The resulting book aims to move residents beyond local forestry-related conflicts by focusing on shared values, to preserve local sense of place, and to make children want to stay in or return to the…

  14. Seasonal distribution, movements and habitat associations of northern squawfish in two Lower Columbia River reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martinelli, T.L.; Shively, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    We tracked 335 northern squawfish implanted with radio transmitters in the Columbia River in May-December 1993 and May-September 1994. Most fish were released near The Dalles and John Day dams, with the remaining fish released into reservoir areas away from dams. We used boats with mounted Yagi antennas, fixed site receiver stations near the dams and aerial surveys to track movements of tagged northern squawfish. Northern squawfish were commonly associated with water <5 m deep, water velocities <1 m/s and were <45 m from shore. The average movement from the release site was 19.5 km; fish released near dams remained closer to their release sites than fish released into reservoirs. Short-term movements (successive observations within 24 h) comprised 75% of all detected movements, represented fish moving short distances (mean = 0.96 km) between dams and down-river areas and corresponded to increased passage of juvenile salmonids. Long-term movements (successive observations exceeding 24 h) were mainly attributed to fish released into the reservoirs moving up-river to a dam, and fish moving between the two dam tailrace areas. A strong up-river movement trend terminating at John Day Dam tailrace in June suggested that spawning occurred nearby. Reduced numbers of observations of fish in the autumn suggested that northern squawfish moved away from dam areas and into deeper water for the winter. ?? 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Inmigrants to the Northern Great Plains: Survey Results from Nebraska and North Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leistritz, F. Larry; Cordes, Sam; Sell, Randall S.; Allen, John C.; Filkins, Rebecca

    2000-01-01

    A study of characteristics and motives of migrants to the Northern Great Plains surveyed 1,590 new residents in Nebraska and North Dakota. New arrivals were younger and had higher educational levels than existing residents. Most often cited reasons for moving were desire to be closer to relatives, safety concerns, and quality of the natural…

  16. Northern Ireland Student Teachers' Changing Attitudes towards Inclusive Education during Initial Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambe, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    With the passing of the Special Educational Needs and Disabilities Act into law alongside the move away from academic selection for post-primary pupils by 2008 and a far reaching review of the curriculum, education in Northern Ireland is about to face its most radical change in fifty years. Issues relating to Inclusive Education are now pressing…

  17. Streamwise Upwind, Moving-Grid Flow Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Guruswamy, Guru P.; Obayashi, Shigeru

    1992-01-01

    Extension to moving grids enables computation of transonic flows about moving bodies. Algorithm computes unsteady transonic flow on basis of nondimensionalized thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations in conservation-law form. Solves equations by use of computational grid based on curvilinear coordinates conforming to, and moving with, surface(s) of solid body or bodies in flow field. Simulates such complicated phenomena as transonic flow (including shock waves) about oscillating wing. Algorithm developed by extending prior streamwise upwind algorithm solving equations on fixed curvilinear grid described in "Streamwise Algorithm for Simulation of Flow" (ARC-12718).

  18. Current to a moving cylindrical electrostatic probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoegy, W. R.; Wharton, L. E.

    1972-01-01

    The current collection characteristics of a moving cylindrical Langmuir probe are evaluated for a range of probe speeds and potentials which are applicable to earth and planetary measurements. The current expressions derived include the cases of the general accelerated current, sheath area limited current, orbital motion limited current, and retarded current. For the orbital motion limited current, a simple algebraic expression is obtained which includes and generalizes the Mott-Smith and Langmuir expressions for both a stationary probe and a rapidly moving probe. For a rapidly moving probe a single formula adequately represents both the accelerated and the retarded current.

  19. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies to Leishmania infantum in cats from southern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, Carla; Ramos, Cláudia; Coimbra, Mónica; Cardoso, Luís; Campino, Lenea

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases (VBD) are caused by a range of pathogens transmitted by arthropods and have emerged in recent years, showing a wider geographic distribution and increased global prevalence. In addition to their veterinary medical importance, cats play a central role in the transmission cycles of some VBD agents by acting as reservoirs, amplifying hosts or sentinels. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis antigen and of antibodies to Leishmania infantum in a sample of 271 cats from southern Portugal. Thirteen (4.8%) cats were positive to D. immitis, while antibodies to L. infantum were detected in 10 (3.7%) animals. The prevalence of D. immitis and L. infantum in the feline population from southern Portugal should alert for the need to implement control measures to protect animals and people from these zoonotic parasites. Furthermore, both parasitoses must be included in the differential diagnosis in feline clinical practice.

  20. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in two wild Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra L.) from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Matos, Ana Cristina; Figueira, Luis; Martins, Maria Helena; Matos, Manuela; Alvares, Sofia; Pinto, Maria Lurdes; Coelho, Ana Cláudia

    2013-03-01

    Disseminated Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections were found in two Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra, L. 1758) killed by vehicular trauma in February and March 2010 in Castelo Branco, Portugal. At postmortem examination, the organs showed no significant gross alterations; however, microscopically, both animals had diffuse lymphadenitis with macrophage infiltration and deposition of hyaline material in the center of the lymphoid follicles. Acid-fast organisms were isolated from gastrointestinal tissue samples via bacteriologic culture. These organisms were identified as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis by IS900 polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Additionally, direct IS900 PCR-positive results were obtained for multiple organs of both animals. This is the first report of MAP infection of otters in Portugal.

  1. From an oppressed citizenship to affirmative identities: lesbian and gay political participation in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Nuño S; Menezes, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we intend to articulate a multidimensional perspective on citizenship with a psychological understanding of lesbian and gay identities' development in the context of a Southern European country: Portugal. We begin by reviewing some legal statements and institutional regulations around gay and lesbian issues and the lack of opportunities for the affirmation of a non-hegemonic (sexual) identity in Portugal. Next, we describe participation efforts developed by the Portuguese LGBT nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the actual results that such efforts already produced in the political and cultural attitudes toward gay men and lesbians: particularly, the legal approval of domestic same-sex partnership is emphasized as a symbolic achievement of such political struggle. Finally, we explore the implications of communitarian participation for gay and lesbian identities' development, not just in terms of collective empowerment but also in what concerns individual development and well-being. PMID:18032287

  2. Antimicrobial, antiviral and antioxidant activities of "água-mel" from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Maria G; Faleiro, Leonor; Antunes, Maria D; Aazza, Smail; Duarte, Joana; Silvério, Ana R

    2013-06-01

    "Água-mel" is a honey-based product produced in Portugal for ancient times. Several attributes have been reported to "água-mel" particularly in the alleviation of simple symptoms of upper respiratory tract. Samples of "água-mel" from diverse beekeepers from different regions of Portugal were studied in what concerns antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiviral properties. The amounts of phenol and brown pigment were also evaluated and correlated with the antioxidant activities. A great variability on the levels of these compounds was found among samples which were responsible for the variability detected also on the antioxidant activities, independent on the method used. Generally, antioxidant activity correlated better with brown pigments' amount than with phenols' content. The antimicrobial activity found for "água-mel" samples confirm the virtues reported by popular findings. In addition, this work also reveals the antiviral properties of "água-mel" evidenced by a decrease on the infectivity of the Qβ bacteriophage.

  3. Reed warblers migrating through Portugal: climatic influence on stopover ecology over the last decade.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Pedro M; da Silva, Luís P; Paiva, Vitor H; Ramos, Jaime A

    2016-06-01

    The arrival and breeding dates of small migrant birds have advanced throughout Europe. This study evaluates the hypothesis of a faster migration along the migratory route, which should lead to a decrease in stopover duration in staging areas over the last decades. Several climatic predictors were analysed as proxies to understand the stopover ecology of reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus migrating through Central Portugal. The minimum stopover duration of migratory reed warblers decreased significantly over the last decade during both the spring and autumn migrations. Warmer conditions en route should increase food availability, increasing the body condition of departing birds and the quality of departing sites en route to Portugal, such that migrants will reduce the stopover duration at Portuguese reedbeds. PMID:26948014

  4. An overview about the medical use of antifungals in Portugal in the last years.

    PubMed

    Manuel da S Azevedo, Maria; Cruz, Luisa; Pina-Vaz, Cidália; Gonçalves-Rodrigues, Acácio

    2016-05-01

    Despite the introduction of new antifungal agents, the frequency of invasive and mucocutaneous fungal infections as well as resistance to antifungal drugs continues to increase. Over 300 million persons are infected annually with fungi. Resistance to antimicrobials is one of today's major health threats. Can the possible causes of fungal antimicrobial resistance be understood and prevented to minimize risks to public health. We provide an overview of antifungal drug use in European countries, particularly Portugal. We reviewed prescriptions for and over-the-counter sales (OTC) of azoles in Portuguese pharmacies and in alternative shops. We conclude that in Portugal, azole antifungal sales, as well as medical prescribed azoles are very high. The Portuguese population consumes more antifungal drugs per capita than others in Europe. PMID:26865319

  5. Palaeoseismology of the Vilariça segment of the Manteigas-Bragança fault in northeastern Portugal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, Thomas; Fonseca, Joao; Madden, Chris; Dawson, Tim; Owen, Lewis A.; Vilanova, Susana; Figueiredo, Paula

    2009-01-01

    The Manteigas-Bragança fault is a major, 250-km-long, NNE-striking, sinistral strike-slip structure in northern Portugal. This fault has no historical seismicity for large earthquakes, although it may have generated moderate (M5+) earthquakes in 1751 and 1858. Evidence of continued left horizontal displacement is shown by the presence of Cenozoic pull-apart basins as well as late Quaternary stream deflections. To investigate its recent slip history, a number of trenches were excavated at three sites along the Vilariça segment, north and south of the Douro River. At one site at Vale Meão winery, the occurrence of at least two and probably three events in the past 14.5 ka was determined, suggesting an average return period of about 5–7 ka. All three events appear to have occurred as a cluster in the interval between 14.5 and 11 ka, or shortly thereafter, suggesting a return period of less than 2 ka between events within the cluster. In the same area, a small offset rill suggests 2–2.5 m of slip in the most recent event and about 6.1 m after incision below a c. 16 ka alluvial fill event along the Douro River. At another site along the Vilariça River alluvial plain, NE of the Vale Meão site, several trenches were excavated in late Pleistocene and Holocene alluvium, and exposed the fault displacing channel deposits dated to between 18 and 23 ka. In a succession of closely spaced parallel cuts and trenches, the channel riser was traced into and across the fault to resolve c. 6.5 m of displacement after 18 ka and c. 9 m of slip after c. 23 ka. These observations yield a slip rate of 0.3–0.5 mm/a, which is consistent with earlier estimates. Combining the information on timing at Vale Meão winery and displacement at Vilariça argues for earthquakes in the M7+ range, with coseismic displacements of 2–3 m. This demonstrates that there are potential seismic sources in Portugal that are not associated with the 1755 Lisbon earthquake or the Tagus Valley, and

  6. Expedition 30 Soyuz Moves to Launch Pad

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Dec. 19, the Soyuz TMA-03M spacecraft and its booster were moved to the launch pad at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan for final preparations before launch to the International Space Statio...

  7. Sad Music Moves Those Who Are Empathetic

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160987.html Sad Music Moves Those Who Are Empathetic They become engrossed ... 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Many people find sad music relaxing but to those who are very empathetic, ...

  8. Acoustics of a Nonhomogeneous Moving Medium.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blokhintsev, D I

    1956-01-01

    Theoretical basis of the acoustics of a moving nonhomogeneous medium is considered in this report. Experiments that illustrate or confirm some of the theoretical explanation or derivation of these acoustics are also included.

  9. Tropical Storm Debby Moves into Atlantic

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of satellite observations shows the progression of Tropical Storm Debby from June 25-27, 2012. The animation shows that Tropical Storm Debby's center move from the northeastern Gulf of...

  10. Being moved: linguistic representation and conceptual structure

    PubMed Central

    Kuehnast, Milena; Wagner, Valentin; Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Jacobsen, Thomas; Menninghaus, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the organization of the semantic field and the conceptual structure of moving experiences by investigating German-language expressions referring to the emotional state of being moved. We used present and past participles of eight psychological verbs as primes in a free word-association task, as these grammatical forms place their conceptual focus on the eliciting situation and on the felt emotional state, respectively. By applying a taxonomy of basic knowledge types and computing the Cognitive Salience Index, we identified joy and sadness as key emotional ingredients of being moved, and significant life events and art experiences as main elicitors of this emotional state. Metric multidimensional scaling analyses of the semantic field revealed that the core terms designate a cluster of emotional states characterized by low degrees of arousal and slightly positive valence, the latter due to a nearly balanced representation of positive and negative elements in the conceptual structure of being moved. PMID:25404924

  11. Universal transloader moves delicate equipment without stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbour, J. R.; Kessler, P. N.

    1966-01-01

    Transloader moves delicate or heavy items over irregular surfaces without transmitting stress to the load. The loader is supported on three pivot points which produce a wrap free base. The base is supported by an artificial four-wheel frame.

  12. Entropic destruction of a moving heavy quarkonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Tabatabaei, Seyed Kamal

    2016-07-01

    Recently it has been shown that the peak of the quarkonium entropy at the deconfinement transition is related to the emergent entropic force which destructs the quarkonium. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we consider dissociation of a moving heavy quarkonium by entropic force. For larger distance of quark and antiquark, the entropy of moving quarkonium increases, monotonically. We find that the entropic force destructs the moving quarkonium easier than the static case. By considering the Maxwell charge, we study the effect of the medium on the destruction of heavy quarkonium. It is shown that the quarkonium dissociates easier in the medium. Our results imply that the quarkonium dissociates easier when it moves orthogonal to the plasma wind rather than parallel.

  13. Northern Sinus Meridiani Stereo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-341, 25 April 2003

    This is a stereo (3-d anaglyph) composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle images of northern Sinus Meridiani near 2oN, 0oW. The light-toned materials at the south (bottom) end of the picture are considered to be thick (100-200 meters; 300-600 ft) exposures of sedimentary rock. Several ancient meteor impact craters are being exhumed from within these layered materials. To view in stereo, use '3-d' glasses with red over the left eye, and blue over the right. The picture covers an area approximately 113 km (70 mi) wide; north is up.

  14. Smoke Blankets Northern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Lightning strikes have sparked more than a thousand fires in northern California. This image was captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera on 27 June 2008. Cape Mendocino is at the center of the image and Mt. Shasta is near the upper right. Concentrated smoke is visible in several river valleys and the large smoke cloud extends over the Pacific Ocean for hundreds of kilometers.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  15. Glyphosate in northern ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Helander, Marjo; Saloniemi, Irma; Saikkonen, Kari

    2012-10-01

    Glyphosate is the main nonselective, systemic herbicide used against a wide range of weeds. Its worldwide use has expanded because of extensive use of certain agricultural practices such as no-till cropping, and widespread application of glyphosate-resistant genetically modified crops. Glyphosate has a reputation of being nontoxic to animals and rapidly inactivated in soils. However, recent evidence has cast doubts on its safety. Glyphosate may be retained and transported in soils, and there may be cascading effects on nontarget organisms. These processes may be especially detrimental in northern ecosystems because they are characterized by long biologically inactive winters and short growing seasons. In this opinion article, we discuss the potential ecological, environmental and agricultural risks of intensive glyphosate use in boreal regions.

  16. Glycaemic threshold for diabetes-specific retinopathy among individuals from Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Almdal, T P; Handlos, L N; Valerius, M; Juul, E; Nielsen, K E; Vistisen, D; Nielsen, L B; Sheikh, A; Belhadj, M; Nadir, D; Zinai, S; Raposo, J; Lund-Andersen, H; Witte, D R

    2014-03-01

    We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% (42-47 mmol/mol) and in individuals with HbA(1c) >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%.

  17. Impact of rosiglitazone safety alerts on oral antidiabetic sales trends: a countrywide study in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Herdeiro, Maria T; Soares, Sara; Silva, Tânia; Roque, Fátima; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2016-10-01

    Pharmacovigilance systems are important to monitor the safety of on-market drugs after approval. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of rosiglitazone safety alerts on trends in the sale of rosiglitazone and other oral antidiabetic drugs. An ecological study was conducted, using temporally aggregated data and linking safety alerts to countrywide sales of all oral antidiabetic drugs in Portugal from January 2002 to December 2012. Sales figures for oral antidiabetic drugs marketed in Portugal were supplied by IMS Health Portugal with a breakdown by active substance and fixed combinations. The number of defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day (DIDs) of each oral antidiabetic drug sold to the estimated diabetic population using oral antidiabetic drugs in Portugal was calculated. Particular attention was paid to the case of rosiglitazone, with the results being adjusted for changes in rosiglitazone reimbursement policies. A total of four safety alerts were issued about rosiglitazone. Rosiglitazone sales registered an increase of 32.9% (0.202 DIDs; P < 0.001) after the first alert (risk of macular oedema or worsening of pre-existent macular oedema) in January 2006. After subsequent alerts about cardiovascular risks, this trend was not, however, repeated and sales fell. Following the January 2006 and January 2008 safety alerts, rosiglitazone sales described a long-term downward trend, with decreases of 3.75% (-0023 DIDs; P > 0.05) and 0.24% (-0.001 DIDs; P > 0.05), respectively. It is important to promote the dissemination and publication of drug safety alerts. PMID:27259384

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of the First NDM-1-Producing Providencia stuartii Strain Isolated in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Manageiro, Vera; Sampaio, Daniel A; Pereira, Patrícia; Rodrigues, Paulo; Vieira, Luís; Palos, Carlos; Caniça, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the first NDM-1-producing Providencia stuartii strain isolated in Portugal. Sequence analyses revealed the presence of an incompatibility group A/C2 (IncA/C2) plasmid and of diverse acquired genes conferring resistance to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, macrolides, chloramphenicol, and sulfonamides. This sequence contributes to the evaluation of the spread of NDM-1 producers. PMID:26404603

  19. Health-related knowledge of primary prevention of cancer in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Ana Rute; Silva, Susana; Moura-Ferreira, Pedro; Villaverde-Cabral, Manuel; Santos, Osvaldo; do Carmo, Isabel; Barros, Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of new cases of cancer highlights the relevance of primary prevention for cancer control, which is influenced, among other factors, by the population’s health-related knowledge. Therefore, we aimed to describe cancer-related knowledge in Portugal, including perception of risk, awareness of cancer causes and preventive behaviours. We evaluated 1624 Portuguese-speaking dwellers, aged between 16 and 79 years, through face-to-face interviews conducted using a structured questionnaire. We computed adjusted (sex, age, education) regression coefficients and prevalence ratios, using linear and Poisson regression, respectively, to quantify associations with cancer-specific knowledge. The proportions of nonresponse ranged from 13.4 to 63.5% for the most frequent cancer in Portugal and the leading cause of cancer, respectively. The mean of the estimated lifetime risk of cancer in the Portuguese population was 37.0%. A total of 47.5% of the respondents identified breast cancer as the most frequent in Portugal, 72.0% named lifestyles as the leading cause of cancer and 40.2% selected not smoking as the most important preventive behaviour. Lower levels of education were associated with higher proportions of nonresponse, but not consistently with inaccurate knowledge. Men provided lower estimates of the lifetime risk of cancer, indicated breast cancer less frequently and more often lung cancer as the most frequent, and were more likely to select not smoking as the most important preventive behaviour. The present study provides relevant data on knowledge of cancer prevention, which may be used for the planning and evaluation of awareness-raising and primary prevention interventions in Portugal. PMID:25642793

  20. Molecular detection of bacterial and parasitic pathogens in hard ticks from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, Carla; Ferreira, Andreia; Nunes, Mónica; Vieira, Maria Luísa; Campino, Lenea; Cardoso, Luís

    2014-06-01

    Ticks are important vector arthropods of human and animal pathogens. As information about agents of disease circulating in vectors in Portugal is limited, the aim of the present study was to detect bacteria and parasites with veterinary and zoonotic importance in ticks collected from dogs, cats, and field vegetation. A total of 925 ticks, comprising 888 (96.0%) adults, 8 (0.9%) nymphs, and 29 (3.1%) larvae, were collected in 4 geographic areas (districts) of Portugal. Among those, 620 (67.0%) were removed from naturally infested dogs, 42 (4.5%) from cats, and 263 (28.4%) were questing ticks obtained from field vegetation. Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the predominant tick species, and the only one collected from dogs and vegetation, while all Ixodes ricinus specimens (n=6) were recovered from cats. Rickettsia massiliae and Rickettsia conorii were identified in 35 ticks collected from cats and dogs and in 3 ticks collected from dogs. Among ticks collected from cats or dogs, 4 Rh. sanguineus specimens were detected with Hepatozoon felis, 3 with Anaplasma platys, 2 with Hepatozoon canis, one with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, one with Babesia vogeli, one with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and one with Cercopithifilaria spp. Rickettsia helvetica was detected in one I. ricinus tick collected from a cat. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first time that Cercopithifilaria spp., Ba. vogeli, H. canis, and H. felis have been detected in ticks from Portugal. The wide range of tick-borne pathogens identified, some of zoonotic concern, suggests a risk for the emergence of tick-borne diseases in domestic animals and humans in Portugal. Further studies on these and other tick-borne agents should be performed to better understand their epidemiological and clinical importance, and to support the implementation of effective control measures.

  1. Health-related knowledge of primary prevention of cancer in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana Rute; Silva, Susana; Moura-Ferreira, Pedro; Villaverde-Cabral, Manuel; Santos, Osvaldo; do Carmo, Isabel; Barros, Henrique; Lunet, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of new cases of cancer highlights the relevance of primary prevention for cancer control, which is influenced, among other factors, by the population's health-related knowledge. Therefore, we aimed to describe cancer-related knowledge in Portugal, including perception of risk, awareness of cancer causes and preventive behaviours. We evaluated 1624 Portuguese-speaking dwellers, aged between 16 and 79 years, through face-to-face interviews conducted using a structured questionnaire. We computed adjusted (sex, age, education) regression coefficients and prevalence ratios, using linear and Poisson regression, respectively, to quantify associations with cancer-specific knowledge. The proportions of nonresponse ranged from 13.4 to 63.5% for the most frequent cancer in Portugal and the leading cause of cancer, respectively. The mean of the estimated lifetime risk of cancer in the Portuguese population was 37.0%. A total of 47.5% of the respondents identified breast cancer as the most frequent in Portugal, 72.0% named lifestyles as the leading cause of cancer and 40.2% selected not smoking as the most important preventive behaviour. Lower levels of education were associated with higher proportions of nonresponse, but not consistently with inaccurate knowledge. Men provided lower estimates of the lifetime risk of cancer, indicated breast cancer less frequently and more often lung cancer as the most frequent, and were more likely to select not smoking as the most important preventive behaviour. The present study provides relevant data on knowledge of cancer prevention, which may be used for the planning and evaluation of awareness-raising and primary prevention interventions in Portugal.

  2. Seasonal trends in precipitation and surface air temperature extremes in mainland Portugal, 1941-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, M. I. P.; Santo, F. E.; Ramos, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    Several climate models predict, on a global scale, modifications in climate variables that are expected to have impact on society and the environment. The concern is on changes in the variability of processes, the mean and extreme events (maximum and minimum). To explore recent changes in precipitation and near surface air temperature extremes in mainland Portugal, we have inspected trends in time series of specific indices defined for daily data. These indices were recommended by the Commission for Climatology/Climate Variability and Predictability (CCl/CLIVAR) Working Group on Climate Change Detection, and include threshold indices, probability indices, duration indices and other indices. The precipitation and air temperature data used in this study are from, respectively, 57 and 23 measuring stations scattered across mainland Portugal, and cover the periods 1941-2007, for precipitation, and 1941-2006, for temperature. The study focuses on changes at the seasonal scale. Strong seasonality is one of the main features of climate in mainland Portugal. Intensification of the seasonality signal across the territory, particularly in the more sensitive regions, might contribute to endanger already fragile soil and water resources and ecosystems, and the local environmental and economic sustainability. Thus, the understanding of variations in the intensity, frequency and duration of extreme precipitation and air temperature events at the intra-annual scale is particularly important in this geographical area. Trend analyses were conducted over the full period of the records and for sub-periods, exploring patterns of change. Results show, on the one hand, regional differences in the tendency observed in the time series analysed; and, on the other hand, that although trends in annual indices are in general not statistically significant, there are sometimes significant changes over time in the data at the seasonal scale that point out to an increase in the already existing

  3. Acute Q fever in Portugal. Epidemiological and clinical features of 32 hospitalized patients

    PubMed Central

    Palmela, Carolina; Badura, Robert; Valadas, Emília

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. The main characteristic of acute Q fever is its clinical polymorphism, usually presenting as a febrile illness with varying degrees of hepatitis and/or pneumonia. Q fever is endemic in Portugal, and it is an obligatory notifiable disease since 1999. However, its epidemiological and clinical characteristics are still incompletely described. Methods We performed a retrospective study of 32 cases admitted in the Infectious Diseases Department, Santa Maria’s University Hospital, from January 2001 to December 2010, in whom acute Q fever was diagnosed by the presence of antibodies to phase II Coxiella burnetii antigens associated with a compatible clinical syndrome. Results Out of the 32 cases recorded, 29 (91%) were male, with a male:female ratio of 9.7:1. Individuals at productive age were mainly affected (88%, n=28, with ages between 25 and 64 years). Clinically, the most common manifestation of acute Q fever was hepatic involvement (84%, n=27), which occurred isolated in 53% (n=17) of the cases. Hepatitis was more severe, presenting with higher values of liver function tests, in patients presenting both pulmonary and hepatic involvement. Additionally, we report one case of myocarditis and another one with neurological involvement. Empiric but appropriate antibiotic therapy was given in 66% (n=21) of the cases. There was a complete recovery in 94% (n=30) of the patients, and one death. We confirmed the sub-notification of this disease in Portugal, with only 47% (n=15) of the cases notified. Conclusion In Portugal further studies are needed to confirm our results. From the 32 cases studied, acute Q fever presented more frequently as a febrile disease with hepatic involvement affecting mainly young male individuals. Furthermore, acute Q fever is clearly underdiagnosed and underreported in Portugal, which suggests that an increased awareness of the disease is needed, together with a broader use

  4. Bedload exports in a forest catchment following wildfire and terracing, north-central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Martinho A. S.; Machado, Ana I.; Serpa, Dalila; Prats, Sergio A.; Faria, Sílvia R.; Varela, María E. T.; González-Pelayo, Óscar; Keizer, J. Jacob

    2014-05-01

    In Portugal, the occurrences of wildfires are frequently, on average, affects some 100.000 ha of rural lands each year, but in extreme years such as 2003 and 2005 the burnt areas can go over 300.000 ha. Studies in various parts of the world, including Portugal, have well-documented a strong and sometimes extreme response in overland flow generation and associated soil losses following wildfire. Over the last two decades, the construction of terraces in preparation of a new eucalypt plantation has become increasingly common in the mountain areas of north-central Portugal, including in recently burnt areas. Terraces are traditionally viewed as a soil conservation technique, however, the present authors have measured high splash and inter-rill erosion on recent terraces and have frequently observed gully formation connecting the terraces over the full hill slope length, as well as within the adjacent unsealed roads. The present study was carried out in a forest catchment in the north-central Portugal that was burnt by a wildfire during the summer of 2010 and logged and then terraced with a bulldozer during the winter 2010. The burnt catchment of roughly 25 ha was instrumented with two subsequent flumes with maximum discharge capacities of 120 and 1700 l sec-1. The bed load that deposited in the smallest flume was removed and weighted in the field at regular intervals during the subsequent three years. The records are being now analyzed, nonetheless preliminary results suggested that, besides the wildfire effects, also post-fire land management played an important role on bedload exports.

  5. New insights into the reconstructed temperature in Portugal over the last 400 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. A.; Carneiro, M. F.; Correia, A.; Alcoforado, M. J.; Zorita, E.; Gómez-Navarro, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of an existing reconstructed annual (December-November) temperature series for the Lisbon region (Portugal) from 1600 onwards is assessed in the present study. The consistency of this series with: (1) five local borehole temperature-depth profiles; (2) synthetic temperature-depth profiles generated from both reconstructed temperatures and paleoclimate simulations in Portugal; (3) instrumental data sources over the twentieth century; and (4) temperature indices from documentary sources during the late Maunder Minimum (1675-1715) is assessed. It is found that reconstructed annual mean temperature series in Portugal, after European-wide reconstructions, is not consistent with both borehole profiles and paleoclimate simulations in their long-term variability and trends. Hence, the non-linear trend in the paleoclimate simulations is estimated and added to the reconstructed series (first-stage calibration). The annual reconstructed series is then calibrated in its location and scale parameters, using the instrumental series and a linear regression between them (second-stage calibration). The resulting calibrated series is then in clear accordance with the low-frequency variability of both borehole temperature-depth profiles and paleoclimate simulations. This calibrated series shows clear footprints of the Maunder and Dalton minima, mainly attributed to changes in solar activity and explosive volcanic eruptions, and a strong recent-past warming, attributed to human-driven forcing. Lastly, it is also in overall agreement with independently-derived annual temperature indices for the late Maunder Minimum. Thus, the series resulting of this re-calibration process for Lisbon can be of foremost relevance to improve the current understanding of the driving mechanisms of climate variability in Portugal.

  6. Climate change and pollutant emissions impacts on air quality in 2050 over Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sá, E.; Martins, H.; Ferreira, J.; Marta-Almeida, M.; Rocha, A.; Carvalho, A.; Freitas, S.; Borrego, C.

    2016-04-01

    Changes in climate and air pollutant emissions will affect future air quality from global to urban scale. In this study, regional air quality simulations for historical and future periods are conducted, with CAMx version 6.0, to investigate the impacts of future climate and anthropogenic emission projections on air quality over Portugal and the Porto metropolitan area in 2050. The climate and the emission projections were derived from the Representative Concentrations Pathways (RCP8.5) scenario. Modelling results show that climate change will impact NO2, PM10 and O3 concentrations over Portugal. The NO2 and PM10 annual means will increase in Portugal and in the Porto municipality, and the maximum 8-hr daily O3 value will increase in the Porto suburban areas (approximately 5%) and decrease in the urban area (approximately 2%). When considering climate change and projected anthropogenic emissions, the NO2 annual mean decreases (approximately 50%); PM10 annual mean will increase in Portugal and decrease in Porto municipality (approximately 13%); however PM10 and O3 levels increase and extremes occur more often, surpassing the currently legislated annual limits and displaying a higher frequency of daily exceedances. This air quality degradation is likely to be related with the trends found for the 2046-2065 climate, which implies warmer and dryer conditions, and with the increase of background concentrations of ozone and particulate matter. The results demonstrate the need for Portuguese authorities and policy-makers to design and implement air quality management strategies that take climate change impacts into account.

  7. Estimation of the Crustal Bulk Properties Beneath Mainland Portugal from P-Wave Teleseismic Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dündar, Süleyman; Dias, Nuno A.; Silveira, Graça; Kind, Rainer; Vinnik, Lev; Matias, Luís; Bianchi, Marcelo

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we present results from teleseismic P-wave receiver functions (PRFs) obtained in Portugal, Western Iberia. A dense seismic station deployment conducted between 2010 and 2012, in the scope of the WILAS project and covering the entire country, allowed the most spatially extensive probing on the bulk crustal seismic properties of Portugal up to date. The application of the H- κ stacking algorithm to the PRFs enabled us to estimate the crustal thickness ( H) and the average crustal ratio of the P- and S-waves velocities V p/ V s ( κ) for the region. Observations of Moho conversions indicate that this interface is relatively smooth with the crustal thickness ranging between 24 and 34 km, with an average of 30 km. The highest V p/ V s values are found on the Mesozoic-Cenozoic crust beneath the western and southern coastal domain of Portugal, whereas the lowest values correspond to Palaeozoic crust underlying the remaining part of the subject area. An average V p/ V s is found to be 1.72, ranging 1.63-1.86 across the study area, indicating a predominantly felsic composition. Overall, we systematically observe a decrease of V p/ V s with increasing crustal thickness. Taken as a whole, our results indicate a clear distinction between the geological zones of the Variscan Iberian Massif in Portugal, the overall shape of the anomalies conditioned by the shape of the Ibero-Armorican Arc, and associated Late Paleozoic suture zones, and the Meso-Cenozoic basin associated with Atlantic rifting stages. Thickened crust (30-34 km) across the studied region may be inherited from continental collision during the Paleozoic Variscan orogeny. An anomalous crustal thinning to around 28 km is observed beneath the central part of the Central Iberian Zone and the eastern part of South Portuguese Zone.

  8. Effects of apparent temperature on daily mortality in Lisbon and Oporto, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence that elevated temperatures can lead to increased mortality is well documented, with population vulnerability being location specific. However, very few studies have been conducted that assess the effects of temperature on daily mortality in urban areas in Portugal. Methods In this paper time-series analysis was used to model the relationship between mean apparent temperature and daily mortality during the warm season (April to September) in the two largest urban areas in Portugal: Lisbon and Oporto. We used generalized additive Poisson regression models, adjusted for day of week and season. Results Our results show that in Lisbon, a 1°C increase in mean apparent temperature is associated with a 2.1% (95%CI: 1.6, 2.5), 2.4% (95%CI: 1.7, 3.1) and 1.7% (95%CI: 0.1, 3.4) increase in all-causes, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. In Oporto the increase was 1.5% (95%CI: 1.0, 1.9), 2.1% (95%CI: 1.3, 2.9) and 2.7% (95%CI: 1.2, 4.3) respectively. In both cities, this increase was greater for the group >65 years. Conclusion Even without extremes in apparent temperature, we observed an association between temperature and daily mortality in Portugal. Additional research is needed to allow for better assessment of vulnerability within populations in Portugal in order to develop more effective heat-related morbidity and mortality public health programs. PMID:20219128

  9. Hydro-meteorological extreme events in the 18th century in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Marcelo; João Alcoforado, Maria; Taborda, João Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The present work is carried out in the frame of the KLIMHIST PROJECT ("Reconstruction and model simulations of past climate in Portugal using documentary and early instrumental sources, 17th-19th century)", and is devoted to the study of hydro-meteorological extreme events during the last 350 years, in order to understand how they have changed in time and compare them with current analogues. More specifically, the results selected to this presentation will focus on some hydro-meteorological extreme events of the 18th century, like severe droughts, heavy precipitation episodes and windstorms. One of the most noteworthy events was the winterstorm Bárbara (3rd to 6th December 1739), already studied in prior investigations (Taborda et al, 2004; Pfister et al, 2010), a devastating storm with strong impacts in Portugal caused by violent winds and heavy rainfall. Several other extreme events were detected by searching different documentary archives, including individual, administrative and ecclesiastic sources. Moreover, a more detailed insight to the 1783-1787 period will be made with regard the Lisbon region, taking into consideration the availability of information for daily meteorological observations as well as documentary evidences, like descriptions from Gazeta de Lisboa, the periodic with more continuous publication in the 18thcentury. Key-words: Instrumental data, Documentary data, Extreme events, Klimhist Project, Portugal References Pfister, C., Garnier, E., Alcoforado, M.J., Wheeler, D. Luterbacher, J. Nunes, M.F., Taborda, J.P. (2010) The meteorological framework and the cultural memory of three severe winter-storms in early eighteenth-century Europe, Climatic Change, 101, 1-2, 281-310 Taborda, JP; Alcoforado, MJ and Garcia, JC (2004) O Clima do Sul de Portugal no Séc.XVIII, Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Área de de Investigação de Geo-Ecologia, relatório no 2

  10. Impact of rosiglitazone safety alerts on oral antidiabetic sales trends: a countrywide study in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Herdeiro, Maria T; Soares, Sara; Silva, Tânia; Roque, Fátima; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2016-10-01

    Pharmacovigilance systems are important to monitor the safety of on-market drugs after approval. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of rosiglitazone safety alerts on trends in the sale of rosiglitazone and other oral antidiabetic drugs. An ecological study was conducted, using temporally aggregated data and linking safety alerts to countrywide sales of all oral antidiabetic drugs in Portugal from January 2002 to December 2012. Sales figures for oral antidiabetic drugs marketed in Portugal were supplied by IMS Health Portugal with a breakdown by active substance and fixed combinations. The number of defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day (DIDs) of each oral antidiabetic drug sold to the estimated diabetic population using oral antidiabetic drugs in Portugal was calculated. Particular attention was paid to the case of rosiglitazone, with the results being adjusted for changes in rosiglitazone reimbursement policies. A total of four safety alerts were issued about rosiglitazone. Rosiglitazone sales registered an increase of 32.9% (0.202 DIDs; P < 0.001) after the first alert (risk of macular oedema or worsening of pre-existent macular oedema) in January 2006. After subsequent alerts about cardiovascular risks, this trend was not, however, repeated and sales fell. Following the January 2006 and January 2008 safety alerts, rosiglitazone sales described a long-term downward trend, with decreases of 3.75% (-0023 DIDs; P > 0.05) and 0.24% (-0.001 DIDs; P > 0.05), respectively. It is important to promote the dissemination and publication of drug safety alerts.

  11. Ongoing outbreak of dengue type 1 in the Autonomous Region of Madeira, Portugal: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Sousa, C A; Clairouin, M; Seixas, G; Viveiros, B; Novo, M T; Silva, A C; Escoval, M T; Economopoulou, A

    2012-01-01

    Following the identification of two autochthonous cases of dengue type 1 on 3 October 2012, an outbreak of dengue fever has been reported in Madeira, Portugal. As of 25 November, 1,891 cases have been detected on the island where the vector Aedes aegypti had been established in some areas since 2005. This event represents the first epidemic of dengue fever in Europe since 1928 and concerted control measures have been initiated by local health authorities.

  12. Faunistic Inventory of Spheciformes Wasps at Three Protected Areas in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, L. C.; Oliveira, N. G.; Brewster, C. C.; Gayubo, S. F.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of considering insects in the protection of biodiversity has been recently recognized. However, despite the importance of Spheciformes wasps (Hymenoptera: Ampulicidae, Sphecidae and Crabronidae) in natural ecosystems and their potential as bioindicators, the Spheciformes communities in Portugal (part of the European biodiversity hotspot) have rarely been studied, and data for Portuguese protected areas are scarce. The Spheciformes wasp communities at 3 protected areas in Portugal, Douro International Natural Park, Serras de Aire e Candeeiros Natural Park, and Paúl do Boquilobo Nature Reserve, were studied in 2000 and 2001. During the study, 134 species of Spheciformes belonging to 3 families, Ampulicidae, Sphecidae, and Crabronidae, were identified. The species collected constituted nearly 1/3 of the species known in the Iberian Peninsula, 42 were new records for Portugal. Additionally, several specimens of 6 potentially new species were collected. Douro International Natural Park had the highest species richness, followed by Serras de Aire e Candeeiros Natural Park and Paúl do Boquilobo Nature Reserve. All the protected areas studied had species that were found exclusively at an individual protected area and species that were found to be new records for Portugal. Based on the literature review of the geographic distribution, nidification types, and prey orders, it was found that most species collected had a Euroasiatic or Mediterranean distribution, species with fossorial habits predominated, and the orders/suborders of insects preyed upon by most species were Diptera, Orthoptera, Sternorrhyncha, and Auchenorrhyncha. This study underscores the importance of including the protected areas studied in the conservation of Spheciformes diversity and also suggests that insect diversity should be studied separately, as it does not necessarily follow the same patterns as other, more studied, groups. PMID:24738990

  13. Anomalous Energetics and Dynamics of Moving Vortices.

    PubMed

    Radzihovsky, Leo

    2015-12-11

    Motivated by the general problem of moving topological defects in an otherwise ordered state and specifically, by the anomalous dynamics observed in vortex-antivortex annihilation and coarsening experiments in freely suspended smectic-C films, I study the deformation, energetics, and dynamics of moving vortices in an overdamped XY model and show that their properties are significantly and qualitatively modified by the motion. PMID:26705656

  14. Anomalous Energetics and Dynamics of Moving Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzihovsky, Leo

    2015-12-01

    Motivated by the general problem of moving topological defects in an otherwise ordered state and specifically, by the anomalous dynamics observed in vortex-antivortex annihilation and coarsening experiments in freely suspended smectic-C films, I study the deformation, energetics, and dynamics of moving vortices in an overdamped X Y model and show that their properties are significantly and qualitatively modified by the motion.

  15. Anomalous energetics and dynamics of moving vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzihovsky, Leo

    Motivated by the general problem of moving topological defects in an otherwise ordered state and specifically, by the anomalous dynamics observed in vortex-antivortex annihilation and coarsening experiments in freely-suspended smectic-C films, I study the deformation, energetics and dynamics of moving vortices in an overdamped xy-model and show that their properties are significantly and qualitatively modified by the motion. Supported by NSF through DMR-1001240, MRSEC DMR-0820579, and by Simons Investigator award from Simons Foundation.

  16. First report of canine ocular thelaziosis by Thelazia callipaeda in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Thelazia callipaeda eyeworms are transmitted by the non-biting insect vector Phortica variegata in Europe and infest the conjunctiva(s) of several mammalians, including dogs and humans. Infested hosts might remain asymptomatic or display clinical manifestations characterized by variable degrees of severity. Methods From July to November 2011, nine dogs were detected with eyeworms at two veterinary clinics in Chaves and Bragança (North of Portugal). Nematodes collected from dogs were morphologically and molecularly characterized at species level. Results Nematodes were identified as T. callipaeda. The number of worms collected from each dog ranged from three to 76 (average = 17.9 ± 26.8) and was not associated with the severity of clinical signs. Ocular discharge and conjunctivitis were observed in all dogs and ocular pruritus occurred in six of them. Polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of a portion of target cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene further identified all nematodes as haplotype 1. Conclusions This is the first report of T. callipaeda and associated ocular disease in dogs from Portugal, suggesting that thelaziosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of canine ocular affections. The risk of the infestation spreading from Spain and France to Portugal, through domestic dogs or wild mammals, is realistic. PMID:22720837

  17. Genotyping Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in Cattle, Sheep, Goats and Swine from the North of Portugal

    PubMed Central

    LOPES, Ana Patrícia; VILARES, Anabela; NETO, Francisco; RODRIGUES, Alcina; MARTINS, Tânia; FERREIRA, Idalina; GARGATÉ, Maria João; RODRIGUES, Manuela; CARDOSO, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological investigations on Toxoplasma gondii infection have found a significant association between human toxoplasmosis and consumption of raw or undercooked meat. The present study aimed to characterize genotypes of T. gondii in 20 cattle, 40 sheep, 15 goats and 16 pigs from the North of Portugal. Methods: Nested PCR amplified the surface antigen 2 (SAG2) gene. Sequencing analysis was performed in order to assess the prevalence of SAG2 type strains (I, II and III). Results: Three and 4 strains of SAG2 type II were identified in heart samples of cattle and sheep, respectively. Three SAG2 type II strains were detected in brain, diaphragm and heart of 3 pigs. Three strains detected in heart samples of 3 goats belonged to SAG2 types I or II; with the same result being observed in heart samples from 2 sheep and in 2 brain and 1 heart samples from 3 pigs. Conclusion: SAG2 type II has been shown for the first time to infect cattle in North of Portugal. In addition, SAG2 type II has also been confirmed as the predominant strain in sheep and pigs in the same region. This is the first molecular report of T. gondii in goats from Portugal. PMID:26622302

  18. Assessment of treatment systems for highway runoff pollution control in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, A E; Fernandes, J N

    2009-01-01

    Treatment systems for highway runoff pollution control are now common structures for environmental impacts reduction in Portugal. Such systems must be monitored and its performance periodically assessed, in order to understand if they are accomplishing the targets for environmental protection. Wise management decisions must incorporate the soundness of the project, the construction and maintenance costs, and the ability of the system to reduce the pollution to the level required for environmental protection. To gather, organize and analyse all the existing information concerning the constructed treatment systems, their operation, maintenance and efficiency were understood as a priority by the Portuguese Roads' Institute. The authors of this article were responsible for this 3 years study that finished in May 2008. A total of 27 different systems, corresponding to 13 different project types, located in different places in Portugal have been characterized and evaluated. Several conclusions could be drawn from the evaluation and recommendations were produced concerning the project, the construction and operation phases and the monitoring activities. The recommendations concern tasks to be performed and information that should be gathered and presented to the Portuguese Road's Institute. It is expected that these indications will contribute to improve the future practice in Portugal.

  19. Flora-On: Occurrence data of the vascular flora of mainland Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ana Júlia; Francisco, Ana; Porto, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Flora-On dataset currently includes 253,310 occurrence records for the class Embryopsidae (vascular plants), comprising data collated via the platform http://flora-on.pt/ relating to observation records of vascular plants across mainland Portugal. Observations are uploaded directly to the database primarily by experienced botanists and naturalists, typically on a weekly basis, and consist of geo-referenced data points for species (or infraspecific taxa) along with their date of observation and phenological state. The Flora-On project aims to compile and make publicly accessible chorological, ecological, morphological and photographic information for the entire vascular flora of Portugal. The project’s website offers powerful query and visualization capabilities, of which we highlight the probabilistic bioclimatic and phenological queries which operate based on the empirical density distributions of species in those variables. Flora-On was created and continues to be maintained by volunteers who are Associate members of Sociedade Portuguesa de Botânica (Botanical Society of Portugal). Given its focus on research-grade and current data, the Flora-On project represents a significant contribution to the knowledge of the present distribution and status of the Portuguese flora. PMID:27698587

  20. Flora-On: Occurrence data of the vascular flora of mainland Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ana Júlia; Francisco, Ana; Porto, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Flora-On dataset currently includes 253,310 occurrence records for the class Embryopsidae (vascular plants), comprising data collated via the platform http://flora-on.pt/ relating to observation records of vascular plants across mainland Portugal. Observations are uploaded directly to the database primarily by experienced botanists and naturalists, typically on a weekly basis, and consist of geo-referenced data points for species (or infraspecific taxa) along with their date of observation and phenological state. The Flora-On project aims to compile and make publicly accessible chorological, ecological, morphological and photographic information for the entire vascular flora of Portugal. The project’s website offers powerful query and visualization capabilities, of which we highlight the probabilistic bioclimatic and phenological queries which operate based on the empirical density distributions of species in those variables. Flora-On was created and continues to be maintained by volunteers who are Associate members of Sociedade Portuguesa de Botânica (Botanical Society of Portugal). Given its focus on research-grade and current data, the Flora-On project represents a significant contribution to the knowledge of the present distribution and status of the Portuguese flora.

  1. National Assessment of Human Health Effects of Climate Change in Portugal: Approach and Key Findings

    PubMed Central

    Casimiro, Elsa; Calheiros, Jose; Santos, Filipe Duarte; Kovats, Sari

    2006-01-01

    In this study we investigated the potential impact of climate change in Portugal on heat-related mortality, air pollution–related health effects, and selected vectorborne diseases. The assessment used climate scenarios from two regional climate models for a range of future time periods. The annual heat-related death rates in Lisbon may increase from between 5.4 and 6 per 100,000 in 1980–1998 to between 8.5 and 12.1 by the 2020s and to a maximum of 29.5 by the 2050s, if no adaptations occur. The projected warmer and more variable weather may result in better dispersion of nitrogen dioxide levels in winter, whereas the higher temperatures may reduce air quality during the warmer months by increasing tropospheric ozone levels. We estimated the future risk of zoonoses using ecologic scenarios to describe future changes in vectors and parasites. Malaria and schistosomiasis, which are currently not endemic in Portugal, are more sensitive to the introduction of infected vectors than to temperature changes. Higher temperatures may increase the transmission risk of zoonoses that are currently endemic to Portugal, such as leishmaniasis, Lyme disease, and Mediterranean spotted fever. PMID:17185290

  2. Movements of northern flying squirrels in different-aged forest stands of western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, K.J.; Anthony, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    In western Oregon, northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) are the primary prey species for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina), an old-growth associated species. To assess differences between old-growth and second-growth habitat, we livetrapped and radiotagged 39 northern flying squirrels to estimate their home range sizes and describe movements in 2 old-growth and 2 second-growth conifer forest stands in the Cascade Mountains of central Oregon. Sampling periods were summer and fall of 1991-92. Home range sizes averaged 4.9 ha and did not differ (P > 0.30) between the 2 stand types. Male northern flying squirrels had larger (P ??? 0.03) mean home ranges (5.9 ?? 0.8 ha; ?? ?? SE; n = 20) than females (3.9 ?? 0.4 ha; n = 19). Northern flying squirrel movement distances between successive, noncorrelated telemetry locations averaged 71 m (n = 1,090). No correlation was found between distances moved and stand type or sex. Northern flying squirrel's home range sizes, movements, and densities were similar between the 2 stand types. We suggest abundance and movements of northern flying squirrels are not influencing the preferential selection of oldgrowth forests by northern spotted owls.

  3. Towards a Psychological Construct of Being Moved

    PubMed Central

    Menninghaus, Winfried; Wagner, Valentin; Hanich, Julian; Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Kuehnast, Milena; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The emotional state of being moved, though frequently referred to in both classical rhetoric and current language use, is far from established as a well-defined psychological construct. In a series of three studies, we investigated eliciting scenarios, emotional ingredients, appraisal patterns, feeling qualities, and the affective signature of being moved and related emotional states. The great majority of the eliciting scenarios can be assigned to significant relationship and critical life events (especially death, birth, marriage, separation, and reunion). Sadness and joy turned out to be the two preeminent emotions involved in episodes of being moved. Both the sad and the joyful variants of being moved showed a coactivation of positive and negative affect and can thus be ranked among the mixed emotions. Moreover, being moved, while featuring only low-to-mid arousal levels, was experienced as an emotional state of high intensity; this applied to responses to fictional artworks no less than to own-life and other real, but media-represented, events. The most distinctive findings regarding cognitive appraisal dimensions were very low ratings for causation of the event by oneself and for having the power to change its outcome, along with very high ratings for appraisals of compatibility with social norms and self-ideals. Putting together the characteristics identified and discussed throughout the three studies, the paper ends with a sketch of a psychological construct of being moved. PMID:26042816

  4. Winter movements of four fish species near a thermal plume in northern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.J.; Winter, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    During winter 1975, 17 yellow perch (Perca flavescens), 6 northern pike (Esox lucius), 3 walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum), and 2 largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were equipped with radio frequency transmitters to compare their winter movements near the thermal plume of a power plant. The mean home range sizes, in hectares, were northern pike 19.0; yellow perch 13.4; largemouth bass 3.7; walleye 2.2. Northern pike and yellow perch had mean home range sizes larger than the discharge area. Mean water depths at fish locations were as follows: largemouth bass 0.8 m; northern pike 1.2 m; yellow perch 1.6 m; walleye 3.5 m. Largemouth bass preferred the warmest locations near the discharge point. Yellow perch were most often located in the peripheral areas of the discharge bay while walleyes were most often located in the deeper center area. Northern pike moved over the entire discharge area. All species except largemouth bass moved freely between discharge-affected and unaltered waters. The average numbers of movements per individual per week between heated and unheated areas were the following: northern pike 0.8; yellow perch 1.2; walleye 1.1; largemouth bass, 0.

  5. A comparison of moving object detection methods for real-time moving object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshan, Aditya; Zhang, Yun

    2014-06-01

    Moving object detection has a wide variety of applications from traffic monitoring, site monitoring, automatic theft identification, face detection to military surveillance. Many methods have been developed across the globe for moving object detection, but it is very difficult to find one which can work globally in all situations and with different types of videos. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate existing moving object detection methods which can be implemented in software on a desktop or laptop, for real time object detection. There are several moving object detection methods noted in the literature, but few of them are suitable for real time moving object detection. Most of the methods which provide for real time movement are further limited by the number of objects and the scene complexity. This paper evaluates the four most commonly used moving object detection methods as background subtraction technique, Gaussian mixture model, wavelet based and optical flow based methods. The work is based on evaluation of these four moving object detection methods using two (2) different sets of cameras and two (2) different scenes. The moving object detection methods have been implemented using MatLab and results are compared based on completeness of detected objects, noise, light change sensitivity, processing time etc. After comparison, it is observed that optical flow based method took least processing time and successfully detected boundary of moving objects which also implies that it can be implemented for real-time moving object detection.

  6. Quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from birds of prey in Portugal are genetically distinct from those isolated from water environments and gulls in Portugal, Spain and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Vredenburg, Jana; Varela, Ana Rita; Hasan, Badrul; Bertilsson, Stefan; Olsen, Björn; Narciso-da-Rocha, Carlos; Bonnedahl, Jonas; Stedt, Johan; Da Costa, Paulo Martins; Manaia, Célia M

    2014-04-01

    The influence of geographic distribution and type of habitat on the molecular epidemiology of ciprofloxacin resistant Escherichia coli was investigated. Ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli from wastewater, urban water with faecal contamination and faeces of gulls, pigeons and birds of prey, from Portugal, Spain and Sweden were compared based on multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and quinolone resistance genetic determinants. Multi-locus sequence typing allowed the differentiation of E. coli lineages associated with birds of prey from those inhabiting gulls and waters. E. coli lineages of clinical relevance, such as the complex ST131, were detected in wastewater, streams and gulls in Portugal, Spain and Sweden. Quinolone resistance was due to gyrA and parC mutations, although distinct mutations were detected in birds of prey and in wastewater, streams and gulls isolates. These differences were correlated with specific MLST lineages, suggesting resistance inheritance. Among the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, only aac(6')-ib-cr and qnrS were detected in wastewater, streams and gulls isolates, but not in birds of prey. The horizontal transfer of the gene aac(6')-ib-cr could be inferred from its occurrence in different MLST lineages. PMID:24034690

  7. Quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from birds of prey in Portugal are genetically distinct from those isolated from water environments and gulls in Portugal, Spain and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Vredenburg, Jana; Varela, Ana Rita; Hasan, Badrul; Bertilsson, Stefan; Olsen, Björn; Narciso-da-Rocha, Carlos; Bonnedahl, Jonas; Stedt, Johan; Da Costa, Paulo Martins; Manaia, Célia M

    2014-04-01

    The influence of geographic distribution and type of habitat on the molecular epidemiology of ciprofloxacin resistant Escherichia coli was investigated. Ciprofloxacin resistant E. coli from wastewater, urban water with faecal contamination and faeces of gulls, pigeons and birds of prey, from Portugal, Spain and Sweden were compared based on multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and quinolone resistance genetic determinants. Multi-locus sequence typing allowed the differentiation of E. coli lineages associated with birds of prey from those inhabiting gulls and waters. E. coli lineages of clinical relevance, such as the complex ST131, were detected in wastewater, streams and gulls in Portugal, Spain and Sweden. Quinolone resistance was due to gyrA and parC mutations, although distinct mutations were detected in birds of prey and in wastewater, streams and gulls isolates. These differences were correlated with specific MLST lineages, suggesting resistance inheritance. Among the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, only aac(6')-ib-cr and qnrS were detected in wastewater, streams and gulls isolates, but not in birds of prey. The horizontal transfer of the gene aac(6')-ib-cr could be inferred from its occurrence in different MLST lineages.

  8. Origin and Population Dynamics of a Novel HIV-1 Subtype G Clade Circulating in Cape Verde and Portugal.

    PubMed

    de Pina-Araujo, Isabel Inês M; Delatorre, Edson; Guimarães, Monick L; Morgado, Mariza G; Bello, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype G is the most prevalent and second most prevalent HIV-1 clade in Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively; but there is no information about the origin and spatiotemporal dispersal pattern of this HIV-1 clade circulating in those countries. To this end, we used Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian coalescent-based methods to analyze a collection of 578 HIV-1 subtype G pol sequences sampled throughout Portugal, Cape Verde and 11 other countries from West and Central Africa over a period of 22 years (1992 to 2013). Our analyses indicate that most subtype G sequences from Cape Verde (80%) and Portugal (95%) branched together in a distinct monophyletic cluster (here called G(CV-PT)). The G(CV-PT) clade probably emerged after a single migration of the virus out of Central Africa into Cape Verde between the late 1970s and the middle 1980s, followed by a rapid dissemination to Portugal a couple of years later. Reconstruction of the demographic history of the G(CV-PT) clade circulating in Cape Verde and Portugal indicates that this viral clade displayed an initial phase of exponential growth during the 1980s and 1990s, followed by a decline in growth rate since the early 2000s. Our data also indicate that during the exponential growth phase the G(CV-PT) clade recombined with a preexisting subtype B viral strain circulating in Portugal, originating the CRF14_BG clade that was later disseminated to Spain and Cape Verde. Historical and recent human population movements between Angola, Cape Verde and Portugal probably played a key role in the origin and dispersal of the G(CV-PT )and CRF14_BG clades.

  9. Origin and Population Dynamics of a Novel HIV-1 Subtype G Clade Circulating in Cape Verde and Portugal.

    PubMed

    de Pina-Araujo, Isabel Inês M; Delatorre, Edson; Guimarães, Monick L; Morgado, Mariza G; Bello, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype G is the most prevalent and second most prevalent HIV-1 clade in Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively; but there is no information about the origin and spatiotemporal dispersal pattern of this HIV-1 clade circulating in those countries. To this end, we used Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian coalescent-based methods to analyze a collection of 578 HIV-1 subtype G pol sequences sampled throughout Portugal, Cape Verde and 11 other countries from West and Central Africa over a period of 22 years (1992 to 2013). Our analyses indicate that most subtype G sequences from Cape Verde (80%) and Portugal (95%) branched together in a distinct monophyletic cluster (here called G(CV-PT)). The G(CV-PT) clade probably emerged after a single migration of the virus out of Central Africa into Cape Verde between the late 1970s and the middle 1980s, followed by a rapid dissemination to Portugal a couple of years later. Reconstruction of the demographic history of the G(CV-PT) clade circulating in Cape Verde and Portugal indicates that this viral clade displayed an initial phase of exponential growth during the 1980s and 1990s, followed by a decline in growth rate since the early 2000s. Our data also indicate that during the exponential growth phase the G(CV-PT) clade recombined with a preexisting subtype B viral strain circulating in Portugal, originating the CRF14_BG clade that was later disseminated to Spain and Cape Verde. Historical and recent human population movements between Angola, Cape Verde and Portugal probably played a key role in the origin and dispersal of the G(CV-PT )and CRF14_BG clades. PMID:25993094

  10. Trends of cross-border mobility of physicians and nurses between Portugal and Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Context Health workforce cross-border mobility has an impact not only on individual health workers, but also on how health services are organized, planned, and delivered. This paper presents the results of a study of current mobility trends of health professionals along the borders between Portugal and Spain. The objective was to describe the profile of mobile physicians and nurses; to elicit the opinions of employers on mobility factors; to describe incentive policies to retain or attract health professionals; and to collect and analyse employers’ opinions on the impact of this mobility on their health services. Methods Phone interviews of key informants were used to collect relevant data. The interviews were conducted during December 2010 and January 2011 in health organizations along the border of the two countries. In Portugal and Spain, four and 13 organizations were selected, respectively. Interviews were obtained in all the Portuguese organizations and in four of the Spanish organizations. Results Findings suggest that cross-border mobility between the two countries has decreased. From Spain to Portugal, mobility trends are mainly of physicians who seek professional development in the form of specialization, the availability of positions, better salaries, and the perceived good living conditions. The mobility of nurses lasted until 2008, when reforms improved working conditions in Spain and contributed to reversing the flow. Since then, there has been an increase of Portuguese nurses going to Spain seeking better working conditions or simply a job. Portuguese nurses as well as Spanish physicians are well considered in terms of professionalism and qualifications by their Spanish and Portuguese hosts, respectively. Conclusions There is a deficit of valid data on the health workforce in general. The present study allowed further exploration of the reality of the mobility trends between Portugal and Spain. At present, the mobility trends are mainly of Spanish

  11. Multivariate and Cladistic Analyses of Isolated Teeth Reveal Sympatry of Theropod Dinosaurs in the Late Jurassic of Northern Germany

    PubMed Central

    Gerke, Oliver; Wings, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Remains of theropod dinosaurs are very rare in Northern Germany because the area was repeatedly submerged by a shallow epicontinental sea during the Mesozoic. Here, 80 Late Jurassic theropod teeth are described of which the majority were collected over decades from marine carbonates in nowadays abandoned and backfilled quarries of the 19th century. Eighteen different morphotypes (A—R) could be distinguished and 3D models based on micro-CT scans of the best examples of all morphotypes are included as supplements. The teeth were identified with the assistance of discriminant function analysis and cladistic analysis based on updated datamatrices. The results show that a large variety of theropod groups were present in the Late Jurassic of northern Germany. Identified specimens comprise basal Tyrannosauroidea, as well as Allosauroidea, Megalosauroidea cf. Marshosaurus, Megalosauridae cf. Torvosaurus and probably Ceratosauria. The formerly reported presence of Dromaeosauridae in the Late Jurassic of northern Germany could not be confirmed. Some teeth of this study resemble specimens described as pertaining to Carcharodontosauria (morphotype A) and Abelisauridae (morphotype K). This interpretation is however, not supported by discriminant function analysis and cladistic analysis. Two smaller morphotypes (N and Q) differ only in some probably size-related characteristics from larger morphotypes (B and C) and could well represent juveniles of adult specimens. The similarity of the northern German theropods with groups from contemporaneous localities suggests faunal exchange via land-connections in the Late Jurassic between Germany, Portugal and North America. PMID:27383054

  12. Multivariate and Cladistic Analyses of Isolated Teeth Reveal Sympatry of Theropod Dinosaurs in the Late Jurassic of Northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Gerke, Oliver; Wings, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Remains of theropod dinosaurs are very rare in Northern Germany because the area was repeatedly submerged by a shallow epicontinental sea during the Mesozoic. Here, 80 Late Jurassic theropod teeth are described of which the majority were collected over decades from marine carbonates in nowadays abandoned and backfilled quarries of the 19th century. Eighteen different morphotypes (A-R) could be distinguished and 3D models based on micro-CT scans of the best examples of all morphotypes are included as supplements. The teeth were identified with the assistance of discriminant function analysis and cladistic analysis based on updated datamatrices. The results show that a large variety of theropod groups were present in the Late Jurassic of northern Germany. Identified specimens comprise basal Tyrannosauroidea, as well as Allosauroidea, Megalosauroidea cf. Marshosaurus, Megalosauridae cf. Torvosaurus and probably Ceratosauria. The formerly reported presence of Dromaeosauridae in the Late Jurassic of northern Germany could not be confirmed. Some teeth of this study resemble specimens described as pertaining to Carcharodontosauria (morphotype A) and Abelisauridae (morphotype K). This interpretation is however, not supported by discriminant function analysis and cladistic analysis. Two smaller morphotypes (N and Q) differ only in some probably size-related characteristics from larger morphotypes (B and C) and could well represent juveniles of adult specimens. The similarity of the northern German theropods with groups from contemporaneous localities suggests faunal exchange via land-connections in the Late Jurassic between Germany, Portugal and North America.

  13. Multivariate and Cladistic Analyses of Isolated Teeth Reveal Sympatry of Theropod Dinosaurs in the Late Jurassic of Northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Gerke, Oliver; Wings, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Remains of theropod dinosaurs are very rare in Northern Germany because the area was repeatedly submerged by a shallow epicontinental sea during the Mesozoic. Here, 80 Late Jurassic theropod teeth are described of which the majority were collected over decades from marine carbonates in nowadays abandoned and backfilled quarries of the 19th century. Eighteen different morphotypes (A-R) could be distinguished and 3D models based on micro-CT scans of the best examples of all morphotypes are included as supplements. The teeth were identified with the assistance of discriminant function analysis and cladistic analysis based on updated datamatrices. The results show that a large variety of theropod groups were present in the Late Jurassic of northern Germany. Identified specimens comprise basal Tyrannosauroidea, as well as Allosauroidea, Megalosauroidea cf. Marshosaurus, Megalosauridae cf. Torvosaurus and probably Ceratosauria. The formerly reported presence of Dromaeosauridae in the Late Jurassic of northern Germany could not be confirmed. Some teeth of this study resemble specimens described as pertaining to Carcharodontosauria (morphotype A) and Abelisauridae (morphotype K). This interpretation is however, not supported by discriminant function analysis and cladistic analysis. Two smaller morphotypes (N and Q) differ only in some probably size-related characteristics from larger morphotypes (B and C) and could well represent juveniles of adult specimens. The similarity of the northern German theropods with groups from contemporaneous localities suggests faunal exchange via land-connections in the Late Jurassic between Germany, Portugal and North America. PMID:27383054

  14. Fusion moves for Markov random field optimization.

    PubMed

    Lempitsky, Victor; Rother, Carsten; Roth, Stefan; Blake, Andrew

    2010-08-01

    The efficient application of graph cuts to Markov Random Fields (MRFs) with multiple discrete or continuous labels remains an open question. In this paper, we demonstrate one possible way of achieving this by using graph cuts to combine pairs of suboptimal labelings or solutions. We call this combination process the fusion move. By employing recently developed graph-cut-based algorithms (so-called QPBO-graph cut), the fusion move can efficiently combine two proposal labelings in a theoretically sound way, which is in practice often globally optimal. We demonstrate that fusion moves generalize many previous graph-cut approaches, which allows them to be used as building blocks within a broader variety of optimization schemes than were considered before. In particular, we propose new optimization schemes for computer vision MRFs with applications to image restoration, stereo, and optical flow, among others. Within these schemes the fusion moves are used 1) for the parallelization of MRF optimization into several threads, 2) for fast MRF optimization by combining cheap-to-compute solutions, and 3) for the optimization of highly nonconvex continuous-labeled MRFs with 2D labels. Our final example is a nonvision MRF concerned with cartographic label placement, where fusion moves can be used to improve the performance of a standard inference method (loopy belief propagation).

  15. Nonuniform Video Size Reduction for Moving Objects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Moving objects of interest (MOOIs) in surveillance videos are detected and encapsulated by bounding boxes. Since moving objects are defined by temporal activities through the consecutive video frames, it is necessary to examine a group of frames (GoF) to detect the moving objects. To do that, the traces of moving objects in the GoF are quantified by forming a spatiotemporal gradient map (STGM) through the GoF. Each pixel value in the STGM corresponds to the maximum temporal gradient of the spatial gradients at the same pixel location for all frames in the GoF. Therefore, the STGM highlights boundaries of the MOOI in the GoF and the optimal bounding box encapsulating the MOOI can be determined as the local areas with the peak average STGM energy. Once an MOOI and its bounding box are identified, the inside and outside of it can be treated differently for object-aware size reduction. Our optimal encapsulation method for the MOOI in the surveillance videos makes it possible to recognize the moving objects even after the low bitrate video compressions. PMID:25258738

  16. Camouflage, detection and identification of moving targets

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Joanna R.; Cuthill, Innes C.; Baddeley, Roland; Shohet, Adam J.; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all research on camouflage has investigated its effectiveness for concealing stationary objects. However, animals have to move, and patterns that only work when the subject is static will heavily constrain behaviour. We investigated the effects of different camouflages on the three stages of predation—detection, identification and capture—in a computer-based task with humans. An initial experiment tested seven camouflage strategies on static stimuli. In line with previous literature, background-matching and disruptive patterns were found to be most successful. Experiment 2 showed that if stimuli move, an isolated moving object on a stationary background cannot avoid detection or capture regardless of the type of camouflage. Experiment 3 used an identification task and showed that while camouflage is unable to slow detection or capture, camouflaged targets are harder to identify than uncamouflaged targets when similar background objects are present. The specific details of the camouflage patterns have little impact on this effect. If one has to move, camouflage cannot impede detection; but if one is surrounded by similar targets (e.g. other animals in a herd, or moving background distractors), then camouflage can slow identification. Despite previous assumptions, motion does not entirely ‘break’ camouflage. PMID:23486439

  17. ELECTROMAGNETIC APPARATUS FOR MOVING A ROD

    DOEpatents

    Young, J.N.

    1957-08-20

    An electromagnetic device for moving an object in a linear path by increments is described. The device is specifically adapted for moving a neutron absorbing control rod into and out of the core of a reactor and consists essentially of an extension member made of magnetic material connected to one end of the control rod and mechanically flexible to grip the walls of a sleeve member when flexed, a magnetic sleeve member coaxial with and slidable between limit stops along the flexible extension, electromagnetic coils substantially centrally located with respect to the flexible extension to flex the extension member into gripping engagement with the sleeve member when ener gized, moving electromagnets at each end of the sleeve to attract the sleeve when energized, and a second gripping electromagnet positioned along the flexible extension at a distance from the previously mentioned electromagnets for gripping the extension member when energized. In use, the second gripping electromagnet is deenergized, the first gripping electromagnet is energized to fix the extension member in the sleeve, and one of the moving electromagnets is energized to attract the sleeve member toward it, thereby moving the control rod.

  18. Moving Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yucong

    There has been a vast increase in applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in civilian domains. To operate in the civilian airspace, a UAV must be able to sense and avoid both static and moving obstacles for flight safety. While indoor and low-altitude environments are mainly occupied by static obstacles, risks in space of higher altitude primarily come from moving obstacles such as other aircraft or flying vehicles in the airspace. Therefore, the ability to avoid moving obstacles becomes a necessity for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Towards enabling a UAV to autonomously sense and avoid moving obstacles, this thesis makes the following contributions. Initially, an image-based reactive motion planner is developed for a quadrotor to avoid a fast approaching obstacle. Furthermore, A Dubin's curve based geometry method is developed as a global path planner for a fixed-wing UAV to avoid collisions with aircraft. The image-based method is unable to produce an optimal path and the geometry method uses a simplified UAV model. To compensate these two disadvantages, a series of algorithms built upon the Closed-Loop Rapid Exploratory Random Tree are developed as global path planners to generate collision avoidance paths in real time. The algorithms are validated in Software-In-the-Loop (SITL) and Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulations using a fixed-wing UAV model and in real flight experiments using quadrotors. It is observed that the algorithm enables a UAV to avoid moving obstacles approaching to it with different directions and speeds.

  19. Maxwell Equations for Slow-Moving Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozov, Andrey

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, the Minkowski equations obtained on the basis of theory of relativity are used to describe electromagnetic fields in moving media. But important electromagnetic processes run under non-relativistic conditions of slow-moving media. Therefore, one should carry out its description in terms of classical mechanics. Hertz derived electrodynamic equations for moving media within the frame of classical mechanics on the basis of the Maxwell theory. His equations disagree with the experimental data concerned with the moving dielectrics. In the paper, a way of description of electromagnetic fields in slow-moving media on the basis of the Maxwell theory within the frame of classical mechanics is offered by combining the Hertz approach and the experimental data concerned with the movement of dielectrics in electromagnetic fields. Received Maxwell equations lack asymmetry in the description of the reciprocal electrodynamic action of a magnet and a conductor and conform to known experimental data. Comparative analysis of the Minkowski and Maxwell models is carried out.

  20. Camouflage, detection and identification of moving targets.

    PubMed

    Hall, Joanna R; Cuthill, Innes C; Baddeley, Roland; Shohet, Adam J; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E

    2013-05-01

    Nearly all research on camouflage has investigated its effectiveness for concealing stationary objects. However, animals have to move, and patterns that only work when the subject is static will heavily constrain behaviour. We investigated the effects of different camouflages on the three stages of predation-detection, identification and capture-in a computer-based task with humans. An initial experiment tested seven camouflage strategies on static stimuli. In line with previous literature, background-matching and disruptive patterns were found to be most successful. Experiment 2 showed that if stimuli move, an isolated moving object on a stationary background cannot avoid detection or capture regardless of the type of camouflage. Experiment 3 used an identification task and showed that while camouflage is unable to slow detection or capture, camouflaged targets are harder to identify than uncamouflaged targets when similar background objects are present. The specific details of the camouflage patterns have little impact on this effect. If one has to move, camouflage cannot impede detection; but if one is surrounded by similar targets (e.g. other animals in a herd, or moving background distractors), then camouflage can slow identification. Despite previous assumptions, motion does not entirely 'break' camouflage. PMID:23486439

  1. Survey for Newcastle disease virus in northern Queensland birds.

    PubMed

    Garnett, S T; Flanagan, M

    1989-05-01

    Of 1,235 individual birds from 130 species tested for haemagglutinating virus and/or NDV antibody in far northern Queensland, none gave a positive response. On available evidence pittas and rainforest pigeons are considered the species most likely to bring virulent NDV into Australia followed by gulls and night herons which move between dense seabird breeding colonies and other avian communities. Both can easily be monitored by strategic sampling along migratory pathways or at breeding islands. Wild parrots, waterfowl and migratory waders appear to present a minimal threat. PMID:2735890

  2. Telemedicine in northern Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Roberge, F. A.; Pagé, G.; Sylvestre, J.; Chahlaoui, J.

    1982-01-01

    Television transmission of diagnostic and educational information can help to improve specialized medical care in remote and underserviced areas. This paper describes a pilot study in which the Canadian satellite Anik-B was used to link the James Bay area in northern Quebec with two large Montreal teaching hospitals. Broad-band real-time television was well suited for tele-education and teleconsultation activities. A much less costly method, using narrow-band slow-scan television, was also examined, but it requires improvements. The technology of telemedicine is in place, but its future use is impeded by the prohibitive costs of operating an efficient two-way broad-band television system for several remote health care sites. A solution to this problem may be an intermediate-band system combining some of the low-cost features of narrowband slow-scan television with the interactive high-resolution advantages of broad-band real-time television. PMID:7139483

  3. Young Adult Migration from a Northern Plains Indian Reservation: Who Stays and Who Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Croy, Calvin D.; Mitchell, Christina M.; Bezdek, Marjorie; Spicer, Paul

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated how ambitions, community ties, monetary sufficiency, employment, and alcohol consumption related to whether young American Indian adults had moved from their Northern Plains reservation. Of 518 Northern Plains reservation residents in 1993, we located 472 in 2003-2005 and found that 89 lived more than a four-hour drive from the reservation. Coding the 472 as to whether they had stayed on/near the reservation or moved away, we ran logistic regressions on data they reported in 1996 to determine which demographic and attitudinal variables were associated with having moved. We found ambitions and goals were more associated with moving away than were ties to the community, which in turn were more related than monetary and personal characteristics that promote independence and prosperity. The more importance they placed on getting a good education or carrying on the tribe’s traditions, the more likely they were to have moved away. We found too that the odds of moving away decreased with greater alcohol consumption. Tribal council members and college administrators therefore may wish to promote policies that increase opportunities for young adults to achieve higher education goals while remaining on reservation to carry on tribal traditions. Benefits may also come from encouraging and assisting reservation members studying off-reservation to return after completing their education. These findings would argue too for greater investment in alcohol services for reservation-dwelling populations. PMID:20161560

  4. Young Adult Migration from a Northern Plains Indian Reservation: Who Stays and Who Leaves.

    PubMed

    Croy, Calvin D; Mitchell, Christina M; Bezdek, Marjorie; Spicer, Paul

    2009-10-01

    We evaluated how ambitions, community ties, monetary sufficiency, employment, and alcohol consumption related to whether young American Indian adults had moved from their Northern Plains reservation. Of 518 Northern Plains reservation residents in 1993, we located 472 in 2003-2005 and found that 89 lived more than a four-hour drive from the reservation. Coding the 472 as to whether they had stayed on/near the reservation or moved away, we ran logistic regressions on data they reported in 1996 to determine which demographic and attitudinal variables were associated with having moved. We found ambitions and goals were more associated with moving away than were ties to the community, which in turn were more related than monetary and personal characteristics that promote independence and prosperity. The more importance they placed on getting a good education or carrying on the tribe's traditions, the more likely they were to have moved away. We found too that the odds of moving away decreased with greater alcohol consumption. Tribal council members and college administrators therefore may wish to promote policies that increase opportunities for young adults to achieve higher education goals while remaining on reservation to carry on tribal traditions. Benefits may also come from encouraging and assisting reservation members studying off-reservation to return after completing their education. These findings would argue too for greater investment in alcohol services for reservation-dwelling populations. PMID:20161560

  5. Moving mass trim control for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinett, R. D.; Rainwater, B. A.; Kerr, S. A.

    A moving mass trim controller increases the accuracy of axisymmetric, ballistic vehicles. The MMTC is different than other moving mass schemes because it generates an angle-of-attack (AOA) directly from the mass motion. The nonlinear equations of motion for a ballistic vehicle with one moving point mass are derived and provide the basis for a detailed simulation model. The full nonlinear equations are linearized to produce a set of linear, time-varying autopilot equations. These autopilot equations are analyzed and used to develop theoretical design tools for the creation of MMTC's for both fast and slow spinning vehicles. A fast spinning MMTC is designed for a generic artillery rocket that uses principal axis misalignment to generate trim AOA. A slow spinning is designed for a generic reentry vehicle that generates a trim AOA with a center of mass offset and aerodynamic drag. The performance of both MMTC's are evaluated with the detailed simulation.

  6. A Note on Trapping Moving Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Hsiao C.

    2000-01-01

    The topic of stationary configurations of point vortices, also known as vortex equilibrium, has received considerable attention in recent years. By observing numerical results, it is found that a "counterpart" of this system also exists, in which moving vortices may be "trapped" by an inlet-like device to form a stationary pattern with no translational motion. After an intuitive explanation for the process, vortex trajectory maps based on numerical results are presented. These maps exhibit two stationary points under the present conditions, which are the focal points of vortex trajectories. A vortex upstream of these points, if within a certain offset range, will move towards these points spontaneously and be captured there. This proposed device is also capable of trapping spinning vortex pairs and triads. It is possible to impose a uniform stream at infinity, as long as the flow field is still dominated by the moving vortices.

  7. Functional imaging in freely moving animals.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Jason N D; Nimmerjahn, Axel

    2012-02-01

    Uncovering the relationships between animal behavior and cellular activity in the brain has been one of the key aims of neuroscience research for decades, and still remains so. Electrophysiological approaches have enabled sparse sampling from electrically excitable cells in freely moving animals that has led to the identification of important phenomena such as place, grid and head-direction cells. Optical imaging in combination with newly developed labeling approaches now allows minimally invasive and comprehensive sampling from dense networks of electrically and chemically excitable cells such as neurons and glia during self-determined behavior. To achieve this two main imaging avenues have been followed: Optical recordings in head-restrained, mobile animals and miniature microscope-bearing freely moving animals. Here we review progress made toward functional cellular imaging in freely moving rodents, focusing on developments over the past few years. We discuss related challenges and biological applications.

  8. Representation, indexing, and retrieval of moving objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Huanzhuo; Gong, Jianya; Li, Deren; Pan, Jianping; Chen, Yumin

    2003-12-01

    Moving objects are complicated to manage because they involve temporal attributes as well as spatial attributes. There are two methods to represent the motion of moving objects, function method and sampling method. Motion state modeling, based on sampling method, can give object's position, orientation and their changes at a specific epoch, and encapsulates all the calculation by object orientation method. A big job is to search the motion state vectors efficiently, which can be performed with the help of 2n index trees. 2n index tree is an efficient index method to multi-dimensional data. Different kinds of motion data retrieval can be transformed to basic searching in 2n index trees. With proper operation algorithm, 2n index trees work well with the indexing and retrieval of moving objects.

  9. Motion planning for multiple moving objects

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.K.

    1995-05-01

    We present a motion planner for multiple moving objects in two dimensions. The search for collision-free paths is performed in the composite configuration space of all the moving objects to guarantee a solution, and the efficiency of our planner is demonstrated with examples. Our motion planner can be characterized with a hierarchical, multi-resolution search of the configuration space along with a generate-and-test paradigm for solution paths. Because of the high dimensionality of the composite configuration space, our planner is most useful for cases with a small number of moving objects. Some of the potential applications are navigation of several mobile robots, and planning part motions for a multi-handed assembly operation.

  10. Detecting slow moving targets in SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnehan, Robert; Perlovsky, Leonid; Mutz, Chris W.; Schindler, John

    2004-08-01

    Ground moving target indication (GMTI) radars can detect slow-moving targets if their velocities are high enough to produce distinguishable Doppler frequencies. However, no reliable technique is currently available to detect targets that fall below the minimum detectable velocity (MDV) of GMTI radars. In synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, detection of moving targets is difficult because of target smear due to motion, which could make low-RCS targets fall below stationary ground clutter. Several techniques for SAR imaging of moving targets have been discussed in the literature. These techniques require sufficient signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) and adequate MDV for pre-detection. Other techniques require complex changes in hardware. Extracting the maximum information from SAR image data is possible using adaptive, model-based approaches. However, these approaches lead to computational complexity, which exceeds current processing power for more than a single object in an image. This combinatorial complexity is due to the need for having to consider a large number of combinations between multiple target models and the data, while estimating unknown parameters of the target models. We are developing a technique for detecting slow-moving targets in SAR images with low signal-to-clutter ratio, without minimal velocity requirements, and without combinatorial complexity. This paper briefly summarizes the difficulties related to current model-based detection algorithms. A new concept, dynamic logic, is introduced along with an algorithm suitable for the detection of very slow-moving targets in SAR images. This new mathematical technique is inspired by the analysis of biological systems, like the human brain, which combines conceptual understanding with emotional evaluation and overcomes the combinatorial complexity of model-based techniques.

  11. Reproductive strategies of northern geese: Why wait?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, C.R.; Bollinger, K.S.; Densmore, R.V.; Rothe, T.C.; Petrula, M.J.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Orthmeyer, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    Migration and reproductive strategies in waterbirds are tightly linked, with timing of arrival and onset of nesting having important consequences for reproductive success. Whether migratory waterbirds are capital or income breeders is predicated by their spring migration schedule, how long they are on breeding areas before nesting, and how adapted they are to exploiting early spring foods at northern breeding areas. However, for most species, we know little about individual migration schedules, arrival times, and duration of residence on breeding areas before nesting. To document these relationships in a northern nesting goose, we radiotracked winter-marked Tule Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons elgasi; hereafter “Tule Geese”; n = 116) from the time of their arrival in Alaska through nesting. Tule Geese arrived on coastal feeding areas in mid-April and moved to nesting locations a week later. They initiated nests 15 days (range: 6–24 days) after arrival, a period roughly equivalent to the duration of rapid follicle growth. Tule Geese that arrived the earliest were more likely to nest than geese that arrived later; early arrivals also spent more time on the breeding grounds and nested earlier than geese that arrived later. The length of the prenesting period was comparable to that of other populations of this species, but longer than for goose species that initiate rapid follicle growth before arrival on the breeding grounds. We suggest that Tule Geese nesting in more temperate climates are more likely to delay breeding to exploit local food resources than Arctic-nesting species that may be constrained by short growing seasons.

  12. ELECTROMAGNETIC APPARATUS FOR MOVING A ROD

    DOEpatents

    Young, J.N.

    1958-04-22

    An electromagnetic apparatus for moving a rod-like member in small steps in either direction is described. The invention has particular application in the reactor field where the reactor control rods must be moved only a small distance and where the use of mechanical couplings is impractical due to the high- pressure seals required. A neutron-absorbing rod is mounted in a housing with gripping uaits that engage the rod, and coils for magnetizing the gripping units to make them grip, shift, and release the rod are located outside the housing.

  13. Noninterferometric topography measurements of fast moving surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pinhasi, Shirly Vinikman; Eliezer, Shalom; Glam, Benny; Appelbaum, Gabi; Bakshi, Lior

    2011-08-01

    The topography of moving surfaces is recovered by noninterferometric measurements. The phase reconstruction is derived by measuring the intensities of a backscattered pulsed laser light and solving the transport intensity equation (TIE). The TIE is solved by expanding the phase into a series of Zernike polynomials, leading to a set of appropriate algebraic equations. This technique, which enables us to make a direct connection between experiments and the TIE, has been successfully tested in gas gun experiments. In particular, the topographies of a moving projectile and the free surface of a shocked target were recovered. PMID:21811317

  14. The Afrotropical Miomantis caffra Saussure 1871 and Miomantis paykullii Stal 1871: first records of alien mantid species in Portugal and Europe, with an updated checklist of Mantodea in Portugal (Insecta: Mantodea)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The recent growing interest on the Mantodea fauna of southern Europe and Portugal in particular, has enabled the discovery of two geographically separated populations of hitherto unknown species in Europe. Analysis of specimens shows that they belong to two Afrotropical mantids: Miomantis caffra Saussure, 1871 and Miomantis paykullii Stal, 1871, thus raising the number of known species in Europe to 39 and in Portugal to 11. While these are remarkable findings, they also represent the first alien mantis species recorded from this continent. As yet, these species appear to be confined to artificial humanised gardened areas but call for more attention to the problem of biological invasions and the need for better bio-security measures for the conservation of natural ecosystems. In the absence of recent revisionary work on the Mantodea of Portugal and given the need to provide an accessible identification tool, both a checklist and a key to species are provided for all species in the country. PMID:25425938

  15. 25 CFR 700.171 - Fixed payment for moving expenses-nonresidential moves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Moving and Related Expenses, Temporary Emergency Moves § 700.171 Fixed... less than $2,500 nor more than $10,000. A nonprofit organization which meets the applicable... a substantial change in the nature of the farm operation. (e) Nonprofit organization. A...

  16. 25 CFR 700.171 - Fixed payment for moving expenses-nonresidential moves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Moving and Related Expenses, Temporary Emergency Moves § 700.171 Fixed... less than $2,500 nor more than $10,000. A nonprofit organization which meets the applicable... a substantial change in the nature of the farm operation. (e) Nonprofit organization. A...

  17. 25 CFR 700.171 - Fixed payment for moving expenses-nonresidential moves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Moving and Related Expenses, Temporary Emergency Moves § 700.171 Fixed... less than $2,500 nor more than $10,000. A nonprofit organization which meets the applicable... a substantial change in the nature of the farm operation. (e) Nonprofit organization. A...

  18. Real-time detection of moving objects from moving vehicles using dense stereo and optical flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talukder, Ashit; Matthies, Larry

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic scene perception is very important for autonomous vehicles operating around other moving vehicles and humans. Most work on real-time object tracking from moving platforms has used sparse features or assumed flat scene structures. We have recently extended a real-time, dense stereo system to include real-time, dense optical flow, enabling more comprehensive dynamic scene analysis. We describe algorithms to robustly estimate 6-DOF robot egomotion in the presence of moving objects using dense flow and dense stereo. We then use dense stereo and egomotion estimates to identity other moving objects while the robot itself is moving. We present results showing accurate egomotion estimation and detection of moving people and vehicles under general 6-DOF motion of the robot and independently moving objects. The system runs at 18.3 Hz on a 1.4 GHz Pentium M laptop, computing 160x120 disparity maps and optical flow fields, egomotion, and moving object segmentation. We believe this is a significant step toward general unconstrained dynamic scene analysis for mobile robots, as well as for improved position estimation where GPS is unavailable.

  19. Real-time detection of moving objects from moving vehicles using dense stereo and optical flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talukder, Ashit; Matthies, Larry

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic scene perception is very important for autonomous vehicles operating around other moving vehicles and humans. Most work on real-time object tracking from moving platforms has used sparse features or assumed flat scene structures. We have recently extended a real-time, dense stereo system to include realtime, dense optical flow, enabling more comprehensive dynamic scene analysis. We describe algorithms to robustly estimate 6-DOF robot egomotion in the presence of moving objects using dense flow and dense stereo. We then use dense stereo and egomotion estimates to identify & other moving objects while the robot itself is moving. We present results showing accurate egomotion estimation and detection of moving people and vehicles under general 6-DOF motion of the robot and independently moving objects. The system runs at 18.3 Hz on a 1.4 GHz Pentium M laptop, computing 160x120 disparity maps and optical flow fields, egomotion, and moving object segmentation. We believe this is a significant step toward general unconstrained dynamic scene analysis for mobile robots, as well as for improved position estimation where GPS is unavailable.

  20. Real-time Detection of Moving Objects from Moving Vehicles Using Dense Stereo and Optical Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talukder, Ashit; Matthies, Larry

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic scene perception is very important for autonomous vehicles operating around other moving vehicles and humans. Most work on real-time object tracking from moving platforms has used sparse features or assumed flat scene structures. We have recently extended a real-time. dense stereo system to include realtime. dense optical flow, enabling more comprehensive dynamic scene analysis. We describe algorithms to robustly estimate 6-DOF robot egomotion in the presence of moving objects using dense flow and dense stereo. We then use dense stereo and egomotion estimates to identify other moving objects while the robot itself is moving. We present results showing accurate egomotion estimation and detection of moving people and vehicles under general 6DOF motion of the robot and independently moving objects. The system runs at 18.3 Hz on a 1.4 GHz Pentium M laptop. computing 160x120 disparity maps and optical flow fields, egomotion, and moving object segmentation. We believe this is a significant step toward general unconstrained dynamic scene analysis for mobile robots, as well as for improved position estimation where GPS is unavailable.

  1. 76 FR 71080 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests: Let's Move Museums, Let's Move Gardens

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Move Gardens AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library Services, National Foundation for the Arts and the... initiative. The intent of the collection: Develop a list of museums and gardens that are interested in... gardens into the Let's Move effort and enable them to share information about their activities...

  2. First survey for Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina infection in cattle from Central and Southern regions of Portugal using serological and DNA detection methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incidence of bovine babesiosis in Portugal is currently unknown. In this study, a first survey of Babesia bovis and B. bigemina infection in cattle was carried out using blood samples from 406 clinically healthy individuals from different districts from Central and Southern regions of Portugal and a...

  3. "Houses and Fields and Vineyards Shall Yet Again Be Bought in This Land": The Story of Ana, a Public Kindergarten Teacher in Portugal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasconcelos, Teresa Maria Sena

    This study examined the teaching style and methods of Ana, a kindergarten teacher in Portugal, chosen because she is considered a master teacher by colleagues and parents and because she grew up in Portugal before democracy. The study attempted to answer the questions: (1) What are the commitments and competencies that distinguish Ana as a master…

  4. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  5. Tornadoes Strike Northern Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.

  6. Use of moving interference fringes for holographic recording onto a moving storage medium.

    PubMed

    Tatemichi, H; Yamamoto, M

    1993-07-10

    We describe a feasibility study of a multiplexed holographic recording method onto a moving storage medium by using moving interference fringes caused by diffracted light beams that are generated from an acousto-optic deflector (AOD). The AOD, driven by amplitude-modulated electric signals, generates several diffracted beams with different frequencies because of Doppler shifting by AOD driving-frequency components. The interference between the beams results in a nonstationary light intensity distribution, i.e., a moving interference fringe. Its velocity is reduced by an image-reduction optical system, and the storage medium is moved at the same velocity as the fringe motion at the image-formation point. This compensates for a reduction of visibility with the movement of the medium, so a holographic recording onto a moving medium can be achieved. In addition, angular multiplexing is achieved by switching the AOD driving frequencies. PMID:20829997

  7. The effect of monocular depth cues on the detection of moving objects by moving observers.

    PubMed

    Royden, Constance S; Parsons, Daniel; Travatello, Joshua

    2016-07-01

    An observer moving through the world must be able to identify and locate moving objects in the scene. In principle, one could accomplish this task by detecting object images moving at a different angle or speed than the images of other items in the optic flow field. While angle of motion provides an unambiguous cue that an object is moving relative to other items in the scene, a difference in speed could be due to a difference in the depth of the objects and thus is an ambiguous cue. We tested whether the addition of information about the distance of objects from the observer, in the form of monocular depth cues, aided detection of moving objects. We found that thresholds for detection of object motion decreased as we increased the number of depth cues available to the observer.

  8. The effect of monocular depth cues on the detection of moving objects by moving observers.

    PubMed

    Royden, Constance S; Parsons, Daniel; Travatello, Joshua

    2016-07-01

    An observer moving through the world must be able to identify and locate moving objects in the scene. In principle, one could accomplish this task by detecting object images moving at a different angle or speed than the images of other items in the optic flow field. While angle of motion provides an unambiguous cue that an object is moving relative to other items in the scene, a difference in speed could be due to a difference in the depth of the objects and thus is an ambiguous cue. We tested whether the addition of information about the distance of objects from the observer, in the form of monocular depth cues, aided detection of moving objects. We found that thresholds for detection of object motion decreased as we increased the number of depth cues available to the observer. PMID:27264029

  9. Ongoing Climatic Changes in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, P. Ya.; Bulygina, O. N.; Razuvaev, V. N.; Meshcherskaya, A. V.; Ivanov, S. V.; Akhmadiyeva, Zh. K.; Speranskaya, N. A.; Zhai, P.; Shein, K.

    2009-04-01

    Northern Eurasia is the region where the contemporary warming and associated climatic and environmental changes are among the most pronounced globally, with winter temperature increased by more than 2K and summer temperature by 1.35K during the period of instrumental observations since 1881. The summer warming is a new phenomenon observed during the past several decades. Summer temperature controls most of vegetation in the polar region, where surface radiation balance (SRB) is positive only for a short period of the year. But, in the middle of this period, it exceeds the SRB values in Sahara or southern California. North of the Eurasian coast, the Arctic Ocean is moving to perennial ice-free conditions and has already lost nearly half of its end-of-summer extent since the late 1970s. This changes the regional albedo and dramatically affects the cold season heat fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere. Thus, Northern Eurasia and, particularly, its Arctic part is being affected by global and regional factors that are contributing to these observed changes and the positive feedbacks to this forcing may further exaggerate the situation. Climatic changes over Northern Eurasia during the 20th century have been reflected in many atmospheric and terrestrial variables. These include various snow cover, agricultural and phenological characteristics, temperature and precipitation changes, as well as changes in derived variables of economic, social and ecological interest. Among these variables are the frequency of extremes in precipitation and temperature; frequency and duration of no-rain periods; agricultural and hydrological droughts; frequency of thaws and days with severe fire danger; heating degree days; growing season duration; sum of temperatures above/below a given threshold; days without frost; day-to-day temperature variability; precipitation frequency; and precipitation type fraction. We shall systematically present these changes observed during the past 50 to

  10. Investigating recent trends in the rainfall structure: an overview across Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, M. I. P.; Coelho, M. F. E. S.; Carvalho, S. C. P.; de Lima, J. L. M. P.

    2009-09-01

    The spatial and temporal structure of rain, which typically exhibits extreme variability, is a core issue in studies that span a number of research areas, e.g. hydrology, hydraulics, environment, energy, economics, society. The interest in this process demands its comprehensive study and characterization at a variety of space- and time-scales. Local studies of the rainfall climate can play an important role as they may contribute to characterizing rainfall. In this work the study area is mainland Portugal. Mainland Portugal is located in the transitional region between the sub-tropical anticyclone and the sub-polar depression zones. The characteristics of global circulation (specifically the Atlantic origin of many synoptic disturbances such as seasonal movements of the Azores high pressure system) in the context of regional geography (e.g. latitude, orography, oceanic and continental influences) greatly influence the spatial distribution of precipitation over the territory. The climatic variables exhibit strong north-south and west-east gradients, and precipitation also exhibits strong seasonal variability. The dominant climate in mainland Portugal is mild Mediterranean with a warm, dry summer period. These characteristics are more pronounced in the south, where the climate is sometimes classified as semi-arid. These regions are also well known for their vulnerability to climate variability. Several studies have reported increased rainfall variability in recent years, largely on the basis of annual and monthly point rainfall data, and for different geographical locations across the Iberian Peninsula, including Portugal. The main aim of this work, which complements those trend studies, is to contribute to identifying and clarifying recent changes in rain variability in Portugal by analysing trends in the small-scale temporal behaviour and statistics of this process. Thus the analyses reported here concentrate on the statistics of short-term rainfall events. The

  11. Retrospective and prospective analysis of policy incentives for wind power in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena Cabra, Ivonne A.

    Concerns over climate change impacts, goals to increase environmental sustainability, and questions about the reliability of fuel supply have led several countries to pursue the goal of increasing the share of renewable energy sources in their electricity grid. Portugal is one of the leading countries for wind electricity generation. Wind diffusion in Portugal started in the early 2000's and in 2013 wind electricity generation accounted for more than 24% (REN 2013b). The large share of wind in Portuguese electricity production is a consequence of European Union (E.U.) mandates and national policies, mainly feed-in tariffs. Discussions on the appropriate policy design and level of incentive to promote renewable energy adoption and meet further renewable capacity goals are ongoing in Portugal, namely in what concerns the level and duration of feed-in tariffs that should be provided to independent power producers. This, in turn, raises the question of whether the past feed-in tariff levels were well designed to achieve the goals of a larger penetration of renewables in the Portuguese grid. The policies to induce wind adoption have led to a growth in wind installed capacity and share of electricity generated by wind in Portugal from less than 1% in 2000 to approximately 24% in 2013, but questions arise on their cost-effectiveness and whether alternative policy designs would have led to the same goal. The Portuguese wind feed-in tariffs are a guaranteed incentive which has varied between 85- 180/MWh over the last 20 years (ERSE 2011), and remained approximately constant since 2001 at $101/MWh. They are currently guaranteed for 20 years of production or 44GWh of electricity generation per MW installed (Diario da Republica 2013) - the longest period among countries with high wind electricity share. They do not incorporate any digression rate besides inflation, and are guaranteed for every unit of electricity fed to the grid. There are no power plants that have already

  12. Moving Feedback Forward: Theory to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsmond, Paul; Maw, Stephen J.; Park, Julian R.; Gomez, Stephen; Crook, Anne C.

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial research interest in tutor feedback and students' perception and use of such feedback. This paper considers some of the major issues raised in relation to tutor feedback and student learning. We explore some of the current feedback drivers, most notably the need for feedback to move away from simply a monologue from a tutor to…

  13. Moving Divertor Plates in a Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    S.J. Zweben, H. Zhang

    2009-02-12

    Moving divertor plates could help solve some of the problems of the tokamak divertor through mechanical ingenuity rather than plasma physics. These plates would be passively heated on each pass through the tokamak and cooled and reprocessed outside the tokamak. There are many design options using varying plate shapes, orientations, motions, coatings, and compositions.

  14. Bacterial Chemotaxis with a Moving Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominick, Corey

    2015-03-01

    Most chemotaxis studies so far have been conducted in a quiescent fluid with a well-defined chemical gradient. Such experiments may be appropriate for studying enteric bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, but the environment it provides is very different from that typically encountered by marine bacteria. Herein we describe an experiment in which marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticusis subject to stimulation by a small moving target. A micropipette of the tip size <1 ?m is used to slowly release a chemoattractant, serine, at different concentrations. The pipette is made to move with different patterns and speeds, ranging from 0 to 100 ?m/s; the latter is about twice the bacterial swimming speed. We found that if the pipette is moved slowly, with 1/4 of bacterial swimming speed, cells accumulate near the tip region but when it is moved with speed greater than 1/2 the bacterial swimming speed, cells trail behind the pipette over a large distance. The behaviors observed in V. alginolyticusare significantly different from E. coli, suggesting that the former is a better chemotaxer in a changing environment.

  15. On the Move: Children in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Yaffa F.; Cherry, Jane W.

    This monograph focuses on children who must move to a new school and new surroundings because their family, for whatever reason, is relocating. It notes that the impact of mobility on families has practical implications for public schools and that schools with a large number of mobile students have a responsibility to establish structured programs…

  16. Supportive Discourse Moves in Persian Requests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Allami, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study designed to investigate the types of supportive discourse moves employed by Persian speakers in their Requestive Speech Acts. 372 respondents took a Discourse Completion Test (DCT) with six scenarios ranging from formal to informal degrees of Perceived Situational Seriousness, and returned 2232 Requestive…

  17. Image velocity sensing with moving reticle scanners.

    PubMed

    Hultquist, P F; Bartoe, O E

    1967-08-01

    Parallel-slit spatial filters have received attention as devices for measuring image speeds. A method of analysis is presented which shows the advantages of using moving instead of stationary filters, and which points out inherent problems associated with spatial filters and how they can be solved. PMID:20062210

  18. PDEs in Moving Time Dependent Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortez, F.; Rodríguez-Bernal, A.

    In this work we study partial differential equations defined in a domain that moves in time according to the flow of a given ordinary differential equation, starting out of a given initial domain. We first derive a formulation for a particular case of partial differential equations known as balance equations. For this kind of equations we find the equivalent partial differential equations in the initial domain and later we study some particular cases with and without diffusion. We also analyze general second order differential equations, not necessarily of balance type. The equations without diffusion are solved using the characteristics method. We also prove that the diffusion equations, endowed with Dirichlet boundary conditions and initial data, are well posed in the moving domain. For this we show that the principal part of the equivalent equation in the initial domain is uniformly elliptic. We then prove a version of the weak maximum principle for an equation in a moving domain. Finally we perform suitable energy estimates in the moving domain and give sufficient conditions for the solution to converge to zero as time goes to infinity.

  19. Panel Moves toward "Next Generation" Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2010-01-01

    As part of a national effort to produce "next generation" science standards for K-12 education, a panel of experts convened by the National Research Council (NRC) has issued a draft of a conceptual framework designed to guide the standards and "move science education toward a more coherent vision." One key goal of the effort is to focus science…

  20. Home Visiting: Looking Back and Moving Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boller, Kimberly; Strong, Debra A.; Daro, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Recent large federal investments in services for pregnant women and young children will fuel the expansion of home visiting services across the U.S. The authors summarize the history of home visiting and describe trends toward evidence-based and national program models. Moving to an integrated system requires supports for implementation with…