Science.gov

Sample records for northern states power

  1. 77 FR 10489 - Xcel Energy Services Inc., Northern States Power Company v. American Transmission Company, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Xcel Energy Services Inc., Northern States Power Company v. American Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on February 14, 2012, pursuant to section 206 of the Federal Power Act and Rule 206 of the Rules of Practice and Procedure of the Federal...

  2. 75 FR 6224 - Northern States Power Company of Minnesota; Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ...). There will be no change to radioactive effluents that affect radiation exposures to plant workers and... COMMISSION Northern States Power Company of Minnesota; Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant Environmental..., ``Physical protection of plants and materials,'' for Facility Operating License No. DPR-22, issued to...

  3. 77 FR 58591 - Northern States Power Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Northern States Power Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Pursuant to....105, 2.300, 2.313, 2.318, and 2.321, notice is hereby given that an Atomic Safety and Licensing Board... Commission to E. Roy Hawkens, Chief Administrative Judge, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel (Sept....

  4. 77 FR 65417 - Northern States Power Company (Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant Independent Spent Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Northern States Power Company (Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant Independent Spent Fuel...(c) and 2.321(b), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board (Board) in the above-captioned Prairie...

  5. 75 FR 3946 - License Nos. DPR-42 and DPR-60; Northern States Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Nuclear Reactor Regulation. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION License Nos. DPR-42 and DPR-60; Northern States Power Company; Prairie Island Nuclear...

  6. AFBC (atmospheric fluidized bed combustion) conversion at Northern States Power Company

    SciTech Connect

    Grieve, R. )

    1990-01-01

    This document is the fourth volume in a series of four reports detailing the conversion of Northern States Power Company's Black Dog Unit 2 from pulverized coal-firing to atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC). This particular volume details the construction activities, organizations involved, responsibilities and overall scheduling of the conversion to AFBC from the mobilization of the boiler erection contractor to the beginning of the startup phase. The purpose of these reports is to share the information gathered during the Black Dog AFBC Conversion Project and present it so that other utilities can evaluate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of converting units within their systems from pulverized coal-firing to AFBC. To this end, each volume in this series of reports presents material concerning a different aspect of the Black Dog project. 18 figs., 15 tabs.

  7. Distribution Automation and Demand-Side Management Demonstration for Northern States Power. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reder, W.; Zehlke, B.

    1995-09-01

    With increasing customer demands for reliable, competitively priced electric service, it has become essential for utilities to implement communications standards when deploying distribution automation systems. Northern States Power Company (NSP) in Minneapolis, Minnesota, hosted a project based on EPRI`s Utility Communications Architecture (UCA{trademark}), a set of open international standards for data communications. This project focused on building a model communication system from the corporate computer network to field devices following the UCA protocol. In the process, the project showed how the UCA could fit within an existing communications operating environment concurrently with proprietary protocols and specialized vendor equipment. Included in this report are industry recommendations, technical profiles of automation components, UCA object and 3-layer implementation details, screen prints of the graphical user interfaces, and a discussion of successful aspects of the project. The document provides a useful reference, benchmark, and source of automation concepts for future distribution automation projects, especially those involving UCA research.

  8. You want to put what Where. [Northern States Power Employees Lobby Against Spent Fuel Storage Amendment

    SciTech Connect

    Larimer, P.L.; Malinowski, G.E.; Jensen, J.N.; Gorman, P.J. )

    1993-01-01

    On April 6, 1992, several employees of Northern States Power's (NSP's) Prairie Island nuclear plant received a summons from fellow employees to meet at the Minnesota State Capitol to lobby against an amendment to a popular environmental bill. This amendment would have removed the decision to approve Prairie Island's proposed independent spent-fuel storage installation (ISFSI) from the jurisdiction of the public utilities commission (PUC) and shifted it to the state legislature. The employees who appeared that morning represented various areas of the plant: training, technical, management, operations, union, and nonunion-all volunteers with no prior lobbying experience who spent the remainder of that day speaking on behalf of the project. This effort continued through the week; ultimately, the amendment was debated on the Senate floor and failed, primarily due to the presence of Prairie Island employees. This became the first formal act performed by what would become the Prairie Island Community Involvement Steering Group (CISG). Prior to this, and against well-orchestrated and sometimes vehement public opposition, many employees had spoken as private citizens at public hearings held by various government bodies and an administrative law judge tasked with evaluating the need for and the legality of the proposed facility. The effort of the CISG to keep the public informed and win its approval for the project is outlined in this paper.

  9. 75 FR 6225 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ...). There will be no change to radioactive effluents that affect radiation exposures to plant workers and... COMMISSION Northern States Power Company--Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant Units 1 and 2... 73, ``Physical protection of plants and materials,'' for Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-42 and...

  10. 76 FR 39445 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... COMMISSION Northern States Power Company--Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2... Company--Minnesota (licensee), the ] operator of Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2... 39, Regarding Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2,'' issued May 2011,...

  11. 75 FR 9625 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Northern States Power Company--Minnesota Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2... holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-42 and DPR-60, which authorize operation of the...

  12. Interim operations report for atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion conversion at Northern States Power Company

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D. )

    1991-03-01

    Northern States Power Company converted its Black Dog Station Unit No. 2 boiler from a front wall fired pulverized coal boiler to a bubbling atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) boiler. The resulting unit was uprated from 85 MWe to 130 MWe burning western subbituminous coal. This report describes the AFBC operating and maintenance experience in the startup period from initial operation in June 1986 through March 1989 when a turbine oil fire caused a forced outage of 8 months. A brief review of the construction history is given in Section 1. Section 2 chronicles the AFBC operation. Section 3 describes how the boiler is restarted under several conditions. The performance history of the systems in the AFBC that are peculiar to the AFBC process or directly impacted by the AFBC process are described in detail in Section 4. The AFBC conversion at the Black Dog station has met nearly all of the original design objectives: (1) The unit can operate at rated output of 130 MWe burning western subbituminous coal, (2) The design life of the unit has been extended 25 years, (3) It has been shown that the EPA New Source Performance Standards for NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} can be met with no flue gas treatment, (4) Operators have conducted over 200 routine daily unit restarts confirming the ability of the unit to serve in daily cycling mode, and (5) A variety of fuels have been successfully burned in the AFBC. The only objective that remains partially achieved is routine operation at full load. The boiler/turbine/generator have been shown to be fully capable of operation at full load, but the electrostatic precipitators (which were largely unchanged during the retrofit) have been inadequate to allow full load operation while remaining within permitted opacity and particulate emissions. The unit is currently dispatched in daily cycling service and is limited to operation below 106 MWe by its emissions control permit. 12 refs., 34 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. AFBC conversion at Northern States Power Company: Volume 2: Black Dog Unit 2; Equipment design: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hinrichsen, D.

    1989-04-01

    This document is the second volume in a series of four reports detailing the conversion of Northern States Power Company's Black Dog Unit 2 from pulverized-coal-firing to bubbling atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC). This particular report describes the design of the new AFBC system and the important events and decisions that resulted in its final configuration. The purpose of these reports is to share the information gathered during the Black Dog AFBC Conversion Project and present it so that other utilities can evaluate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of converting units within their systems from pulverized coal firing to AFBC. 36 figs., 27 tabs.

  14. AFBC (atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion) conversion at Northern States Power Company: Volume 3, Demolition and relocation: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grieve, R.

    1988-11-01

    This document is the third volume in a series of four reports detailing the conversion of Northern States Power Company's Black Dog Unit 2 from pulverized coal firing to atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC). This particular report describes the demolition and relocation of equipment and systems at Unit 2, prior to the installation of the new AFBC system. The purpose of these reports is to share the information gathered during the Black Dog Unit 2 Conversion Project and present it so that other utilities can evaluate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of converting units within their systems from pulverized coal to AFBC. To this end, each volume in this series of reports presents material concerning a different aspect of the Black Dog project as shown in the following breakdown: Volume 1--Project Origins; Volume 2--Unit Design; Volume 3--Unit Demolition and Relocation; Volume 4--Unit Construction. 17 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. AFBC (atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion) conversion at Northern States Power Company: Volume 1, Project origins: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    deBrun Duffy, J.; Hinrichsen, D.

    1987-11-01

    This is the first volume in a series of four reports detailing the conversion of Northern States Power Company's (NSP) Black Dog unit 2 from pulverized-coal firing to atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC). This particular report describes the important events and decisions that led to NSP's selection of its Black Dog unit 2 for conversion to AFBC, and it provides an overview of AFBC technology and a discussion of the AFBC conversion market. The purpose of these reports is to disseminate the information gathered during the Black Dog AFBC Conversion Project to utilities evaluating the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of converting units within their systems from pulverized-coal firing to AFBC. To this end, each volume in this series of reports presents material about a different aspect of the Black Dog project. Volume 2 - Unit Design describes the design of the new AFBC system and the important decisions that led to its final configuration; Volume 3 - Unit Demolition describes the major activities that occurred during the demolition and relocation phase; and Volume 4 - Unit Construction describes the major activities that occurred during the construction phase of the project. 17 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Northern States Power Company (NSP) Black Dog generating plant - Unit 2 emission reduction, capacity increase and life extension through atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Jenness, B.L.; Rosendahl, S.M.; Gamble, R.L.

    1985-08-01

    The authors report on progress to date of the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) boiler retrofit at the Black Dog Unit 2 plant of the Northern States Power Company. Construction began in September 1984 after the completion of technical and economic feasibility studies, and initial operation is scheduled for the second quarter of 1986. The project features the largest AFBC boiler to date, a 40 MW capacity regain/upgrade, and 25-year extension of unit life, low leakage regenerative air preheater design, electrostatic precipitator performance improvement, alternate fuel co-firing capacity, and reduced emission on a per MW basis. The authors describe the management and engineering developments associated with the project. 12 figures, 4 tables.

  17. 75 FR 63213 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... species under the Endangered Species Act, or impacts to essential fish habitat covered by the Magnuson... consulted with the Minnesota State official, Mr. Stephen Rakow of the Minnesota Office of Energy...

  18. 77 FR 61595 - Northern Illinois Municipal Power; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Illinois Municipal Power; Notice of Filing October 2, 2012. Take notice that on October 1, 2012, Northern Illinois Municipal Power filed its Revised and...

  19. Biomass statistics for the Northern United States

    Treesearch

    Eric H. Wharton; Gerhard K. Raile

    1984-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service now estimates biomass during periodic resource inventories. Such biomass estimates quantify more of the forest resource than do traditional volume inventories that concentrate on tree boles. More than 48 percent of the aboveground tree biomass in the northern United States can be found in woody material outside of the boles. Tree biomass in the...

  20. Forests of the Northern United States

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    Bounded by Maine, Maryland, Missouri, and Minnesota, the 20 Northern States have a larger population and a higher proportion of forest cover than other comparably sized U.S. regions. Forest-associated issues across the North include insect and disease pests, invasive species, forest management capacity, management standards, biodiversity, forest fragmentation, water...

  1. Solid state power controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    The rationale, analysis, design, breadboarding and testing of the incremental functional requirements are reported that led to the development of prototype 1 and 5 Amp dc and 1 Amp ac solid state power controllers (SSPC's). The SSPC's are to be considered for use as a replacement of electro-mechanical relays and circuit breakers in future spacecraft and aircraft. They satisfy the combined function of both the relay and circuit breaker and can be remotely controlled by small signals, typically 10 mA, 5 to 28 Vdc. They have the advantage over conventional relay/circuit breaker systems in that they can be located near utilization equipment and the primary ac or dc bus. The low level control, trip indication and status signals can be circuited by small guage wire for control, computer interface, logic, electrical multiplexing, unboard testing, and power management and distribution purposes. This results in increased system versatility at appreciable weight saving and increased reliability.

  2. 170. Credit SHS. Northern California Power Company substation, Bully Hill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    170. Credit SHS. Northern California Power Company substation, Bully Hill Mine area. Note lack of vegetation, caused by nearby copper smelting works. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  3. Red Pine in the Northern Lake States

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Red pine is an important tree species for the Northern Lake States. About 4 percent of the total area of timberland is dominated by red pine but most other forest types also have red pine as a component. The red pine forest type in the region has dramatically increased in area since the 1930s. Stand-size class distribution of the red pine forest type has changed over...

  4. Proposed Amendment to Presidential Permit PP-63 and Associated Modifications to 500-kV International Transmission Line: Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada, Northern States Power Company. Addendum to the final Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This Addendum to the Final Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Amendment to Presidential Permit PP-63 and Associated Modifications to 500 kV International Transmission Line: Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada (DOE/EA-587) addresses Northern States Power Company`s (NSP) proposed expansion of the Forbes Substation. The applicant has requested that the expansion take place on the west side of the substation, within the existing property line, instead of on the north side as originally proposed. All of the proposed construction would take place on property already owned by NSP. DOE has reviewed the environmental impacts associated with this minor modification and has determined that the conclusions reached in the environmental assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact prepared in connection with NSP`s original amendment request remain valid.

  5. Proposed amendment for Presidential Permit PP-63 and associated modifications to 500 kV international transmission line, Forbes, Minnesota to Manitoba, Canada Northern States Power Company. Final Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Northern States Power Company, (NSP), a Minnesota investor owned utility has applied to the Office of Fossil Energy, United States Department of Energy, to amend Presidential Permit PP-63 to allow for alterations to the 500 kV transmission line and as sedated facilities currently regulated by this permit. The alterations proposed for the 500 kV line owned by NSP are part of a long term effort sponsored by NSP to upgrade the existing NSP transmission system to allow for increased exchange of electricity with the Manitoba Hydro-Electric Board. Presidential Permit PP-63 authorized NSP to construct, connect, operate and maintain a 500 kV line at the United States/Canadian border approximately seven-and-a-half miles west of Warroad in Roseau County, Minnesota. This line connects with a 500 kV line owned and operated by the Manitoba Hydro-Electric Board (MHEB), which extends from Dorsey, Manitoba, Canada to the United States/Canadian border. NSP proposes to increase the electricity transfer capability of this transmission facility by constructing a new 80-acre substation on the existing 500 kV line in Roseau County, Minnesota, and upgrading the existing substation at Forbes, Minnesota. The proposed Roseau substation would contain two 41.5 ohm series capacitor banks. In addition, static VAR compensators are to be installed at the existing Forbes Substation. Approximately 5 acres would be added to the 30-acre Forbes site to house the additional equipment. No new lines would enter or exit the facility. NSP proposes to place the new Roseau Substation in service in May 1993 and to complete the upgrading of the Forbes Substation in March 1994. The primary, initial purpose of these modifications is to enable NSP to import 400 megawatts of electric power from MHEB during the summer months to meet peak electrical demand in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. It is expected that this power transfer would begin in 1993.

  6. Executive Summary: Forests of the Northern United States

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    This executive summary provides an overview of the 200-page report, Forests of the Northern United States, which covers in detail current forest conditions, recent trends, issues, threats and opportunities in the forests in the 20 Northern States. It provides a context for subsequent Northern Forest Futures Project analyses that will forecast alternative future...

  7. High power solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, H.

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings discuss the following subjects: trends in materials processing with laser radiation; slabs and high power systems; glasses and new crystals; solid state lasers at HOYA Corp.; lamps, resonators and transmission; glasses as active materials for high average power solid state lasers; flashlamp pumped GGG-crystals; alexandrite lasers; designing telescope resonators; mode operation of neodymium: YAG lasers; intracavity frequency doubling with KTP crystal and thermal effects in cylinder lasers.

  8. Solid-State Nuclear Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    A strategy for "Solid-State" Nuclear Power is proposed to guide development of technologies and systems into the second 50 years of nuclear spaceflight. The strategy emphasizes a simple and highly integrated system architecture with few moving parts or fluid loops; the leverage of modern advances in materials, manufacturing, semiconductors, microelectromechanical and nanotechnology devices; and the targeted advancement of high temperature nuclear fuels, materials and static power conversion to enable high performance from simple system topologies.

  9. State power plant productivity programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The findings of a working group formed to review the status of efforts by utilities and utility regulators to increase the availability and reliability of generating units are presented. Representatives from nine state regulatory agencies, NRRI, and DOE, participated on the Working Group. The Federal government has been working cooperatively with utilities, utility organizations, and with regulators to encourage and facilitate improvements in power plant productivity. Cooperative projects undertaken with regulatory and energy commissions in California, Illinois, New York, Ohio, Texas, North Carolina and Mighigan are described. Following initiation of these cooperative projects, DOE funded a survey to determine which states were explicitly addressing power plant productivity through the regulatory process. The Working Group was formed following completion of this survey. The Working Group emphasized the need for those power plant productivity improvements which are cost effective. The cost effectiveness of proposed availability improvement projects should be determined within the context of opportunities for operating and capital improvements available to an entire utility. The Working Group also identified the need for: allowing for plant designs that have a higher construction cost, but are also more reliable; allowing for recovery and reducing recovery lags for productivity-related capital expenditures; identifying and reducing disincentives in the regulatory process; ascertaining that utilities have sufficient money available to undertake timely maintenance; and support of EPRI and NERC to develop a relevant and accurate national data base. The DOE views these as extremely important aspects of any regulatory program to improve power plant productivity.

  10. Forest conditions and trends in the northern United States

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    This section describes current conditions and trends for the 20 Northern States by focusing on selected characteristics associated with forest sustainability. Its format is based upon a set of 64 indicators within 7 broad criteria that the United States and 11 other countries have adopted under the auspices of the Montréal Process Working Group on Criteria and...

  11. Future forests of the northern United States

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; W. Keith Moser

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. North - the 20 states bounded by Maine, Maryland, Missouri, and Minnesota - have a greater forest cover (42 percent of land area) and population density (194 people per square mile) than other large regions of the nation. Ecological, social, and economic changes anticipated over the next 50 years will profoundly affect future forest management needs and...

  12. Sludge fertilization of State Forest land in northern Michigan

    Treesearch

    D.G. Brockway

    1991-01-01

    A five-year research-demonstration project to examine the logistic, economic, environmental and sociological aspects of municipal wastewater sludge application was conducted on State Forest land occupied by forest types of major commercial importance in northern Michigan. The procedures utilized for site preparation, sludge transportation and sludge application proved...

  13. Trends in hardwood timber resources for the Northern States

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann; Thomas L. Schmidt

    1997-01-01

    The forests of the 20-state Northern Region are maturing. The portion of timberland covered by sawtimber-size stands has increased and the area in the sapling/seedling-size stands has decreased. Growing-stock volume has doubled since the early 1950's. Most of the recent gains in volume have occurred on sawtimber-size trees, resulting in large increases in...

  14. Family Forest Owner Trends in the Northern United States

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; Zhao. Ma

    2011-01-01

    Understanding forest ownership trends is critical for understanding forest trends. In the northern United States, where 55% of the forestland is controlled by families and individuals, it is imperative that we understand the trends within this complex and dynamic group of owners. The US Forest Service conducted forest landowner surveys across this region, and the rest...

  15. High average power solid state laser power conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Steinkraus, R.F.

    1987-03-03

    The power conditioning system for the High Average Power Laser program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described. The system has been operational for two years. It is high voltage, high power, fault protected, and solid state. The power conditioning system drives flashlamps that pump solid state lasers. Flashlamps are driven by silicon control rectifier (SCR) switched, resonant charged, (LC) discharge pulse forming networks (PFNs). The system uses fiber optics for control and diagnostics. Energy and thermal diagnostics are monitored by computers.

  16. Criminal Violence and State Responses in the Northern Triangle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    or a military style force, would be a viable option to counter excessive domestic violence . c. The Dark Side of Military in Public Security The...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. CRIMINAL VIOLENCE ...DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CRIMINAL VIOLENCE AND STATE RESPONSES IN THE NORTHERN TRIANGLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR

  17. Solar Power Satellite (SPS) solid-state antenna power combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A low loss power-combining microstrip antenna suitable for solid state solar power satellite (SPS) application was developed. A unique approach for performing both the combining and radiating function in a single cavity-type circuit was verified, representing substantial refinements over previous demonstration models in terms of detailed geometry to obtain good matching and adequate bandwidth at the design frequency. The combiner circuit was designed, built, and tested and the overall results support the view that the solid state power-combining antenna approach is a viable candidate for a solid state SPS antenna building block.

  18. Northern Power NW 1500 Direct-Drive Generator: April 12, 2001 - September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Bywaters, G.; Mattila, P.; Costin, D.; Stowell, J.; John, V.; Hoskins, S.; Lynch, J.; Cole, T.; Cate, A.; Badger, C.; Freeman, B.

    2007-10-01

    This report describes work conducted under a subcontract between NREL and Northern Power Systems to identify, design, and test a megawatt-scale wind turbine drivetrain with the lowest overall life-cycle cost.

  19. Statistical Methods for Quantifying Uncertainty in ENSO on Wind Power in the Northern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, B. R.

    2006-12-01

    The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a well-known source of inter-annual climate variability for both precipitation and temperature in the northern Great Plains. The northern Great Plains also have the largest wind resource in the United States. With the continued growth of wind energy, ENSO's effect on wind speed needs to be examined because of our current lack of understanding about how wind speeds are affected by inter-annual variability. After having previously established that a teleconnection to ENSO exists, we set out to quantify the uncertainty in this relationship with this study. Our method uses the sign test and resampling of hourly airport wind speed measurements for the past half-century at 4 airports in both North Dakota and South Dakota. Airport data are useful in this case because they have very long and continuous measurement of hourly wind speed. With this data, we were able to show that ENSO did have an effect on wind speeds as well as on wind power. The warm phase of El Nino, in particular, was correlated with the largest reductions in wind speed in South Dakota. In North Dakota, it was the cold phase that produced the largest reduction in wind power. The largest differences occurred in April, while the smallest differences occurred in July. It is our hope that this method will also be a useful tool for wind farm developers across the country to more accurately assess the value of their site based on limited in-situ data.

  20. Floating nuclear power plants: potential implications for radioactive pollution of the northern marine environment.

    PubMed

    Standring, W J F; Dowdall, M; Amundsen, I; Strand, P

    2009-02-01

    Recent media reports as to the development, construction and possible deployment of floating nuclear power plants in the northern regions has generated significant interest in the matter. This paper presents background to the concept of floating nuclear power plants, information as to possible designs and iterations and some aspects of potential concern with respect to safety and the potential for environmental or other impacts as a result of the development and use of such systems in the northern regions.

  1. One Kilowatt UHF Solid State Power Amplifier.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    den:fiy t, . .mber) One-Killowat t Satellite Communications UHF Hopping Filter Solid State Amplifier 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse aide It neceeary...in this report are power input versus power output, intermodulation products measurement, thermal, and satellite tests.FORM13 DD , JAN73 1 3 EDITION OF...DESCRIPTIONS OF TESTS 18 1. Laboratory and Flight Preliminary Tests 18 2. Power Input vs Power Output Tests 27 3. Satellite Tests 30 4

  2. Geothermal power generation in United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Gerald W.; McCluer, H. K.

    1993-03-01

    Geothermal energy is an indigenous environmentally benign heat source with the potential for 5000-10,000 GWe of power generation in the United States. Approximately 2535 MWe of installed capacity is currently operating in the U.S. with contracted power costs down to 4.6 cents/kWh. This paper summarizes: 1) types of geothermal resources; 2) power conversion systems used for geothermal power generation; 3) environmental aspects; 4) geothermal resource locations, potential, and current power plant development; 5) hurdles, bottlenecks, and risks of geothermal power production; 6) lessons learned; and 7) ongoing and future geothermal research programs.

  3. High power RF solid state power amplifier system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, III, William Herbert (Inventor); Chavers, Donald Gregory (Inventor); Richeson, James J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A high power, high frequency, solid state power amplifier system includes a plurality of input multiple port splitters for receiving a high-frequency input and for dividing the input into a plurality of outputs and a plurality of solid state amplifier units. Each amplifier unit includes a plurality of amplifiers, and each amplifier is individually connected to one of the outputs of multiport splitters and produces a corresponding amplified output. A plurality of multiport combiners combine the amplified outputs of the amplifiers of each of the amplifier units to a combined output. Automatic level control protection circuitry protects the amplifiers and maintains a substantial constant amplifier power output.

  4. Solid state pulsed power generator

    DOEpatents

    Tao, Fengfeng; Saddoughi, Seyed Gholamali; Herbon, John Thomas

    2014-02-11

    A power generator includes one or more full bridge inverter modules coupled to a semiconductor opening switch (SOS) through an inductive resonant branch. Each module includes a plurality of switches that are switched in a fashion causing the one or more full bridge inverter modules to drive the semiconductor opening switch SOS through the resonant circuit to generate pulses to a load connected in parallel with the SOS.

  5. Solid state, S-band, power amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digrindakis, M.

    1973-01-01

    The final design and specifications for a solid state, S-band, power amplifier is reported. Modifications from a previously proposed design were incorporated to improve efficiency and meet input overdrive and noise floor requirements. Reports on the system design, driver amplifier, power amplifier, and voltage and current limiter are included along with a discussion of the testing program.

  6. SPS solid state antenna power combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    A concept for a solar power satellite antenna power combiner which utilizes solid state dc-rf converters is described. To avoid the power combining losses associated with circuit hybrids it is proposed that the power from multiple solid state amplifiers be combined by direct coupling of each amplifier's output to the radiating antenna structure. The selected power-combining antenna consists of a printed (metalized) microstrip circuit on a ceramic type dielectric substrate which is backed by a shallow lightweight aluminum cavity which sums the power of four microwave sources. The antenna behaves like two one-half wavelength slot-line antennas coupled together via their common cavity structure. A significant feature of the antenna configuration selected is that the radiated energy is summed to yield a single radiated output phase which represents the average insertion phase of the four power amplifiers. This energy may be sampled and, by comparison with the input signal, one can phase error correct to maintain the insertion phase of all solid state power combining modules at exactly the same value. This insures that the insertion phase of each SPS power combining antenna module is identical. An experiment verification program is described.

  7. High power solid state switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundersen, Martin

    1991-11-01

    We have successfully produced an optically triggered thyristor based in Gallium Arsenide, developed a model for breakdown, and are developing two related devices, including a Gallium Arsenide based static inductor thyristor. We are getting at the basic limitations of Gallium Arsenide for these applications, and are developing models for the physical processes that will determine device limitations. The previously supported gas phase work - resulting in the back-lighted thyratron (BLT) - has actually resulted in a very changed view of how switching can be accomplished, and this is impacting the design of important machines. The BLT is being studied internationally: in Japan for laser fusion and laser isotope separation. ITT has built a BLT that has switched 30 kA at 60 kV in testing at NSWC Dahlgren and the device is being commercialized by another American company. Versions of the switch are now being tested for excimer laser and other applications. Basically, the switch, which arose from pulse power physics studies at USC, can switch more current faster (higher di/dt), with less housekeeping, and with other advantageous properties. There are a large number of other new applications, include kinetic energy weapons, pulsed microwave sources and R.F. accelerators.

  8. Power system operations: State estimation distributed processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimian, Mohammad Reza

    We present an application of a robust and fast parallel algorithm to power system state estimation with minimal amount of modifications to existing state estimators presently in place using the Auxiliary Problem Principle. We demonstrate its effectiveness on IEEE test systems, the Electric Reliability Counsel of Texas (ERCOT), and the Southwest Power Pool (SPP) systems. Since state estimation formulation may lead to an ill-conditioned system, we provide analytical explanations of the effects of mixtures of measurements on the condition of the state estimation information matrix. We demonstrate the closeness of the analytical equations to condition of several test case systems including IEEE RTS-96 and IEEE 118 bus systems. The research on the condition of the state estimation problem covers the centralized as well as distributed state estimation.

  9. SPS solid state antenna power combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    Solid state dc-rf converters offer potential improvements in reliability, mass and low voltage operation, provided that anticipated efficiencies in excess of 80 percent can be realized. Field effect transistors offer the greatest potential in the SPS frequency band at 2.45 GHz. To implement this approach it is essential that means be found to sum the power of many relatively low power solid state sources in a low-loss manner, and that means be provided to properly control the phase of the outputs of the large number of solid state sources required. To avoid the power combining losses associated with circuit hybrids it was proposed that the power from multiple solid state amplifiers be combined by direct coupling of each amplifier's output to the radiating antenna structure. The selected power-combining antenna consists of a unique printed (metalized) microstrip circuit on a ceramic type dielectric substrate which is backed by a shallow lightweight aluminum cavity which sums the power of four microwave sources. The antenna behaves like two one-half wavelength slot-line antennas coupled together via their common cavity structure.

  10. SPS solid state antenna power combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    Solid state dc-rf converters offer potential improvements in reliability, mass and low voltage operation, provided that anticipated efficiencies in excess of 80 percent can be realized. Field effect transistors offer the greatest potential in the SPS frequency band at 2.45 GHz. To implement this approach it is essential that means be found to sum the power of many relatively low power solid state sources in a low-loss manner, and that means be provided to properly control the phase of the outputs of the large number of solid state sources required. To avoid the power combining losses associated with circuit hybrids it was proposed that the power from multiple solid state amplifiers be combined by direct coupling of each amplifier's output to the radiating antenna structure. The selected power-combining antenna consists of a unique printed (metalized) microstrip circuit on a ceramic type dielectric substrate which is backed by a shallow lightweight aluminum cavity which sums the power of four microwave sources. The antenna behaves like two one-half wavelength slot-line antennas coupled together via their common cavity structure.

  11. Pulsed Power Education at Mississippi State University

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    Power Systems Analysis, uses the EMTP computer program to educate the students on the phenomena of switching and pulse transmission in electrical...and aging of cable, insulators, transformers , arresters and transmission line hardware. Objectives Pulsed power education at Mississippi State...MV 60 Hz transformer , and a 1050 kV de supply. Wide- bandwidth analog and digital oscilloscopes, dividers and current transformers are available for

  12. NASA developments in solid state power amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Regis F.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last ten years, NASA has undertaken an extensive program aimed at development of solid state power amplifiers for space applications. Historically, the program may be divided into three phases. The first efforts were carried out in support of the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) program, which is developing an experimental version of a Ka-band commercial communications system. These first amplifiers attempted to use hybrid technology. The second phase was still targeted at ACTS frequencies, but concentrated on monolithic implementations, while the current, third phase, is a monolithic effort that focusses on frequencies appropriate for other NASA programs and stresses amplifier efficiency. The topics covered include: (1) 20 GHz hybrid amplifiers; (2) 20 GHz monolithic MESFET power amplifiers; (3) Texas Instruments' (TI) 20 GHz variable power amplifier; (4) TI 20 GHz high power amplifier; (5) high efficiency monolithic power amplifiers; (6) GHz high efficiency variable power amplifier; (7) TI 32 GHz monolithic power amplifier performance; (8) design goals for Hughes' 32 GHz variable power amplifier; and (9) performance goals for Hughes' pseudomorphic 60 GHz power amplifier.

  13. High-efficiency solid state power amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallis, Robert E. (Inventor); Cheng, Sheng (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A high-efficiency solid state power amplifier (SSPA) for specific use in a spacecraft is provided. The SSPA has a mass of less than 850 g and includes two different X-band power amplifier sections, i.e., a lumped power amplifier with a single 11-W output and a distributed power amplifier with eight 2.75-W outputs. These two amplifier sections provide output power that is scalable from 11 to 15 watts without major design changes. Five different hybrid microcircuits, including high-efficiency Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor (HFET) amplifiers and Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) phase shifters have been developed for use within the SSPA. A highly efficient packaging approach enables the integration of a large number of hybrid circuits into the SSPA.

  14. The sexual games of the body politic: fantasy and state violence in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Aretxaga, B

    2001-03-01

    This article analyzes the practice of strip searching women political prisoners in Northern Ireland as a violent technology of control aimed at breaking the political identity of prisoners. Focusing on a controversial case of a mass strip search carried out in 1992, the article examines the phantasmatic investements pervading this seemingly rational technology of control. Using a psychoanalytic notion of fantasy against the backdrop of a Foucaultian theory of power, this article argues that strip searches constitute a gendered form of political domination driven by, and performed within, a phantasmatic scenario of sexual violence. In this scenario both the political and gender identities of prisoners are re-inscribed with the power of a state acting as a male body politic. The article argues that the phantasmatic support of rational technologies of control betrays the contingent and shifting character of domination as well as its ambiguous effects.

  15. Contemporary State of the Elbrus Volcanic Center (The Northern Caucasus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milyukov, Vadim; Rogozhin, Eugeny; Gorbatikov, Andrey; Mironov, Alexey; Myasnikov, Andrey; Stepanova, Marina

    2017-06-01

    The Elbrus volcanic center is located in southern Russia on the northern slope of the main ridge of the Greater Caucasus. Current classifications define Elbrus as a dormant volcano that could become active even after millennia of quiescence. In this study, we use two new geophysical methods to assess the contemporary state of the Elbrus volcano. The first method is based on an evaluation of parameters of resonant modes "reemitted" by the resonant structure (i.e., volcanic chamber) in response to the excitation of a seismic impact and recorded by a precise laser interferometer-strainmeter. The second method is based on low-frequency microseismic sounding and allows determination of the deep structure of complicated geological objects. Our study locates the magma chamber at depths of 1-8 km and extended magma source at depths of 15-40 km beneath the Elbrus eastern summit. An unknown magmatic structure, comparable to the Elbrus magmatic structure but currently much colder, was also identified 50 km from Mt. Elbrus. Based on our analysis, we assess the Elbrus volcano to be currently in a quasi-stable state of thermodynamic equilibrium.

  16. 75 FR 54620 - Northern California Power Agency; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Northern California Power Agency; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment August 31, 2010. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, as amended, and the Federal...

  17. Miniaturized radioisotope solid state power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Snyder, G. J.; Patel, J.; Herman, J. A.; Caillat, T.; Nesmith, B.; Kolawa, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range from the kilowatt to the milliwatt. Several of these missions call for the development of compact, low weight, long life, rugged power sources capable of delivering a few milliwatts up to a couple of watts while operating in harsh environments. Advanced solid state thermoelectric microdevices combined with radioisotope heat sources and energy storage devices such as capacitors are ideally suited for these applications. By making use of macroscopic film technology, microgenrators operating across relatively small temperature differences can be conceptualized for a variety of high heat flux or low heat flux heat source configurations. Moreover, by shrinking the size of the thermoelements and increasing their number to several thousands in a single structure, these devices can generate high voltages even at low power outputs that are more compatible with electronic components. Because the miniaturization of state-of-the-art thermoelectric module technology based on Bi2Te3 alloys is limited due to mechanical and manufacturing constraints, we are developing novel microdevices using integrated-circuit type fabrication processes, electrochemical deposition techniques and high thermal conductivity substrate materials. One power source concept is based on several thermoelectric microgenerator modules that are tightly integrated with a 1.1W Radioisotope Heater Unit. Such a system could deliver up to 50mW of electrical power in a small lightweight package of approximately 50 to 60g and 30cm3. An even higher degree of miniaturization and high specific power values (mW/mm3) can be obtained when considering the potential use of radioisotope materials for an alpha-voltaic or a hybrid thermoelectric/alpha-voltaic power source. Some of the technical challenges associated with these concepts are discussed in this paper. .

  18. Principles of solid-state power conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarter, R. E.

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of this book is to assemble, in one place, the comprehensive tools necessary to meet the growing demands placed upon solid-state power conversion equipment. Aspects of transient analysis, circuit analysis, and waveforms are discussed, taking into account waveform relations, magnetic fields, dielectric fields, the RL circuit, the RC circuit, the RLC circuit, the RLCR circuit with a DC input, AC circuit analysis, and components scaling. Semiconductors and resistors are considered along with capacitors, transformers, inductors, conductors, rectifiers and filters, phase-control circuits, transistor inverters, thyristor inverters, switching regulators, DC-DC converters, protection and safety, electromagnetic compatibility and grounding, semiconductor and equipment cooling, reliability and quality, regulated power supplies, and uninterruptible power systems. Attention is given to magnetic materials, toroid tape core transformers, permalloy powder cores, a six-phase dual bridge, thermal conduction and resistance, heat pipes, and thermoelectric coolers.

  19. Pulsed Power for Solid-State Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, W; Albrecht, G; Trenholme, J; Newton, M

    2007-04-19

    Beginning in the early 1970s, a number of research and development efforts were undertaken at U.S. National Laboratories with a goal of developing high power lasers whose characteristics were suitable for investigating the feasibility of laser-driven fusion. A number of different laser systems were developed and tested at ever larger scale in pursuit of the optimum driver for laser fusion experiments. Each of these systems had associated with it a unique pulsed power option. A considerable amount of original and innovative engineering was carried out in support of these options. Ultimately, the Solid-state Laser approach was selected as the optimum driver for the application. Following this, the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the University of Rochester undertook aggressive efforts directed at developing the technology. In particular, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a series of laser systems beginning with the Cyclops laser and culminating in the present with the National Ignition Facility were developed and tested. As a result, a large amount of design information for solid-state laser pulsed power systems has been documented. Some of it is in the form of published papers, but most of it is buried in internal memoranda, engineering reports and LLNL annual reports. One of the goals of this book is to gather this information into a single useable format, such that it is easily accessed and understood by other engineers and physicists for use with future designs. It can also serve as a primer, which when seriously studied, makes the subsequent reading of original work and follow-up references considerably easier. While this book deals only with the solid-state laser pulsed power systems, in the bibliography we have included a representative cross section of papers and references from much of the very fine work carried out at other institutions in support of different laser approaches. Finally, in recent years, there has

  20. [Abortion trend and practice in 6 states in northern Mexico].

    PubMed

    Tomaro, J B

    1979-01-01

    10 socialworkers were recruited to identify and interview nonmedical abortion providers and clients in the northern Mexico states of Sonora, Tamaulipas, Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon, Coahuila, and Baja California for a 1979 study. Problems were encountered with wording of the questionnaire and the quality of the work of some of the social workers. 49 single clients aged 24.5 years on average and 29 married clients aged 29 years on average were interviewed. The married women appeared to be of slightly lower educational and social status than the single. Single women paid on average U. S. $91, $37 more than married women, but otained better service and had lower rates of complication. 65% of married women attempted to induced menstruation themselves before seeking abortions. Only 2 women, both married, waited more than 3 months to seek abortions, both because of lack of funds. Little relation was found between the cost, method, and quality of the abortions. Married women sought abortions typically for economic reasons, while single women did so for social reasons. The 11 female and 1 male nonmedical abortion providers were aged 32 to 53 years, 2 were nurses, and the rest had 6 or fewer years of education. 1 nurse performed D and Cs with local anesthesia, 7 used probes, 3 used herbal injections and 1 used an infusion of herbs. 5 had learned their techniques from medical personnel. Income from abortions was the major source of livelihood for 10 of the 12 but charges, volume of patients, and total income varied. The average provider had been performing abortions for over 10 years.

  1. 76 FR 44493 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality... taking direct final action to approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

  2. 76 FR 44535 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality... proposing to approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD),...

  3. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

  4. High power steady state MPD thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auweter-Kurtz, Monika; Habiger, Harald; Kurtz, Helmut; Schrade, Herbert; Sleziona, Cristian

    1993-04-01

    At the Institut fuer Raumfahrtsysteme (IRS) rotation symmetric magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters with self induced magnetic fields are investigated at high current levels in a steady state operation mode. MPD thrusters with different geometrics were compared, and the influence of mass flow rate and power input on the operating conditions of the thrusters explored. By optical and probe measurements, a systematic investigation of the plasma plume has been started. The investigation of the various instabilities of the arc and the plasma flow appearing at high power levels was continued. The computer code development for the geometry optimization of continuous self-field MPD thrusters, running with argon, was modified by considering higher degrees of ionization, which showed better agreement with the experiment.

  5. Applicability of PSD and NSPS to Northern States Power Company

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  6. Solid state power controller fuse development program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spauhorst, V. R.; Curtis, W. H.; Kalra, V.

    1983-10-01

    The purpose of this development program is to design a family of fail-safe fuses (2-30A, 28VDC, 115/230V-400 Hz) for applications in aircraft electrical systems solid state power controllers (SSPCs). The SSPC functions as a circuit interrupter and a load controller, and when operating properly should protect the aircraft wiring between itself and the load. However, if the SSPC fails to open during a short or overload condition, excessive current can flow, resulting in serious damage to aircraft wiring. The purpose of the SSPC fuse is to prevent wire damage in this double fault condition.

  7. The 60 GHz solid state power amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclymonds, J.

    1991-01-01

    A new amplifier architecture was developed during this contract that is superior to any other solid state approach. The amplifier produced 6 watts with 4 percent efficiency over a 2 GHz band at 61.5 GHz. The unit was 7 x 9 x 3 inches in size, 5.5 pounds in weight, and the conduction cooling through the baseplate is suitable for use in space. The amplifier used high efficiency GaAs IMPATT diodes which were mounted in 1-diode circuits, called modules. Eighteen modules were used in the design, and power combining was accomplished with a proprietary passive component called a combiner plate.

  8. Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Assessing the State of the Science

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The presentations, panel summaries, agenda sessions transcripts, and papers prepared by session authors for the April 2006 Symposium on Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico: Assessing the State of the Science.

  9. 76 FR 26192 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and Mendocino County Air Quality Management District (MCAQMD) AGENCY... approve revisions to the Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and Mendocino County Air Quality Management District (MCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan...

  10. 76 FR 26224 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and Mendocino County Air Quality Management District (MCAQMD) AGENCY... the Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control District (NSCAPCD) and Mendocino County Air Quality Management District (MCAQMD) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). Both districts...

  11. Private forest-land owners of the Northern United States, 1994

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1996-01-01

    A statistical analytical report on mail canvass of private forest-land owners in the Northern United States. Landowner characteristics attitudes harvesting experience tenure and management planning are discussed.

  12. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  13. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  14. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  15. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  16. Potential for Coal Power Plants to Co-Fire with Woody Biomass in the U. S. North, 2010-2030: A Technical Document Supporting the Northern Forest Futures Project

    Treesearch

    Michael E. Goerndt; Francisco X. Aguilar; Kenneth E. Skog

    2015-01-01

    Future use of woody biomass to produce electric power in the U.S. North can have an important influence on timber production, carbon storage in forests, and net carbon emissions from producing electric power. The Northern Forest Futures Project (NFFP) has provided regional- and state-level projections of standing forest biomass, land-use change, and timber harvest,...

  17. Futures project anticipates changes and challenges facing forests of the northern United States

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; W. Keith Moser; Michael E. Goerndt; Nianfu Song; Mark D. Nelson; David J. Nowak; Patrick D. Miles; Brett J. Butler; Ryan D. DeSantis; Francisco X. Aguilar; Brian G. Tavernia

    2014-01-01

    The Northern Forest Futures Project aims to reveal how today's trends and choices are likely to change the future forest landscape in the northeastern and midwestern United States. The research is focused on the 20-state quadrant bounded by Maine, Maryland, Missouri, and Minnesota. This area, which encompasses most of the Central Hardwood Forest region, is the...

  18. Artificial regeneration of northern red oak in the Lake States with a light shelterwood: a departure from tradition

    Treesearch

    Ronald M. Teclaw; J. G. Isebrands

    1993-01-01

    Artificial regeneration of northern red oak is difficult to achieve in the Lake States. A replicated study was established in northern Wisconsin in 1990 to determine the effect of overstory density and understory competition on the performance of bareroot and containerized northern red oak seedlings on a dry-mesic site. The relationship between seedling performance and...

  19. EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DATA BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory


    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale asse...

  20. EMAP WESTERN UNITED STATES LANDSCAPE CHARACTERIZATION NORTHERN CALIFORNIA DATA BROWSER

    EPA Science Inventory


    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is conducting a pilot study in the western United States. This study will advance the science of ecological monitoring and demonstrate techniques for regional-scale asse...

  1. A hybrid electromechanical solid state switch for ac power control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Bidirectional thyristor coupled to a series of actuator driven electromechanical contacts generates hybrid electromechanical solid state switch for ac power control. Device is useful in power control applications where zero crossover switching is required.

  2. Distributed solid state programmable thermostat/power controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Jane C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A self-contained power controller having a power driver switch, programmable controller, communication port, and environmental parameter measuring device coupled to a controllable device. The self-contained power controller needs only a single voltage source to power discrete devices, analog devices, and the controlled device. The programmable controller has a run mode which, when selected, upon the occurrence of a trigger event changes the state of a power driver switch and wherein the power driver switch is maintained by the programmable controller at the same state until the occurrence of a second event.

  3. Kilovolt dc solid state remote power controller development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    The experience gained in developing and applying solid state power controller (SSPC) technology at high voltage dc (HVDC) potentials and power levels of up to 25 kilowatts is summarized. The HVDC switching devices, power switching concepts, drive circuits, and very fast acting overcurrent protection circuits were analyzed. A 25A bipolar breadboard with Darlington connected switching transistor was built. Fault testing at 900 volts was included. A bipolar transistor packaged breadboard design was developed. Power MOSFET remote power controller (RPC) was designed.

  4. War and early state formation in the northern Titicaca Basin, Peru.

    PubMed

    Stanish, Charles; Levine, Abigail

    2011-08-23

    Excavations at the site of Taraco in the northern Titicaca Basin of southern Peru indicate a 2,600-y sequence of human occupation beginning ca. 1100 B.C.E. Previous research has identified several political centers in the region in the latter part of the first millennium B.C.E. The two largest centers were Taraco, located near the northern lake edge, and Pukara, located 50 km to the northwest in the grassland pampas. Our data reveal that a high-status residential section of Taraco was burned in the first century A.D., after which economic activity in the area dramatically declined. Coincident with this massive fire at Taraco, Pukara adopted many of the characteristics of state societies and emerged as an expanding regional polity. We conclude that organized conflict, beginning approximately 500 B.C.E., is a significant factor in the evolution of the archaic state in the northern Titicaca Basin.

  5. War and early state formation in the northern Titicaca Basin, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Stanish, Charles; Levine, Abigail

    2011-01-01

    Excavations at the site of Taraco in the northern Titicaca Basin of southern Peru indicate a 2,600-y sequence of human occupation beginning ca. 1100 B.C.E. Previous research has identified several political centers in the region in the latter part of the first millennium B.C.E. The two largest centers were Taraco, located near the northern lake edge, and Pukara, located 50 km to the northwest in the grassland pampas. Our data reveal that a high-status residential section of Taraco was burned in the first century A.D., after which economic activity in the area dramatically declined. Coincident with this massive fire at Taraco, Pukara adopted many of the characteristics of state societies and emerged as an expanding regional polity. We conclude that organized conflict, beginning approximately 500 B.C.E., is a significant factor in the evolution of the archaic state in the northern Titicaca Basin. PMID:21788514

  6. CANCER MORTALITY IN FOUR NORTHERN WHEAT PRODUCING STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorophenoxy herbicides are used both in cereal grain agriculture and in nonagricultural settings such as right-of-ways, lawns, and parks. Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana grow most of the spring and durum wheat produced in the United States. More than 90% of s...

  7. CANCER MORTALITY IN FOUR NORTHERN WHEAT PRODUCING STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorophenoxy herbicides are used both in cereal grain agriculture and in nonagricultural settings such as right-of-ways, lawns, and parks. Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana grow most of the spring and durum wheat produced in the United States. More than 90% of s...

  8. Women's income generation activities in Merowe Province, Northern State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Pitamber, S; Osama, S

    1994-06-01

    Merowe province in rural northern Sudan has been divided into three local government council areas: Merowe, Karima, and Ed Debba. A government program was instituted to increase the welfare of residents and food production. A baseline survey of 490 respondents was conducted in order to ascertain how illiterate women viewed development in the area and to provide useful information for program design and implementation. Women from 24 villages were administered questionnaires, observed in their daily activities, and engaged in discussion in a local meeting place. Discussions were also held with members of the local Popular Committee. Demographic information was very sketchy about age, and 48% had no formal education in writing and reading. General reading and writing skills of the remainder were very poor. There were 500 female children and 502 male children, and the sex ratio varied among the 3 council areas. 52% were married and 14% were divorced or widowed and living with relatives. The average monthly income was from Ls. 700 to Ls. 3000 based on reports from only 59.3% of respondents. Most of the women had skills in food processing and 25.7% were skilled in handicrafts. Water was obtained primarily from local wells and not decontaminated before use. Pit latrines were the standard. One bathing facility was available in the compound for the entire council area. Health units were either in each village or within 20-30 minutes walk. Child mortality was 4.3% in Merowe province. 77 children 0-5 years old died out of a total of 1002 live births. Life expectancy was 41-50 years for women and 61-70 years for men. Cleanliness and healthful eating were observed. 58% owned no land; plots were under 5 feddans and usually half a feddan. 92.1% had no bank account and 90% had no experience with loans. 70.2% were indifferent about involvement in an income generation program. 26% were interested in part-time participation. Only 3.9% desired full-time participation. 8.6% said they

  9. Microwave power transmission system workshop, session on solid state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finnell, W.

    1980-01-01

    The development of solid state technology for solar power satellite systems is briefly addressed. The economic advantages of solid state based systems are listed along with some conclusions and issues regarding specific design concepts.

  10. The Power of State Legislatures in Public University Collective Bargaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkel, Jan W.; Wood, Norman J.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the power of state legislatures to veto, in effect, the collective bargaining agreements of faculty unions. Analyzes state statutes authorizing collective bargaining for faculty in higher education. (Author)

  11. Simulation of dc spacecraft power systems using state variable techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, R. M.; Grigsby, L. L.; Avant, R. L.; Lollar, Louis F.

    1987-01-01

    The modeling and simulation of large dc spacecraft power systems necessitates considering the spacecraft power system as an interconnection of modular components. This paper presents a state-variable-based approach for dc spacecraft power system modeling and simulation. Each modular component is treated as a two-port network, and a state model is written with the port voltages as the inputs. The state model of a component is solved independently of the other components using its state transition matrix. The state variables of each component are updated assuming that the inputs are constant. Network analysis principles are then utilized to calculate the component inputs.

  12. The Children's Lab at Northern State University. Elementary Teachers Moving toward Scientific Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knecht, Paul S.

    The Children's Lab at Northern State University (South Dakota) is a science concept development laboratory for use by students in a physical science course for preservice elementary teachers. Its function is to develop science content knowledge in preservice elementary teachers, with the ultimate goal of developing science literacy in children.…

  13. Schooling for Newcomers: Variation in Educational Persistence in the Northern United States in 1920

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolnay, Stewart E.; Bailey, Amy Kate

    2006-01-01

    Early in the 20th century, high rates of international migration from Europe and an increasing number of migrants from the South were rapidly changing the composition of cities in the northern United States. Within this dynamic environment, families faced a more complex set of decisions for the preferred economic roles of their members. For…

  14. Schooling for Newcomers: Variation in Educational Persistence in the Northern United States in 1920

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolnay, Stewart E.; Bailey, Amy Kate

    2006-01-01

    Early in the 20th century, high rates of international migration from Europe and an increasing number of migrants from the South were rapidly changing the composition of cities in the northern United States. Within this dynamic environment, families faced a more complex set of decisions for the preferred economic roles of their members. For…

  15. Wilderness based ecosystem protection in the northern Rocky Mountains of the United States

    Treesearch

    Mike Bader

    2000-01-01

    Wilderness is a source habitat for grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) populations in the northern Rocky Mountains of the United States, helping sustain these indicators of ecosystem health. The spatial distribution of grizzly bear mortalities has changed since the end of legal hunting seasons,...

  16. Mapping the occurrence of tree damage in the forests of the northern United States

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Morin; Scott A. Pugh; Jim. Steinman

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program uses visual inspections of trees from bottom to top to record damage that is likely to prevent survival, reduce growth, or hinder capability to produce marketable products. This report describes the types of damage and occurrence as measured across the 24-state northern region between 2009 and 2013....

  17. Social versus biophysical availability of wood in the northern United States

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; Ma Zhao; David B. Kittredge; Paul. Catanzaro

    2010-01-01

    The availability of wood, be it harvested for sawlogs, pulpwood, biomass, or other products, is constrained by social and biophysical factors. Knowing the difference between social and biophysical availability is important for understanding what can realistically be extracted. This study focuses on the wood located in family forests across the northern United States....

  18. Long-term monitoring dataset of fish assemblages impinged at nuclear power plants in northern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hungyen; Liao, Yun-Chih; Chen, Ching-Yi; Tsai, Jeng-I; Chen, Lee-Sea; Shao, Kwang-Tsao

    2015-01-01

    The long-term species diversity patterns in marine fish communities are garnering increasing attention from ecologists and conservation biologists. However, current databases on quantitative abundance information lack consistent long-term time series, which are particularly important in exploring the possible underlying mechanism of community changes and evaluating the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation measures. Here we describe an impinged fish assemblage dataset containing 1, 283, 707 individuals from 439 taxa. Once a month over 19 years (1987–1990 and 2000–2014), we systematically collected the fish killed by impingement upon cooling water intake screens at two nuclear power plants on the northern coast of Taiwan. Because impingement surveys have low sampling errors and can be carried out over many years, they serve as an ideal sampling tool for monitoring how fish diversity and community structure vary over an extended period of time. PMID:26647085

  19. Long-term monitoring dataset of fish assemblages impinged at nuclear power plants in northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hungyen; Liao, Yun-Chih; Chen, Ching-Yi; Tsai, Jeng-I.; Chen, Lee-Sea; Shao, Kwang-Tsao

    2015-12-01

    The long-term species diversity patterns in marine fish communities are garnering increasing attention from ecologists and conservation biologists. However, current databases on quantitative abundance information lack consistent long-term time series, which are particularly important in exploring the possible underlying mechanism of community changes and evaluating the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation measures. Here we describe an impinged fish assemblage dataset containing 1, 283, 707 individuals from 439 taxa. Once a month over 19 years (1987-1990 and 2000-2014), we systematically collected the fish killed by impingement upon cooling water intake screens at two nuclear power plants on the northern coast of Taiwan. Because impingement surveys have low sampling errors and can be carried out over many years, they serve as an ideal sampling tool for monitoring how fish diversity and community structure vary over an extended period of time.

  20. Trachoma Rapid Assessments in Unity and Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal States, Southern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Emily; Kur, Lucia W.; Ndyaba, Aggrey; Lado, Mounir; Shafi, Juma; Kabare, Emmanuel; McClelland, R. Scott; Kolaczinski, Jan H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Trachoma is thought to be endemic over large parts of Southern Sudan, but empirical evidence is limited. While some areas east of the Nile have been identified as highly endemic, few trachoma surveys have been conducted in the remainder of the country. This study aimed to determine whether trachoma constitutes a problem to public health in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal and Unity State, both located west of the Nile. Methods and Principal Findings Trachoma rapid assessments (TRA) were conducted between July and September 2009. Seven villages in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State and 13 villages in Unity State were surveyed; an average of 50 children (age 1–9 years) and 44 women (age 15 years and above) were examined per village. Samples for analysis using the APTIMA Combo-2 nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) were collected from participants with active trachoma in eight villages in Unity State. In Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State, only three children with active trachoma (trachomatous inflammation follicular (TF) and/or trachomatous inflammation intense (TI)) and two women with trichiasis (TT) were found, in two of the seven villages surveyed. In Unity State, trachoma was endemic in all thirteen villages surveyed; the proportion of children with active trachoma ranged from 33% to 75% between villages, while TF in children ranged from 16% to 44%. Between 4% to 51% of examined women showed signs of TT. Samples from active trachoma cases tested using the NAAT were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis infection for 46.6% of children and 19.0% of women. Conclusions Trachoma presents a major problem to public health Unity State, while the disease is of low priority in Northern-Bahr-el-Ghazal State. Implementation of a population-based prevalence survey is now required in Unity State to generate baseline prevalence data so that trachoma interventions can be initiated and monitored over time. PMID:20957205

  1. Trachoma rapid assessments in Unity and Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal States, Southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Emily; Kur, Lucia W; Ndyaba, Aggrey; Lado, Mounir; Shafi, Juma; Kabare, Emmanuel; McClelland, R Scott; Kolaczinski, Jan H

    2010-10-01

    Trachoma is thought to be endemic over large parts of Southern Sudan, but empirical evidence is limited. While some areas east of the Nile have been identified as highly endemic, few trachoma surveys have been conducted in the remainder of the country. This study aimed to determine whether trachoma constitutes a problem to public health in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal and Unity State, both located west of the Nile. Trachoma rapid assessments (TRA) were conducted between July and September 2009. Seven villages in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State and 13 villages in Unity State were surveyed; an average of 50 children (age 1-9 years) and 44 women (age 15 years and above) were examined per village. Samples for analysis using the APTIMA Combo-2 nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) were collected from participants with active trachoma in eight villages in Unity State. In Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State, only three children with active trachoma (trachomatous inflammation follicular (TF) and/or trachomatous inflammation intense (TI)) and two women with trichiasis (TT) were found, in two of the seven villages surveyed. In Unity State, trachoma was endemic in all thirteen villages surveyed; the proportion of children with active trachoma ranged from 33% to 75% between villages, while TF in children ranged from 16% to 44%. Between 4% to 51% of examined women showed signs of TT. Samples from active trachoma cases tested using the NAAT were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis infection for 46.6% of children and 19.0% of women. Trachoma presents a major problem to public health Unity State, while the disease is of low priority in Northern-Bahr-el-Ghazal State. Implementation of a population-based prevalence survey is now required in Unity State to generate baseline prevalence data so that trachoma interventions can be initiated and monitored over time.

  2. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Areas quarantined in the Virgin... (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.3 Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern... Virgin Islands of the United States and the Island of Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the...

  3. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. 72.3 Section 72.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... BABESIOSIS § 72.3 Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands...

  4. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. 72.3 Section 72.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.3 Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern...

  5. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the... Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. The entire Territories of the Virgin Islands of the United States and the Island of Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the...

  6. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the... Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. The entire Territories of the Virgin Islands of the United States and the Island of Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the...

  7. Securing the United States' power infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Happenny, Sean F.

    2015-08-01

    The United States’ power infrastructure is aging, underfunded, and vulnerable to cyber attack. Emerging smart grid technologies may take some of the burden off of existing systems and make the grid as a whole more efficient, reliable, and secure. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funding research into several aspects of smart grid technology and grid security, creating a software simulation tool that will allow researchers to test power distribution networks utilizing different smart grid technologies to determine how the grid and these technologies react under different circumstances. Demonstrating security in embedded systems is another research area PNNL is tackling. Many of the systems controlling the U.S. critical infrastructure, such as the power grid, lack integrated security and the networks protecting them are becoming easier to breach. Providing a virtual power substation network to each student team at the National Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition, thereby supporting the education of future cyber security professionals, is another way PNNL is helping to strengthen the security of the nation’s power infrastructure.

  8. Cancer mortality in four northern wheat-producing states.

    PubMed Central

    Schreinemachers, D M

    2000-01-01

    Chlorophenoxy herbicides are used both in cereal grain agriculture and in nonagricultural settings such as right-of-ways, lawns, and parks. Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana grow most of the spring and durum wheat produced in the United States. More than 90% of spring and durum wheat is treated with chlorophenoxy herbicides, in contrast to treatment of approximately 30% of winter wheat. In this ecologic study I used wheat acreage as a surrogate for exposure to chlorophenoxy herbicides. I investigated the association of chlorophenoxy herbicides with cancer mortality during 1980-1989 for selected counties based on level of agriculture ([greater and equal to] 20%) and rural population ([greater and equal to] 50%). Age-standardized cancer mortality rates were determined for grouped counties based on tertiles of wheat acreage per county or for individual counties for frequently occurring cancers. The cancer sites that showed positive trends of increasing cancer mortality with increasing wheat acreage were esophagus, stomach, rectum, pancreas, larynx, prostate, kidney and ureter, brain, thyroid, bone, and all cancers (men) and oral cavity and tongue, esophagus, stomach, liver and gall bladder and bile ducts, pancreas, cervix, ovary, bladder, and other urinary organs, and all cancers (women). Rare cancers in men and women and cancers in boys and girls were studied by comparing counties above and below the median of wheat acreage per county. There was increased mortality for cancer of the nose and eye in both men and women, brain and leukemia in both boys and girls, and all cancers in boys. These results suggest an association between cancer mortality and wheat acreage in counties of these four states. PMID:11017893

  9. The State of NASA's Information Power Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, William E.; Vaziri, Arsi; Tanner, Leigh Ann; Feiereisen, William J.; Thigpen, William; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation transfers the concept of the power grid to information sharing in the NASA community. An information grid of this sort would be characterized as comprising tools, middleware, and services for the facilitation of interoperability, distribution of new technologies, human collaboration, and data management. While a grid would increase the ability of information sharing, it would not necessitate it. The onus of utilizing the grid would rest with the users.

  10. High power single frequency solid state master oscillator power amplifier for gravitational wave detection.

    PubMed

    Basu, Chandrajit; Wessels, Peter; Neumann, Jörg; Kracht, Dietmar

    2012-07-15

    High power single frequency, single mode, linearly polarized laser output at the 1 μm regime is in demand for the interferometric gravitational wave detectors (GWDs). A robust single frequency solid state master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) is a promising candidate for such applications. We present a single frequency solid state multistage MOPA system delivering 177 W of linearly polarized output power at 1 μm with 83.5% TEM(00) mode content.

  11. High power diode and solid state lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, H. J.; Fritsche, H.; Lux, O.; Strohmaier, S. G.

    2017-01-01

    Diode lasers are now basic pump sources of crystal, glass fiber and other solid state lasers. Progress in the performance of all these lasers is related. Examples of recently developed diode pumped lasers and Raman frequency converters are described for applications in materials processing, Lidar and medical surgery.

  12. Strategies for steam handling and H2S abatement at geothermal power plants in the geysers area of Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, W. F.; Stephens, F. B.

    1981-08-01

    Strict limitations on the emission of H2S from new geothermal power plants in The Geysers area of northern California were imposed by Lake and Northern Sonoma County Air Pollution Control Districts. Lake County, under new source review rules, stipulated that specific technologies should be utilized to limit H2S emissions to 5 lb/h as a condition for determination of compliance. The status of these technologies as well as other ongoing technology development efforts to conserve steam and abate H2S are evaluated.

  13. Landsat mapping of rocks associated with copper mineralization, northern Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, T. A.; Birnie, R. W.; Zantop, H.

    1983-01-01

    This project has applied Landsat digital data to a study of the geology of a mineralized zone in northern Bahia State, Brazil. The study accomplished two tasks: (1) production of a 1:100,000 geologic map of approximately 3300 sq km and (2) development of a two tiered geobotanical index that exploits increased vegetation density and decreased soil brightness on the mafic rock units.

  14. Landsat mapping of rocks associated with copper mineralization, northern Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, T. A.; Birnie, R. W.; Zantop, H.

    1983-01-01

    This project has applied Landsat digital data to a study of the geology of a mineralized zone in northern Bahia State, Brazil. The study accomplished two tasks: (1) production of a 1:100,000 geologic map of approximately 3300 sq km and (2) development of a two tiered geobotanical index that exploits increased vegetation density and decreased soil brightness on the mafic rock units.

  15. High power solid state laser modulator

    DOEpatents

    Birx, Daniel L.; Ball, Don G.; Cook, Edward G.

    2004-04-27

    A multi-stage magnetic modulator provides a pulse train of .+-.40 kV electrical pulses at a 5-7 kHz repetition rate to a metal vapor laser. A fractional turn transformer steps up the voltage by a factor of 80 to 1 and magnetic pulse compression is used to reduce the pulse width of the pulse train. The transformer is fabricated utilizing a rod and plate stack type of construction to achieve a high packing factor. The pulses are controlled by an SCR stack where a plurality of SCRs are electrically connected in parallel, each SCR electrically connected to a saturable inductor, all saturable inductors being wound on the same core of magnetic material for enhanced power handling characteristics.

  16. Hybrid solid state switch replaces motor- driven power switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, R. A.; Schloss, A. I.

    1967-01-01

    Hybrid solid state switch replaces existing motor-driven power switches used on spacecraft. It uses a transistor circuit to limit the open circuit voltage and allow small relay contacts to handle high transient currents at reasonable cycle life.

  17. The origin of ethics and social order in a society without state power.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K

    1999-06-01

    How ethics and social order in a society without state power had originated and developed is one of enigmas which human beings have tried to solve for a long time. Several theories on the origin of social order have been proposed since the "Social Contract" theory of Thomas Hobbes. According to Hobbes, as a society without state power is in a condition called war, a social contract among men is the origin of social order in a society where every man is against every man. Rousseau says that when human beings reach the stage in which they live in a permanent neighborhood, a property system is introduced. Then, too much ambition and avarice of man who has possessions compel him to propose the formation of a political institution, providing social order which enables him to keep his possessions. According to Nietzsche, the principle of equilibrium, that is, an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth is an important concept for the oldest theory of low and morality as well as the basis of justice. The sense of superiority and nobility which a strong man brave enough to take revenge feels is the origin of the antithesis "good" and "bad". Girard says that the sacred violence wielded by the community to sacrifice a surrogate victim brings about social order in a society without state power. All the aforementioned theories seem to have failed to find out that a society without state power has its own ethics that had spontaneously developed on the pagan culture. Previously, I indicated that a society without state power or a society where state power cannot function well, such as the tribal society in northern Albania, has ethics which is based on the ancient concepts of "Guest-god", "food (commensality)" and "blood". In the present paper, I propose a new theory on the origin of ethics and social order, using the model of ethics of the Kanun.

  18. Solid-state resistor for pulsed power machines

    SciTech Connect

    Stoltzfus, Brian; Savage, Mark E.; Hutsel, Brian Thomas; Fowler, William E.; MacRunnels, Keven Alan; Justus, David; Stygar, William A.

    2016-12-06

    A flexible solid-state resistor comprises a string of ceramic resistors that can be used to charge the capacitors of a linear transformer driver (LTD) used in a pulsed power machine. The solid-state resistor is able to absorb the energy of a switch prefire, thereby limiting LTD cavity damage, yet has a sufficiently low RC charge time to allow the capacitor to be recharged without disrupting the operation of the pulsed power machine.

  19. Reliability Value of Fast State Estimation on Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu

    2012-05-07

    Monitoring the state of a power system under stress is key to achieving reliable operation. State estimation and timely measurements become more important when applying and designing corrective control actions (manual and automatic) to arrest or mitigate cascading blackouts. The execution time of each process, including state estimation, should be as short as possible to allow for timely action. In this paper, we provide a methodology for estimating one of the components of value of faster and more frequent state estimation: the reliability value of state estimation to assist corrective control actions for arresting or mitigating cascading blackouts. We present a new algorithm for estimating the time between successive line trips in a cascading failure. The algorithm combines power flow calculations with characteristics of the protection system to estimate the time between successive equipment trips. Using this algorithm, we illustrate the value of fast state estimation by calculating the time remaining for automatic or manual corrective actions after state estimation is finalized.

  20. Estimating Power System Dynamic States Using Extended Kalman Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Schneider, Kevin P.; Nieplocha, Jaroslaw; Zhou, Ning

    2014-10-31

    Abstract—The state estimation tools which are currently deployed in power system control rooms are based on a steady state assumption. As a result, the suite of operational tools that rely on state estimation results as inputs do not have dynamic information available and their accuracy is compromised. This paper investigates the application of Extended Kalman Filtering techniques for estimating dynamic states in the state estimation process. The new formulated “dynamic state estimation” includes true system dynamics reflected in differential equations, not like previously proposed “dynamic state estimation” which only considers the time-variant snapshots based on steady state modeling. This new dynamic state estimation using Extended Kalman Filter has been successfully tested on a multi-machine system. Sensitivity studies with respect to noise levels, sampling rates, model errors, and parameter errors are presented as well to illustrate the robust performance of the developed dynamic state estimation process.

  1. Scaling of solid state lasers for satellite power beaming applications

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.W.; Albrecht, G.F.; Beach, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The power requirements for a satellite power beaming laser system depend upon the diameter of the beam director, the performance of the adaptive optics system, and the mission requirements. For an 8 meter beam director and overall Strehl ratio of 50%, a 30 kW laser at 850 nm can deliver an equivalent solar flux to a satellite at geostationary orbit. Advances in Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers (DPSSL) have brought these small, efficient and reliable devices to high average power and they should be considered for satellite power beaming applications. Two solid state systems are described: a diode pumped Alexandrite and diode pumped Thulium doped YAG. Both can deliver high average power at 850 nm in a single aperture.

  2. Scaling of solid state lasers for satellite power beaming applications

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, H.; Albrecht, G.; Beach, R.

    1994-12-31

    The power requirements for a satellite power beaming laser system depend upon the diameter of the beam director, the performance of the adaptive optics system, and the mission requirements. For an 8 meter beam director and overall Strehl ratio of 50%, a 30 kW laser at 850 nm can deliver an equivalent solar flux to a satellite at geostationary orbit. Advances in Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers (DPSSL) have brought these small, efficient and reliable devices to high average power and they should be considered for satellite power beaming applications. Two solid state systems are described: a diode pumped Alexandrite and diode pumped Thulium doped YAG. Both can deliver high average power at 850 nm in a single aperture.

  3. X-Band, 17-Watt Solid-State Power Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittskus, Anthony; Stone, Ernest; Boger, William; Burgess, David; Honda, Richard; Nuckolls, Carl

    2005-01-01

    An advanced solid-state power amplifier that can generate an output power of as much as 17 W at a design operating frequency of 8.4 GHz has been designed and constructed as a smaller, lighter, less expensive alternative to traveling-wave-tube X-band amplifiers and to prior solid-state X-band power amplifiers of equivalent output power. This amplifier comprises a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifier module and a power-converter module integrated into a compact package (see Figure 1). The amplifier module contains an input variable-gain amplifier (VGA), an intermediate driver stage, a final power stage, and input and output power monitors (see Figure 2). The VGA and the driver amplifier are 0.5-m GaAs-based metal semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs). The final power stage contains four parallel high-efficiency, GaAs-based pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistors (PHEMTs). The gain of the VGA is voltage-variable over a range of 10 to 24 dB. To provide for temperature compensation of the overall amplifier gain, the gain-control voltage is generated by an operational-amplifier circuit that includes a resistor/thermistor temperature-sensing network. The driver amplifier provides a gain of 14 dB to an output power of 27 dBm to drive the four parallel output PHEMTs, each of which is nominally capable of putting out as much as 5 W. The driver output is sent to the input terminals of the four parallel PHEMTs through microstrip power dividers; the outputs of these PHEMTs are combined by microstrip power combiners (which are similar to the microstrip power dividers) to obtain the final output power of 17 W.

  4. Outlook for outdoor recreation in the northern United States. A technical document supporting the Northern Forest Futures Project with projections through 2060

    Treesearch

    J.M. Bowker; Ashley E. Askew

    2013-01-01

    We develop projections of participation and use for 17 nature-based outdoor recreation activities through 2060 for the Northern United States. Similar to the 2010 Resources Planning Act (RPA) assessment, this report develops recreation projections under futures wherein population growth, socioeconomic conditions, land use changes, and climate are allowed to change over...

  5. State Aid, Voter Power and Local Control in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zak, Itai; Glasman, Naftaly S.

    1979-01-01

    Not only did voter power contribute meaningfully to local control behavior regardless of the exact shape of the relations between state aid and local control, but the hypothesized inverse relationship between state aid and local control did not receive support. Journal availability: see EA 511 898. (Author/IRT)

  6. Diminished States? National Power in European Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupfer, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    The increasing research on international organisations' education policy lacks analyses of the relation between international organisations and nation states. This paper aims to analyse the power of nation states in international education policy. Focusing on the new degree system in higher education in Europe, partly from Foucault's…

  7. Diminished States? National Power in European Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupfer, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    The increasing research on international organisations' education policy lacks analyses of the relation between international organisations and nation states. This paper aims to analyse the power of nation states in international education policy. Focusing on the new degree system in higher education in Europe, partly from Foucault's…

  8. State Aid, Voter Power and Local Control in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zak, Itai; Glasman, Naftaly S.

    1979-01-01

    Not only did voter power contribute meaningfully to local control behavior regardless of the exact shape of the relations between state aid and local control, but the hypothesized inverse relationship between state aid and local control did not receive support. Journal availability: see EA 511 898. (Author/IRT)

  9. Prevalence and Significance of Parasites of Horses in Some States of Northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    EHIZIBOLO, David O.; KAMANI, Joshua; EHIZIBOLO, Peter O.; EGWU, Kinsley O.; DOGO, Goni I.; SALAMI-SHINABA, Josiah O.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of parasites of horses in northern Nigeria. Blood and faecal samples were randomly collected from 243 horses from different stables in some states of northern Nigeria for laboratory analyses. Fifty-seven horses (23.5%) were found infected with parasites. The hemoparasites detected, 21 (8.6%), include Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma evansi. The endoparasites encountered, 29 (11.9%) were Strongylus spp., Strongyloides spp., Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Paragonimus spp. and Dicrocoelium spp., 3 (1.2%) was Eimeria spp. Four horses (1.6%) had mixed infection of hemo- and endoparasites. This preliminary finding shows that parasitism is a problem in the horse stables examined, and calls for proper stable hygiene, routine tick control and regular deworming programme. PMID:24833991

  10. The power to act: two model state statutes.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Deborah L; Gostin, Lawrence O; Street, Jerry; Mills, S Peter

    2002-01-01

    Enabling statutes for state and local public health agencies set forth their powers and duties and provide the legal basis for their work. Obsolescence, inconsistency, and inadequacy may render some public health laws ineffective or even counterproductive. Reforming state public health law can improve the legal infrastructure that supports public health systems in responding to bioterrorism and other public health threats. Two legal tools available to assist the process of establishing a strong legal foundation for public health practice are the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act, developed in 2001 by the Center for Law and the Public's Health, and the Model State Public Health Act, currently under development by the Turning Point Public Health Statute Modernization National Collaborative. These model acts can serve as guides for assessing current state public health law, and they provide example statutory language for use by those working to update their laws. That strong state public health law and model public health acts serve as resources for law reform is recognized by local health officials and state legislators as well as by state public health officials. Lessons learned from recent experiences with crafting and introducing legislation based on the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act can prove useful in the future to those working on public health law reform efforts in their states.

  11. Final Scientific Report - Wind Powering America State Outreach Project

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Mark; Margolis, Anne

    2012-02-01

    The goal of the Wind Powering America State Outreach Project was to facilitate the adoption of effective state legislation, policy, finance programs, and siting best practices to accelerate public acceptance and development of wind energy. This was accomplished by Clean Energy States Alliance (CESA) through provision of informational tools including reports and webinars as well as the provision of technical assistance to state leaders on wind siting, policy, and finance best practices, identification of strategic federal-state partnership activities for both onshore and offshore wind, and participation in regional wind development collaboratives. The Final Scientific Report - Wind Powering America State Outreach Project provides a summary of the objectives, activities, and outcomes of this project as accomplished by CESA over the period 12/1/2009 - 11/30/2011.

  12. Analysis of Control Power in Controlled Remote State Preparation Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xihan; Ghose, Shohini

    2017-03-01

    We quantify and analyze the controller's power in controlled remote state preparation schemes. Our analysis provides a lower bound on the control power required for controlled remote preparation of arbitrary D-dimensional states. We evaluate several existing controlled remote state preparation protocols and show that some proposed non-maximally entangled channels are not suitable for perfect controlled remote preparation of arbitrary quantum states from the controller's point of view. We find that for remotely preparing D-dimensional states, the entropy of each controller should be no less than log2 D bits. Our new criteria are not only useful for evaluating controlled remote state preparation schemes but can also be used for other controlled quantum communication schemes.

  13. High Average Power Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers: Power Scaling With High Spectral and Spatial Coherence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-30

    TEM00 -mode, diode - laser - pumped , Nd:YAG miniature-slab laser ,” Opt. Lett...30-Sep-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER High Average Power Diode - Pumped Solid-State Lasers : Power DAAD19-02-1-0184 Scaling with High...documentation. 14. ABSTRACT The main program objective was the development ofa kilowatt class, cw Nd:YAG diode - laser - pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL)

  14. Power SEMICONDUCTORS—STATE of Art and Future Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benda, Vitezslav

    2011-06-01

    The importance of effective energy conversion control, including power generation from renewable and environmentally clean energy sources, increases due to rising energy demand. Power electronic systems for controlling and converting electrical energy have become the workhorse of modern society in many applications, both in industry and at home. Power electronics plays a very important role in traction and can be considered as brawns of robotics and automated manufacturing systems. Power semiconductor devices are the key electronic components used in power electronic systems. Advances in power semiconductor technology have improved the efficiency, size, weight and cost of power electronic systems. At present, IGCTs, IGBTs, and MOSFETs represent modern switching devices. Power integrated circuits (PIC) have been developed for the use of power converters for portable, automotive and aerospace applications. For advanced applications, new materials (SiC and GaN) have been introduced. This paper reviews the state of these devices and elaborates on their potentials in terms of higher voltages, higher power density, and better switching performance.

  15. State regulation and power plant productivity: background and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This report was prepared by representatives of several state regulatory agencies. It is a guide to some of the activities currently under way in state agencies to promote increased availability of electrical generating power plants. Standard measures of plant performance are defined and the nature of data bases that report such measures is discussed. It includes reviews of current state, federal, and industry programs to enhance power plant productivity and provides detailed outlines of programs in effect in California, Illinois, Michigan, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, and Texas. A number of actions are presented that could be adopted by state regulatory agencies, depending on local conditions. They include: develop a commission position or policy statement to encourage productivity improvements by utilities; coordinate state efforts with ongoing industry and government programs to improve the acquisition of power plant performance data and the maintenance of quality information systems; acquire the capability to perform independent analyses of power plant productivity; direct the establishment of productivity improvement programs, including explicit performance objectives for both existing and planned power plants, and a performance program; establish a program of incentives to motivate productivity improvement activities; and participate in ongoing efforts at all levels and initiate new actions to promote productivity improvements.

  16. Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of (137)Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of (137)Cs and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of (137)Cs from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of (137)Cs at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with the

  17. Computerized power supply analysis: State equation generation and terminal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    To aid engineers that design power supply systems two analysis tools that can be used with the state equation analysis package were developed. These tools include integration routines that start with the description of a power supply in state equation form and yield analytical results. The first tool uses a computer program that works with the SUPER SCEPTRE circuit analysis program and prints the state equation for an electrical network. The state equations developed automatically by the computer program are used to develop an algorithm for reducing the number of state variables required to describe an electrical network. In this way a second tool is obtained in which the order of the network is reduced and a simpler terminal model is obtained.

  18. Wind Power Price Trends in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2009-07-15

    For the fourth year in a row, the United States led the world in adding new wind power capacity in 2008, and also surpassed Germany to take the lead in terms of cumulative installed wind capacity. The rapid growth of wind power in the U.S. over the past decade (Figure 1) has been driven by a combination of increasingly supportive policies (including the Federal production tax credit (PTC) and a growing number of state renewables portfolio standards), uncertainty over the future fuel costs and environmental liabilities of natural gas and coal-fired power plants, and wind's competitive position among generation resources. This article focuses on just the last of these drivers - i.e., trends in U.S. wind power prices - over the period of strong capacity growth since 1998.

  19. Five anthropogenic factors that will radically alter forest conditions and management needs in the Northern United States

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Shifley; W. Keith Moser; David J. Nowak; Patrick D. Miles; Brett J. Butler; Francisco X. Aguilar; Ryan D. DeSantis; Eric J. Greenfield

    2014-01-01

    The Northern United States includes the 20 states bounded by Maine, Maryland, Missouri, and Minnesota. With 70 million ha of forestland and 124 million people, it is the most densely forested (42% of land area) and most densely populated (74 people/km2) quadrant of the United States. Three recent, large-scale, multiresource assessments of forest...

  20. Solid-state retrodirective phased array concepts for microwave power transmission from Solar Power Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, K. G.; Petroff, I. K.

    1980-01-01

    Two prototype solid-state phased array systems concepts for potential use in the Solar Power Satellite are described. In both concepts, the beam is centered on the rectenna by means of phase conjugation of a pilot signal emanating from the ground. Also discussed is on-going solid-state amplifier development.

  1. A Testbed for Deploying Distributed State Estimation in Power Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Shuangshuang; Chen, Yousu; Rice, Mark J.; Liu, Yan; Gorton, Ian

    2012-07-22

    Abstract—With the increasing demand, scale and data information of power systems, fast distributed applications are becoming more important in power system operation and control. This paper proposes a testbed for evaluating power system distributed applications, considering data exchange among distributed areas. A high-performance computing (HPC) version of distributed state estimation is implemented and used as a distributed application example. The IEEE 118-bus system is used to deploy the parallel distributed state estimation, and the MeDICi middleware is used for data communication. The performance of the testbed demonstrates its capability to evaluate parallel distributed state estimation by leveraging the HPC paradigm. This testbed can also be applied to evaluate other distributed applications.

  2. Solid-state power supply for gas lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolini, A.; Beverini, N.; Carelli, G.; Francesconi, M.; Nannizzi, M.; Strumia, F.; Ioli, N.; Moretti, A.

    2004-08-01

    A novel pulsed power supply for gas lasers is presented. The device uses only solid state components and is based on a capacitor bank discharge. Fast switching of the discharge is triggered by an insulated gate bipolar transistor. The terminal section of the power supply is a transformer designed to match the reactive capacitance of a gas discharge. Strokes up to 30 kV and 30 mA are achieved across the secondary windings of this transformer. The power supply delivers high voltage pulses with a duration between 0.5 and 50 μs and a repetition rate up to some kHz. The power supply has been tested on a longitudinal discharge quasi-cw regime CO2 laser. Laser pulses were generated with a duration down to the microseconds region, a peak power exceeding some kilowatts, and a repetition rate ranging from 200 Hz to a few kHz.

  3. Solid state modulator for klystron power supply XFEL TDS INJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavadtsev, A. A.; Zavadtsev, D. A.; Zybin, D. A.; Churanov, D. V.; Shemarykin, P. V.

    2016-09-01

    The transverse deflecting system XFEL TDS INJ for European X-ray Free Electron Laser includes power supply for the CPI VKS-8262HS klystron. It has been designed for pulse high-voltage, cathode heating, solenoid and klystron ion pump. The klystron power supply includes solid state modulator, pulse transformer, controlled power supply for cathode heating and commercial power supplies for solenoid and ion pump. Main parameters of the modulator are 110 kV of peak voltage, 72 A peak current, and pulse length up to 6 μs. The klystron power supply has been developed, designed, manufactured, tuned, tested and installed in the XFEL building. All designed parameters are satisfied.

  4. High power diode lasers for solid-state laser pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linden, Kurt J.; McDonnell, Patrick N.

    1994-02-01

    The development and commercial application of high power diode laser arrays for use as solid-state laser pumps is described. Such solid-state laser pumps are significantly more efficient and reliable than conventional flash-lamps. This paper describes the design and fabrication of diode lasers emitting in the 780 - 900 nm spectral region, and discusses their performance and reliability. Typical measured performance parameters include electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiencies of 50 percent, narrow-band spectral emission of 2 to 3 nm FWHM, pulsed output power levels of 50 watts/bar with reliability values of over 2 billion shots to date (tests to be terminated after 10 billion shots), and reliable operation to pulse lengths of 1 ms. Pulse lengths up to 5 ms have been demonstrated at derated power levels, and CW performance at various power levels has been evaluated in a 'bar-in-groove' laser package. These high-power 1-cm stacked-bar arrays are now being manufactured for OEM use. Individual diode laser bars, ready for package-mounting by OEM customers, are being sold as commodity items. Commercial and medical applications of these laser arrays include solid-state laser pumping for metal-working, cutting, industrial measurement and control, ranging, wind-shear/atmospheric turbulence detection, X-ray generation, materials surface cleaning, microsurgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, and dental procedures.

  5. High power diode lasers for solid-state laser pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, Kurt J.; Mcdonnell, Patrick N.

    1994-01-01

    The development and commercial application of high power diode laser arrays for use as solid-state laser pumps is described. Such solid-state laser pumps are significantly more efficient and reliable than conventional flash-lamps. This paper describes the design and fabrication of diode lasers emitting in the 780 - 900 nm spectral region, and discusses their performance and reliability. Typical measured performance parameters include electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiencies of 50 percent, narrow-band spectral emission of 2 to 3 nm FWHM, pulsed output power levels of 50 watts/bar with reliability values of over 2 billion shots to date (tests to be terminated after 10 billion shots), and reliable operation to pulse lengths of 1 ms. Pulse lengths up to 5 ms have been demonstrated at derated power levels, and CW performance at various power levels has been evaluated in a 'bar-in-groove' laser package. These high-power 1-cm stacked-bar arrays are now being manufactured for OEM use. Individual diode laser bars, ready for package-mounting by OEM customers, are being sold as commodity items. Commercial and medical applications of these laser arrays include solid-state laser pumping for metal-working, cutting, industrial measurement and control, ranging, wind-shear/atmospheric turbulence detection, X-ray generation, materials surface cleaning, microsurgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, and dental procedures.

  6. Atlantic tropical forest mapping in the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Simi, R. Jr.; Almeida, S.A.S.; Manso, A.P.

    1997-06-01

    The northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State includes the cities of Ubatuba, Caraguatatuba, Sao Sebastiao and Ilha Bela. Large development projects, such as road and highway constructions and joint real estate exploration of susceptible coastal ecosystems have threatened the harmony and ecological stability of these ecosystems. Recently, the Atlantic tropical rain forest has been the most destructed ecosystem in the coastal zone in response to real estate investments in urban areas along the main roads. In the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, 80% of the counties are included in the State Park of Serra do Mar. As tourism is a strong growing economical activity, as well as coastal production, it should be of interest to create a plan for sustainable development. The objective of this study is to map and characterize land use cover changes with emphasis on the Atlantic tropical rain forest degradation using Landsat TM images. Preliminary results for land use cover changes indicate that the Atlantic tropical rain forest was reduced by 6.1 % during the period of July 1992 and October 1995.

  7. The driving forces of land change in the Northern Piedmont of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auch, Roger F.; Napton, Darrell E.; Kambly, Steven; Moreland, Thomas R.; Sayler, Kristi L.

    2012-01-01

    Driving forces facilitate or inhibit land-use/land-cover change. Human driving forces include political, economic, cultural, and social attributes that often change across time and space. Remotely sensed imagery provides regional land-change data for the Northern Piedmont, an ecoregion of the United States that continued to urbanize after 1970 through conversion of agricultural and forest land covers to developed uses. Eight major driving forces facilitated most of the land conversion; other drivers inhibited or slowed change. A synergistic web of drivers may be more important in understanding land change than individual drivers by themselves.

  8. High power solid state rf amplifier for proton accelerator.

    PubMed

    Jain, Akhilesh; Sharma, Deepak Kumar; Gupta, Alok Kumar; Hannurkar, P R

    2008-01-01

    A 1.5 kW solid state rf amplifier at 352 MHz has been developed and tested at RRCAT. This rf source for cw operation will be used as a part of rf system of 100 MeV proton linear accelerator. A rf power of 1.5 kW has been achieved by combining output power from eight 220 W rf amplifier modules. Amplifier modules, eight-way power combiner and divider, and directional coupler were designed indigenously for this development. High efficiency, ease of fabrication, and low cost are the main features of this design.

  9. Oil market power and United States national security.

    PubMed

    Stern, Roger

    2006-01-31

    It is widely believed that an oil weapon could impose scarcity upon the United States. Impending resource exhaustion is thought to exacerbate this threat. However, threat seems implausible when we consider strategic deficits of prospective weapon users and the improbability of impending resource exhaustion. Here, we explore a hypothesis relating oil to national security under a different assumption, abundance. We suggest that an oil cartel exerts market power to keep abundance at bay, commanding monopoly rents [or wealth transfers (wt)] that underwrite security threats. We then compare security threats attributed to the oil weapon to those that may arise from market power. We first reexamine whether oil is abundant or scarce by reviewing current development data, then we estimate a competitive price for oil. From this, we derive wt(2004) collections by Persian Gulf states approximately USD $132-178 x 10(9). We find that wt and the behavior of states collecting it interact to actuate security threats. Threats underwritten by wt are (i) the potential for emergence of a Persian Gulf superpower and (ii) terrorism. It is therefore oil market power, not oil per se, that actuates threats. We also describe a paradox in the relation of market power to the United States' defense doctrine of force projection to preempt a Gulf superpower. Because the superpower threat derives from wt, force alone cannot preempt it. A further paradox is that because foreign policy is premised on oil weapon fear, market power is appeased. Threats thereby grow unimpeded.

  10. Oil market power and United States national security

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Roger

    2006-01-01

    It is widely believed that an oil weapon could impose scarcity upon the United States. Impending resource exhaustion is thought to exacerbate this threat. However, threat seems implausible when we consider strategic deficits of prospective weapon users and the improbability of impending resource exhaustion. Here, we explore a hypothesis relating oil to national security under a different assumption, abundance. We suggest that an oil cartel exerts market power to keep abundance at bay, commanding monopoly rents [or wealth transfers (wt)] that underwrite security threats. We then compare security threats attributed to the oil weapon to those that may arise from market power. We first reexamine whether oil is abundant or scarce by reviewing current development data, then we estimate a competitive price for oil. From this, we derive wt2004 collections by Persian Gulf states ≈ $132-178 × 109. We find that wt and the behavior of states collecting it interact to actuate security threats. Threats underwritten by wt are (i) the potential for emergence of a Persian Gulf superpower and (ii) terrorism. It is therefore oil market power, not oil per se, that actuates threats. We also describe a paradox in the relation of market power to the United States' defense doctrine of force projection to preempt a Gulf superpower. Because the superpower threat derives from wt, force alone cannot preempt it. A further paradox is that because foreign policy is premised on oil weapon fear, market power is appeased. Threats thereby grow unimpeded. PMID:16428291

  11. Wind power forecasting : state-of-the-art 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Monteiro, C.; Bessa, R.; Miranda, V.; Botterud, A.; Wang, J.; Conzelmann, G.; Decision and Information Sciences; INESC Porto

    2009-11-20

    Many countries and regions are introducing policies aimed at reducing the environmental footprint from the energy sector and increasing the use of renewable energy. In the United States, a number of initiatives have been taken at the state level, from renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) and renewable energy certificates (RECs), to regional greenhouse gas emission control schemes. Within the U.S. Federal government, new energy and environmental policies and goals are also being crafted, and these are likely to increase the use of renewable energy substantially. The European Union is pursuing implementation of its ambitious 20/20/20 targets, which aim (by 2020) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20% (as compared to 1990), increase the amount of renewable energy to 20% of the energy supply, and reduce the overall energy consumption by 20% through energy efficiency. With the current focus on energy and the environment, efficient integration of renewable energy into the electric power system is becoming increasingly important. In a recent report, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) describes a model-based scenario, in which wind energy provides 20% of the U.S. electricity demand in 2030. The report discusses a set of technical and economic challenges that have to be overcome for this scenario to unfold. In Europe, several countries already have a high penetration of wind power (i.e., in the range of 7 to 20% of electricity consumption in countries such as Germany, Spain, Portugal, and Denmark). The rapid growth in installed wind power capacity is expected to continue in the United States as well as in Europe. A large-scale introduction of wind power causes a number of challenges for electricity market and power system operators who will have to deal with the variability and uncertainty in wind power generation when making their scheduling and dispatch decisions. Wind power forecasting (WPF) is frequently identified as an important tool to address the variability and

  12. Mate Recognition and Expression of Affective State in Croop Calls of Northern Bald Ibis (Geronticus eremita)

    PubMed Central

    Szipl, Georgine; Boeckle, Markus; Werner, Sinja A. B.; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Northern Bald Ibis are socially monogamous and year-round colonial birds with a moderate repertoire of calls. Their ‘croop’, for example, is used during greeting of mates, but also during agonistic encounters, and provides an ideal case to study whether calls are revealing with respect to motivational states. We recorded croop calls in a semi-tame and free-roaming flock of Northern Bald Ibis in Austria, and analysed the vocal structure to identify parameters (e.g. call duration, fundamental frequency) potentially differing between social contexts, sexes and individuals. Additionally, we conducted playback experiments to test whether mated pairs would discriminate each other by their greeting croops. Acoustic features showed highly variable temporal and structural parameters. Almost all calls could be classified correctly and assigned to the different social contexts and sexes. Classification results of greeting croops were less clear for individuality. However, incubating individuals looked up more often and longer in response to playbacks of the greeting calls of their mate than to other colony members, indicating mate recognition. We show that acoustic parameters of agonistic and greeting croops contain features that may indicate the expression of affective states, and that greeting croops encode individual differences that are sufficient for individual recognition. PMID:24505455

  13. The conditional entropy power inequality for Gaussian quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, Robert

    2015-02-15

    We propose a generalization of the quantum entropy power inequality involving conditional entropies. For the special case of Gaussian states, we give a proof based on perturbation theory for symplectic spectra. We discuss some implications for entanglement-assisted classical communication over additive bosonic noise channels.

  14. Steady-state and dynamic models of unified power flow controller (UPFC) for power system studies

    SciTech Connect

    Nabavi-Niaki, A.; Iravani, M.R.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides comprehensive development procedures and final forms of mathematical models of unified power flow controller (UPFC) for steady-state, transient stability and eigenvalue studies. Based on the developed models, the impacts of control strategy, parameters and location of UPFC on power system operating conditions are discussed. The accuracy of the developed models is verified through comparing the study results with those obtained from detailed time-domain simulation using the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP).

  15. High-power solid-state cw dye laser.

    PubMed

    Bornemann, R; Thiel, E; Bolívar, P Haring

    2011-12-19

    In the present paper we describe a high-power tunable solid-state dye laser setup that offers peak output power up to 800 mW around 575 nm with excellent long-time power stability and low noise level. The spectral width of the laser emission is less than 3 GHz and can be tuned over more than 30 nm. A nearly circular mode profile is achieved with an M(2) better than 1.4. The device can be integrated in a compact housing (dimensions are 60 × 40 × 20 cm(3)). The limitation of long-time power stability is mainly given by photo decomposition of organic dye molecules. These processes are analyzed in detail via spatially resolved micro-imaging and spectroscopic studies.

  16. Market power and state costs of HIV/AIDS drugs.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, Arleen A; Sood, Neeraj

    2007-03-01

    We examine whether U.S. states can use their market power to reduce the costs of supplying prescription drugs to uninsured and underinsured persons with HIV through a public program, the AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP). Among states that purchase drugs from manufacturers and distribute them directly to clients, those that purchase a greater volume pay lower average costs per prescription. Among states depending on retail pharmacies to distribute drugs and then claiming rebates from manufacturers, those that contract with smaller numbers of pharmacy networks have lower average costs. Average costs per prescription do not differ between the two purchase methods.

  17. Binary tree-based low power state assignment algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajstura, Krzysztof; Kania, Dariusz

    2016-12-01

    A new low power state assignment algorithm is proposed in this paper. The essence of new coding is dividing all the states into subsets, which are sequentially assigned to the individual bits of code. This type of decomposition encoding, in which the coding is done bit by bit, retains the flexibility of assigning code words from the beginning to the end of the encoding process. The results of the experiments confirm efficiency of the proposed algorithm in comparison with the state assignment algorithms that have already been developed.

  18. Steady state security assessment in deregulated power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjure, Durgesh Padmakar

    Power system operations are undergoing changes, brought about primarily due to deregulation and subsequent restructuring of the power industry. The primary intention of the introduction of deregulation in power systems was to bring about competition and improved customer focus. The underlying motive was increased economic benefit. Present day power system analysis is much different than what it was earlier, essentially due to the transformation of the power industry from being cost-based to one that is price-based and due to open access of transmission networks to the various market participants. Power is now treated as a commodity and is traded in an open market. The resultant interdependence of the technical criteria and the economic considerations has only accentuated the need for accurate analysis in power systems. The main impetus in security analysis studies is on efficient assessment of the post-contingency status of the system, accuracy being of secondary consideration. In most cases, given the time frame involved, it is not feasible to run a complete AC load flow for determining the post-contingency state of the system. Quite often, it is not warranted as well, as an indication of the state of the system is desired rather than the exact quantification of the various state variables. With the inception of deregulation, transmission networks are subjected to a host of multilateral transactions, which would influence physical system quantities like real power flows, security margins and voltage levels. For efficient asset utilization and maximization of the revenue, more often than not, transmission networks are operated under stressed conditions, close to security limits. Therefore, a quantitative assessment of the extent to which each transaction adversely affects the transmission network is required. This needs to be done accurately as the feasibility of the power transactions and subsequent decisions (execution, curtailment, pricing) would depend upon the

  19. On achieving the state's household recycling target: A case study of Northern New Jersey, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Otegbeye, M.; Abdel-Malek, L.; Hsieh, H.N.; Meegoda, J.N.

    2009-02-15

    In recent times, the State of New Jersey (USA) has been making attempts at promoting recycling as an environmentally friendly means of attaining self-sufficiency at waste disposal, and the state has put in place a 50% recycling target for its municipal solid waste stream. While the environmental benefits of recycling are obvious, a recycling program must be cost effective to ensure its long-term sustainability. In this paper, a linear programming model is developed to examine the current state of recycling in selected counties in Northern New Jersey and assess the needs to achieve the state's recycling goal in these areas. The optimum quantities of waste to be sent to the different waste facilities, which include landfills, incinerators, transfer stations, recycling and composting plants, are determined by the model. The study shows that for these counties, the gap between the current waste practices where the recycling rate stands at 32% and the state's goal can be bridged by more efficient utilization of existing facilities and reasonable investment in expanding those for recycling activities.

  20. On achieving the state's household recycling target: a case study of Northern New Jersey, USA.

    PubMed

    Otegbeye, M; Abdel-Malek, L; Hsieh, H N; Meegoda, J N

    2009-02-01

    In recent times, the State of New Jersey (USA) has been making attempts at promoting recycling as an environmentally friendly means of attaining self-sufficiency at waste disposal, and the state has put in place a 50% recycling target for its municipal solid waste stream. While the environmental benefits of recycling are obvious, a recycling program must be cost effective to ensure its long-term sustainability. In this paper, a linear programming model is developed to examine the current state of recycling in selected counties in Northern New Jersey and assess the needs to achieve the state's recycling goal in these areas. The optimum quantities of waste to be sent to the different waste facilities, which include landfills, incinerators, transfer stations, recycling and composting plants, are determined by the model. The study shows that for these counties, the gap between the current waste practices where the recycling rate stands at 32% and the state's goal can be bridged by more efficient utilization of existing facilities and reasonable investment in expanding those for recycling activities.

  1. Factors driving wind power development in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori A.; Parsons, Brian; Gagliano, Troy; Brown, Matthew H.; Wiser, Ryan H.; Bolinger, Mark

    2003-05-15

    In the United States, there has been substantial recent growth in wind energy generating capacity, with growth averaging 24 percent annually during the past five years. About 1,700 MW of wind energy capacity was installed in 2001, while another 410 MW became operational in 2002. This year (2003) shows promise of significant growth with more than 1,500 MW planned. With this growth, an increasing number of states are experiencing investment in wind energy projects. Wind installations currently exist in about half of all U.S. states. This paper explores the key factors at play in the states that have achieved a substantial amount of wind energy investment. Some of the factors that are examined include policy drivers, such as renewable portfolio standards (RPS), federal and state financial incentives, and integrated resource planning; as well as market drivers, such as consumer demand for green power, natural gas price volatility, and wholesale market rules.

  2. Concepts of Nature and Power: Environmental Ethics of the Northern Ute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, Stephanie

    1985-01-01

    Describes the approach to resource development of the Northern Ute tribe of Utah. This model preserves the traditional way of life, increases revenues, and minimizes environmental damage. The Ute's historical background and ideology of nature are discussed as well as their fundamental beliefs and moral imperatives associated with natural elements.…

  3. HIV-1 genetic diversity and antiretroviral drug resistance among individuals from Roraima state, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Corado, André de Lima Guerra; Bello, Gonzalo; Leão, Renato Augusto Carvalho; Granja, Fabiana; Naveca, Felipe Gomes

    2017-01-01

    The HIV-1 epidemic in Brazil has spread towards the Northern country region, but little is known about HIV-1 subtypes and prevalence of HIV strains with resistance mutations to antiretrovirals in some of the Northern states. HIV-1 protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences were obtained from 73 treatment-naive and -experienced subjects followed between 2013 and 2014 at a public health reference unit from Roraima, the northernmost Brazilian state. The most prevalent HIV-1 clade observed in the study population was the subtype B (91%), followed by subtype C (9%). Among 12 HIV-1 strains from treatment-naïve patients, only one had a transmitted drug resistance mutation for NNRTI. Among 59 treatment-experienced patients, 12 (20%) harbored HIV-1 strains with acquired drug resistance mutations (ADRM) that reduce the susceptibility to two classes of antiretroviral drugs (NRTI and NNRTI or NRTI and PI), and five (8%) harbored HIV-1 strains with ADRM that reduced susceptibility to only one class of antiretroviral drugs (NNRTI or PI). No patients harboring HIV strains with reduced susceptibility to all three classes of antiretroviral drugs were detected. A substantial fraction of treatment-experienced patients with (63%) and without (70%) ADRM had undetectable plasma viral loads (<40 copies/ml) at the time of sampling. Among treatment-experienced with plasma viral loads above 2,000 copies/ml, 44% displayed no ADRM. This data showed that the HIV-1 epidemic in Roraima displayed a much lower level of genetic diversity and a lower prevalence of ADRM than that described in other Brazilian states.

  4. HIV-1 genetic diversity and antiretroviral drug resistance among individuals from Roraima state, northern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leão, Renato Augusto Carvalho; Granja, Fabiana; Naveca, Felipe Gomes

    2017-01-01

    The HIV-1 epidemic in Brazil has spread towards the Northern country region, but little is known about HIV-1 subtypes and prevalence of HIV strains with resistance mutations to antiretrovirals in some of the Northern states. HIV-1 protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences were obtained from 73 treatment-naive and -experienced subjects followed between 2013 and 2014 at a public health reference unit from Roraima, the northernmost Brazilian state. The most prevalent HIV-1 clade observed in the study population was the subtype B (91%), followed by subtype C (9%). Among 12 HIV-1 strains from treatment-naïve patients, only one had a transmitted drug resistance mutation for NNRTI. Among 59 treatment-experienced patients, 12 (20%) harbored HIV-1 strains with acquired drug resistance mutations (ADRM) that reduce the susceptibility to two classes of antiretroviral drugs (NRTI and NNRTI or NRTI and PI), and five (8%) harbored HIV-1 strains with ADRM that reduced susceptibility to only one class of antiretroviral drugs (NNRTI or PI). No patients harboring HIV strains with reduced susceptibility to all three classes of antiretroviral drugs were detected. A substantial fraction of treatment-experienced patients with (63%) and without (70%) ADRM had undetectable plasma viral loads (<40 copies/ml) at the time of sampling. Among treatment-experienced with plasma viral loads above 2,000 copies/ml, 44% displayed no ADRM. This data showed that the HIV-1 epidemic in Roraima displayed a much lower level of genetic diversity and a lower prevalence of ADRM than that described in other Brazilian states. PMID:28301548

  5. 42 CFR 407.42 - Buy-in groups available to the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the Northern Mariana...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... District of Columbia, and the Northern Mariana Islands. 407.42 Section 407.42 Public Health CENTERS FOR... available to the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and the Northern Mariana Islands. (a) Categories... Columbia, and the Northern Mariana Islands are specified in paragraph (b) of this section in terms of the...

  6. The 2005 Rose Prize Essay. GP Education in Northern Ireland 1920-1990. A study of the use and misuse of power.

    PubMed

    Harland, Robin W

    2006-05-01

    The use and misuse of power has been demonstrated. It has been shown that GP education has changed very significantly between 1920 and 1990. Many excellent improvements have been achieved. Nevertheless, despite these gains, it is quite impossible to accept the hypothesis that there has been a constant steady improvement through history to the present perfect state (so-called Whiggism). Rather, it is clear that each and every one of the participants who provided GP medical education in Northern Ireland have made mistakes, of varying magnitude. However, the hypothesis of the conflict perspective is proven--the inevitable competition for power and the struggle for control were ever-present, and have been illustrated. This paper acknowledges that it is axiomatic that the medical profession should teach both its 'apprentices' and CME. For the medical profession to achieve a more independent position in this provision, the powers of state and the pharmaceutical industry would have to be curbed or controlled--in short, realigned. To reach this goal the medical profession's future planners would need to change. The various cliques would have to become a unified force. Only then would they have sufficient power to orchestrate and achieve the profession's proposals for GP education. An armistice could be agreed by the warrior bands (hospital consultants, the multiplicity of royal colleges including RCGP, and medico-political bodies such as the BMA) to allow this to happen. At this point, successful renegotiation of the conditions for GP education could become a real possibility. As a postscript, it must be acknowledged that there have been a great many significant developments in GP education since 1990; some are listed in Table II. These will require research elsewhere. Nevertheless, even after a further 15 years, the hypothesis remains sound; the competition for power and struggle for control are constants, and the schisms within medical education continue unabated.

  7. Engaging in cross-border power exchange and trade via the Arab Gulf states power grid

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Hamish; Al-Asaad, Hassan K.

    2008-12-15

    When construction is complete in 2010, an interconnector established among the Gulf states will enhance their electricity infrastructure while increasing reliability and security of power supply. The interconnector will also foster exchanges of energy and facilitate cross-border trade. (author)

  8. State Estimates of the Northern Philippine Sea Circulation Including Ocean Acoustic Travel Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornuelle, B. D.; Gopalakrishnan, G.; Mazloff, M. R.; Worcester, P. F.; Dzieciuch, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    The North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) Philippine Sea experiment deployed a variety of instruments in the northern Philippine Sea during April 2010 through April 2011, including 6 acoustic transceivers for reciprocal measurements of travel times between instruments. Five of the transceivers were moored in a pentagon approximately 660 km in diameter with the sixth transceiver mooring in the center. A seventh mooring approximately 130 km northwest of the center supported a Distributed Vertical Line Array (DVLA) which carried 149 acoustic receivers with thermistors covering the depths between 200 m and 5500 m. The goals of the experiment included studying the energetic westward-propagating eddies which travel through the region, their effect on underwater sound propagation, and the impact of acoustic measurements on estimates of the time-evolving ocean state. Observed travel-time time series were compared with travel times computed from ocean state estimates made using an eddy-active regional implementation of the MITgcm that were constrained by satellite sea surface height and sea surface temperature observations and by temperature and salinity profiles from Argo, CTDs, and XBTs but not by the acoustic data. The similarities cross-validate the state estimates, while the differences provide a simple estimate of the novel information present in the travel times. The ocean state estimates were then re-computed to fit the acoustic travel times as integrals of the sound speed, and therefore temperature and salinity, along the ray paths. Over the approximately 1 year experiment, the state estimate was able to match the travel times within their error bars and did not significantly increase the misfits with the other observations. Comparisons of the state estimates with and without the travel-time data showed significant changes to the temperature and salinity were made to fit the acoustic observations. The state estimates using the acoustic data compare favorably

  9. High Efficiency Ka-Band Solid State Power Amplifier Waveguide Power Combiner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.; Simons, Rainee N.; Chevalier, Christine T.; Freeman, Jon C.

    2010-01-01

    A novel Ka-band high efficiency asymmetric waveguide four-port combiner for coherent combining of two Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Solid State Power Amplifiers (SSPAs) having unequal outputs has been successfully designed, fabricated and characterized over the NASA deep space frequency band from 31.8 to 32.3 GHz. The measured combiner efficiency is greater than 90 percent, the return loss greater than 18 dB and input port isolation greater than 22 dB. The manufactured combiner was designed for an input power ratio of 2:1 but can be custom designed for any arbitrary power ratio. Applications considered are NASA s space communications systems needing 6 to 10 W of radio frequency (RF) power. This Technical Memorandum (TM) is an expanded version of the article recently published in Institute of Engineering and Technology (IET) Electronics Letters.

  10. Solar Pumped High Power Solid State Laser for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard L.; Laycock, Rustin L.; Green, Jason J. A.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Frederick, Kevin B.; Phillips, Dane J.

    2004-01-01

    Highly coherent laser light provides a nearly optimal means of transmitting power in space. The simplest most direct means of converting sunlight to coherent laser light is a solar pumped laser oscillator. A key need for broadly useful space solar power is a robust solid state laser oscillator capable of operating efficiently in near Earth space at output powers in the multi hundred kilowatt range. The principal challenges in realizing such solar pumped laser oscillators are: (1) the need to remove heat from the solid state laser material without introducing unacceptable thermal shock, thermal lensing, or thermal stress induced birefringence to a degree that improves on current removal rates by several orders of magnitude and (2) to introduce sunlight at an effective concentration (kW/sq cm of laser cross sectional area) that is several orders of magnitude higher than currently available while tolerating a pointing error of the spacecraft of several degrees. We discuss strategies for addressing these challenges. The need to remove the high densities of heat, e.g., 30 kW/cu cm, while keeping the thermal shock, thermal lensing and thermal stress induced birefringence loss sufficiently low is addressed in terms of a novel use of diamond integrated with the laser material, such as Ti:sapphire in a manner such that the waste heat is removed from the laser medium in an axial direction and in the diamond in a radial direction. We discuss means for concentrating sunlight to an effective areal density of the order of 30 kW/sq cm. The method integrates conventional imaging optics, non-imaging optics and nonlinear optics. In effect we use a method that combines some of the methods of optical pumping solid state materials and optical fiber, but also address laser media having areas sufficiently large, e.g., 1 cm diameter to handle the multi-hundred kilowatt level powers needed for space solar power.

  11. Inventory of power plants in the United States, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  12. High average power diode pumped solid state lasers for CALIOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Comaskey, B.; Halpin, J.; Moran, B.

    1994-07-01

    Diode pumping of solid state media offers the opportunity for very low maintenance, high efficiency, and compact laser systems. For remote sensing, such lasers may be used to pump tunable non-linear sources, or if tunable themselves, act directly or through harmonic crystals as the probe. The needs of long range remote sensing missions require laser performance in the several watts to kilowatts range. At these power performance levels, more advanced thermal management technologies are required for the diode pumps. The solid state laser design must now address a variety of issues arising from the thermal loads, including fracture limits, induced lensing and aberrations, induced birefringence, and laser cavity optical component performance degradation with average power loading. In order to highlight the design trade-offs involved in addressing the above issues, a variety of existing average power laser systems are briefly described. Included are two systems based on Spectra Diode Laboratory`s water impingement cooled diode packages: a two times diffraction limited, 200 watt average power, 200 Hz multi-rod laser/amplifier by Fibertek, and TRW`s 100 watt, 100 Hz, phase conjugated amplifier. The authors also present two laser systems built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) based on their more aggressive diode bar cooling package, which uses microchannel cooler technology capable of 100% duty factor operation. They then present the design of LLNL`s first generation OPO pump laser for remote sensing. This system is specified to run at 100 Hz, 20 nsec pulses each with 300 mJ, less than two times diffraction limited, and with a stable single longitudinal mode. The performance of the first testbed version will be presented. The authors conclude with directions their group is pursuing to advance average power lasers. This includes average power electro-optics, low heat load lasing media, and heat capacity lasers.

  13. Preliminary Analysis of AVIRIS Data for Tectonostratigraphic Assessment of Northern Guerrero State, Southern Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Harold R.; Cabral-Cano, Enrique

    1996-01-01

    The tectonostratigraphic evolution of the southern margin of the North America Plate in Mexico is still in debate. Recent explanations assert Laramide age (Campanian-Eocene) accretion of far-travelled oceanic terranes. In 1989, we began an effort to bring new data to this debate through field mapping, incorporating Landsat Thematic Mapper and digital elevation data, along a 30 km by 250 km, east-west geologic transect of northern Guerrero State. Covering the region from Huetamo, Michoacan, to Papalutla, Guerrero (between latitude 18-19 deg N and longitude 101-99 deg W), our mapping results show that no stratigraphic incompatibilities suggesting terrane accretion exist in the region. In November 1994, AVIRIS data were acquired along the geologic transect in order to refine our stratigraphic assessment. One objective of this hyperspectral survey was to improve mapping of limestone, dolostone and gypsum-bearing facies of the Morelos Formation which record rudist carbonate platform environments during mid-Cretaceous time.

  14. Investigating the northern Adriatic Sea ecosystem state with a very high resolution model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavatarelli, M.; Mattia, G.; Lovato, T.; Colella, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern Adriatic sea interannually varyng biogeochemical dynamics has been simulated with the coupled BFM (Biogeochemical flux model) and NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) system at very high resolution and under high frequency forcing. Simulations allowed to estimate the role of mesoscale dynamics in modulating the structure of the lower trophic level ecosystem. Particular emphasis is also put on the analysis of the role of the shelf dense water formation on the temporal and spatial dynamics of the biogeochemical processes. Results are synthesized in term of relevant ecosystem proprieties underlying the ecosystem state, and are validated against corresponding remote observations. This is a contribution of the EU-FP7 Project "PERSEUS" (Policy oriented environmental research in the Southern European Seas).

  15. Preliminary Analysis of AVIRIS Data for Tectonostratigraphic Assessment of Northern Guerrero State, Southern Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Harold R.; Cabral-Cano, Enrique

    1996-01-01

    The tectonostratigraphic evolution of the southern margin of the North America Plate in Mexico is still in debate. Recent explanations assert Laramide age (Campanian-Eocene) accretion of far-travelled oceanic terranes. In 1989, we began an effort to bring new data to this debate through field mapping, incorporating Landsat Thematic Mapper and digital elevation data, along a 30 km by 250 km, east-west geologic transect of northern Guerrero State. Covering the region from Huetamo, Michoacan, to Papalutla, Guerrero (between latitude 18-19 deg N and longitude 101-99 deg W), our mapping results show that no stratigraphic incompatibilities suggesting terrane accretion exist in the region. In November 1994, AVIRIS data were acquired along the geologic transect in order to refine our stratigraphic assessment. One objective of this hyperspectral survey was to improve mapping of limestone, dolostone and gypsum-bearing facies of the Morelos Formation which record rudist carbonate platform environments during mid-Cretaceous time.

  16. Power Purchase Agreement Checklist for State and Local Governments

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, K.; Canavan, B.; Koenig, R.

    2009-10-01

    This fact sheet provides information and guidance on the solar photovoltaic (PV) power purchase agreement (PPA), which is a financing mechanism that state and local government entities can use to acquire clean, renewable energy. It addressed the financial, logistical, and legal questions relevant to implementing a PPA, but we do not examine the technical details?those can be discussed later with the developer/contractor. This fact sheet is written to support decision makers in U.S. state and local governments who are aware of solar PPAs and may have a cursory knowledge of their structure but they still require further information before committing to a particular project.

  17. Ground state energies from converging and diverging power series expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisowski, C.; Norris, S.; Pelphrey, R.; Stefanovich, E.; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.

    2016-10-01

    It is often assumed that bound states of quantum mechanical systems are intrinsically non-perturbative in nature and therefore any power series expansion methods should be inapplicable to predict the energies for attractive potentials. However, if the spatial domain of the Schrödinger Hamiltonian for attractive one-dimensional potentials is confined to a finite length L, the usual Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory can converge rapidly and is perfectly accurate in the weak-binding region where the ground state's spatial extension is comparable to L. Once the binding strength is so strong that the ground state's extension is less than L, the power expansion becomes divergent, consistent with the expectation that bound states are non-perturbative. However, we propose a new truncated Borel-like summation technique that can recover the bound state energy from the diverging sum. We also show that perturbation theory becomes divergent in the vicinity of an avoided-level crossing. Here the same numerical summation technique can be applied to reproduce the energies from the diverging perturbative sums.

  18. Solid state laser media driven by remote nuclear powered fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Prelas, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for driving a solid state laser by a nuclear powered fluorescence source which is located remote from the fluorescence source. A nuclear reaction produced in a reaction chamber generates fluorescence or photons. The photons are collected from the chamber into a waveguide, such as a fiber optic waveguide. The waveguide transports the photons to the remote laser for exciting the laser.

  19. Impact of red imported fire ant infestation on northern bobwhite quail abundance trends in southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.R.; Willey, R.D.; Myers, P.E.; Horton, P.M.; Buffa, J.

    2000-01-01

    Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus L.) populations are declining throughout their range. One factor contributing to the decline in the southeastern United States may be the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren). Recent research in Texas has documented that red imported fire ants can have a significant impact on northern bobwhite quail. That research was conducted in areas where fire ants are predominately polygynous (multiple queen). Polygynous infestations have much higher mound densities than the monogynous (single queen) form. In most of the southeastern United States, fire ants are predominately monogynous. We determined if there was a relationship between the invasion of monogynous red imported fire ants and abundance trends in northern bobwhite quail in the southeastern United States. For Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina we compared average northern bobwhite quail abundance based on Christmas Bird Count data for each county before and after fire ant invasion, and conducted regression analyses on bobwhite quail abundance and year preinvasion, and abundance and year postinvasion. Regionally, northern bobwhite quail were more abundant before (0.067 ??0.018 bobwhite quail per observer hour) than after fire ants invaded (0.019 ?? 0.006; Z = -3.746, df = 18, P 30-yr variation in invasion dates.

  20. Air quality impact of the coal-fired power plants in the northern passageway of the China West-East Power Transmission Project.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhigang; Hao, Jiming; Chai, Fahe; Duan, Ning; Chen, Yizhen; Li, Jindan; Chen, Fu; Liu, Simei; Pu, Wenqing

    2005-12-01

    This paper analyzes the air quality impacts of coal-fired power plants in the northern passageway of the West-East Power Transmission Project in China. A three-layer Lagrangian model called ATMOS, was used to simulate the spatial distribution of incremental sulfur dioxide (SO2) and coarse particulate matter (PM10) concentrations under different emission control scenarios. In the year 2005, the emissions from planned power plants mainly affected the air quality of Shanxi, Shaanxi, the common boundary of Inner Mongolia and Shanxi, and the area around the boundary between Inner Mongolia and Ningxia. In these areas, the annually averaged incremental SO2 and PM10 concentrations exceed 2 and 2.5 microg/m3, respectively. The maximum increases of the annually averaged SO2 and PM10 concentrations are 8.3 and 7.2 microg/m3, respectively, which occur around Hancheng city, near the boundary of the Shaanxi and Shanxi provinces. After integrated control measures are considered, the maximum increases of annually averaged SO2 and PM10 concentrations fall to 4.9 and 4 microg/m3, respectively. In the year 2010, the areas affected by planned power plants are mainly North Shaanxi, North Ningxia, and Northwest Shanxi. The maximum increases of the annually averaged SO2 and PM10, concentrations are, respectively, 6.3 and 5.6 microg/m3, occurring in Northwest Shanxi, which decline to 4.4 and 4.1 microg/m3 after the control measures are implemented. The results showed that the proposed power plants mainly affect the air quality of the region where the power plants are built, with little impact on East China where the electricity will be used. The influences of planned power plants on air quality will be decreased greatly by implementing integrated control measures.

  1. Wireless Power Transmission Technology State-Of-The-Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, R. M. T.

    2002-01-01

    This first Bill Brown SSP La Crescenta, CA 91214 technology , including microwave and laser systems for the transfer of electric , as related to eventually developing Space Solar Power (SSP) systems. Current and past technology accomplishments in ground based and air and space applied energy conversion devices, systems and modeling performance and cost information is presented, where such data are known to the author. The purpose of the presentation is to discuss and present data to encourage documenting and breaking the current technology records, so as to advance the SOA in WPT for SSP . For example, regarding DC to RF and laser converters, 83% efficient 2.45 GHz cooker-tube magnetrons with 800W CW output have been jointly developed by Russia and US. Over 50% wa11-plug efficient 1.5 kW/cm2 CW, water cooled, multibeam, solid state laser diode bar-arrays have been developed by LLNL at 808 nm wavelength. The Gennans have developed a 36% efficient, kW level, sing1e coherent beam, lateral pumped semiconductor laser. The record for end-to-end DC input to DC output power overall WPT link conversion efficiency is 54% during the Raytheon-JPL experiments in 1975 for 495.6 W recovered at 1.7-mrange at 2.4469 GAz. The record for usefully recovered electric power output ( as contrasted with thennally induced power in structures) is 34 kW OC output at a range of 1.55 km, using 2.388 GHz microwaves, during the JPL- Raytheon experiments by Bill Brown and the author at Goldstone, CA in 1975. The GaAs-diode rectenna array had an average collection-conversion efficiency of 82.5%. A single rectenna element operating a 6W RF input, developed by Bill Brown demonstrated 91.4% efficiency. The comparable record for laser light to OC output power conversion efficiency of photovoltaics is 590/0. for AlGaAs at 1.7 Wand 826nm wavelength. Russian cyclotron-wave converters have demonstrated 80% rectification efficiency at S-band. Concerning WPT technology equipment costs, magnetron conversion

  2. Spatial and Temporal Variations in CHLORINE-36 Deposition in the Northern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainsworth, Laura J.

    Chlorine-36, a cosmogenic radioisotope, has been developed for use as a tracer in hydrological systems. The deposition of atmospheric ^{36} Cl, although of primary importance to hydrological applications, has not been well studied. To begin to address this problem, ^{36}Cl has been measured in monthly, wet-only, precipitation samples collected from February, 1991, to January, 1993, at the Elms Environmental Education Center in St. Mary's County, Maryland. In addition, bulk deposition samples were collected over a 1 y period at seven sites across the Northern United States and analyzed for ^{36} Cl. The mean, wet-only ^{36} Cl/Cl ratio for the 2 y sampling period is 68 +/- 19 (x10^{-15} ) and the mean ^{36}Cl concentration is 1.2 +/- 0.1 (x10 ^6) atoms/L. The ^ {36}Cl wet deposition flux data reveal a distinct seasonal deposition pattern, with peaks occurring in March and April. This pattern is attributed to stratospheric/tropospheric exchange. The mean ^{36}Cl wet deposition flux is 38.2 +/- 5 atoms/m^2s. Comparison between wet-only and bulk deposition samples indicates that the difference accounts for approximately 25% of the total ^{36}Cl deposition flux at the Elms site. A new model, using ^{90} Sr to predict the ^{36} Cl deposition pattern, is developed to predict ^{36}Cl/Cl ratios across the United States. Chlorine-36/Cl ratios in bulk deposition samples collected across the northern United States agree well with the model predictions. A mean global ^{36}Cl production rate of approximately 28 to 38 atoms/m^2s is indicated by these samples. A comparison between ^{36 }Cl concentrations in the Aquia and Magothy aquifers in southern Maryland and bulk deposition samples collected at the Elms, MD, site indicated that modern precipitation can account for the ^{36}Cl content in the youngest water in these aquifers. Surface water samples from the Susquehanna River basin reveal ^{36}Cl and stable chloride concentrations an order of magnitude higher than in bulk

  3. Grassland to shrubland state transitions enhance carbon sequestration in the northern Chihuahuan Desert.

    PubMed

    Petrie, M D; Collins, S L; Swann, A M; Ford, P L; Litvak, M E

    2015-03-01

    The replacement of native C4 -dominated grassland by C3 -dominated shrubland is considered an ecological state transition where different ecological communities can exist under similar environmental conditions. These state transitions are occurring globally, and may be exacerbated by climate change. One consequence of the global increase in woody vegetation may be enhanced ecosystem carbon sequestration, although the responses of arid and semiarid ecosystems may be highly variable. During a drier than average period from 2007 to 2011 in the northern Chihuahuan Desert, we found established shrubland to sequester 49 g C m(-2) yr(-1) on average, while nearby native C4 grassland was a net source of 31 g C m(-2) yr(-1) over this same period. Differences in C exchange between these ecosystems were pronounced--grassland had similar productivity compared to shrubland but experienced higher C efflux via ecosystem respiration, while shrubland was a consistent C sink because of a longer growing season and lower ecosystem respiration. At daily timescales, rates of carbon exchange were more sensitive to soil moisture variation in grassland than shrubland, such that grassland had a net uptake of C when wet but lost C when dry. Thus, even under unfavorable, drier than average climate conditions, the state transition from grassland to shrubland resulted in a substantial increase in terrestrial C sequestration. These results illustrate the inherent tradeoffs in quantifying ecosystem services that result from ecological state transitions, such as shrub encroachment. In this case, the deleterious changes to ecosystem services often linked to grassland to shrubland state transitions may at least be partially offset by increased ecosystem carbon sequestration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Differences in aerosol trace metals between the northern Caribbean and southeastern United States.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. C.

    2002-12-01

    Five Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) monitoring stations in the southeastern United States and the U.S. Virgin Islands (U.S.V.I.), clearly show the metals in aerosols are derived from two different sources. The aerosols are collected by IMPROVE samplers and passed through a series of filter cassettes that are analyzed at University of California, Davis laboratories. Teflon, nylon and quartz filters were used to collect fine particles, PM2.5, while a fourth filter of Teflon collected PM10 particles. The Teflon filters that collected PM10 particles were analyzed using gravimetric analysis. The second Teflon filter was used to measure elements and mass; Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) were used to measure the concentrations of the elements from sodium to lead while Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA) was used to measure hydrogen concentrations. Nylon filters were used to measure nitrate, sulfate and chloride concentrations by ion chromatography. The average yearly concentrations in η g m-3 of copper, iron, potassium and zinc, one of the elemental groups tested by IMPROVE, in the U.S.V.I. aerosols are 0.20 η g m-3, 176.49 η g m-3, 89.32 η g m-3and 1.61 η g m-3. In Sipsy Wilderness, Alabama the concentrations are 1.37 η g m-3, 50.06 η g m-3, 61.03 η g m-3and 9.86 η g m-3respectively. Statistical analysis of the data indicates that the composition of the aerosols at the more northern sites of Sipsy Wilderness, Alabama, Okefenokee National Wildlife Reserve, Georgia and Chassahowitzka Wildlife Refuge, Florida are distinctly different than the Everglades National Park (E.N.P.), Florida and the U.S.V.I. Correlations of elements at the U.S.V.I. and E.N.P. sites are similar and the correlation coefficients are strong (> 0.75) for elements considered to be of terrestrial source. At the northern sites, there is no relation among the metals. Examination of the annual data with cluster analysis

  5. Time-series Oxygen-18 Precipitation Isoscapes for Canada and the Northern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delavau, Carly J.; Chun, Kwok P.; Stadnyk, Tricia A.; Birks, S. Jean; Welker, Jeffrey M.

    2014-05-01

    The present and past hydrological cycle from the watershed to regional scale can be greatly enhanced using water isotopes (δ18O and δ2H), displayed today as isoscapes. The development of water isoscapes has both hydrological and ecological applications, such as ground water recharge and food web ecology, and can provide critical information when observations are not available due to spatial and temporal gaps in sampling and data networks. This study focuses on the creation of δ18O precipitation (δ18Oppt) isoscapes at a monthly temporal frequency across Canada and the northern United States (US) utilizing CNIP (Canadian Network for Isotopes in Precipitation) and USNIP (United States Network for Isotopes in Precipitation) measurements. Multiple linear stepwise regressions of CNIP and USNIP observations alongside NARR (North American Regional Reanalysis) climatological variables, teleconnection indices, and geographic indicators are utilized to create empirical models that predict the δ18O of monthly precipitation across Canada and the northern US. Pooling information from nearby locations within a region can be useful due to the similarity of processes and mechanisms controlling the variability of δ18O. We expect similarity in the controls on isotopic composition to strengthen the correlation between δ18Oppt and predictor variables, resulting in model simulation improvements. For this reason, three different regionalization approaches are used to separate the study domain into 'isotope zones' to explore the effect of regionalization on model performance. This methodology results in 15 empirical models, five within each regionalization. A split sample calibration and validation approach is employed for model development, and parameter selection is based on demonstrated improvement of the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC). Simulation results indicate the empirical models are generally able to capture the overall monthly variability in δ18Oppt. For the three

  6. Political power beyond the State: problematics of government. 1992.

    PubMed

    Rose, Nikolas; Miller, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper sets out an approach to the analysis of political power in terms of problematics of government. It argues against an overvaluation of the 'problem of the State' in political debate and social theory. A number of conceptual tools are suggested for the analysis of the many and varied alliances between political and other authorities that seek to govern economic activity, social life and individual conduct. Modern political rationalities and governmental technologies are shown to be intrinsically linked to developments in knowledge and to the powers of expertise. The characteristics of liberal problematics of government are investigated, and it is argued that they are dependent upon technologies for 'governing at a distance', seeking to create locales, entities and persons able to operate a regulated autonomy. The analysis is exemplified through an investigation of welfarism as a mode of 'social' government. The paper concludes with a brief consideration of neo-liberalism which demonstrates that the analytical language structured by the philosophical opposition of state and civil society is unable to comprehend contemporary transformations in modes of exercise of political power.(1).

  7. The Electronic Power Conditioner for the Galileo Solid State Power Amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantamessa, Marco; Calcaterra, Paolo; Galantini, Paolo

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes the common EPC (Electronic Power Conditioner) that has been designed to cover the requirements of the three different L-band SSPA (Solid State Power Amplifiers) for the GALILEO navigation payload.Special care has been paid to the manufacturing cost by exploiting to the maximum extent the commonalities between the different amplifiers to achieve a single EPC electrical design, accommodating only a few customizations to cover specific requirement of the different RF (RadioFrequency) trays.The achieved EPC state of the art performances are reported, in particular as far as the conversion efficiency, the mass, size and reliability are concerned.The test results, including the EMC (ElectroMagnetic Compatibility) performances, covering the qualification test campaign are presented.

  8. Potential of high-average-power solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Emmett, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.R.

    1984-09-25

    We discuss the possibility of extending solid state laser technology to high average power and of improving the efficiency of such lasers sufficiently to make them reasonable candidates for a number of demanding applications. A variety of new design concepts, materials, and techniques have emerged over the past decade that, collectively, suggest that the traditional technical limitations on power (a few hundred watts or less) and efficiency (less than 1%) can be removed. The core idea is configuring the laser medium in relatively thin, large-area plates, rather than using the traditional low-aspect-ratio rods or blocks. This presents a large surface area for cooling, and assures that deposited heat is relatively close to a cooled surface. It also minimizes the laser volume distorted by edge effects. The feasibility of such configurations is supported by recent developments in materials, fabrication processes, and optical pumps. Two types of lasers can, in principle, utilize this sheet-like gain configuration in such a way that phase and gain profiles are uniformly sampled and, to first order, yield high-quality (undistorted) beams. The zig-zag laser does this with a single plate, and should be capable of power levels up to several kilowatts. The disk laser is designed around a large number of plates, and should be capable of scaling to arbitrarily high power levels.

  9. Air Mass Frequency during Precipitation Events in the United States Northern Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveless, D. M.; Sharr, N. J.; Baum, A.; Contract, J. S.; DePasquale, R.; Godek, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Since 1980, numerous billion-dollar disasters have affected the Northern Plains of the United States, including nine droughts and four floods. Given the region's large agricultural sector, the ability to accurately forecast the frequency and quantity of precipitation events here is imperative as it has a major impact on the economy of states in the region. The atmospheric environment present during precipitation events can largely be described by the presiding air mass conditions since air masses characterize a multitude of meteorological variables at one time over a large region. Therefore, understanding the relationship between air masses and rainfall episodes can contribute to improved precipitation forecasts. The goal of this research is to add knowledge to current understandings of the factors responsible for precipitation in the Northern Plains through an assessment of synoptic air mass conditions. The Spatial Synoptic Classification is used to categorize 30 years of daily air mass types across the region and daily precipitation is acquired from the United States Historical Climatological Network at stations in close proximity. Air mass frequencies are then analyzed for all regional precipitation events and rainfall categories are developed based on precipitation quantity. Both annual and seasonal air mass frequencies are assessed at the time of precipitation events. Additionally, air mass frequencies are obtained for positive and negative phases of the Pacific/North American Pattern to examine the influence of a teleconnection forcing factor on the air mass types responsible for producing precipitation quantities. Results indicate that the Transitional (TR) air mass, associated with changing air mass conditions commonly related to passing fronts, is not the leading producer of rainfall in the region. The TR is generally responsible for only 10-20% of regional precipitation, which often is classed in a heavy rainfall category. All moist air mass varieties are

  10. Historical (1899) age and structural characteristics of an old-growth northern hardwood stand in New York State

    Treesearch

    William B. Leak; Mariko. Yamasaki

    2012-01-01

    Based on records taken during a harvest operation in 1899 on more than 400 trees in a northern hardwood stand in upper New York State, age and structural characteristics, including growth patterns, were developed and summarized. Age and size characteristics indicate that this was an exemplary old-growth stand similar in character to current old-growth examples in the...

  11. Interactions between white-tailed deer density and the composition of forest understories in the northern United States

    Treesearch

    Matthew B. Russell; Christopher W. Woodall; Kevin M. Potter; Brian F. Walters; Grant M. Domke; Christopher M. Oswalt

    2017-01-01

    Forest understories across the northern United States (US) are a complex of tree seedlings, endemic forbs, herbs, shrubs, and introduced plant species within a forest structure defined by tree and forest floor attributes. The substantial increase in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman) populations over the past decades has resulted...

  12. Use of damage surveys and field inventories to evaluate oak and sugar maple health in the northern United States

    Treesearch

    Randall S Morin; Christopher W. Woodall; Jim Steinman; Charles H. Perry

    2009-01-01

    Oak species (Quercus spp.) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) are substantial components of the forest ecosystems in the 24-state region spanning the northern U.S. During recent decades, both damage surveys and forest inventories have documented declines of sugar maple and oak health. In order to more fully assess the status of oak and sugar maple health, we examined...

  13. Mid-21st- century climate changes increase predicted fire occurrence and fire season length, Northern Rocky Mountains, United States

    Treesearch

    Karin L. Riley; Rachel A. Loehman

    2016-01-01

    Climate changes are expected to increase fire frequency, fire season length, and cumulative area burned in the western United States. We focus on the potential impact of mid-21st- century climate changes on annual burn probability, fire season length, and large fire characteristics including number and size for a study area in the Northern Rocky Mountains....

  14. Young Adolescents' Positioning of Human Rights: Findings from Colombia, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Keith C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how young adolescents thought about the location of human rights issues and the nature of violations in differing geographic regions. Open-ended, task-based interviews were conducted with 116 students in Colombia, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the United States. Although students in each location pointed to…

  15. Young Adolescents' Positioning of Human Rights: Findings from Colombia, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Keith C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how young adolescents thought about the location of human rights issues and the nature of violations in differing geographic regions. Open-ended, task-based interviews were conducted with 116 students in Colombia, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the United States. Although students in each location pointed to…

  16. Effects of the "great recession" on the forest products sector in the northern region of the United States

    Treesearch

    Christopher W. Woodall; William G. Luppold; Peter J. Ince; Ronald J. Piva; Kenneth E. Skog

    2012-01-01

    The forest industry within the northern region of the United States has demonstrated a notable decline in terms of employment, number of mills, wood consumption, and forest harvests since 2000--a downturn exacerbated by the "Great Recession" of 2007-2009. Longer term industrial decline (since 2000) has been evidenced by reductions in secondary product (e.g.,...

  17. A new genus of pine-feeding Cochylina from the western United States and northern Mexico (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Euliini)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eupinivora, new genus, is described and illustrated from the montane regions of western United States (Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas) and northern Mexico (Nuevo León and Durango). As presently defined, the genus includes six species: E. ponderosae, n. sp. (USA: Ariz...

  18. Gis predictive mapping of terrestrial gamma radiation in the Northern State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Hamed Bashier, E; Salih, I; Khatir Sam, A

    2012-09-01

    This study presents the evaluation of absorbed dose in air due to gamma-emitting nuclides from (238)U and (232)Th series, (40)K and (137)Cs and the corresponding geographical information system (GIS) predictive mapping for the Northern State. Activity concentration of (238)U, (232)Th , (40)K and (137)Cs in soil samples collected from different locations have been measured using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. On  average, activity concentrations were 19±4 ((238)U), 47±11 ((232)Th), 317±65 ((40)K) and 2.26 Bq kg(-1) for (137)Cs. Absorbed dose rate in air at a height of 1 m above ground surface was calculated using seven sets of dose rate conversion factors (DRCFs) and the corresponding annual effective dose was estimated. On average, the values obtained fall within a narrow range of 44 and 53 nGy h(-1), indicating that the variation in absorbed dose rate is insignificant for different DRCFs. The corresponding annual effective dose ranged from 53 to 65 µSv y(-1). Using GIS, prediction maps for concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs were produced. Also, a map for absorbed dose rate in air at a height of 1 m above the ground level was produced, which showed a trend of increasing from the west towards south-east of the State.

  19. High average power diode pumped solid state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yue; Wang, Yanjie; Chan, Amy; Dawson, Murray; Greene, Ben

    2017-03-01

    A new generation of high average power pulsed multi-joule solid state laser system has been developed at EOS Space Systems for various space related tracking applications. It is a completely diode pumped, fully automated multi-stage system consisting of a pulsed single longitudinal mode oscillator, three stages of pre-amplifiers, two stages of power amplifiers, completely sealed phase conjugate mirror or stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) cell and imaging relay optics with spatial filters in vacuum cells. It is capable of generating pulse energy up to 4.7 J, a beam quality M 2 ~ 3, pulse width between 10–20 ns, and a pulse repetition rate between 100–200 Hz. The system has been in service for more than two years with excellent performance and reliability.

  20. Ground state energies from converging and diverging power series expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Lisowski, C.; Norris, S.; Pelphrey, R.; Stefanovich, E. Su, Q.; Grobe, R.

    2016-10-15

    It is often assumed that bound states of quantum mechanical systems are intrinsically non-perturbative in nature and therefore any power series expansion methods should be inapplicable to predict the energies for attractive potentials. However, if the spatial domain of the Schrödinger Hamiltonian for attractive one-dimensional potentials is confined to a finite length L, the usual Rayleigh–Schrödinger perturbation theory can converge rapidly and is perfectly accurate in the weak-binding region where the ground state’s spatial extension is comparable to L. Once the binding strength is so strong that the ground state’s extension is less than L, the power expansion becomes divergent, consistent with the expectation that bound states are non-perturbative. However, we propose a new truncated Borel-like summation technique that can recover the bound state energy from the diverging sum. We also show that perturbation theory becomes divergent in the vicinity of an avoided-level crossing. Here the same numerical summation technique can be applied to reproduce the energies from the diverging perturbative sums.

  1. The myosin start-of-power stroke state and how actin binding drives the power stroke.

    PubMed

    Preller, Matthias; Holmes, Kenneth C

    2013-10-01

    We propose that on binding to actin at the start of the power stroke the myosin cross-bridge takes on the rigor configuration at the actin interface. Starting from the prepower stroke state, this can be achieved by a small movement (16° rotation) of the lower 50K domain without twisting the central β-sheet or opening switch-1 or switch-2. The movement of the lower 50K domain puts a strain on the W-helix. This strain tries to twist the β-sheet, which could drive the power stroke. This would provide a coupling between actin binding and the execution of the power stroke. During the power stroke the β-sheet twists, moving the P-loop away from switch-2, which opens the nucleotide binding pocket and separates ADP from Pi . The power stroke is different from the recovery stroke because the upper and lower 50K domains are tethered in the rigor configuration. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Future Potential of Waver Power in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Mirko Previsic; Jeff Epler; Maureen Hand; Donna Heimiller; Walter Short; Kelly Eurek

    2012-09-20

    The theoretical ocean wave energy resource potential exceeds 50% of the annual domestic energy demand of the United States, is located close to coastal population centers, and, although variable in nature, may be more consistent and predictable than some other renewable generation technologies. As a renewable electricity generation technology, ocean wave energy offers a low air pollutant option for diversifying the U.S. electricity generation portfolio. Furthermore, the output characteristics of these technologies may complement other renewable technologies. This study addresses the following: (1) The theoretical, technical and practical potential for electricity generation from wave energy (2) The present lifecycle cost profile (Capex, Opex, and Cost of Electricity) of wave energy conversion technology at a reference site in Northern California at different plant scales (3) Cost of electricity variations as a function of deployment site, considering technical, geo-spatial and and electric grid constraints (4) Technology cost reduction pathways (5) Cost reduction targets at which the technology will see significant deployment within US markets, explored through a series of deployment scenarios RE Vision Consulting, LLC (RE Vision), engaged in various analyses to establish current and future cost profiles for marine hydrokinetic (MHK) technologies, quantified the theoretical, technical and practical resource potential, performed electricity market assessments and developed deployment scenarios. RE Vision was supported in this effort by NREL analysts, who compiled resource information, performed analysis using the ReEDSa model to develop deployment scenarios, and developed a simplified assessment of the Alaska and Hawaii electricity markets.

  3. Current state and prospects of carbon management in high latitudes of Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly

    2010-05-01

    The current state and trajectories of future development of natural landscapes in high latitudes of Northern Eurasia are defined inter alia by (1) current unsatisfactory social and economic situation in boreal Northern Eurasia; (2) the dramatic magnitude of on-going and expected climatic change (warming up to 10-12oC under global warming at 4oC); (3) increasing anthropogenic pressure, particularly in regions of intensive oil and gas exploration and extraction; (4) large areas of sparsely populated and practically unmanaged land; (5) vulnerability of northern ecosystems which historically developed under cold climates and buffering capacity of which is not well known; (6) risk of catastrophic natural disturbances (fire, insect outbreaks) whose frequency and severity have accelerated during recent decades; and (7) high probability of irreversible changes of vegetation cover. These specifics are overlapped with insufficient governance of natural renewable resources (e.g., forests) and destructed practice of industrial development of new territories (oil and gas extraction and exploration, metallurgy etc.). Based on a full carbon account for terrestrial vegetation ecosystems of Northern Eurasia, we analyze the relative impacts of major drivers on magnitude and uncertainty of the Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance (NECB) under current and expected climate and environment. Dynamic trends and interannual variability of NECB are mostly dependent on weather conditions during growth seasons of individual years, regimes of natural disturbances, and anthropogenic impacts on ecosystems. In a short term, disturbances and human impacts cause a theoretically 'manageable' part of the full carbon account, which on average is estimated to be of about 20% of annual net primary production. In a long term, thawing of permafrost and change of hydrological regimes of vast territories may result in a catastrophic decline of the forested area and wide distribution of 'green desertification'. The

  4. Treatment of inequality constraints in power system state estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, K.A.; Davis, P.W.; Frey, K.D.

    1995-05-01

    A new formulation of the power system state estimation problem and a new solution technique are presented. The formulation allows for inequality constraints such as Var limits on generators and transformer tap ratio limits. In addition, unmeasured loads can be modeled as unknown but bounded quantities. The solution technique is an interior point method that uses logarithmic barrier functions to treat the inequality constraints. The authors describe computational issues arising in the implementation of the algorithm. Numerical results are given for systems ranging in size from six to 118 buses.

  5. Status of oak seedlings and saplings in the northern United States: implications for sustainability of oak forests

    Treesearch

    Chris W. Woodall; Randall S. Morin; Jim R. Steinman; Charles H. Perry

    2008-01-01

    Oak species are a substantial component of forest ecosystems in a 24-state region spanning the northern U.S. During recent decades, it has been documented that the health of oak forests has been experiencing large-scale decline. To further evaluate the sustainability of oak forests in nearly half the states of the U.S., the current status of oak seedlings and saplings...

  6. Primary School Environment Trend, Class-Ratio and Head Teachers Overcrowded Classrooms Management Strategies in Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babatunde, Ehinola Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Primary school Enrolment Trend, Class-Ratio and Head Teachers overcrowded classrooms management strategies in Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria was investigated. The purpose of the study is to examine the current enrolment trend in public primary schools in northern senatorial District of Ondo State. Also, is to ascertain the…

  7. Inventory of power plants in the United States 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-18

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the US provides year-end statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the US (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of December 31, 1994. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal, and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. This is a report of electric utility data; in cases where summary data of nonutility capacity are presented, it is specifically noted as such.

  8. Solid state systems concepts. [solar power satellite transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, I. K.

    1980-01-01

    Two prototype solid state phased array systems concepts for potential use in the Solar Power Satellite are described; the end-mounted and the sandwich systems. In both concepts, the beam is centered on the rectenna by means of phase conjugation of a pilot signal emanating from the ground. In the end-mounted system 36-watt amplifiers are mounted on the ground-plane, whereas in the sandwich the amplifiers are elevated to the dipoles, and their waste heat is dissipated by beryllium oxide discs. The feed lines are underneath the ground-plane, and a coaxial transmission line is carried all the way to the amplifier input. Also discussed is solid state amplifier development.

  9. The Mexican migration to the United States and substance use in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Borges, Guilherme; Medina-Mora, Maria-Elena; Orozco, Ricardo; Fleiz, Clara; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Breslau, Joshua

    2009-04-01

    To examine the impact of migration to the United States on substance use and substance use disorders in three urban areas of northern Mexico. Cross-sectional survey of immigration-related experiences and life-time and past-year alcohol and drug use, in a representative sample of respondents aged 12-65 years. Interviews were conducted in the cities of Tijuana, Ciudad Juarez and Monterrey during 2005. Respondents were classified into three groups: (i) 'return migrants', (ii) 'relatives of migrants' and (iii) 'others in the general population'. A total of 1630 completed interviews were obtained for a response rate of 70.5%. 'Return migrants' were more likely to have used alcohol, marijuana or cocaine at least once in their life-time and in the last 12 months, more likely to develop a substance use disorder and more likely to have a 12-month substance use disorder compared with 'others in the general population'. Among 'return migrants', longer length of time in the United States and type of work performed as an immigrant were related to higher prevalence of substance use. Among 'relatives of migrants', migration experiences were not associated with increased prevalence of substance use compared with 'others in the general population'. This study found a link between migration to the United States and the transformation of substance use norms and pathology in Mexico. Future research on pre-migration involvement in substance use and data on the timing of events among return migrants is needed. Public health measures are likely to require cross-border coordination of research and service development.

  10. Power systems simulations of the western United States region.

    SciTech Connect

    Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Poch, L.; Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2010-03-15

    This report documents a part of a broad assessment of energy-water-related issues in the western United States. The full analysis involved three Department of Energy national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. Argonne's objective in the overall project was to develop a regional power sector expansion forecast and a detailed unit-level operational (dispatch) analysis. With these two major analysis components, Argonne estimated current and future freshwater withdrawals and consumption related to the operation of U.S. thermal-electric power plants in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) region for the period 2005-2025. Water is withdrawn and used primarily for cooling but also for environmental control, such as sulfur scrubbers. The current scope of the analysis included three scenarios: (1) Baseline scenario as a benchmark for assessing the adequacy and cost-effectiveness of water conservation options and strategies, (2) High nuclear scenario, and (3) High renewables scenario. Baseline projections are consistent with forecasts made by the WECC and the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in its Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) (EIA 2006a). Water conservation scenarios are currently limited to two development alternatives that focus heavily on constructing new generating facilities with zero water consumption. These technologies include wind farms and nuclear power plants with dry cooling. Additional water conservation scenarios and estimates of water use associated with fuel or resource extraction and processing will be developed in follow-on analyses.

  11. New Histories for a New State: A Study of History Textbook Content in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terra, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the changing content of history textbooks in Northern Ireland, drawing on a sample of 15 textbooks published from 1968 to 2010. Findings from the content and narrative analysis indicated that following the introduction of the Northern Ireland Curriculum in 1991, history textbooks shifted from a narrative to source-driven…

  12. Inventory of Power Plants in the United States, October 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-27

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The report is organized into the following chapters: Year in Review, Operable Electric Generating Units, and Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions. Statistics presented in these chapters reflect the status of electric generating units as of December 31, 1992.

  13. State estimation of the power system using robust estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Zahid; Razali, Radzuan B.; Daud, Hanita; Nor, Nursyarizal Mohd; Firuzabad, Mahmud Fotuhi

    2016-11-01

    The presence of gross errors in the process data for the power system state estimation (PSSE) algorithm is very crucial as they may severely degrade its results. The conventionally used state estimator is based on the method of the weighted least squares (WLS) which is not robust against the bad measurements that results in larger deviation in output estimates. In this study, a new robust algorithm based on the quasi weighted least squares (QWLS) estimator is presented. The robustness of the QWLS approach is achieved by reducing the impact of bad measurements on the objective function. In the existence of gross errors, the proposed algorithm provides estimates as good as those that are achieved by the conventional method of the WLS when no gross error exists in the process data. The implementation of the proposed algorithm has been illustrated for the case studies on the 6-bus and IEEE 14-bus power networks. The numerical results validate the performance of the proposed estimator in the PSSE algorithm.

  14. The health status of northern Omo State Farm workers exposed to chlorpyrifos and profenofos.

    PubMed

    Lakew, K; Mekonnen, Y

    1998-07-01

    The health effects of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides on cholinesterase (ChE) activities were assessed among 81 pest control workers from Northern Omo State Farm (Ethiopia), following the occupational use of Chlorpyrifos 25 and 48% ULV and Profenifos 250 EC/ULV. Plasma ChE (PChE) and erythrocyte ChE (AChE) activities were determined electrometrically before and after pesticide exposure. Plasma alkaline phosphatase (AP) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) values were estimated colorimetrically. Risk factors of pesticide poisoning and related occupational factors were assessed following the WHO recommendations. The mean PChE and AChE activities determined after pesticide exposures were significantly lower than the pre-exposure values (P < 0.05); 16% and 40% of the pest control workers had PChE and AChE levels below 50% of the pre-exposure values, respectively. The mean plasma AP and GPT values were found to be within the recommended normal limits. No significant difference in either of the ChE activities was observed between the spray men and the pest assessors, although the former were believed to have frequent contact with the concentrated OP formulations. Risk factors of pesticide poisoning such as workers ignorance about the toxicity of pesticides, poor personal hygiene and total absence or improper use of personal protective devices were prevalent. Measures that should be considered to minimize the problem in the farm population are recommended.

  15. Transportation impacts to wildlife on state route 37 in northern San Pablo Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, Bryan R.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2002-01-01

    State Route 37 bisects conservation lands managed by San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge (U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service) and Napa-Sonoma Marshes Wildlife Area (California Department of Fish and Game) in Solano and Sonoma Counties. The 2-lane highway connects Interstates 101 and 80 in northern San Francisco Bay and experiences ~26,000 vehicles per day. Road-killed wildlife between Napa River and Tolay Creek bridges (14.7 km) were counted in 2000 to ascertain species composition, relative abundance, and relative occurence (animal fatality interval). The primary objectives of the study were to determine if endangered salt marsh harvest mice (Reithrodontomys raviventris), California clapper rails (Rallus longirostris), or other species of concern were represented, and to collect baseline data on transportation impacts to wildlife in the area. During 51 surveys, 291 dead birds (54.6%) and mammals (45.4%) were observed. Endangered species were not positively identified dead on the highway. In total, 28 bird, 10 mammal and 1 reptile species were positively identified along this section of highway that traverses tidal marsh and diked baylands (i.e., salt ponds, seasonal wetlands, and oat-hay agriculture fields). The mean animal fatality interval for both lanes was one road-kill every 2.1km (2.1 km SD).

  16. Emerging Capripoxvirus disease outbreaks in Himachal Pradesh, a northern state of India.

    PubMed

    Verma, S; Verma, L K; Gupta, V K; Katoch, V C; Dogra, V; Pal, B; Sharma, M

    2011-02-01

    Both sheep and goat pox are contagious viral diseases and affect small ruminants and are caused by sheep pox virus and goat pox virus respectively that belong to genus Capripoxvirus of Poxviridae family. Huge economic losses emanating from the disease outbreaks are the results of the wool and hide damage, subsequent production losses and also the morbidities and mortalities associated with the disease. This communication highlights clinico-epidemiological observations from the two sheep pox and one goat pox outbreaks. Grossly, multisystemic nodular lesions, mucopurulent nasal discharges and respiratory symptoms were observed in the affected animals. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 5.18%, 2.45% and 32.37%, respectively. Histopathological, haematological, molecular and serological techniques and also isolation of virus in embryonated chicken eggs were used for the diagnosis of the diseases. The spatial distribution of the disease signifies the role of common pasturelands used for grazing the animals while temporally all three outbreaks occurred in winters and were probably associated with cold stress and fodder scarcity. This is the first recorded report of Capripoxvirus infection in recent times and it highlights the disease as one of the emerging diseases in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh in India. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Prevalence of anaemia in preschool children in Karma Albalad area, Northern State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Hussein, M D; Mohamed, S

    2014-02-11

    Anaemia is a major childhood health problem in developing countries. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia, and some of its determinants, in preschool children in a rural village in the Northern State of Sudan. All children aged 3-6 years attending the 4 village kindergartens on the day of the study were enrolled. Demographic and socioeconomic data were collected using a questionnaire completed by parents, and blood samples were taken for haemoglobin measurement. Out of 163 children, 131 had anaemia (haemoglobin level < 11 g/dL), a prevalence of 80.4%. This figure is comparable to data from other developing countries. The prevalence of anaemia was not significantly associated with any of the studied demographic and socioeconomic factors (sex, economic status of the family, mother's literacy or family size) or health of the child (history of pica or number of attacks of malaria in the last year). A campaign to tackle this serious health issue is urgently needed.

  18. Gestational iron deficiency and the related anaemia in northern zone of Ebonyi State.

    PubMed

    Obasi, I O; Nwachukwu, N

    2013-10-15

    Iron is one instrumental micronutrient to any healthy pregnancy. Its deficiency (with or without overt anaemia) remains a significant risk factor to gestational complications. In the present study, 307 pregnant women were prospectively recruited from Northern zone of Ebonyi State to assess their gestational iron status. The iron status of the subjects was determined with serum iron level and heamoglobin concentration, using atomic absorption (flame) spectrometric and Drabkin's methods respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using the computer software: "Statistical Program for Social Sciences" (SPSS for windows version 15.0). The result showed that 177 (59.8%) of the pregnant women were iron deficient, while 45.6% of them was at the risk of iron deficiency anaemia. Parity, educational level, occupation and living accommodation showed significant (p < 0.05) influence on the iron status of the subjects. It could be concluded that gestational iron deficiency with its related anaemia was yet to be effectively brought under control in our society; with parity and economic status implicated as risk factors.

  19. Low frequency variability of European weather patterns and its impact on power generation in northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masato, Giacomo; Slavov, Georgi

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that Europe is becoming increasingly reliant on the power generation from the solar and wind sources. Germany is a leader in such a trend - it is then interesting to study to what extent the low-frequency variability of the European weather patterns impacts the power production in this country. Rather than identifying such patterns starting from the weather angle, four weather regimes are identified that maximize and minimize the production of solar and wind power. The analysis of their past occurrence and trends allows us to estimate the potential amount of energy produced for any given year (assuming a constant installed capacity). It is found that the sole change in such weather regimes over the recent years is able to drive up to a 20% annual difference in power generation. This also throws an interesting challenge at the scientific community, whereby the future projection of these regimes can heavily influence both the short- and long-term Eurozone plans in terms of European renewable energy targets.

  20. Understanding steady-state Deep Submarine Groundwater Discharge: a case study in Northern Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paldor, Anner; Aharonov, Einat; Katz, Oded

    2017-04-01

    Deep Submarine Groundwater Discharge (DSGD) is a ubiquitous and highly significant phenomenon, yet it remains poorly understood. Here we use numerical modeling (FEFLOW) to investigate a case study of DSGD offshore northern Israel, aiming to unravel the main features and mechanics of steady-state DSGD: the hydrology that enables its formation, the controls on rates and salinity of seepage, and the residence time of fluid underground. In addition, we investigate the geometry of the fresh-salt water interface within the seeping offshore aquifer. The first part of this work constructs a large scale (70 km) geologic cross-section of our case-study region. The mapping suggests outcropping of confined aquifer strata (Upper Cenomanian Judea Group) on the continental shelf break, 5-15 km offshore. The second part consists of hydrological simulations of DSGD from a confined aquifer similar to the case-study aquifer. The main findings are thus: steady-state DSGD from a confined aquifer occurs far offshore even under moderate heads. It is accompanied by a circulation cell that forms around an intrinsic freshwater-seawater interface. Circulation consists of seawater entering the confined aquifer at the exposed section offshore, mixing with terrestrial groundwater within the aquifer, and seeping saline water out the upper part of the exposed section. In addition, the simulated confined aquifer displays a very flat fresh-salt water interface extending far offshore, as observed in natural offshore aquifers. Preliminary results of a hydrographic survey in the area of study suggest a low-salinity anomaly close to the seafloor, implying seepage of brines in that area, as expected from the model. These new insights have potentially important implications for coastal hydrology, seawater chemistry, biogeochemistry, and submarine slope instability.

  1. Injuries of the floating crew of the Northern water pool in a state of alcoholic intoxication.

    PubMed

    Shapovalov, Konstantin A

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of injuries of floating crew of the Northern water pool in a state of alcoholic intoxication havebeen based on the 180 accidents on board of ships with temporary loss of ability to work, and 1686 casehistories with alcoholic injuries, which demanded treatment in a surgical department. Among persons,the received injuries on the ship in the state of alcoholic intoxication were 8.1% of the victims: in thestrength of the transport fleet - 8.9%; fishing - 8.9% and river ones - 4.1%. Masters of fish production,skippers, rulers of the radio stations and masters of fish processing were most frequently injured afterthe consumption of the alcoholic beverages. Alcoholic injuries have been recorded at the time of walkingon the catwalk and the decks (54.2%), mooring operations (15.1%), maintenance and repairing the deckmachinery, water preparation (6.6%), as well as boat and loading-unloading works (4.3%). Falls from heightconstituted 36.6% of the injuries. Alcohol in 3.2 times increases the weight of the combined injuries. Thedeaths from the alcohol related injuries in marine conditions (43.4%) significantly exceed the indicators inthe group of non-alcoholic injuries (7.0%). Alcoholic intoxication has been noted in 35.0% of the cases ofthe floating crew injuries, hospitalised in the surgical department. Victims with alcoholic injuries receivedduring performing ship's works were hospitalised 10 times less, than those with non-productive types ofinjuries. In the structure of non-industrial injuries, household injuries prevail (78.2%) over those receiveddue to falls on the street, in pedestrian flows (10.3%), transport and traffic accidents (6.7%), intentionalinjuries (4.1%) or those connected with sports games and competitions (0.7%). Fishermen are a professionalgroup of seamen, subject to the high social vulnerability to the alcoholic beverages consumptionand related injuries.

  2. Thermal state of permafrost in the Northern Yakutia: modern dynamics and spatial variability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholodov, Alexander; Gilichinsky, David; Abramov, Andrey; Lupachev, Alexey; Davydov, Sergey; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Natali, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Permafrost exerts a significant influence on northern socioeconomic and biological systems. The thermal state of permafrost has recently become the focus of rapt attention around the world. Permafrost temperature is an integrated parameter and depends not only on the air temperature, but also on the heat transfer conditions at the ground surface and on the thermal properties of deposits; any permafrost regional forecasts and models must take these factors into consideration. Current research concerns to study of regional permafrost feedbacks associated with climate change in the Northern Yakutia. The investigated region covers the most ancient permafrost area in the Northern Hemisphere; it is characterized by varied climate zones, from a maritime to a continental. There are 3 main landscape types here including boreal forest, tundra and river or streams valleys. The research was based on making geothermal observations in an already-established network of boreholes. Recently this network includes 12 boreholes. Temperature measurements were supplemented with investigations of landscape conditions and determination of relevant soil physical properties at the key observational sites. We will achieve the goals of this project by comparing modern measurements with historical data and meteorological observations in combination with investigating heat transfer parameters at the monitoring sites. Geothermal measurements show that in the boreal forest natural zones recent permafrost temperature varies from -2.6 to -6.4°C, at the Kolyma-Panteleiha floodplain from -4.7 to -5.5°C and in tundra natural zone -9 to -10.4°C. Most of observed boreholes shows sustainable permafrost temperature rising. Within the tundra zone rate of mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) increasing consists of 0.073 to 0.109°C per year, within the boreal forest - from 0.035 to 0.063°C per year and in the floodplain 0.019°C per year. Such variations in both MAGT values and its modern changes rates

  3. Solid-State High-Temperature Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitacre, Jay; West, William

    2008-01-01

    All-solid-state electrochemical power cells have been fabricated and tested in a continuing effort to develop batteries for instruments for use in environments as hot as 500 C. Batteries of this type are needed for exploration of Venus, and could be used on Earth for such applications as measuring physical and chemical conditions in geothermal and oil wells, processing furnaces, and combustion engines. In the state-of-the-art predecessors of the present solid-state power cells, fully packaged molten eutectic salts are used as electrolytes. The molten-salt-based cells can be susceptible to significant amounts of self-discharge and corrosion when used for extended times at elevated temperatures. In contrast, all-solid-state cells such as the present ones are expected to be capable of operating for many days at temperatures up to 500 C, without significant self-discharge. The solid-state cell described here includes a cathode made of FeS2, an electrolyte consisting of a crystalline solid solution of equimolar amounts of Li3PO4 and Li4SiO4, and an anode made of an alloy of Li and Si (see figure). The starting material for making the solid electrolyte is a stoichiometric mixture of Li3PO4, SiO2, and Li3CO2. This mixture is ball-milled, then calcined for two hours at a temperature of 1,100 C, then placed in a die atop the cathode material. Next, the layers in the die are squeezed together at a pressure between 60 and 120 MPa for one hour at a temperature of 600 C to form a unitary structure comprising the solid electrolyte and cathode bonded together. Finally, the lithium-alloy anode is pressure-bonded to the solid electrolyte layer, using an intermediate layer of pure lithium. In one test of a cell of this type, a discharge rate of about 1 mA per gram of cathode material was sustained for 72 hours at a temperature of about 460 C. This is about three times the discharge rate required to support some of the longer duration Venus-exploration mission scenarios.

  4. The State of Restructuring the Electric Power Industry in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Ricardo A.

    Through federal legislation, the electric power industry in the United States is encouraged to unbundle the ownership structure into separate entities for generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power. The electric power industry represents more than 7% of the U.S. gross domestic product and some of the country's major economic sectors, such as mining and chemical processing. The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study is to explore the phenomenon of the U.S. electric power industry restructuring from the viewpoint of those who have been at the forefront of the effort. The conceptual framework for this study is based in the Public Utilities Regulatory Policy Act (PURPA), which guided the restructuring of the U.S. electric power industry. The focus of the research questions was determining the informed perceptions and lived experience of participants. A purposive sampling approach was utilized along with a semi structured, open-ended interview with 20 participants who brought context-specific knowledge of the phenomenon. A sequential inductive process of coding, categorizing, and abstracting was performed. The findings indicate that the professionals within the industry continue to struggle with what is perceived as a restructuring effort that has come to a standstill, and doubts continue regarding the benefits or disadvantages of restructuring. The study contributes to social change by informing challenges to restructuring within the electric power industry, changes that include the potential for significant impacts to customers and especially for low income residents if subsidies are removed in a restructured environment.

  5. Harnessing Power from Tides: State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the current, world-wide status of tidal energy as a potential power source. Potential sites and global tidal power prospects are identified. New engineering concepts relevant to the harnessing of tidal power are identified and described. (BT)

  6. Harnessing Power from Tides: State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the current, world-wide status of tidal energy as a potential power source. Potential sites and global tidal power prospects are identified. New engineering concepts relevant to the harnessing of tidal power are identified and described. (BT)

  7. All solid-state high power visible laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, William M.

    1993-01-01

    The overall objective of this Phase 2 effort was to develop and deliver to NASA a high repetition rate laser-diode-pumped solid-state pulsed laser system with output in the green portion of the spectrum. The laser is for use in data communications, and high efficiency, short pulses, and low timing jitter are important features. A short-pulse 1 micron laser oscillator, a new multi-pass amplifier to boost the infrared power, and a frequency doubler to take the amplified infrared pulsed laser light into the green. This produced 1.5 W of light in the visible at a pulse repetition rate of 20 kHz in the laboratory. The pulses have a full-width at half maximum of near 1 ns. The results of this program are being commercialized.

  8. Manager's handbook for northern hardwoods in the north-central states.

    Treesearch

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1977-01-01

    Provides a key for the resource manager to use in choosing silvicultural practices for the management of northern hardwoods. Control of stand composition, growth, and stand establishment for timber production, water, wildlife, and recreation are discussed.

  9. 77 FR 23192 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra and Sacramento...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management Districts AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD) and Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) portions...

  10. 77 FR 47536 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert, Northern Sierra, Sacramento...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... Desert Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 1116, ``Automotive Refinishing Operations,'' amended on... to the Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District (MDAQMD), Northern Sierra ] Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and San Diego...

  11. 77 FR 47581 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert, Northern Sierra, Sacramento...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... Air Quality Management District (MDAQMD), Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD), Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) and San Diego County Air Pollution Control... volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from automotive parts and component, automobile refinishing...

  12. Resting State EEG Hemispheric Power Asymmetry in Children with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Papagiannopoulou, Eleni A; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder estimated to affect between 4 and 7% of the population. It is often referred to as a learning disability and is characterized by deficits in the linguistic system. To better understand the neural underpinnings of dyslexia, we examined the electroencephalography (EEG) power spectra between pre-adolescents with dyslexia and neurotypical control children during eyes closed state. We reported the differences in spontaneous oscillatory activity of each major EEG band (delta, theta, alpha, and beta) adopting a global as well as in a region-by-region and hemispheric approach to elucidate whether there are changes in asymmetry in children with dyslexia compared to controls. We also examined the relationship between EEG power spectra and clinical variables. The findings of our study confirm the presence of an atypical linguistic network, evident in children with dyslexia. This abnormal network hallmarked by a dominance of theta activity suggests that these abnormalities are present prior to these children learning to read, thus implicating delayed maturation and abnormal hypoarousal mechanisms.

  13. Resting State EEG Hemispheric Power Asymmetry in Children with Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Papagiannopoulou, Eleni A.; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder estimated to affect between 4 and 7% of the population. It is often referred to as a learning disability and is characterized by deficits in the linguistic system. To better understand the neural underpinnings of dyslexia, we examined the electroencephalography (EEG) power spectra between pre-adolescents with dyslexia and neurotypical control children during eyes closed state. We reported the differences in spontaneous oscillatory activity of each major EEG band (delta, theta, alpha, and beta) adopting a global as well as in a region-by-region and hemispheric approach to elucidate whether there are changes in asymmetry in children with dyslexia compared to controls. We also examined the relationship between EEG power spectra and clinical variables. The findings of our study confirm the presence of an atypical linguistic network, evident in children with dyslexia. This abnormal network hallmarked by a dominance of theta activity suggests that these abnormalities are present prior to these children learning to read, thus implicating delayed maturation and abnormal hypoarousal mechanisms. PMID:26942169

  14. Boosting the power factor with resonant states: A model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thébaud, S.; Adessi, Ch.; Pailhès, S.; Bouzerar, G.

    2017-08-01

    A particularly promising pathway to enhance the efficiency of thermoelectric materials lies in the use of resonant states, as suggested by experimentalists and theorists alike. In this paper, we go over the mechanisms used in the literature to explain how resonant levels affect the thermoelectric properties, and we suggest that the effects of hybridization are crucial yet ill understood. In order to get a good grasp of the physical picture and to draw guidelines for thermoelectric enhancement, we use a tight-binding model containing a conduction band hybridized with a flat band. We find that the conductivity is suppressed in a wide energy range near the resonance, but that the Seebeck coefficient can be boosted for strong enough hybridization, thus allowing for a significant increase of the power factor. The Seebeck coefficient can also display a sign change as the Fermi level crosses the resonance. Our results suggest that in order to boost the power factor, the hybridization strength must not be too low, the resonant level must not be too close to the conduction (or valence) band edge, and the Fermi level must be located around, but not inside, the resonant peak.

  15. Diagnostics and steady-state high power operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laviron, Clément

    2003-03-01

    TORE SUPRA has now been upgraded to handle high power plasmas for very long duration. It came back into operation in 2001, and the goals are to extend the performances, in power and in duration, to be expressed in terms of energy. The design is such that a plasma discharge of 25 MW during 1000 s could be sustained, with actively cooled components in a steady-state condition. This corresponds to 25 GJ, orders of magnitude above other existing tokamaks and relevant to ITER conditions. The importance of diagnostics for missions other than physics understanding increases, such as machine operation or safety control. All TORE SUPRA diagnostics have been revisited to take into account these new constraints. Only a few of them did not need to be modified, most had to be adapted, upgraded, or even completely rebuilt. The main constraint deals with the thermal load on diagnostic components, the need to optimize the geometry and develop specific protections often with active cooling. The specific developments now implemented and operational on TORE SUPRA will be presented. Another requirement concerns the need for more control loops in order to maintain optimized modes of plasma operation for very long periods. Diagnostics are operated in real time, with the ability to transmit any kind of pertinent information on a fast time scale. This requires strict procedures, higher reliability, and stability of calibration of the relevant diagnostics. In addition, data can be accessed in real time, without waiting for the end of the pulse.

  16. Assessment of HIV testing among young methamphetamine users in Muse, Northern Shan State, Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) use has a strong correlation with risky sexual behaviors, and thus may be triggering the growing HIV epidemic in Myanmar. Although methamphetamine use is a serious public health concern, only a few studies have examined HIV testing among young drug users. This study aimed to examine how predisposing, enabling and need factors affect HIV testing among young MA users. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2013 in Muse city in the Northern Shan State of Myanmar. Using a respondent-driven sampling method, 776 MA users aged 18-24 years were recruited. The main outcome of interest was whether participants had ever been tested for HIV. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were applied in this study. Results Approximately 14.7% of young MA users had ever been tested for HIV. Significant positive predictors of HIV testing included predisposing factors such as being a female MA user, having had higher education, and currently living with one’s spouse/sexual partner. Significant enabling factors included being employed and having ever visited NGO clinics or met NGO workers. Significant need factors were having ever been diagnosed with an STI and having ever wanted to receive help to stop drug use. Conclusions Predisposing, enabling and need factors were significant contributors affecting uptake of HIV testing among young MA users. Integrating HIV testing into STI treatment programs, alongside general expansion of HIV testing services may be effective in increasing HIV testing uptake among young MA users. PMID:25042697

  17. Sickle Cell Trait and Renal Function in Hispanics in the United States: The Northern Manhattan Study.

    PubMed

    Dueker, Nicole D; Della-Morte, David; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L; Blanton, Susan H

    2017-01-19

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a common hematological disorder among individuals of African descent in the United States; the disorder results in the production of abnormal hemoglobin. It is caused by homozygosity for a genetic mutation in HBB; rs334. While the presence of a single mutation (sickle cell trait, SCT) has long been considered a benign trait, recent research suggests that SCT is associated with renal dysfunction, including a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in African Americans. It is currently unknown whether similar associations are observed in Hispanics. Therefore, our study aimed to determine if SCT is associated with mean eGFR and CKD in a sample of 340 Dominican Hispanics from the Northern Manhattan Study. Using regression analyses, we tested rs334 for association with eGFR and CKD, adjusting for age and sex. eGFR was estimated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation and CKD was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Within our sample, there were 16 individuals with SCT (SCT carriers). We found that SCT carriers had a mean eGFR that was 12.12 mL/min/1.73m(2) lower than non-carriers (P=.002). Additionally, SCT carriers had 2.72 times higher odds of CKD compared with non-carriers (P=.09). Taken together, these novel results show that Hispanics with SCT, as found among African Americans with SCT, may also be at increased risk for kidney disease.

  18. Mitragyna speciosa use in the northern states of Malaysia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Kamarudin; Aziz, Zoriah

    2012-05-07

    The consumption of Mitragyna speciosa (MS) for its psychoactive effects is widely reported amongst people in the villages in Thailand and Malaysia even though its use is illegal. This study examined the pattern of MS use, its reported effects and explored its potential to cause dependence. We used both convenience and snowball-sampling methods to recruit participants in a border town between two northern states in Malaysia. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with the use of a structured questionnaire on 562 respondents who gave oral consent to participate in the study. The response rate was 91%. The majority of the respondents (88%) reported daily use of MS. The main mode of using MS was by drinking the MS extract as tea (90%). The mean age of starting MS use was 28.3 (SD=8.1) years. A variety of reasons were given for using MS including for social and recreational needs, stamina and physical endurance, pain relief and improved sexual performance. Despite its reported usefulness in weaning off opiate addiction, 460 (87%) admitted they were not able to stop using MS. Only education level had a statistically significant association with the ability to stop or not stop the use of MS (χ(2)=31.0, df=1, p<0.001). Significantly higher proportions of those with a lower education level (38%) were able to stop using MS compared to respondents with a higher education level. Our study provides important information on the pattern of MS use, its effects and its potential to cause addiction, as there has been growing interest in MS as evidenced by the number of advertisements for its sale on the Internet. Future study is required to explore its psychological and social impact on users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Technical review of the status of Northern Goshawks in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, D.E.; DeStefano, S.; Goldstein, M.I.; Titus, K.; Crocker-Bedford, C.; Keane, J.J.; Anthony, R.G.; Rosenfield, Robert N.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) was petitioned in 1997 to consider listing Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis atricapillus) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, west of the 100th meridian of the contiguous United States. In their 12-mo finding issued in June 1998, the FWS determined that listing this population as threatened or endangered was not warranted and based that decision on review existing population and habitat information. Because the status of goshawks in the western U.S. continues to be contentious and the FWS finding has been challenged, the Raptor Research Foundation, Inc. and The Wildlife Society jointly formed a committee to review information regarding the status of the goshawk population in the contiguous U.S. west of the 100th meridian. The committee was requested to: (1) determine if there is evidence of a population trend in goshawks in the western U.S., excluding Alaska; (2) determine if there is evidence that goshawks nesting in the eastern and western U.S. represent distinctive, genetically unique populations; and (3) evaluate evidence for goshawk-habitat relations, including any association with large, mostly-unbroken tracts of old growth and mature forests. Based on existing information, the committee concluded: (1) existing data are not adequate to assess population trend in goshawks west of the 100th meridian; (2) existing analyses of phylogeography have not provided evidence of genetic differences among recognized (atricapillus, laingi) or putative (apache) subspecies, and the genetic distinctness of atricapillus goshawks in western and eastern North America is not known; and (3) at present, assessing the status of goshawks solely using distribution of late-successional forests is not appropriate, based on the current understanding of goshawk-habitat relations, although goshawks clearly use and often select late-successional forests for nesting and foraging. We provide recommendations on information needs to assess

  20. Satellite Power System (SPS). State and local regulations as applied to satellite power system microwave receiving antenna facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotin, A. D.

    1978-01-01

    State and local regulation of power plant construction and operation of solar power satellite (SPS) receiving stations is presented. Each receiving antenna station occupies a land area 100-200 km square, receives microwave transmissions from the solar power satellite, and converts them into electricity for transmission to the power grid. The long lead time associated with the SPS and the changing status of state and local regulation dictated emphasis on: generic classification of the types of regulation, and identification of regulatory vectors which affect rectenna facilities.

  1. A micromachined inline type microwave power sensor with working state transfer switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Han

    2011-05-01

    A wideband 8-12 GHz inline type microwave power sensor, which has both working and non-working states, is presented. The power sensor measures the microwave power coupled from a CPW line by a MEMS membrane. In order to reduce microwave losses during the non-working state, a new structure of working state transfer switches is proposed to realize the two working states. The fabrication of the power sensor with two working states is compatible with the GaAs MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) process. The experimental results show that the power sensor has an insertion loss of 0.18 dB during the non-working state and 0.24 dB during the working state at a frequency of 10 GHz. This means that no microwave power has been coupled from the CPW line during the non-working state.

  2. Market power in the United States red meatpacking industry.

    PubMed

    Koontz, Stephen R

    2003-07-01

    infer conduct from spatial price linkages rather than from concentration as do SCP studies or estimation of conduct parameters as do NEIO studies. Second, to study the dynamics of the competitive process, making use of data describing changes at the firm and plant level, to better understand the effect of market and technologic forces on the evolution of firm behavior and industry structure. After discussing existing research quality and future research needs, two practical things remain to do. The first centers on the following question: How important are the relatively small measures of market power? Most believable price distortions are found to be 3% or less. These distortions are below the 5% regulatory standards related to mergers used by the US Department of Justice and US Federal Trade Commission [70]. These standards, however, are guidelines and not law. Antitrust laws state that the exercise of market power is illegal. Courts and regulatory agencies also have not defined how much market power is significant and for how long a firm or firms must maintain significant market power [71]. From the viewpoint of public welfare, small impacts on price make a substantial difference to livestock producers and rival meatpacking firms. In relatively low-profit commodity businesses, small degrees of market power have significant profit implications. Small price or percentage impacts represent large total dollar amounts, especially over long time periods. To some, the evidence of market power provides clear reasons for antitrust lawsuits, conclusive evidence of weak and disinterested antitrust enforcement, and undeniable grounds for corrective legislation. If we conclude that action is needed, then the second issue emerges: What should be done and will our actions result in a net improvement? The research reviewed in the article by MacDonald elsewhere in this issue clearly shows the economic benefits of large meat processing firms. Likewise, some of the research reviewed

  3. High Power, Solid-State RF Generation for Plasma Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prager, James; Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth; Pierren, Chris

    2016-10-01

    Radio Frequency heating systems are rarely used by the small-scale validation platform experiments due to the high cost and complexity of these systems. Eagle Harbor Technologies (EHT), Inc. is developing an all-solid-state RF plasma heating system that uses EHT's nanosecond pulser technology in an inductive adder configuration to drive nonlinear transmission lines (NLTL). The system under development does not require the use of vacuum tube technology, is inherently lower cost, and is more robust than traditional high power RF heating schemes. The inductive adder can produce 0 to20 kV pulses into 50 Ohms with sub-10 ns rise times. The inductive adder has been used to drive NLTLs near 2 GHz with other frequencies to be tested in the future. EHT will present experimental results, including RF measurements with D-dot probes and capacitve voltage probes. During this program, EHT will test the system on Helicity Injected Torus at the University of Washington and the High Beta Tokamak at Columbia University.

  4. Ecological Niche of the 2003 West Nile Virus Epidemic in the Northern Great Plains of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wimberly, Michael C.; Hildreth, Michael B.; Boyte, Stephen P.; Lindquist, Erik; Kightlinger, Lon

    2008-01-01

    Background The incidence of West Nile virus (WNv) has remained high in the northern Great Plains compared to the rest of the United States. However, the reasons for the sustained high risk of WNv transmission in this region have not been determined. To assess the environmental drivers of WNv in the northern Great Plains, we analyzed the county-level spatial pattern of human cases during the 2003 epidemic across a seven-state region. Methodology/Principal Findings County-level data on WNv cases were examined using spatial cluster analysis, and were used to fit statistical models with weather, climate, and land use variables as predictors. In 2003 there was a single large cluster of elevated WNv risk encompassing North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska along with portions of eastern Montana and Wyoming. The relative risk of WNv remained high within the boundaries of this cluster from 2004–2007. WNv incidence during the 2003 epidemic was found to have a stronger relationship with long-term climate patterns than with annual weather in either 2002 or 2003. WNv incidence increased with mean May–July temperature and had a unimodal relationship with total May–July precipitation. WNv incidence also increased with the percentage of irrigated cropland and with the percentage of the human population living in rural areas. Conclusions/Significance The spatial pattern of WNv cases during the 2003 epidemic in the northern Great Plains was associated with both climatic gradients and land use patterns. These results were interpreted as evidence that environmental conditions across much of the northern Great Plains create a favorable ecological niche for Culex tarsalis, a particularly efficient vector of WNv. Further research is needed to determine the proximal causes of sustained WNv transmission and to enhance strategies for disease prevention. PMID:19057643

  5. Estimating northern red oak crown component weights in the Northeastern United States.

    Treesearch

    Robert M. Loomis; Richard W. Blank

    1981-01-01

    Equations are described for estimating crown weights for northern red oak trees. These estimates are for foliage and branchwood weights. Branchwood (wood plus bark) amounts are subdivided by living and dead material into four size groups. Applicability of the equations for other species is examined.

  6. Manager's handbook for northern white cedar in the north-central states.

    Treesearch

    William F. Johnston

    1977-01-01

    Presents the resource manager with a key for choosing silvicultural practices to manage northern white cedar stands, especially for timber and deeryards on organic soil sites. Discusses control of growth, composition, establishment, and damaging agents; also discusses managing for other wildlife habitat, water, and esthetics. Includes yield data and broadcast burning...

  7. Schooling, the Protestant Churches and the State in Northern Ireland: A Tension Resolved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, David

    2017-01-01

    In 1998, Byrne and McKeown examined the churches' roles in Northern Ireland's (NI) schooling system. NI was then governed by direct-rule from the UK's Westminster Parliament. The authors concluded that the desire of the Protestant churches to re-establish their influence in schools was "unlikely to succeed." This was contrasted with the…

  8. Genotypic diversity of Beauveria bassiana isolates in Acridids from the Northern Plains of the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beauveria bassiana is naturally present in grasshopper populations of the U.S. Northern Plains. It is often rare in a population, but at times can reach a prevalence of 10-15%. One strain, GHA, is registered in the U.S. for use against grasshoppers as well as other insects. We explored the genotypic...

  9. 12 CFR 1.110 - Taxing powers of a State or political subdivision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Taxing powers of a State or political... INVESTMENT SECURITIES Interpretations § 1.110 Taxing powers of a State or political subdivision. (a) An obligation is considered supported by the full faith and credit of a State or political subdivision...

  10. The solid state remote power controller: Its status, use and perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, G. R.; Billings, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    Solid state remote power controllers (RPC's) are now available to control and protect all types of loads in both ac and dc power distribution systems. RPC's possess many outstanding qualities that make them attractive for most system applications. A review is given of the present state-of-the-art and applications for solid state RPC's for both aerospace and terrestrial systems.

  11. The mixing state of carbonaceous aerosol particles in northern and southern California measured during CARES and CalNex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, J. F.; Suski, K.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Zaveri, R. A.; Prather, K. A.

    2012-11-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols impact climate directly by scattering and absorbing radiation, and hence play a major, although highly uncertain, role in global radiative forcing. Commonly, ambient carbonaceous aerosols are internally mixed with secondary species such as nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium, which influences their optical properties, hygroscopicity, and atmospheric lifetime, thus impacting climate forcing. Aircraft-aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (A-ATOFMS), which measures single-particle mixing state, was used to determine the fraction of organic and soot aerosols that are internally mixed and the variability of their mixing state in California during the Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) and the Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field campaigns in the late spring and early summer of 2010. Nearly 88% of all A-ATOFMS measured particles (100-1000 nm in diameter) were internally mixed with secondary species, with 96% and 75% of particles internally mixed with nitrate and/or sulfate in southern and northern California, respectively. Even though atmospheric particle composition in both regions was primarily influenced by urban sources, the mixing state was found to vary greatly, with nitrate and soot being the dominant species in southern California, and sulfate and organic carbon in northern California. Furthermore, mixing state varied temporally in northern California, with soot becoming the prevalent particle type towards the end of the study as regional pollution levels increased. The results from these studies demonstrate that the majority of ambient carbonaceous particles in California are internally mixed and are heavily influenced by secondary species that are most prevalent in the particular region. Based on these findings, considerations of regionally dominant sources and secondary species, as well as temporal variations of aerosol physical and optical properties, will be required to obtain more

  12. The mixing state of carbonaceous aerosol particles in Northern and Southern California measured during CARES and CalNex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, J. F.; Suski, K.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Zaveri, R. A.; Prather, K. A.

    2012-07-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols impact climate directly by scattering and absorbing radiation, and hence play a major, although highly uncertain, role in global radiative forcing. Commonly, ambient carbonaceous aerosols are internally mixed with secondary species such as nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium, which influences their optical properties, hygroscopicity, and atmospheric lifetime, thus impacting climate forcing. Aircraft-aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (A-ATOFMS), which measures single-particle mixing state, was used to determine the fraction of organic and soot aerosols that are internally mixed and the variability of their mixing state in California during the Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) and the Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field campaigns in the late spring and early summer of 2010. Nearly 88% of all A-ATOFMS measured particles (100-1000 nm in diameter) were internally mixed with secondary species, with 96% and 75% of particles internally mixed with nitrate and/or sulfate in Southern and Northern California, respectively. Even though atmospheric particle composition in both regions was primarily influenced by urban sources, the mixing state was found to vary greatly, with nitrate and soot being the dominant species in Southern California, and sulfate and organic carbon in Northern California. Furthermore, mixing state varied temporally in Northern California, with soot becoming the prevalent particle type towards the end of the study as regional pollution levels increased. The results from these studies demonstrate that the majority of ambient carbonaceous particles in California are internally mixed and are heavily influenced by secondary species that are most prevalent in the particular region. Based on these findings, considerations of regionally dominant sources and secondary species, as well as temporal variations of aerosol physical and optical properties, will be required to obtain more

  13. The mixing state of carbonaceous aerosol particles in northern and southern California measured during CARES and CalNex 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, John F.; Suski, Kaitlyn; Seinfeld, John H.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Prather, Kimberly A.

    2012-11-21

    Carbonaceous aerosols impact climate directly by scattering and absorbing radiation, and hence play a major, although highly uncertain, role in global radiative forcing. Commonly, ambient carbonaceous aerosols are internally mixed with secondary species such as nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium, which influence their climate impacts through optical properties, hygroscopicity, and atmospheric lifetime. Aircraft-aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (A-ATOFMS), which measures single-particle mixing state, was used to determine the fraction of organic and soot aerosols that were internally mixed and the variability of their mixing state in California during the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) and the Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) field campaigns in the late spring and early summer of 2010. Nearly 88% of all A-ATOFMS measured particles (100-1000 nm in diameter) were internally mixed with secondary species, with 96% and 75% of particles internally mixed with nitrate and/or sulfate in southern and northern California, respectively. Even though atmospheric particle composition in both regions was primarily influenced by urban sources, the mixing state was found to vary greatly, with nitrate and soot being the dominant species in southern California, and sulfate and organic carbon in northern California. Furthermore, mixing state varied temporally in northern California, with soot becoming the prevalent particle type towards the end of the study as regional pollution levels increased. The results from these studies demonstrate that the majority of ambient carbonaceous particles are internally mixed and are heavily influenced by secondary species that are most predominant in each region. Based on these findings, considerations of regionally dominant sources and secondary species, as well as temporal variations of aerosol physical and optical properties, will be required to obtain more accurate predictions of the

  14. A Method for Determining Pseudo-measurement State Values for Topology Observability of State Estimation in Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urano, Shoichi; Mori, Hiroyuki

    This paper proposes a new technique for determining of state values in power systems. Recently, it is useful for carrying out state estimation with data of PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit). The authors have developed a method for determining state values with artificial neural network (ANN) considering topology observability in power systems. ANN has advantage to approximate nonlinear functions with high precision. The method evaluates pseudo-measurement state values of the data which are lost in power systems. The method is successfully applied to the IEEE 14-bus system.

  15. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (11th Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Kreycik, C.; Friedman, B.

    2008-10-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. It presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets and green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. Key market trends and issues are also discussed.

  16. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (11th Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Kreycik, Claire; Friedman, Barry

    2008-10-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. It presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets and green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. Key market trends and issues are also discussed.

  17. Seismic Velocity Structure Beneath the Eastern United States and Northern Mississippi Embayment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, C.; Ammon, C. J.; Herrmann, R. B.; Mostafanejad, A.; Langston, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    The unprecedented high-quality seismic data from the EarthScope Transportable Array, the New Madrid Cooperative Seismic Network, and the Northern Embayment Lithosphere EarthScope Flex Array experiment provide us a great opportunity to investigate and compare the subsurface structure beneath the eastern U.S. and the northern Mississippi embayment with high resolution. The Mississippi embayment located in the south part of the eastern U.S. has undergone three episodes of major plate disruption and an enigmatic thermal event in the Cretaceous that modified the lithospheric structure beneath it. The northern part of the embayment hosts the New Madrid seismic zone, which was struck by three M7 or greater intraplate earthquakes in 1811-1812. Previous geophysical surveys suggest significant crustal heterogeneity and substantial velocity variations in the upper mantle beneath the seismic zone. However, the seismic structure differences between the northern embayment and the broader eastern U.S. region are poorly constrained, which undoubtedly exerts significant control on the lithospheric strain accumulation and release through earthquakes. Our goal is to determine seismic structure in both regions and compare the differences in terms of seismic speed variations. We construct subsurface seismic images using multiple types of complementary geophysical observations beneath both the eastern U.S. region and the northern embayment with a higher lateral resolution in the embayment. Specifically, we invert spatially smoothed P-wave receiver functions together with Rayleigh-wave group and phase velocities, and high-resolution gravity observations to construct robust estimates of the subsurface 3D seismic structure using a linearized inversion. Preliminary results include many first-order patterns of eastern US structure, including thick sedimentary cover beneath the coast plains, Mississippi Embayment, and Appalachian and midwestern basins, thicker crust beneath the Appalachians

  18. Preliminary power train design for a state-of-the-art electric vehicle (executive summary)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary design of a state-of-the-art electric power train is part of a national effort to reap the potential benefit of useful urban electric passenger vehicles. Outlined in a detailed presentation are: (1) assessment of the state-of-the-art in electric vehicle technology; (2) state-of-the-art power train design; (3) improved power train; and (4) summary and recommendations.

  19. State Power and Local Decision-Making in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colton, David L.

    Based upon a case study of over 20 demonstration centers created by the Illinois department of education during the period 1963-65, a conceptual scheme was developed for the analysis of State control in education. The case study defined 10 State policies, examined State implementation efforts, and identified instances of State action affecting…

  20. Development of essentialist thinking about religion categories in Northern Ireland (and the United States).

    PubMed

    Smyth, Kirsty; Feeney, Aidan; Eidson, R Cole; Coley, John D

    2017-03-01

    Social essentialism, the belief that members of certain social categories share unobservable properties, licenses expectations that those categories are natural and a good basis for inference. A challenge for cognitive developmental theory is to give an account of how children come to develop essentialist beliefs about socially important categories. Previous evidence from Israel suggests that kindergarteners selectively engage in essentialist reasoning about culturally salient (ethnicity) categories, and that this is attenuated among children in integrated schools. In 5 studies (N = 718) we used forced-choice (Study 1) and unconstrained (Studies 2-4) category-based inference tasks, and a questionnaire (Study 5) to study the development of essentialist reasoning about religion categories in Northern Ireland (Studies 1-3 & 5) and the U.S. (Study 4). Results show that, as in Israel, Northern Irish children selectively engage in essentialist reasoning about culturally salient (religion) categories, and that such reasoning is attenuated among children in integrated schools. However, the development trajectory of essentialist thinking and the patterns of attenuation among children attending integrated schools in Northern Ireland differ from the Israeli case. Meta-analysis confirmed this claim and ruled out an alternative explanation of the results based on community diversity. Although the Northern Irish and Israeli case studies illustrate that children develop selective essentialist beliefs about socially important categories, and that these beliefs are impacted by educational context, the differences between them emphasize the importance of historical, cultural, and political context in understanding conceptual development, and suggest that there may be more than one developmental route to social essentialism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. United States Army Counter Partisan Operations in Northern Virginia During the American Civil War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    northern Virginia and the Shenandoah Valley for the duration of the conflict. These partisan units were hybrid organizations that conducted independent...Army’s response to counter the irregular partisan units. The thesis adds specific emphasis on the Union Army’s development and employment of hybrid ...conflict. These partisan units were hybrid organizations that conducted independent raids, small skirmishes, and reconnaissance in support of the larger

  2. Family Forest Ownerships with 10+ Acres in the Northern United States, 2011-2013

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; Sarah M. Butler

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program conducts the National Woodland Owner Survey in order to better understand: who owns America's forests, why they own it, what they have done with it in the past, and what they intend to do with it in the future. This document summarizes data on family forest ownerships with 10+ acres in the Northern U.S...

  3. Diplomacy as National Power: United States Policy on South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliker, Grant

    Power in general theory is defined as having three forms: coercive, utilitarian, and normative. In international relations, emphasis is placed on the first two to the neglect of the third. In this paper, the term "diplomacy" is used for normative power in international relations. Diplomacy is related to three policy making stages and to…

  4. Diplomacy as National Power: United States Policy on South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliker, Grant

    Power in general theory is defined as having three forms: coercive, utilitarian, and normative. In international relations, emphasis is placed on the first two to the neglect of the third. In this paper, the term "diplomacy" is used for normative power in international relations. Diplomacy is related to three policy making stages and to…

  5. Current state of allocation of oral health human resources in northern China and future needs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Lu, Z; Cheng, R; Liu, L

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to describe the distribution, structure and allocation of oral health services personnel, evaluate oral health service capacity and predict the needs for oral health services in northern China over the coming 10 years. The questionnaires were sent to all the dental medical institutions included in this study directly from the Sanitation Bureau and the Health Supervision Station. All the institutions and dental personnel were asked to fill out the questionnaires, and then, the questionnaires were collected through postal service and email. In Liaoning Province, which is in northern China, there are a total of 5617 dentists in total, 87.8% of whom are located in urban areas. Dentists in rural areas were found to be less educated and specialized. The ratio of dentists to nurses to technicians was about 6:2:1, and the ratio of dentists to total population was 1:7682. It was predicted that, in 2020, the number of dentists could reach 13 207. This would meet the area's needs for oral health services. Currently, in northern China, the oral health infrastructure suffers from an insufficient number of dental professionals, disproportionate distribution and inappropriate structure. To improve social equity, it is necessary to adjust the distribution of dental personnel capable of performing for oral health services. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Design of 1 MHz Solid State High Frequency Power Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Darshan; Singh, N. P.; Gajjar, Sandip; Thakar, Aruna; Patel, Amit; Raval, Bhavin; Dhola, Hitesh; Dave, Rasesh; Upadhay, Dishang; Gupta, Vikrant; Goswami, Niranjan; Mehta, Kush; Baruah, Ujjwal

    2017-04-01

    High Frequency Power supply (HFPS) is used for various applications like AM Transmitters, metallurgical applications, Wireless Power Transfer, RF Ion Sources etc. The Ion Source for a Neutral beam Injector at ITER-India uses inductively coupled power source at High Frequency (∼1 MHz). Switching converter based topology used to generate 1 MHz sinusoidal output is expected to have advantages on efficiency and reliability as compared to traditional RF Tetrode tubes based oscillators. In terms of Power Electronics, thermal and power coupling issues are major challenges at such a high frequency. A conceptual design for a 200 kW, 1 MHz power supply and a prototype design for a 600 W source been done. The prototype design is attempted with Class-E amplifier topology where a MOSFET is switched resonantly. The prototype uses two low power modules and a ferrite combiner to add the voltage and power at the output. Subsequently solution with Class-D H-Bridge configuration have been evaluated through simulation where module design is stable as switching device do not participate in resonance, further switching device voltage rating is substantially reduced. The rating of the modules is essentially driven by the maximum power handling capacity of the MOSFETs and ferrites in the combiner circuit. The output passive network including resonance tuned network and impedance matching network caters for soft switching and matches the load impedance to 50ohm respectively. This paper describes the conceptual design of a 200 kW high frequency power supply and experimental results of the prototype 600 W, 1 MHz source.

  7. 75 FR 11578 - Northern States Power Company of Minnesota, Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... requirements similar to those previously imposed by Commission orders issued after the terrorist attacks of..., Safeguards Contingency Plan, and Cyber Security Plan referred to collectively hereafter as `security plans...

  8. 75 FR 53723 - Northern States Power Company, a Minnesota Corporation; Notice of Issuance of Materials License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...-2506 Prairie Island Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation at the Prairie Island Nuclear... Prairie Island Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) located onsite at its Prairie Island... license and to reformat the license Technical Specifications (TS) for the Prairie Island ISFSI...

  9. 75 FR 2565 - Northern States Power Company, LLC; Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant Final Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... EPU-associated activities would be performed inside existing buildings and will not cause additional... vicinity of MNGP were identified as living below the 1999 Federal poverty threshold of $17,029 for a family... below the poverty level, respectively. Potential impacts to minority and low-income populations would...

  10. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from a heavy oil-fueled power plant in northern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Fen; Chao, How-Ran; Wu, Chia-Hsin; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Lin, Ding Yan; Tsou, Tsui-Chun

    2009-04-15

    We measured the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from the flue gas and the ambient atmosphere of a power plant fueled by heavy oil in northern Taiwan. The mean emission concentration and I-TEQ concentration of total PCDD/Fs were 0.292 ng/Nm(3) and 0.016 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3), respectively. All PCDD/F emission concentrations in the flue gas were supposed to meet the Environmental Protection Administration Executive Yuan, R.O.C. standard (1.0 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) from 2008). Furthermore, the mean I-TEQ concentration in the ambient atmosphere was 0.011 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3), which was much lower than the environmental quality standards for dioxins in Japan (0.6 pg TEQ/Nm(3)). Also, the PCDD/F emission factor was 0.188 ng I-TEQ/L fuel, which was comparable to the data issued in US EPA [EPA, Locating and estimating air emissions from sources of dioxins and furans, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Research Triangle Park, NC, DCN No. 95-298130-54-01, 1997] (0.2 ng I-TEQ/L of fuel). Also, the result of the correlations of PCDD/Fs and operational parameters illustrated that the positively significant correlation (r=0.502, p=0.048) was found only between PCDD/Fs (I-TEQ) and the flue gas emission temperature (125-157 degrees C). However, PCDD-TEQ/PCDF-TEQ ratios were statistically significantly associated with the decreased flue gas flow (r=-0.659, p=0.006), moisture (r=-0.612, p=0.012) and flue gas temperature (r=-0.503, p=0.047). For proper environmental management of dioxins, it is necessary to establish a complete emission inventory of PCDD/Fs, and, in particular, the government should pay more attention to power plants to address the information shortage.

  11. Output power of a quantum dot laser: Effects of excited states

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yuchang; Jiang, Li Asryan, Levon V.

    2015-11-14

    A theory of operating characteristics of quantum dot (QD) lasers is discussed in the presence of excited states in QDs. We consider three possible situations for lasing: (i) ground-state lasing only; (ii) ground-state lasing at first and then the onset of also excited-state lasing with increasing injection current; (iii) excited-state lasing only. The following characteristics are studied: occupancies of the ground-state and excited-state in QDs, free carrier density in the optical confinement layer, threshold currents for ground- and excited-state lasing, densities of photons emitted via ground- and excited-state stimulated transitions, output power, internal and external differential quantum efficiencies. Under the conditions of ground-state lasing only, the output power saturates with injection current. Under the conditions of both ground- and excited-state lasing, the output power of ground-state lasing remains pinned above the excited-state lasing threshold while the power of excited-state lasing increases. There is a kink in the light-current curve at the excited-state lasing threshold. The case of excited-state lasing only is qualitatively similar to that for single-state QDs—the role of ground-state transitions is simply reduced to increasing the threshold current.

  12. High-power solid-state microwave transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boreham, J. D.; Conroy, B. L.; Postal, R. B.; Yenche, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    Transmitter phases outputs from individual amplifier modules then combines them in multielement array feed antenna. Size and power capability of system are variable for radar and small-angle scanning applications.

  13. Solid-state Isotopic Power Source for Computer Memory Chips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments in materials technology now make it possible to fabricate nonthermal thin-film radioisotopic energy converters (REC) with a specific power of 24 W/kg and a 10 year working life at 5 to 10 watts. This creates applications never before possible, such as placing the power supply directly on integrated circuit chips. The efficiency of the REC is about 25 percent which is two to three times greater than the 6 to 8 percent capabilities of current thermoelectric systems. Radio isotopic energy converters have the potential to meet many future space power requirements for a wide variety of applications with less mass, better efficiency, and less total area than other power conversion options. These benefits result in significant dollar savings over the projected mission lifetime.

  14. Solid State Capacitor Discharge Pulsed Power Supply Design for Railguns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    program schedule has it fully operational by 2009. There are many advantages to changing to this type of weapon over a standard gun . From the...railgun is made up of subsystems which include the power supply, the gun , and the projectile. For the power supply the major concerns are the energy...storage elements, and what the switching typology will be. For the gun they include reducing the size of the system, increasing bore life and

  15. Groundwater quality in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system, eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, Bruce; Belitz, Kenneth

    2017-01-19

    Groundwater provides nearly 50 percent of the Nation’s drinking water. To help protect this vital resource, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project assesses groundwater quality in aquifers that are important sources of drinking water. The Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system constitutes one of the important areas being evaluated. One or more inorganic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at high concentrations in about 15 percent of the study area and at moderate concentrations in about 17 percent. Organic constituents were not detected at high concentrations in the study area.

  16. The San Andreas Fault: A state of stress analysis in central and northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Ann-Sophie

    The San Andreas Fault system is a network of faults extending from the Gulf of California to the Mendocino Triple Junction that accommodates the motion between the North American and Pacific tectonic plates. The faults' types, slip rates and distributions of seismicity varies from south to north; the question addressed by this dissertation is whether or not the mechanical behavior of this plate boundary varies as well. We used suites of fault plane solutions of earthquakes occurring in central and northern California, and inverted them for the best stress tensors. We obtained a map of stress orientations close to and far away from the major strands of the San Andreas Fault system in these areas. In the creeping zone on the central San Andreas the maximum horizontal compression, S H, is oriented almost perpendicular to the fault trend far away from it and as close as 2 km from it, whereas in the fault zone itself SH lies at a smaller angle to the fault (˜50°). In northern California there is no clear difference between on-fault and off-fault orientations and SH orientations are on average at 55° from the trend of major faults. The Bay Area shows an intermediate behavior between the two just mentioned. This difference in the orientation of SH from central to northern California suggest a change in the mechanical behavior of the plate boundary between these two regions. This situation could be related to the "young and multiple stranded" SAF system in northern California compared to the "old" SAF in central California where much more slip has accumulated on this one fault strand. Using the same data we investigated possible temporal variations in the orientation of SH before and after the occurrence of a major earthquake. Such variations could be related to the stress release produced by the mainshock. For the four events studied, 1986 Mt. Lewis, 1984 Morgan Hill, 1979 Coyote Lake, and 1989 Loma Prieta earthquakes, a rotation of SH to an orientation more normal to

  17. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from the United States forest service northern region, 1906-2010.

    PubMed

    Stockmann, Keith D; Anderson, Nathaniel M; Skog, Kenneth E; Healey, Sean P; Loeffler, Dan R; Jones, Greg; Morrison, James F

    2012-01-13

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of CO2 through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood products (HWP) to meet greenhouse gas monitoring commitments and climate change adaptation and mitigation objectives. This paper uses the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) production accounting approach and the California Forest Project Protocol (CFPP) to estimate HWP carbon storage from 1906 to 2010 for the USFS Northern Region, which includes forests in northern Idaho, Montana, South Dakota, and eastern Washington. Based on the IPCC approach, carbon stocks in the HWP pool were increasing at one million megagrams of carbon (MgC) per year in the mid 1960s, with peak cumulative storage of 28 million MgC occurring in 1995. Net positive flux into the HWP pool over this period is primarily attributable to high harvest levels in the mid twentieth century. Harvest levels declined after 1970, resulting in less carbon entering the HWP pool. Since 1995, emissions from HWP at solid waste disposal sites have exceeded additions from harvesting, resulting in a decline in the total amount of carbon stored in the HWP pool. The CFPP approach shows a similar trend, with 100-year average carbon storage for each annual Northern Region harvest peaking in 1969 at 937,900 MgC, and fluctuating between 84,000 and 150,000 MgC over the last decade. The Northern Region HWP pool is now in a period of negative net annual stock change because the decay of products harvested between 1906 and 2010 exceeds additions of carbon to the HWP pool through harvest. However, total forest carbon includes both HWP and ecosystem carbon, which may have increased over the study period. Though our emphasis is on the Northern Region

  18. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from the United States forest service northern region, 1906-2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Global forests capture and store significant amounts of CO2 through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood products (HWP) to meet greenhouse gas monitoring commitments and climate change adaptation and mitigation objectives. This paper uses the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) production accounting approach and the California Forest Project Protocol (CFPP) to estimate HWP carbon storage from 1906 to 2010 for the USFS Northern Region, which includes forests in northern Idaho, Montana, South Dakota, and eastern Washington. Results Based on the IPCC approach, carbon stocks in the HWP pool were increasing at one million megagrams of carbon (MgC) per year in the mid 1960s, with peak cumulative storage of 28 million MgC occurring in 1995. Net positive flux into the HWP pool over this period is primarily attributable to high harvest levels in the mid twentieth century. Harvest levels declined after 1970, resulting in less carbon entering the HWP pool. Since 1995, emissions from HWP at solid waste disposal sites have exceeded additions from harvesting, resulting in a decline in the total amount of carbon stored in the HWP pool. The CFPP approach shows a similar trend, with 100-year average carbon storage for each annual Northern Region harvest peaking in 1969 at 937,900 MgC, and fluctuating between 84,000 and 150,000 MgC over the last decade. Conclusions The Northern Region HWP pool is now in a period of negative net annual stock change because the decay of products harvested between 1906 and 2010 exceeds additions of carbon to the HWP pool through harvest. However, total forest carbon includes both HWP and ecosystem carbon, which may have increased over the study period. Though our

  19. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Tenth Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Dagher, L.; Swezey, B.

    2007-12-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States, focusing on consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources and how this choice represents a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. The report presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets, on green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, and green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. It also includes a discussion of key market trends and issues.

  20. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (Tenth Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Dagher, Leila; Swezey, Blair

    2007-12-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States, focusing on consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources and how this choice represents a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. The report presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets, on green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, and green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. It also includes a discussion of key market trends and issues.

  1. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (2009 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Sumner, J.

    2010-09-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. First, aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States are presented. Next, we summarize data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. Finally, this is followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The data presented in this report are based primarily on figures provided to NREL by utilities and independent renewable energy marketers.

  2. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (2009 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Sumner, Jenny

    2010-09-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. First, aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States are presented. Next, we summarize data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. Finally, this is followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The data presented in this report are based primarily on figures provided to NREL by utilities and independent renewable energy marketers.

  3. NASA satellite communications application research. Phase 2: Efficient high power, solid state amplifier for EFH communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benet, James

    1993-01-01

    The final report describes the work performed from 9 Jun. 1992 to 31 Jul. 1993 on the NASA Satellite Communications Application Research (SCAR) Phase 2 program, Efficient High Power, Solid State Amplifier for EHF Communications. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate the feasibility of high-efficiency, high-power, EHF solid state amplifiers that are smaller, lighter, more efficient, and less costly than existing traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifiers by combining the output power from up to several hundred solid state amplifiers using a unique orthomode spatial power combiner (OSPC).

  4. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report, Sixth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2003-10-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering''green power'' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent both from utilities and in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, nearly 50% of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. Currently, more than 350 investor-owned utilities, rural electric cooperatives, and other publicly owned utilities in 33 states offer green power programs. This report provides an overview of green power marketing activity in the United States. It describes green power product offerings, consumer response, and recent industry trends. The three distinct markets for green power are discussed in turn.

  5. A quick guide to wind power forecating : state-of-the-art 2009.

    SciTech Connect

    Monteiro, C.; Keko, H.; Bessa, R.; Miranda, V.; Botterud, A.; Wang, J.; Conzelmann, G.; Decision and Information Sciences; INESC Porto

    2009-11-20

    This document contains a summary of the main findings from our full report entitled 'Wind Power Forecasting: State-of-the-Art 2009'. The aims of this document are to provide guidelines and a quick overview of the current state-of-the-art in wind power forecasting (WPF) and to point out lines of research in the future development of forecasting systems.

  6. The Power of Persuasion: A Model for Effective Political Leadership by State Chiefs. Linking State and Local School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul; Jochim, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    State chiefs have new responsibilities under the Every Student Succeeds Act, but their formal powers are still limited. Despite these constraints, the Center on Reinventing Public Education (CRPE) analysis finds that chiefs can make a difference by wielding their powers strategically, to build coalitions and persuade others. While turnover in the…

  7. Photovoltaic power conditioning subsystem: State of the art and development opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauthamer, S.; Bahrami, K.; Das, R.; Macie, T.; Rippel, W.

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic systems, the state of the art of power conditioning subsystem components, and the design and operational interaction between photovoltaic systems and host utilities are detailed in this document. Major technical issues relating to the design and development of power conditioning systems for photovoltaic application are considered; these include: (1) standards, guidelines, and specifications; (2) cost effective hardware design; (3) impact of advanced components on power conditioning development; (4) protection and safety; (5) quality of power; (6) system efficiency; and (7) system integration with the host utility. Theories of harmonic distortion and reactive power flow are discussed, and information about power conditioner hardware and manufacturers is provided.

  8. Wideband 220 GHz solid state power amplifier MMIC within minimal die size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheron, Jerome; Grossman, Erich N.

    2014-05-01

    A wideband and compact solid state power amplifier MMIC is simulated around 220 GHz. It utilizes 6 μm emitter length common base HBTs from a 250 nm InP HBT technology. Specific power cells and power combiners are simulated in order to minimize the width of the die, which must not exceed 300 μm to avoid multimode propagation in the substrate. Four stages are implemented over a total area of the (275x1840) μm2. Simulations of this power amplifier indicate a minimum output power of 14 dBm associated with 16 dB of power gain from 213 GHz to 240 GHz.

  9. Photovoltaic power conditioning subsystem: state of the art and development opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Krauthamer, S.; Bahrami, K.; Das, R.; Macie, T.; Rippel, W.

    1984-01-15

    Photovoltaic sytems, the state of the art of power conditioning subsystem components, and the design and operational interaction between photovoltaic systems and hot utilities are detailed in this document. Major technical issues relating to the design and development of power conditioning systems for photovoltaic application are also considered, including: (1) standards, guidelines, and specifications; (2) cost-effective hardware design; (3) impact of advanced components on power conditioning development; (4) protection and safety; (5) quality of power; (6) system efficiency; and (7) system integration with the host utility. In addition, theories of harmonic distortion and reactive power flow are discussed, and information about power conditioner hardware and manufacturers is provided.

  10. Clean Power Plan State-Specific Fact Sheets

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    State-specific fact sheets are provided for 47 states, not including Alaska, Hawaii or Vermont. Each fact sheet includes interim and final carbon dioxide emission performance goals (in rate and mass), and how the rate-based goals compare to proposed goals.

  11. Wind Powering America - Outreach in Priority States (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, M.; Flowers, L.

    2009-04-01

    WPA works with 33 State Wind Working Groups to educate stakeholders on wind energy topics and to achieve the basics needed for effective wind development in a state. WPA has accelerated outreach and communication efforts with 13 priority states: Alaska, Arizona, Indiana, Maryland, Massachussetts, Michigan, Nebraska, Nevada, North Carolina, Ohio, South Dakota, Utah, and Virginia. These states have the potential to contribute substantially to the national portfolio of wind energy but do not yet have large amounts of wind energy applications on the ground. This is often due to barriers in in-state knowledge and understanding of wind energy issues and potential that impact the policy environment and the market environment. There are common regional issues among the states, and important learning opportunities can be gained by cross-training and sharing experiences. The Regional Wind Energy Institutes (RWEIs) are train-the-trainer organizations that work to develop a cadre of in-state outreach specialists who reach out to audiences of decisionmakers (e.g., the ag community, state and local officials, utilities, regulatory bodies) to build understanding, create public acceptance, take advantage of regional synergies, and eventually to impact polices and the market environment for effective wind implementation.

  12. Coal Development in the Northern Great Plains. The Impact on Revenues of State and Local Governments. Agricultural Economic Report No. 394.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, Thomas F.; Voelker, Stanley W.

    Development of Northern Great Plains coal resources will create new demands for state and local government services. Development will also produce increased government revenues. Special taxes on coal production have been enacted in Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming in order to ensure that state and local governments receive sufficient revenues to…

  13. Modular transformer state model for the simulation of high frequency spacecraft power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Bruce W.; Grigsby, L. L.; Nelms, R. M.

    A high frequency, lumped parameter model of a power transformer is presented. The model is used to derive a third-order state variable description of the device that is coupled to state variable models of the other power system components. Based on the state model, a digital simulation is conducted using the state transition matrix. The technique is used to simulate a high frequency spacecraft power system which includes a series resonant converter, transformer, transmission line, and resistive-inductive load. Each individual device is modeled as a two-port modular subnetwork with port voltages used as the independent variables. A state variable mathematical description of each device is formulated and numerically simulated using the state transition matrix. The results of the simulation are compared to results from EMTP, a program widely used by the power industry to predict transients.

  14. Northern Power Systems WindPACT Drive Train Alternative Design Study Report; Period of Performance: April 12, 2001 to January 31, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Bywaters, G.; John, V.; Lynch, J.; Mattila, P.; Norton, G.; Stowell, J.; Salata, M.; Labath, O.; Chertok, A.; Hablanian, D.

    2004-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Wind Partnerships for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) project seeks to advance wind turbine technology by exploring innovative concepts in drivetrain design. A team led by Northern Power Systems (Northern) of Waitsfield, Vermont, was chosen to perform this work. Conducted under subcontract YCX-1-30209-02, project objectives are to identify, design, and test a megawatt (MW)-scale drivetrain with the lowest overall life cycle cost. The project entails three phases: preliminary study of alternative drivetrain designs (Phase I), detailed design development (Phase II), and proof of concept fabrication and test (Phase III). This report summarizes the results of the preliminary design study (Phase I).

  15. The Santa Cruz eddy and United States wind power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Cristina Lozej

    In the first part of this dissertation, a shallow cyclonic circulation that occurs in the summer over the Monterey Bay (California) is investigated. Since it is often centered over the city of Santa Cruz, it was named "Santa Cruz Eddy" (SCE). Its horizontal size is 10--40 km and its vertical extent 100--200 m. The SCE is unique because it forms 75--79% of the days during the summer, more frequently than any other known vortex. The SCE frequency was determined after analyzing two years of satellite imagery and data from an observational network. Simulations with the MM5 model showed that two eddies form, one in the early evening and one at night. Both eddies are formed by the vorticity generated baroclinically by the interaction of the synoptic northwesterly flow and the western side of the Santa Cruz mountains. Friction against these mountains further enhances vorticity production. In the late afternoon, the sea breeze and a favorable pressure gradient cause more vorticity to form near Santa Cruz. Since the latter two mechanisms do not act at night, the evening eddy is stronger, deeper, and larger than the nocturnal one. The second part of this dissertation aims at quantifying U.S. wind power at 80 m (the hub height of large wind turbines) and investigating whether winds from a network of farms can provide electric power steadily and reliably. A new method to extrapolate 10-m wind measurements (from 1327 surface stations and 88 soundings) to 80 m was introduced, which resulted in 80-m wind speeds that are, on average, 1.3--1.7 m/s faster than those obtained from other methods. It was found that 22% of all stations (and 35% of all coastal/offshore stations) are suitable for wind power generation. The greatest previously uncharted reservoir of wind power is offshore and near shore along the southeastern and southern U.S. coasts. When multiple wind sites are considered, the number of days with no wind power and the standard deviation of the wind speed are

  16. Inventory of Nonutility Electric Power Plants in the United States

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    Final issue of this report. Provides annual aggregate statistics on generating units operated by nonutilities in the United States and the District of Columbia. Provides a 5-year outlook for generating unit additions and changes.

  17. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report;...

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    ... wind to serve its New Mexico-based customers. ... measure for ozone pollution in a "State Implementation Plan" (SIP) for air quality improvement, ... City of Myrtle Beach-In April 2002, Myrtle ...

  18. Correlation between static random access memory power-up state and transistor variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Kiyoshi; Mizutani, Tomoko; Saraya, Takuya; Shinohara, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Masaharu; Hiramoto, Toshiro

    2017-04-01

    The correlation between the static random access memory (SRAM) power-up state (i.e., state 0 or 1 immediately after the power supply is turned on) and cell transistor variation is systematically studied by circuit simulations and mismatch space partitioning. It is revealed that, while both the mismatches of pFETs (pull-up) and nFETs (pull-down and access) contribute, their relative importance changes depending on the voltage ramping speed. The static retention noise margin well correlates with the power-up state only if the ramping speed is sufficiently low. Otherwise, pull-up transistor mismatch dominates the power-up state determination owing to the interference of capacitive current and asymmetrical capacitive coupling of the storage nodes to the ground and power supply.

  19. Experimental investigation of steady state high power MPD thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegmann, Thomas; Auweter-Kurtz, Monika; Habiger, Harald A.; Kurtz, Helmut L.; Schrade, Herbert O.

    1992-07-01

    MPD thrusters with different geometries, nozzle type and cylindrical, were compared under various operating parameters. The effects of mass flow rate and power input on the operating conditions were explored, and plasma parameters were determined with both probe measurements and optical diagnostics. Besides water-cooled plasma accelerators, tests with a hot anode thruster having a radiation-cooled anode were performed. They showed the feasibility of large radiating tungsten anodes and a lower voltage level than water-cooled devices. A systematic study of the various instabilities of the arc and the plasma flow occurring at high power levels was begun. The cathode erosion and its mechanisms were examined with purified propellant gases.

  20. A 12 GHz solid state power amplifier, phase 1B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bestwick, P. R.

    1986-05-01

    Attempts to develop a balanced amplifier developing 4 W power output at 12.6 GHz, with a gain of 3.5 dB are summarized. Calculation of the device large-signal conjugate match points, measurement of the points, design and tuning of single-ended amplifier, modules, and a bias insertion network are described. A Lange coupler and a termination for it are presented. The performance of the balanced amplifier, and that of a competing Fujitsu amplifier, are analyzed. The differences in device structure between the PRCL 4820 device and the Fujitsu device are assessed. The amplifier developed gives (at 1 dB gain compression) a gain of 2.4 dB and a power output of 3.2 dB. Difficulties stem from the use of the double-cell 4820 device, and of the Lange type quadrature couplers.

  1. State and future of super critical PC power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kjaer, S.

    1996-12-31

    Construction work on two seawater-cooled 400 MW pulverized coal-fired and gas-fired power plants with advanced design parameters for operation in 1997 and 1998 has been initiated by the Danish power company ELSAM. Main steam pressure at the turbine inlet will be 285 Bar (4130 psia) and main steam temperature 580{degrees}C (1076{degrees}F). Double reheat is foreseen at 580{degrees}C (1076{degrees}F) and final feed water temperature will be 300{degrees}C (572{degrees}F). Net efficiency will be 47% on coal and 49% on gas. Information on the design of the super critical tower boilers and the five casing turbo-groups will be presented. ELSAM`s investigations into further improvements in the conversion from coal to electricity above an efficiency of 50% will also be presented. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  2. 75 FR 4102 - Folsom Lake State Recreation Area and Folsom Power House State Historic Park General Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Folsom Lake State Recreation Area and Folsom Power House State Historic Park General Plan/Resource Management Plan AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... Environmental Quality Act (CEQA), the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and the California Department of...

  3. A Survey of Solid-State Microwave Power Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-29

    1. The choice of profile for an application is determined by several considerations. Among these are reliability aspects, circuit considerations...power and efficiency, the above model in general does not apply. Large signal circuit models are largely empirically determined (for specific devices...gate and drain accounts for the capaci- tance C , and determines stability and frequency response of the device. Because the circuit elements of the

  4. Solar Power Constellations Implications for the United States Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    exist. Receiving Methods Receiving methods for the beam involve the use of a rectenna . The rectenna intercepts the beam of energy from the solar power...satellite and converts it back into electricity.7 The rectenna consists of long wires connected to rectifying diodes.8 Rectifying diodes convert RF...energy into electricity. Since the rectenna intercepts the beam and allows most sunlight to pass through, the land beneath the rectenna still has a

  5. Small wind power in the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennyson, G. P.

    1983-01-01

    The Southwestern Great Plains agricultural production in both vegetable crops and cattle, and the extraction industries in oil and natural gas recovery both feed and power a significant percentage of our nation. Energy costs that are rising faster than the rate of return on the sale of these products are contributing to a serious situation with many farms being abandoned and oil wells being capped. Wind energy, which is abundant in the region, is investigated as a near term applicable alternative energy sources.

  6. The United States and China in Power Transition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    and South China Sea disputed territories and ocean interests, and harmonizing its relations with the people of Tibet and Xinjiang inside and...years, this insulated Middle Kingdom (protected by the Himalaya moun- tain plateau, the Gobi desert, and the Pacific Ocean ) had no “peer competitor...from turning hot .17 The Cold War came to an abrupt end with the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991. The sharp drop of Soviet power is well

  7. Size-selected black carbon mass distributions and mixing state in polluted and clean environments of northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raatikainen, Tomi; Brus, David; Hooda, Rakesh K.; Hyvärinen, Antti-Pekka; Asmi, Eija; Sharma, Ved P.; Arola, Antti; Lihavainen, Heikki

    2017-01-01

    We have measured black carbon properties by using a size-selected single-particle soot photometer (SP2). The measurements were conducted in northern India at two sites: Gual Pahari is located at the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and Mukteshwar at the Himalayan foothills. Northern India is known as one of the absorbing aerosol hot spots, but detailed information about absorbing aerosol mixing state is still largely missing. Previous equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentration measurements are available for this region, and these are consistent with our observations showing that refractory black carbon (rBC) concentrations are about 10 times higher in Gual Pahari than those at Mukteshwar. Also, the number fraction of rBC-containing particles is higher in Gual Pahari, but individual rBC-containing particles and their size distributions are fairly similar. These findings indicate that particles at both sites have similar local and regional emission sources, but aerosols are also transported from the main source regions (IGP) to the less polluted regions (Himalayan foothills). Detailed examination of the rBC-containing particle properties revealed that they are most likely irregular particles such as fractal aggregates, but the exact structure remains unknown.

  8. Solid-State Thermionic Nuclear Power for Megawatt Propulsion, Planetary Surface and Commercial Power Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Thermionic (TI) power conversion is a promising technology first investigated for power conversion in the 1960's, and of renewed interest due to modern advances in nanotechnology, MEMS, materials and manufacturing. Benefits include high conversion efficiency (20%), static operation with no moving parts and potential for high reliability, greatly reduced plant complexity, and the potential for reduced development costs. Thermionic emission, credited to Edison in 1880, forms the basis of vacuum tubes and much of 20th century electronics. Heat can be converted into electricity when electrons emitted from a hot surface are collected across a small gap. For example, two "small" (6 kWe) Thermionic Space Reactors were flown by the USSR in 1987-88 for ocean radar reconnaissance. Higher powered Nuclear-Thermionic power systems driving Electric Propulsion (Q-thruster, VASIMR, etc.) may offer the breakthrough necessary for human Mars missions of < 1 yr round trip. Power generation on Earth could benefit from simpler, moe economical nuclear plants, and "topping" of more fuel and emission efficient fossil-fuel plants.

  9. Grassland to shrubland state transitions enhance carbon sequestration in the northern Chihuahuan Desert

    Treesearch

    M. D. Petrie; S. L. Collins; A. M. Swann; P. L. Ford; M. E. Litvak

    2015-01-01

    The replacement of native C4-dominated grassland by C3-dominated shrubland is considered an ecological state transition where different ecological communities can exist under similar environmental conditions. These state transitions are occurring globally, and may be exacerbated by climate change. One consequence of the global increase in woody vegetation may be...

  10. Blinking in quantum dots: The origin of the grey state and power law statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Mao; Searson, Peter C.

    2011-09-01

    Quantum dot (QD) blinking is characterized by switching between an “on” state and an “off” state, and a power-law distribution of on and off times with exponents from 1.0 to 2.0. The origin of blinking behavior in QDs, however, has remained a mystery. Here we describe an energy-band model for QDs that captures the full range of blinking behavior reported in the literature and provides new insight into features such as the gray state, the power-law distribution of on and off times, and the power-law exponents.

  11. Population fragmentation and inter-ecosystem movements of grizzly bears in Western Canada and the Northern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Proctor, M.F.; Paetkau, David; McLellan, B.N.; Stenhouse, G.B.; Kendall, K.C.; Mace, R.D.; Kasworm, W.F.; Servheen, C.; Lausen, C.L.; Gibeau, M.L.; Wakkinen, W.L.; Haroldson, M.A.; Mowat, G.; Apps, C.D.; Ciarniello, L.M.; Barclay, R.M.R.; Boyce, M.S.; Schwartz, C.C.; Strobeck, C.

    2012-01-01

    Population fragmentation compromises population viability, reduces a species ability to respond to climate change, and ultimately may reduce biodiversity. We studied the current state and potential causes of fragmentation in grizzly bears over approximately 1,000,000 km 2 of western Canada, the northern United States (US), and southeast Alaska. We compiled much of our data from projects undertaken with a variety of research objectives including population estimation and trend, landscape fragmentation, habitat selection, vital rates, and response to human development. Our primary analytical techniques stemmed from genetic analysis of 3,134 bears, supplemented with radiotelemetry data from 792 bears. We used 15 locus microsatellite data coupled withmeasures of genetic distance, isolation-by-distance (IBD) analysis, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), linear multiple regression, multi-factorial correspondence analysis (to identify population divisions or fractures with no a priori assumption of group membership), and population-assignment methods to detect individual migrants between immediately adjacent areas. These data corroborated observations of inter-area movements from our telemetry database. In northern areas, we found a spatial genetic pattern of IBD, although there was evidence of natural fragmentation from the rugged heavily glaciated coast mountains of British Columbia (BC) and the Yukon. These results contrasted with the spatial pattern of fragmentation in more southern parts of their distribution. Near the Canada-US border area, we found extensive fragmentation that corresponded to settled mountain valleys andmajor highways. Genetic distances across developed valleys were elevated relative to those across undeveloped valleys in central and northern BC. In disturbed areas, most inter-area movements detected were made by male bears, with few female migrants identified. North-south movements within mountain ranges (Mts) and across BC Highway 3 were more common

  12. A Powerful Source of Entangled States of Light

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbachev, V.N.; Kazakov, A.Ya.; Trubilko, A.I.

    2005-08-15

    The simultaneous interaction of N two-level atoms with a quasi-resonant classical field and two quantized modes is considered under the assumption that the Rabi parameter of the classical mode substantially exceeds the effective Rabi parameters of the quantized modes. It is shown that, in a certain domain of the parameters, the population of the quantized modes exponentially depends on time and the number N. At certain instants of time, the states of the quantized modes prove to be close to the totally entangled state.

  13. Origin of the gas-condensate deposits and prediction of the phase state of hydrocarbons in northern West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Nemchenko, N.N.; Rovenskaya, A.S.

    1987-05-01

    In northern West Siberia, a zone of petroleum accumulation has been identified, embracing the Nadym-Pur, Pur-Tazovskiy, Gydanovsk, and Yamal' petroliferous regions. A characteristic feature of this zone is the development of a thick (up to 2000 m) Cretaceous complex, with which the bulk of the gas and gas-condensate resources of West Siberia is associated. The origin of the gas-condensate deposits, discovered over a wide range from Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) to Jurassic, with differing hydrocarbon composition and amount of condensate, has been inadequately investigated, but nevertheless it has great significance in predicting the phase state of the hydrocarbons in the deposits and the reliability of estimating the reserves. The paper discusses the origin of these gas condensates from petroleum and coal deposits. 5 references.

  14. Annotated bibliography of fire literature relative to northern grasslands in south-central Canada and north-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, Kenneth F.; Fellows, David P.; Callow, J. Mike; Kruse, Arnold D.; Piehl, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Natural resource managers have greatly increased the use of fire to manage grassland habitats during the past two decades in the northern Great Plains region of the United States and Canada. In support of these efforts, we have compiled this annotated bibliography to provide a condensed reference of fire literature for those managers with an interest in fire ecology. References are arranged alphabetically by author and year, numbered consecutively, and referenced by number in the author and subject indexes that follow the bibliography. The intent in compiling the bibliography and indexes is more to identify subject matter and to direct the reader to sources rather than to provide a digested interpretation of each manuscript.

  15. Implications of a gradient in acid and ion deposition across the northern Great Lakes states

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, G.E.; Loucks, O.L.

    1986-01-01

    Average precipitation pH, 1979-1982, declines from west to east from 5.3 to 4.3 along a cross section of sites in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. This answers questions about the seasonal and geographic pattern of anthropogenic acid precursor emissions and reaction products (SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, H/sup +/, NH/sub 2//sup +/) that increase from west to east. Except for higher concentrations of Ca/sup 2 +/ and Mg/sup 2 +/ observed at one site in the cultivated areas of southwestern Minnesota, the contribution of soil-related metal cations to the total ions in solution is small (17%) and relatively uniform across the region. Significant seasonal and geographic patterns in precipitation chemistry and deposition values are observed. Close correspondence of the sums of strong acid anions with the sums of hydrogen and ammonium ions in precipitation is observed, indicating anthropogenic sources of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Present atmospheric inputs show close chemical correspondence when precipitation chemistry values are compared to the resulting ionic composition of weakly buffered lakes in north central Wisconsin and northern Michigan. The wet deposition of total acidity in the middle and eastern part of the region is comparable to that of impacted sites in the Adirondacks and in regions of Scandinavia. 39 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  16. Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection in a northern sea otter from Washington state, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsay, D.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Rosypal, A.C.; Dubey, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Dual Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii infection was observed in a Northern sea otter from Washington, USA. The animal was found stranded, convulsed, and died shortly thereafter. Encephalitis caused by both S. neurona and T. gondii was demonstrated in histological sections of brain. Immunohistochemical examination of sections with S. neurona specific antisera demonstrated developmental stages that divided by endopolygeny and produced numerous merozoites. PCR of brain tissue from the sea otter using primer pairs JNB33/JNB54 resulted in amplification of a 1100 bp product. This PCR product was cut in to 884 and 216 bp products by Dra I but was not cut by Hinf I indicating that it was S. neurona [J. Parasitol. 85 (1999) 221]. No PCR product was detected in the brain of a sea otter which had no lesions of encephalitis. Examination of brain sections using T. gondii specific antisera demonstrated tachyzoites and tissue cysts of T. gondii. The lesions induced by T. gondii suggested that the sea otter was suffering from reactivated toxoplasmosis. T. gondii was isolated in mice inoculated with brain tissue. A cat that was fed infected mouse brain tissue excreted T. gondii oocysts which were infective for mice. This is apparently the first report of dual S. neurona and T. gondii in a marine mammal.

  17. Spatiotemporal analysis of nitrogen cycling in a mixed coniferous forest of the northern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, I.; McLauchlan, K. K.

    2015-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) is the limiting nutrient to primary productivity in a variety of temperate forests, and N cycling is undergoing a variety of anthropogenic changes, notably a doubling of reactive N (Nr) on a global scale. Yet, the magnitude of these changes to N cycling has been difficult to document in terrestrial ecosystems, especially in old-growth forests. To determine the trajectory of N cycling and the potential impacts of anthropogenic influences at local scales, we measured the composition of stable nitrogen isotopes (δ15N) in wood from living red pine trees (Pinus resinosa) at a single site in northern Minnesota, USA. A synchronous decline in wood δ15N values began approximately in the 1920s in 17 individual trees at different topographic positions, indicating a common driver. The decline in wood δ15N values corresponded with declines in sedimentary δ15N recorded in lacustrine sediments of the same catchment. Disturbance regime and species composition began to change at the turn of the 20th century with park establishment, providing a likely mechanism of decline in δ15N values toward present. While other mechanisms of this change are possible, we conclude that while there may be consequences of increased influxes of various forms of anthropogenic Nr into terrestrial ecosystems at the global level, these changes are not being expressed at a local level in this temperate forest ecosystem.

  18. Mercury bioaccumulation in northern two-lined salamanders from streams in the northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bank, M.S.; Loftin, C.S.; Jung, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation in salamanders has received little attention despite widespread Hg contamination of aquatic ecosystems and worldwide amphibian declines. Here we report concentrations of methyl Hg (MeHg) and total Hg in larval northern two-lined salamanders (Eurycea bislineata bislineata) collected from streams in Acadia National Park (ANP), Maine, and Bear Brook Watershed, Maine (BBWM; a paired, gauged watershed treated with bimonthly applications (25 kg/ha/yr) of ammonium sulfate [(NH4)(2)SO4]) since 1989), and Shenandoah National Park (SNP), Virginia. MeHg comprised 73-97% of total Hg in the larval salamander composite samples from ANP. At BBWM we detected significantly higher total Hg levels in larvae from the (NH4)(2)SO4 treatment watershed. At ANP total Hg concentrations in salamander larvae were significantly higher from streams in unburned watersheds in contrast with larval samples collected from streams located in watersheds burned by the 1947 Bar Harbor fire. Additionally, total Hg levels were significantly higher in salamander larvae collected at ANP in contrast with SNP. Our results suggest that watershed-scale attributes including. re history, whole-catchment (NH4)(2)SO4 additions, wetland extent, and forest cover type influence mercury bioaccumulation in salamanders inhabiting lotic environments. We also discuss the use of this species as an indicator of Hg bioaccumulation in stream ecosystems.

  19. Extensional collapse along the Sevier Desert reflection, northern Sevier Desert basin, western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coogan, James C.; Decelles, Peter G.

    1996-10-01

    Newly released and previously published seismic reflection data from the northern Sevier Desert basin provide a complete seismic transect between the tilted western margin of the basin and the eastern breakaway zone. When tied to well and surface age data, the transect delineates a continuum of extensional fault and basin fill geometries that developed between late Oligocene and Pleistocene time across the basin. A minimum of 18 km of top-to-the-west normal displacement is estimated across the Sevier Desert from only the most conspicuous growth geometries and offsets across listric normal faults that sole downward into the Sevier Desert reflection (SDR). The SDR clearly marks a normal fault zone beneath the entire basin, where stratal truncations are imaged for 50% of the 39 km length of the reflection east of the Cricket Mountains block. Restoration of extensional displacement along this entire 39 km fault length is necessary to reconstruct the pre-Oligocene configuration and erosion level of Sevier thrust sheets across the Sevier Desert area. The SDR normal fault zone underlies the former topographic crest of the Sevier orogenic belt, where it accommodated extensional collapse after cessation of regional contractile tectonism.

  20. Mercury bioaccumulation in northern two-lined salamanders from streams in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Bank, Michael S; Loftin, Cynthia S; Jung, Robin E

    2005-03-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation in salamanders has received little attention despite widespread Hg contamination of aquatic ecosystems and worldwide amphibian declines. Here we report concentrations of methyl Hg (MeHg) and total Hg in larval northern two-lined salamanders (Eurycea bislineata bislineata) collected from streams in Acadia National Park (ANP), Maine, and Bear Brook Watershed, Maine (BBWM; a paired, gauged watershed treated with bimonthly applications (25 kg/ha/yr) of ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4]) since 1989), and Shenandoah National Park (SNP), Virginia. MeHg comprised 73-97% of total Hg in the larval salamander composite samples from ANP. At BBWM we detected significantly higher total. Hg levels in larvae from the (NH4)2SO4 treatment watershed. At ANP total Hg concentrations in salamander larvae were significantly higher from streams in unburned watersheds in contrast with larval samples collected from streams located in watersheds burned by the 1947 Bar Harbor fire. Additionally, total Hg levels were significantly higher in salamander larvae collected at ANP in contrast with SNP. Our results suggest that watershed-scale attributes including fire history, whole-catchment (NH4)2SO4 additions, wetland extent, and forest cover type influence mercury bioaccumulation in salamanders inhabiting lotic environments. We also discuss the use of this species as an indicator of Hg bioaccumulation in stream ecosystems.

  1. Age and significance of Precambrian Basement Samples from northern Illinois and adjacent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, W. J.; Montgomery, C. W.; van Schmus, W. R.

    1983-09-01

    Geochronologic results are reported for 12 localities where deep drilling has penetrated Precambrian basement in Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Kentucky. For the northern Illinois deep drill holes UPH 1 and UPH 3, a zircon U-Pb age of 1463±10 m.y. was obtained. Rb-Sr data for these samples indicate mild disturbance of this system but are not interpreted in terms of any specific younger event. U-Pb ages for other localities fall in the interval 1450-1510 m.y. and indicate that this was a major period of igneous activity throughout the southern Great Lakes region. Rb-Sr results indicate that alteration was ubiquitous and that most ages in the range 1100-1400 m.y. probably represent disturbed systems. The results obtained so far tend to support interpretations in which Kentucky, Indiana, and Illinois are primarily underlain by a rhyolite and epizonal granite terrane that is 1450-1500 m.y. old; older Proterozoic rocks may be absent or more deeply buried.

  2. Geochemistry of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system in the northern Midwest, United States

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, D.I.

    1989-01-01

    Distributions of solutes in aquifers of Cambrian and Ordovician age were studied in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, northwestern Indiana, and northern Missouri to determine the sources of solutes and the probable chemical mechanisms that control regional variations in water quality. The data base used included more than 3,000 ground-water-quality analyses from all major aquifers, but especially from the St. Peter, Jordan, and Mount Simon Sandstones and their equivalents. Regional variations in the water chemistry of glacial drift and other sedimentary units that overlie the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system in recharge areas in Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Illinois were also studied, but to a lesser degree. The most important chemical variation in the aquifer is the change in water type from calcium-sodium-sulfate-bicarbonate water to sodium-calcium-sulfate-bicarbonate and sodium-chloride waters along the longest regional flow path from northwestern Iowa to the Illinois basin. The most striking aspect of the distribution of dissolved solids and carbon isotopic content of bicarbonate is the increase in concentration and isotopic enrichment from southwestern Wisconsin, southern Minnesota, and northwestern Illinois south toward Missouri. This study indicates that the ground water in the region is thousands of years old. The study also indicates that the major chemical trends in the aquifers probably are related as much to paleohydrogeologic flow systems during Pleistocene time as to the present flow system, which may postdate the retreat of the last ice sheet about 12,000 years ago.

  3. Powerful Alignment: Building Consensus around the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Keridan

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a sampling of arguments for and against the Common Core State Standards from the period surrounding their adoption. While supporters of the standards have articulated common goals such as economic security, equity, and alignment, opposing voices have failed to coalesce around a unified set of principles or a common language. An…

  4. 40 CFR 256.21 - Requirements for State regulatory powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Solid Waste... be adequate to enforce solid waste disposal standards which are equivalent to or more stringent than the criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities (40 CFR part 257). Such...

  5. 40 CFR 256.21 - Requirements for State regulatory powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Solid Waste... be adequate to enforce solid waste disposal standards which are equivalent to or more stringent than the criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities (40 CFR part 257). Such...

  6. 40 CFR 256.22 - Recommendations for State regulatory powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Solid Waste... prohibit new open dumps and close or upgrade all existing open dumps. (a) Solid waste disposal standards... solid waste disposal facility. These procedures should include identification of future land use or...

  7. 40 CFR 256.21 - Requirements for State regulatory powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Solid Waste... be adequate to enforce solid waste disposal standards which are equivalent to or more stringent than the criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities (40 CFR part 257). Such...

  8. 40 CFR 256.22 - Recommendations for State regulatory powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Solid Waste... prohibit new open dumps and close or upgrade all existing open dumps. (a) Solid waste disposal standards... solid waste disposal facility. These procedures should include identification of future land use or...

  9. 40 CFR 256.21 - Requirements for State regulatory powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Solid Waste... be adequate to enforce solid waste disposal standards which are equivalent to or more stringent than the criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities (40 CFR part 257). Such...

  10. 40 CFR 256.21 - Requirements for State regulatory powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Solid Waste... be adequate to enforce solid waste disposal standards which are equivalent to or more stringent than the criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities (40 CFR part 257). Such...

  11. 40 CFR 256.22 - Recommendations for State regulatory powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Solid Waste... prohibit new open dumps and close or upgrade all existing open dumps. (a) Solid waste disposal standards... solid waste disposal facility. These procedures should include identification of future land use or...

  12. The Political Structuration of Assessment: Negotiating State Power and Legitimacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benveniste, Luis

    2002-01-01

    Examines the national educational assessment systems of Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay to explore the role of politics and state-polity relations in shaping the design, implementation, and impact of national assessment systems. Discusses the rapid global diffusion of national assessment systems and the impact of centralized versus decentralized…

  13. 40 CFR 256.22 - Recommendations for State regulatory powers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WASTES GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLANS Solid Waste... prohibit new open dumps and close or upgrade all existing open dumps. (a) Solid waste disposal standards... solid waste disposal facility. These procedures should include identification of future land use or the...

  14. The National Guard State Partnership Program: Element of Smart Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-09

    as China , Brazil, India and others seeking to enhance their position in the world also present challenges and opportunities for the United States...Climate change, overpopulation , poverty, unemployment, youth population bulge, and competition for scarce resources will add to the pressures and

  15. North American precipitation isotope (δ18O) zones revealed in time series modeling across Canada and northern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delavau, C.; Chun, K. P.; Stadnyk, T.; Birks, S. J.; Welker, J. M.

    2015-02-01

    Delineating spatial patterns of precipitation isotopes ("isoscapes") is becoming increasingly important to understand the processes governing the modern water isotope cycle and their application to migration forensics, climate proxy interpretation, and ecohydrology of terrestrial systems. However, the extent to which these patterns can be empirically predicted across Canada and the northern United States has not been fully articulated, in part due to a lack of time series precipitation isotope data for major regions of North America. In this study, we use multiple linear regressions of CNIP, GNIP, and USNIP observations alongside climatological variables, teleconnection indices, and geographic indicators to create empirical models that predict the δ18O of monthly precipitation (δ18Oppt) across Canada and the northern United States. Five regionalization approaches are used to separate the study domain into isotope zones to explore the effect of spatial grouping on model performance. Stepwise regression-derived parameterizations quantified by permutation testing indicate the significance of precipitable water content and latitude as predictor variables. Within the Canadian Arctic and eastern portion of the study domain, models from all regionalizations capture the interannual and intraannual variability of δ18Oppt. The Pacific coast and northwestern portions of the study domain show less agreement between models and poorer model performance, resulting in higher uncertainty in simulations throughout these regions. Long-term annual average δ18Oppt isoscapes are generated, highlighting the uncertainty in the regionalization approach as it compounds over time. Additionally, monthly time series simulations are presented at various locations, and model structure uncertainty and 90% bootstrapped prediction bounds are detailed for these predictions.

  16. State of the art in solar thermoelectric power plant research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etievant, C.

    World wide research efforts to develop multi-MW solar central receiver thermoelectric power plants are outlined, noting that only this form of solar energy, coupled with storage, permits adjusting output to meet loads. Among the systems described, which are all heliostat-tower configurations, are the 500 kWe SSPS-CRS of the IEA located in southern Spain, the Eurelios station producing 1 MWe on Sicily, and the 1 MWe CESA-1 plant at Tabernas, Spain. Descriptions are also given of the 1 MWe installation at Nio, Japan, the Themis project in France with an output of 2000-2500 MWe, the Soviet CES-5 5 MWe power plant in Lenino on the shore of the Sea of Azov, and the 10 MWe Solar-1 project in Barstow, CA. The systems employ hot air, steam, sodium, or fused salt as heat exchanger fluids, and are being tested for use in producing grid-quality electricity, industrial heat, combustible liquids, and to repower fossil-fuel fed generator cycles.

  17. High Power High Efficiency Ka-Band Power Combiners for Solid-State Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Jon C.; Wintucky, Edwin G.; Chevalier, Christine T.

    2006-01-01

    Wide-band power combining units for Ka-band are simulated for use as MMIC amplifier applications. Short-slot couplers as well as magic-tees are the basic elements for the combiners. Wide bandwidth (5 GHz) and low insertion (approx.0.2 dB) and high combining efficiencies (approx.90 percent) are obtained.

  18. The exploratory development of a high power S-band solid state radar transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, J. D.; Kerstenbeck, E. A.; Rahn, D. G.; Halayko, D. W.; Painchaud, G. R.

    A solid-state power amplifier has been developed using 100-W S-band silicon bipolar transistors. The amplifier produces a nominal 400-W peak output power from 2.7 GHz to 3.0 GHz, at pulse widths up to 50 microsec, at a 10 percent maximum duty cycle and 30 percent efficiency. A high-power planar hybrid combiner was also designed to combine 16 amplifiers to provide a nominal 5-kW RF output power. The isolation between combining ports ensures graceful degradation of output power should individual amplifier modules fail, and allows replacement of the modules during transmitter operation. Higher output powers can be achieved by adding more combining ports to the design or by incorporating a second stage of combining to sum the outputs from several 16-way combiners. The feasibility of solid-state radar transmitter technology at S-band is confirmed.

  19. The Impact of United States Debt on American Power Projection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    financial crisis created in large part by its ever-growing national debt . The circumstances leading to the debt have been building for over a decade and...CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified The United States is in the midst of a financial crisis created in large part by its ever-growing national debt . The... lenders became overly concerned with debt levels and its ability to pay the debt . The lack of lenders providing rollover funds for Italian debt coming

  20. Harnessing power from tides - State of the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, P. R.

    1980-02-01

    Instead of a conventional dam, a membrane of reinforced plastic (the 'water sail'), hermetically anchored to the bottom and sides of a bay, could harness power from tides. Such a membrane, constructed in sections, and estimated to be 20 to 30 times cheaper to construct than a conventional tidal project, could operate in a tidal range of two meters, instead of the usual five meters. Moreover, it could be lowered or pulled aside to allow ship traffic to pass or to protect it during storms. The top of the barrier would be supported by a cable (fixed to floats) spanning the entrance to the bay, while the conversion of tidal energy would be accomplished using compressed air, with two tidal chambers connected to a large piston air motor, although the possible use of gas turbine engines will also be tested.

  1. A new species of Alapona DeLong (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Gyponini) from Amazonas State, Northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Clayton Corrêa; Takiya, Daniela Maeda; Mejdalani, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Gyponini is the largest tribe of Iassinae, comprising 1,080 species in 53 genera (Freytag & Sharkey 2002, Engel & Takiya 2012). The tribe is restricted to the New World, with 75% of genera endemic to the Neotropical and 8% endemic to the Nearctic Region (Nielson & Knight 2000). Alapona DeLong (1980) is a poorly known Neotropical genus, previously known from a single species from Peru, A. elabora DeLong, 1980, described based on a single specimen. In this paper, a new species, Alapona modesta sp. nov., is described based on a single male specimen collected in Northern Brazil, which is deposited in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Manaus, Brazil. Considering that approximately 32% of the genera of the tribe are monotypic, we consider this a valid contribution. For the analysis of the genital structures, the abdomen was removed and placed in hot 10% KOH, following Oman (1949). Genitalia were washed for 5-10 minutes in hot water and placed on a concave slide with glycerin for examination and preparation of photographs. After being photographed, the genitalia were stored in a small vial with glycerin and pinned below the specimen. Photographs were taken with a camera attached to a Leica stereomicroscope, using the image stacking software CombineZP. The morphological terminology follows mainly Dietrich (2005), except for the head sclerites (Hamilton 1981, Mejdalani 1998). The terms for the leg chaetotaxy follow Rakitov (1997). All characteristics known to vary among gyponine genera are given in the revised diagnosis for Alapona. However, because specimens of the type-species were not available for study, features assumed to be diagnostic for the genus but not yet verified to occur in the type-species are marked with an asterisk (*). Characters of the external morphology considered taxonomically important are included in the species description.

  2. Differential Evolution Based Intelligent System State Search Method for Composite Power System Reliability Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkiyaraj, Ashok; Kumarappan, N.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a new approach for evaluating the reliability indices of a composite power system that adopts binary differential evolution (BDE) algorithm in the search mechanism to select the system states. These states also called dominant states, have large state probability and higher loss of load curtailment necessary to maintain real power balance. A chromosome of a BDE algorithm represents the system state. BDE is not applied for its traditional application of optimizing a non-linear objective function, but used as tool for exploring more number of dominant states by producing new chromosomes, mutant vectors and trail vectors based on the fitness function. The searched system states are used to evaluate annualized system and load point reliability indices. The proposed search methodology is applied to RBTS and IEEE-RTS test systems and results are compared with other approaches. This approach evaluates the indices similar to existing methods while analyzing less number of system states.

  3. Solar power satellite system definition study. Volume 4: Solid State SPS Analysis, Phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A 2500 megawatt solid ground output Solar Power Satellite (SPS) of conventional configuration was designed and analyzed. Because the power per receiving antenna is halved, as compared with the klystron reference, twice the number of receiving antennas are needed to deliver the same total power. The solid state approach appears feasible with a slightly greater specific mass and slightly higher cost than the klystron SPS design.

  4. The state and prospects of coal and nuclear power generation in Russia ( review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomatov, V. V.

    2009-12-01

    Data on the modern state and development trends for coal and nuclear power engineering in Russia up to 2030 are generalized. It is emphasized that from the viewpoint of strategy, coal and uranium fuel will be the main energy carriers. The forecast of energy consumption is made; the “roadmap” of new power-generating units of heat and nuclear power plants on the territory of Russia is presented.

  5. High-voltage, high-power, solid-state remote power controllers for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturman, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Two general types of remote power controller (RPC) that combine the functions of a circuit breaker and a switch were developed for use in direct-current (dc) aerospace systems. Power-switching devices used in these designs are the relatively new gate-turnoff thyristor (GTO) and poweer metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET). The various RPC's can switch dc voltages to 1200 V and currents to 100 A. Seven different units were constructed and subjected to comprehensive laboratory and thermal vacuum testing. Two of these were dual units that switch both positive and negative voltages simultaneously. The RPC's using MOSFET's have slow turnon and turnoff times to limit voltage spiking from high di/dt. The GTO's have much faster transition times. All RPC's have programmable overload tripout and microsecond tripout for large overloads. The basic circuits developed can be used to build switchgear limited only by the ratings of the switching device used.

  6. Treating waste water from heat and electrical power plants and state regional power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Beigel`drud, G.M.

    1995-03-01

    Water is often contaminated with oil and other petroleum products when used by local and regional power plants. This article outlines the various methods of treating oil contaminated water and removing emulsions. Coagulation and flocculation are commonly used methods of treatment, but there are other means including flotation and electrochemical methods. Ammonium nitrite was used to accelerates the oil removal with an electrochemical method, which was chosen as the most efficient path towards removal.

  7. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) Concept Definition Study (Exhibit D). Solid-State Amplifier Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Data resulting from a continuing effort to provide system/subsystem definition data to aid in the evaluation of the SPS program concept is presented. The specific data described relate to the proposed use of solid state devices as microwave power amplifiers in the satellite microwave power transmission subsystem.

  8. Solid state sandwich concept: Designs, considerations and issues. [solar power satellite transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, O. E.

    1980-01-01

    Progress in analysis and design of solid state approaches to the solar power satellite microwave power transmission system is reviewed with special emphasis on the Sandwich concept and the issues of maintenance of low junction temperatures for amplifiers to assure acceptable lifetime. Ten specific issues or considerations are discussed and their resolution or status is presented.

  9. 78 FR 15718 - United States Department of Energy, Bonneville Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission United States Department of Energy, Bonneville Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 1, 2013, the Bonneville Power Administration filed a...

  10. A Study of Nuclear Power Plant Construction in the United States.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    nuclear power plant construction are: the regulatory demands placed on the industry by the Federal government, and the public’s perception of safety... nuclear power plant construction in the United States has been one of enormous cost and schedule overruns.

  11. The United States and Rising Regional Powers a Case Study of India, 1991-2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    THE UNITED STATES AND RISING REGIONAL POWERS A CASE STUDY OF INDIA, 1991 -2003 A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S...Study of India, 1991 -2003 Approved by: , Thesis Committee Chair Jack D. Kem, Ph.D. , Member Clay Easterling, M.B.A...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE United States and rising regional powers: A case study of India 1991 -2003 5a

  12. A 32-GHz solid-state power amplifier for deep space communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wamhof, P. D.; Rascoe, D. L.; Lee, K. A.; Lansing, F. S.

    1994-01-01

    A 1.5-W solid-state power amplifier (SSPA) has been demonstrated as part of an effort to develop and evaluate state-of-the-art transmitter and receiver components at 32 and 35 GHz for future deep space missions. Output power and efficiency measurements for a monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC)-based SSPA are reported. Technical design details for the various modules and a thermal analysis are discussed, as well as future plans.

  13. Limited change in dune mobility in response to a large decrease in wind power in semi-arid northern China since the 1970s

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, J.A.; Swinehart, J.B.; Lu, H.; Miao, X.; Cha, P.; Zhou, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The climatic controls on dune mobility, especially the relative importance of wind strength, remain incompletely understood. This is a key research problem in semi-arid northern China, both for interpreting past dune activity as evidence of paleoclimate and for predicting future environmental change. Potential eolian sand transport, which is approximately proportional to wind power above the threshold for sand entrainment, has decreased across much of northern China since the 1970s. Over the same period, effective moisture (ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration) has not changed significantly. This "natural experiment" provides insight on the relative importance of wind power as a control on dune mobility in three dunefields of northern China (Mu Us, Otindag, and Horqin), although poorly understood and potentially large effects of human land use complicate interpretation. Dune forms in these three regions are consistent with sand transport vectors inferred from weather station data, suggesting that wind directions have remained stable and the stations adequately represent winds that shaped the dunes. The predicted effect of weaker winds since the 1970s would be dune stabilization, with lower sand transport rates allowing vegetation cover to expand. Large portions of all three dunefields remained stabilized by vegetation in the 1970s despite high wind power. Since the 1970s, trends in remotely sensed vegetation greenness and change in mobile dune area inferred from sequential Landsat images do indicate widespread dune stabilization in the eastern Mu Us region. On the other hand, expansion of active dunes took place farther west in the Mu Us dunefield and especially in the central Otindag dunefield, with little overall change in two parts of the Horqin dunes. Better ground truth is needed to validate the remote sensing analyses, but results presented here place limits on the relative importance of wind strength as a control on dune mobility in the

  14. Food Defense Practices of School Districts in Northern U.S. States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klitzke, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed implementation of food defense practices in public schools in Montana, Wyoming, South Dakota, North Dakota, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. The first phase involved a qualitative multi-site case study: one-day visits were made to five school districts in the states of Iowa, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. A principal,…

  15. Food Defense Practices of School Districts in Northern U.S. States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klitzke, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed implementation of food defense practices in public schools in Montana, Wyoming, South Dakota, North Dakota, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. The first phase involved a qualitative multi-site case study: one-day visits were made to five school districts in the states of Iowa, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. A principal,…

  16. Partial cuttings in northern hardwoods of the Lake States: twenty-year experimental results

    Treesearch

    F. H. Eyre; W. M. Zillgitt

    1953-01-01

    In the nineteen twenties the hardwood lumber industry of the Lake States faced a critical decision. There was an excess of mill capacity over stumpage available for long-continued operations. Some mills had a limited future; others had enough timber to last them a long time. But all such concerns began to consider what the future held.

  17. Mexico at the Precipice: Are Lessons from Plan Colombia Operationally Relevant to United States Northern Command?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-04

    PA: U.S. Army War College, USAWC Strategy Research Project, 2003. Gutierrez , Francisco. “Institutionalizing global wars: State transformation in...Congress, 1988. http://countrystudies.us/colombia/59.htm (accessed 22 March 2009). Valenzuela, Alfred A. and Rosello, Victor M. “The War on Drugs and

  18. State of stress, permeability, and fractures in the Precambrian granite of northern Illinois

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haimson, Bezalel C.; Doe, Thomas W.

    1983-09-01

    In situ fracture logging, permeability tests, and stress measurements have been conducted in UPH 3, a 1600-m-deep hole drilled into the Precambrian granitic basement of northern Illinois. Two major fracture zones are revealed, which cannot be discerned in UPH 2, a similarly deep hole about 1 km away. The segments of the UPH 3 core that were oriented indicate the existence of three sets of subvertical joints striking at N55°E, N40°W and E-W. These sets correspond to surface and shallow borehole joint directions in the Precambrian and Paleozoic rock of southern Wisconsin as well as other areas of the Midwest. The permeability values in UPH 3 display an overall reduction with depth from about 10-4 darcy at 700 m to 10-8-10-9 darcy at 1600 m. Permeability is highest in the zones of greatest fracturing, one of which occurs near the top of the granite and is probably related to fractures which were formed when the granite was at the surface in late Paleozoic times. Permeability reduction with depth is consistent with previous laboratory and field results in crystalline rocks. Hydrofracturing measurements in UPH 3 reveal a compressional stress field with the largest stress horizontal and oriented at N48°E (±30°). Based on linear regression of 13 test results in the depth range of 686-1449 m, the greatest horizontal stress has a magnitude of [20.5+(0.023×depth(m))] MPa. The least horizontal compression has a value of [8.7+(0.019×depth(m))] MPa. The vertical stress, based on density measurements, is given by [-1.3+(0.026xdepth(m))] MPa. Both magnitudes and directions support previous results in the technically stable Great Lakes region of the midcontinent. However, a mb = 4.4 earthquake did occur in 1972 some 90 km south of UPH 3, at a depth of 13 km. The focal mechanism solution revealed strike slip motion with the pressure axis horizontal and trending northeast, in accord with our measured stress directions and relative magnitudes but not predicted from a

  19. Evolving Stress State and Deformation Mechanism in the Himalayan Foreland Fold-and-Thrust Belt, Northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, I.; Dasti, N.

    2010-12-01

    Crustal deformation along with shortening due to northward under-thrusting of the Indian plate beneath the Eurasian plate continues to create active tectonic features on the northern fringes of the Indian craton since major collision began in the Eocene. Here the study provides insights on the evolving stress state and deformation mechanism of the Salt Range and Potwar area of Northern Pakistan. This part of Himalayan foreland fold-and-thrust-belt has severe history of deformation during 5.1 Ma and 2 Ma. This foreland area lies between Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) in the north, Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) in the south and Jhelum fault of sinistral nature in the east & Kalabagh fault of dextral nature in the west. An integrated data from seismic reflection profiles and drilling logs reveal that the subsurface deformation encompasses pop-ups, imbricates, duplexes with in-sequence and out-of-sequence thrusting. It also depicts that intensity of deformation increases from the northern margin of Soan geosyncline towards north due to lacking of evaporites while in the south it decreases due to gradual increase in salt thickness. Surface geologic mapping glimpses a series of thrust sheets and anticlines trending ENE-SWS in the eastern and central part of the study area; whereas in the western part, the trend is almost E-W. This variation in the trend of structures is the result of counter clock rotational behaviour (~10°deviation from north to the west) of north-western part of the Indian lithospheric plate. Current outcrop-scale natural fracture data collected from selected anticlinal structures of the study area is presented to manifest the stress evolution and deformation styles under the established tectonic framework. Collected data is analysed for the evaluation of tectonic stress direction and deformation mechanism. The genetic arrangement and types of fractures observed in the study area indicate that the whole area is under compression. The data also testify

  20. Water energy resources of the United States with emphasis on low head/low power resources

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Douglas G.; Cherry, Shane J.; Reeves, Kelly S.; Lee, Randy D.; Carroll, Gregory R.; Sommers, Garold L.; Verdin, Kristine L.

    2004-04-01

    Analytical assessments of the water energy resources in the 20 hydrologic regions of the United States were performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models and geographic information system tools. The principal focus of the study was on low head (less than 30 ft)/low power (less than 1 MW) resources in each region. The assessments were made by estimating the power potential of all the stream segments in a region, which averaged 2 miles in length. These calculations were performed using hydrography and hydraulic heads that were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Elevation Derivatives for National Applications dataset and stream flow predictions from a regression equation or equations developed specifically for the region. Stream segments excluded from development and developed hydropower were accounted for to produce an estimate of total available power potential. The total available power potential was subdivided into high power (1 MW or more), high head (30 ft or more)/low power, and low head/low power total potentials. The low head/low power potential was further divided to obtain the fractions of this potential corresponding to the operating envelopes of three classes of hydropower technologies: conventional turbines, unconventional systems, and microhydro (less than 100 kW). Summing information for all the regions provided total power potential in various power classes for the entire United States. Distribution maps show the location and concentrations of the various classes of low power potential. No aspect of the feasibility of developing these potential resources was evaluated. Results for each of the 20 hydrologic regions are presented in Appendix A, and similar presentations for each of the 50 states are made in Appendix B.

  1. KANSAS WIND POWERING AMERICAN STATE OUTREACH: KANSAS WIND WORKING GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    HAMMARLUND, RAY

    2010-10-27

    The Kansas Wind Working Group (WWG) is a 33-member group announced by former Governor Kathleen Sebelius on Jan. 7, 2008. Formed through Executive Order 08-01, the WWG will educate stakeholder groups with the current information on wind energy markets, technologies, economics, policies, prospects and issues. Governor Mark Parkinson serves as chair of the Kansas Wind Working Group. The group has been instrumental in focusing on the elements of government and coordinating government and private sector efforts in wind energy development. Those efforts have moved Kansas from 364 MW of wind three years ago to over 1000 MW today. Further, the Wind Working Group was instrumental in fleshing out issues such as a state RES and net metering, fundamental parts of HB 2369 that was passed and is now law in Kansas. This represents the first mandatory RES and net metering in Kansas history.

  2. Fault Diagnosis with Multi-State Alarms in a Nuclear Power Control Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart A. Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-09-01

    This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effects of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized the use of three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. Sensitivity and criterion based on the Signal Detection Theory were used to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

  3. FAULT DIAGNOSIS WITH MULTI-STATE ALARMS IN A NUCLEAR POWER CONTROL SIMULATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Ronald L. Boring

    2012-10-01

    This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effect of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. We used sensitivity and criterion based on Signal Detection Theory to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

  4. Effects of land use/cover change and harvests on forest carbon dynamics in northern states of the United States from remote sensing and inventory data: 1992-2001

    Treesearch

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey; James E. Smith

    2011-01-01

    We examined spatial patterns of changes in forest area and nonsoil carbon (C) dynamics affected by land use/cover change (LUC) and harvests in 24 northern states of the United States using an integrated methodology combining remote sensing and ground inventory data between 1992 and 2001. We used the Retrofit Change Product from the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics...

  5. Solid-State Thermionic Power Generators: An Analytical Analysis in the Nonlinear Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebarjadi, M.

    2017-07-01

    Solid-state thermionic power generators are an alternative to thermoelectric modules. In this paper, we develop an analytical model to investigate the performance of these generators in the nonlinear regime. We identify dimensionless parameters determining their performance and provide measures to estimate an acceptable range of thermal and electrical resistances of thermionic generators. We find the relation between the optimum load resistance and the internal resistance and suggest guidelines for the design of thermionic power generators. Finally, we show that in the nonlinear regime, thermionic power generators can have efficiency values higher than the state-of-the-art thermoelectric modules.

  6. Solid state RF power: The route to 1W per euro cent

    SciTech Connect

    Heid, Oliver

    2013-04-19

    In most particle accelerators RF power is a decisive design constraint due to high costs and relative inflexibility of current electron beam based RF sources, i.e. Klystrons, Magnetrons, Tetrodes etc. At VHF/UHF frequencies the transition to solid state devices promises to fundamentally change the situation. Recent progress brings 1 Watt per Euro cent installed cost within reach. We present a Silicon Carbide semiconductor solution utilising the Solid State Direct Drive technology at unprecedented efficiency, power levels and power densities. The proposed solution allows retrofitting of existing RF accelerators and opens the route to novel particle accelerator concepts.

  7. Seasonal variations of phage life strategies and bacterial physiological states in three northern temperate lakes.

    PubMed

    Maurice, C F; Bouvier, T; Comte, J; Guillemette, F; Del Giorgio, P A

    2010-03-01

    The current consensus concerning the prevalence of lytic and lysogenic phage life cycles in aquatic systems is that the host physiological state may influence viral strategies, lysogeny being favoured when hosts have reduced metabolic rates. We explored this hypothesis, by following phage cycle dynamics, host physiological state and metabolic activity over an annual cycle in three lakes subjected to strong seasonal fluctuations, including 4-5 months of ice cover. We observed marked seasonal dynamics of viral and bacterial communities, with low bulk and cell-specific bacterial metabolism in winter, and a dramatic increase in injured bacteria under the ice cover in all lakes. This period was accompanied by contrasting patterns in the proportion of lysogenic cells. In the eutrophic lake, times of low bacterial metabolic rates and high proportion of damaged cells corresponded to highest levels of lysogeny, supporting the notion that hosts are a 'refuge' for viruses. In the two unproductive lakes, peaks of injured cells corresponded to a minimum of lysogeny, suggesting an 'abandon the sinking ship' response, where the prophage replicates before the loss of genome. We suggest that these diverging responses to the host physiological state are not contradictory, but rather that there may be thresholds of cell stress and metabolic activity leading to one or the other response.

  8. Ammonia emissions and carbon and energy footprints of dairy farms in the Northeastern United States and Northern Europe estimated using DairyGEM

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Production system, diet, geographic location, and climate affect the environmental footprint of dairy farms. The objective of this analysis was to estimate ammonia emissions and carbon and energy footprints of dairy farms in the Northeastern United States (US) and Northern Europe (NE). Sixteen US fa...

  9. "You'd Be Wanting To Know about the Past": Social Contexts of Children's Historical Understanding in Northern Ireland and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Keith C.

    This study examines the influence of differing social contexts on the historical understanding of primary and elementary students in Northern Ireland and the United States. Although children in both locations learn about the past not only at school but from relatives, historic sites, literature, and the media, the U.S. emphasis on a narrative of…

  10. Gauging state-level and user group views of oyster reef restoration activities in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Nix, Ashby; Laborde, Luke; Piazza, Bryan P.

    2012-01-01

    Successful oyster reef restoration, like many conservation challenges, requires not only biological understanding of the resource, but also stakeholder cooperation and political support. To measure perceptions of oyster reef restoration activities and priorities for future restoration along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, a survey of 1500 individuals representing 4 user groups (oyster harvesters, shrimpers, environmental organization members, professionals), across 5 states (Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida) was conducted in 2011. All respondents highly supported reef restoration efforts, but there was a dichotomy in preferred restoration goals with commercial fishermen more likely to support oyster reef restoration for stock enhancement, while professionals and environmental organization members were more likely to support oyster reef restoration to enhance ecosystem services. All user groups identified enforcement, funding, and appropriate site selection as basic requirements for successful reef restoration. For management of restored oyster reefs, oyster harvesters and shrimpers were less likely to support options that restricted the use of reefs, including gear restrictions and permanent closures, but did support rotating annual reef closures, while other stakeholders were willing to consider all options, including annual reef closures and sanctuary reefs. Overall, there were clear differences in management and communication preferences across user groups, but few differences across states. Understanding these key differences in stakeholder support for, and willingness to accept specific management actions is critical in moving management and restoration forward while minimizing conflict.

  11. The Use of a Solid State Analog Television Transmitter as a Superconducting Electron Gun Power Amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    J.G. Kulpin, K.J. Kleman, R.A. Legg

    2012-07-01

    A solid state analog television transmitter designed for 200 MHz operation is being commissioned as a radio frequency power amplifier on the Wisconsin superconducting electron gun cavity. The amplifier consists of three separate radio frequency power combiner cabinets and one monitor and control cabinet. The transmitter employs rugged field effect transistors built into one kilowatt drawers that are individually hot swappable at maximum continuous power output. The total combined power of the transmitter system is 33 kW at 200 MHz, output through a standard coaxial transmission line. A low level radio frequency system is employed to digitally synthesize the 200 MHz signal and precisely control amplitude and phase.

  12. Quasi-optical solid-state power combining for millimeter-wave active seeker applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halladay, R. H.; Terrill, S. D.; Bowling, D. R.; Gagnon, D. R.

    1992-05-01

    Consideration is given to quasi-optical power combining techniques, state-of-the-art demonstrated performance, and system issues as they apply to endoatmospheric homing seeker insertion. Quasi-optical power combining is based on combining microwave and millimeter-wave solid-state device power in space through the use of antennas and lenses. It is concluded that quasi-optical power combining meets the severe electrical requirements and packaging constraints of active MMW seekers for endoatmospheric hit-to-kill missiles. The approach provides the possibility of wafer-scale integration of major components for low cost production and offers high reliability. Critical issues include thermal loading and system integration, which must be resolved before the quasi-optical power combining technology will be applied to an active MMW seeker.

  13. Summary of State-of-the-Art Power Conversion Systems for Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Atcitty, S.; Gray-Fenner, A.; Ranade, S.

    1998-09-01

    The power conversion system (PCS) is a vital part of many energy storage systems. It serves as the interface between the storage device, an energy source, and an AC load. This report summarizes the results of an extensive study of state-of-the-art power conversion systems used for energy storage applications. The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for cost reduction and performance improvement in these power conversion systems and to provide recommendations for fiture research and development. This report provides an overview of PCS technology, a description of several state-of-the-art power conversion systems and how they are used in specific applications, a summary of four basic configurations for l:he power conversion systems used in energy storage applications, a discussion of PCS costs and potential cost reductions, a summary of the stancku-ds and codes relevant to the technology, and recommendations for future research and development.

  14. Analysis of S-band solid-state transmitters for the solar power satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belohoubek, E. F.; Ettenberg, M.; Huang, H. C.; Nowogrodzki, M.; Sechi, F. N.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of replacing the Reference System antenna in which thermionic devices are used for the dc-to-microwave conversion, with solid-state elements was explored. System, device, and antenna module tradeoff investigations strongly point toward the desirability of changing the transmitter concept to a distributed array of relatively low power elements, deriving their dc power directly from the solar cell array and whose microwave power outputs are combined in space. The approach eliminates the thermal, weight, and dc-voltage distribution problems of a system in which high power tubes are simply replaced with clusters of solid state amplifiers. The proposed approach retains the important advantages of a solid state system: greatly enhanced reliability and graceful degradation of the system.

  15. A flexible super-capacitive solid-state power supply for miniature implantable medical devices.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chuizhou; Gall, Oren Z; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2013-12-01

    We present a high-energy local power supply based on a flexible and solid-state supercapacitor for miniature wireless implantable medical devices. Wireless radio-frequency (RF) powering recharges the supercapacitor through an antenna with an RF rectifier. A power management circuit for the super-capacitive system includes a boost converter to increase the breakdown voltage required for powering device circuits, and a parallel conventional capacitor as an intermediate power source to deliver current spikes during high current transients (e.g., wireless data transmission). The supercapacitor has an extremely high area capacitance of ~1.3 mF/mm(2), and is in the novel form of a 100 μm-thick thin film with the merit of mechanical flexibility and a tailorable size down to 1 mm(2) to meet various clinical dimension requirements. We experimentally demonstrate that after fully recharging the capacitor with an external RF powering source, the supercapacitor-based local power supply runs a full system for electromyogram (EMG) recording that consumes ~670 μW with wireless-data-transmission functionality for a period of ~1 s in the absence of additional RF powering. Since the quality of wireless powering for implantable devices is sensitive to the position of those devices within the RF electromagnetic field, this high-energy local power supply plays a crucial role in providing continuous and reliable power for medical device operations.

  16. Spatial patterns of leprosy in a hyperendemic state in Northern Brazil, 2001-2012

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Lorena Dias; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Brito, Aline Lima; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the spatial patterns of leprosy in the Brazilian state of Tocantins. METHODS This study was based on morbidity data obtained from the Sistema de Informações de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN – Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Information System), of the Ministry of Health. All new leprosy cases in individuals residing in the state of Tocantins, between 2001 and 2012, were included. In addition to the description of general disease indicators, a descriptive spatial analysis, empirical Bayesian analysis and spatial dependence analysis were performed by means of global and local Moran’s indexes. RESULTS A total of 14,542 new cases were recorded during the period under study. Based on the annual case detection rate, 77.0% of the municipalities were classified as hyperendemic (> 40 cases/100,000 inhabitants). Regarding the annual case detection rate in < 15 years-olds, 65.4% of the municipalities were hyperendemic (10.0 to 19.9 cases/100,000 inhabitants); 26.6% had a detection rate of grade 2 disability cases between 5.0 and 9.9 cases/100,000 inhabitants. There was a geographical overlap of clusters of municipalities with high detection rates in hyperendemic areas. Clusters with high disease risk (global Moran’s index: 0.51; p < 0.001), ongoing transmission (0.47; p < 0.001) and late diagnosis (0.44; p < 0.001) were identified mainly in the central-north and southwestern regions of Tocantins. CONCLUSIONS We identified high-risk clusters for transmission and late diagnosis of leprosy in the Brazilian state of Tocantins. Surveillance and control measures should be prioritized in these high-risk municipalities. PMID:26603352

  17. Mercantilist Development in Russia: The Legitimacy of State Power, State Identity, and the Energy Charter Regime (1990--2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruynooghe, Daniel; Wynn, Henry P.

    This dissertation investigates the creation, adaptation, and demise of international regimes. Specifically, I ask why international regimes sometimes fail to fulfill their original purpose. Empirically, I examine the evolution and eventual failure of the Energy Charter (ECH), a multilateral regime that governs the Eurasian energy economy. Modeled after the European Steel and Coal Community, the original goal of the regime was to capitalize on economic complementarities in energy to integrate Gorbachev's reforming USSR (later Russia) with Europe and promote pan-European cooperation and peace. By 2010, integration had failed, and the regime itself had become a source of conflict. To understand this outcome, I focus on the foreign energy policy of Russia, a central state within the ECH, which actively participated in designing the regime in the 1990s but two decades later decided that it was no longer in its interest. Using data collected from interviews and archival searches during field research in Russia, Brussels, and Paris, I find that under President Yeltsin, low domestic sovereignty meant the state could not integrate key domestic players into ECH policy-making. This led Russia to conclude a bargain that it could not implement domestically. Under President Putin, high domestic sovereignty meant the state had sufficient capacity to corral these recalcitrant actors. However, the new policy that emerged compelled Russia to attempt to modify the ECH in ways that violated previously accepted norms, thereby alienating its European partners and undermining the regime. This study supports Hegemonic Stability theory which suggests that we can expect regime failure after major shifts in the distribution of power produce changes in the interests and policies of key states. I extend this finding by showing that Russian state power increased due to changes in elite conceptions about the legitimacy of state power. I demonstrate this by using over time comparisons between

  18. Evaluation of genetic parameters of 22 autosomal STR loci (PowerPlex® Fusion System) in a population sample from Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Turrina, Stefania; Ferrian, Melissa; Caratti, Stefano; De Leo, Domenico

    2014-03-01

    The PowerPlex® Fusion System (Promega, Madison, WI) is a short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex that allows co-amplification of 22 autosomal STRs, including the CODIS core and the European Standard Set loci, plus amelogenin for gender determination and DYS391 male specific marker included in order to avoid errors in gender assignment when null Y-alleles or deletions of the Y-chromosome short arm involve the amelogenin locus. Allele frequencies and forensic efficiency parameters were estimated in a population sample of 303 unrelated healthy individuals living in Northern Italy. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were observed after applying Bonferroni's correction for multiple testing. The combined power of discrimination was 0.999999999999 and the combined power of exclusion was 0.9999956. A rare 28 allele at locus D12S391 was observed, while one tri-allelic pattern at Penta E locus was detected. Population differentiation test revealed significant genetic diversity between our population sample and other European populations considered. The results showed that the PowerPlex® Fusion System is one of the most informative kit available in forensic genetics and may prove useful in both human identification and kinship analysis.

  19. State opportunities for action: Update of states' combined heat and power activities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Elizabeth; Elliott, R. Neal

    2003-10-01

    This report updates the review of state policies with regard to CHP that the American Council for and Energy Efficient Economy completed in 2002. It describes the current activities of states with programs during the initial survey and also reviews new programs offered by the states.

  20. Formation mechanism for the amplitude of interannual climate variability in subtropical northern hemisphere: relative contributions from the zonal asymmetric mean state and the interannual variability of SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; Lin, Ailan; Gu, Dejun; Li, Chunhui; Zheng, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The Amplitude Interannual climate Variability (AIV) differs among the subtropical northern hemisphere, and the Western North Pacific (WNP) was claimed to exhibit the largest AIV. The robustness of the AIV pattern is investigated in this study with different atmospheric variables from multiple datasets. As consistently shown by the interannual variance patterns of precipitation and circulation, the AIV over subtropical northern hemisphere closely follows the mean state of precipitation, where higher (lower) AIV is located at moister (drier) regions. The largest AIV is seen over the broad area from South Asia to WNP, followed by a secondary local maximum over the Gulf of Mexico. To further investigate the formation mechanism for the AIV pattern, numerical simulations are performed by Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4). The zonal asymmetry of AIV is reduced if the interannual SST variability is removed, and it almost disappears if the zonal asymmetry of SST mean state is removed. The results suggest that the zonal asymmetric AIV pattern primarily originates from the zonal asymmetric SST mean state, and it is amplified by the interannual SST variability. The atmospheric convection-circulation feedback plays a key role in connecting the AIV with the mean state precipitation. In both observation and CAM4 simulations, stronger (weaker) convection-circulation feedback is seen in moister (drier) regions. By modulating the mean state precipitation and the associated intensity of convection-circulation feedback, the zonal asymmetric SST mean state accounts for the zonal asymmetry of AIV in the subtropical northern hemisphere.

  1. Mapping spatial patterns of stream power and channel change along a gravel-bed river in northern Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, Devin M.; Legleiter, Carl J.

    2016-01-01

    Stream power represents the rate of energy expenditure along a river and can be calculated using topographic data acquired via remote sensing or field surveys. This study sought to quantitatively relate temporal changes in the form of Soda Butte Creek, a gravel-bed river in northeastern Yellowstone National Park, to stream power gradients along an 8-km reach. Aerial photographs from 1994 to 2012 and ground-based surveys were used to develop a locational probability map and morphologic sediment budget to assess lateral channel mobility and changes in net sediment flux. A drainage area-to-discharge relationship and DEM developed from LiDAR data were used to obtain the discharge and slope values needed to calculate stream power. Local and lagged relationships between mean stream power gradient at median peak discharge and volumes of erosion, deposition, and net sediment flux were quantified via spatial cross-correlation analyses. Similarly, autocorrelations of locational probabilities and sediment fluxes were used to examine spatial patterns of sediment sources and sinks. Energy expended above critical stream power was calculated for each time period to relate the magnitude and duration of peak flows to the total volumetric change in each time increment. Collectively, we refer to these methods as the stream power gradient (SPG) framework. The results of this study were compromised by methodological limitations of the SPG framework and revealed some complications likely to arise when applying this framework to small, wandering, gravel-bed rivers. Correlations between stream power gradients and sediment flux were generally weak, highlighting the inability of relatively simple statistical approaches to link sub-budget cell-scale sediment dynamics to larger-scale driving forces such as stream power gradients. Improving the moderate spatial resolution techniques used in this study and acquiring very-high resolution data from recently developed methods in fluvial remote

  2. System efficiency analysis for high power solid state radio frequency transmitter

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Akhilesh Sharma, D. K.; Gupta, A. K.; Lad, M. R.; Hannurkar, P. R.; Pathak, S. K.

    2014-02-15

    This paper examines some important relationships, related with the system efficiency, for very high power, radio frequency solid-state transmitter; incorporating multiple solid-state power amplifier modules, power combiners, dividers, couplers, and control/interlock hardware. In particular, the characterization of such transmitters, at the component as well as the system level, is discussed. The analysis for studying the influence of the amplitude and phase imbalance, on useful performance parameters like system efficiency and power distribution is performed. This analysis is based on a scattering parameter model. This model serves as a template for fine-tuning the results, with the help of a system level simulator. For experimental study, this approach is applied to a recently designed modular and scalable solid-state transmitter, operating at the centre frequency of 505.8 MHz and capable of delivering a continuous power of 75 kW. Such first time presented, system level study and experimental characterization for the real time operation will be useful for the high power solid-state amplifier designs, deployed in particle accelerators.

  3. Power system observability and dynamic state estimation for stability monitoring using synchrophasor measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Kai; Qi, Junjian; Kang, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Growing penetration of intermittent resources such as renewable generations increases the risk of instability in a power grid. This paper introduces the concept of observability and its computational algorithms for a power grid monitored by the wide-area measurement system (WAMS) based on synchrophasors, e.g. phasor measurement units (PMUs). The goal is to estimate real-time states of generators, especially for potentially unstable trajectories, the information that is critical for the detection of rotor angle instability of the grid. The paper studies the number and siting of synchrophasors in a power grid so that the state of the system can be accurately estimated in the presence of instability. An unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is adopted as a tool to estimate the dynamic states that are not directly measured by synchrophasors. The theory and its computational algorithms are illustrated in detail by using a 9-bus 3-generator power system model and then tested on a 140-bus 48-generator Northeast Power Coordinating Council power grid model. Case studies on those two systems demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach using a limited number of synchrophasors for dynamic state estimation for stability assessment and its robustness against moderate inaccuracies in model parameters.

  4. System efficiency analysis for high power solid state radio frequency transmitter.

    PubMed

    Jain, Akhilesh; Sharma, D K; Gupta, A K; Lad, M R; Hannurkar, P R; Pathak, S K

    2014-02-01

    This paper examines some important relationships, related with the system efficiency, for very high power, radio frequency solid-state transmitter; incorporating multiple solid-state power amplifier modules, power combiners, dividers, couplers, and control/interlock hardware. In particular, the characterization of such transmitters, at the component as well as the system level, is discussed. The analysis for studying the influence of the amplitude and phase imbalance, on useful performance parameters like system efficiency and power distribution is performed. This analysis is based on a scattering parameter model. This model serves as a template for fine-tuning the results, with the help of a system level simulator. For experimental study, this approach is applied to a recently designed modular and scalable solid-state transmitter, operating at the centre frequency of 505.8 MHz and capable of delivering a continuous power of 75 kW. Such first time presented, system level study and experimental characterization for the real time operation will be useful for the high power solid-state amplifier designs, deployed in particle accelerators.

  5. Northern white-cedar ecology and silviculture in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada: a synthesis of knowledge

    Treesearch

    Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Robert S. Seymour

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability of the northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) resource is a concern in many regions throughout its range because of regeneration failures, difficulty recruiting seedlings into sapling and pole classes, and harvesting levels that exceed growth. Management confusion has resulted from the scarcity of research on northern white-cedar...

  6. Development of the selection system in northern hardwood forests of the Lake States: an 80-year silviculture research legacy

    Treesearch

    Christel Kern; Gus Erdmann; Laura Kenefic; Brian Palik; Terry. Strong

    2014-01-01

    The northern hardwood research program at the Dukes Experimental Forest in Michigan and Argonne Experimental Forest in Wisconsin has been adapting to changing management and social objectives for more than 80 years. In 1926, the first northern hardwood silviculture study was established in old-growth stands at the Dukes Experimental Forest. In response to social...

  7. Two new endangered species of Anomaloglossus (Anura: Aromobatidae) from Roraima State, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fouquet, Antoine; Souza, Sergio Marques; Nunes, Pedro M Sales; Kok, Philippe J R; Curcio, Felipe Franco; De Carvalho, Celso Morato; Grant, Taran; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2015-03-05

    We describe two new species of Anomaloglossus from Roraima State, Brazil, that are likely endemic to single mountains currently isolated among lowland forest and savanna ecosystems. The first species, Anomaloglossus tepequem sp. nov. was collected in 1986 and 1992 along a single stream at >500 m elevation on a tepui-like mountain named Tepequém, but was not detected during recent investigations. It is mainly diagnosed from other Anomaloglossus species by its well developed foot webbing, immaculate cream abdomen colouration and small body size (males: 18.2-20.1 mm, females: 21.7-24.5). The second species, Anomaloglossus apiau sp. nov. was found along several streams between 500 and 1400 m elevation on Serra do Apiaú, and is mainly diagnosed from congeners by its weakly webbed feet, males with swollen third finger and ventrolateral stripe formed by white dots, and its advertisement call; a long trill (up to almost 40 s) consisting of pairs of very short pulses. The discovery of these two apparently microendemic species suggests that additional Anomaloglossus species remain to be described in the Guiana Shield. Both species should be considered critically endangered given their seemingly reduced range size, association with highland habitat, and the anthropogenic pressure they currently face.

  8. [Evaluation of sandfly control measures in northern Paraná State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Teodoro, Ueslei; Santos, Demilson Rodrigues dos; Santos, Ademar Rodrigues dos; Oliveira, Otílio de; Poiani, Luís Paschoal; Kühl, João Balduíno; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Neitzke, Herintha Coeto

    2007-11-01

    Sandfly captures from April 2001-September 2002 were compared to those from October 1996-September 1997 and October 1998-April 2000 in order to evaluate control procedures conducted in Recanto Marista in the county of Doutor Camargo, Paraná State, Brazil. Sandflies were captured with Falcão traps twice a month, both in the domiciles and henhouses, from 10 PM to 2 AM. In 2001-2002, 199,821 sandflies were captured, with an hourly average of 1,625.5 insects; average captures in 1996-1997 and 1997-1998 were 1,641.9 and 806.7, respectively. Nyssomyia neivai was the most abundant species (90.4%) in all habitats. This species, together N. whitmani, Migonemyia migonei, and Pintomyia fischeri, accounted for 99.9% of all the specimens captured. The total hourly average sandfly captures increased, but 85% of these insects were captured in henhouses built with the purpose of attracting sandfly specimens, while the density decreased in other environments, especially intradomiciliary.

  9. Genetic variability of populations of Nyssomyia neivai in the Northern State of Paraná, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gasparotto, Jaqueline de Carvalho; da Costa-Ribeiro, Magda Clara Vieira; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Liebel, Sandra Mara Rodrigues da Silva; Neitzke-Abreu, Herintha Coeto; Reinhold-Castro, Kárin Rosi; Cristovão, Edilson Colhera; Teodoro, Ueslei

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genetic study of sandfly populations needs to be further explored given the importance of these insects for public health. Were sequenced the NDH4 mitochondrial gene from populations of Nyssomyia neivai from Doutor Camargo, Lobato, Japira, and Porto Rico, municipalities in the State of Paraná, Brazil, to understand the genetic structure and gene flow. Eighty specimens of Ny. Neivai were sequenced, 20 from each municipality, and 269 base pairs were obtained. A total of 27 haplotypes and 28 polymorphic sites were found, along with a haplotypic diversity of 0.80696 and a nucleotide diversity of 0.00567. Haplotype H5, with 33 specimens, was the most common among the four populations. Only haplotypes H5 and H7 were present in all four populations. The population from Doutor Camargo showed the highest genetic diversity, and only this population shared haplotypes with those from the other municipalities. The highest number of haplotypes was sheared with Lobato which also had the highest number of unique haplotypes. This probably occurred because of constant anthropic changes that happened in the environment during the first half of the twentieth century, mainly after 1998. There was no significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances regarding these populations. However, the highest genetic and geographical distances, and the lowest gene flow were observed between Japira and Porto Rico. Geographical distance is a possible barrier between these municipalities through the blocking of haplotype sharing. PMID:28380111

  10. Analyzing the interaction between state tax incentives and the federal production tax credit for wind power

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Gagliano, Troy

    2002-09-01

    This study analyzes the potential impact of state tax incentives on the federal production tax credit (PTC) for large-scale wind power projects. While the federal PTC provides critical support to wind plants in the U.S., its so-called ''double-dipping'' provisions may also diminish the value of - or make ineffectual - certain types of state wind power incentives. In particular, if structured the wrong way, state assistance programs will undercut the value of the federal PTC to wind plant owners. It is therefore critical to determine which state incentives reduce the federal PTC, and the magnitude of this reduction. Such knowledge will help states determine which wind power incentives can be the most effective. This research concludes that certain kinds of state tax incentives are at risk of reducing the value of the federal PTC, but that federal tax law and IRS rulings are not sufficiently clear to specify exactly what kinds of incentives trigger this offset. State investment tax credits seem most likely to reduce federal PTC payments; the impact of state production tax credits as well as state property and sales tax incentives is more uncertain. Further IRS rulings will be necessary to gain clarity on these issues. State policymakers can seek such guidance from the IRS. While the IRS may not issue a definitive ''revenue ruling'' on requests from state policymakers, the IRS has in the past been willing to provide general information letters that can provide non-binding clarification on these matters. Private wind power developers, meanwhile, may seek guidance through ''private letter'' rulings.

  11. Mapping spatial patterns of stream power and channel change along a gravel-bed river in northern Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, Devin M.

    Stream power represents the rate of energy expenditure along a river and can be calculated using topographic data acquired via remote sensing or field surveys. This study used remote sensing and GIS tools along with field data to quantitatively relate temporal changes in the form of Soda Butte Creek, a gravel-bed river in northeastern Yellowstone National Park, to stream power gradients along an 8 km reach. Aerial photographs from 1994-2012 and cross-section surveys were used to develop a locational probability map and morphologic sediment budget to assess lateral channel mobility and changes in net sediment flux. A drainage area-to-discharge relationship and digital elevation model (DEM) developed from light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data were used to obtain the discharge and slope values needed to calculate stream power. Local and lagged relationships between mean stream power gradient at median peak discharge and volumes of erosion, deposition, and net sediment flux were quantified via spatial cross-correlation analyses. Similarly, autocorrelations of locational probabilities and sediment fluxes were used to examine spatial patterns of sediment sources and sinks. Energy expended above critical stream power was calculated for each time period to relate the magnitude and duration of peak flows to the total volumetric change in each time increment. Results indicated a lack of strong correlation between stream power gradients and sediment response, highlighting the geomorphic complexity of Soda Butte Creek and the inability of relatively simple statistical approaches to link sub-budget cell-scale sediment dynamics to larger-scale driving forces such as stream power gradients. Improving the moderate spatial resolution techniques used in this study and acquiring very-high resolution data from recently developed methods in fluvial remote sensing could help improve understanding of the spatial organization of stream power, sediment transport, and channel change in

  12. Mapping Spatial Distributions of Stream Power and Channel Change along a Gravel-Bed River in Northern Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, D. M.; Legleiter, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Stream power represents the rate of energy expenditure along a river and can be calculated using topographic data acquired via remote sensing. This study used remotely sensed data and field measurements to quantitatively relate temporal changes in the form of Soda Butte Creek, a gravel-bed river in northeastern Yellowstone National Park, to stream power gradients along an 8 km reach. Aerial photographs from 1994-2012 and cross-section surveys were used to assess lateral channel mobility and develop a morphologic sediment budget for quantifying net sediment flux for a series of budget cells. A drainage area-to-discharge relationship and digital elevation model (DEM) developed from LiDAR data were used to obtain the discharge and slope values, respectively, needed to calculate stream power. Local and lagged relationships between mean stream power gradient at median peak discharge and volumes of erosion, deposition, and net sediment flux were quantified via spatial cross-correlation analyses. Similarly, autocorrelations of locational probabilities and sediment fluxes were used to examine spatial patterns of channel mobility and sediment transfer. Energy expended above critical stream power was calculated for each time period to relate the magnitude and duration of peak flows to the total volume of sediment eroded or deposited during each time increment. Our results indicated a lack of strong correlation between stream power gradients and sediment flux, which we attributed to the geomorphic complexity of the Soda Butte Creek watershed and the inability of our relatively simple statistical approach to link sediment dynamics expressed at a sub-budget cell scale to larger-scale driving forces such as stream power gradients. Future studies should compare the moderate spatial resolution techniques used in this study to very-high resolution data acquired from new fluvial remote sensing technologies to better understand the amount of error associated with stream power

  13. Abrupt State Change in Spatially-Patterned Subalpine Forests in Northern Colorado During the Medieval Climate Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, W. J.; Shuman, B. N.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial patterns in many ecosystems arise from feedbacks associated with the potential for critical transitions and multiple stable states. Such systems may be susceptible to abrupt change, which could be indicated by early-warning signals, such as critical slowing down (increasingly long recovery from perturbation as a threshold approaches). Paleoecological data from ribbon forests, a type of subalpine parkland found in the Rocky Mountains, offer an opportunity to test these hypotheses. The forests consist of alternating strips of forest and meadow that form because bands of Picea and Abies trees act as snow fences with large snowdrifts forming on their lee sides. Drifts provide moisture for the adjacent trees, but also increase seedling mortality and shorten the growing season where drifts accumulate. The feedbacks between forest growth and snow accumulation maintain the ribbon forest-meadow pattern, and raise the potential for abrupt change if the feedbacks breakdown in response to factors like drought or fire. Our fossil pollen data from Summit Lake, located on the Continental Divide in the Park Range, northern Colorado, indicate that a closed forest transitioned rapidly to a ribbon forest state at ca. 1000 BP. Artemisia pollen increased (20 to 35%) and Picea and Abies pollen decreased (25 to 15%) within a century or less after a pair of charcoal peaks. Decreased charcoal influx (from 0.6 to 0.4 pieces/cm2/yr) and fire frequency (from 4.5 to 1.5 fires/ka) coincided with the pollen assemblage changes, and is consistent with decreased landscape biomass and fuel connectivity. Initial analyses show evidence of critical slowing down before the state change. After eight of eleven fires recorded by peaks in charcoal accumulation, Artemisia pollen percentages rise to a peak consistent with brief opening of the initially forested landscape. After 2000 BP, the magnitude and duration of the post-fire changes increases until no recovery is recorded after the shift at 1000

  14. Molecular characterization of sickle cell anemia in the Northern Brazilian state of Pará.

    PubMed

    De Lemos Cardoso, Greice; Guerreiro, João Farias

    2010-01-01

    To assess alpha+-thalassemia deletion alleles, beta-thalassemia mutations and haplotypes linked to the HBB*S cluster in a sample of 130 unrelated sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients (55% female) from Belém, Pará State, for their possible effects on the patients' survival. -alpha(3.7), -alpha(42), -alpha(20.5), and -(MED) alpha+-thalassemia deletion alleles were investigated using multiplex gap-PCR method. Characterization of beta-thalassemia mutations was made by direct genomic sequencing of the beta-globin gene amplified through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Haplotypes were determined by analysis of six polymorphic restriction sites [(1) XmnI-5'gammaG, (2) HindIII-gammaG, (3) HindIII-gammaA, (4) HincII-psibeta, (5) HincII-3'psibeta, and (6) HinfI-5'beta] followed by restriction digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis. Twenty-one patients (16%) presented -alpha3.7 thalassemia. Sixteen of those (76%) were heterozygous (-alpha3.7/alphaalpha) and 5 (24%) were homozygous (-alpha3.7/-alpha3.7). -Alpha(4.2), -alpha(20.5) and -(MED) deletions were not found. Nine cases of sickle cell-beta thalassemia were found and four different beta-thal mutations were identified: beta(+) -88 (C>T), 3.8%; beta(+) codon 24 (T > A), 1.5%; beta(+) IVSI-110 (G > A), 0.7% and beta (IVSI-1 (G > A), 0.7%. No differences according to age were observed in -alpha(3.7) deletion, beta-thalassemia and HHB*S haplotypes distribution. Our results suggest that although alpha- and beta-thalassemia and betaS haplotypes may have modulating effect on clinical expression and hematological parameters of SCA, these genetic variables probably have little influence on the subjects' survival.

  15. Determinants of routine immunization coverage in Bungudu, Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria, May 2010

    PubMed Central

    Gidado, Saheed; Nguku, Patrick; Biya, Oladayo; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Nsubuga, Peter; Akpan, Henry; Oyemakinde, Akin; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Suleman, Idris; Abanida, Emmanuel; Musa, Yusuf; Sabitu, Kabir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Immunization is a cost-effective public health intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. The Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey of 2008 indicated that only 5.4% of children aged 12-23 months in Bungudu, Zamfara State were fully immunized. We conducted this study to identify the determinants of routine immunization coverage in this community. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study. We sampled 450 children aged 12-23 months. We interviewed mothers of these children using structured questionnaire to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on immunization, vaccination status of children and reasons for non-vaccination. We defined a fully immunized child as a child who had received one dose of BCG, three doses of oral polio vaccine, three doses of Diptheria-Pertusis-Tetanus vaccine and one dose of measles vaccine by 12 months of age. We performed bivariate analysis and logistic regression using Epi-info software. Results The mean age of mothers and children were 27 years (standard error (SE): 0.27 year) and 17 months (SE: 0.8 month) respectively. Seventy nine percent of mothers had no formal education while 84% did not possess satisfactory knowledge on immunization. Only 7.6% of children were fully immunized. Logistic regression showed that possessing satisfactory knowledge (Adjusted OR=18.4, 95% CI=3.6-94.7) and at least secondary education (Adjusted OR=3.6, 95% CI=1.2-10.6) were significantly correlated with full immunization. Conclusion The major determinants of immunization coverage were maternal knowledge and educational status. Raising the level of maternal knowledge and increasing maternal literacy level are essential to improve immunization coverage in this community. PMID:25328628

  16. Determinants of routine immunization coverage in Bungudu, Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria, May 2010.

    PubMed

    Gidado, Saheed; Nguku, Patrick; Biya, Oladayo; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Nsubuga, Peter; Akpan, Henry; Oyemakinde, Akin; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Suleman, Idris; Abanida, Emmanuel; Musa, Yusuf; Sabitu, Kabir

    2014-01-01

    Immunization is a cost-effective public health intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. The Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey of 2008 indicated that only 5.4% of children aged 12-23 months in Bungudu, Zamfara State were fully immunized. We conducted this study to identify the determinants of routine immunization coverage in this community. We conducted a cross-sectional study. We sampled 450 children aged 12-23 months. We interviewed mothers of these children using structured questionnaire to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on immunization, vaccination status of children and reasons for non-vaccination. We defined a fully immunized child as a child who had received one dose of BCG, three doses of oral polio vaccine, three doses of Diptheria-Pertusis-Tetanus vaccine and one dose of measles vaccine by 12 months of age. We performed bivariate analysis and logistic regression using Epi-info software. The mean age of mothers and children were 27 years (standard error (SE): 0.27 year) and 17 months (SE: 0.8 month) respectively. Seventy nine percent of mothers had no formal education while 84% did not possess satisfactory knowledge on immunization. Only 7.6% of children were fully immunized. Logistic regression showed that possessing satisfactory knowledge (Adjusted OR=18.4, 95% CI=3.6-94.7) and at least secondary education (Adjusted OR=3.6, 95% CI=1.2-10.6) were significantly correlated with full immunization. The major determinants of immunization coverage were maternal knowledge and educational status. Raising the level of maternal knowledge and increasing maternal literacy level are essential to improve immunization coverage in this community.

  17. Remote Sensing of Climatic Anomalies and West Nile Virus Incidence in the Northern Great Plains of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ting-Wu; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    The northern Great Plains (NGP) of the United States has been a hotspot of West Nile virus (WNV) incidence since 2002. Mosquito ecology and the transmission of vector-borne disease are influenced by multiple environmental factors, and climatic variability is an important driver of inter-annual variation in WNV transmission risk. This study applied multiple environmental predictors including land surface temperature (LST), the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and actual evapotranspiration (ETa) derived from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products to establish prediction models for WNV risk in the NGP. These environmental metrics are sensitive to seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in temperature and precipitation, and are hypothesized to influence mosquito population dynamics and WNV transmission. Non-linear generalized additive models (GAMs) were used to evaluate the influences of deviations of cumulative LST, NDVI, and ETa on inter-annual variations of WNV incidence from 2004–2010. The models were sensitive to the timing of spring green up (measured with NDVI), temperature variability in early spring and summer (measured with LST), and moisture availability from late spring through early summer (measured with ETa), highlighting seasonal changes in the influences of climatic fluctuations on WNV transmission. Predictions based on these variables indicated a low WNV risk across the NGP in 2011, which is concordant with the low case reports in this year. Environmental monitoring using remote-sensed data can contribute to surveillance of WNV risk and prediction of future WNV outbreaks in space and time. PMID:23071656

  18. Remote sensing of climatic anomalies and West Nile virus incidence in the northern Great Plains of the United States.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ting-Wu; Wimberly, Michael C

    2012-01-01

    The northern Great Plains (NGP) of the United States has been a hotspot of West Nile virus (WNV) incidence since 2002. Mosquito ecology and the transmission of vector-borne disease are influenced by multiple environmental factors, and climatic variability is an important driver of inter-annual variation in WNV transmission risk. This study applied multiple environmental predictors including land surface temperature (LST), the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and actual evapotranspiration (ETa) derived from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products to establish prediction models for WNV risk in the NGP. These environmental metrics are sensitive to seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in temperature and precipitation, and are hypothesized to influence mosquito population dynamics and WNV transmission. Non-linear generalized additive models (GAMs) were used to evaluate the influences of deviations of cumulative LST, NDVI, and ETa on inter-annual variations of WNV incidence from 2004-2010. The models were sensitive to the timing of spring green up (measured with NDVI), temperature variability in early spring and summer (measured with LST), and moisture availability from late spring through early summer (measured with ETa), highlighting seasonal changes in the influences of climatic fluctuations on WNV transmission. Predictions based on these variables indicated a low WNV risk across the NGP in 2011, which is concordant with the low case reports in this year. Environmental monitoring using remote-sensed data can contribute to surveillance of WNV risk and prediction of future WNV outbreaks in space and time.

  19. Mercury contamination in farmed fish setup on former garimpo mining areas in the Northern Mato Grosso State, Amazonian region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Farias, R A; Hacon, S; Campos, R C; Argento, R

    2005-09-15

    The garimpo gold mining activity has released about 2.500 tons of mercury in the Brazilian Amazonian environment in the 1980-1995 period. The northern region of Mato Grosso State, an important gold mining and trading area during the Amazonian gold rush is now at a turning point regarding its economic future. Nowadays, the activities related to gold mining have only a low relevance on its economy. Thus, the local communities are looking for economic alternatives for the development of the region. Cooperative fish farming is one of such alternatives. However, some projects are directly implemented on areas degraded by the former garimpo activity and the mercury left behind still poses risks, especially by its potential accumulation in fish. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the levels of mercury contamination in two fish farming areas, Paranaíta and Alta Floresta, with and without records of past gold-washing activity, respectively. Data such as mercury concentration in fish of different trophic level, size, and weight as well as the water physical and chemical parameters were measured and considered. These preliminary data have shown no significant difference between these two fish farming areas, relatively to mercury levels in fish.

  20. [American cutaneous leishmaniasis on the northern coastline of the State of São Paulo, 1993 to 2005].

    PubMed

    Condino, Maria Lúcia Fadel; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Holcman, Márcia Moreira; Salum, Maria Rafaela Braga; Silva, Diogo Correa da; Novaes Júnior, René Antonio

    2008-01-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis acquired epidemic characteristics on the northern coastline of the State of São Paulo beginning in the 1990s. From secondary data, a descriptive study of the disease in the four municipalities making up this region over the period from 1993 to 2005 was conducted. The frequency of phlebotomine capture in the probable transmission locations was analyzed. 689 autochthonous cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were notified, with single and grouped cases, thus determining that the spatial distribution was heterogenous. There was synchronism and cyclicity of disease manifestation, at intervals of six to eight years. All ages were affected, with slight predominance among males, without association with any specific occupation. Among the 2,758 phlebotomines captured, Nyssomyia intermedia predominated (80.4%) inside homes and in areas surrounding them. The disease presented a transmission profile inside homes and in areas surrounding them, between the urban fringe and forests, and inside forests. In such cases, transmission would be more related to enzootic foci.

  1. Phenolic substance characterization and chemical and cell-based antioxidant activities of 11 lentils grown in the northern United States.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2010-02-10

    Chemical and cellular antioxidant activities and phenolic profiles of 11 lentil cultivars grown in the cool northern parts of the United States were investigated. Individual phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavones, and anthocyanins, were further quantitatively investigated by HPLC. Cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PRSC) were evaluated by fluorescence microplate reader. Cultivar Morton exhibited the highest individual flavan-3-ols (catechin and epicatechin) and total flavonoids, as well as the highest antioxidant properties (PRSC and CAA) among all lentils tested. Five phenolic acids of the benzoic types and their derivates (gallic, protocatechuic, 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and protocatechualdehyde) and four phenolic acids of the cinnamic type (chlorogenic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric, and sinapic acid) were detected in all lentil cultivars. Two flavan-3-ols [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin] and one flavone (luteolin) were detected in all lentil cultivars. Among all phenolic compounds detected, sinapic acid was the predominant phenolic acid, and (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin were the predominant flavonoids. These results showed that different phenotype lentils possessed considerable variations in their individual phenolic compounds, as well as chemical and cellular antioxidant activities. Caffeic acid, catechin, epicatechin, and total flavonoids significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with peroxyl radical scavenging assay. Cellular antioxidant assay significantly correlated with chemical antioxidant assay ORAC. The results from this study could be very interesting for breeding programs to improve lentils for use as functional foods.

  2. Making european-style community wind power development work in theUnited States

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A.

    2004-04-26

    Once primarily a European phenomenon, community wind power development--defined here as one or more locally owned, utility-scale wind turbines interconnected on either the customer or utility side of the meter--is gaining a foothold in an increasing number of states throughout the United States. This article describes the various policies and incentives that Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Massachusetts are using to support community wind power development, and how state and federal support influences the types of projects and ownership structures that are being developed. Experience in these states demonstrates that, with an array of incentives and creative financing schemes targeted at community-scale projects, there are opportunities to make community wind work in the United States.

  3. Load flow and state estimation algorithms for three-phase unbalanced power distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madvesh, Chiranjeevi

    Distribution load flow and state estimation are two important functions in distribution energy management systems (DEMS) and advanced distribution automation (ADA) systems. Distribution load flow analysis is a tool which helps to analyze the status of a power distribution system under steady-state operating conditions. In this research, an effective and comprehensive load flow algorithm is developed to extensively incorporate the distribution system components. Distribution system state estimation is a mathematical procedure which aims to estimate the operating states of a power distribution system by utilizing the information collected from available measurement devices in real-time. An efficient and computationally effective state estimation algorithm adapting the weighted-least-squares (WLS) method has been developed in this research. Both the developed algorithms are tested on different IEEE test-feeders and the results obtained are justified.

  4. Occupational radiation exposure at nuclear power plants in Japan and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Imahori, A.

    1983-01-01

    The annual statistical summaries of occupational exposures at nuclear power plants in Japan and the United States are compiled by reactor type for the years 1970 to 1980. The trends of occupational exposures at nuclear power plants in both countries are similar in many respects. Individual doses have been well controlled below the occupational dose limit (0.05 Sv/yr), but the collective doses (man-sieverts) have been increasing with plant age, especially in boiling-water reactors. Most of the occupational exposure at nuclear power plants is incurred during maintenance activities rather than routine operation; so the annual collective dose per unit of electric output is in inverse proportion to the annual plant capacity factor. An estimate of the cancer risk for the total number of workers exposed at commercial nuclear power plants in 1980 is fewer than ten hypothetical radiation-induced cancer deaths in the United States and fewer than three in Japan.

  5. Current State and Future Prospect of Applications of Elliptic Function to Electric Power Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Haruka; Watanabe, Kazuo

    The paper deals with the current state and future prospect of applications of elliptic function to the electric power and energy field. In particular, practical use of conformal mapping technology by elliptic function are introduced for electric power cables. Returning to Riemann's basic principle “thinking instead of calculation”, against the main current of numerical calculation, we have a new understanding of elliptic function analysis for the usefulness and the beautiful with simplicity and elegance.

  6. Improving Reliability of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays for Pumping Solid State Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, Nathaniel R.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Baggott, Renee S.; Lockard, George E.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Most Lidar applications rely on moderate to high power solid state lasers to generate the required transmitted pulses. However, the reliability of solid state lasers, which can operate autonomously over long periods, is constrained by their laser diode pump arrays. Thermal cycling of the active regions is considered the primary reason for rapid degradation of the quasi-CW high power laser diode arrays, and the excessive temperature rise is the leading suspect in premature failure. The thermal issues of laser diode arrays are even more drastic for 2-micron solid state lasers which require considerably longer pump pulses compared to the more commonly used pump arrays for 1-micron lasers. This paper describes several advanced packaging techniques being employed for more efficient heat removal from the active regions of the laser diode bars. Experimental results for several high power laser diode array devices will be reported and their performance when operated at long pulsewidths of about 1msec will be described.

  7. Approach for power scaling solid-state lasers with intracavity motion.

    PubMed

    Eckold, Matthew; Mackenzie, Jacob I; Clarkson, W Andrew

    2017-02-15

    Solid-state lasers are typically limited by adverse thermal effects within the gain medium. In this Letter we describe a new method for dramatically reducing thermal effects in an end-pumped solid-state laser by incorporating a rotating intracavity periscope in the resonator to spatially separate the lasing and thermal processes. In contrast with previous examples of moving solid-state lasers, our approach keeps the gain medium stationary, simplifying the heat removal arrangement. This scheme has been applied to an Nd:YAG laser, yielding an output power of 120 W at 1.064 μm, limited by available pump power. Analysis suggests that scaling to much higher power is feasible with the appropriate laser design.

  8. Shelf-edge sedimentary systems off Rio de Janeiro State, northern Santos basin-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maia, R. M. C.; Dos Reis, A. T.; Gorini, C.; Silva, C. G.; Rabineau, M.; Granjeon, D.

    2012-04-01

    The sedimentary record of the continental shelf off Rio de Janeiro State is related to the opening and evolution of Atlantic Ocean. The combined analysis of high resolution seismic acquired in the early 80's (Geomar cruises) and 2D seismic lines of petroleum industry, coupled with chronostratigraphic data from oil industry's exploratory wells, allowed us to observe two different orders of sequences: of 3-4th order, that represents sedimentary units related of the Milankovitch cycles (100/40/20ky), and of 2nd order (10-100my). High resolution seismic allowed us to outline a first architectural framework for the actual shelf that is composed of stacked seismic units making up the major seismic sequences bounded by angular unconformities. According to the intern and extern configuration of their clinoforms, the seismic sequences were grouped into two distinctive stratigraphic sets, identified as Set I (Pliocene) and Set II (Upper Quaternary). Some architectural components of note include: (1) the characteristic upbuilt-outbuilt geometry of sequences that compose Set I (SqA, SqB and SqC), indicating that deposition has probably been favoured by a combination of prevailing subsidence regime (upbuilt pattern) accompanied by forced regressive deposits (outbuilt pattern); (2) the majority of sequences that make up Set II outbuilts as a composite seaward-thickening progradational wedge formed under dominant forced regression conditions, implying that the generation of accommodation space was less important than during the build-up of Set I. However, these sequences consistently pinch out in a progressively landward direction, suggesting a prevailing and increasing subsidence regime able to induce the progressive seaward tilting of the margin during the middle-late Pleistocene, and the subsequent partial preservation of regressive sequences of about 100-200 m thick at the level of the present-day mid-shelf, that prograded seaward for circa 15-25 km. These architectural

  9. The impact of a hydroelectric power plant on the sediment load in downstream water bodies, Svartisen, northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Bogen, J; Bønsnes, T E

    2001-02-05

    When the Svartisen hydroelectric power plant was put into operation, extensive sediment pollution was observed in the downstream fjord area. This paper discusses the impact of the power plant and the contribution from various sources of sediment. Computation of the sediment load was based on samples collected one to four times per day. Grain size distribution analyses of suspended sediments were carried out and used as input in a routing model to study the movement of sediments through the system. Suspended sediment delivered to the fjord before the power station was constructed was measured as 8360 metric tons as an annual mean for a 12-year period. During the years 1995-1996 when the power plant was operating, the total suspended load through the power station was measured as 32609 and 30254 metric tons, respectively. Grain size distribution analyses indicate a major change in the composition of the sediments from 9% clay before the power plant was operative to 50-60% clay afterwards. This change, together with the increase in sediment load, is believed to be one of the main causes of the drastic reduction in secchi depths in the fjord. The effect of the suspended sediment load on the fjord water turbidity was evaluated by co-plotting secchi depth and power station water discharge. Measurements during 1995 and 1996 showed that at the innermost of these locations the water failed to attain the minimum requirement of 2 m secchi depth. In later years secchi depths were above the specified level. In 1997 and 1998 the conditions improved. At the more distal locality, the conditions were acceptable with only a few exceptions. A routing model was applied to data acquired at a location 2 km from the power station in order to calculate the contributions from various sediment sources. This model indicated that the contribution from reservoir bed erosion dominated in 1994 but decreased significantly in 1995. Future operation of the power station will mostly take place with

  10. 134Cs and 137Cs activities in coastal seawater along Northern Sanriku and Tsugaru Strait, northeastern Japan, after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Kofuji, H; Hamajima, Y; Nagao, S; Yoshida, K; Yamamoto, M

    2012-09-01

    A total of 37 seawater samples were collected at 10 sites along the coastline of the Northern Sanriku and Tsugaru Strait, 250-450 km north of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in April-December 2009 and May-June 2011, and analyzed for (134)Cs and (137)Cs activities using low-background γ-spectrometry. The (134)Cs and (137)Cs activities measured in these samples in May 2011 were found to be 2-3 mBq/L and 2.5-4 mBq/L, respectively. By June, these values had decreased by 25-45%/month and 5-30%/month, respectively. These results can be plausibly explained by surface infusion of these isotopes into the sea by atmospheric transport from Fukushima and their subsequent reduction by water migration to off-shore and deeper regions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Potential for efficient frequency conversion at high average power using solid state nonlinear optical materials

    SciTech Connect

    Eimerl, D.

    1985-10-28

    High-average-power frequency conversion using solid state nonlinear materials is discussed. Recent laboratory experience and new developments in design concepts show that current technology, a few tens of watts, may be extended by several orders of magnitude. For example, using KD*P, efficient doubling (>70%) of Nd:YAG at average powers approaching 100 KW is possible; and for doubling to the blue or ultraviolet regions, the average power may approach 1 MW. Configurations using segmented apertures permit essentially unlimited scaling of average power. High average power is achieved by configuring the nonlinear material as a set of thin plates with a large ratio of surface area to volume and by cooling the exposed surfaces with a flowing gas. The design and material fabrication of such a harmonic generator are well within current technology.

  12. Analyzing the power coupled between partially coherent waveguide fields in different states of coherence.

    PubMed

    Withington, Stafford; Yassin, Ghassan

    2002-07-01

    A procedure is described for calculating the power coupled between partially coherent waveguide fields that are in different states of coherence. The method becomes important when it is necessary to calculate the power transferred from a distributed source S to a distributed load L through a length of multimode metallic, or dielectric, waveguide. It is shown that if the correlations between the transverse components of the electric and magnetic fields of S and L are described by coherence matrices M and M', respectively, then the normalized average power coupled between them is (eta) = Tr[MM']/Tr[M]Tr[M'], where Tr denotes the trace. When the modal impedances are equal, this expression for the coupled power reduces to an equation derived in a previous paper [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 3061 (2001)], by use of thermodynamic arguments, for the power coupled between partially coherent free-space beams.

  13. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (2008 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Kreycik, Claire; Friedman, Barry

    2009-09-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to buy electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. In the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering 'green power' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from renewable energy marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets or offering renewable energy certificates (RECs) online. Today, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, while all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States including utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. These sections are followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The final section offers conclusions and observations.

  14. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (2008 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Kreycik, C.; Friedman, B.

    2009-09-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to buy electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. In the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering 'green power' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from renewable energy marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets or offering renewable energy certificates (RECs) online. Today, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, while all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States including utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. These sections are followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The final section offers conclusions and observations.

  15. System-state and operating condition sensitive control method and apparatus for electric power delivery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, III, William Wesley (Inventor); Wilson, Thomas George (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a method and apparatus for determining a precise switching sequence for the power switching elements of electric power delivery systems of the on-off switching type and which enables extremely fast transient response, precise regulation and highly stable operation. The control utilizes the values of the power delivery system power handling network components, a desired output characteristic, a system timing parameter, and the externally imposed operating conditions to determine where steady state operations should be in order to yield desired output characteristics for the given system specifications. The actual state of the power delivery system is continuously monitored and compared to a state-space boundary which is derived from the desired equilibrium condition, and from the information obtained from this comparison, the system is moved to the desired equilibrium condition in one cycle of switching control. Since the controller continuously monitors the power delivery system's externally imposed operating conditions, a change in the conditions is immediately sensed and a new equilibrium condition is determined and achieved, again in a single cycle of switching control.

  16. Northern Basin and Range Ecoregion: Chapter 23 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soulard, Christopher E.

    2012-01-01

    The Northern Basin and Range Ecoregion (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997) is located in eastern Oregon (58.7 percent), northern Nevada (20.6 percent), southwestern Idaho (14.8 percent), and northeastern California (5.9 percent), encompassing the northern extent of the hydrographic Great Basin (Grayson, 1993). The ecoregion, which covers approximately 110,039 km² (42,486 mi²) of land, is bordered on the west by the Eastern Cascades Slopes and Foothills and the Sierra Nevada Ecoregions, on the north by the Blue Mountains and the Snake River Basin Ecoregions, and on the south by the Central Basin and Range Ecoregion (fig. 1). Much like the other Basin and Range ecoregions in the western United States (for example, Central Basin and Range, Mojave Basin and Range, and Sonoran Basin and Range Ecoregions), the Northern Basin and Range Ecoregion is characterized by basin-and-range topography. The ecoregion contains several wide basins bordered by scattered low mountains. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), the predominant vegetation, is intermixed with grasslands. Despite regional aridity, natural springs and spring-fed wetlands are scattered around the landscape, sustaining much of the region’s wildlife (Oregon Department of State Lands, 2000).

  17. Auditory Power-Law Activation Avalanches Exhibit a Fundamental Computational Ground State.

    PubMed

    Stoop, Ruedi; Gomez, Florian

    2016-07-15

    The cochlea provides a biological information-processing paradigm that we are only beginning to understand in its full complexity. Our work reveals an interacting network of strongly nonlinear dynamical nodes, on which even a simple sound input triggers subnetworks of activated elements that follow power-law size statistics ("avalanches"). From dynamical systems theory, power-law size distributions relate to a fundamental ground state of biological information processing. Learning destroys these power laws. These results strongly modify the models of mammalian sound processing and provide a novel methodological perspective for understanding how the brain processes information.

  18. Auditory Power-Law Activation Avalanches Exhibit a Fundamental Computational Ground State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoop, Ruedi; Gomez, Florian

    2016-07-01

    The cochlea provides a biological information-processing paradigm that we are only beginning to understand in its full complexity. Our work reveals an interacting network of strongly nonlinear dynamical nodes, on which even a simple sound input triggers subnetworks of activated elements that follow power-law size statistics ("avalanches"). From dynamical systems theory, power-law size distributions relate to a fundamental ground state of biological information processing. Learning destroys these power laws. These results strongly modify the models of mammalian sound processing and provide a novel methodological perspective for understanding how the brain processes information.

  19. Pump power stability range of single-mode solid-state lasers with rod thermal lensing

    SciTech Connect

    De Silvestri, S.; La Porta, P.; Magni, V.

    1987-11-01

    The pump power stability range of solid-state laser resonators operating in the TEM/sub 00/ mode has been thoroughly investigated. It has been shown that, for a very general resonator containing intracavity optical systems, rod thermal lensing engenders a pump power stability range which is a characteristic parameter of laser material and pump cavity, but is independent of resonator configuration. Stability ranges have been calculated and critically discussed for Nd:YAG, Nd:Glasses, Nd:Cr:GSGG, and alexandrite. The independence of the pump power stability range from the resonator configuration has been experimentally demonstrated for a CW Nd:YAG laser.

  20. Effectiveness of US state policies in reducing CO2 emissions from power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Don; Bergstrand, Kelly; Running, Katrina

    2014-11-01

    President Obama's landmark initiative to reduce the CO2 emissions of existing power plants, the nation's largest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) pollutants, depends heavily on states and their ability to devise policies that meet the goals set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Under the EPA's proposed Clean Power Plan, states will be responsible for cutting power plants' carbon pollution 30% from 2005 levels by 2030. States have already adopted several policies to reduce the electricity sector's climate impact. Some of these policies focus on reducing power plants' CO2 emissions, and others address this outcome in a more roundabout fashion by encouraging energy efficiency and renewable energy. However, it remains unclear which, if any, of these direct and indirect strategies actually mitigate plants' emissions because scholars have yet to test their effects using plant-level emission data. Here we use a newly released data source to determine whether states' policies significantly shape individual power plants' CO2 emissions. Findings reveal that certain types of direct strategy (emission caps and GHG targets) and indirect ones (public benefit funds and electric decoupling) lower plants' emissions and thus are viable building blocks of a federal climate regime.

  1. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report; Seventh Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2004-09-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering ''green power'' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent both from utilities and in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, more than 50% of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. This report provides an overview of green power marketing activity in the United States. The first section provides an overview of green power markets, consumer response, and recent industry trends. Section 2 provides brief descriptions of the utility green pricing programs available nationally. Section 3 describes companies that actively market green power in competitive markets and those that market renew able energy certificates nationally or regionally. The last section provides information on a select number of large, nonresidential green power purchasers, including governmental agencies, universities, and businesses.

  2. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Eighth Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2005-10-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied by renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering "green power" options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from utilities and in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, more than 50% of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. This report provides an overview of green power marketing activity in the United States. The first section provides an overview of green power markets, consumer response, and recent industry trends. The second section provides brief descriptions of utility green pricing programs. The third section describes companies that actively market green power in competitive markets and those that market renewable energy certificates nationally or regionally. The final section provides information on a select number of large, nonresidential green power purchasers, including businesses, universities, and government agencies.

  3. Climate change impacts on thermoelectric-power generation in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.

    2015-12-01

    Thermoelectric-power generation accounts for more than 70% of the total electricity generation in the United States, which requires large amounts of water for cooling purposes. Water withdrawals for thermoelectric-power generation accounted for 45% of total water use in the United States in 2010. Across the country, water demand from power plants is increasing due to pressures from growing populations and other needs, and is straining existing water resources. Moreover, temperature exceedance in receiving waters has increasingly caused power plants shut downs across parts of the country. Thermoelectric power is vulnerable to climate change owing to the combined effects of lower summer river flows and higher receiving water temperatures. In addition, the efficiency of production is reduced as air temperature rises, which propagates to more unfulfilled power demand during peak seasons. Therefore, a holistic modeling framework of water-energy-climate for the contiguous U.S. is presented here to quantify thermal output from power plants and estimate water use and energy production fluctuations due to ambient climate as well as environmental regulations. The model is calibrated on a plant-by-plant basis for year 2010 and 2011 using the available power plant inventory from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Simulations were carried out for years 2012 and 2013, and results show moderate improvements in capturing thermal output variabilities after calibration. Future power plant operations under scenarios featuring different climate and regulatory settings were investigated. Results demonstrate the interplay among water, energy and climate, and that future changes in climate and socioeconomics significantly affect power plant operations, which may provide insights to climate change mitigation considerations and energy decisions.

  4. A weight modification sequential method for VSC-MTDC power system state estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Hao; Li, Qiang; Guo, Ziming; Zhao, Kun; Li, Xinpeng; Han, Feng

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents an effective sequential approach based on weight modification for VSC-MTDC power system state estimation, called weight modification sequential method. The proposed approach simplifies the AC/DC system state estimation algorithm through modifying the weight of state quantity to keep the matrix dimension constant. The weight modification sequential method can also make the VSC-MTDC system state estimation calculation results more ccurate and increase the speed of calculation. The effectiveness of the proposed weight modification sequential method is demonstrated and validated in modified IEEE 14 bus system.

  5. The Use of Large Transparent Ceramics in a High Powered, Diode Pumped Solid State Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, R; Bhachu, B; Cutter, K; Fochs, S; Letts, S; Parks, C; Rotter, M; Soules, T

    2007-09-24

    The advent of large transparent ceramics is one of the key enabling technological advances that have shown that the development of very high average power compact solid state lasers is achievable. Large ceramic neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) amplifier slabs are used in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Solid State Heat Capacity Laser (SSHCL), which has achieved world record average output powers in excess of 67 kilowatts. We will describe the attributes of using large transparent ceramics, our present system architecture and corresponding performance; as well as describe our near term future plans.

  6. Ka-Band Wide-Bandgap Solid-State Power Amplifier: Prototype Combiner Spurious Mode Suppression and Power Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, P.; Epp, L.

    2006-02-01

    Results of prototype hardware activities related to a 120-W, 32-GHz (Ka-band) solid-state power amplifier (SSPA) architecture study are presented. Spurious mode suppression and the power-handling capability of a prototype 24-way radial combiner and a prototype 2-way septum binary combiner were investigated. Experimental data indicate that a commercial absorptive filter, designed to pass the circular TE_01 mode, effectively suppressed the higher-order modes generated by a narrowband, flower-petal-type mode transducer. However, the same filter was not effective in suppressing higher-order modes generated by the broadband Marie mode transducer that is used in the prototype waveguide radial combiner. Should greater filtering be required by a particular SSPA application, a broadband mode filter that can suppress specifically those higher-order modes that are generated by the Marie transducer will need to be developed. A back-to-back configuration of the prototype radial combiner was tested with drive power up to approximately 50 W. No anomalous behavior was observed. Power measurements of the septum combiner indicate that up to 10-W radio frequency (RF) can be dissipated in the integrated resistive element before a permanent performance shift is observed. Thus, a given adder (a single-stage, 2-way combiner) can safely combine two 20-W sources, and the adder will not be damaged in the event of a source failure. This result is used to calculate the maximum source power that can be safely combined as a function of the number of sources combined and the number of source failures allowed in a multi-stage combiner. The analysis shows that SSPA power greater than 140 W can be generated by power combining 16 sources producing 10 W each. In this configuration, up to three sources could fail with the guarantee that the combiner would not be damaged. Finally, a modified prototype septum combiner design was verified. The improved design reduced the assembly time from over 2 hours

  7. Ka-Band Wide-Bandgap Solid-State Power Amplifier: Prototype Combiner Spurious Mode Suppression and Power Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, P.; Epp, L.

    2006-01-01

    Results of prototype hardware activities related to a 120-W, 32-GHz (Ka-band) solid-state power amplifier (SSPA) architecture study are presented. Spurious mode suppression and the power-handling capability of a prototype 24-way radial combiner and a prototype 2-way septum binary combiner were investigated. Experimental data indicate that a commercial absorptive filter, designed to pass the circular TE01 mode, effectively suppressed the higher-order modes generated by a narrowband, flower-petal-type mode transducer. However, the same filter was not effective in suppressing higher-order modes generated by the broadband Marie mode transducer that is used in the prototype waveguide radial combiner. Should greater filtering be required by a particular SSPA application, a broadband mode filter that can suppress specifically those higher-order modes that are generated by the Marie transducer will need to be developed. A back-to-back configuration of the prototype radial combiner was tested with drive power up to approximately 50 W. No anomalous behavior was observed. Power measurements of the septum combiner indicate that up to 10-W radio frequency (RF) can be dissipated in the integrated resistive element before a permanent performance shift is observed. Thus, a given adder (a single-stage, 2-way combiner) can safely combine two 20-W sources, and the adder will not be damaged in the event of a source failure. This result is used to calculate the maximum source power that can be safely combined as a function of the number of sources combined and the number of source failures allowed in a multi-stage combiner. The analysis shows that SSPA power >140 W can be generated by power combining 16 sources producing 10 W each. In this configuration, up to three sources could fail with the guarantee that the combiner would not be damaged. Finally, a modified prototype septum combiner design was verified. The improved design reduced the assembly time from over 2 hours to about 15

  8. What are northern hardwoods?

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    The term "northern hardwoods" was used in the early 1900's to separate the hardwoods of the northern region from those growing in the South. With continued usage in the North the term now represents all dense hardwood species both in the Lake States and Northeast. Unfortunately, this has complicated describing and applying silvicultural practices for...

  9. Graph states of prime-power dimension from generalized CNOT quantum circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Zhou, D. L.

    2016-06-01

    We construct multipartite graph states whose dimension is the power of a prime number. This is realized by the finite field, as well as the generalized controlled-NOT quantum circuit acting on two qudits. We propose the standard form of graph states up to local unitary transformations and particle permutations. The form greatly simplifies the classification of graph states as we illustrate up to five qudits. We also show that some graph states are multipartite maximally entangled states in the sense that any bipartition of the system produces a bipartite maximally entangled state. We further prove that 4-partite maximally entangled states exist when the dimension is an odd number at least three or a multiple of four.

  10. Graph states of prime-power dimension from generalized CNOT quantum circuit

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Zhou, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    We construct multipartite graph states whose dimension is the power of a prime number. This is realized by the finite field, as well as the generalized controlled-NOT quantum circuit acting on two qudits. We propose the standard form of graph states up to local unitary transformations and particle permutations. The form greatly simplifies the classification of graph states as we illustrate up to five qudits. We also show that some graph states are multipartite maximally entangled states in the sense that any bipartition of the system produces a bipartite maximally entangled state. We further prove that 4-partite maximally entangled states exist when the dimension is an odd number at least three or a multiple of four. PMID:27272401

  11. Graph states of prime-power dimension from generalized CNOT quantum circuit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Zhou, D L

    2016-06-07

    We construct multipartite graph states whose dimension is the power of a prime number. This is realized by the finite field, as well as the generalized controlled-NOT quantum circuit acting on two qudits. We propose the standard form of graph states up to local unitary transformations and particle permutations. The form greatly simplifies the classification of graph states as we illustrate up to five qudits. We also show that some graph states are multipartite maximally entangled states in the sense that any bipartition of the system produces a bipartite maximally entangled state. We further prove that 4-partite maximally entangled states exist when the dimension is an odd number at least three or a multiple of four.

  12. Characterization of the fly ashes from the lignite burning power plants of northern Greece based on their quantitative mineralogical composition.

    PubMed

    Kostakis, G

    2009-07-30

    In the present work, mineralogical analysis of fly ashes produced from the brown coal burning power plants of Agios Dimitrios, Kardia, Ptolemais, LIPTOL, Amynteon, and Achlada-Meliti (Western Macedonia, Greece) was performed, with the aim of characterizing the ashes on the basis of their quantitative mineral phase composition and asses their variability at different time periods. The fly ashes from the Agios Dimitrios, Kardia, and Ptolemais power plants were found to have nearly the same mineralogical composition, consisting mainly of feldspars, lime, anhydrite, quartz, calcium silicates, and high amounts of amorphous phases. The fly ashes from Amynteon were slightly different, having lower content of lime and higher content of feldspars, whilst those from LIPTOL had a relative variable quantitative composition. The fly ashes from the Meliti-Achlada power plant consisted mainly of amorphous phases (very high amounts), mullite, feldspars, and quartz. The mineralogical composition of the ashes produced in all the power plants, except from these of LIPTOL, did not fluctuate significantly over time. An assessment of the hydraulic (cementitious) or pozzolanic character of the ashes is proposed, introducing the use of triangle diagrams A-B-C, which represent the total fraction of the phases with hydraulic or pozzolanic (A), inert (B) character, and the amorphous phases (C).

  13. Distributing Power Grid State Estimation on HPC Clusters A System Architecture Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yan; Jiang, Wei; Jin, Shuangshuang; Rice, Mark J.; Chen, Yousu

    2012-08-20

    The future power grid is expected to further expand with highly distributed energy sources and smart loads. The increased size and complexity lead to increased burden on existing computational resources in energy control centers. Thus the need to perform real-time assessment on such systems entails efficient means to distribute centralized functions such as state estimation in the power system. In this paper, we present our early prototype of a system architecture that connects distributed state estimators individually running parallel programs to solve non-linear estimation procedure. The prototype consists of a middleware and data processing toolkits that allows data exchange in the distributed state estimation. We build a test case based on the IEEE 118 bus system and partition the state estimation of the whole system model to available HPC clusters. The measurement from the testbed demonstrates the low overhead of our solution.

  14. Modeling the Impacts of Geomagnetic Disturbances on the New York State Power Transmission System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouedraogo, D.; Castillo, O. L.; Mohamed, A.; Damas, M. C.; Ngwira, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Our society today relies heavily on electricity in order to meet its essential basic needs. However, to meet the rising demands for this energy, all power companies require smooth and efficient delivery of services to the consumers. The US power grid is a complex electrical apparatus that has well known sensitivities to space weather disturbances. Events produced by space weather includes solar storms or geomagnetic disturbances [GMD]. The propagation of such events in the direction of Earth perturbs the electric currents in the magnetosphere and the ionosphere, causing a unique effect known as a Geomagnetically Induced Current [GIC]. GICs are known to saturate and overheat transformers in the power grid, threatening the safe operation of the power system. A GMD induces a geoelectric field in high-voltage and extra high-voltage transmission circuits. This geoelectric field represents electromotive force, and causes GICs to circulate through transmission circuits and transformers. Power models are being developed using MATLAB/Simulink® software to simulate the propagation of GIC flows in a power system, while using New York State (NYS) power transmission network as an example. We will present results of the models used to assess the impacts of possible GMD strikes on the various parts of the power network.

  15. On Death Ground: Why Weak States Resist Great Powers Explaining Coercion Failure in Asymmetric Interstate Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    complements. States often approach conflicts with mixed strategies, combining both non-military and military policies. States have long adopted sanctions...concede to the issue at stake. In mixed strategies, inducements are the "carrots" of a "stick and carrot" strategy employed to sweeten a deal. The...taking objectives by brute force. The record for Great Power outcomes in asymmetric conflicts is mixed . While it has employed coercive strategies in 75

  16. Parasitological examination for presence of hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) at Año Nuevo State Reserve, California (2012).

    PubMed

    Lyons, E T; Kuzmina, T A; Spraker, T R; Jaggi, N; Costa, D P; Crocker, D E; Tolliver, S C; Tift, M S

    2012-10-01

    Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris Gill, 1866), inhabiting rookeries on the mainland of Año Nuevo State Reserve in central California, were investigated in 2012 for presence of hookworms (Uncinaria spp.). Material collected and examined for hookworms included: blubber (n = 15), stomach and intestines (n = 21) from dead pups; feces from the rectum of weaned pups (n = 23); sand containing apparent feces in areas of weaned pups (n = 28) and sand without apparent feces in areas of weaned pups (n = 54); milk from females (n =23) at 5 days and about 23 to 26 days postpartum; and placenta from one female. Evidence of hookworm presence was not detected in any of the samples examined. Possible reasons why hookworms were not found in northern elephant seals on the mainland of Año Nuevo State Reserve are discussed.

  17. Gender difference in early initiation of methamphetamine use among current methamphetamine users in Muse, Northern Shan State, Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Saw, Yu Mon; Saw, Thu Nandar; Yasuoka, Junko; Chan, Nyein; Kham, Nang Pann Ei; Khine, Wint; Cho, Su Myat; Jimba, Masamine

    2017-05-08

    Globally, methamphetamine (MA) use is a significant public health concern due to unprecedented health effects of its use. However, gender similarities and differences in early age of MA initiation and its risk factors among current MA users have been understudied in a developing country setting. A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted using a computer assisted self-interviewing program from January to March 2013 in Muse, Northern Shan State, Myanmar. A total of 1362 (775 male and 587 female) self-reported current MA users aged between 18 and 35 years were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Two gender-stratified multiple logistic regression models (models I and II) were done for analysis. For similarities, 73.0% of males and 60.5% of females initiated MA before their 18th birthday. The early age of MA initiation was positively associated with the reasons and places of the first time MA use among both genders. For differences, males [hazard ratio 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.54] had a significantly higher risk than females to initiate MA at earlier age. Among male users, participants who had bisexual/homosexual preferences were more likely to initiate MA use earlier. In contrast, female users who exchanged sex for money and/or drugs were more likely to initiate MA in earlier age. More than 60.0% of male and female participants initiated MA use early; however, males initiated use earlier than females. Although similarities were found among both genders, differences found in key risk factors for early age MA initiation suggest that gender-specific, MA prevention programs are urgently needed in Myanmar.

  18. Improved performance of high average power semiconductor arrays for applications in diode pumped solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.; Emanuel, M.; Benett, W.; Freitas, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Carlson, N.; Sutton, S.; Skidmore, J.; Solarz, R.

    1994-01-01

    The average power performance capability of semiconductor diode laser arrays has improved dramatically over the past several years. These performance improvements, combined with cost reductions pursued by LLNL and others in the fabrication and packaging of diode lasers, have continued to reduce the price per average watt of laser diode radiation. Presently, we are at the point where the manufacturers of commercial high average power solid state laser systems used in material processing applications can now seriously consider the replacement of their flashlamp pumps with laser diode pump sources. Additionally, a low cost technique developed and demonstrated at LLNL for optically conditioning the output radiation of diode laser arrays has enabled a new and scalable average power diode-end-pumping architecture that can be simply implemented in diode pumped solid state laser systems (DPSSL`s). This development allows the high average power DPSSL designer to look beyond the Nd ion for the first time. Along with high average power DPSSL`s which are appropriate for material processing applications, low and intermediate average power DPSSL`s are now realizable at low enough costs to be attractive for use in many medical, electronic, and lithographic applications.

  19. High power diode pumped solid state laser development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Solarz, R.; Albrecht, G.; Hackel, L.

    1994-03-01

    The authors recent developments in high powered diode pumped solid state lasers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Over the past year the authors have made continued improvements to semiconductor pump array technology which includes the development of higher average power and lower cost pump modules. They report the performance of high power AlGaAs, InGaAs, and AlGaInP arrays. They also report on improvement to the integrated micro-optics designs in conjunction with lensing duct technology which gives rise to very high performance end pumping designs for solid state lasers which have major advantages which they detail. Substantial progress on beam quality improvements to near the diffraction limit at very high power have also been made and will be reported. They also will discuss recent experiments on high power non-linear materials for q-switches, harmonic converters, and parametric oscillators. Advances in diode pumped devices at LLNL which include tunable Cr:LiSrAlF{sub 6}, mid-IR Er:YAG, holmium based lasers and other developments will also be outlined. Concepts for delivering up to 30 kilowatts of average power from a DPSSL oscillator will be described.

  20. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Ninth Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2006-11-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied by renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering ''green power'' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, more than half of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. Currently, more than 600 utilities, or about 20% of utilities nationally, offer green power programs to customers. These programs allow customers to purchase some portion of their power supply as renewable energy--almost always at a higher price--or to contribute funds for the utility to invest in renewable energy development. The term ''green pricing'' is typically used to refer to these utility programs offered in regulated or noncompetitive electricity markets. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States.

  1. Testing the Waters. Duke Power State Park: An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhinehart, William C.; Beazley, Lea J.

    This learning packet, one in a group of eight, was developed by the Duke Power State Park in North Carolina for Grades 4-6 to learn to identify macroinvertebrates found in Lake Norman. Loose-leaf pages are presented in nine sections that contain: (1) introductions to the North Carolina State Park System, the Duke Power State Park, the park's…

  2. Negotiating power relations, gender equality, and collective agency: are village health committees transformative social spaces in northern India?

    PubMed

    Scott, Kerry; George, Asha S; Harvey, Steven A; Mondal, Shinjini; Patel, Gupteswar; Sheikh, Kabir

    2017-09-15

    Participatory health initiatives ideally support progressive social change and stronger collective agency for marginalized groups. However, this empowering potential is often limited by inequalities within communities and between communities and outside actors (i.e. government officials, policymakers). We examined how the participatory initiative of Village Health, Sanitation, and Nutrition Committees (VHSNCs) can enable and hinder the renegotiation of power in rural north India. Over 18 months, we conducted 74 interviews and 18 focus groups with VHSNC members (including female community health workers and local government officials), non-VHSNC community members, NGO staff, and higher-level functionaries. We observed 54 VHSNC-related events (such as trainings and meetings). Initial thematic network analysis supported further examination of power relations, gendered "social spaces," and the "discourses of responsibility" that affected collective agency. VHSNCs supported some re-negotiation of intra-community inequalities, for example by enabling some women to speak in front of men and perform assertive public roles. However, the extent to which these new gender dynamics transformed relations beyond the VHSNC was limited. Furthermore, inequalities between the community and outside stakeholders were re-entrenched through a "discourse of responsibility": The comparatively powerful outside stakeholders emphasized community responsibility for improving health without acknowledging or correcting barriers to effective VHSNC action. In response, some community members blamed peers for not taking up this responsibility, reinforcing a negative collective identity where participation was futile because no one would work for the greater good. Others resisted this discourse, arguing that the VHSNC alone was not responsible for taking action: Government must also intervene. This counter-narrative also positioned VHSNC participation as futile. Interventions to strengthen

  3. Ecology and management of oak and associated woodlands: Perspectives in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The report includes three listings of research and management needs in the woodlands of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The first two provide an historical perspective to current efforts within the woodlands; the third listing represents suggestions and recommendations made by the participants at the 1992 symposium. Topics in the present listing are grouped under several broadly defined headings, such as general ecology, tree regeneration, mass production, wildlife, fire, hydrology and watershed management, social concerns, inventory and monitoring, and management.

  4. 12 CFR 1.110 - Taxing powers of a State or political subdivision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of 12 U.S.C. 24 (Seventh). Nevertheless, an obligation that is primarily payable from a fund... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Taxing powers of a State or political subdivision. 1.110 Section 1.110 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  5. 12 CFR 1.110 - Taxing powers of a State or political subdivision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of 12 U.S.C. 24 (Seventh). Nevertheless, an obligation that is primarily payable from a fund... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Taxing powers of a State or political subdivision. 1.110 Section 1.110 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  6. 78 FR 39279 - United States Department of Energy; Bonneville Power Administration; Notice of Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 126 (Monday, July 1, 2013)] [Notices] [Pages 39279-39280] [FR Doc No: 2013-15665] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. NJ13-10-000] United States Department of Energy; Bonneville Power Administration; Notice of Petition for...

  7. 77 FR 21764 - United States Department of Energy and Bonneville Power Administration; Notice of Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission United States Department of Energy and Bonneville Power Administration; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on March 29, 2012, pursuant to sections...

  8. Incorporation of wind generation to the Mexican power grid: Steady state analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tovar, J.H.; Guardado, J.L.; Cisneros, F.; Cadenas, R.; Lopez, S.

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes a steady state analysis related with the incorporation of large amounts of eolic generation into the Mexican power system. An equivalent node is used to represent individual eolic generators in the wind farm. Possible overloads, losses, voltage and reactive profiles and estimated severe contingencies are analyzed. Finally, the conclusions of this study are presented.

  9. High power, high efficiency, 2D laser diode arrays for pumping solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, A.; McShea, J.C.; Bogdan, A.R.; Petheram, J.C.; Rosen, A.

    1987-11-01

    This document reports the current performance of 2D laser diode arrays operating at 770 nm and 808 nm for pumping promethium and neodymium solid state lasers, respectively. Typical power densities are in excess of 2kw/cm/sup 2/ with overall efficiencies greater than 30%.

  10. Preliminary power train design for a state-of-the-art electric vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mighdoll, P.; Hahn, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    Power train designs which can be implemented within the current state-of-the-art were identified by means of a review of existing electric vehicles and suitable off-the-shelf components. The affect of various motor/transmission combinations on vehicle range over the SAE J227a schedule D cycle was evaluated. The selected, state-of-the-art power train employs a dc series wound motor, SCR controller, variable speed transmission, regenerative braking, drum brakes and radial ply tires. Vehicle range over the SAE cycle can be extended by approximately 20% by the further development of separately excited, shunt wound DC motors and electrical controllers. Approaches which could improve overall power train efficiency, such as AC motor systems, are identified. However, future emphasis should remain on batteries, tires and lightweight structures if substantial range improvements are to be achieved.

  11. Increasing the resilience and security of the United States' power infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Happenny, Sean F.

    2015-08-01

    The United States' power infrastructure is aging, underfunded, and vulnerable to cyber attack. Emerging smart grid technologies may take some of the burden off of existing systems and make the grid as a whole more efficient, reliable, and secure. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funding research into several aspects of smart grid technology and grid security, creating a software simulation tool that will allow researchers to test power infrastructure control and distribution paradigms by utilizing different smart grid technologies to determine how the grid and these technologies react under different circumstances. Understanding how these systems behave in real-world conditions will lead to new ways to make our power infrastructure more resilient and secure. Demonstrating security in embedded systems is another research area PNNL is tackling. Many of the systems controlling the U.S. critical infrastructure, such as the power grid, lack integrated security and the aging networks protecting them are becoming easier to attack.

  12. Entropy-power uncertainty relations: towards a tight inequality for all Gaussian pure states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertz, Anaelle; Jabbour, Michael G.; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2017-09-01

    We show that a proper expression of the uncertainty relation for a pair of canonically-conjugate continuous variables relies on entropy power, a standard notion in Shannon information theory for real-valued signals. The resulting entropy-power uncertainty relation is equivalent to the entropic formulation of the uncertainty relation due to Bialynicki-Birula and Mycielski, but can be further extended to rotated variables. Hence, based on a reasonable assumption, we give a partial proof of a tighter form of the entropy-power uncertainty relation taking correlations into account and provide extensive numerical evidence of its validity. Interestingly, it implies the generalized (rotation-invariant) Schrödinger-Robertson uncertainty relation exactly as the original entropy-power uncertainty relation implies Heisenberg relation. It is saturated for all Gaussian pure states, in contrast with hitherto known entropic formulations of the uncertainty principle.

  13. Resting state EEG power, intra-hemisphere and inter-hemisphere coherence in bipolar disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, Nita; Khotimah, S. N.; Haryanto, F.; Arif, I.; Taruno, Warsito P.

    2017-02-01

    This paper examines the differences of EEG power and coherence between bipolar disorder patients and healthy subjects in the resting state. Observations are focused on the prefrontal cortex area by calculating intra-hemisphere and inter-hemisphere coherence. EEG data acquisition are conducted by using wireless Emotiv Epoc on AF3, AF4, FC5, FC6, F7 and F8 channels. The power spectral analysis shows that in bipolar disoder there is an increase of power in the delta, theta and beta frequencies, and power decrease in the alpha frequency. The coherence test results show that both intra-hemisphere and inter-hemisphere coherence in bipolar disorder patients are lower than healthy subjects. This shows the lack of brain synchronization in bipolar disorder patients.

  14. Risk of hematological malignancies associated with magnetic fields exposure from power lines: a case-control study in two municipalities of northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Some epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between electromagnetic field exposure induced by high voltage power lines and childhood leukemia, but null results have also been yielded and the possibility of bias due to unmeasured confounders has been suggested. Methods We studied this relation in the Modena and Reggio Emilia municipalities of northern Italy, identifying the corridors along high voltage power lines with calculated magnetic field intensity in the 0.1-<0.2, 0.2-<0.4, and ≥ 0.4 microTesla ranges. We identified 64 cases of newly-diagnosed hematological malignancies in children aged <14 within these municipalities from 1986 to 2007, and we sampled four matched controls for each case, collecting information on historical residence and parental socioeconomic status of these subjects. Results Relative risk of leukemia associated with antecedent residence in the area with exposure ≥ 0.1 microTesla was 3.2 (6.7 adjusting for socioeconomic status), but this estimate was statistically very unstable, its 95% confidence interval being 0.4-23.4, and no indication of a dose-response relation emerged. Relative risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia was 5.3 (95% confidence interval 0.7-43.5), while there was no increased risk for the other hematological malignancies. Conclusions Though the number of exposed children in this study was too low to allow firm conclusions, results were more suggestive of an excess risk of leukemia among exposed children than of a null relation. PMID:20353586

  15. Comparison of Standards and Technical Requirements of Grid-Connected Wind Power Plants in China and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, David Wenzhong; Muljadi, Eduard; Tian, Tian; Miller, Mackay; Wang, Weisheng

    2016-09-01

    The rapid deployment of wind power has made grid integration and operational issues focal points in industry discussions and research. Compliance with grid connection standards for wind power plants (WPPs) is crucial to ensuring the reliable and stable operation of the electric power grid. This report compares the standards for grid-connected WPPs in China to those in the United States to facilitate further improvements in wind power standards and enhance the development of wind power equipment. Detailed analyses of power quality, low-voltage ride-through capability, active power control, reactive power control, voltage control, and wind power forecasting are provided to enhance the understanding of grid codes in the two largest markets of wind power. This study compares WPP interconnection standards and technical requirements in China to those in the United States.

  16. Evolutions in Water Withdrawal and Consumption Factors for Thermoelectric Power Plants in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Bielicki, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate estimation of the water withdrawal and consumption rates by thermoelectric power plants is important for water resources management, planning of new electricity generation capacity additions, and understanding potential water stress on agricultural systems. But estimates of water demand by power plants are limited by the availability of temporally resolved and high quality data and are influenced by numerous aspects of the climate, cooling technology, and energy technology. In 2010, the U.S. thermoelectric power sector accounted for about 45% of the total water withdrawal—the largest end-use sector for water withdrawal in the country—but withdrawal and consumption rates are evolving with the popularity of recirculating cooling systems and fuel switching from coal to natural gas. We used data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration to derive monthly water withdrawal and consumption factors for thermoelectric power plants across the United States from 2010 to 2014 and combined that data with information on power plant design, location, and cooling systems from various sources and previous annual datasets. We developed and applied a model that relates the water use factors to cooling system designs, intake water sources, power generation technologies, boiler efficiencies, and weather conditions. We present our analysis of the factors that influence the inter-power plant, seasonal, and inter-annual variability in water-use factors and provide lessons for electricity capacity planning and regional water availability for other uses, including agriculture.

  17. Online design of an echo state network based wide area monitor for a multimachine power system.

    PubMed

    Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh K

    2007-04-01

    With deregulation and growth of the power industry, many power system elements such as generators, transmission lines, are driven to operate near their maximum capacity, especially those serving heavy load centres. Wide Area Controllers (WACs) using wide area or global signals can provide remote auxiliary control signals to local controllers such as automatic voltage regulators, power system stabilizers, etc. to damp out system oscillations. However, since the power system is highly nonlinear with fast changing dynamics, it is a challenging problem to design an online system monitor/estimator, which can provide dynamic intra-area and inter-area information such speed deviations of generators to an adaptive WAC continuously. This paper presents a new kind of recurrent neural networks, called the Echo State Network (ESN), for the online design of a Wide Area Monitor (WAM) for a multimachine power system. A single ESN is used to predict the speed deviations of four generators in two different areas. The performance of this ESN WAM is evaluated for small and large disturbances on the power system. Results for an ESN based WAM and a Time-Delayed Neural Network (TDNN)-based WAM are presented and compared. The advantages of the ESN WAM are that it learns the dynamics of the power system in a shorter training time with a higher accuracy and with considerably fewer weights to be adapted compared to the design-based on a TDNN.

  18. Climate Change Impacts on the Electric Power System in the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselka, T. D.; Botterud, A.; Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Poch, L. A.; Wang, J.

    2007-12-01

    Future climate change is projected to vary substantially across regions. Changes in regional temperature and precipitation patterns may have significant implications on our existing and future power system infrastructure. In this paper, we use results from regional climate models to examine the impacts of projected changes in temperature and precipitation on the development and operations of the power system in the Western United States. We study three scenarios to evaluate potential effects of climate change on the electricity demand as well as on the power supply side. Impacts are measured in terms of changes in investment requirements, fuel and generation mix, emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants, and thermal power water withdrawals and consumption. We also identify potential issues regarding the western transmission grid. Our methodology includes a long-term investment algorithm that takes into account interdependencies between hydroelectric, thermal power, and non-dispatchable resources, such as wind turbines. We also include temporal aspects associated with hydropower energy constraints, wind variability, thermal power plant availability, and hourly load profiles. Thermal power plant availability and resulting generation and fuel consumption are based on maintenance outage schedules and a probabilistic dispatch algorithm that accounts for random forced outages. We conclude with some observations regarding the vulnerability of our electricity infrastructure to projected regional climate changes.

  19. Northern Trust Mines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The United States and the Navajo Nation entered into settlement agreements that provide funds to conduct investigations and any needed cleanup at 16 of the 46 priority mines, including six mines in the Northern Abandoned Uranium Mine Region.

  20. State of the art in high-power microwaves: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swegle, J.; Benford, J.

    1993-12-01

    In the two decades since the presentation of the first experimental results, the study of high-power microwaves (HPM) has aimed at the production of microwave pulses with ever higher peak power and ever larger energy content. Drawing on the electrical pulsed power and relativistic electron beam technologies, a mix of sources have produced power levels in excess of 1 GW and pulse energies of ten to a thousand joules in both the centimeter and millimeter wavelength ranges. The potential for military applications of such powerful bursts became a major driving force for substantial research programs, and considerable advancements, in the United States and the former Soviet Union. The end of the Cold War and a reexamination of national priorities has diminished the momentum of military HPM development in these countries. Nevertheless, the field hasn't reached its limits, in capability or applicability, and one sees at present a diffusion of the technology across national borders. As examples, one sees commitments in the UK, France, and China to national programs aimed at the exploration of the defensive capabilities of HPM. The purpose of this paper will be to examine the state of the art in HPM at this juncture. We will look at: (1) Peak power production; (2) Pulse energy production and the phenomenon of pulse shortening at high peak power levels; (3) Coherent phasing of multiple high-power sources; (4) Compact HPM source development; and (5) Repetitive operation of sources. We will also briefly mention some emerging applications and offer some concluding thoughts.

  1. Variability of Power from Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Scenarios in the State of Gujarat (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, B.; Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-04-01

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  2. Modulation of the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism on resting-state EEG power.

    PubMed

    Solís-Ortiz, Silvia; Pérez-Luque, Elva; Gutiérrez-Muñoz, Mayra

    2015-01-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met polymorphism impacts cortical dopamine (DA) levels and may influence cortical electrical activity in the human brain. This study investigated whether COMT genotype influences resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) power in the frontal, parietal and midline regions in healthy volunteers. EEG recordings were conducted in the resting-state in 13 postmenopausal healthy woman carriers of the Val/Val genotype and 11 with the Met/Met genotype. The resting EEG spectral absolute power in the frontal (F3, F4, F7, F8, FC3 and FC4), parietal (CP3, CP4, P3 and P4) and midline (Fz, FCz, Cz, CPz, Pz and Oz) was analyzed during the eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. The frequency bands considered were the delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1 and beta2. EEG data of the Val/Val and Met/Met genotypes, brain regions and conditions were analyzed using a general linear model analysis. In the individuals with the Met/Met genotype, delta activity was increased in the eyes-closed condition, theta activity was increased in the eyes-closed and in the eyes-open conditions, and alpha1 band, alpha2 band and beta1band activity was increased in the eyes-closed condition. A significant interaction between COMT genotypes and spectral bands was observed. Met homozygote individuals exhibited more delta, theta and beta1 activity than individuals with the Val/Val genotype. No significant interaction between COMT genotypes and the resting-state EEG regional power and conditions were observed for the three brain regions studied. Our findings indicate that the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism does not directly impact resting-state EEG regional power, but instead suggest that COMT genotype can modulate resting-state EEG spectral power in postmenopausal healthy women.

  3. Variability of Photovoltaic Power in the State of Gujarat Using High Resolution Solar Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Weekley, A.; Lopez, A.; Zhang, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Parsons, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-03-01

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  4. Variability of Power from Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Scenarios in the State of Gujarat: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, B.; Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-04-01

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  5. A stability analysis of the power-law steady state of marine size spectra.

    PubMed

    Datta, Samik; Delius, Gustav W; Law, Richard; Plank, Michael J

    2011-10-01

    This paper investigates the stability of the power-law steady state often observed in marine ecosystems. Three dynamical systems are considered, describing the abundance of organisms as a function of body mass and time: a "jump-growth" equation, a first order approximation which is the widely used McKendrick-von Foerster equation, and a second order approximation which is the McKendrick-von Foerster equation with a diffusion term. All of these yield a power-law steady state. We derive, for the first time, the eigenvalue spectrum for the linearised evolution operator, under certain constraints on the parameters. This provides new knowledge of the stability properties of the power-law steady state. It is shown analytically that the steady state of the McKendrick-von Foerster equation without the diffusion term is always unstable. Furthermore, numerical plots show that eigenvalue spectra of the McKendrick-von Foerster equation with diffusion give a good approximation to those of the jump-growth equation. The steady state is more likely to be stable with a low preferred predator:prey mass ratio, a large diet breadth and a high feeding efficiency. The effects of demographic stochasticity are also investigated and it is concluded that these are likely to be small in real systems.

  6. Amassing power in a northern landscape: J. B. Duke and the development of the Saguenay River, 1897-1927

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massell, David Perera

    Beginning at the turn of the century, Chapter One reconstructs the process by which the Provincial Government of Quebec sold--individually, outright, and cheaply--the waterfalls and rapids strung out along the length of the Saguenay River. The small-scale Canadian power projects stalled, however, for want of capital or power customers in a remote North American region. A major shift in developmental scale ensues in Chapter Two as a Canadian who owned riparian rights, Thomas "Carbide" Willson, uncorks a genie of American capital in industrialist J. B. Duke. While Duke was invited to participate in the Saguenay's development as a third party, Chapter Three describes how the aggressive New York trader seizes the entire length of the river for his exclusive use. Chapter Four recounts the unexpectedly stiff resistance to the industrial plans of Duke's lieutenants by a young French-Canadian engineer named Arthur Amos, head of Quebec's newly established Hydraulic Service. Stymied in Quebec City, Duke nonetheless proves remarkably agile in the broader theater of multinational enterprise. As Chapter Five documents, Duke succeeds in rounding up an array of industrial power customers to justify the enormous cost of his dams, most notably Delaware-based explosives manufacturer E. I du Pont de Nemours Powder Company. Ultimately Du Pont gets cold feet, and Duke's giant electrochemical scheme collapses around him at the end of 1915. Only after 1920, in Chapter Six, is Duke able to proceed with his project in a changed political and business climate of the postwar period. Contemplating aluminum manufacture by his own company, in Chapter Seven, he attempts to procure the requisite supply of high grade bauxite. But he encounters ferocious competition for possession of the essential raw material. Choosing to merge rather than fight, Duke and Alcoa's President Arthur Vining Davis ally in 1925. Their deal sealed, the two businessmen send their Canadian lawyer to Quebec City to sidestep

  7. Automatic Regionalization Algorithm for Distributed State Estimation in Power Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dexin; Yang, Liuqing; Florita, Anthony; Alam, S.M. Shafiul; Elgindy, Tarek; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-08-01

    The deregulation of the power system and the incorporation of generation from renewable energy sources recessitates faster state estimation in the smart grid. Distributed state estimation (DSE) has become a promising and scalable solution to this urgent demand. In this paper, we investigate the regionalization algorithms for the power system, a necessary step before distributed state estimation can be performed. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first investigation on automatic regionalization (AR). We propose three spectral clustering based AR algorithms. Simulations show that our proposed algorithms outperform the two investigated manual regionalization cases. With the help of AR algorithms, we also show how the number of regions impacts the accuracy and convergence speed of the DSE and conclude that the number of regions needs to be chosen carefully to improve the convergence speed of DSEs.

  8. Soft drink effects on sensorimotor rhythm brain computer interface performance and resting-state spectral power.

    PubMed

    Mundahl, John; Jianjun Meng; He, Jeffrey; Bin He

    2016-08-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems allow users to directly control computers and other machines by modulating their brain waves. In the present study, we investigated the effect of soft drinks on resting state (RS) EEG signals and BCI control. Eight healthy human volunteers each participated in three sessions of BCI cursor tasks and resting state EEG. During each session, the subjects drank an unlabeled soft drink with either sugar, caffeine, or neither ingredient. A comparison of resting state spectral power shows a substantial decrease in alpha and beta power after caffeine consumption relative to control. Despite attenuation of the frequency range used for the control signal, caffeine average BCI performance was the same as control. Our work provides a useful characterization of caffeine, the world's most popular stimulant, on brain signal frequencies and their effect on BCI performance.

  9. Aerobic and anaerobic power characteristics of competitive cyclists in the United States Cycling Federation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Bassett, D R; Swensen, T C; Sampedro, R M

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the aerobic and anaerobic capabilities of United States Cycling Federation cyclists in different categories. To determine aerobic and anaerobic power, 38 competitive road cyclists (32 males, 6 females) performed a VO2max test and a Wingate anaerobic test, respectively. Male cyclists in category II had the highest VO2max, both in absolute and relative terms. Their VO2max was 6% and 10% higher than category III and IV cyclists, respectively (4.98 +/- 0.14 vs 4.72 +/- 0.15 vs 4.54 +/- 0.12 l/min). A significant difference existed between category II and IV male cyclists (p < 0.05). VO2max for female cyclists (3.37 +/- 0.13 l/min) was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than those for males. The Wingate anaerobic test revealed that male cyclists in category II also had the highest anaerobic power output. The peak power output in category II, III and IV was 13.86 +/- 0.23, 13.55 +/- 0.25, and 12.80 +/- 0.41 W/kg, respectively. The mean power output in category II, III, and IV was 11.22 +/- 0.18, 11.06 +/- 0.15, and 10.40 +/- 0.30 W/kg, respectively. The difference in the mean power output between category II and IV was significant (p < 0.05). Female cyclists recorded significantly less peak and mean power output than their male counterparts (p < 0.05). However, when expressed relative to lean body mass, anaerobic power was similar for both sexes. No inter-correlation was found in any measurement between the aerobic and anaerobic power values. On the whole, category II male cyclists were characterized by higher aerobic and anaerobic power outputs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Notes on the Statistical Power of the Binary State Speciation and Extinction (BiSSE) Model

    PubMed Central

    Gamisch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The Binary State Speciation and Extinction (BiSSE) method is one of the most popular tools for investigating the rates of diversification and character evolution. Yet, based on previous simulation studies, it is commonly held that the BiSSE method requires phylogenetic trees of fairly large sample sizes (>300 taxa) in order to distinguish between the different models of speciation, extinction, or transition rate asymmetry. Here, the power of the BiSSE method is reevaluated by simulating trees of both small and large sample sizes (30, 60, 90, and 300 taxa) under various asymmetry models and root state assumptions. Results show that the power of the BiSSE method can be much higher, also in trees of small sample size, for detecting differences in speciation rate asymmetry than anticipated earlier. This, however, is not a consequence of any conceptual or mathematical flaw in the method per se but rather of assumptions about the character state at the root of the simulated trees and thus the underlying macroevolutionary model, which led to biased results and conclusions in earlier power assessments. As such, these earlier simulation studies used to determine the power of BiSSE were not incorrect but biased, leading to an overestimation of type-II statistical error for detecting differences in speciation rate but not for extinction and transition rates. PMID:27486297

  11. Link-state-estimation-based transmission power control in wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungku; Eom, Doo-Seop

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a novel transmission power control protocol to extend the lifetime of sensor nodes and to increase the link reliability in wireless body area networks (WBANs). We first experimentally investigate the properties of the link states using the received signal strength indicator (RSSI). We then propose a practical transmission power control protocol based on both short- and long-term link-state estimations. Both the short- and long-term link-state estimations enable the transceiver to adapt the transmission power level and target the RSSI threshold range, respectively, to simultaneously satisfy the requirements of energy efficiency and link reliability. Finally, the performance of the proposed protocol is experimentally evaluated in two experimental scenarios-body posture change and dynamic body motion-and compared with the typical WBAN transmission power control protocols, a real-time reactive scheme, and a dynamic postural position inference mechanism. From the experimental results, it is found that the proposed protocol increases the lifetime of the sensor nodes by a maximum of 9.86% and enhances the link reliability by reducing the packet loss by a maximum of 3.02%.

  12. Test-retest reliability of resting-state magnetoencephalography power in sensor and source space.

    PubMed

    Martín-Buro, María Carmen; Garcés, Pilar; Maestú, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported changes in spontaneous brain rhythms that could be used as clinical biomarkers or in the evaluation of neuropsychological and drug treatments in longitudinal studies using magnetoencephalography (MEG). There is an increasing necessity to use these measures in early diagnosis and pathology progression; however, there is a lack of studies addressing how reliable they are. Here, we provide the first test-retest reliability estimate of MEG power in resting-state at sensor and source space. In this study, we recorded 3 sessions of resting-state MEG activity from 24 healthy subjects with an interval of a week between each session. Power values were estimated at sensor and source space with beamforming for classical frequency bands: delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), low beta (13-20 Hz), high beta (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-45 Hz). Then, test-retest reliability was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). We also evaluated the relation between source power and the within-subject variability. In general, ICC of theta, alpha, and low beta power was fairly high (ICC > 0.6) while in delta and gamma power was lower. In source space, fronto-posterior alpha, frontal beta, and medial temporal theta showed the most reliable profiles. Signal-to-noise ratio could be partially responsible for reliability as low signal intensity resulted in high within-subject variability, but also the inherent nature of some brain rhythms in resting-state might be driving these reliability patterns. In conclusion, our results described the reliability of MEG power estimates in each frequency band, which could be considered in disease characterization or clinical trials. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Outlooks for Wind Power in the United States: Drivers and Trends under a 2016 Policy Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, Trieu; Lantz, Eric; Ho, Jonathan; Stehly, Tyler; Heimiller, Donna

    2016-12-01

    Over the past decade, wind power has become one of the fastest growing electricity generation sources in the United States. Despite this growth, the U.S. wind industry continues to experience year-to-year fluctuations across the manufacturing and supply chain as a result of dynamic market conditions and changing policy landscapes. Moreover, with advancing wind technologies, ever-changing fossil fuel prices, and evolving energy policies, the long-term future for wind power is highly uncertain. In this report, we present multiple outlooks for wind power in the United States, to explore the possibilities of future wind deployment. The future wind power outlooks presented rely on high-resolution wind resource data and advanced electric sector modeling capabilities to evaluate an array of potential scenarios of the U.S. electricity system. Scenario analysis is used to explore drivers, trends, and implications for wind power deployment over multiple periods through 2050. Specifically, we model 16 scenarios of wind deployment in the contiguous United States. These scenarios span a wide range of wind technology costs, natural gas prices, and future transmission expansion. We identify conditions with more consistent wind deployment after the production tax credit expires as well as drivers for more robust wind growth in the long run. Conversely, we highlight challenges to future wind deployment. We find that the degree to which wind technology costs decline can play an important role in future wind deployment, electric sector CO2 emissions, and lowering allowance prices for the Clean Power Plan.

  14. High-power and steady-state operation of ICRF heating in the large helical device

    SciTech Connect

    Mutoh, T. Seki, T.; Saito, K.; Kasahara, H.; Seki, R.; Kamio, S.; Kumazawa, R.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Ii, T.; Makino, R.; Nagaoka, K.; Nomura, G.; Shinya, T.

    2015-12-10

    Recent progress in an ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating system and experiment results in a Large Helical Device (LHD) are reported. Three kinds of ICRF antenna pairs were installed in the LHD, and the operation power regimes were extended up to 4.5 MW; also, the steady-state operation was extended for more than 45 min in LHD at a MW power level. We studied ICRF heating physics in heliotron configuration using a Hand Shake type (HAS) antenna, Field Aligned Impedance Transforming (FAIT) antenna, and Poloidal Array (PA) antenna, and established the optimum minority-ion heating scenario in an LHD. The FAIT antenna having a novel impedance transformer inside the vacuum chamber could reduce the VSWR and successfully injected a higher power to plasma. We tested the PA antennas completely removing the Faraday-shield pipes to avoid breakdown and to increase the plasma coupling. The heating performance was almost the same as other antennas; however, the heating efficiency was degraded when the gap between the antenna and plasma surface was large. Using these three kinds of antennas, ICRF heating could contribute to raising the plasma beta with the second- and third-harmonic cyclotron heating mode, and also to raising the ion temperature as discharge cleaning tools. In 2014, steady-state operation plasma with a line-averaged electron density of 1.2 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, ion and electron temperature of 2 keV, and plasma sustainment time of 48 min was achieved with ICH and ECH heating power of 1.2 MW for majority helium with minority hydrogen. In 2015, the higher-power steady-state operation with a heating power of up to 3 MW was tested with higher density of 3 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}.

  15. Resting-state EEG power and coherence vary between migraine phases.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zehong; Lin, Chin-Teng; Chuang, Chun-Hsiang; Lai, Kuan-Lin; Yang, Albert C; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2016-12-01

    Migraine is characterized by a series of phases (inter-ictal, pre-ictal, ictal, and post-ictal). It is of great interest whether resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) is differentiable between these phases. We compared resting-state EEG energy intensity and effective connectivity in different migraine phases using EEG power and coherence analyses in patients with migraine without aura as compared with healthy controls (HCs). EEG power and isolated effective coherence of delta (1-3.5 Hz), theta (4-7.5 Hz), alpha (8-12.5 Hz), and beta (13-30 Hz) bands were calculated in the frontal, central, temporal, parietal, and occipital regions. Fifty patients with episodic migraine (1-5 headache days/month) and 20 HCs completed the study. Patients were classified into inter-ictal, pre-ictal, ictal, and post-ictal phases (n = 22, 12, 8, 8, respectively), using 36-h criteria. Compared to HCs, inter-ictal and ictal patients, but not pre- or post-ictal patients, had lower EEG power and coherence, except for a higher effective connectivity in fronto-occipital network in inter-ictal patients (p < .05). Compared to data obtained from the inter-ictal group, EEG power and coherence were increased in the pre-ictal group, with the exception of a lower effective connectivity in fronto-occipital network (p < .05). Inter-ictal and ictal patients had decreased EEG power and coherence relative to HCs, which were "normalized" in the pre-ictal or post-ictal groups. Resting-state EEG power density and effective connectivity differ between migraine phases and provide an insight into the complex neurophysiology of migraine.

  16. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) as a Compliance Option under the Clean Power Plan: A Template and Policy Options for State Regulators

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-30

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is an important option for states to consider in developing strategies to meet their emission targets under the US Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. This Template is designed to highlight key issues that states should consider when evaluating whether CHP could be a meaningful component of their compliance plans. It demonstrates that CHP can be a valuable approach for reducing emissions and helping states achieve their targets. While the report does not endorse any particular approach for any state, and actual plans will vary dependent upon state-specific factors and determinations, it provides tools and resources that states can use to begin the process, and underscores the opportunity CHP represents for many states. . By producing both heat and electricity from a single fuel source, CHP offers significant energy savings and carbon emissions benefits over the separate generation of heat and power, with a typical unit producing electricity with half the emissions of conventional generation. These efficiency gains translate to economic savings and enhanced competitiveness for CHP hosts, and emissions reductions for the state, along with helping to lower electric bills; and creating jobs in the design, construction, installation and maintenance of equipment. In 2015, CHP represents 8 percent of electric capacity in the United States and provides 12 percent of total power generation. Projects already exist in all 50 states, but significant technical and economic potential remains. CHP offers a tested way for states to achieve their emission limits while advancing a host of ancillary benefits.

  17. Assessing and managing methylmercury risks associated with power plant mercury emissions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Charnley, Gail

    2006-03-09

    Until the Clean Air Mercury Rule was signed in March 2005, coal-fired electric utilities were the only remaining, unregulated major source of industrial mercury emissions in the United States. Proponents of coal-burning power plants assert that methylmercury is not a hazard at the current environmental levels, that current technologies for limiting emissions are unreliable, and that reducing mercury emissions from power plants in the United States will have little impact on environmental levels. Opponents of coal-burning plants assert that current methylmercury exposures from fish are damaging to the developing nervous system of infants, children, and the fetus; that current technology can significantly limit emissions; and that reducing emissions will reduce exposure and risk. One concern is that local mercury emissions from power plants may contribute to higher local exposure levels, or "hot spots." The impact of the Mercury Rule on potential hot spots is uncertain due to the highly site-specific nature of the relationship between plant emissions and local fish methylmercury levels. The impact on the primary source of exposure in the United States, ocean fish, is likely to be negligible due to the contribution of natural sources and industrial sources outside the United States. Another debate centers on the toxic potency of methylmercury, with the scientific basis of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) recommended exposure limit questioned by some and defended by others. It is likely that the EPA's exposure limit may be appropriate for combined exposure to methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but may be lower than the available data suggest is necessary to protect children from methylmercury alone. Mercury emissions from power plants are a global problem. Without a global approach to developing and implementing clean coal technologies, limiting US power plant emissions alone will have little impact.

  18. Solar Pumped Solid State Lasers for Space Solar Power: Experimental Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard L.; Carrington, Connie K.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Green, Jason J. A.; Laycock, Rustin L.

    2003-01-01

    We outline an experimentally based strategy designed to lead to solar pumped solid state laser oscillators useful for space solar power. Our method involves solar pumping a novel solid state gain element specifically designed to provide efficient conversion of sunlight in space to coherent laser light. Kilowatt and higher average power is sought from each gain element. Multiple such modular gain elements can be used to accumulate total average power of interest for power beaming in space, e.g., 100 kilowatts and more. Where desirable the high average power can also be produced as a train of pulses having high peak power (e.g., greater than 10(exp 10 watts). The modular nature of the basic gain element supports an experimental strategy in which the core technology can be validated by experiments on a single gain element. We propose to do this experimental validation both in terrestrial locations and also on a smaller scale in space. We describe a terrestrial experiment that includes diagnostics and the option of locating the laser beam path in vacuum environment. We describe a space based experiment designed to be compatible with the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) on the International Space Station (ISS). We anticipate the gain elements will be based on low temperature (approx. 100 degrees Kelvin) operation of high thermal conductivity (k approx. 100 W/cm-K) diamond and sapphire (k approx. 4 W/cm-K). The basic gain element will be formed by sequences of thin alternating layers of diamond and Ti:sapphire with special attention given to the material interfaces. We anticipate this strategy will lead to a particularly simple, robust, and easily maintained low mass modelocked multi-element laser oscillator useful for space solar power.

  19. Social Acceptance of Wind Power in the United States: Evaluating Stakeholder Perspectives (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.

    2009-05-01

    As the wind industry strives to achieve 20% wind energy by 2030, maintaining high levels of social acceptance for wind energy will become increasingly important. Wind Powering America is currently researching stakeholder perspectives in the U.S. market and reviewing findings from wind energy projects around the world to better understand social acceptance barriers. Results from European studies show that acceptance varies widely depending on local community values. A preliminary survey shows similar results in the United States. Further research will be conducted to refine our understanding of key social acceptance barriers and evaluate the best ways to mitigate negative perspectives on wind power.

  20. Joystick Control for Powered Mobility: Current State of Technology and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Dicianno, Brad E.; Cooper, Rory A.; Coltellaro, John

    2009-01-01

    Recent advancements in control interface technology have made the use of end devices such as power wheelchairs easier for individuals with disabilities, especially those with movement disorders. In this article, we discuss the current state of control interface technology and the devices available clinically for power wheelchair control. We also discuss our research on novel hardware and software approaches that are revolutionizing joystick interface technology and that allow more customizability for individual users with special needs and abilities. Finally, we discuss the future of control interfaces and what research gaps remain. PMID:19951779

  1. Joystick control for powered mobility: current state of technology and future directions.

    PubMed

    Dicianno, Brad E; Cooper, Rory A; Coltellaro, John

    2010-02-01

    Recent advancements in control interface technology have made the use of end devices such as power wheelchairs easier for individuals with disabilities, especially persons with movement disorders. In this article, we discuss the current state of control interface technology and the devices available clinically for power wheelchair control. We also discuss our research on novel hardware and software approaches that are revolutionizing joystick interface technology and allowing more customizability for individual users with special needs and abilities. Finally, we discuss the future of control interfaces and what research gaps remain.

  2. Wind power development in the United States: Effects of policies and electricity transmission congestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitaj, Claudia

    In this dissertation, I analyze the drivers of wind power development in the United States as well as the relationship between renewable power plant location and transmission congestion and emissions levels. I first examine the role of government renewable energy incentives and access to the electricity grid on investment in wind power plants across counties from 1998-2007. The results indicate that the federal production tax credit, state-level sales tax credit and production incentives play an important role in promoting wind power. In addition, higher wind power penetration levels can be achieved by bringing more parts of the electricity transmission grid under independent system operator regulation. I conclude that state and federal government policies play a significant role in wind power development both by providing financial support and by improving physical and procedural access to the electricity grid. Second, I examine the effect of renewable power plant location on electricity transmission congestion levels and system-wide emissions levels in a theoretical model and a simulation study. A new renewable plant takes the effect of congestion on its own output into account, but ignores the effect of its marginal contribution to congestion on output from existing plants, which results in curtailment of renewable power. Though pricing congestion removes the externality and reduces curtailment, I find that in the absence of a price on emissions, pricing congestion may in some cases actually increase system-wide emissions. The final part of my dissertation deals with an econometric issue that emerged from the empirical analysis of the drivers of wind power. I study the effect of the degree of censoring on random-effects Tobit estimates in finite sample with a particular focus on severe censoring, when the percentage of uncensored observations reaches 1 to 5 percent. The results show that the Tobit model performs well even at 5 percent uncensored observations

  3. Causes of death in preweaned northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris, Gill, 1866), Año Nuevo State Reserve, California, 2012.

    PubMed

    Spraker, Terry R; Lyons, Eugene T; Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Tift, Michael S; Raverty, Stephen; Jaggi, Nicole; Crocker, Daniel E

    2014-03-01

    During an ongoing physiological ecology study on pups and adult female northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris, Gill, 1866) on the mainland rookery at Año Nuevo State Reserve (California), an opportunity was afforded to collect fresh dead pups for parasitology and necropsy. The investigation was undertaken to delineate the causes of death of northern elephant seals recovered from Año Nuevo State Reserve. Prior to this study, there was no evidence of increased mortality or health problems on this rookery. Necropsies, histology, and ancillary diagnostic studies were conducted on 21 fresh dead preweaned pups. Ages ranged from 1 stillbirth to pups approximately 2 weeks of age. Gross lesions included varying degrees of bruising, hemorrhage, lacerations, and fractures attributed to blunt force trauma to the head, chest, and/or abdomen in 16 pups; starvation in 6 pups; bite wounds in 2 pups; generalized icterus in 2 pups; presumptive drowning in 2 pups; and 1 stillbirth. Most pups had multiple gross lesions. Following light microscopic examination, pups could be assigned into 4 general diagnostic categories: 1) trauma, 2) nutritional status, 3) infectious conditions, and 4) congenital anomalies. This investigation of preweaned pup mortality of northern elephant seals in California further refines diagnostic categories for perinatal pup mortality.

  4. Ka-Band Wide-Bandgap Solid-State Power Amplifier: Hardware Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, L.; Khan, P.; Silva, A.

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by recent advances in wide-bandgap (WBG) gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductor technology, there is considerable interest in developing efficient solid-state power amplifiers (SSPAs) as an alternative to the traveling-wave tube amplifier (TWTA) for space applications. This article documents proof-of-concept hardware used to validate power-combining technologies that may enable a 120-W, 40 percent power-added efficiency (PAE) SSPA. Results in previous articles [1-3] indicate that architectures based on at least three power combiner designs are likely to enable the target SSPA. Previous architecture performance analyses and estimates indicate that the proposed architectures can power combine 16 to 32 individual monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) with >80 percent combining efficiency. This combining efficiency would correspond to MMIC requirements of 5- to 10-W output power and >48 percent PAE. In order to validate the performance estimates of the three proposed architectures, measurements of proof-of-concept hardware are reported here.

  5. The power of being positive: Robust state estimation made possible by quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalev, Amir; Baldwin, Charles

    Quantum-state tomography (QST) is generally expensive to implement experimentally. Nevertheless, in state-of-the-art experiments in quantum information science the goal is not to produce arbitrary states but states that have very high purity. Including this prior information in QST results in more manageable tomography protocols. In the context of pure-state tomography, and more generally, of bounded-rank states (states with rank <= r) tomography, a natural notion of informational completeness emerges, rank- r completeness. The purpose of this contribution is two fold. First, to prove and emphasize the significance of a less intuitive, yet more powerful, notion of completeness for practical QST, rank- r strict-completeness. This notion is made possible due to the positive semidefinite property of density matrices. Strictly-complete quantum measurements ensure a robust estimation of the state of the system, regardless of the convex estimator we use. Thus, pragmatically, quantum state tomography should be done using these kind of measurements. Second, to argue, based on strong numerical indication, that it is fairly straightforward to experimentally implement such measurements by measuring only few random orthonormal bases. For example, in our numerical experi This work was supported by NSF Grants PHY-1212445, PHY-1521016, and PHY-1521431.

  6. Chloride in Groundwater and Surface Water in Areas Underlain by the Glacial Aquifer System, Northern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullaney, John R.; Lorenz, David L.; Arntson, Alan D.

    2009-01-01

    A study of chloride in groundwater and surface water was conducted for the glacial aquifer system of the northern United States in forested, agricultural, and urban areas by analyzing data collected for the National Water-Quality Assessment Program from 1991 to 2004. Groundwater-quality data from a sampling of 1,329 wells in 19 states were analyzed. Chloride concentrations were greater than the secondary maximum contaminant level established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency of 250 milligrams per liter in 2.5 percent of samples from 797 shallow monitoring wells and in 1.7 percent of samples from 532 drinking-water supply wells. Water samples from shallow monitoring wells in urban areas had the largest concentration of chloride, followed by water samples from agricultural and forested areas (medians of 46, 12, and 2.9 milligrams per liter, respectively). An analysis of chloride:bromide ratios, by mass, and chloride concentrations compared to binary mixing curves for dilute groundwater, halite, sewage and animal waste, potassium chloride fertilizer, basin brines, seawater, and landfill leachate in samples from monitoring wells indicated multiple sources of chloride in samples from wells in urban areas and agricultural areas. Water from shallow monitoring wells in urban areas had the largest chloride:bromide ratio, and samples with chloride:bromide ratios greater than 1,000 and chloride concentrations greater than 100 milligrams per liter were dominated by halite; however, the samples commonly contained mixtures that indicated input from sewage or animal waste. Chloride:bromide ratios were significantly larger in samples from public-supply drinking-water wells than from private drinking-water wells, and ratios were significantly larger in all drinking-water wells in eastern and central regions of the glacial aquifer system than in west-central and western regions of the glacial aquifer system. Surface-water-quality data collected regularly during varying

  7. Late Holocene vegetation and fire dynamics from a savanna-forest ecotone in Roraima state, northern Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Meneses, Maria Ecilene Nunes; da Costa, Marcondes Lima; Behling, Hermann

    2013-03-01

    Two sediment cores from Mauritia flexuosa palm swamps have been studied by pollen and charcoal analysis. The cores Fazenda Cigana (FC) and Terra Indígena Aningal (TIA) were taken from a savanna-forest ecotone area in the Roraima State, northern Brazilian Amazon. Based on 5 radiocarbon dates, these records allow the reconstruction of the vegetation fire and climate dynamics during the past 1550 years. At the FC site was recorded a higher proportion of forest cover, suggesting local wetter climatic conditions favorable for forest expansion, especially by gallery forests, between 1550 and 1400 cal yr BP. Stands of M. flexuosa started to establish on the site indicating sufficient soil moisture. From 1400 to 1050 cal yr BP, forest cover retreated while savanna, and the Mauritia palm swamp expanded considerably. The FC site was marked by savanna and Mauritia cover with a slight increase of forest between ca. 1050 and 900 cal yr BP. From 900 to 300 cal yr BP the savanna and palm swamp taxa became dominant and the forest area decreased. At the TIA site the savanna cover was dominant between 1200 and 1000 cal yr BP. From 1000 to 700 forest expanded while savanna and Mauritia palm swamp reduced. Between 700 and 300 cal yr BP savanna and Mauritia palm swamp increased and forest area decreased. The high amount of charred particles found in the sediments, indicate fires with a marked increase between 1400 to 1000 cal yr BP (FC site) and 700 to 300 cal yr BP (TIA site), and probably caused the retreat of forest cover during these two time intervals. The relatively lower fire activity after 300 cal yr BP until present-day favored the increase of forested area at both TIA and FC sites. The arrival of the European settler and the subsequent introduction of cattle, is suggested as the main reason for the decrease of fire in the study region. The results point the fire caused by indigenous people as the principal controlling factor for forest and savanna dynamics during the past

  8. Integrated mapping of neglected tropical diseases: epidemiological findings and control implications for northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State, Southern Sudan.

    PubMed

    Sturrock, Hugh J W; Picon, Diana; Sabasio, Anthony; Oguttu, David; Robinson, Emily; Lado, Mounir; Rumunu, John; Brooker, Simon; Kolaczinski, Jan H

    2009-10-27

    There are few detailed data on the geographic distribution of most neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in post-conflict Southern Sudan. To guide intervention by the recently established national programme for integrated NTD control, we conducted an integrated prevalence survey for schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection, lymphatic filariasis (LF), and loiasis in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State. Our aim was to establish which communities require mass drug administration (MDA) with preventive chemotherapy (PCT), rather than to provide precise estimates of infection prevalence. The integrated survey design used anecdotal reports of LF and proximity to water bodies (for schistosomiasis) to guide selection of survey sites. In total, 86 communities were surveyed for schistosomiasis and STH; 43 of these were also surveyed for LF and loiasis. From these, 4834 urine samples were tested for blood in urine using Hemastix reagent strips, 4438 stool samples were analyzed using the Kato-Katz technique, and 5254 blood samples were tested for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen using immunochromatographic card tests (ICT). 4461 individuals were interviewed regarding a history of 'eye worm' (a proxy measure for loiasis) and 31 village chiefs were interviewed regarding the presence of clinical manifestations of LF in their community. At the village level, prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni ranged from 0 to 65.6% and from 0 to 9.3%, respectively. The main STH species was hookworm, ranging from 0 to 70% by village. Infection with LF and loiasis was extremely rare, with only four individuals testing positive or reporting symptoms, respectively. Questionnaire data on clinical signs of LF did not provide a reliable indication of endemicity. MDA intervention thresholds recommended by the World Health Organization were only exceeded for urinary schistosomiasis and hookworm in a few, yet distinct, communities. This was the first attempt to use an

  9. Integrated Mapping of Neglected Tropical Diseases: Epidemiological Findings and Control Implications for Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State, Southern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Picon, Diana; Sabasio, Anthony; Oguttu, David; Robinson, Emily; Lado, Mounir; Rumunu, John; Brooker, Simon; Kolaczinski, Jan H.

    2009-01-01

    Background There are few detailed data on the geographic distribution of most neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in post-conflict Southern Sudan. To guide intervention by the recently established national programme for integrated NTD control, we conducted an integrated prevalence survey for schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection, lymphatic filariasis (LF), and loiasis in Northern Bahr-el-Ghazal State. Our aim was to establish which communities require mass drug administration (MDA) with preventive chemotherapy (PCT), rather than to provide precise estimates of infection prevalence. Methods and Findings The integrated survey design used anecdotal reports of LF and proximity to water bodies (for schistosomiasis) to guide selection of survey sites. In total, 86 communities were surveyed for schistosomiasis and STH; 43 of these were also surveyed for LF and loiasis. From these, 4834 urine samples were tested for blood in urine using Hemastix reagent strips, 4438 stool samples were analyzed using the Kato-Katz technique, and 5254 blood samples were tested for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen using immunochromatographic card tests (ICT). 4461 individuals were interviewed regarding a history of ‘eye worm’ (a proxy measure for loiasis) and 31 village chiefs were interviewed regarding the presence of clinical manifestations of LF in their community. At the village level, prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni ranged from 0 to 65.6% and from 0 to 9.3%, respectively. The main STH species was hookworm, ranging from 0 to 70% by village. Infection with LF and loiasis was extremely rare, with only four individuals testing positive or reporting symptoms, respectively. Questionnaire data on clinical signs of LF did not provide a reliable indication of endemicity. MDA intervention thresholds recommended by the World Health Organization were only exceeded for urinary schistosomiasis and hookworm in a few, yet distinct, communities

  10. Dependence of the non-linear mass power spectrum on the equationof state of dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Patrick; Trac, Hy; Contaldi, Carlo

    2006-02-01

    We present N-body simulation calculations of the dependence of the power spectrum of non-linear cosmological mass density fluctuations on the equation of state of the dark energy, w=p/ρ. At fixed linear theory power, increasing w leads to an increase in non-linear power, with the effect increasing with k. By k= 10hMpc-1, a model with w=-0.75 has ~12 per cent more power than a standard cosmological constant model (w=-1), while a model with w=-0.5 has ~33 per cent extra power (at z= 0). The size of the effect increases with increasing dark energy fraction, and to a lesser extent increasing power spectrum normalization, but is insensitive to the power spectrum shape (the numbers above are for Ωm= 0.281 and σ8= 0.897). A code quantifying the non-linear effect of varying w, as a function of k, z and other cosmological parameters, which should be accurate to a few per cent for k<~ 10hMpc-1 for models that fit the current observations, is available at http://www.cita.utoronto.ca/~pmcdonal/code.html. This paper also serves as an example of a detailed exploration of the numerical convergence properties of ratios of power spectra for different models, which can be useful because some kinds of numerical error cancel in a ratio. When precision calculations based on numerical simulations are needed for many different models, efficiency may be gained by breaking the problem into a calculation of the absolute prediction at a central point, and calculations of the relative change in the prediction with model parameters.

  11. Effects of groundwater flow on the distribution of biogenic gas in parts of the northern Great Plains of Canada and United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anna, Lawrence O.

    2011-01-01

    Parts of the northern Great Plains in eastern Montana and western North Dakota and southeastern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada, were studied as part of an assessment of shallow biogenic gas in Upper Cretaceous rocks.Parts of the northern Great Plains in eastern Montana and western North Dakota and southeastern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada, were studied as part of an assessment of shallow biogenic gas in Upper Cretaceous rocks. Large quantities of shallow biogenic gas are produced from low-permeability, Upper Cretaceous reservoirs in southeastern Alberta and southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada. Rocks of similar types and age produce sparingly in the United States except on large structures, such as Bowdoin dome and Cedar Creek anticline. Significant production also occurs in the Tiger Ridge area, where uplift of the Bearpaw Mountains created stratigraphic traps. The resource in Canada is thought to be a continuous, biogenic-gas-type accumulation with economic production in a variety of subtle structures and stratigraphic settings. The United States northern Great Plains area has similar conditions but only broad structural closures or stratigraphic traps associated with local structure have produced economically to date. Numerical flow modeling was used to help determine that biogenic gas in low-permeability reservoirs is held in place by high hydraulic head that overrides buoyancy forces of the gas. Modeling also showed where hydraulic head is greater under Tertiary capped topographic remnants rather than near adjacent topographic lows. The high head can override the capillary pressure of the rock and force gas to migrate to low head in topographically low areas. Most current biogenic gas production is confined to areas between mapped lineaments in the northern Great Plains. The lineaments may reflect structural zones in the Upper Cretaceous that help compartmentalize reservoirs and confine gas accumulations.

  12. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CANCER MORTALITY AND WHEAT ACREAGE AS A SURROGATE FOR CHLOROPHENOXY HERBICIDES IN COUNTIES OF OUR NORTHERN STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorophenoxy herbicides which have endocrine disrupting properties, are used widely both in cereal grain agriculture and in non-agricultural settings, such as right-of-ways, lawns, and parks. Most of the spring and durum wheat produced in the U.S. is grown in four northern stat...

  13. Modeling Analysis of Multi-Decadal Trends in Ozone and Precursor Species across the Northern Hemisphere and the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The WRF-CMAQ modeling system was applied over a domain encompassing the northern hemisphere and a nested domain over the U.S. Model simulations for the 1990-2010 were performed to examine trends in various air pollutant concentrations. Trends in O3 mixing ratios over the U.S. are...

  14. Multiscale Modeling of Multi-decadal Trends in Ozone and Precursor Species Across the Northern Hemisphere and the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multi-decadal model calculations for the 1990-2010 period are performed with the coupled WRF-CMAQ modeling system over a domain encompassing the northern hemisphere and a nested domain over the continental U.S. Simulated trends in ozone and precursor species concentrations acros...

  15. Northern Rockies Ecoregion: Chapter 7 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Janis L.

    2012-01-01

    The Northern Rockies Ecoregion (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997) covers approximately 162,746 km2 (63,200 mi2), primarily in Idaho but also including areas in western Montana and northeastern Washington (fig. 1). Canada forms the northern border of the ecoregion. To the west it is bordered by the Columbia Plateau and Blue Mountains Ecoregions, to the south by the Snake River Basin Ecoregion, and to the east by the Canadian Rockies, Middle Rockies, Northwestern Great Plains, and Northwestern Glaciated Plains Ecoregions; also to the east, the Northern Rockies Ecoregion interfingers with the Montana Valley and Foothill Prairies Ecoregion, each enclosing some isolated areas of the other (fig. 1). The ecoregion is composed of a series of high, rugged mountain ranges, mostly oriented northwest-southeast, with intermontane valleys between them (fig. 2). The entire ecoregion was glaciated during the Pleistocene (1,800,000 to 11,400 years ago), and today numerous large lakes occupy basins formed by glacial action (Omernik, 1987; Habeck and Mutch, 1973). Streams draining these mountain ranges provide a water source for many western cities and towns (fig. 3). The Continental Divide, located at the highest elevations along the northern Rocky Mountains, separates rivers that flow westward into the Columbia River watershed from those that flow eastward into the Missouri River watershed.

  16. Modeling Analysis of Multi-Decadal Trends in Ozone and Precursor Species across the Northern Hemisphere and the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The WRF-CMAQ modeling system was applied over a domain encompassing the northern hemisphere and a nested domain over the U.S. Model simulations for the 1990-2010 were performed to examine trends in various air pollutant concentrations. Trends in O3 mixing ratios over the U.S. are...

  17. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CANCER MORTALITY AND WHEAT ACREAGE AS A SURROGATE FOR CHLOROPHENOXY HERBICIDES IN COUNTIES OF OUR NORTHERN STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorophenoxy herbicides which have endocrine disrupting properties, are used widely both in cereal grain agriculture and in non-agricultural settings, such as right-of-ways, lawns, and parks. Most of the spring and durum wheat produced in the U.S. is grown in four northern stat...

  18. An assessment of the downturn in the forest products sector in the northern region of the United States

    Treesearch

    C.W. Woodall; W.G. Luppold; P.J. Ince; R.J. Piva; K.E. Skog

    2012-01-01

    The forest industry within the northern region of the U.S. has declined notably in employment, mill numbers, wood consumption, and forest harvests since 2000…a downturn exacerbated by the recession of 2007 to 2009. Longer term industrial decline (since 2000) has been evidenced by reductions in secondary products (e.g., furniture) and print paper manufacturing which can...

  19. Multiscale Modeling of Multi-decadal Trends in Ozone and Precursor Species Across the Northern Hemisphere and the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multi-decadal model calculations for the 1990-2010 period are performed with the coupled WRF-CMAQ modeling system over a domain encompassing the northern hemisphere and a nested domain over the continental U.S. Simulated trends in ozone and precursor species concentrations acros...

  20. Mycoflora of Dried Edible Beans, Phaseolus vulgaris, from the Northern Plains of the United States and its Potential for Ochratoxigenesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A shipment of beans from the U.S. northern plains region was found to contain unacceptable levels of ochratoxin-A (OA) at processing time. One hundred and twenty-one beans were removed from a sample and soaked in ca 250 mL of 2% sodium hypochlorite solution for 5 minutes with occasional agitation. ...