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Sample records for northern territory australia

  1. Sporotrichosis from the Northern Territory of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Subedi, Shradha; Kidd, Sarah E.; Baird, Robert W.; Coatsworth, Nicholas; Ralph, Anna P.

    2014-01-01

    We report three cases of lymphocutaneous infection caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii from Australia's tropical Northern Territory. Two cases were acquired locally, making them the first to be reported from this region. All three cases presented with ulceration in the limb; however, the classical sporotrichoid spread was present only in the first two cases. Their occurrence within several weeks of each other was suggestive of a common source of environmental contamination such as hay used as garden mulch. Diagnoses were delayed in each case, with each patient having substantial exposure to ineffective antibiotics before the correct diagnosis was made. These cases bring the total number of reported sporotrichosis cases in Australia since 1951 to 199. Lessons from these cases are to consider the diagnosis of sporotrichosis in lesions of typical appearance, even in geographical settings from where this pathogen has not previously been reported. PMID:25200259

  2. Death, dying, and euthanasia: Australia versus the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Fleming, J I

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain what has happened in the euthanasia debate in the Australian States and Territories, and to give a more detailed account of how the Northern Territory's euthanasia laws were overturned by the Federal Government. Dr. Fleming begins with a review of euthanasia legislation in each State and Territory, then proceeds with an analysis of the events in the Northern Territory leading to reversal of its euthanasia laws, and includes the effect of the euthanasia law on the Aboriginal people. He concludes that the repeal of the 1995 Northern Territory's Rights of the Terminally Ill Act was a significant setback for the pro-euthanasia movement not only in Australia, but worldwide.

  3. Burkholderia pseudomallei Genotype Distribution in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chapple, Stephanie N J; Price, Erin P; Sarovich, Derek S; McRobb, Evan; Mayo, Mark; Kaestli, Mirjam; Spratt, Brian G; Currie, Bart J

    2016-01-01

    Melioidosis is a tropical disease of high mortality caused by the environmental bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei. We have collected clinical isolates from the highly endemic Northern Territory of Australia routinely since 1989, and animal and environmental B. pseudomallei isolates since 1991. Here we provide a complete record of all B. pseudomallei multilocus sequence types (STs) found in the Northern Territory to date, and distribution maps of the eight most common environmental STs. We observed surprisingly restricted geographic distributions of STs, which is contrary to previous reports suggesting widespread environmental dissemination of this bacterium. Our data suggest that B. pseudomallei from soil and water does not frequently disperse long distances following severe weather events or by migration of infected animals.

  4. Imported malaria in the Northern Territory, Australia--428 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Gray, Timothy J; Trauer, James M; Fairley, Merv; Krause, Vicki L; Markey, Peter G

    2012-03-01

    Malaria is a notifiable disease in Australia with an average of 600 notifications per year in returned travellers or newly arrived refugees, migrants and visitors. Although endemic disease has been eliminated from the tropical north of Australia, the region remains malaria receptive due to the presence of efficient mosquito vectors. This study analyses enhanced surveillance data collected by the Centre for Disease Control on all cases of malaria notified in the Northern Territory from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2010. There were 428 malaria episodes notified that occurred in 391 individuals with a median age of 26 years. Of these, 71.4% were male, 40.5% were Australian nationals and 38.0% were prescribed chemoprophylaxis. Primary infection consisted of 196 (51.3%) cases of Plasmodium falciparum, 165 (43.2%) P. vivax, 2 (0.5%) P. ovale, 1 (0.3%) P. malariae and 18 were mixed infections. There were 46 episodes of relapsed infection. Residents of non-malarious countries were most likely to have acquired primary infection in East Timor (40.6%), Papua New Guinea (27.8%), Indonesia (18.7%) and Africa (6.4%). Primary infection was diagnosed after a median 19 days (interquartile range (IQR) 7-69) after arrival in Australia for cases of P. vivax compared with 4 days for P. falciparum (IQR 2-11). Screening protocols led to the diagnosis of 27.2% of cases. Eighty-seven per cent of patients were admitted to hospital at the time of their malaria diagnosis with median duration of 3 days (IQR 2-4) and one patient died. Resettlement of people from endemic countries, as well as military and civilian activities, influences the prevailing notification rates and Plasmodium species type. PMID:23153087

  5. A new species of mesonivirus from the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Warrilow, David; Watterson, Daniel; Hall, Roy A; Davis, Steven S; Weir, Richard; Kurucz, Nina; Whelan, Peter; Allcock, Richard; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; O'Brien, Caitlin A; Hobson-Peters, Jody

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe Casuarina virus (CASV), a new virus in the family Mesoniviridae. This is the first report of a mesonivirus in Australia, which extends the geographical range of this virus family to 3 continents. The virus was isolated in 2010 from Coquillettidia xanthogaster mosquitoes during surveillance in the suburbs of Darwin, the capital of the Northern Territory. Cryo-electron microscopy of the CASV virions revealed spherical particles of 65 nm in size with large club-shaped projections of approximately 15 nm in length. The new virus was most closely related to Alphamesonivirus 1, the only currently recognized species in the family. In 2013 a further 5 putative new mesonivirus species were described: Hana, Méno, Nsé, Moumo and Dak Nong viruses. The evolutionary distance between CASV and two of its closest relatives, Cavally and Hana viruses (Jones-Taylor-Thornton distance of 0.151 and 0.224, respectively), along with its isolation from a different genus of mosquitoes captured on a separate continent indicate that CASV is a new species.

  6. An annotated checklist of the fishes of the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Larson, Helen K; Williams, Rex S; Hammer, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    There are 1474 fish species now known from the Northern Territory, in 195 families, with a number of these species still undescribed. The 1474 species include 120 new records for the NT and three for Australia, while nine non-native species exist as small feral populations.The most speciose family is the Gobiidae (gobies), with 150 recognised species, and is the main fish group inhabiting coral reef and mangrove areas. The fish fauna of the Northern Territory occupies several biogeographical regions, which include the internal river drainages of Australia and the Sahul Shelf adjoining New Guinea and Indonesia. The Northern Territory's fish fauna most closely resembles that of north-western Western Australia, and many species are shared with this region. Among the Northern Territory's fish fauna are 55 species considered to be threatened under various listings (ASFB, EPBC), with the poor state of knowledge of the NT's fish populations and their true distributions hindering assessment. Many sampling gaps remain and the basic biology of most species is unknown. PMID:26079024

  7. The work of forgetting: germs, aborigines and postcolonial expertise in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    PubMed

    Lea, Tess

    2005-09-01

    Based on anthropological field research (1997-2000) within the Department of Health and Community Services in the Northern Territory in Australia, this paper explores the lingering features of colonial logic in the pastoral work of public health workers in the Northern Territory of Australia. The public health professionals drawn to work in this space are determined to remedy what is wrong with culturally acceptable solutions. But viewed from an anthropological perspective, the way in which health professionals conceptualise the problems they need to solve ultimately serves to reinforce the reality of the need for their continued tutelary presence. This paper aims to draw out the complex ways in which this interventionary effect is secured, concentrating in particular on the role played by progressive ideologies of participatory development and information sharing. It argues that through a complex process of forgetting, the otherwise innocuous gestures of public health goodwill recreate a mandate for more public health intervention. This is not a simple moral tale where analysts can easily identify good and bad practices and thus distance themselves from the difficulties involved. Rather, by emphasising the honest commitments to improvement in situations of mass illness and preventable disease that health professionals bring to their work, and the burden they bear in being conscious of the recent colonial past, the paper aims to avoid the judgement that this sort of work is easy to get right.

  8. High burden of invasive group A streptococcal disease in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R; Patel, M; Currie, B J; Holt, D C; Harris, T; Krause, V

    2016-04-01

    Although the incidence of invasive group A streptococcal disease in northern Australia is very high, little is known of the regional epidemiology and molecular characteristics. We conducted a case series of Northern Territory residents reported between 2011 and 2013 with Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from a normally sterile site. Of the 128 reported episodes, the incidence was disproportionately high in the Indigenous population at 69·7/100 000 compared to 8·8/100 000 in the non-Indigenous population. Novel to the Northern Territory is the extremely high incidence in haemodialysis patients of 2205·9/100 000 population; and for whom targeted infection control measures could prevent transmission. The incidences in the tropical north and semi-arid Central Australian regions were similar. Case fatality was 8% (10/128) and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome occurred in 14 (11%) episodes. Molecular typing of 82 isolates identified 28 emm types, of which 63 (77%) were represented by four emm clusters. Typing confirmed transmission between infant twins. While the diverse range of emm types presents a challenge for effective coverage by vaccine formulations, the limited number of emm clusters raises optimism should cluster-specific cross-protection prove efficacious. Further studies are required to determine effectiveness of chemoprophylaxis for contacts and to inform public health response. PMID:26364646

  9. High burden of invasive group A streptococcal disease in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R; Patel, M; Currie, B J; Holt, D C; Harris, T; Krause, V

    2016-04-01

    Although the incidence of invasive group A streptococcal disease in northern Australia is very high, little is known of the regional epidemiology and molecular characteristics. We conducted a case series of Northern Territory residents reported between 2011 and 2013 with Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from a normally sterile site. Of the 128 reported episodes, the incidence was disproportionately high in the Indigenous population at 69·7/100 000 compared to 8·8/100 000 in the non-Indigenous population. Novel to the Northern Territory is the extremely high incidence in haemodialysis patients of 2205·9/100 000 population; and for whom targeted infection control measures could prevent transmission. The incidences in the tropical north and semi-arid Central Australian regions were similar. Case fatality was 8% (10/128) and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome occurred in 14 (11%) episodes. Molecular typing of 82 isolates identified 28 emm types, of which 63 (77%) were represented by four emm clusters. Typing confirmed transmission between infant twins. While the diverse range of emm types presents a challenge for effective coverage by vaccine formulations, the limited number of emm clusters raises optimism should cluster-specific cross-protection prove efficacious. Further studies are required to determine effectiveness of chemoprophylaxis for contacts and to inform public health response.

  10. Trends in incidence of head and neck cancer in the northern territory, Australia, between 2007 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Jayaraj, Rama; Singh, Jagtar; Baxi, Siddhartha; Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Thomas, Mahiban

    2014-01-01

    Incidence trends of head and neck cancer (HNC) have implications for screening strategies, disease management, guiding health policy making, and are needed to further oral cancer research. This paper aims to describe trends in age-adjusted HNC incidence rates focusing on changes across calendar period between 2007 and 2010 in Australian Northern Territory. Age-adjusted incidence rates of HNC were calculated for 2007- 2010 using Northern Territory population based data assembled by Department of Health, Northern Territory Government of Australia. Changes in the HNC rate ratio (RR) and Estimated Annual Percentage Change (EAPC) between 2007-2008, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 were calculated. A total of 171 HNC patients were recorded by the Northern Territory Department of Health during the time period between 2007 and 2010, out of which, 135 were males (78.9% of male HNC patients) and 36 were females (21.1% of female HNC patients). In conclusion, HNC incidence rate has decreased in the Northern Territory Australian males but remains unchanged in Australian females. High incidences of HNC may be associated with the high smoking rate and high alcohol consumption in the Northern Territory. Continued monitoring of trends in HNC incidence rates is crucial to inform Northern Territory based cancer prevention strategies.

  11. Discrete fracture simulations of the hydrogeology at Koongarra, Northern Territory, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, J.L.

    1992-04-01

    The US Department of Energy is studying the Alligator Rivers Natural Analogue Project site at Koongarra, Northern Territory, Australia to investigate and simulate radionuclide migration in fractured rocks. Discrete fracture simulations were conducted within a cubic volume (180-m edge length) of fractured Cahill Formation schist oriented with one major axis parallel to the trend of the Koongarra Fault. Five hundred fractures are simulated within this domain. The fractures have a mean orientation parallel to the idealized plane of the Koongarra Fault dipping 55{degrees} SE. Simple flow modeling of this fracture network was conducted by assigning constant head boundaries to upgradient and downgradient vertical faces of the cube, which trend parallel to the fault. No-flow boundaries were assigned to all other faces. The fracture network allows hydraulic communication across the block, in spite of relatively low fracture density across the block.

  12. What Can We Learn from "Innovative" Child Care Services? Children's Services Purposes and Practices in Australia's Northern Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasoli, Lyn; Moss, Bonita

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the diversity of services designed for young children currently operating in Australia in remote Northern Territory (NT) Indigenous communities as a provocation for the renewal and revitalisation of mainstream (typical Australian conventional, Western values oriented and urban-based) child care services. Australian society…

  13. Diabetic Foot Care: Developing Culturally Appropriate Educational Tools for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jennifer; Obersteller, Elizabeth A.; Rennie, Linda; Whitbread, Cherie

    2001-01-01

    Participatory research in Australia's Northern Territory sought opinions from nurses, general practitioners, Aboriginal health workers, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders on the development of culturally relevant foot care education for Indigenous people with diabetes. They decided to use a visual approach (posters and flip charts) to…

  14. First report of Cryptosporidium species in farmed and wild buffalo from the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, Alireza; Phasey, Jordan; Boland, Tony; Ryan, Una

    2016-03-01

    A molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in the Northern Territory in Australia was conducted. Fecal samples were collected from adult farmed (n = 50) and wild buffalo (n = 50) and screened using an 18S quantitative PCR (qPCR). Positives were typed by sequence analysis of 18S nested PCR products. The qPCR prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in farmed and wild buffalo was 30 and 12 %, respectively. Sequence analysis identified two species: C. parvum and C. bovis, with C. parvum accounting for ~80 % of positives typed from the farmed buffalo fecal samples compared to 50 % for wild buffalo. Subtyping at the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) locus identified C. parvum subtypes IIdA19G1 (n = 4) and IIdA15G1 (n = 1) in the farmed buffalo and IIaA18G3R1 (n = 2) in the wild buffalo. The presence of C. parvum, which commonly infects humans, suggests that water buffaloes may contribute to contamination of rivers and waterways with human infectious Cryptosporidium oocysts, and further research on the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in buffalo populations in Australia is required.

  15. First report of Cryptosporidium species in farmed and wild buffalo from the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, Alireza; Phasey, Jordan; Boland, Tony; Ryan, Una

    2016-03-01

    A molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in the Northern Territory in Australia was conducted. Fecal samples were collected from adult farmed (n = 50) and wild buffalo (n = 50) and screened using an 18S quantitative PCR (qPCR). Positives were typed by sequence analysis of 18S nested PCR products. The qPCR prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in farmed and wild buffalo was 30 and 12 %, respectively. Sequence analysis identified two species: C. parvum and C. bovis, with C. parvum accounting for ~80 % of positives typed from the farmed buffalo fecal samples compared to 50 % for wild buffalo. Subtyping at the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) locus identified C. parvum subtypes IIdA19G1 (n = 4) and IIdA15G1 (n = 1) in the farmed buffalo and IIaA18G3R1 (n = 2) in the wild buffalo. The presence of C. parvum, which commonly infects humans, suggests that water buffaloes may contribute to contamination of rivers and waterways with human infectious Cryptosporidium oocysts, and further research on the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in buffalo populations in Australia is required. PMID:26758449

  16. Statistical analysis of the temperature records for the Northern Territory of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boretti, Alberto

    2013-11-01

    The Northern Territory of Australia has a unique situation of an extension larger than France and a population of 200,000, with only three meteorology stations open for more than 40 years, Darwin (DW), Alice Springs (AS) and Tennant Creek, and only two of them, DW and AS, providing data over 100 years, and from 500 to more than 1,000 km separating these stations and the stations in the neighbouring states of Australia. Homogenizations of data in between different measuring sites for the same location as well as the way to derive the missed data to complete at least 100 years from the neighbouring locations are analysed in details and the effects on the temperature trends are straightforwardly investigated. Using properly homogenised data over 130 years and a linear fitting, the warming maximum and minimum temperatures are +0.009 and +0.057 °C/10 years for Alice Springs and -0.025 and 0.064 °C/10 years for Darwin. With the data available, the only option to produce warming trends is to overweight the cold years in the middle of the 1970s and the subsequent return to warmer temperatures. Starting from 1980, to compute trends, there is still a clear warming in Alice Springs, but also clear cooling in Tennant Creek, and a mixed behaviour with warming maximum temperatures and cooling minimum temperatures in Darwin.

  17. Surveys of tidal river systems in the northern territory of Australia and their crocodile populations

    SciTech Connect

    Vorlicek, G.C.; Messel, H.; Green, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an update on the population dynamics of Crocodylus porous in the tidal waterways of Van Diemen Gulf and the Southern Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia, during 1984 and 1985. Contents: Prologue; Dedication; Introduction; Status of Crocodylus porous. July 1984, in the tidal waterways of the Alligator Region and in the Adelaide River System of Northern Australia: recovery underway; Resurvey of Crocodylus porous populations in the tidal waterways of the southern Gulf of Carpentaria, September - October 1985; Local knowledge - Northern Australia style.

  18. Prevalence and distribution of Neospora caninum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    PubMed

    Neverauskas, Claudia E; Nasir, Amar; Reichel, Michael P

    2015-10-01

    The seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and domestic cattle in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia has never been determined. A total of 480 serum samples from water buffalo and 192 serum samples from cattle, collected by the NT Government from 1993 through to 2001, at 18 different survey sites throughout the Northern Territory were tested by commercial ELISA for anti-N. caninum antibodies. The water buffalo samples demonstrated a seroprevalence of 88.3% (95% CI ± 2.9%), while 31.8% (±6.1%) of the cattle sera tested positive for N. caninum antibodies. Individual buffalo from the same herd, sampled over years, showed considerable fluctuations in S/P ratios. Overall, seropositivity was consistent across buffalo herds, and showed a slight decline over the years. The study presents evidence for the first time that N. caninum infection in water buffalo in the Northern Territory is a highly endemic and that infection rates are higher than those for cattle. This is important for an understanding of any potential sylvatic life cycle of N. caninum in Northern Australia. This survey also tests cattle from that territory for the first time for evidence of N. caninum infection and makes an important contribution to the understanding of disease management issues for the beef industry in the region.

  19. The Nabarlek uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia: Some petrologic and geochemical constraints on genesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ewers, G.R.; Donnelly, T.M.; Ferguson, J.

    1983-08-01

    The Nabarlek uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia, is confined to a shear zone in contorted and metasomatized early Proterozoic schists and occurs near an unconformity with overlying middle Proterozoic sandstone. Massive chlorite + or - sericite + or - hematite rocks, breccias, and intensely altered schists are characteristic of the ore zone, and at least three generations of chlorite have been recognized and described. The primary ore mineral assemblage is dominated by uraninite intergrown with chlorite. The orebody was sericitized at or after 920 m.y. ago, resulting in the widespread replacement and breakdown of chlorite, the formation of hematite, and the solution and redeposition of uraninite. Redox reactions involving iron and uranium are evident in sericitized rocks containing hematite and residual uraninite. High U/Th ratios in the ore zone suggest that uranium was transported to the site of deposition as a uranyl complex. Although no carbonaceous material occurs in the ore zone, isotopic data on minor carbonate associated with uraninite suggest that organic material was originally associated with the mineralization and indicate that these carbonates have evolved from the interaction of hydrothermal fluids with this material. Erosion of the middle Proterozoic cover rocks in the recent past has exposed the deposit to the effects of weathering.

  20. Habitat modification for mosquito control in the Ilparpa Swamp, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Jacups, Susan; Kurucz, Nina; Whitters, Raelene; Whelan, Peter

    2011-12-01

    Habitat modification is an established method of effective long-term mosquito management, particularly in salt-marsh environments. It is especially pertinent when mosquitoes are known vectors of life-threatening disease and their larval breeding habitat is in close proximity to residential areas. The Ilparpa Swamp is located less than 10 km from Alice Springs, Northern Territory. Wet season rainfall, often followed by effluent discharges to the swamp from the adjacent sewage treatment plant, create ideal sites for the immature stages of the common banded mosquito Culex annulirostris (Skuse), a major vector of Murray Valley encephalitis (MVEV) and Kunjin (KUNV) viruses. Subsequent to increases in notifications of MVEV disease cases in 2000 and 2001, a drainage system was established in the Ilparpa Swamp in early 2002. This paper evaluates the drainage intervention effects. Results indicate a significant reduction in mosquito numbers following habitat modification, which remain low. There have been no seroconversions in sentinel chickens to MVEV or KUNV and no human infections from these viruses in the Alice Springs urban region since the drains were completed. Habitat modification has successfully reduced mosquito numbers and minimized the risk for mosquito-borne disease to residents in Alice Springs urban and surrounding areas, which has never before been documented in Australia.

  1. Chloritization and associated alteration at the Jabiluka unconformity-type uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nutt, Constance J.

    1989-01-01

    Jabiluka is the largest of four known uncomformity-type uranium deposits that are hosted by brecciated and altered metasedimentary rocks in the Pine Creek geosyncline, Northern Territory, Australia. The alteration zone at Jabiluka is dominated by chlorite, but also contains white mica, tourmaline and apatite; hematite is present, but only in minor amounts. Added quartz is mainly restricted to fractures and breccias. Chlorite, which formed during episodic fluid movement, partly to totally replaced all pre-existing minerals. Chloritized rocks are enriched in Mg, and depleted in K, Ca, Na and Si. Five types of chlorite are optically and chemically distinguishable in the rocks at Jabiluka. Chloritization is proposed as a mechanism that lowered the pH of the circulating fluid, and also caused significant loss of silica from the altered rocks. The proposed constraints on alteration, and presumably on at least part of the uranium mineralization, neither require nor preclude the existence of the unconformity as necessary for the formation of ore.

  2. Working in hot conditions--a study of electrical utility workers in the northern territory of Australia.

    PubMed

    Brearley, Matt; Harrington, Phillip; Lee, Doug; Taylor, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Environmental conditions of Australia's Northern Territory are seasonally conducive to excessive body heat storage by outdoor workers. For electrical utility workers who periodically work at height, in confined space, and in proximity to live power sources, the impact of the climate may be considered a hazardous condition. Therefore, this study examined the physiological and fluid balance responses of 20 power network workers (31.5 years; 86.0 kg; 1.71 m; BMI 29.5) throughout work shifts in the Northern and Southern regions of the Northern Territory, Australia. Twenty male heat-acclimatized power network workers provided written informed consent to be monitored during maintenance of electrical infrastructure that included replacing power pole components and transformer and substation repairs in the Northern (n = 13) and Southern regions (n = 7) of the Northern Territory (mean wet-bulb globe temperatures of 32.0°C and 28.7°C, respectively). An ingestible telemetry pill provided measurement of gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi), that when combined with heart rate values, provided physiological strain index (PSI). Urine specific gravity, sweat rate, and level of dehydration were also determined. The Tgi values of this study were within the ISO9886 limit for monitored, heat-acclimatized workers, with a peak of 38.4°C. Mean PSI was 2.6, which represents overall low strain, with periods of moderate strain. Urinary analysis indicated that workers were dehydrated prior to and following the work shift, however the mean sweat rate of 0.44 L.h(-1) was matched by fluid consumption of 0.42 L.h(-1) to limit body mass loss to 0.1% during the shift. This study demonstrates that heat acclimatized electrical utility workers adhere to ISO9886 requirements when undertaking self-paced activity in hot conditions.

  3. Working in hot conditions--a study of electrical utility workers in the northern territory of Australia.

    PubMed

    Brearley, Matt; Harrington, Phillip; Lee, Doug; Taylor, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Environmental conditions of Australia's Northern Territory are seasonally conducive to excessive body heat storage by outdoor workers. For electrical utility workers who periodically work at height, in confined space, and in proximity to live power sources, the impact of the climate may be considered a hazardous condition. Therefore, this study examined the physiological and fluid balance responses of 20 power network workers (31.5 years; 86.0 kg; 1.71 m; BMI 29.5) throughout work shifts in the Northern and Southern regions of the Northern Territory, Australia. Twenty male heat-acclimatized power network workers provided written informed consent to be monitored during maintenance of electrical infrastructure that included replacing power pole components and transformer and substation repairs in the Northern (n = 13) and Southern regions (n = 7) of the Northern Territory (mean wet-bulb globe temperatures of 32.0°C and 28.7°C, respectively). An ingestible telemetry pill provided measurement of gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi), that when combined with heart rate values, provided physiological strain index (PSI). Urine specific gravity, sweat rate, and level of dehydration were also determined. The Tgi values of this study were within the ISO9886 limit for monitored, heat-acclimatized workers, with a peak of 38.4°C. Mean PSI was 2.6, which represents overall low strain, with periods of moderate strain. Urinary analysis indicated that workers were dehydrated prior to and following the work shift, however the mean sweat rate of 0.44 L.h(-1) was matched by fluid consumption of 0.42 L.h(-1) to limit body mass loss to 0.1% during the shift. This study demonstrates that heat acclimatized electrical utility workers adhere to ISO9886 requirements when undertaking self-paced activity in hot conditions. PMID:25265189

  4. Zircon U-Th-Pb-He double dating of the Merlin kimberlite field, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInnes, Brent I. A.; Evans, Noreen J.; McDonald, Brad J.; Kinny, Peter D.; Jakimowicz, Janusz

    2009-11-01

    This paper discusses the development of a combined U/Pb and (U-Th)/He geochronology method for single zircon grains and the potential application of this technique in diamond exploration. Zircon entrained within kimberlite deposits should have distinctive U-Th-Pb-He signatures compared to those found in the host terrane. To investigate the application of zircon double dating to kimberlite diamond exploration, we analysed zircon from the Sacramore kimberlite pipe located in the Merlin field in the Northern Territory of Australia. We also conducted a double dating study of detrital zircon from a regional sample of the Bukalara Sandstone, the principal host rock for the Merlin field. Repeated analysis of Fish Canyon zircon verified that the ion microprobe sputtering process used for U/Pb dating does not disturb the He content of the sample. The zircon U/Pb age for the Sacramore pipe ( n = 14) ranged from 1541-2433 Ma, consistent with the Mesoproterozoic formation of the North Australian Craton and indicating that the zircon obtained from the kimberlite is of xenocrystic origin. (U-Th)/He thermochronometry of these kimberlite zircon xenocrysts ( n = 33) yielded a mean weighted average age of 368 ± 4 Ma (2 σ), concordant with a previously determined phlogopite Rb-Sr age of 367 ± 4 Ma for the Merlin field. The U/Pb age (1472-2939 Ma; n = 41) of detrital zircon from the Bukalara Sandstone is statistically indistinguishable from that of the kimberlite zircon xenocrysts, while the detrital (U-Th)/He ages range from 459 to 1279 Ma. The double dating study indicates that the majority of the zircon grains in the Sacramore kimberlite pipe had their helium clocks reset to the time of kimberlite emplacement. Thermal resetting of the zircon xenocrysts may have been caused by either one or a combination of these processes: (i) the grains originated from lower- to mid-crustal depths (> 6 km) where ambient geothermal temperatures allowed the helium to diffuse out of the zircon as

  5. Geographical and Environmental Education in the Northern Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battalis, Chrissie; Boland, Judy

    2006-01-01

    The Northern Territory is a semi-autonomous region in the north of Australia. It is one of three Territories and six States that constitute the Commonwealth of Australia. The mainland States and Territories all maintain separate education systems, responsible to the Minister for Education in each State or Territory. In the Northern Territory's…

  6. Methods and approaches to support Indigenous water planning: An example from the Tiwi Islands, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoverman, Suzanne; Ayre, Margaret

    2012-12-01

    SummaryIndigenous land owners of the Tiwi Islands, Northern Territory Australia have begun the first formal freshwater allocation planning process in Australia entirely within Indigenous lands and waterways. The process is managed by the Northern Territory government agency responsible for water planning, the Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport, in partnership with the Tiwi Land Council, the principal representative body for Tiwi Islanders on matters of land and water management and governance. Participatory planning methods ('tools') were developed to facilitate community participation in Tiwi water planning. The tools, selected for their potential to generate involvement in the planning process needed both to incorporate Indigenous knowledge of water use and management and raise awareness in the Indigenous community of Western science and water resources management. In consultation with the water planner and Tiwi Land Council officers, the researchers selected four main tools to develop, trial and evaluate. Results demonstrate that the tools provided mechanisms which acknowledge traditional management systems, improve community engagement, and build confidence in the water planning process. The researchers found that participatory planning approaches supported Tiwi natural resource management institutions both in determining appropriate institutional arrangements and clarifying roles and responsibilities in the Islands' Water Management Strategy.

  7. Description of drill-hole VIIIV core from the Jabiluka unconformity-type uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Nutt, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Jabiluka unconformity-type uranium deposit is one of four large unconformity-type deposits in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Field in the eastern part of the Pine Creek geosyncline, Northern Territory, Australia. These unconformity-type uranium deposits occur as veins, disseminations, and breccia matrix in metasedimentary rocks of the Lower Proterozoic Cahill Formation and are near a regional unconformity that separates the Cahill from the sedimentary rocks of the Middle Proterozoic Kombolgie Formation. The study of unconformity-type deposits - a new type of uranium deposit typified by deposits discovered in the past 15 years in Australia and Canada - is part of the US Geological Survey uranium program; funding was also provided by the US Department of Energy National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. Pancontinental Mining Limited kindly gave us access to Jabiluka core and made their geological and geophysical data available for inclusion in our reports. Data and interpretations from the mineralogy and stratigraphy of Jabiluka should aid in defining characteristics and setting of these world class deposits and guide exploration for similar deposits in the United States. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Age and paragenesis of mineralisation at Coronation Hill uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orth, Karin; Meffre, Sebastien; Davidson, Garry

    2014-06-01

    Coronation Hill is a U + Au + platinum group elements deposit in the South Alligator Valley (SAV) field in northern Australia, south of the better known unconformity-style U East Alligator Rivers (EAR) field. The SAV field differs from the EAR by having a more complex basin-basement architecture. A volcanically active fault trough (Jawoyn Sub-basin) developed on older basement and then was disrupted by renewed faulting, before being buried beneath regional McArthur Basin sandstones that are also the main hanging wall to the EAR deposits. Primary mineralisation at Coronation Hill formed at 1607 ± 26 Ma (rather than 600-900 Ma as previously thought), and so it is likely that the SAV was part of a single west McArthur Basin dilational event. Most ore is hosted in sub-vertical faults and breccias in the competent volcanic cover sequence. This favoured fluid mixing, acid buffering (forming illite) and oxidation of Fe2+ and reduced C-rich assemblages as important uranium depositional mechanisms. However, reduction of U in fractured older pyrite (Pb model age of 1833 ± 67 Ma) is an important trap in diorite. Some primary ore was remobilised at 675 ± 21 Ma to form coarse uraninite + Ni-Co pyrite networks containing radiogenic Pb. Coronation Hill is polymetallic, and in this respect resembles the `egress'-style U deposits in the Athabascan Basin (Canada). However, these are all cover-hosted. A hypothesis for further testing is that Coronation Hill is also egress-style, with ores formed by fluids rising through basement-hosted fault networks (U reduction by diorite pyrite and carbonaceous shale), and into veins and breccias in the overlying Jawoyn Sub-basin volcano-sedimentary succession.

  9. A new species of freshwater turtle of the genus Elseya (Testudinata: Pleurodira: Chelidae) from the Northern Territory of Australia.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Scott; Georges, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    The genus Elseya has had a checkered taxonomic history, but is now restricted to species characterized by an alveolar ridge on the triturating surfaces of the jaw. The Australian forms were once regarded as a single widespread species extending from the Mary River of south-eastern Queensland to the Fitzroy River of north Western Australia, but a number of Australian species have now been identified based on a combination of molecular and morphological data-Elseya dentata, E. irwini, E. lavarackorum and E. albagula. The genus is represented in New Guinea by E. branderhorsti, E. novaeguineae, E. schultzii, and E. rhodini. One additional Australian taxon first identified in 1981 and subsequently established as a distinct taxon by molecular studies, is described here. It is a large chelid turtle that can be distinguished from all other Australian members of the genus Elseya by the distinctive cream or yellow plastron, free of the dark streaking, blotches or suffusing present in other species; an extensive bridge with little or no abrupt angle between the bridge and the ventral surface of the plastron; a head shield broken into a series of small plates rather than a single unit; flat uncornified temporal scales; and a narrower, less robust skull. Osteologically, it can be distinguished from Elseya dentata by the contact of the vomer and the pterygoids. The carapace is typically a light to medium brown in color whereas the carapace of Elseya dentata is typically dark brown to almost black in color. Distribution is the Mary, South Alligator, East Alligator, Goyder and Mann River drainages of the north east of the Northern Territory, Australia. It does not appear to be in sympatry with any other member of Elseya. It is, however, in sympatry with three species of Chelodina, at least two species of Emydura, Myuchelys latisternum and Carettochelys insculpta. PMID:27395476

  10. A new species of freshwater turtle of the genus Elseya (Testudinata: Pleurodira: Chelidae) from the Northern Territory of Australia.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Scott; Georges, Arthur

    2016-01-04

    The genus Elseya has had a checkered taxonomic history, but is now restricted to species characterized by an alveolar ridge on the triturating surfaces of the jaw. The Australian forms were once regarded as a single widespread species extending from the Mary River of south-eastern Queensland to the Fitzroy River of north Western Australia, but a number of Australian species have now been identified based on a combination of molecular and morphological data-Elseya dentata, E. irwini, E. lavarackorum and E. albagula. The genus is represented in New Guinea by E. branderhorsti, E. novaeguineae, E. schultzii, and E. rhodini. One additional Australian taxon first identified in 1981 and subsequently established as a distinct taxon by molecular studies, is described here. It is a large chelid turtle that can be distinguished from all other Australian members of the genus Elseya by the distinctive cream or yellow plastron, free of the dark streaking, blotches or suffusing present in other species; an extensive bridge with little or no abrupt angle between the bridge and the ventral surface of the plastron; a head shield broken into a series of small plates rather than a single unit; flat uncornified temporal scales; and a narrower, less robust skull. Osteologically, it can be distinguished from Elseya dentata by the contact of the vomer and the pterygoids. The carapace is typically a light to medium brown in color whereas the carapace of Elseya dentata is typically dark brown to almost black in color. Distribution is the Mary, South Alligator, East Alligator, Goyder and Mann River drainages of the north east of the Northern Territory, Australia. It does not appear to be in sympatry with any other member of Elseya. It is, however, in sympatry with three species of Chelodina, at least two species of Emydura, Myuchelys latisternum and Carettochelys insculpta.

  11. A study of radium bioaccumulation in freshwater mussels, Velesunio angasi, in the Magela Creek catchment, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bollhöfer, Andreas; Brazier, Jenny; Humphrey, Chris; Ryan, Bruce; Esparon, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    Freshwater mussels, Velesunio angasi, along Magela Creek in Australia's Northern Territory were examined to study radionuclide activities in mussel flesh and to investigate whether the Ranger Uranium mine is contributing to the radium loads in mussels downstream of the mine. Radium loads in mussels of the same age were highest in Bowerbird Billabong, located 20 km upstream of the mine site. Variations in the ratio of [Ra]:[Ca] in filtered water at the sampling sites accounted for the variations found in mussel radium loads with natural increases in calcium (Ca) in surface waters in a downstream gradient along the Magela Creek catchment gradually reducing radium uptake in mussels. At Mudginberri Billabong, 12 km downstream of the mine, concentration factors for radium have not significantly changed over the past 25 years since the mine commenced operations and this, coupled with a gradual decrease of the (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratios observed along the catchment, indicates that the (226)Ra accumulated in mussels is of natural rather than mine origin. The (228)Th/(228)Ra ratio has been used to model radium uptake and a radium biological half-life in mussels of approximately 13 years has been determined. The long biological half-life and the low Ca concentrations in the water account for the high radium concentration factor of 30,000-60,000 measured in mussels from the Magela Creek catchment.

  12. Alignment of the policy planets: behind the implementation of the Northern Territory (Australia) Living With Alcohol programme.

    PubMed

    D'Abbs, Peter

    2004-03-01

    The Northern Territory Living With Alcohol Programme (LWAP), implemented in Australia from 1991 to 2000, has been hailed as a successful example of a comprehensive public health alcohol policy, especially in its first 4 years--1991/92 to 1995/96. This paper draws upon a policy analysis of the LWAP currently in progress to identify and describe the factors that made implementation possible at this time. I argue that programme implementation was shaped by a remarkable alignment of agencies and actors in the political, fiscal, administrative and industrial domains. This alignment of forces, however, owed as much to contingency as to planning and did not endure. Although the policy itself remained unchanged and continued to generate significant achievements, the alignment of forces sustaining it began to fragment from late 1995 onwards. The paper concludes by exploring the implications of the analysis for alcohol policy in other domains, and for the relationship between evidence regarding effectiveness and other components of the policy process.

  13. Arbovirus models to provide practical management tools for mosquito control and disease prevention in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Jacups, Susan P; Whelan, Peter I; Harley, David

    2011-03-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) causes the most common human arbovirus disease in Australia. Although the disease is nonfatal, the associated arthritis and postinfection fatigue can be debilitating for many months, impacting on workforce participation. We sought to create an early-warning system to notify of approaching RRV disease outbreak conditions for major townships in the Northern Territory. By applying a logistic regression model to meteorologic factors, including rainfall, a postestimation analysis of sensitivity and specificity can create rainfall cut-points. These rainfall cut-points indicate the rainfall level above which previous epidemic conditions have occurred. Furthermore, rainfall cut-points indirectly adjust for vertebrate host data from the agile wallaby (Macropus agilis) as the life cycle of the agile wallaby is intricately meshed with the wet season. Once generated, cut-points can thus be used prospectively to allow timely implementation of larval survey and control measures and public health warnings to preemptively reduce RRV disease incidence. Cut-points are location specific and have the capacity to replace previously used models, which require data management and input, and rarely provide timely notification for vector control requirements and public health warnings. These methods can be adapted for use elsewhere.

  14. Kava use, dyslipidaemia and biomarkers of dietary quality in Aboriginal people in Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory (NT), Australia.

    PubMed

    Clough, A R; Rowley, K; O'Dea, K

    2004-07-01

    Heavy kava use has been associated with sudden death in Aboriginal Australians in Arnhem Land (Northern Territory, Australia) where poor diets and a high incidence of premature coronary heart disease are known. Heavy kava users may suffer additional risk if further malnourished. Among 98 people (62 males, 36 females) in one community, 36 never used kava, 26 were past users, and 36 were continuing users. Across kava-using groups skinfold thickness, body mass index and body fat decreased. Total- and LDL-cholesterol were elevated in kava users compared to both former users and never users. HDL-cholesterol was higher in current users vs never users. Across kava-using groups, triglycerides, homocysteine and diet-derived antioxidant vitamins alpha-tocopherol and retinol, did not vary. Plasma carotenoid levels (indicative of vegetable and fruit intake) were very low, but when adjusted for plasma cholesterol, did not vary between kava-using groups. An obsession for kava drinking may mediate kava's direct effects on nutritional status.

  15. Davenport Ranges, Northern Territory, Australia, SRTM Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Davenport Ranges of central Australia have been inferred to be among the oldest persisting landforms on Earth, founded on the belief that the interior of Australia has been tectonically stable for at least 700 million years. New rock age dating techniques indicate that substantial erosion has probably occurred over that time period and that the landforms are not nearly that old, but landscape evolution certainly occurs much slower here (at least now) than is typical across Earth's surface.

    Regardless of their antiquity, the Davenport Ranges exhibit a striking landform pattern as shown in this display of elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Quartzites and other erosion resistant strata form ridges within anticlinal (arched up) and synclinal (arched down) ovals and zigzags. These structures, if not the landforms, likely date back at least hundreds of millions of years, to a time when tectonic forces were active. Maximum local relief is only about 60 meters (about 200 feet), which is enough to contrast greatly with the extremely low relief surrounding terrain.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northeast-southwest (image top to bottom) direction, so that northeast slopes appear bright and southwest slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To

  16. Northern Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter ... lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the ...

  17. Are childhood immunization programmes in Australia at risk? Investigation of the cold chain in the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Miller, N C; Harris, M F

    1994-01-01

    Since vaccines may lose their potency if transported or stored outside the recommended temperature range (2-8 degrees C), we carried out a study in the Darwin area of the Northern Territory of Australia to determine the links in the cold chain, including the extent of vaccine monitoring, and whether the vaccines were being exposed to unsafe temperatures. Sabin oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) and recombinant hepatitis-B (HB) vaccine were selected for special monitoring. A total of 127 vials of OPV and 144 vials of HB vaccine were dispatched during October, November and December 1990 to the government, independent health services and general practitioner surgeries which routinely administer these vaccines. We distributed the two vaccines with MonitorMark time/temperature and Coldside indicator tags attached to cards for recording the date, location and temperature exposures each time the vaccines were moved or used. A total of 65% of the OPV and 41% of the HB vaccine monitor cards were returned for analysis. The vaccines were transported and stored at one to four locations prior to being administered. Some 23% of tagged OPV was exposed for 48 hours or more to a temperature > 10 degrees C; 47.5% of tagged HB vaccines were exposed to -3 degrees C or less, the majority of them during storage in health facilities or clinics. Exposures were independent of distance from the distribution centre, mode of transport, or type of facility. Our results show that the vaccines were often exposed to temperatures outside the recommended range during transport and storage, putting them at risk of loss of potency.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8062398

  18. Invasive group A streptococcal infection in the Northern Territory, Australia: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Bianca; Morris, Peter; Carapetis, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    The increasing incidence of invasive group A streptococcus has been well documented in the temperate climates of North America, Europe and the United Kingdom. Studies also suggest that there are high rates of invasive group A streptococcus infection within the indigenous population of Northern Australia. This review article presents the case of infant Aboriginal twins with invasive group A streptococcal infection complicated by streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, highlighting both the severity and high transmissibility of invasive group A streptococcal disease. We review the epidemiology of group A streptococcal infection and suggest a potential role for chemoprophylaxis of household contacts to reduce the burden of disease within the indigenous population of Northern Australia.

  19. Genesis of the central zone of the Nolans Bore rare earth element deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoneveld, Louise; Spandler, Carl; Hussey, Kelvin

    2015-08-01

    The Nolans Bore rare earth element (REE) deposit consists of a network of fluorapatite-bearing veins and breccias hosted within Proterozoic granulites of the Reynolds Range, Central Australia. Mineralisation is divided into three zones (north, central, and south-east), with the north and south-east zones consisting of massive REE-bearing fluorapatite veins, with minor brecciation and carbonate infill. The central zone is distinctively different in mineralogy and structure; it features extensive brecciation, a high allanite content, and a large, epidote-rich enveloping alteration zone. The central zone is a reworking of the original solid apatite veins that formed during the Chewings Orogeny at ca. 1525 Ma. These original apatite veins are thought to derive from phosphate-rich magmatic-hydrothermal fluid exsolved from as-yet unrecognised alkaline magmatic bodies at depth. We define four ore breccia types (BX1-4) in the central zone on the basis of detailed petrological and geochemical analysis of drillcore and thin sections. BX1 ore comprises fluorapatite with minor crackle brecciation with carbonate infill and resembles ore of the north and south-east zones. Breccia types BX2, BX3, and BX4 represent progressive stages of ore brecciation and development of calc-silicate mineral (amphibole, epidote, allanite, calcite) infill. Comparison of bulk ore sample geochemistry between breccia types indicates that REEs were not mobilised more than a few centimetres during hydrothermal alteration and brecciation. Instead, most of the REEs were partitioned from the original REE fluorapatite into newly formed allanite, REE-poor fluorapatite and minor REE carbonate in the breccias. Negative europium (Eu) anomalies in the breccia minerals are accounted for by a large positive Eu anomaly in epidote from the alteration zones surrounding the ore breccias. This observation provides a direct link between ore recrystallisation and brecciation, and the formation of the alteration halo in

  20. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of mafic-ultramafic suites of the Irindina Province, Northern Territory, Australia: Implications for the Neoproterozoic to Devonian evolution of central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Madeline L.; Jowitt, Simon M.; Saleem, Ahmad

    2015-10-01

    Petrological and geochemical data for magmatic mafic-ultramafic suites of the Irindina and Aileron provinces of the Eastern Arunta region, Northern Territory, Australia constrain the petrogenesis and tectonic setting of magmatic events covering ~ 500 million years. Six geochemically distinct magmatic suites, here named A-F, have been identified and provide evidence of the tectonic history of this region and also are linked to two mineralisation-related magmatic events: the Lloyd Gabbro (Ni-Cu-PGE mineralisation) and the Riddoch Amphibolite (Cyprus-style Cu-Co volcanogenic massive sulphide mineralisation). The whole-rock geochemistry of Suites A and F is indicative of melts derived from a range of mantle depths (garnet to spinel lherzolite) and source enrichment. Suite D is likely related to the ~ 1070 Ma Warakurna/Giles event of central Australia, including the Alcurra (Musgrave) and Stuart (Arunta) dyke swarms, and likely formed through either: a) melting of subduction modified, sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) by an upwelling mantle plume; or b) a combination of intra-plate tectonic processes involving a long-lived thermal anomaly, lithospheric-scale architecture that focussed magmatism, and large-scale tectonism. Suite F represents more alkaline magmas, derived from a deeper source, but most likely formed during the same Warakurna LIP event (possibly contemporaneously) as Suite D. Suite E (the Riddoch Amphibolite) was most likely emplaced in a back-arc basin (BAB) setting at ~ 600 Ma, coincident with Delamerian subduction and BAB formation along the eastern Proterozoic margin of Australia from Queensland to the eastern Arunta and possibly further south. Subsequent destabilisation of the SCLM underneath the North Australian Craton generated the ~ 510 Ma Kalkarindji LIP in the form of Suite B intrusions that assimilated some of the older Suite E (Riddoch) material. This event is locally known as the ~ 506 Ma Stanovos Igneous Suite and represents the most

  1. A comparison of Aedes vigilax larval population densities and associated vegetation categories in a coastal wetland, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Jacups, S P; Kurucz, N; Whelan, P I; Carter, J M

    2009-12-01

    Darwin's northern suburbs border an extensive coastal reed and upper mangrove wetland recognized as an important larval habitat for Aedes vigilax (Skuse), the northern salt marsh mosquito, an established vector for Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses and an appreciable pest species. We sought to identify the most important vegetation categories associated with Ae. vigilax breeding to maximize the efficiency of mosquito control efforts. Using a generalized linear model with negative binominal distribution and log link, this study compares larval densities, determined by focused dipping, between 13 discernable vegetation categories. The incidence rate ratios (RR) generated can be used to compare the magnitude of larval densities for each vegetation category, compared with the reference category. Aedes vigilax larval densities were almost ten times greater in artificial drainage areas (RR=9.82), followed by tide-affected reticulate (Sporobolus/Xerochloa) areas (RR=8.15), then Schoenoplectus/mangroves (RR=2.29), compared with the reference vegetation category "lower mangroves." Furthermore, larval densities were highest in May, due to tidal inundation, for drainage areas and tide-affected reticulates (RR=12.2, 11.7, respectively) compared with March, the reference month. Thus, to maximize the efficiency of aerial salt marsh mosquito control operations in this wetland, larval control is best accomplished by concentrating on drains, Schoenoplectus/mangroves, and tide-affected reticulate areas, commencing early after the wet season. These results should apply to other areas of salt marsh mosquito breeding across northern Australia.

  2. New craniodental remains of Wakaleo alcootaensis (Diprotodontia: Thylacoleonidae) a carnivorous marsupial from the late Miocene Alcoota Local Fauna of the Northern Territory, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    New jaws and teeth referable to the rare thylacoleonid marsupial Wakaleo alcootaensis are figured and described. The species is the geologically youngest known member of the genus and is only known from the late Miocene Alcoota Local Fauna of the Northern Territory, Australia. A revised diagnosis of the species is presented which is found to be morphologically distinct from its congeners. W. alcootaensis can be distinguished from other species of Wakaleo by its greater size, deeply recessed masseteric fossa, more steeply angled I1, loss of P2, greater P3 to M1 ratio and loss of M3. Several characters of W. alcootaensis, including the increase in size, steeply angled I1, increase of the relative size of P3, and reduction of the molar row are present in at least some species of Thylacoleo. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that these character states are convergences and that there was parallel evolution in these two thylacoleonid lineages. PMID:26587359

  3. Obtaining biophysical measurements of woody vegetation from high resolution digital aerial photography in tropical and arid environments: Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staben, G. W.; Lucieer, A.; Evans, K. G.; Scarth, P.; Cook, G. D.

    2016-10-01

    communities across the Northern Territory.

  4. Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis in the Northern Territory of Australia: a review of 16 years data and comparison with the literature.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Catherine S; Cheng, Allen C; Markey, Peter G; Towers, Rebecca J; Richardson, Leisha J; Fagan, Peter K; Scott, Lesley; Krause, Vicki L; Currie, Bart J

    2011-10-01

    Data relating to acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) from the notifiable diseases surveillance system in the Northern Territory of Australia was extracted and analyzed. Isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes from confirmed cases were emm sequence typed. From 1991 to July 2008, there were 415 confirmed cases and 23 probable cases of APSGN notified. Four hundred fifteen (94.7%) of these were Indigenous Australians and 428 (97.7%) were people living in remote or very remote locations. The median age of cases was 7 years (range 0-54). The incidence of confirmed cases was 12.5/100,000 person-years, with an incidence in Indigenous Australian children younger than 15 years of age of 94.3 cases/100,000 person-years. The overall rate ratio of confirmed cases in Indigenous Australians to non-Indigenous Australians was 53.6 (95% confidence interval 32.6-94.8). Outbreaks of disease across multiple communities occurred in 1995 (N = 68), 2000 (N = 55), and 2005 (N = 87 [confirmed cases]). Various emm types of S. pyogenes were isolated from cases of APSGN including some types not previously recognized to be nephritogenic. The widespread outbreak in 2005 was caused by emm55.0 S. pyogenes. Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis continues to occur in remote Indigenous communities in Australia at rates comparable to or higher than those estimated in developing countries. Improvements in preventative and outbreak control strategies are needed.

  5. Distribution of Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B among children living in a remote indigenous community of the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Asher, Amy J; Holt, Deborah C; Andrews, Ross M; Power, Michelle L

    2014-01-01

    Giardiasis is a communicable gastrointestinal disease caused by Giardia duodenalis and two genetic assemblages, A and B, cause human infection. In remote Indigenous communities of Australia, giardiasis is highly prevalent among children but disease transmission is poorly understood. This study investigated the prevalence of Giardia and genetic subtypes contributing to human disease in a remote Indigenous community, in the Northern Territory of Australia. Eighty-seven faecal samples were collected from 74 children (<15 years) over an 18 month period, and the distribution of positive cases relative to participant age and gender were examined. Screening by microscopy and 18S rRNA PCR amplification showed 66.7% (58/87) of faecal samples were positive for Giardia. Both males and females were equally affected and high detection rates were obtained for participants aged 0-<5 years and 5-<10 years (66.0 and 60.0% respectively). For 58.6% of the positive samples, Giardia was only detected by 18S rRNA PCR. Approximately 75% of cases were assemblage B, and subassemblage analyses using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene demonstrated that a variety of genetic variants were present. The high proportion of positive cases that were not detectable by microscopy, and dominance of assemblage B cases highlights the need for further research in this community, to assess the contribution of Giardia to chronic gastrointestinal disease among children, and to understand conditions conductive to assemblage B transmission.

  6. Indigenous Tertiary Education--We Are All Learning: Both-Ways Pedagogy in the Northern Territory of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bat, Melodie; Kilgariff, Claire; Doe, Tina

    2014-01-01

    In this new era in tertiary education in Australia, the opportunity exists not only to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students and thus redress low access and participation rates, but also to build a system that privileges Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander knowledges and ways of learning. To be able to do such a thing…

  7. Characterization of a G1P[8] rotavirus causing an outbreak of gastroenteritis in the Northern Territory, Australia, in the vaccine era

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Celeste M; Cowley, Daniel; Snelling, Thomas L; Akopov, Asmik; Kirkness, Ewen F; Kirkwood, Carl D

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, a large outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis occurred in the Alice Springs region of the Northern Territory, Australia. The outbreak occurred 43 months after the introduction of the G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine Rotarix®. Forty-three infants were hospitalized during the outbreak and analysis of fecal samples from each infant revealed a G1P[8] rotavirus strain. The outbreak strain was adapted to cell culture and neutralization assays were performed using VP7 and VP4 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The outbreak strain exhibited a distinct neutralization resistance pattern compared to the Rotarix® vaccine strain. Whole genome sequencing of the 2010 outbreak virus strain demonstrated numerous amino acid differences compared to the Rotarix® vaccine strain in the characterized neutralization epitopes of the VP7 and VP4 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of the outbreak strain revealed a close genetic relationship to global strains, in particular RVA/Human-wt/BEL/BE0098/2009/G1P[8] and RVA/Human-wt/BEL/BE00038/2008/G1P[8] for numerous genes. The 2010 outbreak strain was likely introduced from a globally circulating population of strains rather than evolving from an endemic Australian strain. The outbreak strain possessed antigenic differences in the VP7 and VP4 proteins compared to the Rotarix® vaccine strain. The outbreak was associated with moderate vaccine coverage and possibly low vaccine take in the population. PMID:26038746

  8. Characterization of a G1P[8] rotavirus causing an outbreak of gastroenteritis in the Northern Territory, Australia, in the vaccine era.

    PubMed

    Donato, Celeste M; Cowley, Daniel; Snelling, Thomas L; Akopov, Asmik; Kirkness, Ewen F; Kirkwood, Carl D

    2014-07-01

    In 2010, a large outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis occurred in the Alice Springs region of the Northern Territory, Australia. The outbreak occurred 43 months after the introduction of the G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine Rotarix(®). Forty-three infants were hospitalized during the outbreak and analysis of fecal samples from each infant revealed a G1P[8] rotavirus strain. The outbreak strain was adapted to cell culture and neutralization assays were performed using VP7 and VP4 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The outbreak strain exhibited a distinct neutralization resistance pattern compared to the Rotarix(®) vaccine strain. Whole genome sequencing of the 2010 outbreak virus strain demonstrated numerous amino acid differences compared to the Rotarix(®) vaccine strain in the characterized neutralization epitopes of the VP7 and VP4 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of the outbreak strain revealed a close genetic relationship to global strains, in particular RVA/Human-wt/BEL/BE0098/2009/G1P[8] and RVA/Human-wt/BEL/BE00038/2008/G1P[8] for numerous genes. The 2010 outbreak strain was likely introduced from a globally circulating population of strains rather than evolving from an endemic Australian strain. The outbreak strain possessed antigenic differences in the VP7 and VP4 proteins compared to the Rotarix(®) vaccine strain. The outbreak was associated with moderate vaccine coverage and possibly low vaccine take in the population. PMID:26038746

  9. Characterization of a G1P[8] rotavirus causing an outbreak of gastroenteritis in the Northern Territory, Australia, in the vaccine era.

    PubMed

    Donato, Celeste M; Cowley, Daniel; Snelling, Thomas L; Akopov, Asmik; Kirkness, Ewen F; Kirkwood, Carl D

    2014-07-01

    In 2010, a large outbreak of rotavirus gastroenteritis occurred in the Alice Springs region of the Northern Territory, Australia. The outbreak occurred 43 months after the introduction of the G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine Rotarix(®). Forty-three infants were hospitalized during the outbreak and analysis of fecal samples from each infant revealed a G1P[8] rotavirus strain. The outbreak strain was adapted to cell culture and neutralization assays were performed using VP7 and VP4 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The outbreak strain exhibited a distinct neutralization resistance pattern compared to the Rotarix(®) vaccine strain. Whole genome sequencing of the 2010 outbreak virus strain demonstrated numerous amino acid differences compared to the Rotarix(®) vaccine strain in the characterized neutralization epitopes of the VP7 and VP4 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of the outbreak strain revealed a close genetic relationship to global strains, in particular RVA/Human-wt/BEL/BE0098/2009/G1P[8] and RVA/Human-wt/BEL/BE00038/2008/G1P[8] for numerous genes. The 2010 outbreak strain was likely introduced from a globally circulating population of strains rather than evolving from an endemic Australian strain. The outbreak strain possessed antigenic differences in the VP7 and VP4 proteins compared to the Rotarix(®) vaccine strain. The outbreak was associated with moderate vaccine coverage and possibly low vaccine take in the population.

  10. Health promotion in Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care services: case studies from South Australia and the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Freeman, Toby; Jolley, Gwyn; Lawless, Angela; Bentley, Michael; Värttö, Kaisu; Boffa, John; Labonte, Ronald; Sanders, David

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports on the health promotion and disease prevention conducted at Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care (PHC) services and considers the ways in which the organizational environment affects the extent and type of health promotion and disease prevention activity. The study involves five PHC services in Adelaide and one in Alice Springs. Four are managed by a state health department and two by boards of governance. The study is based on an audit of activities and on 68 interviews conducted with staff. All the sites undertake health promotion and recognize its importance but all report that this activity is under constant pressure resulting from the need to provide services to people who have health problems. We also found an increased focus on chronic disease management and prevention which prioritized individuals and behavioural change strategies rather than addressing social determinants affecting whole communities. There was little health promotion work that reflected a salutogenic approach to the creation of health. Most activity falls under three types: parenting and child development, chronic disease prevention and mental health. Only the non-government organizations reported advocacy on broader policy issues. Health reform and consequent reorganizations were seen to reduce the ability of some services to undertake health promotion. The paper concludes that PHC in Australia plays an important role in disease prevention, but that there is considerable scope to increase the amount of community-based health promotion which focuses on a salutogenic view of health and which engages in community partnerships. PMID:23656732

  11. Health promotion in Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care services: case studies from South Australia and the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Freeman, Toby; Jolley, Gwyn; Lawless, Angela; Bentley, Michael; Värttö, Kaisu; Boffa, John; Labonte, Ronald; Sanders, David

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports on the health promotion and disease prevention conducted at Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care (PHC) services and considers the ways in which the organizational environment affects the extent and type of health promotion and disease prevention activity. The study involves five PHC services in Adelaide and one in Alice Springs. Four are managed by a state health department and two by boards of governance. The study is based on an audit of activities and on 68 interviews conducted with staff. All the sites undertake health promotion and recognize its importance but all report that this activity is under constant pressure resulting from the need to provide services to people who have health problems. We also found an increased focus on chronic disease management and prevention which prioritized individuals and behavioural change strategies rather than addressing social determinants affecting whole communities. There was little health promotion work that reflected a salutogenic approach to the creation of health. Most activity falls under three types: parenting and child development, chronic disease prevention and mental health. Only the non-government organizations reported advocacy on broader policy issues. Health reform and consequent reorganizations were seen to reduce the ability of some services to undertake health promotion. The paper concludes that PHC in Australia plays an important role in disease prevention, but that there is considerable scope to increase the amount of community-based health promotion which focuses on a salutogenic view of health and which engages in community partnerships.

  12. Re-evaluation of the petrogenesis of the Proterozoic Jabiluka unconformity-related uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polito, Paul A.; Kurt Kyser, T.; Thomas, David; Marlatt, Jim; Drever, Garth

    2005-11-01

    The world class Jabiluka unconformity-related uranium deposit in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Field, Australia, contains >163,000 tons of contained U3O8. Mineralization is hosted by shallow-to-steeply dipping basement rocks comprising graphitic units of chlorite-biotite-muscovite schist. These rocks are overlain by flat-lying coarse-grained sandstones belonging to the Kombolgie Subgroup. The deposit was discovered in 1971, but has never been mined. The construction of an 1,150 m decline into the upper eastern sector of the Jabiluka II deposit combined with closely spaced underground drilling in 1998 and 1999 allowed mapping and sampling from underground for the first time. Structural mapping, drill core logging and petrographic studies on polished thin sections established a detailed paragenesis that provided the framework for subsequent electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction, fluid inclusion, and O-H, U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar isotope analysis. Uranium mineralization is structurally controlled within semi-brittle shears that are sub-conformable to the basement stratigraphy, and breccias that are developed within the hinge zone of fault-related folds adjacent to the shears. Uraninite is intimately associated with chlorite, sericite, hematite ± quartz. Electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction analysis of syn-ore illite and chlorite indicates a mineralization temperature of 200°C. Pre- and syn-ore minerals extracted from the Kombolgie Subgroup overlying the deposit and syn-ore alteration minerals in the Cahill Formation have δ18Ofluid and δ D fluid values of 4.0±3.7 and -27±17‰, respectively. These values are indistinguishable from illite separates extracted from diagenetic aquifers in the Kombolgie Subgroup up to 70 km to the south and east of the deposit and believed to be the source of the uraniferous fluid. New fluid inclusion microthermometry data reveal that the mineralising brine was saline, but not saturated. U-Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios of uraninite by

  13. Intestinal parasites of children and adults in a remote Aboriginal community of the Northern Territory, Australia, 1994–1996

    PubMed Central

    Aland, Kieran; Kearns, Thérèse; Gongdjalk, Glenda; Holt, Deborah; Currie, Bart; Prociv, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Parasitic infections can adversely impact health, nutritional status and educational attainment. This study investigated hookworm and other intestinal parasites in an Aboriginal community in Australia from 1994 to 1996. Methods Seven surveys for intestinal parasites were conducted by a quantitative formol-ether method on faecal samples. Serological testing was conducted for Strongyloides stercoralis and Toxocara canis IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results Of the 314 participants, infections were as follows: Trichuris trichiura (86%); hookworm, predominantly Ancylostoma duodenale (36%); Entamoeba spp. (E. histolytica complex [E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moskovski], E. coli and E. hartmanni) (25%); S. stercoralis (19%); Rodentolepis nana (16%); and Giardia duodenalis (10%). Serological diagnosis for 29 individuals showed that 28% were positive for S. stercoralis and 21% for T. canis. There was a decrease in the proportion positive for hookworm over the two-year period but not for the other parasite species. The presence of hookworm, T. trichiura and Entamoeba spp. was significantly greater in 5–14 year olds (n = 87) than in 0–4 year olds (n = 41), while the presence of S. stercoralis, R. nana, G. duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. in 5–14 year olds was significantly greater than 15–69 year olds (n = 91). Discussion Faecal testing indicated a very high prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially in schoolchildren. The decrease in percentage positive for hookworm over the two years was likely due to the albendazole deworming programme, and recent evidence indicates that the prevalence of hookworm is now low. However there was no sustained decrease in percentage positive for the other parasite species. PMID:25960921

  14. Characterization of G2P[4] rotavirus strains causing outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the Northern Territory, Australia, in 1999, 2004 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Donato, Celeste M; Cowley, Daniel; Donker, Nicole C; Bogdanovic-Sakran, Nada; Snelling, Thomas L; Kirkwood, Carl D

    2014-12-01

    Outbreaks of rotavirus diarrhea cause a large disease burden in the Alice Springs region of the Northern Territory, Australia. The introduction of the rotavirus vaccine Rotarix® has been associated with an increase in detection of G2P[4] strains in many countries. However, G2P[4] emergence has also been observed in vaccine-naive countries, suggesting a general global increase in the circulation of G2P[4] strains. A G2P[4] rotavirus outbreak occurred in 2009, 28 months after the introduction of the Rotarix® vaccine and 43 children were hospitalized. Pre-vaccine introduction, G2P[4] strains were observed associated with large outbreaks in 1999 and 2004. To determine the genetic relationship between these strains whole genome sequence analysis was conducted on representative strains from each of the G2P[4] outbreaks, in 1999, 2004 and 2009. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the majority of genes from 2009 outbreak strain clustered with contemporary global strains, while the VP7 gene clustered with contemporary and older strains and was antigenically distinct to the majority of contemporary global G2P[4] strains; suggesting the strain was an intragenogroup reassortant. The 1999 and 2009 strains appear to share similar evolutionary origins, and both had a high degree of genetic identity to previously identified Australian and global strains. Conversely, the 2004 outbreak strain was more divergent in comparison to Australian and global strains. The 1999 and 2004 outbreaks likely occurred due to the accumulation of immunologically naïve children in the population following low levels of G2P[4] rotavirus disease in the community in the years prior to each outbreak. The 2009 outbreak was associated with moderate vaccine coverage in the population and vaccine efficacy against the strain was low. The circulation of this unusual strain in the population combined with low vaccine coverage and diminished vaccine efficacy likely contributed to the outbreak occurring in this

  15. The impacts of low-cost treatment options upon scale formation potential in remote communities reliant on hard groundwaters. A case study: Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kinsela, Andrew S; Jones, Adele M; Collins, Richard N; Waite, T David

    2012-02-01

    The majority of small, remote communities within the Northern Territory (NT) in Central Australia are reliant on groundwater as their primary supply of domestic, potable water. Saturation indices for a variety of relevant minerals were calculated using available thermodynamic speciation codes on collected groundwater data across the NT. These saturation indices were used to assess the theoretical formation of problematic mineral-scale, which manifests itself by forming stubborn coatings on domestic appliances and fixtures. The results of this research show that 63% of the measured sites within the NT have the potential to form calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) scale, increasing to 91% in arid, central regions. The data also suggests that all groundwaters are over-saturated with respect to amorphous calcium-bridged ferric-silica polymers, based on the crystalline mineral index (Ca(3)Fe(2)Si(3)O(12)), although the quantitative impact of this scale is limited by low iron concentrations. An assessment of possible low-cost/low-technology management options was made, including; lowering the temperature of hot-water systems, diluting groundwater with rainwater and modifying the pH of the source water. Source water pH modification (generally a reduction to pH 7.0) was shown to clearly alleviate potential carbonate-based scale formation, over and above the other two options, albeit at a greater technical and capital expense. Although low-cost/low-technology treatment options are unlikely to remove severe scale-related issues, their place in small, remote communities with minor scale problems should be investigated further, owing to the social, technical and capital barriers involved with installing advanced treatment plants (e.g. reverse osmosis) in such locations.

  16. 3D representation of geochemical data, the corresponding alteration and associated REE mobility at the Ranger uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Louise A.; Cleverley, James S.; Pownceby, Mark; MacRae, Colin

    2013-12-01

    Interrogation and 3D visualisation of multiple multi-element data sets collected at the Ranger 1 No. 3 uranium mine, in the Northern Territory of Australia, show a distinct and large-scale chemical zonation around the ore body. A central zone of Mg alteration, dominated by extensive clinochlore alteration, overprints a biotite-muscovite-K-feldspar assemblage which shows increasing loss of Na, Ba and Ca moving towards the ore body. Manipulation of pre-existing geochemical data and integration of new data collected from targeted `niche' samples make it possible to recognise chemical architecture within the system and identify potential fluid conduits. New trace element and rare earth element (REE) data show strong fractionation associated with the zoned alteration around the deposit and with fault planes that intersect and bound the deposit. Within the most altered portion of the system, isocon analysis indicates addition of elements including Mg, S, Cu, Au and Ni and removal of elements including Ca, K, Ba and Na within a zone of damage associated with ore precipitation. In the more distal parts of the system, processes of alteration and replacement associated with the mineralising system can be recognised. REE element data show enrichment in HREE centred about a characteristic peak in Dy in the high-grade ore zone while LREEs are enriched in the outermost portions of the system. The patterns recognised in 3D in zoning of geochemical groups and contoured S, K and Mg abundance and the observed REE patterns suggest a fluid flow regime in which fluids were predominately migrating upwards during ore deposition within the core of the ore system.

  17. Early palaeozoic palaeomagnetism in Australia I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, C. T.

    1980-04-01

    considerable intensity. Two characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Late Cambrian—Early Ordovician age (S-pole at: 75.8°E 17.4°N, d p = 4.2°, d m = 1.9°, N = 54 specimens), attributed to thermochemical activity predating the main folding phases of the Delamarian Orogeny. (B) A primary magnetic component corresponding to a S-pole position at 15.1°E 33.8°S (d p = 6.2°, d m = 12.3°, N = 16 sites). Both the primary and the secondary magnetic component are in very good directional agreement with the magnetization pattern from the correlated Billy Creek Formation of the Flinders Ranges (I). Consequently, noticeable rotational movement since late-Early Cambrian times between Kangaroo Island and the northwestern part of the Adelaide "Geosyncline" can be ruled out. III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin (Northern Territory) A total of 328 samples from a Middle Cambrian red-bed succession and a Middle to early-Late Cambrian carbonate succession in the Amadeus Basin (Central Australia) have been analyzed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples contained a recent field component of considerable intensity which became broken down, respectively below 200°C in the carbonate samples and between 300°C and 500°C in the red-bed samples. Another recent field component, broken down between 600°C and 675°C, was noted in some of the red-bed samples. Three characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Late Devonian—Early Carboniferous age (S-pole at 110.5°E 46.9°S, N = 2 localities) which predates the main folding phase of the Early Carboniferous Alice Springs Orogeny. (B) Another secondary magnetic component (S-pole at 60.8°E 33.8°N, N = 2 localities) which is very similar to a thermo-chemically induced Cambro-Ordovician magnetic component, noted in rocks from the Adelaide "Geosyncline". (C) A primary magnetic component which suggests

  18. Early palaeozoic palaeomagnetism in Australia I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, C. T.

    1980-04-01

    considerable intensity. Two characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Late Cambrian—Early Ordovician age (S-pole at: 75.8°E 17.4°N, d p = 4.2°, d m = 1.9°, N = 54 specimens), attributed to thermochemical activity predating the main folding phases of the Delamarian Orogeny. (B) A primary magnetic component corresponding to a S-pole position at 15.1°E 33.8°S (d p = 6.2°, d m = 12.3°, N = 16 sites). Both the primary and the secondary magnetic component are in very good directional agreement with the magnetization pattern from the correlated Billy Creek Formation of the Flinders Ranges (I). Consequently, noticeable rotational movement since late-Early Cambrian times between Kangaroo Island and the northwestern part of the Adelaide "Geosyncline" can be ruled out. III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin (Northern Territory) A total of 328 samples from a Middle Cambrian red-bed succession and a Middle to early-Late Cambrian carbonate succession in the Amadeus Basin (Central Australia) have been analyzed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples contained a recent field component of considerable intensity which became broken down, respectively below 200°C in the carbonate samples and between 300°C and 500°C in the red-bed samples. Another recent field component, broken down between 600°C and 675°C, was noted in some of the red-bed samples. Three characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Late Devonian—Early Carboniferous age (S-pole at 110.5°E 46.9°S, N = 2 localities) which predates the main folding phase of the Early Carboniferous Alice Springs Orogeny. (B) Another secondary magnetic component (S-pole at 60.8°E 33.8°N, N = 2 localities) which is very similar to a thermo-chemically induced Cambro-Ordovician magnetic component, noted in rocks from the Adelaide "Geosyncline". (C) A primary magnetic component which suggests

  19. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  20. Solanum watneyi, a new bush tomato species from the Northern Territory, Australia named for Mark Watney of the book and film “The Martian”

    PubMed Central

    Martine, Christopher T.; Frawley, Emma S.; Cantley, Jason T.; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of andromonoecious Solanum from the Australian “bush tomato clade” of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum watneyi Martine & Frawley, sp. nov. is closely allied with Solanum eburneum, and is sympatric with it in parts of its range in the Northern Territory. The new species has been recognized as a variant of Solanum eburneum for decades, at times being referred to by local botanists as Solanum sp. “Bullita” because of its relative abundance in the vicinity of the Bullita Station area of Judbarra/Gregory National Park. Morphometric analyses show that Solanum watneyi differs statistically from Solanum eburneum in several key reproductive and vegetative characters and field observations suggest that the two sister species may represent a case of edaphic speciation. We provide morphometric evidence for the novelty of Solanum watneyi, a complete description, and cite specimens for both species. PMID:27081345

  1. Clear not simple: an approach to community consultation for a maternal pneumococcal vaccine trial among Indigenous women in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, M; Moberley, S; Nelson, S; Leach, A J; Andrews, R

    2007-03-22

    PneuMum is a randomised controlled maternal vaccination trial, using 23-valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (23vPPV) during the third trimester or at delivery compared to vaccination at 7 months post delivery. The primary outcomes are infant middle ear disease and nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage at 7 months of age. PneuMum is the first vaccine trial to be conducted among Indigenous people in the Northern Territory. We describe the study design and the approach taken to develop the PneuMum message in collaboration with key Indigenous stakeholders and then to communicate the PneuMum message with Indigenous communities and potential participants. We hope that these methods will provide a model for future research involving Indigenous communities to ensure Indigenous involvement in research and ultimate improvements in Indigenous health.

  2. Solanum watneyi, a new bush tomato species from the Northern Territory, Australia named for Mark Watney of the book and film "The Martian".

    PubMed

    Martine, Christopher T; Frawley, Emma S; Cantley, Jason T; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E

    2016-01-01

    A new species of andromonoecious Solanum from the Australian "bush tomato clade" of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum watneyi Martine & Frawley, sp. nov. is closely allied with Solanum eburneum, and is sympatric with it in parts of its range in the Northern Territory. The new species has been recognized as a variant of Solanum eburneum for decades, at times being referred to by local botanists as Solanum sp. "Bullita" because of its relative abundance in the vicinity of the Bullita Station area of Judbarra/Gregory National Park. Morphometric analyses show that Solanum watneyi differs statistically from Solanum eburneum in several key reproductive and vegetative characters and field observations suggest that the two sister species may represent a case of edaphic speciation. We provide morphometric evidence for the novelty of Solanum watneyi, a complete description, and cite specimens for both species. PMID:27081345

  3. The diversity and abundance of polychaetes (Annelida) are altered in sediments impacted by alumina refinery discharge in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Neave, Matthew J; Glasby, Christopher J; McGuinness, Keith A; Parry, David L; Streten-Joyce, Claire; Gibb, Karen S

    2013-12-01

    We collected polychaete diversity and abundance data at a range of impacted and reference sites near an alumina refinery in Melville Bay, northern Australia. The aims were to measure the impact of sediment modified by the alumina refinery discharge on polychaete communities and secondly to gather baseline data from which to measure future changes. Polychaete communities in both soft-bottom habitats and subtidal areas adjacent to mangrove forests were studied. We also developed and deployed an artificial substratum device to sample polychaetes associated with hard-substrate habitats. For each habitat, polychaete community composition was different between impacted and reference sites and at multiple time points. The impact of future changes either from bioremediation or management practices can be measured against these baseline data. Indicator species analysis was used to identify polychaete species that were significantly different at the locations tested, and we discuss their potential as indicator species.

  4. Relative Frequency, Characteristics, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., Chromobacterium violaceum, and Shewanella spp. in the Northern Territory of Australia, 2000–2013

    PubMed Central

    McAuliffe, Gary N.; Hennessy, Jann; Baird, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio, Aeromonas, Chromobacterium violaceum, and Shewanella (VACS) are water-associated Gram-negative organisms that can cause a variety of infections. The frequency, patient characteristics, and antimicrobial susceptibilities for 468 isolates from 442 patients from the Northern Territory were reviewed. Aeromonas spp. (312 of 468; 67%) were most commonly isolated followed by Vibrio spp. (71 of 468; 15%), Shewanella spp. (61 of 468; 13%), and C. violaceum (24 of 468; 5%). A strong male predominance was found (male to female ratio of 2.3:1). Skin and soft tissue isolations (373 of 468; 80%) from lower limb infections (222 of 371; 60%) were the most common clinical manifestation. The episodes were usually polymicrobial (281 of 468; 60%). Coisolates included Staphylococcus aureus (137 of 468; 29%), β-hemolytic streptococci (74 of 468; 16%), enterobacteriaceae (111 of 468; 24%), non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli (35 of 468; 7%), and other VACS organisms (37 of 468; 8%). Antimicrobial resistance of VACS organisms to ciprofloxacin (0–4%), cefepime (0–3%), and gentamicin (0–0.8%) and Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., and Shewanella to cotrimoxazole (0–3%) was rarely shown. For water-associated lower limb skin and soft tissue infections in the tropics, clinicians should consider empirical antimicrobial therapy with agents active against S. aureus and VACS organisms. PMID:25548380

  5. Land application of mine water causes minimal uranium loss offsite in the wet-dry tropics: Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Saqib; Streten, Claire; Parry, David L; McGuinness, Keith A; Lu, Ping; Gibb, Karen S

    2015-11-01

    Ranger Uranium Mine (RUM) is situated in the wet-dry tropics of Northern Australia. Land application (irrigation) of stockpile (ore and waste) runoff water to natural woodland on the mine lease is a key part of water management at the mine. Consequently, the soil in these Land Application Areas (LAAs) presents a range of uranium (U) and other metals concentrations. Knowledge of seasonal and temporal changes in soil U and physicochemical parameters at RUM LAAs is important to develop suitable management and rehabilitation strategies. Therefore, soil samples were collected from low, medium, high and very high U sites at RUM LAAs for two consecutive years and the effect of time and season on soil physicochemical parameters particularly U and other major solutes applied in irrigation water was measured. Concentrations of some of the solutes applied in the irrigation water such as sulphur (S), iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca) showed significant seasonal and temporal changes. Soil S, Fe and Ca concentration decreased from year 1 to year 2 and from dry to wet seasons during both years. Soil U followed the same pattern except that we recorded an increase in soil U concentrations at most of the RUM LAAs after year 2 wet season compared to year 2 dry season. Thus, these sites did not show a considerable decrease in soil U concentration from year 1 to year 2. Sites which contained elevated U after wet season 2 also had higher moisture content which suggests that pooling of U containing rainwater at these sites may be responsible for elevated U. Thus, U may be redistributed within RUM LAAs due to surface water movement. The study also suggested that a decrease in U concentrations in LAA soils at very high U (>900 mg kg(-1)) sites is most likely due to transport of particulate matter bound U by surface runoff and U may not be lost from the surface soil due to vertical movement through the soil profile. Uranium attached to particulate matter may reduce its potential for environmental

  6. Land application of mine water causes minimal uranium loss offsite in the wet-dry tropics: Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Saqib; Streten, Claire; Parry, David L; McGuinness, Keith A; Lu, Ping; Gibb, Karen S

    2015-11-01

    Ranger Uranium Mine (RUM) is situated in the wet-dry tropics of Northern Australia. Land application (irrigation) of stockpile (ore and waste) runoff water to natural woodland on the mine lease is a key part of water management at the mine. Consequently, the soil in these Land Application Areas (LAAs) presents a range of uranium (U) and other metals concentrations. Knowledge of seasonal and temporal changes in soil U and physicochemical parameters at RUM LAAs is important to develop suitable management and rehabilitation strategies. Therefore, soil samples were collected from low, medium, high and very high U sites at RUM LAAs for two consecutive years and the effect of time and season on soil physicochemical parameters particularly U and other major solutes applied in irrigation water was measured. Concentrations of some of the solutes applied in the irrigation water such as sulphur (S), iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca) showed significant seasonal and temporal changes. Soil S, Fe and Ca concentration decreased from year 1 to year 2 and from dry to wet seasons during both years. Soil U followed the same pattern except that we recorded an increase in soil U concentrations at most of the RUM LAAs after year 2 wet season compared to year 2 dry season. Thus, these sites did not show a considerable decrease in soil U concentration from year 1 to year 2. Sites which contained elevated U after wet season 2 also had higher moisture content which suggests that pooling of U containing rainwater at these sites may be responsible for elevated U. Thus, U may be redistributed within RUM LAAs due to surface water movement. The study also suggested that a decrease in U concentrations in LAA soils at very high U (>900 mg kg(-1)) sites is most likely due to transport of particulate matter bound U by surface runoff and U may not be lost from the surface soil due to vertical movement through the soil profile. Uranium attached to particulate matter may reduce its potential for environmental

  7. Mining pollution and the diet of the purple-striped Gudgeon Mogurnda Mogurnda Richardson (Eleotridae) in the Finniss River, Northern Territory, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffree, R.A.; Williams, N.J.

    1980-01-01

    During the dry season of 1974, collections of the purple-striped Gudgeon Mogurnda Mogurnda were taken from the Finniss River of the Northern Territory; during the wet season, this river receives acidic and metallic pollutants from the formerly mined area of Rum Jungle. The fish consumed a great variety of foods, with high abundances of dytiscidae, chironomidae, ceratopogonidae, trichoptera, odonata, copepoda, decapoda, and pisces. For no food was there a significant regression against habitat descriptors in both of the zones; this emphasizes that pollution effects are more complex than simply depressing or raising the abundances of the dietary species. Five foods were more abundant in the diets of the polluted zone, and three in those of the unpolluted zone. The dietary abundances of two foods, both crustacean, increased in the polluted zone, compared to the unpolluted zone, through the dry season. Two categories of foods: (1) those obtaining oxygen directly from the atmosphere or via a film or bubble of air; and (2) the converse set (aquatic respirers), were contrasted for their usefulness in distinguishing between the zones, by both hierarchical agglomerative and discriminant function analyses. One collection from the polluted zone was reclassified as unpolluted on the basis of its grouping behaviour. The relevance for pollution studies of dietary analysis of euryphagous fish, rather than sampling aquatic fauna directly, is discussed in terms of food substitution, switching, strategies for abundance and recovery by the fauna, and possible effects of the pollutants on the fish as an intervening collector. Downstream patterns of abundance of the invertebrate fauna in this study are broadly similar to those of other studies in which such chemically diverse metals as Pb, Zn, and Cu are the pollutants, but there are differences for some faunal components.

  8. The Northern Territory Teaching Schools Program: Exploring the Promise of Partnerships in Regional Professional Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckworth, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    One of the key challenges for education in Northern Australia is attracting and recruiting teachers who can respond to the challenges of the region at the start of their careers through professional experience in the region. For pre-service students in regional locations such as the Northern Territory these challenges include coping with the…

  9. Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The oval shaped basin of the sedimentary rocks of the Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia (23.0S, 119.0E) dominates the center of this near nadir view. The Fortescue River is the remarkably straight, fault controlled feature bordering the Hammersley on the north. Sand dunes are the main surface features in the northeast and southwest. Many dry lakebeds can be seen to the east as light grey colored patches along the watercourses.

  10. Fixation of radionuclides in the 238U decay series in the vicinity of mineralized zones: 1. The Austatom Uranium Prospect, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirvington, P. J.

    1983-03-01

    The minimum age of a zone of secondary uranium mineralization, located at the Austatom Prospect in the Alligator Rivers region of Australia, is estimated to be 3.6 × 10 5y. This is derived from a geochronological model based on retarded leaching of 234U with respect to 238U and on ratios within the ore of these members of the 238U decay series. Although kaolinite is a dominant mineral in the weathered schist-host-rocks, retarded dissolution of 234U occurs only in the presence of the clay minerals illite and montmorillonite. In their absence the reverse occurs. A model is proposed to explain the results. Ratios of 230Th to 238U indicate that the mineralization has probably remained stationary within the weathered schist for at least 1 to 2 × 10 5y. Future use of clay minerals as buffers in radioactive waste repositories is supported by the excellent long-term retention obtained for oxidized uranium, probably due in part to isomorphic substitution into the clay crystal lattice.

  11. Treponemal infection in the Australian Northern Territory aborigines

    PubMed Central

    Garner, M. F.; Backhouse, J. L.; Moodie, P. M.; Tibbs, G. J.

    1972-01-01

    For many years, a moderate to high prevalence of positive reactions to standard tests for syphilis (STS) has been found in sera from the aboriginal inhabitants of the Northern Territory of Australia. In the survey reported here, people living in 18 areas of the Northern Territory were sampled to determine if the positive STS results were due to treponemal infection and, if so, to what extent this was endemic syphilis, yaws, or venereal syphilis. The results of the Treponema pallidum immobilization test were taken to indicate the presence or absence of treponemal disease in the subject. Clinically, no cases of active treponemal infection were seen, though findings on old infections were difficult to interpret in the older age groups. The prevalence of treponemal infection varied from 3.4% to 58.0% in the areas tested. No serological evidence of treponemal infection in children under 15 years of age was found in 6 areas, while in 12 areas it varied from 2.2% to 32.6%. Sera from 60 people who had no clinical signs of treponemal infection gave high-titre CWR and VDRL test results. It was concluded that yaws, endemic syphilis, and probably venereal syphilis are to be found in the aboriginal population. PMID:4557905

  12. Our Stories: Innovation and Excellence in Rural Education. Proceedings of National Rural Education Conference of the Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (21st, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia, October 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Colin, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The papers contained in this document represent the keynote addresses, refereed and non-refereed conference papers from the 21st National Conference of the Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA). The theme for this national annual conference was: Our Stories: Innovation and Excellence in Rural Education. Keynote…

  13. Aboriginal Language Use in the Northern Territory: 5 Reports. Work Papers of SIL-AAIB, Series B, Volume 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, M. J., Ed.

    Five studies of aboriginal language use in Australia's Northern Territory include: (1) "Yanyuwa--A Dying Language" (Jean F. Kirton), which outlines the factors contributing to the demise of the use of Yanyuwa since 1963 and the trend toward use of Kriol; (2) "Kriol in the Barkly Tableland" (Phillip L. Graber), presenting sociolinguistic and…

  14. Indirect hemagglutination assay in patients with melioidosis in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen C; O'brien, Mathew; Freeman, Kevin; Lum, Gary; Currie, Bart J

    2006-02-01

    Melioidosis is caused by the saprophytic organism Burkholderia pseudomallei. The use of the indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) has found widespread use in areas endemic for this disease. Using this assay, we explored the serologic profile of 275 patients with culture-confirmed melioidosis in the Northern Territory of Australia. Based on a threshold titer of 1:40, the sensitivity of the IHA on admission was 56%. Female patients, those with positive blood cultures, and those with pneumonia independently predicted a negative IHA result. Most patients (68%) with negative admission IHA titers subsequently seroconverted. Most patients (92%) with positive admission IHA titers had persistently positive IHA titers. Relapses were not observed in 36 patients who had a negative IHA at least 1 month after admission, irrespective of initial admission IHA. The IHA has limited utility as a diagnostic test for acute disease, and most patients subsequently have persistently positive titers after recovery from illness.

  15. Quaternary Tipping Points in Tropical Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Patrick; Dunbar, Gavin; Croke, Jacky; Katunar, Rosie

    2016-04-01

    Tropical northern Queensland, particularly the volcanic Atherton Tableland, contains some of the most detailed and longest terrestrial palaeoenvironmental archives in Australia and when combined with adjacent marine sediment records provides key insight into potential environmental 'tipping points' for the entire Quaternary period and beyond. This presentation will provide an overview of some of the key tipping points (i.e. significant landscape transformation) that have occurred within the tropical northern Australian region over the Quaternary, as well as discussing potential causes and subsequent impacts of these transformation episodes. These events include the development of the Great Barrier Reef, transition from obliquity to eccentricity dominated glacial-interglacial cycles, the Mid-Brunhes event, the Oxygen Isotope Stage 6 episode, the arrival of people into the region, Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition and European settlement.

  16. Rural electrification: Waste biomass Russian northern territories. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, S.

    1998-02-01

    The primary objective of this pre-feasibility evaluation is to examine the economic and technical feasibility of replacing distillate fuel with local waste biomass in the village of Verkhni-Ozerski, Arkhangelsk Region, Russia. This village is evaluated as a pilot location representing the off-grid villages in the Russian Northern Territories. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has agreed to provide technical assistance to the Ministry of Fuel and Energy (MFE). MFE has identified the Northern Territories as a priority area requiring NREL`s assistance. The program initially affects about 900 off-grid villages. Biomass and wind energy, and to a lesser extent small hydro (depending on resource availability) are expected to play the dominant role in the program, Geothermal energy may also have a role in the Russian Far East. The Arkhangelsk, Kariela, and Krasnoyarsk Regions, all in the Russian Northern Territories, have abundant forest resources and forest products industries, making them strong candidates for implementation of small-scale waste biomass-to-energy projects. The 900 or so villages included in the renewable energy program span nine administrative regions and autonomous republics. The regional authorities in the Northern Territories proposed these villages to MFE for consideration in the renewable energy program according to the following selection criteria: (a) Remote off-grid location, (b) high cost of transporting fuel, old age of existing power generation equipment, and (d) preliminary determination as to availability of alternative energy resources. Inclusion of indigenous minorities in the program was also heavily emphasized. The prefeasibility study demonstrates that the project merits continuation and a full feasibility analysis. The demonstrated rate of return and net positive cash flow, the willingness of Onegales and local/regional authorities to cooperate, and the immense social benefits are all good reasons to continue the project.

  17. Implementing guideline based heart failure care in the Northern Territory: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Iyngkaran, Pupalan; Harris, Melanie; Ilton, Marcus; Kangaharan, Nadarajan; Battersby, Malcolm; Stewart, Simon; Brown, Alex

    2014-05-01

    The Northern Territory of Australia is a vast area serviced by two major tertiary hospitals. It has both a unique demography and geography, which pose challenges for delivering optimal heart failure services. The prevalence of congestive heart failure continues to increase, imposing a significant burden on health infrastructure and health care costs. Specific patient groups suffer disproportionately from increased disease severity or service related issues often represented as a "health care gap". The syndrome itself is characterised by ongoing symptoms interspersed with acute decompensation requiring lifelong therapy and is rarely reversible. For the individual client the overwhelming attention to heart failure care and the impact of health care gaps can be devastating. This gap may also contribute to widening socio-economic differentials for families and communities as they seek to take on some of the care responsibilities. This review explores the challenges of heart failure best practice in the Northern Territory and the opportunities to improve on service delivery. The discussions highlighted could have implications for health service delivery throughout regional centres in Australia and health systems in other countries. PMID:24548637

  18. Alcohol-Related Violence among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: Prioritizing an Agenda for Prevention-Narrative Review Article.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Jayaraj, Rama; Notaras, Leonard; Thomas, Mahiban

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol - related violence among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (also called as "Indigenous") is a major public health concern in Northern Territory of Australia. There is dearth of epidemiological data that link three contributing epidemics: alcohol misuse, violence, and trauma in the Northern Territory. In this review, we aimed to concentrate on how these epidemics intersect among the Indigenous people in the Northern Territory. In our descriptive review, we have searched published papers, publicly available government and health department reports web sites reporting relevant data on these three risk factors in the Northern Territory. The high rate of family and domestic violence and assaults in the Australian Territory indicates an increased correlation with high risk alcohol use compared to unintentional injuries. Heavy drinking pattern and harmful use of alcohol among Indigenous people are more likely to be associated with the incidence of violent assaults and physical injuries in the Northern Territory. We are trying to emphasize our understanding of co-occurring risk factors on the alcohol - violence relationship and urging a need for interventional approaches to reduce the public health issues in the Northern Territory.

  19. Wind-Diesel Hybrid Systems for Russia's Northern Territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevorgian, V.; Touryan, K.; Bezrukikh, P.; Karghiev, V.

    1999-09-01

    This paper will summarize the DOE/Russian Ministry of Fuel and Energy (MF&E) activities in Russia's Northern Territories in the field of hybrid wind-diesel power systems over the last three years (1997-1999). The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supplied technical assistance to the project, including resource assessment, system design, site identification, training and system monitoring. As a result, several wind-diesel systems have been installed and are operating in the Arkhangelsk/Murmansk regions and in Chukotka. NREL designed and provided sets of data acquisition equipment to monitor several of the first pilot wind-diesel systems. NREL's computer simulation models are being used for performance data analysis and optimizing of future system configurations.

  20. The Introduction of Middle Schools in the Northern Territory: Processes and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Bill

    2006-01-01

    The year 2006 has been a year in which a decision on the introduction of middle schools has been made by the Labor government of the Northern Territory. The initial impetus for the change came from the 2003 Secondary Education Review "Future Directions for Secondary Education in the Northern Territory," chaired by Gregor Ramsay. There are many…

  1. Trajectories of women's homelessness in Canada's 3 northern territories

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Rose; Hrenchuk, Charlotte; Bopp, Judie; Poole, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background Repairing the Holes in the Net was a 2-year, multilevel action research project designed to inform the development of culturally appropriate and gender-specific services for northern women who are homeless or marginally housed and who face mental health and substance use concerns. The study was designed to learn about the barriers and supports experienced by homeless women in the North when accessing mental health care, shelter, housing and other services; and to inform the work of northern service providers and policy advocates in a position to implement adjustments in their praxis. Methods This article describes the trajectories of women's service access and their ideas for service improvement from 61 qualitative, semi-structured interviews conducted with homeless women in Whitehorse, Yukon (YT), Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (NT), and Iqualit, Nunavut (NU). Results Unresolved trauma, poverty and social exclusion, inability to find and maintain housing and ineffective services emerged as interconnected and multifaceted challenges related to women's service engagement. In the face of these challenges, women displayed significant resilience and resistance, and offered important ideas for service improvement. Conclusions The 4 interconnected systemic challenges identified in the research, coupled with specific ideas for change cited by the resilient homeless women interviewed, offer points of entry to improve service policy and delivery. Implementing trauma-informed approaches emerged as a key example of how access to, and quality of, services could be improved for homeless women in the North. PMID:26700413

  2. Greener Pastures in Northern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    After a 19 month rainfall deficiency, heavy rainfall during January 2004 brought drought relief to much of northern Queensland. Local graziers hope for good long-term responses in pasture growth from the heavy rains. These images and maps from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) portray part of Australia's Mitchell Grasslands bioregion before summer rainfall, on October 18, 2003 (left) and afterwards, on February 7, 2004 (right).

    The top pair of images are natural color views from MISR's nadir camera. The green areas in the post-rainfall image highlight the growth of vegetation. The middle panels show the reflectivity of the surface over the photosynthetically active region (PAR) of visible light (400 - 700 nm), expressed as a directional-hemispherical reflectance (DHR-PAR), or albedo. That portion of the radiation that is not reflected back to the atmosphere or space is absorbed by either the vegetation or the soil. The fraction of PAR radiation absorbed by green vegetation, known as FPAR, is shown in the bottom panels. FPAR is one of the quantities that establishes the photosynthetic and carbon uptake efficiency of live vegetation. MISR's FPAR product makes use of aerosol retrievals to correct for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and uses plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar radiation. Both of these aspects are facilitated by the multiangular nature of the MISR measurements.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 20397 and 22028. The panels cover an area of about 290 kilometers x 228 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 106 to 108 within World Reference System-2 path 96.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA

  3. Epidemiology, etiology, and motivation of alcohol misuse among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: a descriptive review.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Jayaraj, Rama; Notaras, Leonard; Thomas, Mahiban

    2015-01-01

    The per capita alcohol consumption of the Northern Territory, Australia, is second highest in the world, estimated 15.1 liters of pure alcohol per year. Alcohol abuse is a major public health concern among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Northern Territory consume approximately 16.9 liters of pure alcohol per year. This descriptive review is based on current published and grey literature in the context of high risk alcohol use, with a special focus on the epidemiological, etiological, and social factors, to predict alcohol misuse among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Northern Territory. The methodology involved a descriptive search on PubMed, Northern Territory government reports, health databases, and Web sites with an emphasis on the etiology and epidemiology of high-risk alcohol consumption among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory. This review has its own limitations because it does not rely on systematic review methodologies. However, it presents real data on the motives for binge drinking and alcohol-related violent assaults of this vulnerable population. Alcohol abuse and alcohol-related harms are considerably high among the rural and remote communities where additional research is needed. High-risk alcohol misuse within Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders communities often leads to a series of physical and social consequences. This review highlights the need for culturally appropriate intervention approaches focusing on alcohol misuse among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders population of the Northern Territory.

  4. Warmer waters in the Northern Territory--herald an earlier onset to the annual Chironex fleckeri Stinger season.

    PubMed

    Jacups, Susan P

    2010-08-01

    The discovery that Chironex fleckeri occurs annually in northern Australia occurred long ago, possibly before written records were available by local indigenous people, however, to date the precision of this yearly phenomenon is still not fully understood. Sea surface temperature (SST) appears to be a determining factor signaling the "arrival" of C. fleckeri each year. Anthropogenic climate change modeling predicts global rises in SST. Rises in SST may result in an earlier "arrival" of C. fleckeri during the dry season, possibly necessitating extension of the official Northern Territory stinger season to commence in September (currently October through to June). This short report presents data to support this hypothesis, facilitating policy makers with an environmental cue upon which changes to current stinger season can be based--prior to painful and potentially life-threatening presentations.

  5. Distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Northern Australia, a Land of Diversity

    PubMed Central

    McRobb, Evan; Kaestli, Mirjam; Price, Erin P.; Sarovich, Derek S.; Mayo, Mark; Warner, Jeffrey; Spratt, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative soil bacillus that is the etiological agent of melioidosis and a biothreat agent. Little is known about the biogeography of this bacterium in Australia, despite its hyperendemicity in the northern region of this continent. The population structure of 953 Australian B. pseudomallei strains representing 779 and 174 isolates of clinical and environmental origins, respectively, was analyzed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Bayesian population structure and network SplitsTree analyses were performed on concatenated MLST loci, and sequence type (ST) diversity and evenness were examined using Simpson's and Pielou's indices and a multivariate dissimilarity matrix. Bayesian analysis found two B. pseudomallei populations in Australia that were geographically distinct; isolates from the Northern Territory were grouped mainly into the first population, whereas the majority of isolates from Queensland were grouped in a second population. Differences in ST evenness were observed between sampling areas, confirming that B. pseudomallei is widespread and established across northern Australia, with a large number of fragmented habitats. ST analysis showed that B. pseudomallei populations diversified as the sampling area increased. This observation was in contrast to smaller sampling areas where a few STs predominated, suggesting that B. pseudomallei populations are ecologically established and not frequently dispersed. Interestingly, there was no identifiable ST bias between clinical and environmental isolates, suggesting the potential for all culturable B. pseudomallei isolates to cause disease. Our findings have important implications for understanding the ecology of B. pseudomallei in Australia and for potential source attribution of this bacterium in the event of unexpected cases of melioidosis. PMID:24657869

  6. Incidence and mortality from mucosal head and neck cancers amongst Australian states and territories: what it means for the northern territory.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jagtar; Jayaraj, Rama; Baxi, Siddhartha; Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Thomas, Mahiban

    2013-01-01

    Mucosal head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas that develop in the upper-aero digestive epithelium. Together they constitute the sixth most common cancer with an estimated 900,000 new cases and 350,000 deaths each year reported worldwide. The risk factors are tobacco, alcohol and human papillomavirus (HPV). Our research team initially reported a high incidence rate of HNC in the indigenous population of the Northern Territory. Mortality rates also vary in the Australian States and Territories, with particularly high mortality observed in the Northern Territory. There is a paucity of incidence studies of HNC for the Australian States and Territories. Therefore this review primarily focuses on variation in incidence and mortality iacross the country and highlights specifically the high incidence and mortality in the Northern Territory. Attention is also given to sex-specific incidence and mortality rates.

  7. Three Decades of Implementation of School-Based Management in the Australian Capital Territory and Victoria in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammage, David T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how the process of implementation of school-based management (SBM) has worked within the public school systems in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and Victoria in Australia. The period covered was 1976-2006. Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted was the mixed methodology which…

  8. Kidney disease in Aboriginal Australians: a perspective from the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Wendy E

    2014-12-01

    This article outlines the increasing awareness, service development and research in renal disease in Aboriginal people in Australia's Northern Territory, among whom the rates of renal replacement therapy (RRT) are among the highest in the world. Kidney failure and RRT dominate the intellectual landscape and consume the most professional energy, but the underlying kidney disease has recently swung into view, with increasing awareness of its connection to other chronic diseases and to health profiles and trajectories more broadly. Albuminuria is the marker of the underlying kidney disease and the best treatment target, and glomerulomegaly and focal glomerulosclerosis are the defining histologic features. Risk factors in its multideterminant genesis reflect nutritional and developmental disadvantage and inflammatory/infectious milieu, while the major putative genetic determinants still elude detection. A culture shift of "chronic disease prevention" has been catalyzed in part by the human pain, logistic problems and great costs associated with RRT. Nowadays chronic disease management is the central focus of indigenous primary care, with defined protocols for integrated testing and management of chronic diseases and with government reimbursed service items and free medicines for people in remote areas. Blood pressure, cardiovascular risk and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are all mitigated by good treatment, which centres on renin-angiotensin system blockade and good metabolic control. RRT incidence rates appear to be stabilizing in remote Aboriginal people, and chronic disease deaths rates are falling. However, the profound levels of disadvantage in many remote settings remain appalling, and there is still much to be done, mostly beyond the direct reach of health services.

  9. Kidney disease in Aboriginal Australians: a perspective from the Northern Territory

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, Wendy E.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines the increasing awareness, service development and research in renal disease in Aboriginal people in Australia's Northern Territory, among whom the rates of renal replacement therapy (RRT) are among the highest in the world. Kidney failure and RRT dominate the intellectual landscape and consume the most professional energy, but the underlying kidney disease has recently swung into view, with increasing awareness of its connection to other chronic diseases and to health profiles and trajectories more broadly. Albuminuria is the marker of the underlying kidney disease and the best treatment target, and glomerulomegaly and focal glomerulosclerosis are the defining histologic features. Risk factors in its multideterminant genesis reflect nutritional and developmental disadvantage and inflammatory/infectious milieu, while the major putative genetic determinants still elude detection. A culture shift of “chronic disease prevention” has been catalyzed in part by the human pain, logistic problems and great costs associated with RRT. Nowadays chronic disease management is the central focus of indigenous primary care, with defined protocols for integrated testing and management of chronic diseases and with government reimbursed service items and free medicines for people in remote areas. Blood pressure, cardiovascular risk and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are all mitigated by good treatment, which centres on renin-angiotensin system blockade and good metabolic control. RRT incidence rates appear to be stabilizing in remote Aboriginal people, and chronic disease deaths rates are falling. However, the profound levels of disadvantage in many remote settings remain appalling, and there is still much to be done, mostly beyond the direct reach of health services. PMID:25503952

  10. The Status and Future of Bilingual Education for Remote Indigenous Students in the Northern Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the status and future of bilingual education programs using Indigenous languages and English in remote Northern Territory schools. It explains why this educational approach is so contested at present, resulting in an unresolved situation which can best be regarded as an uneasy compromise on the ground and a stalemate at…

  11. Conceptualising and Measuring the Mobility of Indigenous Students in the Northern Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Andrew; Dunn, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The vexed and ongoing issue of poor educational outcomes for Indigenous students in the Northern Territory continues despite years of successive programs and policies. Much of the debate has been on funding and pedagogy, in particular the merits or otherwise of bi-lingual teaching. Largely omitted from discussions, although well known by teachers…

  12. Spatial analysis of Northern Goshawk Territories in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klaver, Robert W.; Backlund, Douglas; Bartelt, Paul E.; Erickson, Michael G.; Knowles, Craig J.; Knowles, Pamela R.; Wimberly, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) is the largest of the three North American species ofAccipiter and is more closely associated with older forests than are the other species. Its reliance on older forests has resulted in concerns about its status, extensive research into its habitat relationships, and litigation. Our objective was to model the spatial patterns of goshawk territories in the Black Hills, South Dakota, to make inferences about the underlying processes. We used a modification of Ripley's K function that accounts for inhomogeneous intensity to determine whether territoriality or habitat determined the spacing of goshawks in the Black Hills, finding that habitat conditions rather than territoriality were the determining factor. A spatial model incorporating basal area of trees in a stand of forest, canopy cover, age of trees >23 cm in diameter, number of trees per hectare, and geographic coordinates provided good fit to the spatial patterns of territories. There was no indication of repulsion at close distances that would imply spacing was determined by territoriality. These findings contrast with those for the Kaibab Plateau, Arizona, where territoriality is an important limiting factor. Forest stands where the goshawk nested historically are now younger and have trees of smaller diameter, probably having been modified by logging, fire, and insects. These results have important implications for the goshawk's ecology in the Black Hills with respect to mortality, competition, forest fragmentation, and nest-territory protection.

  13. Conservation value of non-native banteng in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Isagi, Yuji; Kaneko, Shingo; Bowman, David M J S; Brook, Barry W

    2006-08-01

    The global species extinction crisis has provided the impetus for elaborate translocation, captive breeding, and cloning programs, but more extreme actions may be necessary. We used mitochondrial DNA, Y-chromosome, and nuclear lactoferrin-encoding gene sequencing to identify a wild population of a pure-strain endangered bovid (Bos javanicus) introduced into northern Australia over 150 years ago. This places the Australian population in a different conservation category relative to its domesticated conspecific in Indonesia (i.e., Bali cattle) that has varying degrees of introgression from other domesticated Bos spp. The success of this endangered non-native species demonstrates that although risky, the deliberate introduction of threatened exotic species into non-native habitat may provide, under some circumstances, a biologically feasible option for conserving large herbivores otherwise imperiled in their native range.

  14. Northern Territory perspectives on heart failure with comorbidities – understanding trial validity and exploring collaborative opportunities to broaden the evidence base.

    PubMed

    Iyngkaran, P; Majoni, W; Cass, A; Sanders, Prashanthan; Ronco, C; Brady, S; Kangaharan, N; Ilton, M; Hare, D L; Thomas, M C

    2015-06-01

    Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is an ambulatory care sensitive condition, associated with significant morbidity and mortality, rarely with cure. Outpatient based pharmacological management represents the main and most important aspect of care, and is usually lifelong. This narrative styled opinion review looks at the pharmacological agents recommended in the guidelines in context of the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. We explore the concept of validity, a term used to describe the basis of standardising a particular trial or study and the population to which it is applicable. We aim to highlight the problems of the current guidelines based approach. We also present alternatives that could utilise the core principles from major trials, while incorporating regional considerations, which could benefit clients living in the NT and remote Australia. PMID:25637942

  15. Northern Territory perspectives on heart failure with comorbidities – understanding trial validity and exploring collaborative opportunities to broaden the evidence base.

    PubMed

    Iyngkaran, P; Majoni, W; Cass, A; Sanders, Prashanthan; Ronco, C; Brady, S; Kangaharan, N; Ilton, M; Hare, D L; Thomas, M C

    2015-06-01

    Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is an ambulatory care sensitive condition, associated with significant morbidity and mortality, rarely with cure. Outpatient based pharmacological management represents the main and most important aspect of care, and is usually lifelong. This narrative styled opinion review looks at the pharmacological agents recommended in the guidelines in context of the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. We explore the concept of validity, a term used to describe the basis of standardising a particular trial or study and the population to which it is applicable. We aim to highlight the problems of the current guidelines based approach. We also present alternatives that could utilise the core principles from major trials, while incorporating regional considerations, which could benefit clients living in the NT and remote Australia.

  16. Patterns of youth injury: a comparison across the northern territories and other parts of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Jessica; King, Nathan; Hawe, Penelope; Peters, Paul; Pickett, William; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Background Injury is the leading cause of death for young people in Canada. For those living in the northern territories (Yukon, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories), injury represents an even greater problem, with higher rates of injury for people of all ages in northern areas compared with the rest of Canada; however, no such comparative studies have focussed specifically on non-fatal injury in youth. Objectives To profile and examine injuries and their potential causes among youth in the northern territories as compared with other parts of Canada. Design Cross-sectional data from the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (youth aged 11–15 years) were examined for the Canadian northern territories and the provinces (n=26,078). Individual survey records were linked to community-level data to profile injuries and then study possible determinants via multilevel regression modelling. Results The prevalence of injury reported by youth was similar in northern populations and other parts of Canada. There were some minimal differences by injury type: northern youth experienced a greater percentage of neighbourhood (p<0.001) and fighting (p=0.02) injuries; youth in the Canadian provinces had a greater proportion of sport-related injuries (p=0.01). Among northern youth, female sex (RR=0.87, 95% CI 0.81–0.94), average (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80–0.97) or above-average affluence (RR=0.84, 95% CI 0.76–0.91), not being drunk in the past 12 months (RR=0.77, 95% CI 0.69–0.85), not riding an all-terrain vehicle (RR=0.81, 95% CI 0.68–0.97) and not having permanent road access (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.80–0.98) were protective against injury; sport participation increased risk (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.33–1.59). Conclusions Patterns of injury were similar across youth from the North and other parts of Canada. Given previous research, this was unexpected. When implementing injury prevention initiatives, individual and community-level risk factors are essential to

  17. Prediction of Bluetongue virus seropositivity on pastoral properties in northern Australia using remotely sensed bioclimatic variables.

    PubMed

    Klingseisen, Bernhard; Stevenson, Mark; Corner, Robert

    2013-06-01

    To monitor Bluetongue virus (BTV) activity in northern and eastern Australia the National Arbovirus Monitoring Program (NAMP) collects data from a network of sentinel herds. Groups of young cattle, previously unexposed to infection, are regularly tested to detect evidence of seroconversion. While this approach has been successful in fulfilling international surveillance requirements, it is labour and cost intensive and operationally challenging in the remote area of the northern Australian rangelands. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of remotely sensed data as a means for predicting the distribution of BTV seroprevalence. For the period 2000-2009, bioclimatic variables were derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data products for the entire Northern Territory. A generalised linear model, based on the seasonal Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and minimum land surface temperature, was developed to predict BTV seropositivity. The odds of seropositivity in locations with NDVI estimates >0.45 was 3.90 (95% CI 1.11 to 13.7) times that of locations where NDVI estimates were between 0 and 0.45. Unit increases in minimum night land surface temperature in the previous winter increased the odds of seropositivity by a factor of 1.40 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.91). The area under a Receiver Operator Characteristic curve generated on the basis of the model predictions was 0.8. Uncertainty in the model's predictions was attributed to the spatio-temporal inconsistency in the precision of the available serosurveillance data. The discriminatory ability of models of this type could be improved by ensuring that exact location details and date of NAMP BTV test events are consistently recorded.

  18. Prediction of Bluetongue virus seropositivity on pastoral properties in northern Australia using remotely sensed bioclimatic variables.

    PubMed

    Klingseisen, Bernhard; Stevenson, Mark; Corner, Robert

    2013-06-01

    To monitor Bluetongue virus (BTV) activity in northern and eastern Australia the National Arbovirus Monitoring Program (NAMP) collects data from a network of sentinel herds. Groups of young cattle, previously unexposed to infection, are regularly tested to detect evidence of seroconversion. While this approach has been successful in fulfilling international surveillance requirements, it is labour and cost intensive and operationally challenging in the remote area of the northern Australian rangelands. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of remotely sensed data as a means for predicting the distribution of BTV seroprevalence. For the period 2000-2009, bioclimatic variables were derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data products for the entire Northern Territory. A generalised linear model, based on the seasonal Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and minimum land surface temperature, was developed to predict BTV seropositivity. The odds of seropositivity in locations with NDVI estimates >0.45 was 3.90 (95% CI 1.11 to 13.7) times that of locations where NDVI estimates were between 0 and 0.45. Unit increases in minimum night land surface temperature in the previous winter increased the odds of seropositivity by a factor of 1.40 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.91). The area under a Receiver Operator Characteristic curve generated on the basis of the model predictions was 0.8. Uncertainty in the model's predictions was attributed to the spatio-temporal inconsistency in the precision of the available serosurveillance data. The discriminatory ability of models of this type could be improved by ensuring that exact location details and date of NAMP BTV test events are consistently recorded. PMID:23276403

  19. Barred owls and landscape attributes influence territory occupancy of northern spotted owls

    PubMed Central

    Sovern, Stan G; Forsman, Eric D; Olson, Gail S; Biswell, Brian L; Taylor, Margaret; Anthony, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    We used multi-season occupancy analyses to model 2 fates of northern spotted owl territories in relation to habitat amount, habitat fragmentation, and the presence of barred owls in Washington State, USA, 1989–2005. Local colonization is the probability a territory unoccupied by a spotted owl in year i would be occupied in year i + 1, and local extinction is the probability a territory that was occupied by a spotted owl in year i would be unoccupied in year i + 1. We found a negative relationship between local extinction probability and amount of late-seral forest edge. We found a negative relationship between colonization probability and the number of late-seral forest patches (higher fragmentation), and a negative relationship between colonization probability and the amount of non-habitat within 600 m of a spotted owl territory center (Akaike weight = 0.59). The presence of barred owls was positively related to extinction probability and negatively related to detection probability of spotted owls. The negative relationship between presence of barred owls and detectability of spotted owls indicated that spotted owls could be modifying their calling behavior in the presence of barred owls. The positive relationship between barred owl detections and local extinction probability suggests that because of competition with barred owls, spotted owls are being displaced. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:25558093

  20. Impact craters as biospheric microenvironments, Lawn Hill Structure, Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, John; Brasier, Martin

    2006-04-01

    Impact craters on Mars act as traps for eolian sediment and in the past may have provided suitable microenvironments that could have supported and preserved a stressed biosphere. If this is so, terrestrial impact structures such as the 18-km-diameter Lawn Hill Structure, in northern Australia, may prove useful as martian analogs. We sampled outcrop and drill core from the carbonate fill of the Lawn Hill Structure and recorded its gamma-log signature. Facies data along with whole rock geochemistry and stable isotope signatures show that the crater fill is an outlier of the Georgina Basin and was formed by impact at, or shortly before, approximately 509-506 million years ago. Subsequently, it was rapidly engulfed by the Middle Cambrian marine transgression, which filled it with shallow marine carbonates and evaporites. The crater formed a protected but restricted microenvironment in which sediments four times the thickness of the nearby basinal succession accumulated. Similar structures, common on the martian surface, may well have acted as biospheric refuges as the planet's water resources declined. Low-pH aqueous environments on Earth similar to those on Mars, while extreme, support diverse ecologies. The architecture of the eolian crater fill would have been defined by long-term ground water cycles resulting from intermittent precipitation in an extremely arid climate. Nutrient recycling, critical to a closed lacustrine sub-ice biosphere, could be provided by eolian transport onto the frozen water surface.

  1. Bedload parting in western Torres Strait, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James J.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a new style of bedload parting from western Torres Strait, northern Australia. Outputs from a hydrodynamic model identified an axis of bedload parting centred on the western Torres Strait islands (~142°15‧E). This bedload parting is similar to others documented from mixed tidal regimes as it is driven dominantly by the O1, K1 and M2 tidal constituents. However, parting is aided by overtides on the eastern, mixed semidiurnal side of the strait. Bedload parting is also strongly impacted by wind-driven currents. Wind-driven currents during the trade wind season lead to the average estimates of bedload transport to be directed west, through the strait, over the 8 year model duration. As a result, east and west directed bedload parting is only active during the monsoon season when the influence of wind-driven circulation is negligible. A simulation of bedload transport using a range of sediment grain sizes indicated that sediments with a grainsize greater than ~2 mm were transported in a direction consistent with tidally driven bedload parting, as opposed to residual wind-driven flow.

  2. Multiple approaches to microbial source tracking in tropical northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Neave, Matthew; Luter, Heidi; Padovan, Anna; Townsend, Simon; Schobben, Xavier; Gibb, Karen

    2014-12-01

    Microbial source tracking is an area of research in which multiple approaches are used to identify the sources of elevated bacterial concentrations in recreational lakes and beaches. At our study location in Darwin, northern Australia, water quality in the harbor is generally good, however dry-season beach closures due to elevated Escherichia coli and enterococci counts are a cause for concern. The sources of these high bacteria counts are currently unknown. To address this, we sampled sewage outfalls, other potential inputs, such as urban rivers and drains, and surrounding beaches, and used genetic fingerprints from E. coli and enterococci communities, fecal markers and 454 pyrosequencing to track contamination sources. A sewage effluent outfall (Larrakeyah discharge) was a source of bacteria, including fecal bacteria that impacted nearby beaches. Two other treated effluent discharges did not appear to influence sites other than those directly adjacent. Several beaches contained fecal indicator bacteria that likely originated from urban rivers and creeks within the catchment. Generally, connectivity between the sites was observed within distinct geographical locations and it appeared that most of the bacterial contamination on Darwin beaches was confined to local sources.

  3. Impact Craters as Biospheric Microenvironments, Lawn Hill Structure, Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, John; Brasier, Martin

    2006-04-01

    Impact craters on Mars act as traps for eolian sediment and in the past may have provided suitable microenvironments that could have supported and preserved a stressed biosphere. If this is so, terrestrial impact structures such as the 18-km-diameter Lawn Hill Structure, in northern Australia, may prove useful as martian analogs. We sampled outcrop and drill core from the carbonate fill of the Lawn Hill Structure and recorded its gamma-log signature. Facies data along with whole rock geochemistry and stable isotope signatures show that the crater fill is an outlier of the Georgina Basin and was formed by impact at, or shortly before, approximately 509-506 million years ago. Subsequently, it was rapidly engulfed by the Middle Cambrian marine transgression, which filled it with shallow marine carbonates and evaporites. The crater formed a protected but restricted microenvironment in which sediments four times the thickness of the nearby basinal succession accumulated. Similar structures, common on the martian surface, may well have acted as biospheric refuges as the planet's water resources declined. Low-pH aqueous environments on Earth similar to those on Mars, while extreme, support diverse ecologies. The architecture of the eolian crater fill would have been defined by long-term ground water cycles resulting from intermittent precipitation in an extremely arid climate. Nutrient recycling, critical to a closed lacustrine sub-ice biosphere, could be provided by eolian transport onto the frozen water surface.

  4. Dry season aerosol iron solubility in tropical northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winton, V. Holly L.; Edwards, Ross; Bowie, Andrew R.; Keywood, Melita; Williams, Alistair G.; Chambers, Scott D.; Selleck, Paul W.; Desservettaz, Maximilien; Mallet, Marc D.; Paton-Walsh, Clare

    2016-10-01

    Marine nitrogen fixation is co-limited by the supply of iron (Fe) and phosphorus in large regions of the global ocean. The deposition of soluble aerosol Fe can initiate nitrogen fixation and trigger toxic algal blooms in nitrate-poor tropical waters. We present dry season soluble Fe data from the Savannah Fires in the Early Dry Season (SAFIRED) campaign in northern Australia that reflects coincident dust and biomass burning sources of soluble aerosol Fe. The mean soluble and total aerosol Fe concentrations were 40 and 500 ng m-3 respectively. Our results show that while biomass burning species may not be a direct source of soluble Fe, biomass burning may substantially enhance the solubility of mineral dust. We observed fractional Fe solubility up to 12 % in mixed aerosols. Thus, Fe in dust may be more soluble in the tropics compared to higher latitudes due to higher concentrations of biomass-burning-derived reactive organic species in the atmosphere. In addition, biomass-burning-derived particles can act as a surface for aerosol Fe to bind during atmospheric transport and subsequently be released to the ocean upon deposition. As the aerosol loading is dominated by biomass burning emissions over the tropical waters in the dry season, additions of biomass-burning-derived soluble Fe could have harmful consequences for initiating nitrogen-fixing toxic algal blooms. Future research is required to quantify biomass-burning-derived particle sources of soluble Fe over tropical waters.

  5. Multiple approaches to microbial source tracking in tropical northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Neave, Matthew; Luter, Heidi; Padovan, Anna; Townsend, Simon; Schobben, Xavier; Gibb, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Microbial source tracking is an area of research in which multiple approaches are used to identify the sources of elevated bacterial concentrations in recreational lakes and beaches. At our study location in Darwin, northern Australia, water quality in the harbor is generally good, however dry-season beach closures due to elevated Escherichia coli and enterococci counts are a cause for concern. The sources of these high bacteria counts are currently unknown. To address this, we sampled sewage outfalls, other potential inputs, such as urban rivers and drains, and surrounding beaches, and used genetic fingerprints from E. coli and enterococci communities, fecal markers and 454 pyrosequencing to track contamination sources. A sewage effluent outfall (Larrakeyah discharge) was a source of bacteria, including fecal bacteria that impacted nearby beaches. Two other treated effluent discharges did not appear to influence sites other than those directly adjacent. Several beaches contained fecal indicator bacteria that likely originated from urban rivers and creeks within the catchment. Generally, connectivity between the sites was observed within distinct geographical locations and it appeared that most of the bacterial contamination on Darwin beaches was confined to local sources. PMID:25224738

  6. Impact craters as biospheric microenvironments, Lawn Hill Structure, Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, John; Brasier, Martin

    2006-04-01

    Impact craters on Mars act as traps for eolian sediment and in the past may have provided suitable microenvironments that could have supported and preserved a stressed biosphere. If this is so, terrestrial impact structures such as the 18-km-diameter Lawn Hill Structure, in northern Australia, may prove useful as martian analogs. We sampled outcrop and drill core from the carbonate fill of the Lawn Hill Structure and recorded its gamma-log signature. Facies data along with whole rock geochemistry and stable isotope signatures show that the crater fill is an outlier of the Georgina Basin and was formed by impact at, or shortly before, approximately 509-506 million years ago. Subsequently, it was rapidly engulfed by the Middle Cambrian marine transgression, which filled it with shallow marine carbonates and evaporites. The crater formed a protected but restricted microenvironment in which sediments four times the thickness of the nearby basinal succession accumulated. Similar structures, common on the martian surface, may well have acted as biospheric refuges as the planet's water resources declined. Low-pH aqueous environments on Earth similar to those on Mars, while extreme, support diverse ecologies. The architecture of the eolian crater fill would have been defined by long-term ground water cycles resulting from intermittent precipitation in an extremely arid climate. Nutrient recycling, critical to a closed lacustrine sub-ice biosphere, could be provided by eolian transport onto the frozen water surface. PMID:16689651

  7. Australia.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia. PMID:12177993

  8. Australia.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia.

  9. Spatial organization of northern flying squirrels, Glaucomys sabrinus: Territoriality in females?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J.R.; Vuren, D.H.V.; Kelt, D.A.; Johnson, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    We determined home-range overlap among northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) to assess their spatial organization. We found extensive home-range overlap among females, and though this overlap could reflect social behavior, we found no evidence of attraction among females, with only one instance of den sharing. Instead, our results suggest that females share foraging areas but may be territorial in portions of the home range, especially around den trees and during young-rearing. Home-range overlap could also result from, the extrinsic effect of forest fragmentation due to timber harvest, which might impede dispersal and force squirrels to cluster on remaining fragments of suitable habitat.

  10. Uncertainties around the Implementation of a Clearing-Control Policy in a Unique Catchment in Northern Australia: Exploring Equity Issues and Balancing Competing Objectives

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Vanessa M.; Pressey, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Land use change is the most significant driver linked to global species extinctions. In Northern Australia, the landscape is still relatively intact with very low levels of clearing. However, a re-energized political discourse around creating a northern food bowl means that currently intact ecosystems in northern Australia could be under imminent threat from increased land clearing and water extraction. These impacts are likely to be concentrated in a few regions with suitable soils and water supplies. The Daly River Catchment in the Northern Territory is an important catchment for both conservation and development. Land use in the Daly catchment has been subject to clearing guidelines that are largely untested in terms of their eventual implications for the spatial configuration of conservation and development. Given the guidelines are not legislated they might also be removed or revised by subsequent Territory Governments, including the recently-elected one. We examine the uncertainties around the spatial implications of full implementation of the Daly clearing guidelines and their potential effects on equity of opportunity across land tenures and land uses. We also examine how removal of the guidelines could affect conservation in the catchment. We conclude that the guidelines are important in supporting development in the catchment while still achieving conservation goals, and we recommend ways of implementing the guidelines to make best use of available land resources for intensified production. PMID:24798486

  11. Uncertainties around the implementation of a clearing-control policy in a unique catchment in northern Australia: exploring equity issues and balancing competing objectives.

    PubMed

    Adams, Vanessa M; Pressey, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    Land use change is the most significant driver linked to global species extinctions. In Northern Australia, the landscape is still relatively intact with very low levels of clearing. However, a re-energized political discourse around creating a northern food bowl means that currently intact ecosystems in northern Australia could be under imminent threat from increased land clearing and water extraction. These impacts are likely to be concentrated in a few regions with suitable soils and water supplies. The Daly River Catchment in the Northern Territory is an important catchment for both conservation and development. Land use in the Daly catchment has been subject to clearing guidelines that are largely untested in terms of their eventual implications for the spatial configuration of conservation and development. Given the guidelines are not legislated they might also be removed or revised by subsequent Territory Governments, including the recently-elected one. We examine the uncertainties around the spatial implications of full implementation of the Daly clearing guidelines and their potential effects on equity of opportunity across land tenures and land uses. We also examine how removal of the guidelines could affect conservation in the catchment. We conclude that the guidelines are important in supporting development in the catchment while still achieving conservation goals, and we recommend ways of implementing the guidelines to make best use of available land resources for intensified production.

  12. Achieving compliance with the International Health Regulations by overseas territories of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Hamblion, Esther L; Salter, Mark; Jones, Jane

    2014-11-01

    The 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR) came into force for all Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) in June 2007 and the deadline for achieving compliance was June 2012. The purpose of the IHR is to prevent, protect against, control - and provide a public health response to - international spread of disease. The territory of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and that of several other Member States, such as China, Denmark, France, the Netherlands and the United States of America, include overseas territories, which cover a total population of approximately 15 million people. Member States have a responsibility to ensure that all parts of their territory comply with the IHR. Since WHO has not provided specific guidance on compliance in the special circumstances of the overseas territories of Member States, compliance by these territories is an issue for self-assessment by Member States themselves. To date, no reports have been published on the assessment of IHR compliance in countries with overseas territories. We describe a gap analysis done in the United Kingdom to assess IHR compliance of its overseas territories. The findings and conclusions are broadly applicable to other countries with overseas territories which may have yet to assess their compliance with the IHR. Such assessments are needed to ensure compliance across all parts of a Member States' territory and to increase global health security.

  13. Applicability of 239Pu as a tracer for soil erosion in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, R.; Tims, S. G.; Fifield, L. K.; Wasson, R. J.; Howe, D.

    2013-01-01

    The technique of accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) has been employed to determine modern soil loss rates through the analysis of 239Pu profiles in soil cores from the Daly basin in Northern Territory, Australia. In areas in which soil conservation banks were not present or were only added recently (<25a) and which had a history of grazing and cultivation the measured soil loss rates over the past ∼50 years were 7.5-19.5 t ha-1 a-1. The measured rates are up to 5 times higher compared to agricultural and uncultivated areas within soil conservation banks in other parts of the catchment. High intensity seasonal rainfall combined with reduction in land cover due to grazing and episodic bush fires are primary factors influencing erosion although other impacts on the landscape such as tillage generated runoff and land clearing seem to be responsible for accelerated sediment production.

  14. Differential Effects of Temperature Extremes on Hospital Admission Rates for Respiratory Disease between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Green, Donna; Bambrick, Hilary; Tait, Peter; Goldie, James; Schultz, Rosalie; Webb, Leanne; Alexander, Lisa; Pitman, Andrew

    2015-12-03

    The health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians may be exacerbated by climate change if temperature extremes have disproportionate adverse effects on Indigenous people. To explore this issue, we analysed the effect of temperature extremes on hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, stratified by age, Indigenous status and sex, for people living in two different climates zones in the Northern Territory during the period 1993-2011. We examined admissions for both acute and chronic respiratory diagnoses, controlling for day of the week and seasonality variables. Our analysis showed that: (1) overall, Indigenous hospital admission rates far exceeded non-Indigenous admission rates for acute and chronic diagnoses, and Top End climate zone admission rates exceeded Central Australia climate zone admission rates; (2) extreme cold and hot temperatures were associated with inconsistent changes in admission rates for acute respiratory disease in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children and older adults; and (3) no response to cold or hot temperature extremes was found for chronic respiratory diagnoses. These findings support our two hypotheses, that extreme hot and cold temperatures have a different effect on hospitalisations for respiratory disease between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, and that these health risks vary between the different climate zones. We did not, however, find that there were differing responses to temperature extremes in the two populations, suggesting that any increased vulnerability to climate change in the Indigenous population of the Northern Territory arises from an increased underlying risk to respiratory disease and an already greater existing health burden.

  15. Modelling spatio-temporal patterns of long-distance Culicoides dispersal into northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Eagles, D; Walker, P J; Zalucki, M P; Durr, P A

    2013-07-01

    Novel arboviruses, including new serotypes of bluetongue virus, are isolated intermittently from cattle and insects in northern Australia. These viruses are thought to be introduced via windborne dispersal of Culicoides from neighbouring land masses to the north. We used the HYSPLIT particle dispersal model to simulate the spatio-temporal patterns of Culicoides dispersal into northern Australia from nine putative source sites across Indonesia, Timor-Leste and Papua New Guinea. Simulated dispersal was found to be possible from each site, with the islands of Timor and Sumba highlighted as the likely principal sources and February the predominant month of dispersal. The results of this study define the likely spatial extent of the source and arrival regions, the relative frequency of dispersal from the putative sources and the temporal nature of seasonal winds from source sites into arrival regions. Importantly, the methodology and results may be applicable to other insect and pathogen incursions into northern Australia.

  16. Estuarine infill and coastal progradation, southern van diemen gulf, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, C. D.; Mulrennan, M. E.; Chappell, J.

    1993-03-01

    There are several estuaries associated with the pronouncedly seasonal rivers which drain northwards from the Middle Proterozoic sandstone Arnhem Land plateau, and the Tertiary Koolpinyah land surface, into the macrotidal van Diemen Gulf, in the Northern Territory of Australia. The Holocene development of these, investigated in greatest detail for the South Alligator River with an upland catchment of > 10,000 km 2. through drilling, palynology and radiocarbon dating, comprises both estuarine infill and coastal progradation. Three phases of estuarine infill can be recognised: (i) a transgressive phase (8000-6800 years B.P.) of marine incursion; (ii) a big swamp phase (6800-5300 years B.P.) of widespread mangrove forest development; and (iii) a sinuous/cuspate phase of floodplain development since 5300 years B.P., during which the tidal river has meandered and reworked earlier estuarine sediments. Since 6000 years B.P., the South Alligator coastal plain has prograded at a decelerating rate, with two phases of chenier ridge formation. A similar pattern of estuarine infill, and decelerating coastal plain progradation, is demonstrated for the Adelaide and Mary Rivers, both with catchments of > 6000 km 2. The southern shore of van Diemem Gulf appears to have changed its overall position little during the last 2000 years. The major source for the clay, silt and fine sands which have infilled the estuary and coastal plain has been from seaward. Dispite the similarity of development, coastal sediment build up has had different effects on the morphology of each tidal river. The Adelaide has undergone a major diversion and no longer flows directly into van Diemen Gulf, but occupies a former fluvial course, and the Mary has been blocked entirely, and its former estuarine palaeochannels have been infilled with tide-transported sediment.

  17. Late glacial and Holocene sedimentation, vegetation, and climate history from easternmost Beringia (northern Yukon Territory, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Michael; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Wetterich, Sebastian; Lantuit, Hugues; De Pascale, Gregory P.; Pollard, Wayne H.; Schirrmeister, Lutz

    2012-11-01

    Beringian climate and environmental history are poorly characterized at its easternmost edge. Lake sediments from the northern Yukon Territory have recorded sedimentation, vegetation, summer temperature and precipitation changes since ~ 16 cal ka BP. Herb-dominated tundra persisted until ~ 14.7 cal ka BP with mean July air temperatures ≤ 5°C colder and annual precipitation 50 to 120 mm lower than today. Temperatures rapidly increased during the Bølling/Allerød interstadial towards modern conditions, favoring establishment of Betula-Salix shrub tundra. Pollen-inferred temperature reconstructions recorded a pronounced Younger Dryas stadial in east Beringia with a temperature drop of ~ 1.5°C (~ 2.5 to 3.0°C below modern conditions) and low net precipitation (90 to 170 mm) but show little evidence of an early Holocene thermal maximum in the pollen record. Sustained low net precipitation and increased evaporation during early Holocene warming suggest a moisture-limited spread of vegetation and an obscured summer temperature maximum. Northern Yukon Holocene moisture availability increased in response to a retreating Laurentide Ice Sheet, postglacial sea level rise, and decreasing summer insolation that in turn led to establishment of Alnus-Betula shrub tundra from ~ 5 cal ka BP until present, and conversion of a continental climate into a coastal-maritime climate near the Beaufort Sea.

  18. STS-65 Earth observation of northern Australia (winter burning) from OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, shows late winter burning in northern Australia and the extreme northern coastal area that includes the Cobourg Peninsula, as well as Melville and Bathurst Islands. These fires were probably set intentionally to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. The very dark lowland areas on Melville Island represent mangrove woodland. In contrast to some other tropical regions (for example Madagascar and Indonesia), no soil erosion (sediment plumes) is visible in this photograph.

  19. Drinking & Congenital Birth Defects: Alcohol Awareness in the Northern Rivers Region of New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeigh, Tony; Dip, Grad; Kean, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Guidelines developed to minimise the risk of harm associated with alcohol consumption in Australia focus on promoting population health by changing cultural attitudes. This research study was conducted to uncover attitudes toward maternal drinking and awareness of alcohol-related birth defects within the semi-rural Northern Rivers area of…

  20. Hearing Parents' and Carers' Voices: Experiences of Accessing Quality Long Day Care in Northern Regional Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Nonie; Tinning, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This article explores parents' and carers' experiences of accessing quality long day care in northern regional Australia. The data was gathered in 2009, after the collapse of ABC Developmental Learning Centres (herein referred to as ABC Learning) and before the implementation of the "National Quality Framework," and provides a snapshot of…

  1. Phylogenetically distinct Staphylococcus aureus lineage prevalent among indigenous communities in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jacklyn W S; Holt, Deborah C; Lilliebridge, Rachael A; Stephens, Alex J; Huygens, Flavia; Tong, Steven Y C; Currie, Bart J; Giffard, Philip M

    2009-07-01

    The aim was to determine the evolutionary position of the Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 75 (CC75) that is prevalent in tropical northern Australia. Sequencing of gap, rpoB, sodA, tuf, and hsp60 and the multilocus sequence typing loci revealed a clear separation between conventional S. aureus and CC75 and significant diversity within CC75.

  2. To Be Transformed: Emotions in Cross-Cultural, Field-Based Learning in Northern Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sarah; Hodge, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Students undertaking field-based learning, in which they work with Indigenous people in Northern Australia, describe a profound learning experience redolent with emotion. Inspired, challenged and transformed, the students are compelled in ways that require them to interrogate their own selves and taken-for-granted beliefs. In this paper, we draw…

  3. Examining the Impact of ABRACADABRA on Early Literacy in Northern Australia: An Implementation Fidelity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Abrami, Philip C.; Helmer, Janet; Savage, Robert; Harper, Helen; Lea, Tess

    2014-01-01

    To address students' poor literacy outcomes, an intervention using a computer-based literacy tool, ABRACADABRA, was implemented in 6 Northern Australia primary schools. A pretest, posttest parallel group, single blind multisite randomized controlled trial was conducted with 308 students between the ages of 4 and 8 years old (M age =…

  4. Biomass burning emissions over northern Australia constrained by aerosol measurements: I—Modelling the distribution of hourly emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, C. P. (Mick); Luhar, Ashok K.; Mitchell, Ross M.

    Emissions of aerosol from biomass burning in northern Australia are globally significant, yet existing estimates of their magnitude are essentially unconstrained by observation. This two-part series (see Part II by Luhar et al. [2008. Biomass burning emissions over northern Australia constrained by aerosol measurements: II—Model validation, and impacts on air quality and radiative forcing. Atmospheric Environment, submitted for publication] seeks to address this by first formulating a scheme to determine the emissions from the Top End region of the Northern Territory during the 2004 burning season at a high temporal and spatial resolution (1 h, 1 km). The emissions are then validated using a meteorological and transport model called TAPM coupled with a variety of field measurements. The high resolution not only enables validation against various meteorological and aerosol data sets, but also allows prediction of local air quality events. Essential inputs to the emission calculations are satellite-based measurements of fire scars, yielding burnt areas, and hotspots, providing timing information on daily basis. It is shown that hotspots without associated fire scars must be taken into account in order to produce credible aerosol fields. Prediction of emissions at hourly time resolution is enabled by assigning a diurnal variation based on a McArthur fire danger meter. The total carbon emission for the 2004 season is computed to be 67.6 Tg, in remarkable agreement with the bulk estimate of 64.3 Tg derived for the Australian National Greenhouse Gas Inventory, and comparable to the figure of 57.0 Tg determined from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFEDv2). The total PM 2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less) emission is computed to be 0.67 Tg. The transport modelling shows that emissions leaving the study region are largely advected to the west over the Timor Sea towards the Indonesian archipelago from April to September, shifting to

  5. Estimating hydraulic properties from tidal attenuation in the Northern Guam Lens Aquifer, territory of Guam, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotzoll, Kolja; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Jenson, John W.; El-Kadi, Aly I.

    2013-05-01

    Tidal-signal attenuations are analyzed to compute hydraulic diffusivities and estimate regional hydraulic conductivities of the Northern Guam Lens Aquifer, Territory of Guam (Pacific Ocean), USA. The results indicate a significant tidal-damping effect at the coastal boundary. Hydraulic diffusivities computed using a simple analytical solution for well responses to tidal forcings near the periphery of the island are two orders of magnitude lower than for wells in the island's interior. Based on assigned specific yields of ˜0.01-0.4, estimated hydraulic conductivities are ˜20-800 m/day for peripheral wells, and ˜2,000-90,000 m/day for interior wells. The lower conductivity of the peripheral rocks relative to the interior rocks may best be explained by the effects of karst evolution: (1) dissolutional enhancement of horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the interior; (2) case-hardening and concurrent reduction of local hydraulic conductivity in the cliffs and steeply inclined rocks of the periphery; and (3) the stronger influence of higher-conductivity regional-scale features in the interior relative to the periphery. A simple numerical model calibrated with measured water levels and tidal response estimates values for hydraulic conductivity and storage parameters consistent with the analytical solution. The study demonstrates how simple techniques can be useful for characterizing regional aquifer properties.

  6. Estimating hydraulic properties from tidal attenuation in the Northern Guam Lens Aquifer, territory of Guam, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rotzoll, Kolja; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Jenson, John W.; El-Kadi, Aly I.

    2013-01-01

    Tidal-signal attenuations are analyzed to compute hydraulic diffusivities and estimate regional hydraulic conductivities of the Northern Guam Lens Aquifer, Territory of Guam (Pacific Ocean), USA. The results indicate a significant tidal-damping effect at the coastal boundary. Hydraulic diffusivities computed using a simple analytical solution for well responses to tidal forcings near the periphery of the island are two orders of magnitude lower than for wells in the island’s interior. Based on assigned specific yields of ~0.01–0.4, estimated hydraulic conductivities are ~20–800 m/day for peripheral wells, and ~2,000–90,000 m/day for interior wells. The lower conductivity of the peripheral rocks relative to the interior rocks may best be explained by the effects of karst evolution: (1) dissolutional enhancement of horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the interior; (2) case-hardening and concurrent reduction of local hydraulic conductivity in the cliffs and steeply inclined rocks of the periphery; and (3) the stronger influence of higher-conductivity regional-scale features in the interior relative to the periphery. A simple numerical model calibrated with measured water levels and tidal response estimates values for hydraulic conductivity and storage parameters consistent with the analytical solution. The study demonstrates how simple techniques can be useful for characterizing regional aquifer properties.

  7. Direct measurements of the seasonality of emission factors from savanna fires in northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, C. P.; Cook, G. D.; Reisen, F.; Smith, T. E. L.; Tattaris, M.; Russell-Smith, J.; Maier, S. W.; Yates, C. P.; Wooster, M. J.

    2012-10-01

    Current good practice guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories requires that seasonal variation in emission factors from savanna fires be considered when compiling national accounts. African studies concluded that the emission factor for methane decreases during the dry season principally due to curing of the fuels. However, available data from Australian tropical savannas shows no effect of seasonality on emission factors, consistent with observations that the fine fuels appear to cure fully soon after the start of the fire season. To test whether the seasonality in greenhouse gas emission factors reported for Africa also occurs in Australia, methane and nitrous oxide emission factors were measured in early and in late dry season fires in Western Arnhem Land, a region typical of much of the northern Australia savanna zone. We found no significant seasonality in methane emission factors, but there was substantial variation in emission factors associated with inter-fire differences in vegetation and fuel. This variation could be explained almost completely by combustion efficiency. Nitrous oxide emission factors were not related to combustion efficiency but showed some variation across vegetation and fuel size class. Both methane and nitrous oxide emission factors were consistent with previous work in northern Australia and with some published values from Africa. The absence of a significant seasonal trend in emission factors indicates that savanna fire emissions in northern Australia can be managed by strategic prescribed burning.

  8. Tropospheric carbon monoxide and hydrogen measurements over Kalimantan in Indonesia and northern Australia during October, 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawa, Yousuke; Matsueda, Hidekazu; Tsutsumi, Yukitomo; Jensen, Jørgen B.; Inoue, Hisayuki Y.; Makino, Yukio

    During the PACE-5 campaign over Australia and Indonesia in October 1997, we used an aircraft to measure carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2). Latitudinal distributions of CO and H2 clearly showed a large increase from northern Australia to Kalimantan in Indonesia. Elevated CO levels over northern Australia were observed only in the smoke plumes of savanna fires. A thick smoke haze from forest fires over Kalimantan contained very high CO mixing ratios of 3 to 9 ppm. These enhanced CO mixing ratios correlated well with increased concentrations of H2, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and aerosols. Emission ratios from biomass burning in Kalimantan ranged 0.06 0.1 for H2/CO (ppb/ppb), 0.0002 to 0.0005 for NOx/CO (ppb/ppb), and 0.43 to 1.0 for number of aerosols/CO (cm-3/ppb). These values were much lower than emission ratios in northern Australia. This difference suggests that the biomass burning in Indonesia was intense and that, due to a strong El Niño event, an unique composition of trace gases was formed in the smoke haze.

  9. Differential Effects of Temperature Extremes on Hospital Admission Rates for Respiratory Disease between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory

    PubMed Central

    Green, Donna; Bambrick, Hilary; Tait, Peter; Goldie, James; Schultz, Rosalie; Webb, Leanne; Alexander, Lisa; Pitman, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians may be exacerbated by climate change if temperature extremes have disproportionate adverse effects on Indigenous people. To explore this issue, we analysed the effect of temperature extremes on hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, stratified by age, Indigenous status and sex, for people living in two different climates zones in the Northern Territory during the period 1993–2011. We examined admissions for both acute and chronic respiratory diagnoses, controlling for day of the week and seasonality variables. Our analysis showed that: (1) overall, Indigenous hospital admission rates far exceeded non-Indigenous admission rates for acute and chronic diagnoses, and Top End climate zone admission rates exceeded Central Australia climate zone admission rates; (2) extreme cold and hot temperatures were associated with inconsistent changes in admission rates for acute respiratory disease in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children and older adults; and (3) no response to cold or hot temperature extremes was found for chronic respiratory diagnoses. These findings support our two hypotheses, that extreme hot and cold temperatures have a different effect on hospitalisations for respiratory disease between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, and that these health risks vary between the different climate zones. We did not, however, find that there were differing responses to temperature extremes in the two populations, suggesting that any increased vulnerability to climate change in the Indigenous population of the Northern Territory arises from an increased underlying risk to respiratory disease and an already greater existing health burden. PMID:26633456

  10. Some costs and challenges of conducting follow-up studies of substance use in remote Aboriginal communities: an example from the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Clough, Alan R

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to describe some costs and challenges for conducting follow-up interviews about substance use in Indigenous groups in northern Australia. In a remote region in the Northern Territory in 2001, 131 Indigenous people (aged 13 - 36 years) were approached for interview regarding their substance use. Of these, 108 (54 males, 54 females) were interviewed successfully. Follow-up interviews were attempted in 2004. Study records traced progress and costs. In 2001, the response rate was 82% (108/131). In 2004, 22 participants could not be found after four attempts although they were known by health workers to still reside in the region. Fifteen were not residing in the region during 2004 and were lost to follow-up, four were in prison and three were deceased. Fourteen contacted either refused directly (n = 1) or repeatedly postponed interview (n = 13). Fifty follow-up interviews were completed, a response rate of 78% among 64 participants contacted. The overall response rate in those approached was 64% (0.82 * 0.78). Costs for 108 interviews were 45 person-days and Dollars A19,000 (32% = travel/associated costs). Costs for 50 follow-up interviews were 60 person-days and Dollars A25,500 (39% = travel/associated costs). Such follow-up studies in these settings could be complemented by retrospective case - control approaches and by using proxy respondents to increase study efficiency.

  11. Differing impact of a major biogeographic barrier on genetic structure in two large kangaroos from the monsoon tropics of Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge, Mark D B; Potter, Sally; Johnson, Christopher N; Ritchie, Euan G

    2014-01-01

    Tropical savannas cover 20–30% of the world's land surface and exhibit high levels of regional endemism, but the evolutionary histories of their biota remain poorly studied. The most extensive and unmodified tropical savannas occur in Northern Australia, and recent studies suggest this region supports high levels of previously undetected genetic diversity. To examine the importance of barriers to gene flow and the environmental history of Northern Australia in influencing patterns of diversity, we investigated the phylogeography of two closely related, large, vagile macropodid marsupials, the antilopine wallaroo (Macropus antilopinus; n = 78), and the common wallaroo (Macropus robustus; n = 21). Both species are widespread across the tropical savannas of Australia except across the Carpentarian Barrier (CB) where there is a break in the distribution of M. antilopinus. We determined sequence variation in the hypervariable Domain I of the mitochondrial DNA control region and genotyped individuals at 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci to assess the historical and contemporary influence of the CB on these species. Surprisingly, we detected only limited differentiation between the disjunct Northern Territory and QueenslandM. antilopinus populations. In contrast, the continuously distributedM. robustus was highly divergent across the CB. Although unexpected, these contrasting responses appear related to minor differences in species biology. Our results suggest that vicariance may not explain well the phylogeographic patterns in Australia's dynamic monsoonal environments. This is because Quaternary environmental changes in this region have been complex, and diverse individual species’ biologies have resulted in less predictable and idiosyncratic responses. PMID:25035797

  12. Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus infections: a review of history, ecology, and predictive models, with implications for tropical northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Jacups, Susan P; Whelan, Peter I; Currie, Bart J

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of the present article is to present a review of the Ross River virus (RRV) and Barmah Forest virus (BFV) literature in relation to potential implications for future disease in tropical northern Australia. Ross River virus infection is the most common and most widespread arboviral disease in Australia, with an average of 4,800 national notifications annually. Of recent concern is the sudden rise in BFV infections; the 2005-2006 summer marked the largest BFV epidemic on record in Australia, with 1,895 notifications. Although not life-threatening, infection with either virus can cause arthritis, myalgia, and fatigue for 6 months or longer, resulting in substantial morbidity and economic impact. The geographic distribution of mosquito species and their seasonal activity is determined in large part by temperature and rainfall. Predictive models can be useful tools in providing early warning systems for epidemics of RRV and BFV infection. Various models have been developed to predict RRV outbreaks, but these appear to be mostly only regionally valid, being dependent on local ecological factors. Difficulties have arisen in developing useful models for the tropical northern parts of Australia, and to date no models have been developed for the Northern Territory. Only one model has been developed for predicting BFV infections using climate and tide variables. It is predicted that the exacerbation of current greenhouse conditions will result in longer periods of high mosquito activity in the tropical regions where RRV and BFV are already common. In addition, the endemic locations may expand further within temperate regions, and epidemics may become more frequent in those areas. Further development of predictive models should benefit public health planning by providing early warning systems of RRV and BFV infection outbreaks in different geographical locations.

  13. Correlates of Recent Declines of Rodents in Northern and Southern Australia: Habitat Structure Is Critical.

    PubMed

    Lawes, Michael J; Fisher, Diana O; Johnson, Chris N; Blomberg, Simon P; Frank, Anke S K; Fritz, Susanne A; McCallum, Hamish; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Abbott, Brett N; Legge, Sarah; Letnic, Mike; Thomas, Colette R; Thurgate, Nikki; Fisher, Alaric; Gordon, Iain J; Kutt, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Australia has experienced dramatic declines and extinctions of its native rodent species over the last 200 years, particularly in southern Australia. In the tropical savanna of northern Australia significant declines have occurred only in recent decades. The later onset of these declines suggests that the causes may differ from earlier declines in the south. We examine potential regional effects (northern versus southern Australia) on biological and ecological correlates of range decline in Australian rodents. We demonstrate that rodent declines have been greater in the south than in the tropical north, are strongly influenced by phylogeny, and are consistently greater for species inhabiting relatively open or sparsely vegetated habitat. Unlike in marsupials, where some species have much larger body size than rodents, body mass was not an important predictor of decline in rodents. All Australian rodent species are within the prey-size range of cats (throughout the continent) and red foxes (in the south). Contrary to the hypothesis that mammal declines are related directly to ecosystem productivity (annual rainfall), our results are consistent with the hypothesis that disturbances such as fire and grazing, which occur in non-rainforest habitats and remove cover used by rodents for shelter, nesting and foraging, increase predation risk. We agree with calls to introduce conservation management that limits the size and intensity of fires, increases fire patchiness and reduces grazing impacts at ecological scales appropriate for rodents. Controlling feral predators, even creating predator-free reserves in relatively sparsely-vegetated habitats, is urgently required to ensure the survival of rodent species, particularly in northern Australia where declines are not yet as severe as those in the south.

  14. Correlates of Recent Declines of Rodents in Northern and Southern Australia: Habitat Structure Is Critical

    PubMed Central

    Lawes, Michael J.; Fisher, Diana O.; Johnson, Chris N.; Blomberg, Simon P.; Frank, Anke S. K.; Fritz, Susanne A.; McCallum, Hamish; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Abbott, Brett N.; Legge, Sarah; Letnic, Mike; Thomas, Colette R.; Thurgate, Nikki; Fisher, Alaric; Gordon, Iain J.; Kutt, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Australia has experienced dramatic declines and extinctions of its native rodent species over the last 200 years, particularly in southern Australia. In the tropical savanna of northern Australia significant declines have occurred only in recent decades. The later onset of these declines suggests that the causes may differ from earlier declines in the south. We examine potential regional effects (northern versus southern Australia) on biological and ecological correlates of range decline in Australian rodents. We demonstrate that rodent declines have been greater in the south than in the tropical north, are strongly influenced by phylogeny, and are consistently greater for species inhabiting relatively open or sparsely vegetated habitat. Unlike in marsupials, where some species have much larger body size than rodents, body mass was not an important predictor of decline in rodents. All Australian rodent species are within the prey-size range of cats (throughout the continent) and red foxes (in the south). Contrary to the hypothesis that mammal declines are related directly to ecosystem productivity (annual rainfall), our results are consistent with the hypothesis that disturbances such as fire and grazing, which occur in non-rainforest habitats and remove cover used by rodents for shelter, nesting and foraging, increase predation risk. We agree with calls to introduce conservation management that limits the size and intensity of fires, increases fire patchiness and reduces grazing impacts at ecological scales appropriate for rodents. Controlling feral predators, even creating predator-free reserves in relatively sparsely-vegetated habitats, is urgently required to ensure the survival of rodent species, particularly in northern Australia where declines are not yet as severe as those in the south. PMID:26111037

  15. Correlates of Recent Declines of Rodents in Northern and Southern Australia: Habitat Structure Is Critical.

    PubMed

    Lawes, Michael J; Fisher, Diana O; Johnson, Chris N; Blomberg, Simon P; Frank, Anke S K; Fritz, Susanne A; McCallum, Hamish; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Abbott, Brett N; Legge, Sarah; Letnic, Mike; Thomas, Colette R; Thurgate, Nikki; Fisher, Alaric; Gordon, Iain J; Kutt, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Australia has experienced dramatic declines and extinctions of its native rodent species over the last 200 years, particularly in southern Australia. In the tropical savanna of northern Australia significant declines have occurred only in recent decades. The later onset of these declines suggests that the causes may differ from earlier declines in the south. We examine potential regional effects (northern versus southern Australia) on biological and ecological correlates of range decline in Australian rodents. We demonstrate that rodent declines have been greater in the south than in the tropical north, are strongly influenced by phylogeny, and are consistently greater for species inhabiting relatively open or sparsely vegetated habitat. Unlike in marsupials, where some species have much larger body size than rodents, body mass was not an important predictor of decline in rodents. All Australian rodent species are within the prey-size range of cats (throughout the continent) and red foxes (in the south). Contrary to the hypothesis that mammal declines are related directly to ecosystem productivity (annual rainfall), our results are consistent with the hypothesis that disturbances such as fire and grazing, which occur in non-rainforest habitats and remove cover used by rodents for shelter, nesting and foraging, increase predation risk. We agree with calls to introduce conservation management that limits the size and intensity of fires, increases fire patchiness and reduces grazing impacts at ecological scales appropriate for rodents. Controlling feral predators, even creating predator-free reserves in relatively sparsely-vegetated habitats, is urgently required to ensure the survival of rodent species, particularly in northern Australia where declines are not yet as severe as those in the south. PMID:26111037

  16. High Protein- and High Lipid-Producing Microalgae from Northern Australia as Potential Feedstock for Animal Feed and Biodiesel

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Van Thang; Ahmed, Faruq; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Quigley, Simon; Nowak, Ekaterina; Schenk, Peer M.

    2015-01-01

    Microalgal biomass can be used for biodiesel, feed, and food production. Collection and identification of local microalgal strains in the Northern Territory, Australia was conducted to identify strains with high protein and lipid contents as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel production, respectively. A total of 36 strains were isolated from 13 samples collected from a variety of freshwater locations, such as dams, ponds, and streams and subsequently classified by 18S rDNA sequencing. All of the strains were green microalgae and predominantly belong to Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Desmodesmus sp., Chlamydomonas sp., Pseudomuriella sp., Tetraedron caudatum, Graesiella emersonii, and Mychonastes timauensis. Among the fastest growing strains, Scenedesmus sp. NT1d possessed the highest content of protein; reaching up to 33% of its dry weight. In terms of lipid production, Chlorella sp. NT8a and Scenedesmus dimorphus NT8e produced the highest triglyceride contents of 116.9 and 99.13 μg mL−1 culture, respectively, as measured by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy of fatty acid methyl esters. These strains may present suitable candidates for biodiesel production after further optimization of culturing conditions, while their protein-rich biomass could be used for animal feed. PMID:26042215

  17. High protein- and high lipid-producing microalgae from northern australia as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Duong, Van Thang; Ahmed, Faruq; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Quigley, Simon; Nowak, Ekaterina; Schenk, Peer M

    2015-01-01

    Microalgal biomass can be used for biodiesel, feed, and food production. Collection and identification of local microalgal strains in the Northern Territory, Australia was conducted to identify strains with high protein and lipid contents as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel production, respectively. A total of 36 strains were isolated from 13 samples collected from a variety of freshwater locations, such as dams, ponds, and streams and subsequently classified by 18S rDNA sequencing. All of the strains were green microalgae and predominantly belong to Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Desmodesmus sp., Chlamydomonas sp., Pseudomuriella sp., Tetraedron caudatum, Graesiella emersonii, and Mychonastes timauensis. Among the fastest growing strains, Scenedesmus sp. NT1d possessed the highest content of protein; reaching up to 33% of its dry weight. In terms of lipid production, Chlorella sp. NT8a and Scenedesmus dimorphus NT8e produced the highest triglyceride contents of 116.9 and 99.13 μg mL(-1) culture, respectively, as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy of fatty acid methyl esters. These strains may present suitable candidates for biodiesel production after further optimization of culturing conditions, while their protein-rich biomass could be used for animal feed.

  18. Melville Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  19. PROGRESS REPORT ON GEOLOGIC STUDIES OF THE RANGER OREBODIES, NORTHERN TERRITORY, AUSTRALIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas; Frishman, David; ,

    1985-01-01

    The Ranger No. 1 and No. 3 orebodies contain about 124,000 tonnes U//3O//8 in highly chloritized metasediments of the lower Proterozoic Cahill Formation within about 500 m of the projected sub-Kombolgie Formation unconformity. In both orebodies, oxidized and reduced uranium minerals occur chiefly in quartzose schists that have highly variable amounts of muscovite, sericite, and chlorite. The effects of several periods of alteration are pervasive in the vicinity of orebodies where biotite and garnet are altered to chlorite, and feldspars to white mica or chlorite. Oxidized uranium minerals, associated with earthy iron oxides, occur from the surface to a depth of about 60 m. Below the oxidized zone, uranium occurs chiefly as uraninite and pitchblende disseminated through thick sections of quartz-chlorite-muscovite schist and has no apparent association with graphite or sulphides. The geologic age(s) of uranium emplacement are obscure because there are few age criteria. Reduced uranium minerals are younger than 1. 8-b. y. -old granite dykes, and some occur locally in 1. 65-b. y. -old Kombolgie Formation.

  20. Strangways Crater, Northern Territory, Australia: siderophile element enrichment and lithophile element fractionation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, J.W.; Wandless, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Seven samples of melt rock and four samples of country rock from the Strangways crater were analysed for Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Zr, Sb, Cs, Ba, REE, Hf, Ta, Th, U, Ni, Se, Pd, Ag, Cd, Re, Os, Ir and Au. The data indicate that the crater may have been formed by the impact of an olivine-rich achondrite, and melt rocks appear to contain approx 3 wt.% of projectile material.-B.M.

  1. Radium concentration factors in passionfruit (Passiflora foetida) from the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Medley, Peter; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Parry, David; Martin, Paul

    2013-12-01

    In this study, uptake of Ra from soil into the edible fruit of the wild passionfruit species Passiflora foetida was investigated, using selective extraction from the soil samples. A wide range of environmental exposure conditions were represented by the locations that were sampled, including both natural soils, and soils influenced by past and present uranium mining activities. The bioavailable (226)Ra fraction in soils was found to be a better predictor of (226)Ra fruit activity concentrations than the total soil activity concentration, or any of the other fractions studied. Concentration Factors (CFs) derived using the bioavailable fraction varied by only a factor of 7 between different locations, whereas CFs derived using other fractions and total soil varied by up to two orders of magnitude. CFs were highest for those soils containing the lowest concentrations of Mg, Ca and Ba, and approached a saturation value at higher soil concentrations. This finding suggests that group II elements influence radium uptake, most likely the result of increased pressure on the plant to take up essential nutrient group II elements from soil with the lower concentrations, with Ra being taken up as an analogue element. It is also possible that at higher concentrations of bioavailable Ca and Mg in the soil, these ions will outcompete Ra for adsorption sites in the soil and/or on the root surfaces. The study also shows that (228)Ra can potentially be a significant contributor to ingestion doses and should also be considered when assessing committed effective doses from the ingestion of fruits.

  2. Age of uranium ores at Ranger and Jabiluka unconformity vein deposits, Northern Territory, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, K.R.; Grauch, R.I.; Nutt, C.J.; Frishman, D.; Nash, J.T.; Simmons, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Ranger and Jabiluka uranium deposits are the largest in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Field (ARUF), which contains at least 20% of the world's low-cost uranium reserves. Ore occurs in early Proterozoic metasediments, below an unconformity with sandstones of the 1.65 Ga Kombolgie Formation. This study uses U-Pb isotope data from over 60 whole-rock drill core samples that contained a variety of mineral assemblages and textures. Data for Ranger samples indicate a well-defined age of 1.74 +/-.02 Ga. This 1.74 Ga age is distinctly pre-Kombolgie, so the Ranger deposit cannot have been formed by processes requiring its presence. This Ranger age is consistent, however, with mineralization related to heating associated with either the emplacement of early post-metamorphic granites, or possibly with intrusion of the nearby Oenpelli Dolerite. In contrast, data for the least-altered Jabiluka ores yield a concordia-intercept age of 1.44 +/-.02 Ga--significantly younger than the Ranger age, and also younger than the Komobolgie. This age may correspond to a regional thermal event, as indicated both by mafic dikes of roughly this age and a zircon lower-intercept age from a nearby granite-gneiss. Thus, together with the well-defined approx.900 Ma age of ores at the Nabarlek deposit, there are at least 3 distinct periods of major U-mineralization in the ARUF. Data for both Ranger and Jabiluka indicate the same, profound isotopic disturbance at some time in the interval of 0.4-0.6 Ga. Possibly this time corresponds to the development of basins and associated basalt flows to the W and SW, a suggested by Crick et. al. (1980).

  3. Progress report on geologic studies of the Ranger orebodies, Northern Territory, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J.T.; Frishman, David

    1982-01-01

    The Ranger No. 1 and No. 3 orebodies contain about 124,000 tonnes U3O8 in highly chloritized metasediments of the lower Proterozoic Cahill Formation within about 500 m of the projected sub-Kombolgie Formation unconformity. In both orebodies, oxidized and reduced uranium minerals occur chiefly in quartzose schists that have highly variable amounts of muscovite, sericite, and chlorite. The effects of several periods of alteration are pervasive in the vicinity of orebodies where biotite and garnet are altered to chlorite, and feldspars to white mica or chlorite. Oxidized uranium minerals, associated with earthy iron oxides, occur from the surface to a depth of about 60 m. Below the oxidized zone, uranium occurs chiefly as uraninite and pitchblende disseminated through thick sections of quartz-chlorite-muscovite schist and has no apparent association with graphite or sulfides. In fact, graphite is rare and sulfides are generally low in abundance (<0.5 percent). Higher ore grades occur in disrupted zones a few centimeters thick and in some quartz-chlorite vein-like zones of uncertain origin. Uranium correlates strongly with chlorite, but not all of the many ages of chlorite have associated uranium. At least five textural varieties of chlorite are present and represent at least 3 ages. Preliminary microprobe analyses suggest that Mg-Fe-Al contents are relatively uniform. Apatite commonly occurs with chlorite. Uranium is not common in carbonate rocks and seems to occur only in disrupted zones that have chlorite alteration. Chloritization and silicification are more widespread and intense in the No. 1 orebody than in the No. 3. In both orebodies, hematite occurs tens to hundreds of meters below the weathered zone, in both altered and largely unaltered rocks, with and without uranium. The structure of the orebodies is outwardly simple, particularly in No. 3; dips are less than 40? on most lithologic contacts. The No. 1 orebody is in a basin-like structure about 400 m wide that probably formed in part by progressive removal of carbonate rocks that are as much as 200 m thick adjacent to the No. 1 orebody and below the No. 3 orebody. Quartz-chlorite breccias have formed in the zone of carbonate thinning; uranium is spotty and low grade in these breccias. Chloritized and uraniferous broken and sheared zones, a few centimeters to a few meters thick, have an unknown attitude but must have small displacement. Blocks of altered Kombolgie sandstone are downfaulted into the No. 3 orebody and locally contain reduced uranium minerals. One or more shear zones 5-30 m thick of crushed and smeared fine to coarse rock fragments occur below the orebodies, and other low-angle shears probably occur in the orebodies. The shear zone dips about 40 o and displacement on it is not known. The footwall rocks generally are less retrograded than those in the hanging wall (orebody) and consist of quartz-biotite-feldspar schists and gneisses flanking the Nanambu Complex. A few scattered fractures in the footwall sequence contain pitchblende of unknown age and origin. Major element chemical analyses confirm the lithologic observations of large changes in composition during multiple stages of alteration. Granitic dikes and pelitic schists have gained Fe and Mg and lost Si, Ca, Na, and K during chloritization. Marbles have gained Si, Al, Fe, and P, and lost Mg, Ca, and K during jasperoid-chlorite alteration. Total net chemical gains and losses in the Ranger No. 1 orebody were huge: equal to about 37 percent of the mass of the ore-bearing rock that will be mined. There were net gains in Si and P and net losses in Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, and Na. The geologic age(s) of uranium emplacement are obscure because there are few age criteria. Reduced uranium minerals are younger than 1.8-b.y.-old granite dikes, and some occur locally in 1.65-b.y.-old Kombolgie Formation. Diabase dikes (age not known) are thoroughly chloritized and contain sparse ore minerals. Oxidized ura

  4. Seasonal variation of heavy metals in oysters from Darwin Harbor, Northern Territory, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Peerzada, N.; Kozlik, E. )

    1992-01-01

    In this study the authors report the seasonal variation in the concentrations of zinc, lead, cadmium, copper, and iron in oysters over a period of eight months from five different sites in Darwin Harbor. The site selection was based on previous work, with the exception of Darwin Wharf. Seasonal variation of heavy metals in marine organisms, especially bivalves, has been reported by many workers. The highest concentrations of zinc and copper were found in the summer month of January and the lowest at the end of winter month of October. Darwin Harbor lies well within the tropics and is subjected to two weather systems. The dry season extends from April to October approximately, when southeast trade winds prevail, and the wet season extends from November to April, when the northwest monsoon prevails. Sea-surface temperatures of Darwin Harbor show no great variation between wet and dry seasons. It is virtually constant during the wet season (about 28-29C) and only a few degrees lower during the dry season (25-28C). Salinity ranges from 27.8 to 35.5 ppt between the months of February and September.

  5. Radium concentration factors in passionfruit (Passiflora foetida) from the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Medley, Peter; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Parry, David; Martin, Paul

    2013-12-01

    In this study, uptake of Ra from soil into the edible fruit of the wild passionfruit species Passiflora foetida was investigated, using selective extraction from the soil samples. A wide range of environmental exposure conditions were represented by the locations that were sampled, including both natural soils, and soils influenced by past and present uranium mining activities. The bioavailable (226)Ra fraction in soils was found to be a better predictor of (226)Ra fruit activity concentrations than the total soil activity concentration, or any of the other fractions studied. Concentration Factors (CFs) derived using the bioavailable fraction varied by only a factor of 7 between different locations, whereas CFs derived using other fractions and total soil varied by up to two orders of magnitude. CFs were highest for those soils containing the lowest concentrations of Mg, Ca and Ba, and approached a saturation value at higher soil concentrations. This finding suggests that group II elements influence radium uptake, most likely the result of increased pressure on the plant to take up essential nutrient group II elements from soil with the lower concentrations, with Ra being taken up as an analogue element. It is also possible that at higher concentrations of bioavailable Ca and Mg in the soil, these ions will outcompete Ra for adsorption sites in the soil and/or on the root surfaces. The study also shows that (228)Ra can potentially be a significant contributor to ingestion doses and should also be considered when assessing committed effective doses from the ingestion of fruits. PMID:23994954

  6. Challenges of Conducting Systematic Research in Australia's Northern Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmer, Janet; Harper, Helen; Lea, Tess; Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Chalkiti, Kalotina

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the challenges of conducting systematic research, using our experiences of conducting a study to evaluate the effectiveness of ABRACADABRA, an online tool for early childhood literacy instruction as the contextual framework. By discussing how the research team resolved such perennial issues as high teacher turnover, low or…

  7. Rainfall-runoff modelling in northern Australia: A guide to modelling strategies in the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petheram, C.; Rustomji, P.; Chiew, F. H. S.; Vleeshouwer, J.

    2012-09-01

    SummaryA prolonged drought across southern Australia has led to renewed interest in water resource development of northern Australia, and to increased demand for runoff predictions from ungauged catchments in Australia's tropics. In contrast to more temperate settings where there is a plethora of rainfall-runoff modelling studies, the world's tropical regions, including those of Australia, have received little attention and thus the predictive skill of various rainfall-runoff models and methods in tropical basins is less known. Using data from 105 catchments in tropical Australia, five daily rainfall-runoff models and three methods of regionalising model parameters were compared. When locally calibrated, the more complex rainfall-runoff models performed best. However, when the models were used to predict streamflow in 'ungauged' catchments the differences in model performance was negligible. The adoption of multiple criteria to select an optimal parameter set resulted in an improved ability to simulate low-flows with no loss in predictive capacity for higher flows. An 'informed' transposition of parameter sets from gauged to ungauged catchments was better than random assignment of intact parameter sets for medium to high-flows, but not for low-flows. Assigning model parameters on the basis of spatial proximity outperformed physical similarity methods, particular with respect to model bias. The use of spatially distributed rainfall data did not improve model performance over the use of catchment average rainfall data. When models were locally calibrated there was a weak inverse correlation between catchment area and model performance. However, constraining donor-target parameter allocation by similar catchment area did not improve predictive capability in ungauged catchments. Although model performance was not as good as that reported for southern Australia and other temperate regions of the world, this study confirmed that modelling strategies similar to those

  8. Genetic analysis of Giardia and Cryptosporidium from people in Northern Australia using PCR-based tools.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Janine; Koehler, Anson V; Robertson, Gemma; Bradbury, Richard S; Jex, Aaron R; Haydon, Shane R; Stevens, Melita A; Norton, Robert; Joachim, Anja; Gasser, Robin B

    2015-12-01

    To date, there has been limited genetic study of the gastrointestinal pathogens Giardia and Cryptosporidium in northern parts of Australia. Here, PCR-based methods were used for the genetic characterization of Giardia and Cryptosporidium from 695 people with histories of gastrointestinal disorders from the tropical North of Australia. Genomic DNAs from fecal samples were subjected to PCR-based analyses of regions from the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), small subunit (SSU) of the nuclear ribosomal RNA and/or the glycoprotein (gp60) genes. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 13 and four of the 695 samples, respectively. Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B were found in 4 (31%) and 9 (69%) of the 13 samples in persons of <9 years of age. Cryptosporidium hominis (subgenotype IdA18), Cryptosporidium mink genotype (subgenotype IIA16R1) and C. felis were also identified in single patients of 11-21 years of age. Future studies might focus on a comparative study of these and other protists in rural communities in Northern Australia.

  9. Australia.

    PubMed

    1984-05-01

    This discussion of Australia covers the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations and defense, and relations between the US and Australia. In 1983 the population of Australia totaled 15.3 million with an annual growth rate of 1.3%. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000 live births with a life expectancy of 74 years. The people of Australia are predominantly of British origin, and their culture and outlook are similar to those of the US. The aboriginal population is estimated to be 1% of the total. Much of Australia's culture is derived from European roots, but distinctive Australian trends have evolved from the environment, aboriginal culture, and the influence of Australia's neighbors. Australia, the world's smallest continent but 1 of the largest nations, is located below the Southeast Asian archipelago and is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean and on the west by the Indian Ocean. Most of the continent is a low, irregular plateau. Little is known of Australia before its discovery by Dutch explorers in the 17th century. On January 26, 1788 the Colony of New South Wales was founded and formal proclamation on the site of Sydney followed on February 7. Many of the 1st settlers were convicts. The mid-19th century began a policy of emancipation of convicts and assisted immigration of free people. The 1st federal Parliament was opened at Melbourne in May 1901. Australia passed the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act in 1942, which officially established Australia's complete autonomy in both internal and external affairs. The Commonwealth government was created with a constitution patterned partly on the US constitution. Australia is a fully independent nation within the Commonwealth. The federal Parliament is bicameral, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. At the apex of the court system is the High Court of Australia. The 3 main political groups in Australia are the Liberal Party, the

  10. Australia.

    PubMed

    1984-05-01

    This discussion of Australia covers the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations and defense, and relations between the US and Australia. In 1983 the population of Australia totaled 15.3 million with an annual growth rate of 1.3%. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000 live births with a life expectancy of 74 years. The people of Australia are predominantly of British origin, and their culture and outlook are similar to those of the US. The aboriginal population is estimated to be 1% of the total. Much of Australia's culture is derived from European roots, but distinctive Australian trends have evolved from the environment, aboriginal culture, and the influence of Australia's neighbors. Australia, the world's smallest continent but 1 of the largest nations, is located below the Southeast Asian archipelago and is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean and on the west by the Indian Ocean. Most of the continent is a low, irregular plateau. Little is known of Australia before its discovery by Dutch explorers in the 17th century. On January 26, 1788 the Colony of New South Wales was founded and formal proclamation on the site of Sydney followed on February 7. Many of the 1st settlers were convicts. The mid-19th century began a policy of emancipation of convicts and assisted immigration of free people. The 1st federal Parliament was opened at Melbourne in May 1901. Australia passed the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act in 1942, which officially established Australia's complete autonomy in both internal and external affairs. The Commonwealth government was created with a constitution patterned partly on the US constitution. Australia is a fully independent nation within the Commonwealth. The federal Parliament is bicameral, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. At the apex of the court system is the High Court of Australia. The 3 main political groups in Australia are the Liberal Party, the

  11. Reactivated tectonic boundaries and implications for the reconstruction of southeastern Australia and northern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, D.A.; Gleadow, A.J.W. )

    1992-03-01

    Rifted continental margins are strongly influenced by the location of zones of preexisting crustal weakness. Apatite fission track thermochronological data indicate that the Paleozoic lithospheric boundary between the Kanmantoo and Lachlan fold belts in western Victoria, Australia, was reactivated during Mesozoic rifting as a transfer fault. To the east of this boundary, 1-2 km of material was denuded during extension, while essentially no denudation took place during rifting to the west. The correlated tectonic boundary within the Bowers terrane of northern Victoria Land, Antarctica, was also reactivated upon rifting. During fragmentation of Gondwana, movement on this zone perpendicular to the direction of rifting probably determined the location of the Tasman Fracture Zone. When Australia and Antarctica are reconstructed along the trace of the Tasman Fracture Zone, the tectonic boundary in Victoria falls into precise alignment with the Bowers terrane.

  12. Reliability of biomass burning estimates from savanna fires: Biomass burning in northern Australia during the 1999 Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment B field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell-Smith, Jeremy; Edwards, Andrew C.; Cook, Garry D.

    2003-02-01

    This paper estimates the two-daily extent of savanna burning and consumption of fine (grass and litter) fuels from an extensive 230,000 km2 region of northern Australia during August-September 1999 encompassing the Australian continental component of the Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment B (BIBLE B) campaign [, 2002]. The extent of burning for the study region was derived from fire scar mapping of imagery from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite. The mapping was calibrated and verified with reference to one Landsat scene and associated aerial transect validation data. Fine fuel loads were estimated using published fuel accumulation relationships for major regional fuel types. It is estimated that more than 43,000 km2 was burnt during the 25 day study period, with about 19 Mt of fine (grass and litter) fuels. This paper examines assumptions and errors associated with these estimates. It is estimated from uncalibrated fire mapping derived from AVHRR imagery that 417,500 km2 of the northern Australian savanna was burnt in 1999, of which 136,405 km2, or 30%, occurred in the Northern Territory study region. Using generalized fuel accumulation equations, such biomass burning consumed an estimated 212.3 Mt of fine fuels, but no data are available for consumption of coarse fuels. This figure exceeds a recent estimate, based on fine fuels only, for the combined Australian savanna and temperate grassland biomass burning over the period 1990-1999 but is lower than past estimates derived from classification approaches. We conclude that (1) fire maps derived from coarse-resolution optical imagery can be applied relatively reliably to estimate the extent of savanna fires, generally with 70-80% confidence using the approach adopted here, over the major burning period in northern Australia and (2) substantial further field assessment and associated modeling of fuel accumulation

  13. Pure and Bitter Spaces: Gender, Identity and Territory in Northern Irish Youth Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrellis, Sheena

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines young peoples' narratives of space and territory and the ways in which they are gender specific. Drawing upon data from two ESRC funded research projects beginning in 1996, the paper focuses upon the ways in which boundaries are perceived, constructed and managed in the everyday lives of young women and men growing up in one…

  14. Biogeography of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the Torres Strait Islands of Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Baker, Anthony; Mayo, Mark; Owens, Leigh; Burgess, Graham; Norton, Robert; McBride, William John Hannan; Currie, Bart J; Warner, Jeffrey

    2013-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that biogeographical boundaries are a feature of Burkholderia pseudomallei ecology, and they impact the epidemiology of melioidosis on a global scale. This study examined the relatedness of B. pseudomallei sourced from islands in the Torres Strait of Northern Australia to determine if the geography of isolated island communities is a determinant of the organisms' dispersal. Environmental sampling on Badu Island in the Near Western Island cluster recovered a single clone. An additional 32 clinical isolates from the region were sourced. Isolates were characterized using multilocus sequence typing and a multiplex PCR targeting the flagellum gene cluster. Gene cluster analysis determined that 69% of the isolates from the region encoded the ancestral Burkholderia thailandensis-like flagellum and chemotaxis gene cluster, a proportion significantly lower than that reported from mainland Australia and consistent with observations of isolates from southern Papua New Guinea. A goodness-of-fit test indicated that there was geographic localization of sequence types throughout the archipelago, with the exception of Thursday Island, the economic and cultural hub of the region. Sequence types common to mainland Australia and Papua New Guinea were identified. These findings demonstrate for the first time an environmental reservoir for B. pseudomallei in the Torres Strait, and multilocus sequence typing suggests that the organism is not randomly distributed throughout this region and that seawater may provide a barrier to dispersal of the organism. Moreover, these findings support an anthropogenic dispersal hypothesis for the spread of B. pseudomallei throughout this region.

  15. Crustal Structure of Southeast Asia and Northern Australia using Bayesian Inversion of Seismic Ambient Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Suhardjono, S.; Harjadi, P.

    2013-12-01

    We image Southeast Asia and the northern part of Australia by cross-correlating ambient seismic noise recorded at over 500 stations. The group velocities are measured through applying narrow band filters on the retrieved Rayleigh wave Green's functions and used in a probabilistic tomographic approach to map the velocity structure of the region. The inverted images from 8 seconds to 40 seconds show details of the seismic structure of the region beneath the Indonesian archipelago, South China Sea, and northern shelf of Australia, including the boundaries of the oceanic lithosphere. Transdimensional Bayesian tomography is used to invert the traveltimes of Green's functions for periods between 8 and 40 seconds. Transdimensional Bayesian tomography does not require an explicit choice of smoothing, damping or grid parameterization; the resolution if the solution instead varies spatially and is determined by the data. By sampling the resulting tomographic images at different spatial points, we construct the group velocity dispersion curves. These curves are later inverted, again with a transdimensional Bayesian approach, to create the 2D shear wave velocity distrbition of the region. Various features are imaged, including low-velocity sedimentary basins at shallow depth and high velocities associated with the ongoing subduction of the Australian lithosphere beneath the Sunda Plate.

  16. Crustal Structure of Southeast Asia and Northern Australia from Bayesian Inversion of Seismic Ambient Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygin, Erdinc; Cummins, Phil; Suhardjono, Suhardjono; Harjadi, Prih

    2014-05-01

    We image Southeast Asia and the northern part of Australia by cross-correlating ambient seismic noise recorded at over 500 stations. The group velocities are measured through applying narrow band filters on the retrieved Rayleigh wave Green's functions and used in a probabilistic tomographic approach to map the velocity structure of the region. The inverted images from 8 seconds to 40 seconds show details of the seismic structure of the region beneath the Indonesian archipelago, South China Sea, and northern shelf of Australia, including the boundaries of the oceanic lithosphere. Transdimensional Bayesian tomography is used to invert the traveltimes of Green's functions for periods between 8 and 40 seconds. Transdimensional Bayesian tomography does not require an explicit choice of smoothing, damping or grid parameterization; the resolution if the solution instead varies spatially and is determined by the data. By sampling the resulting tomographic images at different spatial points, we construct the group velocity dispersion curves. These curves are later inverted, again with a transdimensional Bayesian approach, to create the 2D shear wave velocity distribution of the region. Various features are imaged, including low-velocity sedimentary basins at shallow depth and high velocities associated with the ongoing subduction of the Australian lithosphere beneath the Sunda Plate.

  17. Photochemical production of O3 in biomass burning plumes in the boundary layer over northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.; Ko, M.; Koike, M.; Kita, K.; Blake, D. R.; Hu, W.; Scott, C.; Kawakami, S.; Miyazaki, Y.; Russell-Smith, J.; Ogawa, T.

    2003-05-01

    In situ aircraft measurements of ozone (O3) and its precursors were made over northern Australia in August-September 1999 during the Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment Phase B (BIBLE-B). A clear positive correlation of O3 with carbon monoxide (CO) was found in biomass burning plumes in the boundary layer (<3 km). The ΔO3/ΔCO ratio (linear regression slope of O3-CO correlation) is found to be 0.12 ppbv/ppbv, which is comparable to the ratio of 0.15 ppbv/ppbv observed at 0-4 km over the Amazon and Africa in previous studies. The net flux of O3 exported from northern Australia during BIBLE-B is estimated to be 0.3 Gmol O3/day. In the biomass burning region, large enhancements of O3 were coincident with the locations of biomass burning hot spots, suggesting that major O3 production occurred near fires (horizontal scale <50 km).

  18. Train-borne Measurements of Enhanced Wet Season Methane Emissions in Northern Australia - Implications for Australian Tropical Wetland Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutscher, N. M.; Griffith, D. W.; Paton-Walsh, C.

    2008-12-01

    We present the first transect measurements of CH4, CO2, CO and N2O taken on the Ghan railway travelling on a N-S transect of the Australian continent between Adelaide (34.9°S, 138.6°E) and Darwin (12.5°S, 130.9°E). The Ghan crosses Australia from the mainly agricultural mid-latitude south through the arid interior to the wet-dry tropical savannah south of and around Darwin. In the 2008 wet season (February) we observed a significant latitudinal gradient of CH4 increasing towards the north. The same pattern was observed in the late 2008 wet season (March-April), with a smaller latitudinal gradient. These will be compared with a dry season transect, to be undertaken in September/October 2008. The Air Pollution Model (TAPM), a regional scale prognostic meteorological model, is used to estimate the surface methane source strength required to explain the observed latitudinal gradient in CH4 in the wet season, and investigate the source type. Fluxes from cattle and termites together contribute up to 25% of the enhancements seen, leaving wetlands as the major source of wet season methane in the Australian tropics. Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane to the atmosphere, and tropical wetlands are responsible for the majority of the interannual variation in methane source strength. We attempt to quantify the annual methane flux contributed by anaerobic organic breakdown due to wet- season flooding in tropical Northern Territory.

  19. Microclimate and limits to photosynthesis in a diverse community of hypolithic cyanobacteria in northern Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tracy, Christopher R.; Streten-Joyce, Claire; Dalton, Robert; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Gibb, Karen S.; Christian, Keith A.

    2010-01-01

    Hypolithic microbes, primarily cyanobacteria, inhabit the highly specialized microhabitats under translucent rocks in extreme environments. Here we report findings from hypolithic cyanobacteria found under three types of translucent rocks (quartz, prehnite, agate) in a semiarid region of tropical Australia. We investigated the photosynthetic responses of the cyanobacterial communities to light, temperature and moisture in the laboratory, and we measured the microclimatic variables of temperature and soil moisture under rocks in the field over an annual cycle. We also used molecular techniques to explore the diversity of hypolithic cyanobacteria in this community and their phylogenetic relationships within the context of hypolithic cyanobacteria from other continents. Based on the laboratory experiments, photosynthetic activity required a minimum soil moisture of 15% (by mass). Peak photosynthetic activity occurred between approximately 8°C and 42°C, though some photosynthesis occurred between −1°C and 51°C. Maximum photosynthesis rates also occurred at light levels of approximately 150–550 μmol m−2 s−1. We used the field microclimatic data in conjunction with these measurements of photosynthetic efficiency to estimate the amount of time the hypolithic cyanobacteria could be photosynthetically active in the field. Based on these data, we estimated that conditions were appropriate for photosynthetic activity for approximately 942 h (∼75 days) during the year. The hypolithic cyanobacteria community under quartz, prehnite and agate rocks was quite diverse both within and between rock types. We identified 115 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), with each rock hosting 8–24 OTUs. A third of the cyanobacteria OTUs from northern Australia grouped with Chroococcidiopsis, a genus that has been identified from hypolithic and endolithic communities from the Gobi, Mojave, Atacama and Antarctic deserts. Several OTUs identified from northern Australia have

  20. Microclimate and limits to photosynthesis in a diverse community of hypolithic cyanobacteria in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Christopher R; Streten-Joyce, Claire; Dalton, Robert; Nussear, Kenneth E; Gibb, Karen S; Christian, Keith A

    2010-03-01

    Hypolithic microbes, primarily cyanobacteria, inhabit the highly specialized microhabitats under translucent rocks in extreme environments. Here we report findings from hypolithic cyanobacteria found under three types of translucent rocks (quartz, prehnite, agate) in a semiarid region of tropical Australia. We investigated the photosynthetic responses of the cyanobacterial communities to light, temperature and moisture in the laboratory, and we measured the microclimatic variables of temperature and soil moisture under rocks in the field over an annual cycle. We also used molecular techniques to explore the diversity of hypolithic cyanobacteria in this community and their phylogenetic relationships within the context of hypolithic cyanobacteria from other continents. Based on the laboratory experiments, photosynthetic activity required a minimum soil moisture of 15% (by mass). Peak photosynthetic activity occurred between approximately 8 degrees C and 42 degrees C, though some photosynthesis occurred between -1 degrees C and 51 degrees C. Maximum photosynthesis rates also occurred at light levels of approximately 150-550 micromol m(-2) s(-1). We used the field microclimatic data in conjunction with these measurements of photosynthetic efficiency to estimate the amount of time the hypolithic cyanobacteria could be photosynthetically active in the field. Based on these data, we estimated that conditions were appropriate for photosynthetic activity for approximately 942 h (approximately 75 days) during the year. The hypolithic cyanobacteria community under quartz, prehnite and agate rocks was quite diverse both within and between rock types. We identified 115 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), with each rock hosting 8-24 OTUs. A third of the cyanobacteria OTUs from northern Australia grouped with Chroococcidiopsis, a genus that has been identified from hypolithic and endolithic communities from the Gobi, Mojave, Atacama and Antarctic deserts. Several OTUs identified

  1. Euthanasia in the Commonwealth of Australia.

    PubMed

    Quirk, P

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the debate over the euthanasia law of the Northern Territory of Australia in its constitutional context. After considering the juridical status of the Northern Territory and related topics, this article outlines the judicial and legislative challenges to the Rights of the Terminally Ill Act (RTI Act) of the Northern Territory and concludes by offering some justifications for the passing of the Euthanasia Laws Act 1997 (Commonwealth), which effectively repeals the RTI Act. In dealing with these issues special emphasis will be given to the problem of Commonwealth law overriding Territory law and the concept of fundamental common law rights. The appropriateness of a Parliamentary solution--as opposed to a resolution through the courts--is defended.

  2. Making Progress: Women in Management in Primary & Secondary Education in Australia. Report of a National Conference (3rd, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia, August 1-4, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Shirley, Ed.

    This report describes the third conference that the Australian College of Education has conducted on women in educational administration in Australia. Over 150 educators attended, 90 percent of whom were women. Meetings and workshops were designed to canvass four major issues: (1) a political view of imperatives for change; (2) research reports on…

  3. Association of the melioidosis agent Burkholderia pseudomallei with water parameters in rural water supplies in Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Draper, A D K; Mayo, M; Harrington, G; Karp, D; Yinfoo, D; Ward, L; Haslem, A; Currie, B J; Kaestli, M

    2010-08-01

    We analyzed water parameters and the occurrence of the melioidosis agent Burkholderia pseudomallei in 47 water bores in Northern Australia. B. pseudomallei was associated with soft, acidic bore water of low salinity but high iron levels. This finding aids in identifying water supplies at risk of contamination with this pathogenic bacterium.

  4. Detection of Mycobacterium leprae by PCR testing of sputa from a patient with pulmonary cryptococcus coinfection in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Laura J; Price, Ric N; Krause, Vicki L; Huffam, Sarah E; Globan, Maria; Fyfe, Janet; Hajkowicz, Krispin M

    2014-10-01

    A case of fever, sepsis, and chest lesions evident on a computed tomography scan of an indigenous man in northern Australia following burns to the feet is described. Sputum PCR testing revealed Mycobacterium leprae, and a fine-needle aspirate of the chest lesions demonstrated Cryptococcus coinfection.

  5. Landscape Changes Influence the Occurrence of the Melioidosis Bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei in Soil in Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Kaestli, Mirjam; Mayo, Mark; Harrington, Glenda; Ward, Linda; Watt, Felicity; Hill, Jason V.; Cheng, Allen C.; Currie, Bart J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The soil-dwelling saprophyte bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the cause of melioidosis, a severe disease of humans and animals in southeast Asia and northern Australia. Despite the detection of B. pseudomallei in various soil and water samples from endemic areas, the environmental habitat of B. pseudomallei remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a large survey in the Darwin area in tropical Australia and screened 809 soil samples for the presence of these bacteria. B. pseudomallei were detected by using a recently developed and validated protocol involving soil DNA extraction and real-time PCR targeting the B. pseudomallei–specific Type III Secretion System TTS1 gene cluster. Statistical analyses such as multivariable cluster logistic regression and principal component analysis were performed to assess the association of B. pseudomallei with environmental factors. The combination of factors describing the habitat of B. pseudomallei differed between undisturbed sites and environmentally manipulated areas. At undisturbed sites, the occurrence of B. pseudomallei was found to be significantly associated with areas rich in grasses, whereas at environmentally disturbed sites, B. pseudomallei was associated with the presence of livestock animals, lower soil pH and different combinations of soil texture and colour. Conclusions/Significance This study contributes to the elucidation of environmental factors influencing the occurrence of B. pseudomallei and raises concerns that B. pseudomallei may spread due to changes in land use. PMID:19156200

  6. Removal of NOx and NOy in biomass burning plumes in the boundary layer over northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.; Koike, M.; Ko, M.; Kita, K.; Blake, D. R.; Nishi, N.; Hu, W.; Liley, J. B.; Kawakami, S.; Shirai, T.; Miyazaki, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Russel-Smith, J.; Ogawa, T.

    2003-05-01

    The Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment Phase B (BIBLE-B) aircraft measurement campaign was conducted over the western Pacific and Australia in August and September 1999. In situ aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), total reactive nitrogen (NOy), ozone (O3), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and other species were made during BIBLE-B. Meteorological analysis shows that the trace gases emitted from biomass burning in northern Australia were mostly confined within the planetary boundary layer (below ˜3 km) by strong subsidence in the free troposphere. Removal processes of NOx (equal to measured NO + calculated NO2) and NOy in biomass burning plumes in the boundary layer are examined on the basis of correlation analysis. The photochemical lifetime of NOx in biomass burning plumes during the daytime is estimated to be 0.1 to 0.3 days using the correlations of NOx with short-lived NMHCs and hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration calculated from a constrained photochemical model. Correlation of NOy with CO shows that ˜60% of the NOy molecules originating from biomass burning were removed in the boundary layer within 2-3 days. This result is consistent with dry deposition of nitric acid (HNO3) in the plumes. It is likely that only a small fraction of NOy emitted from biomass burning was exported from the boundary layer to the free troposphere during the BIBLE-B period.

  7. A Retrospective Case-Series of Children With Bone and Joint Infection From Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Brischetto, Anna; Leung, Grace; Marshall, Catherine S.; Bowen, Asha C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Our clinical workload as infectious diseases pediatricians in northern Australia is dominated by complicated bone and joint infections in indigenous children. We reviewed the clinical presentation, microbiology, management, and outcomes of children presenting to Royal Darwin Hospital with bone and joint infections between 2010 and 2013, and aimed to compare severity and incidence with other populations worldwide. A retrospective audit was performed on children aged 0 to 18 years who were admitted to Royal Darwin Hospital between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013 with a bone and joint infection. Seventy-nine patients were identified, of whom 57 (72%) had osteomyelitis ± associated septic arthritis and 22 (28%) had septic arthritis alone. Sixty (76%) were indigenous Australians. The incidence rate of osteomyelitis for indigenous children was 82 per 100,000 children. Staphylococcus aureus was the confirmed pathogen in 43/79 (54%), of which 17/43 (40%) were methicillin resistant. Median length of stay was 17 days (interquartile range: 10–31 days) and median length of IV antibiotics was 15 days (interquartile range: 6–24 days). Fifty-six (71%) required at least 1 surgical procedure. Relapse within 12 months was documented in 12 (15%) patients. We report 3 key findings: osteomyelitis incidence in indigenous children of northern Australia is amongst the highest reported in the world; methicillin-resistant S aureus accounts for 36% of osteomyelitis with a positive microbiological diagnosis; and the severity of disease requires extended antibiotic therapy. Despite this, 15% of the cohort relapsed within 12 months and required readmission. PMID:26937926

  8. A Retrospective Case-Series of Children With Bone and Joint Infection From Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Brischetto, Anna; Leung, Grace; Marshall, Catherine S; Bowen, Asha C

    2016-02-01

    Our clinical workload as infectious diseases pediatricians in northern Australia is dominated by complicated bone and joint infections in indigenous children. We reviewed the clinical presentation, microbiology, management, and outcomes of children presenting to Royal Darwin Hospital with bone and joint infections between 2010 and 2013, and aimed to compare severity and incidence with other populations worldwide.A retrospective audit was performed on children aged 0 to 18 years who were admitted to Royal Darwin Hospital between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013 with a bone and joint infection.Seventy-nine patients were identified, of whom 57 (72%) had osteomyelitis ± associated septic arthritis and 22 (28%) had septic arthritis alone. Sixty (76%) were indigenous Australians. The incidence rate of osteomyelitis for indigenous children was 82 per 100,000 children. Staphylococcus aureus was the confirmed pathogen in 43/79 (54%), of which 17/43 (40%) were methicillin resistant. Median length of stay was 17 days (interquartile range: 10-31 days) and median length of IV antibiotics was 15 days (interquartile range: 6-24 days). Fifty-six (71%) required at least 1 surgical procedure. Relapse within 12 months was documented in 12 (15%) patients.We report 3 key findings: osteomyelitis incidence in indigenous children of northern Australia is amongst the highest reported in the world; methicillin-resistant S aureus accounts for 36% of osteomyelitis with a positive microbiological diagnosis; and the severity of disease requires extended antibiotic therapy. Despite this, 15% of the cohort relapsed within 12 months and required readmission.

  9. Determining meteorological drivers of salt marsh mosquito peaks in tropical northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Jacups, Susan P; Carter, Jane; Kurucz, Nina; McDonnell, Joseph; Whelan, Peter I

    2015-12-01

    In northern Australia the northern salt marsh mosquito Aedes vigilax is a vector of Ross River virus and is an appreciable pest. A coastal wetland adjacent to Darwin's residential suburbs offers a favorable habitat for Ae. vigilax, and despite vigilant mosquito control efforts, peaks of Ae. vigilax occur in excess of 500/trap/night some months. To improve mosquito control for disease and nuisance biting to nearby residential areas, we sought to investigate meteorological drivers associated with these Ae. vigilax peaks. We fitted a cross-sectional logistic regression model to weekly counts of female Ae. vigilax mosquitoes collected between July, 1998 and June, 2009 against variables, tide, rainfall, month, year, and larval control. Aedes vigilax peaks were associated with rainfall during the months September to November compared with January, when adjusted for larval control and tide. To maximize mosquito control efficiency, larval control should continue to be implemented after high tides and with increased emphasis on extensive larval hatches triggered by rainfall between September and November each year. This study reiterates the importance of monitoring and evaluating service delivery programs. Using statistical modelling, service providers can obtain solutions to operational problems using routinely collected data. These methods may be applicable in mosquito surveillance or control programs in other areas. PMID:26611962

  10. Cane toads lack physiological enhancements for dispersal at the invasive front in Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Christopher R; Christian, Keith A; Baldwin, John; Phillips, Ben L

    2012-01-15

    Many invasive species have evolved behavioural and morphological characteristics that facilitate their dispersal into new areas, but it is unclear how selection on this level of the phenotype filters through to the underlying physiology. Cane toads have been dispersing westward across northern tropical Australia for more than 70 years. Previous studies of cane toads at the invasive front have identified several behavioural, morphological and locomotory characteristics that have evolved to facilitate dispersal of toads. We assessed a range of physiological characteristics associated with locomotory abilities in toads from the long-established, east coast of Australia, from the invasive front, and from a site in between these locations. We measured time to exhaustion and respiratory gases of toads exercising on a treadmill, time to recovery from exhaustion, blood properties (lactate, haematocrit, haemoglobin, red blood cell count, blood cell volume), and muscle properties associated with locomotion (activities of the enzymes citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase, and pH buffering capacity). None of the measured physiological parameters supported the hypothesis that toads from the invasive front possess physiological adaptations that facilitate dispersal compared to toads from areas colonised in the past. The strongest difference among the three groups of toads, time to exhaustion, showed exactly the opposite trend; toads from the long-established populations in the east coast had the longest time to exhaustion. Successful colonisers can employ many characteristics to facilitate their dispersal, so the extent to which behaviour, morphology and physiology co-evolve remains an interesting question. However, in the present case at least, behavioural adaptations do not appear to have altered the organism's underlying physiology.

  11. Influence of climatic and hydrological factors on structure and composition of peat from northern wetland territories with low anthropogenic impact.

    PubMed

    Parfenova, L N; Selyanina, S B; Trufanova, M V; Bogolitsyn, K G; Orlov, A S; Volkova, N N; Ponomareva, T I; Sokolova, T V

    2016-05-01

    Northern wetlands ecosystems play an important role in the hydrological balance of neighboring areas, where they act as chemical barriers against anthropogenic and technogenic contaminations. Studied region is well known for quantity of peat deposits and the volume of peat resources. Peat can be considered as a highly informative marker for assessing change in environmental conditions. The study presents the results of the first investigation of peat samples, collected from representative ecosystems of northern wetland territories with low anthropogenic impact. Component and element composition of various peat types were studied in a relation to hydrologic, climate and sampling conditions. It was found out that organic and ash contents are more dependent on the type of the bog, than geographic location. Climatic factors are more important for the formation of bitumen. The degradation degree in peat increases proportionally to content of humates. High content of biogenic and lithogenic elements was observed in transition- and low-moor peat. The content of trace elements in peat samples do not depend on the type of the peat. The structural properties of peat were studied by the light microscopy, AFM and dynamic light scattering. It was determined that the conformation of studied peat samples is characterized by elements of asymmetry. The observed particles in the solutions exist in dynamic equilibrium with separated globular macromolecules. The size of these nanoparticles is comparable with the size of the particles of other biopolymers of similar nature. Swelling of peat in liquid water was studied. The relationship between structural specificities, origin of peat and its maximum degree of swelling was found. The degree of swelling can be used as structural-sensitive parameter in further research.

  12. Influence of climatic and hydrological factors on structure and composition of peat from northern wetland territories with low anthropogenic impact.

    PubMed

    Parfenova, L N; Selyanina, S B; Trufanova, M V; Bogolitsyn, K G; Orlov, A S; Volkova, N N; Ponomareva, T I; Sokolova, T V

    2016-05-01

    Northern wetlands ecosystems play an important role in the hydrological balance of neighboring areas, where they act as chemical barriers against anthropogenic and technogenic contaminations. Studied region is well known for quantity of peat deposits and the volume of peat resources. Peat can be considered as a highly informative marker for assessing change in environmental conditions. The study presents the results of the first investigation of peat samples, collected from representative ecosystems of northern wetland territories with low anthropogenic impact. Component and element composition of various peat types were studied in a relation to hydrologic, climate and sampling conditions. It was found out that organic and ash contents are more dependent on the type of the bog, than geographic location. Climatic factors are more important for the formation of bitumen. The degradation degree in peat increases proportionally to content of humates. High content of biogenic and lithogenic elements was observed in transition- and low-moor peat. The content of trace elements in peat samples do not depend on the type of the peat. The structural properties of peat were studied by the light microscopy, AFM and dynamic light scattering. It was determined that the conformation of studied peat samples is characterized by elements of asymmetry. The observed particles in the solutions exist in dynamic equilibrium with separated globular macromolecules. The size of these nanoparticles is comparable with the size of the particles of other biopolymers of similar nature. Swelling of peat in liquid water was studied. The relationship between structural specificities, origin of peat and its maximum degree of swelling was found. The degree of swelling can be used as structural-sensitive parameter in further research. PMID:26874767

  13. Nutrition and health (1948) of Aborigines in settlements in Arnhem Land, northern Australia.

    PubMed

    McArthur, M; Billington, B P; Hodges, K T; Specht, R L

    2000-09-01

    During the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land in 1948, a nutritionist (Margaret McArthur), a medical officer (Brian Billington), a biochemist (Kelvin Hodges) and also the 'flying dentist' (John Moody) observed the nutrition and health of Aborigines in the settlements on Groote Eylandt, at Yirrkala and at Oenpelli, Northern Territory. The results of their research were published in the Records of the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land Volume 2 Anthropology and Nutrition. (Melbourne University Press, 1960). Although seasonal and regional variations in food supply were a constant problem for nomadic Aborigines living on 'bush tucker' gathered from marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, the variety of food provided a well-balanced diet according to the international recommendations of 1948. In contrast, improvements in the 1948 diet of Aborigines in the settlements were strongly recommended. 1 An increase in the quantity of food given to older children and adolescents. 2 Regular distribution of fresh fruit and vegetables throughout the year from settlement gardens. 3 Regular supplies of fish, meat and other animal products, particularly for children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating mothers. 4 Increased production of milk and greater care in its handling. 5 Greater use of whole grain cereals in preference to refined products. PMID:24394450

  14. Diversity of Polychaeta (Annelida) and other worm taxa in mangrove habitats of Darwin Harbour, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, K. N.; Glasby, C. J.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper data on the diversity, distribution and abundance of polychaetes and other worm taxa in the mangroves of Darwin Harbour, northern Australia, are presented and compared with those of other tropical mangrove areas. Aspects of the feeding guild ecology and the effects of disturbance on mangrove worms are also examined. Data were collected over a period of four years, across four mangrove assemblages. Samples were obtained using three sampling techniques: 1 m × 1 m quadrat searches, epifauna searches and a new infaunal sampling technique, the anoxic mat. A total of 76 species (68 polychaetes, 1 oligochaete, 1 echiuran, 3 sipunculans, 2 nemerteans, 1 turbellarian) were recorded from the four main mangrove assemblages. Of these, 30 species are widespread, occurring in mangrove and non-mangrove habitats throughout the Indo-west Pacific. Only seven species (all polychaetes) appear to be restricted to the mangroves of Darwin Harbour and northern Australia. Polychaetes are predominant, comprising 80-96% of all worms sampled, with three families—Nereididae, Capitellidae and Spionidae—accounting for 46% of all species. The highest diversity and abundance was recorded in the soft, unconsolidated substrates of the seaward assemblage, with diversity and abundance decreasing progressively in the landward assemblages. Most of the worm fauna was infaunal (70%), but the intensive sampling regime revealed a hitherto unknown significant percentage of epifaunal species (18%) and species occurring as both infauna and epifauna (12%). Univariate analyses showed annual and seasonal differences in worm species richness and abundance—presumably associated with the intensity of the monsoon and recruitment success. The worm fauna differed between mangrove assemblages but the proportion of species in each feeding guild was relatively consistent across the four assemblages studied. Herbivores were the most species-rich and abundant, followed by carnivores and sub

  15. Tools to enhance public participation and confidence in the development of the Howard East aquifer water plan, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Sue; Tan, Poh-Ling; Nolan, Sharna

    2012-12-01

    SummaryFor the first time in the Northern Territory's water management history it is facing the challenge of managing an over-allocated groundwater resource. Rapid rural residential and agricultural development in the Howard River catchment of Darwin's hinterland has increased competition for groundwater from the bore-field that supplements the capital's metropolitan water supply. This has generated tensions between different water users and precipitated a water allocation plan for the Howard East aquifer. Initial context analysis indicated a widespread lack of public understanding of groundwater systems and processes, leading to misconceptions about the origin of local groundwater resources, groundwater-surface water interactions, extraction rates and impacts. In addition there is a legacy of mistrust by some peri-urban community members of government-driven planning processes to manage groundwater resources. The main objective of this study was therefore to trial two planning tools suited to this context over a 15 month period: (i) an extended stakeholder analysis and (ii) the participatory development of a 3D visualisation model, via a process described as the participatory Groundwater Visualisation Tool (GVT). The tools assisted the water planning agency to better understand stakeholder needs and interests, contributed to popular scientific understandings of hydro-geological conditions and processes, as well as captured local knowledge and values in preparation for an open and effective planning process.

  16. Monitoring contrasting land management in the savanna landscapes of northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Donald C; Petty, Aaron M; Williamson, Grant J; Brook, Barry W; Bowman, David M J S

    2008-04-01

    We compared measures of ecosystem state across six adjacent land-tenure groups in the intact tropical savanna landscapes of northern Australia. Tenure groups include two managed by Aboriginal owners, two national parks, a cluster of pastoral leases, and a military training area. This information is of relevance to the debate about the role of indigenous lands in the Australian conservation estate. The timing and frequency of fire was determined by satellite imagery; the biomass and composition of the herb-layer and the abundance of large feral herbivores by field surveys; and weediness by analysis of a Herbarium database. European tenures varied greatly in fire frequencies but were consistently burnt earlier in the dry season than the two Aboriginal tenures, the latter having intermediate fire frequencies. Weeds were more frequent in the European tenures, whilst feral animals were most abundant in the Aboriginal tenures. This variation strongly implies a signature of current management and/or recent environmental history. We identify indices suitable for monitoring of management outcomes in an extensive and sparsely populated landscape. Aboriginal land offers a unique opportunity for the conservation of biodiversity through the maintenance of traditional fire regimes. However, without financial support, traditional practices may prove unsustainable both economically and because exotic weeds and feral animals will alter fire regimes. An additional return on investment in Aboriginal land management is likely to be improved livelihoods and health outcomes for these disadvantaged communities.

  17. Optical and radiocarbon dating at Jinmium rock shelter in northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Richard; Bird, Michael; Olley, Jon; Galbraith, Rex; Lawson, Ewan; Laslett, Geoff; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Jones, Rhys; Fullagar, Richard; Jacobsen, Geraldine; Hua, Quan

    1998-05-01

    The Jinmium rock shelter is located in the Kimberley region of northern Australia. Claims for ancient rock art and an early human presence at this site were based on thermoluminescence ages of 50-75 thousand years (kyr) for quartz sands associated with buried circular engravings (pecked cupules) and on thermoluminescence ages of 116-176kyr for the underlying artefact-bearing deposits. Here we report substantially younger optical ages for quartz sand, and ages based on measurements of radioactive carbon in charcoal fragments, from the occupation deposit. Using conventional (multiple-grain) optical dating methods, we estimate that the base of the deposit is 22kyr. However, dating of individual grains shows that some have been buried more recently. The single-grain optical ages indicate that the Jinmium deposit is younger than 10kyr. This result is in agreement with the late-Holocene ages obtained for the upper two-thirds of the deposit from radiocarbon measurements. We suggest that some grains have older optical ages because they receivedinsufficient exposure to sunlight before burial. The presence of such grains in a sample will cause age overestimates using multiple-grain methods, whether using thermoluminescence or optical dating.

  18. Implications of Sponge Biodiversity Patterns for the Management of a Marine Reserve in Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Przeslawski, Rachel; Alvarez, Belinda; Kool, Johnathan; Bridge, Tom; Caley, M Julian; Nichol, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Marine reserves are becoming progressively more important as anthropogenic impacts continue to increase, but we have little baseline information for most marine environments. In this study, we focus on the Oceanic Shoals Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) in northern Australia, particularly the carbonate banks and terraces of the Sahul Shelf and Van Diemen Rise which have been designated a Key Ecological Feature (KEF). We use a species-level inventory compiled from three marine surveys to the CMR to address several questions relevant to marine management: 1) Are carbonate banks and other raised geomorphic features associated with biodiversity hotspots? 2) Can environmental (depth, substrate hardness, slope) or biogeographic (east vs west) variables help explain local and regional differences in community structure? 3) Do sponge communities differ among individual raised geomorphic features? Approximately 750 sponge specimens were collected in the Oceanic Shoals CMR and assigned to 348 species, of which only 18% included taxonomically described species. Between eastern and western areas of the CMR, there was no difference between sponge species richness or assemblages on raised geomorphic features. Among individual raised geomorphic features, sponge assemblages were significantly different, but species richness was not. Species richness showed no linear relationships with measured environmental factors, but sponge assemblages were weakly associated with several environmental variables including mean depth and mean backscatter (east and west) and mean slope (east only). These patterns of sponge diversity are applied to support the future management and monitoring of this region, particularly noting the importance of spatial scale in biodiversity assessments and associated management strategies.

  19. Monitoring Contrasting Land Management in the Savanna Landscapes of Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Donald C.; Petty, Aaron M.; Williamson, Grant J.; Brook, Barry W.; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2008-04-01

    We compared measures of ecosystem state across six adjacent land-tenure groups in the intact tropical savanna landscapes of northern Australia. Tenure groups include two managed by Aboriginal owners, two national parks, a cluster of pastoral leases, and a military training area. This information is of relevance to the debate about the role of indigenous lands in the Australian conservation estate. The timing and frequency of fire was determined by satellite imagery; the biomass and composition of the herb-layer and the abundance of large feral herbivores by field surveys; and weediness by analysis of a Herbarium database. European tenures varied greatly in fire frequencies but were consistently burnt earlier in the dry season than the two Aboriginal tenures, the latter having intermediate fire frequencies. Weeds were more frequent in the European tenures, whilst feral animals were most abundant in the Aboriginal tenures. This variation strongly implies a signature of current management and/or recent environmental history. We identify indices suitable for monitoring of management outcomes in an extensive and sparsely populated landscape. Aboriginal land offers a unique opportunity for the conservation of biodiversity through the maintenance of traditional fire regimes. However, without financial support, traditional practices may prove unsustainable both economically and because exotic weeds and feral animals will alter fire regimes. An additional return on investment in Aboriginal land management is likely to be improved livelihoods and health outcomes for these disadvantaged communities.

  20. Low genetic diversity in the bottlenecked population of endangered non-native banteng in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Corey J A; Isagi, Yuji; Kaneko, Shingo; Brook, Barry W; Bowman, David M J S; Frankham, Richard

    2007-07-01

    Undomesticated (wild) banteng are endangered in their native habitats in Southeast Asia. A potential conservation resource for the species is a large, wild population in Garig Gunak Barlu National Park in northern Australia, descended from 20 individuals that were released from a failed British outpost in 1849. Because of the founding bottleneck, we determined the level of genetic diversity in four subpopulations in the national park using 12 microsatellite loci, and compared this to the genetic diversity of domesticated Asian Bali cattle, wild banteng and other cattle species. We also compared the loss of genetic diversity using plausible genetic data coupled to a stochastic Leslie matrix model constructed from existing demographic data. The 53 Australian banteng sampled had average microsatellite heterozygosity (HE) of 28% compared to 67% for outbred Bos taurus and domesticated Bos javanicus populations. The Australian banteng inbreeding coefficient (F) of 0.58 is high compared to other endangered artiodactyl populations. The 95% confidence bounds for measured heterozygosity overlapped with those predicted from our stochastic Leslie matrix population model. Collectively, these results show that Australian banteng have suffered a loss of genetic diversity and are highly inbred because of the initial population bottleneck and subsequent small population sizes. We conclude that the Australian population is an important hedge against the complete loss of wild banteng, and it can augment threatened populations of banteng in their native range. This study indicates the genetic value of small populations of endangered artiodactyls established ex situ.

  1. Preferred temperature correlates with evaporative water loss in hylid frogs from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Christopher R; Christian, Keith A

    2005-01-01

    We measured temperature preferences of 12 species of hylid frogs (Litoria and Cyclorana) from northern Australia in a laboratory thermal gradient. These species represented a range of ecological habitat use (aquatic, terrestrial, arboreal), adult body size (0.5-60 g), and cutaneous resistance to water loss (Rc=0.6-63.1 s cm-1). We found significant differences among species in selected skin temperature and gradient temperature but not in the variances of these measures (an index of precision of temperature selection). The species' differences correlated significantly with cutaneous resistance to water loss, with more-resistant frogs selecting higher skin and substrate temperatures in the thermal gradient, even after phylogenetic relationships are taken into account. Because cutaneous resistance to water loss also correlates with ecological habit (arboreal>terrestrial>aquatic), we suggest that their higher resistance to water loss allows arboreal and terrestrial species better ability to tolerate high temperatures, where growth or locomotory speed may be higher, without the associated risk of desiccation.

  2. Radionuclide migration at the Koongarra uranium deposit, Northern Australia Lessons from the Alligator Rivers analogue project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Timothy E.; Airey, Peter L.

    The Koongarra uranium deposit in Northern Australia provides a ‘natural analogue’ for processes that are of relevance for assessing the safety of radioactive waste disposal. In an international project extending over two decades, the Koongarra ore body was studied to increase the understanding of radionuclide migration and retention mechanisms that might occur in the vicinity of a geological repository. The research effort included extensive characterisation of the geological, hydrological and geochemical conditions at the site. Patterns of the distribution of radionuclides (predominantly members of the 238U decay chain, but also the rare isotopes 239Pu, 99Tc and 129I) were studied in both solid and groundwater phases. The project included detailed studies of uranium adsorption on mineral surfaces, and of subsequent processes that may lead to long-term uranium immobilisation. Numerous models for uranium migration were developed during the project. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the research at Koongarra, and assesses the value of the site for integrating the results of a complex series of laboratory, modelling and field studies. The insights gained from this review of the Koongarra project may assist in maximising the potential scientific benefit of future natural analogue studies.

  3. Sensitive and specific molecular detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, in the soil of tropical northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Kaestli, Mirjam; Mayo, Mark; Harrington, Glenda; Watt, Felicity; Hill, Jason; Gal, Daniel; Currie, Bart J

    2007-11-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the cause of the severe disease melioidosis in humans and animals, is a gram-negative saprophyte living in soil and water of areas of endemicity such as tropical northern Australia and Southeast Asia. Infection occurs mainly by contact with wet contaminated soil. The environmental distribution of B. pseudomallei in northern Australia is still unclear. We developed and evaluated a direct soil B. pseudomallei DNA detection method based on the recently published real-time PCR targeting the B. pseudomallei type III secretion system. The method was evaluated by inoculating different soil types with B. pseudomallei dilution series and by comparing B. pseudomallei detection rate with culture-based detection rate for 104 randomly collected soil samples from the Darwin rural area in northern Australia. We found that direct soil B. pseudomallei DNA detection not only was substantially faster than culture but also proved to be more sensitive with no evident false-positive results. This assay provides a new tool to detect B. pseudomallei in soil samples in a fast and highly sensitive and specific manner and is applicable for large-scale B. pseudomallei environmental screening studies or in outbreak situations. Furthermore, analysis of the 104 collected soil samples revealed a significant association between B. pseudomallei-positive sites and the presence of animals at these locations and also with moist, reddish brown-to-reddish gray soils.

  4. A simultaneous journal / wiki publication and dissemination of a new species description: Neobidessodes darwiniensis sp. n. from northern Australia (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Bidessini).

    PubMed

    Hendrich, Lars; Balke, Michael

    2011-02-03

    Here, we describe a new Australian species in journal format and simultaneously open the description in a wiki format on the www.species-id.net. The wiki format will always link to the fixed original journal description of the taxon, however it permits future edits and additions to species' taxonomy and biology. The diving beetle Neobidessodes darwiniensissp. n. (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Bidessini) is described based on a single female, collected in a rest pool of the Harriet Creek in the Darwin Area, Northern Territory. Within Neobidessodes the new species is well characterized by its elongate oval body with rounded sides, short and stout segments of antennae, length of body and dorsal surface coloration. In addition to external morphology, we used mitochondrial cox1 sequence data to support generic assignment and to delineate the new species from other Australian Bidessini including all other known Neobidessodes. Illustrations based on digital images are provided here and as online resources. A modified key is provided. Altogether ten species of the genus are now known worldwide, nine from Australia and one from New Guinea.

  5. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Locally-Acquired Dengue Transmission in Northern Queensland, Australia, 1993–2012

    PubMed Central

    Naish, Suchithra; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S.; McBride, John; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia since it re-emerged in Queensland in 1992–1993. We explored spatio-temporal characteristics of locally-acquired dengue cases in northern tropical Queensland, Australia during the period 1993–2012. Methods Locally-acquired notified cases of dengue were collected for northern tropical Queensland from 1993 to 2012. Descriptive spatial and temporal analyses were conducted using geographic information system tools and geostatistical techniques. Results 2,398 locally-acquired dengue cases were recorded in northern tropical Queensland during the study period. The areas affected by the dengue cases exhibited spatial and temporal variation over the study period. Notified cases of dengue occurred more frequently in autumn. Mapping of dengue by statistical local areas (census units) reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time and place. Statistically significant differences in dengue incidence rates among males and females (with more cases in females) (χ2 = 15.17, d.f. = 1, p<0.01). Differences were observed among age groups, but these were not statistically significant. There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of dengue incidence for the four sub-periods, with the Moran's I statistic ranging from 0.011 to 0.463 (p<0.01). Semi-variogram analysis and smoothed maps created from interpolation techniques indicate that the pattern of spatial autocorrelation was not homogeneous across the northern Queensland. Conclusions Tropical areas are potential high-risk areas for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue. This study demonstrated that the locally-acquired dengue cases have exhibited a spatial and temporal variation over the past twenty years in northern tropical Queensland, Australia. Therefore, this study provides an impetus for further investigation of clusters and risk factors in these high-risk areas. PMID:24691549

  6. Dynamics of arsenic in the mining sites of Pine Creek Geosyncline, Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Eapaea, Miro Peter; Parry, David; Noller, Barry

    2007-07-01

    The transportation and fixation of arsenic (As) in soil and sediments from five mine sites within the Pine Creek Geosyncline, Northern Territory, were examined based on measurements of operationally-defined fractions of As in soils, sediment and evaporates. Arsenic was mainly retained in sediments in the form iron arsenate (Fe-As). In wetland systems, As was retained as Fe-As together with calcium arsenate (Ca-As) from alkaline groundwater and organic-bound As from detrital material. In retention ponds As was retained as Fe-As, Ca-As and residual As (Res-As) up to 1700 mg/kg. Sediment traps can retain As from alkaline and acidic source seepages. The retention of Res-As and other mineral particulates during erosional or controlled process water discharges was associated with high Fe-As and organic-bound As in sediment. Arsenic was retained as Fe-As, Ca-As and residual As in 100 year old tailings at Millar's Battery, Union Reefs mine nearby McKinlay River and the small copper mine lease MLN 95 adjacent Copperfield Creek nearby Pine Creek. Natural geo-mobilisation of As was observed in upstream sediments at Copperfield Creek (5-8 mg/kg), Mt. Bundey Creek (10-12 mg/kg), upstream Ryan's Creek (10-12 mg/kg) and downstream East branch Ryan's Creek (7 mg/kg). Erosion of As-containing mineralisation was observed in the McKinlay River upstream and downstream (23-26 mg/kg) and upstream Ryan's Creek boundary of the Goodall mine lease MLN 1049 (24-40 mg/kg). Overall, As was mainly retained in sediments in the form Fe-As. The concentration data for As were used to propose mechanisms of As dispersion and retention occurring at the various mine sites that can be utilised for future mine water management design to minimise As dispersion.

  7. Maximum Flow Efficiency in an Anabranching River, Magela Creek, Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, J. D.; Nanson, G. C.

    2002-12-01

    In this field- and laboratory-based study, we demonstrate that the development of anabranching channels in some rivers increases the conveyance of sediment and water, compared with a single channel at the same flow discharge. That is, under certain conditions, anabranching channels exhibit greater sediment transporting capacity per unit available stream power. Anabranching is a globally widespread river pattern noted in diverse physiographic, hydrologic and sedimentologic environments, and recent efforts have sought to unravel controls on their origin and maintenance. It is widely held that most rivers form a single-channel in order to minimise boundary roughness while conveying water and sediment, but do all rivers show a tendency to develop a single channel? And if so, what factors lead to long-term anabranching? The observation that anabranching commonly develops in environments where water and sediment conveyance is maintained with little or no recourse to increasing energy slope prompted the hypothesis that rivers may adopt a multiple channel pattern in order to optimise their efficiency where they cannot otherwise increase slope. It is reasoned that development of a system of multiple channels reduces total flow width and raises mean flow depth, thereby maximising sediment transport per unit area of the channel bed and maintaining or enhancing water and sediment throughput. In testing the hypothesis we present: (1) results of a field experiment in which hydraulic variables and bedload discharge are measured and compared for single-channel versus multichannel reaches of the same river (Magela Creek, northern Australia); (2) comparison of these field results with bedload transport modelling via well known bedload equations; and (3) results of an experimental flume study comparing hydraulic variables and sediment flux in single-channel versus divided flow. Magela Creek is representative of several anabranching systems draining the Alligators Rivers Region of

  8. Irrigator responses to groundwater resource management in northern Victoria, southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Bruce C.; Webb, John; Wilkinson, Roger; Cherry, Don

    2014-10-01

    In northern Victoria, farmers are the biggest users of groundwater and therefore the main stakeholders in plans that seek to sustainably manage the resource. Interviews with 30 irrigation farmers in two study areas, analysed using qualitative social research methods, showed that the overwhelming majority of groundwater users agreed with the need for groundwater management and thought that the current plans had achieved sustainable resource use. The farmers also expressed a strong need for clear technical explanations for management decisions, in particular easily understood water level data. The social licence to implement the management plans arose through effective consultation with the community during plan development. Several additional factors combined to gain acceptance for the plans: good data on groundwater usage and aquifer levels is available; irrigation farmers had been exposed to usage restrictions since the late 1990s; an ‘adaptive’ management approach is in use which allowed refinements to be readily incorporated and fortuitously, plan development coincided with the 1998-2009 drought, when declines in groundwater levels reinforced the usefulness of the plans. The imposition of a nation-wide water use reduction plan in 2012 had relatively little impact in Victoria because of the early implementation of effective groundwater management plans. However, economic difficulties that reduce groundwater users’ capacity to pay groundwater management charges mean that the future of the plans in Victoria is not assured. Nevertheless, the high level of trust that exists between Victorian irrigation farmers and the management agencies suggests that the continued use of a consultative approach will continue to produce workable outcomes. Lessons from the Victorian experience may be difficult to apply in other areas of groundwater use in Australia and overseas, where there may be a quite different history of development and culture of groundwater management.

  9. Aerosols and their influence on radiation partitioning and savanna productivity in northern Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Kanniah, K. D.; Beringer, J.; Tapper, N. J.; Long, Charles N.

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the effect of aerosols and clouds on the Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) of savannas in northern Australia using aerosol optical depth, clouds and radiation data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Darwin and carbon flux data measured from eddy covariance techniques from a site at Howard Springs, 35km southeast of Darwin. Generally we found that the concentration of aerosols in this region was relatively low than observed at other sites, therefore the proportion of diffuse radiation reaching the earths surface was only ~ 30%. As a result, we observed only a modest change in carbon uptake under aerosol laden skies and there was no significant difference for dry season Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE) between clear sky, aerosols or thin clouds. On the other hand thick clouds in the wet season produce much more diffuse radiation than aerosols or thin clouds and therefore the initial canopy quantum efficiency was seen to increase 45 and 2.5 times more than under thin clouds and aerosols respectively. The normalized carbon uptake under thick clouds is 57% and 50% higher than under aerosols and thin clouds respectively even though the total irradiance received under thick clouds was reduced 59% and 50% than under aerosols and thin clouds respectively. However, reduction in total irradiance decreases the mean absolute carbon uptake as much as 22% under heavy cloud cover compared to thin clouds or aerosols. Thus, any increase in aerosol concentration or cloud cover that can enhance the diffuse component may have large impacts on productivity in this region.

  10. Characterisation of microcontaminants in Darwin Harbour, a tropical estuary of northern Australia undergoing rapid development.

    PubMed

    French, Veronica A; King, Susan Codi; Kumar, Anu; Northcott, Grant; McGuinness, Keith; Parry, David

    2015-12-01

    The detection of microcontaminants in aquatic environments raises concerns about their potential to exert ecotoxicological effects and impact human health. In contrast to freshwater habitats, little information is available on environmental concentrations in urban estuarine and marine environments. This study investigated an extensive range of organic and inorganic microcontaminants in the Darwin Harbour catchment, a tropical estuary in northern Australia undergoing rapid urbanisation and industrial development. We sampled wastewater effluent and surface water from seven sites in Darwin Harbour for pharmaceuticals and personal care products, alkylphenols, hormones, pesticides, herbicides and metals. In vitro bioassays were used to estimate the (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic activities of samples. Seventy-nine of 229 organic microcontaminants analysed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 20 μg/L, with acesulfame, paracetamol, cholesterol, caffeine, DEET and iopromide detected at the highest concentrations in wastewater effluent (20 μg/L, 17 μg/L, 11 μg/L, 11 μg/L, 10 μg/L and 7.6 μg/L, respectively). Levels of estrogenic activity ranged from estradiol equivalency quotients (EEQs) of <0.10 to 6.29±0.16 ng/L while levels of androgenic activity ranged from dihydrotestosterone equivalency quotients (DHTEQs) of <3.50 to 138.23±3.71 ng/L. Environmental concentrations of organic microcontaminants were comparable to ranges reported from aquatic environments worldwide with sewage effluent discharges representing the dominant source of entry into Darwin Harbour. The measured concentration range of DEET was higher than ranges reported in previous studies.

  11. Mega-scale Groundwater Flow in the Submarine Plover Aquifer, Continental Shelf of Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garven, G.; James, B.; Gale, J.

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes a continental-scale groundwater flow system that exists under the sea floor along the ~2,000+ km long passive margin of northern Australia. The flow system has been mapped using data from off-shore petroleum exploration wells, and is confined within a 30~300-m thick sequence of quartzose sandstones of the Plover Formation. The Plover Aquifer comprises a Jurassic-age siliciclastic fluviodeltaic interval that grades stratigraphically into Cretaceous marine sandstones of the overlying Flamingo Group. Observed patterns of hydraulic head indicate a gentle northeast-to-southwest hydraulic gradient, which is parallel to a strong structural fabric created by faulting and extension along the Timor Trench/Australian continental margin. We propose that mostly lateral flow exists within the highly permeable Plover and Flamingo sandstones, over a distance of 1500-2000 km, that extends from the southern foreland basin of Papua, Indonesia, across the Arafura Basin and arches, and the 5-10 km thick passive margin sequence of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic age Sahul Platform. We further propose that this giant hydrodynamic system was created and sustained since Eocene time during uplift of the New Guinea fold-and-thrust belt. The flow system observed today is a paleohydrologic relict of Pleistocene-Holocene times, when glaciation-induced sea level lowstands resulted in subaerial emergence of the Arafura Basin and Sahul Platform. Finite element modeling supports our hypothesis that simple topographically-driven flow created this mega-scale groundwater flow system, which has since been submerged by rising sea levels in the most recent Holocene.

  12. Fire regimes and vegetation change in tropical northern Australia during the late-Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackenzie, Lydia; Moss, Patrick; Ulm, Sean; Sloss, Craig; Heijnis, Henk; Jacobsen, Geraldine

    2016-04-01

    This study explores the impact of human occupation and abandonment on fire regimes and vegetation communities in the South Wellesley Islands, Gulf of Carpentaria, tropical northern Australia, using charcoal and pollen analysis from four sediment records. Pollen analysis from wetland sediments reveal vegetation succession from mangrove communities to hypersaline mudflats and open woodlands occurred during the late-Holocene. Aquatic species replaced salt tolerant species as the prograding shoreline and dune development formed the Marralda wetlands by 800 cal a BP on the south east coast of Bentinck Island. Wetlands developed on the north and west coast by 500 and 450 cal a BP, respectively. The timing of wetland initiation indicates localised late-Holocene sea level regression, stabilisation and coastal plain development in the Gulf of Carpentaria. Wetland initiation encouraged permanent human occupation of the South Wellesley archipelago, with ongoing archaeological research finding permanent occupation in the last 1500 years, followed by a significant increase in sites from 700 years ago, which peaks over the last 300 years. Macro-charcoal (>125μm) accumulation rates provide a record of fire intensity and frequency across the Island. Both local and regional fire events increase in the last 700 years as traditional owners occupied the Island, with local fires occurring every 104 and 74 years on average (N= 4 and 5 respectively). In the 1950's traditional Indigenous Kaiadilt fire management practices ceased, with the frequency and peak magnitude of fire events significantly increasing and vegetation communities becoming more open. The South Wellesley Islands were unoccupied until the 1980's and were not influenced by European occupation. This study of an Island ecosystem during the late-Holocene provides insight into the effect of human presence and fire regimes on vegetation composition and distribution in a fire resilient environment.

  13. Characterisation of microcontaminants in Darwin Harbour, a tropical estuary of northern Australia undergoing rapid development.

    PubMed

    French, Veronica A; King, Susan Codi; Kumar, Anu; Northcott, Grant; McGuinness, Keith; Parry, David

    2015-12-01

    The detection of microcontaminants in aquatic environments raises concerns about their potential to exert ecotoxicological effects and impact human health. In contrast to freshwater habitats, little information is available on environmental concentrations in urban estuarine and marine environments. This study investigated an extensive range of organic and inorganic microcontaminants in the Darwin Harbour catchment, a tropical estuary in northern Australia undergoing rapid urbanisation and industrial development. We sampled wastewater effluent and surface water from seven sites in Darwin Harbour for pharmaceuticals and personal care products, alkylphenols, hormones, pesticides, herbicides and metals. In vitro bioassays were used to estimate the (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic activities of samples. Seventy-nine of 229 organic microcontaminants analysed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 20 μg/L, with acesulfame, paracetamol, cholesterol, caffeine, DEET and iopromide detected at the highest concentrations in wastewater effluent (20 μg/L, 17 μg/L, 11 μg/L, 11 μg/L, 10 μg/L and 7.6 μg/L, respectively). Levels of estrogenic activity ranged from estradiol equivalency quotients (EEQs) of <0.10 to 6.29±0.16 ng/L while levels of androgenic activity ranged from dihydrotestosterone equivalency quotients (DHTEQs) of <3.50 to 138.23±3.71 ng/L. Environmental concentrations of organic microcontaminants were comparable to ranges reported from aquatic environments worldwide with sewage effluent discharges representing the dominant source of entry into Darwin Harbour. The measured concentration range of DEET was higher than ranges reported in previous studies. PMID:26247692

  14. Philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia, including three new species.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Diggles, Ben K

    2014-02-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following nine species of Philometridae (Nemaoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from female worms parasitizing marine perciform fishes belonging to six families off the northern coast Australia (near Darwin): Philometra australiensis sp. n. from the swimbladder of the king threadfin Polydactylus macrochir (Günther) (Polynemidae); P. epinepheli Dewi et Palm, 2013 from the operculum of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) (Serranidae); Philometra johnii Moravec et Ali, 2013 from the gonad of the croaker Johnius sp. (Sciaenidae); P. macrochiri sp. n. from the sensory fin of P. macrochir; P. zabidii sp. n. from the ovary of the ninespine batfish Zabidius novemaculatus (McCulloch) (Ephippidae); Philometra sp. 1 and Philometra sp. 2 from the ovary of the Spanish flag snapper Lutjanus carponotatus (Richardson) (Lutjanidae) and the silver grunt Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål) (Haemulidae), respectively; Philometroides eleutheronemae Moravec et Manoharan, 2013 from the ovary of the fourfinger threadfin Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw) (Polynemidae); and Spirophilometra endangae Dewi et Palm, 2013 from the pectoral fins of E. coioides. The new species P. australiensis is characterized mainly by the structure of the cephalic end, 14 minute cephalic papillae, absence of caudal projections and body length of gravid female (67 mm), P. macrochiri by the presence of a conspicuously large anterior oesophageal bulb, 14 very small cephalic papillae and the truncated posterior end of body without any caudal projections, whereas P. zabidii is characterized by the presence of distinct caudal projections, the number (14) and larger size and arrangement of cephalic papillae, a poorly developed anterior oesophageal inflation, the body length (114 mm) and the host family (Ephippidae). All above-mentioned species were recorded from Australian waters for the first time. PMID:24684052

  15. Implications of Sponge Biodiversity Patterns for the Management of a Marine Reserve in Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Przeslawski, Rachel; Alvarez, Belinda; Kool, Johnathan; Bridge, Tom; Caley, M. Julian; Nichol, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Marine reserves are becoming progressively more important as anthropogenic impacts continue to increase, but we have little baseline information for most marine environments. In this study, we focus on the Oceanic Shoals Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) in northern Australia, particularly the carbonate banks and terraces of the Sahul Shelf and Van Diemen Rise which have been designated a Key Ecological Feature (KEF). We use a species-level inventory compiled from three marine surveys to the CMR to address several questions relevant to marine management: 1) Are carbonate banks and other raised geomorphic features associated with biodiversity hotspots? 2) Can environmental (depth, substrate hardness, slope) or biogeographic (east vs west) variables help explain local and regional differences in community structure? 3) Do sponge communities differ among individual raised geomorphic features? Approximately 750 sponge specimens were collected in the Oceanic Shoals CMR and assigned to 348 species, of which only 18% included taxonomically described species. Between eastern and western areas of the CMR, there was no difference between sponge species richness or assemblages on raised geomorphic features. Among individual raised geomorphic features, sponge assemblages were significantly different, but species richness was not. Species richness showed no linear relationships with measured environmental factors, but sponge assemblages were weakly associated with several environmental variables including mean depth and mean backscatter (east and west) and mean slope (east only). These patterns of sponge diversity are applied to support the future management and monitoring of this region, particularly noting the importance of spatial scale in biodiversity assessments and associated management strategies. PMID:26606745

  16. Implications of Sponge Biodiversity Patterns for the Management of a Marine Reserve in Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Przeslawski, Rachel; Alvarez, Belinda; Kool, Johnathan; Bridge, Tom; Caley, M Julian; Nichol, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Marine reserves are becoming progressively more important as anthropogenic impacts continue to increase, but we have little baseline information for most marine environments. In this study, we focus on the Oceanic Shoals Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) in northern Australia, particularly the carbonate banks and terraces of the Sahul Shelf and Van Diemen Rise which have been designated a Key Ecological Feature (KEF). We use a species-level inventory compiled from three marine surveys to the CMR to address several questions relevant to marine management: 1) Are carbonate banks and other raised geomorphic features associated with biodiversity hotspots? 2) Can environmental (depth, substrate hardness, slope) or biogeographic (east vs west) variables help explain local and regional differences in community structure? 3) Do sponge communities differ among individual raised geomorphic features? Approximately 750 sponge specimens were collected in the Oceanic Shoals CMR and assigned to 348 species, of which only 18% included taxonomically described species. Between eastern and western areas of the CMR, there was no difference between sponge species richness or assemblages on raised geomorphic features. Among individual raised geomorphic features, sponge assemblages were significantly different, but species richness was not. Species richness showed no linear relationships with measured environmental factors, but sponge assemblages were weakly associated with several environmental variables including mean depth and mean backscatter (east and west) and mean slope (east only). These patterns of sponge diversity are applied to support the future management and monitoring of this region, particularly noting the importance of spatial scale in biodiversity assessments and associated management strategies. PMID:26606745

  17. Diet, physical activity, and obesity in school-aged indigenous youths in northern australia.

    PubMed

    Valery, Patricia C; Ibiebele, Torukiri; Harris, Mark; Green, Adèle C; Cotterill, Andrew; Moloney, Aletia; Sinha, Ashim K; Garvey, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relationship between diet, physical activity, and obesity in Indigenous youths from northern Australia. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, physical activity and dietary intake ("short nutrition questionnaire") were assessed among all youths during a face-to-face interview. For 92 high school youths, additional dietary information was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess associations. Results. Of the 277 youths included, 52% had ≤2 servings of fruit and 84% had <4 servings of vegetables per day; 65% ate fish and 27%, take-away food ("fast food") at least twice a week. One in four ate local traditional sea food including turtle and dugong (a local sea mammal) at least twice a week. Overweight/obese youths engaged in fewer days of physical activity in the previous week than normal weight youths (OR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.43-4.40), though patterns of physical activity differed by sex and age (P < 0.001). Overweight/obese youths were 1.89 times (95% CI 1.07-3.35) more likely to eat dugong regularly than nonobese youths. Analysis of food-frequency data showed no difference by weight assessment among high-school students. Conclusions. Low fruit and vegetable intake were identified in these Indigenous youths. Regular consumption of fried dugong and low frequency of physical activity were associated with overweight/obesity reinforcing the need to devise culturally appropriate health promotion strategies and interventions for Indigenous youths aimed at improving their diet and increasing their physical activity. PMID:22720140

  18. Timing and duration of syn-magmatic deformation in the Mabel Downs Tonalite, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodorkos, Simon; Cawood, Peter A.; Oliver, Nicholas H. S.

    2000-08-01

    Detailed outcrop mapping combined with microstructural and U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data indicate that emplacement of the Mabel Downs Tonalite spanned progressive regional D3 deformation in the Palaeoproterozoic Halls Creek Orogen of northern Australia, and that the duration of magmatism exceeded the crystallisation time of the pluton had its entire volume been emplaced instantaneously (˜10 5 y). The pluton comprises several compositionally distinct phases, which show (i) a regional solid-state S3a foliation-forming event, predated by a strongly deformed porphyritic monzogranite with a U-Pb SHRIMP zircon age of 1837.3±6.0 Ma (95% confidence level); and (ii) overprinting by the localised S3b Ord River Shear Zone, which crosscuts a 1831.9±3.3 Ma foliated granodiorite and contains 1826.6±7.3 Ma undeformed felsic veins, providing a younger age limit for D3 deformation. The protracted nature of deformation and magmatism during regional D3 deformation is significant in the context of the evolution of Halls Creek Orogen, which is characterised by a prolonged thermal event spanning three regional deformation events ( D2, D3 and D4) within a 30-40 million-year interval. The accumulated finite strain is more probably the product of relatively long-lived events (of the order of several millions of years) with low average crustal strain rates, rather than high crustal strain rates during short-lived deformation episodes (=10 5 y). Thus the partitioning of strain accumulation into discrete deformation events during the rapid development of the Halls Creek Orogen was probably not as pronounced as in orogenic belts characterised by higher accumulated strain or longer intervals between deformation events.

  19. Species composition and biomasses of fishes in tropical seagrasses at Groote Eylandt, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaber, S. J. M.; Brewer, D. T.; Salini, J. P.; Kerr, J. D.; Conacher, C.

    1992-12-01

    The species composition and biomasses of fishes in the tropical seagrasses of Groote Eylandt, northern Australia, were studied in 1989 and 1990. A total of 156 species was recorded. Tall dense seagrass, short seagrass and control (no seagrass) sites in different depths were compared. Shallow (<1 m) sites were dominated by small resident species and juveniles of non-resident species, while deeper waters (to 7 m) were dominated by larger species. Species composition was not significantly different between sites, but species diversity ( H) and evenness ( E) were higher in non-vegetated areas. In slightly deeper water (<2 m) species composition was different between habitats and species diversity was highest in tall seagrass and least in open areas. Most species were more abundant in tall seagrass and least abundant in open areas. Most of the larger fishes, including 11 species of sharks, are piscivores, and most move into shallow sea-grass areas at night, irrespective of tide height. Only five species showed abundance patterns related to tide height and there were no significant seasonal patterns of abundance in any of the communities. The biomasses for all sites and sampling methods were mostly from 1 to 2 g m -2, which is low relative to other inshore tropical areas. The possible causes—the characteristics of adjacent habitats (coral reefs and mangroves) and the role of seagrasses in the life cycle of fishes are discussed. It is suggested that habitat structure is a major determinant of the species composition of fish in tropical seagrass areas, primarily because it affects food availability, both for small residents and juveniles, and for visiting predators.

  20. Diet, physical activity, and obesity in school-aged indigenous youths in northern australia.

    PubMed

    Valery, Patricia C; Ibiebele, Torukiri; Harris, Mark; Green, Adèle C; Cotterill, Andrew; Moloney, Aletia; Sinha, Ashim K; Garvey, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relationship between diet, physical activity, and obesity in Indigenous youths from northern Australia. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, physical activity and dietary intake ("short nutrition questionnaire") were assessed among all youths during a face-to-face interview. For 92 high school youths, additional dietary information was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess associations. Results. Of the 277 youths included, 52% had ≤2 servings of fruit and 84% had <4 servings of vegetables per day; 65% ate fish and 27%, take-away food ("fast food") at least twice a week. One in four ate local traditional sea food including turtle and dugong (a local sea mammal) at least twice a week. Overweight/obese youths engaged in fewer days of physical activity in the previous week than normal weight youths (OR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.43-4.40), though patterns of physical activity differed by sex and age (P < 0.001). Overweight/obese youths were 1.89 times (95% CI 1.07-3.35) more likely to eat dugong regularly than nonobese youths. Analysis of food-frequency data showed no difference by weight assessment among high-school students. Conclusions. Low fruit and vegetable intake were identified in these Indigenous youths. Regular consumption of fried dugong and low frequency of physical activity were associated with overweight/obesity reinforcing the need to devise culturally appropriate health promotion strategies and interventions for Indigenous youths aimed at improving their diet and increasing their physical activity.

  1. Diet, Physical Activity, and Obesity in School-Aged Indigenous Youths in Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Valery, Patricia C.; Ibiebele, Torukiri; Harris, Mark; Green, Adèle C.; Cotterill, Andrew; Moloney, Aletia; Sinha, Ashim K.; Garvey, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relationship between diet, physical activity, and obesity in Indigenous youths from northern Australia. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, physical activity and dietary intake (“short nutrition questionnaire”) were assessed among all youths during a face-to-face interview. For 92 high school youths, additional dietary information was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess associations. Results. Of the 277 youths included, 52% had ≤2 servings of fruit and 84% had <4 servings of vegetables per day; 65% ate fish and 27%, take-away food (“fast food”) at least twice a week. One in four ate local traditional sea food including turtle and dugong (a local sea mammal) at least twice a week. Overweight/obese youths engaged in fewer days of physical activity in the previous week than normal weight youths (OR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.43–4.40), though patterns of physical activity differed by sex and age (P < 0.001). Overweight/obese youths were 1.89 times (95% CI 1.07–3.35) more likely to eat dugong regularly than nonobese youths. Analysis of food-frequency data showed no difference by weight assessment among high-school students. Conclusions. Low fruit and vegetable intake were identified in these Indigenous youths. Regular consumption of fried dugong and low frequency of physical activity were associated with overweight/obesity reinforcing the need to devise culturally appropriate health promotion strategies and interventions for Indigenous youths aimed at improving their diet and increasing their physical activity. PMID:22720140

  2. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Watson, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length < 5 mm). This complex resolved into 7 new species, described herein: Paleanotus inornatus n. sp., P. adornatus n. sp., P. chrysos n. sp., P. aquifolia n. sp., P. latifolia n. sp., P. silus n. sp., and P. silopsis n. sp. A key is provided to the new species and Paleanotus distinguished from Treptopale and Hyalopale, two closely related genera. Diagnostic features of the apical structure and shape of the notochaetal main paleae plus median paleae shape and raised rib pattern, differentiates each species from the other. Gametous states are described. Two cryptic species pairs (Paleanotus silopsis n. sp. and P. silus n. sp.; Paleanotus aquifolia n. sp. and P. latifolia n. sp.) were identified. In each case one species is restricted to either the NE or NW Australian coast. In each pair the most eastern point for the NW Australian species range occurs at Darwin, western Arnhemland, Northern Territory. Additional material for each species pair extends their respective ranges northwards: NW Australia to Thailand, Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean or NE Australia, Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia. PMID:26624084

  3. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Watson, Charlotte

    2015-09-18

    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length < 5 mm). This complex resolved into 7 new species, described herein: Paleanotus inornatus n. sp., P. adornatus n. sp., P. chrysos n. sp., P. aquifolia n. sp., P. latifolia n. sp., P. silus n. sp., and P. silopsis n. sp. A key is provided to the new species and Paleanotus distinguished from Treptopale and Hyalopale, two closely related genera. Diagnostic features of the apical structure and shape of the notochaetal main paleae plus median paleae shape and raised rib pattern, differentiates each species from the other. Gametous states are described. Two cryptic species pairs (Paleanotus silopsis n. sp. and P. silus n. sp.; Paleanotus aquifolia n. sp. and P. latifolia n. sp.) were identified. In each case one species is restricted to either the NE or NW Australian coast. In each pair the most eastern point for the NW Australian species range occurs at Darwin, western Arnhemland, Northern Territory. Additional material for each species pair extends their respective ranges northwards: NW Australia to Thailand, Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean or NE Australia, Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia.

  4. Water ecosystem services in northern Australia--how much are they worth and who should pay for their provision?

    PubMed

    Zander, Kerstin K; Parkes, Rowena; Straton, Anna; Garnett, Stephen T

    2013-01-01

    There is ongoing pressure to develop the largely unaltered Daly River catchment in northern Australia for agriculture. However, a choice experiment among people in the region and in Australia's largest city, Sydney, shows that people are prepared to pay substantial amounts to maintain the quality of its ecosystem services. The total stated willingness-to-pay (WTP) for a Daly River conservation programme was about $300, of which people would be willing to pay over half ($161) if the programme retained waterholes for Aboriginal people in good condition. The WTP for high quality recreational fishing and biodiversity values was $120 and $91 respectively. Using the average cost of a recreational fishing license in Australia ($35) as a basis for grounding the stated preferences in empirical values, as well as the cost of park entry fees and the amount of support society provides to agriculture in Australia, the total amount that the 110,000 people in the region are likely to be willing to pay for the retention of the values in the Daly River catchment is about $6 million, while the 4.5 million people in Sydney would be willing to pay about $81 million. A significant finding in this research is that, while fishing, biodiversity and agricultural values all have equivalents in the market economy, the value for which people were willing to pay most, the cultural value, has no equivalent at all and is thus receives almost no investment.

  5. Carriers of Mitochondrial DNA Macrohaplogroup N Lineages Reached Australia around 50,000 Years Ago following a Northern Asian Route

    PubMed Central

    Larruga, Jose M.; Abu-Amero, Khaled K.; González, Ana M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The modern human colonization of Eurasia and Australia is mostly explained by a single-out-of-Africa exit following a southern coastal route throughout Arabia and India. However, dispersal across the Levant would better explain the introgression with Neanderthals, and more than one exit would fit better with the different ancient genomic components discovered in indigenous Australians and in ancient Europeans. The existence of an additional Northern route used by modern humans to reach Australia was previously deduced from the phylogeography of mtDNA macrohaplogroup N. Here, we present new mtDNA data and new multidisciplinary information that add more support to this northern route. Methods MtDNA hypervariable segments and haplogroup diagnostic coding positions were analyzed in 2,278 Saudi Arabs, from which 1,725 are new samples. Besides, we used 623 published mtDNA genomes belonging to macrohaplogroup N, but not R, to build updated phylogenetic trees to calculate their coalescence ages, and more than 70,000 partial mtDNA sequences were screened to establish their respective geographic ranges. Results The Saudi mtDNA profile confirms the absence of autochthonous mtDNA lineages in Arabia with coalescence ages deep enough to support population continuity in the region since the out-of-Africa episode. In contrast to Australia, where N(xR) haplogroups are found in high frequency and with deep coalescence ages, there are not autochthonous N(xR) lineages in India nor N(xR) branches with coalescence ages as deep as those found in Australia. These patterns are at odds with the supposition that Australian colonizers harboring N(xR) lineages used a route involving India as a stage. The most ancient N(xR) lineages in Eurasia are found in China, and inconsistently with the coastal route, N(xR) haplogroups with the southernmost geographical range have all more recent radiations than the Australians. Conclusions Apart from a single migration event via a southern route

  6. Understanding the sources and effects of abandoned, lost, and discarded fishing gear on marine turtles in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Chris; Heathcote, Grace; Goldberg, Jennifer; Gunn, Riki; Peel, David; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-02-01

    Globally, 6.4 million tons of fishing gear are lost in the oceans annually. This gear (i.e., ghost nets), whether accidently lost, abandoned, or deliberately discarded, threatens marine wildlife as it drifts with prevailing currents and continues to entangle marine organisms indiscriminately. Northern Australia has some of the highest densities of ghost nets in the world, with up to 3 tons washing ashore per kilometer of shoreline annually. This region supports globally significant populations of internationally threatened marine fauna, including 6 of the 7 extant marine turtles. We examined the threat ghost nets pose to marine turtles and assessed whether nets associated with particular fisheries are linked with turtle entanglement by analyzing the capture rates of turtles and potential source fisheries from nearly 9000 nets found on Australia's northern coast. Nets with relatively larger mesh and smaller twine sizes (e.g., pelagic drift nets) had the highest probability of entanglement for marine turtles. Net size was important; larger nets appeared to attract turtles, which further increased their catch rates. Our results point to issues with trawl and drift-net fisheries, the former due to the large number of nets and fragments found and the latter due to the very high catch rates resulting from the net design. Catch rates for fine-mesh gill nets can reach as high as 4 turtles/100 m of net length. We estimated that the total number of turtles caught by the 8690 ghost nets we sampled was between 4866 and 14,600, assuming nets drift for 1 year. Ghost nets continue to accumulate on Australia's northern shore due to both legal and illegal fishing; over 13,000 nets have been removed since 2005. This is an important and ongoing transboundary threat to biodiversity in the region that requires attention from the countries surrounding the Arafura and Timor Seas.

  7. Understanding the sources and effects of abandoned, lost, and discarded fishing gear on marine turtles in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Chris; Heathcote, Grace; Goldberg, Jennifer; Gunn, Riki; Peel, David; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-02-01

    Globally, 6.4 million tons of fishing gear are lost in the oceans annually. This gear (i.e., ghost nets), whether accidently lost, abandoned, or deliberately discarded, threatens marine wildlife as it drifts with prevailing currents and continues to entangle marine organisms indiscriminately. Northern Australia has some of the highest densities of ghost nets in the world, with up to 3 tons washing ashore per kilometer of shoreline annually. This region supports globally significant populations of internationally threatened marine fauna, including 6 of the 7 extant marine turtles. We examined the threat ghost nets pose to marine turtles and assessed whether nets associated with particular fisheries are linked with turtle entanglement by analyzing the capture rates of turtles and potential source fisheries from nearly 9000 nets found on Australia's northern coast. Nets with relatively larger mesh and smaller twine sizes (e.g., pelagic drift nets) had the highest probability of entanglement for marine turtles. Net size was important; larger nets appeared to attract turtles, which further increased their catch rates. Our results point to issues with trawl and drift-net fisheries, the former due to the large number of nets and fragments found and the latter due to the very high catch rates resulting from the net design. Catch rates for fine-mesh gill nets can reach as high as 4 turtles/100 m of net length. We estimated that the total number of turtles caught by the 8690 ghost nets we sampled was between 4866 and 14,600, assuming nets drift for 1 year. Ghost nets continue to accumulate on Australia's northern shore due to both legal and illegal fishing; over 13,000 nets have been removed since 2005. This is an important and ongoing transboundary threat to biodiversity in the region that requires attention from the countries surrounding the Arafura and Timor Seas. PMID:25102915

  8. Age of uranium mineralization at the Jabiluka and Ranger deposits, Northern Territory, Australia: New U- Pb isotope evidence.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Grauch, R.I.; Nutt, C.J.; Nash, J.T.; Frishman, D.; Simmons, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Ranger and Jabiluka uranium deposits are the largest in the Alligator Rivers uranium field, which contains at least 20% of the world's low-cost uranium reserves. Ore occurs in early Proterozoic metasediments, below an unconformity with sandstones of the 1.65 b.y.-old Kombolgie Formation. This study has used U-Pb isotope data from a large number of whole-rock drill core samples with a variety of mineral assemblages and textures. Both Ranger and Jabiluka reflect a common, profound isotopic disturbance at about 400 to 600 m.y. This disturbance, which was especially pronounced at Jabiluka, may correspond to the development of basins and associated basalt flows to the W and SW.-from Authors

  9. Chemical data and statistical interpretations for rocks and ores from the Ranger uranium mine, Northern Territory, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas; Frishman, David

    1983-01-01

    Analytical results for 61 elements in 370 samples from the Ranger Mine area are reported. Most of the rocks come from drill core in the Ranger No. 1 and Ranger No. 3 deposits, but 20 samples are from unmineralized drill core more than 1 km from ore. Statistical tests show that the elements Mg, Fe, F, Be, Co, Li, Ni, Pb, Sc, Th, Ti, V, CI, As, Br, Au, Ce, Dy, La Sc, Eu, Tb, Yb, and Tb have positive association with uranium, and Si, Ca, Na, K, Sr, Ba, Ce, and Cs have negative association. For most lithologic subsets Mg, Fe, Li, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Y, Sm, Sc, Eu, and Yb are significantly enriched in ore-bearing rocks, whereas Ca, Na, K, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ce, and Cs are significantly depleted. These results are consistent with petrographic observations on altered rocks. Lithogeochemistry can aid exploration, but for these rocks requires methods that are expensive and not amenable to routine use.

  10. Diagnosing the seasonal land-atmosphere correspondence over northern Australia: dependence on soil moisture state and correspondence strength definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, M.; Pitman, A.; Evans, J.

    2015-08-01

    The similarity of the temporal variations of land and atmospheric states during the onset (September) through to the peak (February) of the wet season over northern Australia is statistically diagnosed using ensembles of offline land surface model simulations that produce a range of different background soil moisture states. We derive the temporal correspondence between variations in the soil moisture and the planetary boundary layer via a statistical measure of rank correlation. The simulated evaporative fraction and the boundary layer are shown to be strongly correlated during both SON (September-October-November) and DJF (December-January-February) despite the differing background soil moisture states between the two seasons and among the ensemble members. The sign and magnitude of the boundary layer-surface layer soil moisture association during the onset of the wet season (SON) differs from the correlation between the evaporative fraction and boundary layer from the same season, and from the correlation between the surface soil moisture and boundary layer association during DJF. The patterns and magnitude of the surface flux-boundary layer correspondence are not captured when the relationship is diagnosed using the surface layer soil moisture alone. The conflicting results arise because the surface layer soil moisture lacks strong correlation with the atmosphere during the monsoon onset because the evapotranspiration is dominated by transpiration. Our results indicate that accurately diagnosing the correspondence and therefore coupling strength in seasonally dry regions, such as northern Australia, requires root zone soil moisture to be included.

  11. Tectonics of an early Proterozoic geosuture: The Halls Creek orogenic sub-province, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, S. L.; Rutland, R. W. R.

    1984-12-01

    The exposed elements of the Lower Proterozoic orogenic belts of the Halls Creek sub-province, Northern Australia, lie in fault zones which have suffered repeated tectonic activity at various times through the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic. The Halls Creek and King Leopold orogenic domains subtend an angle of 80° and are characterized by linear late tectonic batholithic complexes several hundred kilometres long but only a few tens of kilometres wide, reminiscent of those in Phanerozoic Cordilleran orogenies. The associated superposed folding and high temperature metamorphism are more akin to those in Phanerozoic collision orogenies. The sub-province is analyzed in the wider context of the North Australian orogenic province which was deformed, metamorphosed and intruded by granitic plutons approximately 1900-1800 Ma ago. In this province the Archaen basement was extended and broken into a mosaic of blocks, some of which (now largely concealed by younger Kimberley and McArthur basin sediments) retained a more positive character and fed sediment to intervening regions (such as the Pine Creek Geosyncline) which suffered greater extension and subsidence, but which retained a thinned Archaean basement. The Halls Creek Group was deposited in a trough to the south-east of the Kimberley island continent, and deposition was probably broadly contemporaneous with, and continuous with, that in the Pine Creek geosyncline. A volcanic—fine grained clastic—carbonate phase of marine deposition, following basin formation, is represented by the Biscay Formation. During the later phase of basin evolution widespread flysch facies (Olympio Formation), partly derived from the island continent, was deposited and is now preserved in low grade zones on both sides of the main belt of high strain and upper amphibolite to lower granulite facies metamorphism which displays recumbent folding and nappe tectonics with fold axes oblique to the major faults. No island arc compex or paired

  12. New species of Metatrichia Coquillett (Diptera: Scenopinidae) from Australia and Venezuela

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new species of the cosmopolitan genus Metatrichia Coquillett are described. Metatrichia dhimurru sp. nov. is described from Arnhem Land (Northern Territory), Australia and represents the third species of the genus to be described from the Australian-Papuan region. Metatrichia venezuelensis sp. n...

  13. A new phasmid gecko (Squamata: Diplodactylidae: Strophurus) from the Arnhem Plateau: more new diversity in rare vertebrates from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Paul M; Parkin, Tom

    2014-10-22

    The Arnhem Plateau is a rugged expanse of sandstone escarpment in the Australian Monsoonal Tropics with a highly endemic biota. Here we describe a new species of small spinifex dwelling Strophurus (phasmid gecko) that also appears to be endemic to this region. Strophurus horneri sp. nov. can be diagnosed from all congeners by aspects of size, coloration and scalation. Even with the description of this new species, however, levels of morphological and genetic diversity within Strophurus from the stone country of the Northern Territory suggest additional divergent lineages are present. A number of recent studies have now provided preliminary evidence of evolutionary diversity within the Arnhem Plateau, but data remains scant and almost nothing is known about how topography and historical processes have shaped the endemic biota of this region. 

  14. Dracunculus mulbus n. sp. (Nematoda: Spirurida) from the water python Liasis fuscus (Serpentes: Boidae) in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hugh I; Mulder, Eridani

    2007-03-01

    A new species of Dracunculus Reichard, 1759 (Nematoda: Spirurida) is described from the tissues surrounding organs in the body-cavity of the water python Liasis fuscus Peters in northern Australia. One to 14 worms were recovered from 22% (27/120) of pythons examined. Males were located principally around the lungs, liver and heart of the hosts, and females were recovered from peritoneal tissue surrounding the intestines and lining the body-cavity. This species differs from previously described species of Dracunculus in the position of the papillae at the posterior end in males, and in the possession of thick, narrow caudal alae. Submedian cephalic papillae are single in both sexes. Dorsal and ventral anterior cephalic papillae are absent in males. This is the first report of a species of Dracunculus from the Australian region.

  15. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John's snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37-3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126-141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae.

  16. Do suspended sediment and bedload move progressively from the summit to the sea along Magela Creek, northern Australia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erskine, W. D.; Saynor, M. J.; Turner, K.; Whiteside, T.; Boyden, J.; Evans, K. G.

    2015-03-01

    Soil erosion rates on plots of waste rock at Ranger uranium mine and basin sediment yields have been measured for over 30 years in Magela Creek in northern Australia. Soil erosion rates on chlorite schist waste rock are higher than for mica schist and weathering is also much faster. Sediment yields are low but are further reduced by sediment trapping effects of flood plains, floodouts, billabongs and extensive wetlands. Suspended sediment yields exceed bedload yields in this deeply weathered, tropical landscape, but the amount of sand transported greatly exceeds that of silt and clay. Nevertheless, sand is totally stored above the topographic base level. Longitudinal continuity of sediment transport is not maintained. As a result, suspended sediment and bedload do not move progressively from the summit to the sea along Magela Creek and lower Magela Creek wetlands trap about 90.5% of the total sediment load input.

  17. New yellow head virus genotype (YHV7) in giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon indigenous to northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Peter G; Moody, Nicholas J G; Hoad, John; Williams, Lynette M; Bowater, Rachel O; Cummins, David M; Cowley, Jeff A; StJ Crane, Mark

    2015-08-20

    In 2012, giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon originally sourced from Joseph Bonaparte Gulf in northern Australia were examined in an attempt to identify the cause of elevated mortalities among broodstock at a Queensland hatchery. Nucleic acid extracted from ethanol-fixed gills of 3 individual shrimp tested positive using the OIE YHV Protocol 2 RT-PCR designed to differentiate yellow head virus (YHV1) from gill-associated virus (GAV, synonymous with YHV2) and the OIE YHV Protocol 3 RT-nested PCR designed for consensus detection of YHV genotypes. Sequence analysis of the 794 bp (Protocol 2) and 359 bp (Protocol 3) amplicons from 2 distinct regions of ORF1b showed that the yellow-head-complex virus detected was novel when compared with Genotypes 1 to 6. Nucleotide identity on the Protocol 2 and Protocol 3 ORF1b sequences was highest with the highly pathogenic YHV1 genotype (81 and 87%, respectively) that emerged in P. monodon in Thailand and lower with GAV (78 and 82%, respectively) that is enzootic to P. monodon inhabiting eastern Australia. Comparison of a longer (725 bp) ORF1b sequence, spanning the Protocol 3 region and amplified using a modified YH30/31 RT-nPCR, provided further phylogenetic evidence for the virus being distinct from the 6 described YHV genotypes. The virus represents a unique seventh YHV genotype (YHV7). Despite the mortalities observed, the role of YHV7 remains unknown.

  18. Morbillivirus infection in live stranded, injured, trapped, and captive cetaceans in southeastern Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Stone, Brett M; Blyde, David J; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Morton, John M

    2012-01-01

    We report serologic evidence of cetacean morbillivirus (CMV) infection in five of eight cetacean species found live stranded, injured, or trapped along the coast of southeastern Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia between December 2005 and January 2011. Antibody to CMV was detected in 13 of 27 (48%) wild cetaceans sampled. Antibody prevalence was significantly higher in clinically diseased (69%) compared to nondiseased (18%) animals (P=0.018). There was high antibody prevalence (83%, n=6) in melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra). Two of 13 (15%) captive cetaceans sampled between November 2005 and January 2011 had CMV antibodies and, as infection was unlikely to have occurred while in captivity, CMV infection appears to have been present in Australian wild cetaceans since at least 1985. These results indicate that morbillivirus infection is occurring without widespread cetacean mortality in this region. However, as the deaths of two immature Australian offshore bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were attributed to CMV infection, morbillivirus infection should be included in the differential diagnosis of disease in cetaceans in Australia. Captive cetacean populations may be prone to significant mortality as a result of CMV introduction, so strict quarantine procedures should be enforced when injured or stranded cetaceans are hospitalized and rehabilitated at Australian zoos and marine parks.

  19. Morbillivirus infection in live stranded, injured, trapped, and captive cetaceans in southeastern Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Stone, Brett M; Blyde, David J; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Morton, John M

    2012-01-01

    We report serologic evidence of cetacean morbillivirus (CMV) infection in five of eight cetacean species found live stranded, injured, or trapped along the coast of southeastern Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia between December 2005 and January 2011. Antibody to CMV was detected in 13 of 27 (48%) wild cetaceans sampled. Antibody prevalence was significantly higher in clinically diseased (69%) compared to nondiseased (18%) animals (P=0.018). There was high antibody prevalence (83%, n=6) in melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra). Two of 13 (15%) captive cetaceans sampled between November 2005 and January 2011 had CMV antibodies and, as infection was unlikely to have occurred while in captivity, CMV infection appears to have been present in Australian wild cetaceans since at least 1985. These results indicate that morbillivirus infection is occurring without widespread cetacean mortality in this region. However, as the deaths of two immature Australian offshore bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were attributed to CMV infection, morbillivirus infection should be included in the differential diagnosis of disease in cetaceans in Australia. Captive cetacean populations may be prone to significant mortality as a result of CMV introduction, so strict quarantine procedures should be enforced when injured or stranded cetaceans are hospitalized and rehabilitated at Australian zoos and marine parks. PMID:22247373

  20. Is Drosera meristocaulis a pygmy sundew? Evidence of a long-distance dispersal between Western Australia and northern South America

    PubMed Central

    Rivadavia, F.; de Miranda, V. F. O.; Hoogenstrijd, G.; Pinheiro, F.; Heubl, G.; Fleischmann, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims South America and Oceania possess numerous floristic similarities, often confirmed by morphological and molecular data. The carnivorous Drosera meristocaulis (Droseraceae), endemic to the Neblina highlands of northern South America, was known to share morphological characters with the pygmy sundews of Drosera sect. Bryastrum, which are endemic to Australia and New Zealand. The inclusion of D. meristocaulis in a molecular phylogenetic analysis may clarify its systematic position and offer an opportunity to investigate character evolution in Droseraceae and phylogeographic patterns between South America and Oceania. Methods Drosera meristocaulis was included in a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Droseraceae, using nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and plastid rbcL and rps16 sequence data. Pollen of D. meristocaulis was studied using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques, and the karyotype was inferred from root tip meristem. Key Results The phylogenetic inferences (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches) substantiate with high statistical support the inclusion of sect. Meristocaulis and its single species, D. meristocaulis, within the Australian Drosera clade, sister to a group comprising species of sect. Bryastrum. A chromosome number of 2n = approx. 32–36 supports the phylogenetic position within the Australian clade. The undivided styles, conspicuous large setuous stipules, a cryptocotylar (hypogaeous) germination pattern and pollen tetrads with aperture of intermediate type 7–8 are key morphological traits shared between D. meristocaulis and pygmy sundews of sect. Bryastrum from Australia and New Zealand. Conclusions The multidisciplinary approach adopted in this study (using morphological, palynological, cytotaxonomic and molecular phylogenetic data) enabled us to elucidate the relationships of the thus far unplaced taxon D. meristocaulis. Long-distance dispersal between southwestern

  1. Quaternary stratigraphy, geochronology and evolution of the Magela Creek catchment in the monsoon tropics of northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanson, Gerald C.; East, T. Jon; Roberts, Richard G.

    1993-03-01

    Magela Creek, a major tributary of the East Alligator River in northern Australia, has left a detailed sedimentary record of a fluvial landscape dominated by climatic and eustatic changes associated with Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles. Uranium-series dates from young pisoliths in floodplain deposits indicate that ferruginisation is probably ongoing under present conditions while ferricretes in degraded terraces that flank the lower valley reveal a fluvial history extending back to early Pleistocene or Tertiary time. Inset within this older alluvium is a valley fill which, from thermoluminescence dates, was initiated about 300 kyr ago. With each glacial climate change and associated fall in sea level, distinct palaeochannels have been eroded into these floodplains, infilling later with alluvium when climate and base-level conditions were conducive to fluvial deposition. Radiocarbon dates show that the most recent palaeochannel beneath the modern Magela Creek last started to fill by downstream progradation and vertical accretion of bedload sand about 8 kyr. The palaeochannel filled at an accelerating rate, probably as a result of declining stream competence associated with drier conditions in the late Holocene augmented by the backwater effects of sea-level rise. Continued aggradation blocked the mouths of tributary valleys along Magela Creek, forming alluvial-dammed tributary lakes and deferred-junction tributary streams. From about 300 kyr, cyclic episodes of channel incision and sediment evacuation in this tropical-monsoon river valley have become less effective, possibly because increasing aridity in the late Quaternary has reduced the erosional effectiveness of Australia's northern rivers. Reduced flow regime and rising sea level in the late Holocene has resulted in the latest phase of alluvial accretion.

  2. Low-temperature thermochronology of the northern Thomson Orogen: Implications for exhumation of basement rocks in NE Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdel, Charles; Stockli, Daniel; Purdy, David

    2016-01-01

    The Tasmanides of eastern Australia record much of the Phanerozoic tectonic development of the retreating Pacific-Australia plate boundary and are an oft-cited example of an orogen that has undergone "tectonic mode switching." To begin to constrain the timing of exhumation of basement rocks that are now exposed in portions of the NE Tasmanides, we measured apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages from the Thomson Orogen and overlying Paleozoic strata in the back-arc of the New England Orogen in NE Australia. Zircon (U-Th)/He ages from basement samples (including those recovered from boreholes at depths of up to 1.1 km) are characterized by large inter- and intra-sample variability and range from approximately 180 Ma (Early Jurassic) to 375 Ma (Late Devonian). (U-Th)/He zircon ages from several individual samples are negatively correlated with effective uranium (eU), a pattern that is also true of the dataset as a whole, suggesting that variations in U and Th zoning and radiation damage are partially responsible for the age variability. The oldest zircon (U-Th)/He cooling ages coincide with the formation of regionally extensive Late Devonian-early Carboniferous back-arc basins, suggesting that Late Devonian extension played a significant role in exhumation of parts of the northern Thomson Orogen. Apatite (U-Th)/He ages from a basement sample and a late Permian sandstone in the overlying Bowen Basin, which are also marked by intra-sample variability and age-eU correlations, span from the Early Cretaceous through Oligocene, in general agreement with previous apatite fission track data. In conjunction with observations of key geologic relationships and prior K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar data, our results suggest four overall phases in the thermal history of the northern Thomson Orogen: (1) Cambrian-early Silurian metamorphism during the Delamerian and Benambran Orogenies; (2) protracted cooling during the Late Devonian through mid-Permian that likely resulted from extensional

  3. Indigenous Gambling Motivations, Behaviour and Consequences in Northern New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen M.; Hing, Nerilee; Gordon, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Against a background of public health, we sought to examine and explain gambling behaviours, motivations and consequences of Indigenous Australians in northern New South Wales. Adhering to national Aboriginal and ethical guidelines and using qualitative methods, 169 Indigenous Australians were interviewed individually and in small groups using…

  4. Reclaiming Indigenous Youth in Australia: Families and Schools Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechielsen,Jack; Galbraith, Mal; White, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Australia's Northern Territory is twice the size of Texas, with only 230,000 people living in its enormous space. About half reside in the capital Darwin in the tropical far north; the next biggest town with a population of 25,000 people is Alice Springs, 1600 kilometers south in the central desert. Some 70,000 Indigenous people form 30% of…

  5. Revisiting the Paleomagnetism of the Antrim Plateau Volcanics of Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, M.; Li, Z. X.

    2003-04-01

    The Antrim Plateau volcanics, Australia's largest Phanerozoic flood-basalt province, crop out extensively in the East Kimberley, Victoria River and Daly River Basin areas, with a maximum thickness of the formation estimated to exceed 1000 m to the west. Interbedded sedimentary rocks indicate that the basalts were extruded in an area near sea level and subject to marine incursions. In general, the volcanics exhibit only very gentle dips and do not appear to have been tectonically disturbed very much. An ion microprobe U-Pb zircon age of 513 ± 12 Ma was recently obtained from the Milliwindi dolerite dyke, considered as a feeder dyke of the Antrim Plateau volcanics. Natural remanent magnetization of samples from these volcanics was first studied by Irving and Green in the fifties. The results were somewhat inconclusive and samples failed to respond satisfactorily to alternating field demagnetization. Ten years later, geological mapping of the area covered by the volcanics and improved accessibility enabled McElhinny and Luck to undertake a new collection from this formation. 26 basalt flows and 3 interbedded sandstone horizons were sampled throughout an area of approximately 250,000 Km2. Only samples from 14 sites could be used to define a mean paleomagnetic pole. However, the site-mean directions are fairly scattered and the mean pole position has also a fairly large scatter with a A95 of 17°. Part of this dispersion could be related to partly unremoved secondary components of magnetizations, which are very widespread in the tropics due to weathering. The Antrim Plateau Volcanics, being virtually the only basic igneous rocks from the lower Palaeozoic of Australia, possess particular paleomagnetic significance in order to determine more precisely the position of Australia in Late Proterozoic - Early Paleozoic reconstructions. Modern paleomagnetic techniques and demagnetization analysis allowing a better separation of multi-component magnetization, a new sampling was

  6. Inflammation, high ferritin, and erythropoietin resistance in indigenous maintenance hemodialysis patients from the Top End of Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Majoni, Sandawana William; Ellis, Joy-Anne; Hall, Heather; Abeyaratne, Asanga; Lawton, Paul D

    2014-10-01

    Use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) has improved the management of anemia in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Iron deficiency and inflammation cause ESAs resistance and are both common among indigenous people of Northern Australia. As part of quality assurance in our Renal Anaemia Management program, we observed that there was use of higher doses of ESAs and adjuvant iron therapy in our MHD patients. This study aimed to explore the relationship among iron studies, inflammation, ESA responsiveness, and ESAs and iron requirements in indigenous patients on MHD from the Top End of Northern Australia. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of anemia management in a cohort of our patients on MHD. We extracted data for 178 indigenous and 19 non-indigenous patients from 1 March 2009 to 28 February 2010 from the Renal Anaemia Management database, which collects data prospectively in MHD patients. Ninety-nine percent of the whole sample had a ferritin level above the international guidelines threshold of >500 µg/L. Indigenous patients had higher ferritin (1534 ± 245.5 µg/L vs. 1013 ± 323.3 µg/L, P = 0.002). C-reactive protein (CRP) was high in 56.9% of the total cohort. One hundred percent of those with normal CRP had high ferritin (>500 µg/L). C-reactive protein was higher in indigenous than in non-indigenous patients. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents hyporesponsiveness was higher in indigenous patients (P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in ESAs hyporesponsiveness among different levels of CRP (P = 0.116), ferritin (P = 0.408), and transferrin saturation (P = 0.503). Indigenous patients required higher total iron dose (2820.30 [2000-4350] vs. 2336.12 [1912-2900], P = 0.02). There was no significant relationship between the high ferritin and CRP. In indigenous dialysis patients, iron therapy and ESAs use are higher. The high iron use is due to a lack of published evidence to guide the

  7. The role of density dependence in growth patterns of ceded territory walleye populations of northern Wisconsin: Effects of changing management regimes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, G.G.; Hewett, S.W.; Beard, T.D., Jr.; Fayram, A.H.; Kitchell, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    We assessed density-related changes in growth of walleye Sander vitreus in the ceded territory of northern Wisconsin from 1977 to 1999. We used asymptotic length (Lz), growth rate near t0 (??), and body condition as measures of walleye growth to determine the relationship between growth and density. Among lakes, there was weak evidence of density-dependent growth: adult density explained only 0-6% of the variability in the growth metrics. Within lakes, growth was density dependent. Lz, ??, and body condition of walleyes changing with density for 69, 28, and 62% of the populations examined, respectively. Our results suggest that walleye growth was density dependent within individual lakes. However, growth was not coherently density dependent among lakes, which was possibly due to inherent differences in the productivity, surface area, forage base, landscape position, species composition, and management regime of lakes in the ceded territory. Densities of adult walleyes averaged 8.3 fish/ha and did not change significantly during 1990-1999. Mean Lz and body condition of walleyes were signilicantly higher before 1990 than after 1990, which may indicate an increase in density due to changes in management regimes. The observed growth changes do not appear to be a consequence of the statewide 15-in minimum size limit adopted in 1990 but rather a response to the treaty rights management regime. We conclude that walleye growth has the potential to predict regional-scale adult walleye densities if lake-specific variables are included in a model to account for regional-scale differences among walleye populations and lakes.

  8. A billion years of environmental stability and the emergence of eukaryotes: new data from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Brasier, M D; Lindsay, J F

    1998-06-01

    Carbon isotopes through 6km of fully cored drill holes in 1.7 to 1.5 Ga carbonates of the Mount Isa and McArthur basins, Australia (which host the earliest known eukaryote biomarkers) provide the most comprehensive and best-dated delta 13C stratigraphy yet obtained from such ancient rocks. Both basins reveal remarkably stable temporal delta 13C trends (mean of -0.6% +/- 2% PDB [Peedee belemnite]) and confirm the impression of delta 13C stasis between 2.0 and 1.0 Ga, which, together with other evidence, suggest a prolonged period of stability in crustal dynamics, redox state of surface environments, and planetary climate. This delta 13C stasis is consistent with great stability in the carbon cycle controlled, we suggest, by P limitation of primary productivity. Recent evidence shows that P depletion is a major factor in obligate associations between photosymbionts and host cells. We argue that a billion years of stability in the carbon and nutrient cycles may have been the driving force that propelled prokaryotes toward photosymbiosis and the emergence of the autotrophic eukaryote cell.

  9. A billion years of environmental stability and the emergence of eukaryotes: New data from northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasier, M. D.; Lindsay, J. F.

    1998-06-01

    Carbon isotopes through 6 km of fully cored drill holes in 1.7 to 1.5 Ga carbonates of the Mount Isa and McArthur basins, Australia (which host the earliest known eukaryote biomarkers) provide the most comprehensive and best-dated δ13C stratigraphy yet obtained from such ancient rocks. Both basins reveal remarkably stable temporal δ13C trends (mean of -0.6‰ ± 2‰ PDB [Peedee belemnite]) and confirm the impression of δ13C stasis between 2.0 and 1.0 Ga, which, together with other evidence, suggest a prolonged period of stability in crustal dynamics, redox state of surface environments, and planetary climate. This δ13C stasis is consistent with great stability in the carbon cycle controlled, we suggest, by P limitation of primary productivity. Recent evidence shows that P depletion is a major factor in obligate associations between photosymbionts and host cells. We argue that a billion years of stability in the carbon and nutrient cycles may have been the driving force that propelled prokaryotes toward photosymbiosis and the emergence of the autotrophic eukaryote cell.

  10. Environmental Attributes Influencing the Distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Anthony L.; Ezzahir, Jessica; Gardiner, Christopher; Shipton, Warren; Warner, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Factors responsible for the spatial and temporal clustering of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the environment remain to be elucidated. Whilst laboratory based experiments have been performed to analyse survival of the organism in various soil types, such approaches are strongly influenced by alterations to the soil micro ecology during soil sanitisation and translocation. During the monsoonal season in Townsville, Australia, B. pseudomallei is discharged from Castle Hill (an area with a very high soil prevalence of the organism) by groundwater seeps and is washed through a nearby area where intensive sampling in the dry season has been unable to detect the organism. We undertook environmental sampling and soil and plant characterisation in both areas to ascertain physiochemical and macro-floral differences between the two sites that may affect the prevalence of B. pseudomallei. In contrast to previous studies, the presence of B. pseudomallei was correlated with a low gravimetric water content and low nutrient availability (nitrogen and sulphur) and higher exchangeable potassium in soils favouring recovery. Relatively low levels of copper, iron and zinc favoured survival. The prevalence of the organism was found to be highest under the grasses Aristida sp. and Heteropogon contortus and to a lesser extent under Melinis repens. The findings of this study indicate that a greater variety of factors influence the endemicity of melioidosis than has previously been reported, and suggest that biogeographical boundaries to the organisms’ distribution involve complex interactions. PMID:26398904

  11. Geochronology of Precambrian granites and associated U-Ti-Th mineralization, northern Olary province, South Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Cooper, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Proterozoic granitoids and metamorphic rocks in the Olary province of the Willyama block of South Australia host ore-grade amounts of U-Th-Ti and U-Fe-Ti-Th minerals. U-Pb-Th isotope analyses on zircons from all granitoids associated with the Crocker Well brannerite deposit indicate that these granitoids were intruded within a short time span, close to the 1579.2??1.5 m.y. age of the brannerite-bearing host-rock. Though the early Paleozoic Delamerian orogeny was intense in this region, the zircon isotopic systems remained unaffected; rather, the best-defined zircon chords on concordia plots show a welldefined lower intercept of 43.8??6.5 Ma, which can only be associated with early Tertiary block faulting. Pb-U-Th isotope analyses on brannerite from the Crocker Well deposit and davidite from the Mt. Victoria deposit and the Radium Hill deposit yield badly scattered and discordant apparent ages that suggest a primary age at least as old as the age of the Crocker Well granitoids, followed by a severe disturbance in the early Paleozoic. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Epidemiology of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in tropical communities, Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Malcolm; Towers, Rebecca J; Andrews, Ross M; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Currie, Bart J

    2007-11-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (groups C and G streptococci [GCS/GGS]) is an increasingly recognized human pathogen, although it may follow indirect pathways. Prospective surveillance of selected households in 3 remote Aboriginal communities in Australia provided 337 GCS/GGS isolates that were emm sequence-typed. Lancefield group C isolates (GCS) were localized to specific households and group G isolates (GGS) were more evenly distributed. GCS/GGS was more frequently recovered from the throat than group A streptococci (GAS [S. pyogenes]) but rarely recovered from skin sores, and then only with Staphylococcus aureus or GAS. Symptomatic GGS/GGC pharyngitis was also rare. Specific emm sequence types of GCS/GGS did not appear to cycle through the communities (sequential strain replacement) in a manner suggesting acquisition of type-specific immunity. These communities already have high levels of streptococcal and poststreptococcal disease. GCS/GGS may increase in importance as it acquires key virulence factors from GAS by lateral gene transfer.

  13. Linking south China to northern Australia and India on the margin of Gondwana: Constraints from detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopes in Cambrian strata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yajun; Cawood, Peter A.; Du, Yuansheng; Hu, Lisha; Yu, Wenchao; Zhu, Yanhui; Li, Wenchao

    2013-12-01

    sedimentary rocks in the southern part of the South China Craton were derived from a source that lay to the south or southeast, beyond the current limits of the craton and which is no longer preserved nearby. U-Pb ages and Hf isotope data on detrital zircons from the Cambrian sequence define two distinctive age peaks at 1120 Ma and 960 Ma, with ɛHf(t) values for each group identical to the coeval detrital zircons from Western Australia and the Tethyan Himalaya zone, respectively. The circa 1120 Ma detrital zircons were most likely derived from the Wilkes-Albany-Fraser belt between southwest Australia and Antarctica, whereas the circa 960 Ma detrital zircons could have been sourced from the Rayner-Eastern Ghats belt between India and Antarctica. Derivation of detritus from these sources suggests that south China was located at the nexus between India, Antarctica, and Australia, along the northern margin of East Gondwana during the Cambrian.

  14. Revision of the genus Hydroides (Annelida: Serpulidae) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanan; Wong, Eunice; ten Hove, Harry A; Hutchings, Pat A; Williamson, Jane E; Kupriyanova, Elena K

    2015-09-01

    Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 is the largest and one of the economically most important genera of calcareous tubeworms (Serpulidae, Annelida) that includes a number of notorious fouling and bioinvading species. Although the representatives of the genus are typically found in shallow waters of tropical and subtropical areas worldwide, the species composition of the genus in Australia has never been revised. We conducted the first detailed regional taxonomic revision of Hydroides species based both on the historical collections from Australian museums (Australian Museum, Museum Victoria, South Australian Museum, Western Australian Museum, Queensland Museum, and Museum and Art Gallery of Northern Territory) and newly collected material from New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Northern Territory, and Western Australia. In total, 25 species are currently considered valid in Australia, including three new species: H. amri n. sp. from NSW, SA, and Vic (previously referred to as H. cf. brachyacantha), as well as H. glasbyi n. sp. and H. qiui n. sp., both from NT, and two new records of H. furcifera and H. multispinosa for Australia. We have synonymised H. spiratubus with H. albiceps, and H. spiculitubus with H. tambalagamensis in this study. The status of the taxon H. cf. recta remains undecided. An identification key and diagnoses accompanied by original high-quality photographs for all species recorded in Australia are provided. Application of molecular genetics is needed to resolve the status of some problematic species.

  15. A new species of death adder (Acanthophis: Serpentes: Elapidae) from north-western Australia.

    PubMed

    Maddock, Simon T; Ellis, Ryan J; Doughty, Paul; Smith, Lawrence A; Wüster, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Australian death adders (genus Acanthophis) are highly venomous snakes with conservative morphology and sit-and-wait predatory habits, with only moderate taxonomic diversity that nevertheless remains incompletely understood. Analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences and morphological characteristics of death adders in northern Australia reveal the existence of a new species from the Kimberley region of Western Australia and the Northern Territory, which we describe as Acanthophis cryptamydros sp. nov. Although populations from the Kimberley were previously considered conspecific with Northern Territory death adders of the A. rugosus complex, our mtDNA analysis indicates that its closest relatives are desert death adders, A. pyrrhus. We found that A. cryptamydros sp. nov. is distinct in both mtDNA and nDNA analysis, and possesses multiple morphological characteristics that allow it to be distinguished from all other Acanthophis species. This study further supports the Kimberley region as an area with high endemic biodiversity.

  16. Unprecedented Melioidosis Cases in Northern Australia Caused by an Asian Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain Identified by Using Large-Scale Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Emma J.; MacHunter, Barbara; Harrington, Glenda; Theobald, Vanessa; Hall, Carina M.; Hornstra, Heidie M.; McRobb, Evan; Podin, Yuwana; Mayo, Mark; Sahl, Jason W.; Wagner, David M.; Keim, Paul; Kaestli, Mirjam; Currie, Bart J.

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis is a disease of humans and animals that is caused by the saprophytic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Once thought to be confined to certain locations, the known presence of B. pseudomallei is expanding as more regions of endemicity are uncovered. There is no vaccine for melioidosis, and even with antibiotic administration, the mortality rate is as high as 40% in some regions that are endemic for the infection. Despite high levels of recombination, phylogenetic reconstruction of B. pseudomallei populations using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has revealed surprisingly robust biogeographic separation between isolates from Australia and Asia. To date, there have been no confirmed autochthonous melioidosis cases in Australia caused by an Asian isolate; likewise, no autochthonous cases in Asia have been identified as Australian in origin. Here, we used comparative genomic analysis of 455 B. pseudomallei genomes to confirm the unprecedented presence of an Asian clone, sequence type 562 (ST-562), in Darwin, northern Australia. First observed in Darwin in 2005, the incidence of melioidosis cases attributable to ST-562 infection has steadily risen, and it is now a common strain in Darwin. Intriguingly, the Australian ST-562 appears to be geographically restricted to a single locale and is genetically less diverse than other common STs from this region, indicating a recent introduction of this clone into northern Australia. Detailed genomic and epidemiological investigations of new clinical and environmental B. pseudomallei isolates in the Darwin region and ST-562 isolates from Asia will be critical for understanding the origin, distribution, and dissemination of this emerging clone in northern Australia. PMID:26607593

  17. Qualitative mathematical models to support ecosystem-based management of Australia's Northern Prawn Fishery.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Rothlisberg, Peter C; Loneragan, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    A major decline in the catch of the banana prawn [shrimp], Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) merguiensis, occurred over a six-year period in the Weipa region of the northeastern Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. Three main hypotheses have been developed to explain this decline: (1) prawn recruitment collapsed due to overfishing; (2) recruitment collapsed due to a change in the prawn's environment; and (3) adult banana prawns were still present, but fishers could no longer effectively find or catch them. Qualitative mathematical models were used to link population biology, environmental factors, and fishery dynamics to evaluate the alternative hypotheses. This modeling approach provides the means to rapidly integrate knowledge across disciplines and consider alternative hypotheses about how the structure and function of an ecosystem affects its dynamics. Alternative models were constructed to address the different hypotheses and also to encompass a diversity of opinion about the underlying dynamics of the system. Key findings from these analyses are that: instability in the system can arise when discarded fishery bycatch supports relatively high predation pressure; system stability can be enhanced by management of fishing effort or stock catchability; catch per unit effort is not necessarily a reliable indicator of stock abundance; a change in early-season rainfall should affect all stages in the banana prawn's life cycle; and a reduced catch in the Weipa region can create and reinforce a shift in fishing effort away from Weipa. Results from the models informed an approach to test the hypotheses (i.e., an experimental fishing program), and promoted understanding of the system among researchers, management agencies, and industry. The analytical tools developed in this work to address stages of a prawn life cycle and fishery dynamics are generally applicable to any exploited natural. resource. PMID:26255373

  18. Qualitative mathematical models to support ecosystem-based management of Australia's Northern Prawn Fishery.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Rothlisberg, Peter C; Loneragan, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    A major decline in the catch of the banana prawn [shrimp], Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) merguiensis, occurred over a six-year period in the Weipa region of the northeastern Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. Three main hypotheses have been developed to explain this decline: (1) prawn recruitment collapsed due to overfishing; (2) recruitment collapsed due to a change in the prawn's environment; and (3) adult banana prawns were still present, but fishers could no longer effectively find or catch them. Qualitative mathematical models were used to link population biology, environmental factors, and fishery dynamics to evaluate the alternative hypotheses. This modeling approach provides the means to rapidly integrate knowledge across disciplines and consider alternative hypotheses about how the structure and function of an ecosystem affects its dynamics. Alternative models were constructed to address the different hypotheses and also to encompass a diversity of opinion about the underlying dynamics of the system. Key findings from these analyses are that: instability in the system can arise when discarded fishery bycatch supports relatively high predation pressure; system stability can be enhanced by management of fishing effort or stock catchability; catch per unit effort is not necessarily a reliable indicator of stock abundance; a change in early-season rainfall should affect all stages in the banana prawn's life cycle; and a reduced catch in the Weipa region can create and reinforce a shift in fishing effort away from Weipa. Results from the models informed an approach to test the hypotheses (i.e., an experimental fishing program), and promoted understanding of the system among researchers, management agencies, and industry. The analytical tools developed in this work to address stages of a prawn life cycle and fishery dynamics are generally applicable to any exploited natural. resource.

  19. The potential for modification in cloning and vitrification technology to enhance genetic progress in beef cattle in Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Robinson, Andrew W; Walton, Simon; Swain, David L; Walsh, Kerry B; Vajta, Gábor

    2014-08-01

    Recent advances in embryology and related research offer considerable possibilities to accelerate genetic improvement in cattle breeding. Such progress includes optimization and standardization of laboratory embryo production (in vitro fertilization - IVF), introduction of a highly efficient method for cryopreservation (vitrification), and dramatic improvement in the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (cloning) in terms of required effort, cost, and overall outcome. Handmade cloning (HMC), a simplified version of somatic cell nuclear transfer, offers the potential for relatively easy and low-cost production of clones. A potentially modified method of vitrification used at a centrally located laboratory facility could result in cloned offspring that are economically competitive with elite animals produced by more traditional means. Apart from routine legal and intellectual property issues, the main obstacle that hampers rapid uptake of these technologies by the beef cattle industry is a lack of confidence from scientific and commercial sources. Once stakeholder support is increased, the combined application of these methods makes a rapid advance toward desirable traits (rapid growth, high-quality beef, optimized reproductive performance) a realistic goal. The potential impact of these technologies on genetic advancement in beef cattle herds in which improvement of stock is sought, such as in northern Australia, is hard to overestimate.

  20. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P.

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John’s snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37–3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126–141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae. PMID:25654578

  1. Mining in the Alligator Rivers Region, northern Australia: assessing potential and actual effects on ecosystem and human health.

    PubMed

    van Dam, R A; Humphrey, C L; Martin, P

    2002-12-27

    This paper presents an overview of issues related to surface water contamination arising from uranium mining activities in the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) of northern Australia, and a program of research and monitoring that must assess the potential and actual effects on ecosystem and human health. The program of assessing effects on aquatic ecosystems involves a four-tiered approach including the derivation of local water quality guideline trigger values, direct toxicity assessment of mine waters prior to their release, creekside or in situ monitoring for early warning of adverse effects during mine water release, and longer-term monitoring of macroinvertebrate and fish communities. Bioaccumulation in aquatic biota is also assessed, and is an issue of importance not only to ecosystem health, but also to the health of local Aboriginal people. The aquatic animals they consume represent potential sources of radiological dose, and as a result, a major component of the program to assess potential effects on human health is the prediction of doses to Aboriginal people living downstream of mining activities. Acknowledging the assumptions and uncertainties, the calculation of concentration factors for local aquatic (and other) food sources allows the prediction of potential radiological exposure to people following hypothetical mine water releases. The approaches described form the basis of best-practice protocols that are relevant at both regional and national levels.

  2. The melioidosis agent Burkholderia pseudomallei and related opportunistic pathogens detected in faecal matter of wildlife and livestock in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Höger, A C R; Mayo, M; Price, E P; Theobald, V; Harrington, G; Machunter, B; Choy, J Low; Currie, B J; Kaestli, M

    2016-07-01

    The Darwin region in northern Australia has experienced rapid population growth in recent years, and with it, an increased incidence of melioidosis. Previous studies in Darwin have associated the environmental presence of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, with anthropogenic land usage and proximity to animals. In our study, we estimated the occurrence of B. pseudomallei and Burkholderia spp. relatives in faecal matter of wildlife, livestock and domestic animals in the Darwin region. A total of 357 faecal samples were collected and bacteria isolated through culture and direct DNA extraction after enrichment in selective media. Identification of B. pseudomallei, B. ubonensis, and other Burkholderia spp. was carried out using TTS1, Bu550, and recA BUR3-BUR4 quantitative PCR assays, respectively. B. pseudomallei was detected in seven faecal samples from wallabies and a chicken. B. cepacia complex spp. and Pandoraea spp. were cultured from wallaby faecal samples, and B. cenocepacia and B. cepacia were also isolated from livestock animals. Various bacteria isolated in this study represent opportunistic human pathogens, raising the possibility that faecal shedding contributes to the expanding geographical distribution of not just B. pseudomallei but other Burkholderiaceae that can cause human disease. PMID:26935879

  3. The melioidosis agent Burkholderia pseudomallei and related opportunistic pathogens detected in faecal matter of wildlife and livestock in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Höger, A C R; Mayo, M; Price, E P; Theobald, V; Harrington, G; Machunter, B; Choy, J Low; Currie, B J; Kaestli, M

    2016-07-01

    The Darwin region in northern Australia has experienced rapid population growth in recent years, and with it, an increased incidence of melioidosis. Previous studies in Darwin have associated the environmental presence of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, with anthropogenic land usage and proximity to animals. In our study, we estimated the occurrence of B. pseudomallei and Burkholderia spp. relatives in faecal matter of wildlife, livestock and domestic animals in the Darwin region. A total of 357 faecal samples were collected and bacteria isolated through culture and direct DNA extraction after enrichment in selective media. Identification of B. pseudomallei, B. ubonensis, and other Burkholderia spp. was carried out using TTS1, Bu550, and recA BUR3-BUR4 quantitative PCR assays, respectively. B. pseudomallei was detected in seven faecal samples from wallabies and a chicken. B. cepacia complex spp. and Pandoraea spp. were cultured from wallaby faecal samples, and B. cenocepacia and B. cepacia were also isolated from livestock animals. Various bacteria isolated in this study represent opportunistic human pathogens, raising the possibility that faecal shedding contributes to the expanding geographical distribution of not just B. pseudomallei but other Burkholderiaceae that can cause human disease.

  4. Transport, storage and mobilization of nitrogen by trees and shrubs in the wet/dry tropics of northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Susanne; Stewart, George R.

    1998-06-01

    Xylem sap from woody species in the wet/dry tropics of northern Australia was analyzed for N compounds. At the peak of the dry season, arginine was the main N compound in sap of most species of woodlands and deciduous monsoon forest. In the wet season, a marked change occurred with amides becoming the main sap N constituents of most species. Species from an evergreen monsoon forest, with a permanent water source, transported amides in the dry season. In the dry season, nitrate accounted for 7 and 12% of total xylem sap N in species of deciduous and evergreen monsoon forests, respectively. In the wet season, the proportion of N present as nitrate increased to 22% in deciduous monsoon forest species. These results suggest that N is taken up and assimilated mainly in the wet season and that this newly assimilated N is mostly transported as amide-N (woodland species, monsoon forest species) and nitrate (monsoon forest species). Arginine is the form in which stored N is remobilized and transported by woodland and deciduous monsoon forest species in the dry season. Several proteins, which may represent bark storage proteins, were detected in inner bark tissue from a range of trees in the dry season, indicating that, although N uptake appears to be limited in the dry season, the many tree and shrub species that produce flowers, fruit or leaves in the dry season use stored N to support growth. Nitrogen characteristics of the studied species are discussed in relation to the tropical environment.

  5. Handbook on Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    A study unit on Australia for secondary students is divided into eight sections. Section 1 introduces students to the states, territories, and capitals of the country. Section two, land and people, discusses the size, location, geology, climate, flora and fauna, and population of Australia. Sections 3 and 4 outline Australian history and include…

  6. Dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea: Polyonchoinea) parasitising the gills of snappers (Perciformes: Lutjanidae): species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 from the golden snapper Lutjanus johnii (Bloch) off northern Australia, with a redescription of Euryhaliotrema johni (Tripathi, 1959) and descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Diggles, Ben K

    2014-01-01

    Three species of Euryhaliotrema Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae) were collected from the gills of four golden snapper Lutjanus johnii (Bloch) (Lutjanidae) from the marine and brackish waters off Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Type-specimens of Ancyrocephalus johni Tripathi, 1959 apparently have not survived and the possibility existed that the species was based on specimens representing more than one species. Euryhaliotrema johni (Tripathi, 1959) (sensu Young, 1968) was redescribed and determined to most likely represent A. johni, originally described from the River Hooghly, Diamond Harbour, India. Two new species were described. Euryhaliotrema longibaculoides n. sp. was most similar to Euryhaliotrema longibaculum (Zhukov, 1976) Kritsky & Boeger, 2002 from Lutjanus spp. from the western Atlantic Ocean. It differed from E. longibaculum by having a male copulatory organ (MCO) with an elongate comparatively delicate shaft and a bulbous base (MCO U- or J-shaped with funnel-shaped base in E. longibaculum). Based on the comparative morphology of the haptoral sclerites, Euryhaliotrema lisae n. sp. was most similar to Euryhaliotrema cryptophallus Kritsky & Yang, 2012 from the gills of the mangrove red snapper Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål) from the South China Sea. Euryhaliotrema lisae differed from E. cryptophallus by having a copulatory complex with an obvious weakly sclerotised J-shaped MCO (MCO cryptic, delicate, and with a shaft comprising about one counterclockwise ring in E. cryptophallus).

  7. Tephrochronology, magnetostratigraphy and mammalian faunas of Middle and Early Pleistocene sediments at two sites on the Old Crow River, northern Yukon Territory, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westgate, John A.; Pearce, G. William; Preece, Shari J.; Schweger, Charles E.; Morlan, Richard E.; Pearce, Nicholas J. G.; Perkins, T. William

    2013-01-01

    Alluvial and lacustrine sediments exposed beneath late Pleistocene glaciolacustrine silt and clay at two sites along the Old Crow River, northern Yukon Territory, are rich in fossils and contain tephra beds. Surprise Creek tephra (SZt) occurs in the lower part of the alluvial sequence at CRH47 and Little Timber tephra (LTt) is present near the base of the exposure at CRH94. Surprise Creek tephra has a glass fission-track age of 0.17 ± 0.07 Ma and Little Timber tephra is 1.37 ± 0.12 Ma. All sediments at CRH47 have a normal remanent magnetic polarity and those near LTt at CRH94 have a reversed polarity — in agreement with the geomagnetic time scale. Small mammal remains from sediments near LTt support an Early Pleistocene age but the chronology is not so clear at CRH47 because of the large error associated with the SZt age determination. Tephrochronological and paleomagnetic considerations point to an MIS 7 age for the interglacial beds just below SZt at CRH47 and at Chester Bluffs in east-central Alaska, but mammalian fossils recovered from sediments close to SZt suggest a late Irvingtonian age, therefore older than MIS 7. Further studies are needed to resolve this problem.

  8. Diversity of emm sequence types in group A beta-haemolytic streptococci in two remote Northern Territory Indigenous communities: implications for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Leisha J; Towers, Rebecca J; Cheng, Allen C; Currie, Bart J; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Giffard, Phillip M; McDonald, Malcolm I

    2010-07-19

    There is a high burden of disease due to group A streptococcus (GAS) in remote Northern Territory (NT) Indigenous communities. A proposed 26-valent GAS M-type vaccine covers 80-90% of pharyngeal and invasive isolates in the US. We examined the diversity and distribution of emm types in two remote Indigenous communities in the NT Top End over a 17-year period and compared them to the proposed vaccine types. Eighty emm types were identified between 1991 and 2007. Diversity in both communities was high (overall Simpson's index 0.976), but varied between communities. Prior to 2004, 71 emm types were identified and an additional 9 emm types were identified during a period of active surveillance in 2004-2005. The proposed 26-valent vaccine would be expected to cover only 20% of emm types recovered in this study. Of the 80 emm types, 16 (20%) were new sequence types identified since the last assignment of M types in 2002. The diversity of streptococcal isolates was higher than that reported from most industrialized countries, and similar to that described in several developing countries. A vaccine based on such a variable antigen is unlikely to provide effective protection in the highest risk populations.

  9. Genetic diversity of Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen C; Ward, Linda; Godoy, Daniel; Norton, Robert; Mayo, Mark; Gal, Daniel; Spratt, Brian G; Currie, Bart J

    2008-01-01

    Melioidosis is caused by the gram-negative saprophytic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, which is endemic to southeast Asia and northern Australia. We have previously found evidence of geographic localization of strains based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST). In this study, we examined the diversity of 277 isolates from northern Australia, which were resolved into 159 different sequence types. No sequence types were common to both Queensland and the Northern Territory, and there was significant differentiation between the alleles present in the two regions. The considerable diversity in sequence types contrasts with the limited diversity of alleles at MLST loci, supporting previous work suggesting a high rate of recombination relative to mutation in B. pseudomallei, where new sequence types are primarily generated by reassortment of existing alleles.

  10. Soil chloride and deep drainage responses to land clearing for cropping at seven sites in central Queensland, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radford, B. J.; Silburn, D. M.; Forster, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    SummarySoil cores were taken at seven paired sites (native vegetation and adjacent dryland cropping on cracking clay soils) which had been cropped for 10-65 years in the Fitzroy Basin in central Queensland, northern Australia. Levels of soil chloride (Cl -) and nitrate nitrogen (NO 3-N) were determined in 0.3 m increments to a depth of 5 m where possible. The amounts of Cl - in the soil (0-1.5 m depth) under native vegetation were generally high (10-23 t ha -1 at six of the seven sites). The amounts of Cl - that had leached below 1.5 m depth during dryland cropping varied from 2.2 to 16.8 t ha -1 or 19-91% of the original totals at 0-1.5 m. Leaching of salt from the crop rooting zone in combination with higher rates of deep drainage can lead to outbreaks of soil salinisation but can also increase the soil plant available water capacity (PAWC). NO 3-N had also been leached below crop rooting depth at three sites. Such leaching not only contaminates the groundwater but also wastes crop nutrients. The transient chloride mass balance approach was used to determine mean annual rates of deep drainage below crop rooting depth (1.5 m). At all seven sites annual deep drainage was low under native vegetation (0.2-1.7 mm yr -1) but increased under dryland cropping (1.6-27.5 mm yr -1). Drainage losses showed an inverse relationship with plant available water content (PAWC). Drainage losses waste the limited supply of water available for dryland cropping but can be reduced by practising opportunity cropping or by growing ley (temporary) pastures in rotation with annual crops.

  11. Siliciclastic Progradation Within a Neogene Carbonate Passive Margin - Northern Carnarvon Basin of the Northwest Shelf of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, C. M.; Fulthorpe, C. S.; Austin, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    Interpretations of extensive industry subsurface data (3D and 2D seismic data, wireline logs and completion reports) and results from previous studies suggest that relative sea level changes and ocean currents controlled observed variations in carbonate vs. siliciclastic sediment type and stratal architecture in the Northern Carnarvon Basin, Northwest Shelf of Australia, during the Neogene. The basin has been a site of predominantly carbonate sedimentation since the late Paleogene. However, significant (at least 30-70 km) siliciclastic progradation on top of this carbonate shelf started in the late middle Miocene. Carbonate- dominated sedimentation resumed in the late Miocene/Pliocene. Siliciclastic-rich seismic packages show dip- oriented progradation northwestward, as well as strike-oriented progradation northeastward. Clinoform heights, up to approx. 140 m, and a dip-elongated lobe morphology suggest deposition by a long-lived (approx. 6 My) deltaic system which is no longer active on this margin. Consistent northeastward switching of these interpreted delta lobes and their progradation over the preexisting carbonate shelf sediments suggest wave-dominated conditions, with strong northeastward long-shore currents, for this delta system during a time of relative base level fall. During this siliciclastic progradation event, carbonate sedimentation continued in the updrift direction southwest of the delta, but carbonates were not accumulated downdrift or northeast, where progressively younger deltaic siliciclastics filled available accommodation space. By the beginning of the Pliocene, siliciclastic sedimentation had retreated towards the Australian coast, allowing widespread carbonate production to resume; interpreted shallow-water carbonate platforms then developed over subtle topographic highs created by the underlying deltaic lobes.

  12. Cyanobacteria and prawn farming in northern New South Wales, Australia--a case study on cyanobacteria diversity and hepatotoxin bioaccumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kankaanpaeae, Harri T.; Holliday, Jon; Schroeder, Helge; Goddard, Timothy J.; Fister, Richard von; Carmichael, Wayne W

    2005-03-15

    Harmful cyanobacteria pose a hazard to aquatic ecosystems due to toxins (hepatotoxic microcystins, nodularins, and cylindrospermopsin) they produce. The microcystins and nodularins are potent toxins, which are also tumor promoters. The microcystins and nodularins may accumulate into aquatic organisms and be transferred to higher trophic levels, and eventually affect vector animals and consumers. Prawn farming is a rapidly growing industry in Australia. Because information regarding effects of cyanobacteria at prawn farms was lacking, we examined diversity of cyanobacteria and toxin production plus bioaccumulation into black tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) under both field (northern New South Wales, Australia, December 2001-April 2002) and laboratory conditions. Samples were analyzed for hepatotoxins using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The maximum density of cyanobacteria (1 x 10{sup 6} to 4 x 10{sup 6} cells/l) was reached in April. Cyanobacteria encountered were Oscillatoria sp. (up to 4 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), Pseudanabaena sp. (up to 1.8 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), Microcystis sp. (up to 3.5 x 10{sup 4} cells/l), and Aphanocapsa sp. (up to 2 x 10{sup 4} cells/l). An uncommon cyanobacterium, Romeria sp. (up to 2.2 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), was also observed. Contrasting earlier indications, toxic Nodularia spumigena was absent. Despite that both Oscillatoria sp. and Microcystis sp. are potentially hepatotoxic, hepatotoxin levels in phytoplankton samples remained low (up to 0.5-1.2 mg/kg dw; ELISA) in 2001-2002. ELISA was found suitable not only for phytoplankton but prawn tissues as well. Enzymatic pretreatment improved extractability of hepatotoxin from cyanobacteria (nodularin from N. spumigena as an example), but did not generally increase toxin recovery from prawn hepatopancreas. There were slightly increasing hepatotoxin concentrations in prawn hepatopancreas (from 6-20 to 20-80 {mu}g/kg dw; ELISA) during the

  13. Six species of Calyptotheca (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata, Lanceoporidae) from the Gulf of Carpentaria and northern Australia, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Robyn L; Tilbrook, Kevin J

    2014-07-03

    A new diagnosis is presented for Calyptotheca Harmer, 1957 and six species are described from the Gulf of Carpentaria: C. wasinensis (Waters, 1913) (type species), C. australis (Haswell, 1880), C. conica Cook, 1965 (with a redescription of the holotype), C. tenuata Harmer, 1957, C. triquetra (Harmer, 1957) and C. lardil n. sp. These are the first records of Bryozoa from the Gulf of Carpentaria, and the first Australian records for C. wasinensis, C. tenuata and C. triquetra. The limit of distribution of three species is extended east to the Gulf of Carpentaria, from Kenya for C. wasinensis, from China for C. tenuata, and from northwestern Australia for C. conica. The number of tropical Calyptotheca species in Australian territorial waters is increased from seven to eleven.

  14. Six species of Calyptotheca (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata, Lanceoporidae) from the Gulf of Carpentaria and northern Australia, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Robyn L; Tilbrook, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    A new diagnosis is presented for Calyptotheca Harmer, 1957 and six species are described from the Gulf of Carpentaria: C. wasinensis (Waters, 1913) (type species), C. australis (Haswell, 1880), C. conica Cook, 1965 (with a redescription of the holotype), C. tenuata Harmer, 1957, C. triquetra (Harmer, 1957) and C. lardil n. sp. These are the first records of Bryozoa from the Gulf of Carpentaria, and the first Australian records for C. wasinensis, C. tenuata and C. triquetra. The limit of distribution of three species is extended east to the Gulf of Carpentaria, from Kenya for C. wasinensis, from China for C. tenuata, and from northwestern Australia for C. conica. The number of tropical Calyptotheca species in Australian territorial waters is increased from seven to eleven. PMID:25081152

  15. Abortion law across Australia--A review of nine jurisdictions.

    PubMed

    de Costa, Caroline; Douglas, Heather; Hamblin, Julie; Ramsay, Philippa; Shircore, Mandy

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the current legal status of abortion in Australia and its implications. Australian abortion law has been a matter for the states since before Federation. In the years since Federation there have been significant reforms and changes in the abortion laws of some jurisdictions, although not all. Across Australia there are now nine sets of laws, state and Commonwealth, concerned with abortion. The test of a lawful abortion varies greatly across jurisdictions. In a number of states and territories, it is necessary to establish a serious risk to the physical or mental health of the woman if the pregnancy was to continue. In some cases, the certification of two doctors is required, particularly for abortions at later gestations. There are also physical restrictions on access, such as in South Australia and the Northern Territory where abortion must take place in a hospital. Only in the ACT has abortion been removed from the criminal law altogether. Variations in the law and restrictions arising from these are not consistent with the aims and provision of the universal, accessible health care system aspired to in Australia. There is an urgent need for overall reform and the introduction of uniformity to Australia's abortion laws, including removal of abortion from the criminal law.

  16. The role of vegetation in the formation of anabranching channels in an ephemeral river, Northern plains, arid central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tooth, Stephen; Nanson, Gerald C.

    2000-10-01

    As the distribution and abundance of vegetation in drylands is often controlled by the greater availability of water along river channels, riparian vegetation has the potential to influence significantly dryland river form, process and behaviour. This paper demonstrates how a small indigenous shrub, the inland teatree (Melaleuca glomerata), influences the formation and maintenance of anabranching channels in a reach of the ephemeral Marshall River, Northern Plains, arid central Australia. Here, the Marshall is characterized by ridge-form anabranching, where water and sediment are routed through subparallel, multiple channels of variable size which occur within a typically straight channel-train. Channels are separated by channel-train ridges - narrow, flow-aligned, vegetated features - or by wider islands. By providing a substantial element of boundary roughness, dense stands of teatrees growing on channel beds or atop the ridges and islands influence flow velocities, flow depths and sediment transport, resulting in flow diversion, bank and floodplain erosion, and especially sediment deposition. Ridges and islands represent a continuum of forms, and their formation and development can be divided into a three-stage sequence involving teatree growth and alluvial sedimentation.1Teatrees colonize a flat, sandy channel bed, initiating the formation of ridges by lee-side accretion. Individual ridges grow laterally, vertically and longitudinally and maintain a geometrically similar streamlined (lemniscate) form that presents minimum drag.2Individual ridges grow in size, and interact with neighbouring ridges, causing the lemniscate forms to become distorted. Ridges in the lee of other ridges tend to be protected from the erosive effects of floods and survive, whereas individual teatrees or small ridges exposed to flow concentrated between larger ridges, tend to be removed.3

  17. The legislation of active voluntary euthanasia in Australia: will the slippery slope prove fatal?

    PubMed

    Kerridge, I H; Mitchell, K R

    1996-10-01

    At 2.00 am on the morning of May 24, 1995 the Northern Territory Legislative Assembly Australia passed the Rights of the Terminally Ill Act by the narrow margin of 15 votes to 10. The act permits a terminally ill patient of sound mind and over the age of 18 years, and who is either in pain or suffering, or distress, to request a medical practitioner to assist the patient to terminate his or her life. Thus, Australia can lay claim to being the first country in the world to legalise voluntary active euthanasia. The Northern Territory's act has prompted Australia-wide community reaction, particularly in South Australia, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory where proposals to legalise euthanasia have already been defeated on the floor of parliament. In New South Wales (NSW) the AIDS Council of NSW has prepared draft euthanasia legislation to be introduced into the Upper House as a Private Member's Bill some time in 1996. In this paper, we focus on a brief description of events as they occurred and on the arguments for and against the legalisation of euthanasia which have appeared in the media. PMID:8910778

  18. Features of Duration and Borders of the Bedding of Snow Cover in the Conditions of Climatic Changes in the Territory of Northern Kazakhstan According to Land and Space Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salnikov, Vitaliy; Turulina, Galina; Polyakova, Svetlana; Muratova, Nadiya; Kauazov, Azamat; Abugalieva, Aigul; Tazhibayeva, Tamara

    2014-05-01

    Precipitation and air temperature datasets from 34 meteorological stations were analyzed to reveal the regional climate changes at the territory in North Kazakhstan over the last 58 years (i.e., 1950-2008). Peculiarities and conditions of snow cover formation and melting have been analyzed at territory of Northern Kazakhstan using surface and space monitoring data. Methods of both the geo-informational processing of remote probing data and statistical processing of databases on snow cover, air temperature and precipitations have been used. Analysis of snow cover observations data for territory of Northern Kazakhstan has shown that the stable snow cover might be observed since the middle of November till the beginning of April. In a few last decades the tendency is observed for longevity decrease of snow cover bedding that appears to be on the background air temperature increase and insignificant increase of cold period precipitations due to the later bedding of the snow cover and its earlier destruction. Peculiarities of atmospheric circulation in Atlantic-Eurasian sector of Northern Semi sphere and their influence of formation of snow cover at territory of Northern Kazakhstan. The higher longevity of the snow cover bedding is defined by the predominance of E form circulation and lower longevity - by the predominance of W+C circulation form. Analysis conducted of the highest height of snow cover bedding has shown that for period of 1936-2012 in the most cases the statistically reliable decreasing trends are observed with the linear trend coefficients of 0,50 - 0,60 cm/year. The method is offered for determination of probable characteristics of the snow cover decade height. Using data of space monitoring are allocated the frontiers of snow cover bedding for the period of snow melting 1982-2008 and the snow cover melting maps are developed. The results further confirm the proposition that snow cover availability is an important and limiting factor in the generation

  19. 31 CFR 500.322 - Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authorized trade territory. (a) The term authorized trade territory shall include: (1) North, South and Central America, including the Caribbean region, except Cuba; (2) Africa; (3) Australia and Oceania..., Lebanon, Macao, Malaysia, Nepal, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Sri...

  20. The mitochondrial 12S gene is a suitable marker of populations of Sarcoptes scabiei from wombats, dogs and humans in Australia.

    PubMed

    Skerratt, L F; Campbell, N J H; Murrell, A; Walton, S; Kemp, D; Barker, S C

    2002-04-01

    We sequenced part of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene of 23 specimens of Sarcoptes scabiei from eight wombats, one dog and three humans. Twelve of the 326 nucleotide positions varied among these mites and there were nine haplotypes (sequences) that differed by 1-8 nucleotides. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that these mites were from two lineages: (1) mites from wombats from Victoria, Australia, and mites from the humans and dog from the Northern Territory, Australia (haplotypes 1-4, 9); and (2) mites from the humans and dog from the Northern Territory (haplotypes 5-8). Mites from the three different hosts (wombats, a dog and humans) had not diverged phylogenetically; rather, these mites had similar 12S sequences. Thus, we conclude that these mites from wombats, humans and a dog are closely related, and that they diverged from a common ancestor relatively recently. This conclusion is consistent with the argument that people and/or their dogs introduced to Australia the S. scabiei mites that infect wombats in Australia . So, S. scabiei, which has been blamed for the extinction of populations of wombats in Australia, may be a parasitic mite that was introduced to Australia with people and/or their dogs. These data show that the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene may be a suitable population marker of S. scabiei from wombats, dogs and humans in Australia. PMID:11999028

  1. The mitochondrial 12S gene is a suitable marker of populations of Sarcoptes scabiei from wombats, dogs and humans in Australia.

    PubMed

    Skerratt, L F; Campbell, N J H; Murrell, A; Walton, S; Kemp, D; Barker, S C

    2002-04-01

    We sequenced part of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene of 23 specimens of Sarcoptes scabiei from eight wombats, one dog and three humans. Twelve of the 326 nucleotide positions varied among these mites and there were nine haplotypes (sequences) that differed by 1-8 nucleotides. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that these mites were from two lineages: (1) mites from wombats from Victoria, Australia, and mites from the humans and dog from the Northern Territory, Australia (haplotypes 1-4, 9); and (2) mites from the humans and dog from the Northern Territory (haplotypes 5-8). Mites from the three different hosts (wombats, a dog and humans) had not diverged phylogenetically; rather, these mites had similar 12S sequences. Thus, we conclude that these mites from wombats, humans and a dog are closely related, and that they diverged from a common ancestor relatively recently. This conclusion is consistent with the argument that people and/or their dogs introduced to Australia the S. scabiei mites that infect wombats in Australia . So, S. scabiei, which has been blamed for the extinction of populations of wombats in Australia, may be a parasitic mite that was introduced to Australia with people and/or their dogs. These data show that the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene may be a suitable population marker of S. scabiei from wombats, dogs and humans in Australia.

  2. Description of a new species of brooding spider crab in the genus Paranaxia Rathbun, 1924 (Brachyura: Majoidea), from northern Australia and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hosie, Andrew M; Hara, Ana

    2016-06-22

    A new species, Paranaxia keesingi sp. nov., is described based on specimens collected in northern Australia. The new species differs from its only congener, P. serpulifera (Guérin, 1832, in Guérin-Méneville 1829-1837), by several characters including carapace setation, sternal cavities, absence of a subhepatic spine, presence of a sharp spine on the posterodistal angle of the cheliped merus, relatively shorter chelipeds, and longer and more slender ambulatory legs. Morphological separation of the two species is supported by 12s rDNA sequence divergences of 7.4-8.2%. Like P. serpulifera, the newly described species exhibits direct development with females carrying juvenile individuals under the pleon. Both species are sympatric, but Paranaxia keesingi sp. nov. is found in deeper waters than P. serpulifera.

  3. High-resolution melting analysis of the spa locus reveals significant diversity within sequence type 93 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Tong, S Y C; Lilliebridge, R A; Holt, D C; McDonald, M I; Currie, B J; Giffard, P M

    2009-12-01

    High-resolution melting analysis is an inherently robust, easy and inexpensive approach to the examination of genomic regions containing single-nucleotide polymorphisms and hypervariable loci. Staphylococcus aureus sequence type (ST) 93 is a singleton, Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive clone unique to Australia. A high-resolution melting-based method for the identification of ST93 was developed, and a similar approach was used to reveal diversity within the spa locus of this lineage. Statistical and graphical methods that account for instrumental and operator-dependent variation in high-resolution melting curves were developed, to allow greater confidence and reproducibility in deciding whether another curve is truly different from the baseline curve of an amplicon with known sequence. The data support a very early acquisition, or multiple independent acquisitions, of SCCmec by ST93 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), and the coexistence of MSSA and methicillin-resistant S. aureus versions of the same lineage within northern Australia.

  4. Influence of group II metals on Radium-226 concentration ratios in the native green plum (Buchanania obovata) from the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Medley, Peter; Bollhöfer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, uptake of Ra from soil, and the influence of group II metals on Ra uptake, into the stones and edible flesh of the fruit of the wild green plum, Buchanania obovata, was investigated. Selective extraction of the exchangeable fraction of the soil samples was undertaken but was not shown to more reliably predict Ra uptake than total soil Ra activity concentration. Comparison of the group II metal to Ca ratios (i.e. Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Ra/Ca) in the flesh with exchangeable Ca shows that Ca outcompetes group II metals for root uptake and that the uptake pathway discriminated against group II metals relative to ionic radius, with uptake of Ca > Sr > Ba > Ra. Flesh and stone analysis showed that movement of group II metals to these components of the plant, after root uptake, was strongly related. This supports the hypothesis that Sr, Ba and Ra are being taken up as analogue elements, and follow the same uptake and translocation pathways, with Ca. Comparison with previously reported data from a native passion fruit supports the use of total soil CRs on natural, undisturbed sites. As exchangeable CRs for Ra reach a saturation value it may be possible to make more precise predictions using selective extraction techniques for contaminated or disturbed sites.

  5. Influence of group II metals on Radium-226 concentration ratios in the native green plum (Buchanania obovata) from the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Medley, Peter; Bollhöfer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, uptake of Ra from soil, and the influence of group II metals on Ra uptake, into the stones and edible flesh of the fruit of the wild green plum, Buchanania obovata, was investigated. Selective extraction of the exchangeable fraction of the soil samples was undertaken but was not shown to more reliably predict Ra uptake than total soil Ra activity concentration. Comparison of the group II metal to Ca ratios (i.e. Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Ra/Ca) in the flesh with exchangeable Ca shows that Ca outcompetes group II metals for root uptake and that the uptake pathway discriminated against group II metals relative to ionic radius, with uptake of Ca > Sr > Ba > Ra. Flesh and stone analysis showed that movement of group II metals to these components of the plant, after root uptake, was strongly related. This supports the hypothesis that Sr, Ba and Ra are being taken up as analogue elements, and follow the same uptake and translocation pathways, with Ca. Comparison with previously reported data from a native passion fruit supports the use of total soil CRs on natural, undisturbed sites. As exchangeable CRs for Ra reach a saturation value it may be possible to make more precise predictions using selective extraction techniques for contaminated or disturbed sites. PMID:26277654

  6. A methodology for the assessment of rehabilitation success of post mining landscapes--sediment and radionuclide transport at the former Nabarlek uranium mine, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hancock, G R; Grabham, M K; Martin, P; Evans, K G; Bollhöfer, A

    2006-02-01

    Protection of the environment post-mining is an important issue, especially where runoff and erosion can lead to undesirable material leaving post-mining landscapes and contaminating surrounding land and watercourses. Methods for assessment of the environmental impact and long-term behaviour of post-mining landforms based on scientific methodology are needed especially where field data are absent or poor. An appraisal of the former Nabarlek uranium mine was conducted to assess the site from a soil erosion perspective as part of an independent evaluation of overall rehabilitation success. Determination of the gross erosion occurring, sediment discharge to Cooper Creek and the resultant sediment associated radionuclide load in Cooper Creek were the primary objectives of the study. These objectives were achieved through the application of several models using parameter values collected from the site. The study found that the area containing the mill tailings repository is extremely stable and meets the guidelines established for long-term storage of uranium mill tailings. Most other areas on the site are stable; however there are some areas with a high sediment loss. Sediment concentration in Cooper Creek, which drains the site, was found to be within the Australian water quality guidelines for fresh water, however sediment concentrations in tributaries were found to exceed recommended levels. Radionuclide determinations on soil samples showed that the highest specific activities (Bq kg-1) were present on a small (0.44 ha) area with a relatively high erosion rate. This small area contributed the majority of the estimated flux to Cooper Creek of uranium-series radionuclides sorbed or structurally incorporated to eroded soil particles sourced from the mine site. This study provides a methodology for assessment of the erosional stability of such a landscape and consequent impact on water quality, using extensive field data and readily available and well known models and methodologies.

  7. A methodology for the assessment of rehabilitation success of post mining landscapes--sediment and radionuclide transport at the former Nabarlek uranium mine, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hancock, G R; Grabham, M K; Martin, P; Evans, K G; Bollhöfer, A

    2006-02-01

    Protection of the environment post-mining is an important issue, especially where runoff and erosion can lead to undesirable material leaving post-mining landscapes and contaminating surrounding land and watercourses. Methods for assessment of the environmental impact and long-term behaviour of post-mining landforms based on scientific methodology are needed especially where field data are absent or poor. An appraisal of the former Nabarlek uranium mine was conducted to assess the site from a soil erosion perspective as part of an independent evaluation of overall rehabilitation success. Determination of the gross erosion occurring, sediment discharge to Cooper Creek and the resultant sediment associated radionuclide load in Cooper Creek were the primary objectives of the study. These objectives were achieved through the application of several models using parameter values collected from the site. The study found that the area containing the mill tailings repository is extremely stable and meets the guidelines established for long-term storage of uranium mill tailings. Most other areas on the site are stable; however there are some areas with a high sediment loss. Sediment concentration in Cooper Creek, which drains the site, was found to be within the Australian water quality guidelines for fresh water, however sediment concentrations in tributaries were found to exceed recommended levels. Radionuclide determinations on soil samples showed that the highest specific activities (Bq kg-1) were present on a small (0.44 ha) area with a relatively high erosion rate. This small area contributed the majority of the estimated flux to Cooper Creek of uranium-series radionuclides sorbed or structurally incorporated to eroded soil particles sourced from the mine site. This study provides a methodology for assessment of the erosional stability of such a landscape and consequent impact on water quality, using extensive field data and readily available and well known models and methodologies. PMID:16242178

  8. [Genetic polymorphism of blood group and erythrocyte enzymes in three ethno-territorial groups of the northern European part of Russia].

    PubMed

    Evseeva, I V; Spitsyn, V A; Makarov, S V; Bychkovskaia, L S; Paé, G V

    2001-11-01

    Using the data on five red cell markers (AB0, PGM1, ACP1, GLO1, and ESD) polymorphisms, the population genetic structure of three ethnic territorial groups from the north of European Russia (Continental Nentsy, Kola Saami, and Russian Coast-dwellers) was described. In general, the groups studied a Caucasoid pattern of the frequency distribution of erythrocytic marker alleles. However, a substantial contribution of a Mongoloid component to the Nenets gene pool, expressed as a high frequency of the PGM1*1 allele along with a low frequency of the GLO1*1 allele, was observed. Three ethnic territorial groups examined were close to one another with respect to the distribution of classical biochemical markers. The interpopulation diversity was low (the mean FST = 0.015). The differences observed were for the most part caused by the genetic characteristics of Nentsy. The maximum interpopulation diversity was observed for the GLO1 locus (FST = 0.056).

  9. Southern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    South-central Australia is home to several deserts, including the Simpson Desert, whose reddish-orange sands are seen in the upper left quadrant of this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from July 1, 2002. Several impermanent, salty, lakes stand whitely out against the arid terrain. The largest is North Lake Eyre, southwest of center. At bottom center, Spencer Gulf separates the triangular Eyre Peninsula from the Yorke Peninsula. The Gulf of St. Vincent separates Yorke Peninsula from the mainland. In Spencer Gulf, colorful blue-green swirls indicate the presence of a bloom of marine plants called phytoplankton, whose brightly colored photosynthetic pigments stain the water. Water quality in the Gulf is an ongoing problem for Australia, as irrigation projects have diverted the already small flow of freshwater that empties into the Gulf. Other problems include contamination with pesticides and agricultural and residential fertilizer. On both the Eyre Peninsula and in the Victoria Territory to the east of Spencer Gulf, dark-colored rectangles show the boundaries of parks and nature preserves where the natural, drought-tolerant vegetation thrives.

  10. Serological Surveillance of Wild Waterfowl in Northern Australia for Avian Influenza Virus Shows Variations in Prevalence and a Cyclical Periodicity of Infection.

    PubMed

    Curran, John M; Ellis, Trevor M; Robertson, Ian D

    2015-12-01

    The virological surveillance of 3582 wild waterfowl in northern Australia from 2004 to 2009 for avian influenza virus (AIV) found an apparent prevalence (AP) of 1% (31 of 2989 cloacal swabs; 95% CI: 0.71%-1.47%) using a Taqman Type A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test and no viral isolations from 593 swabs tested by the embryonating chicken egg culture method. From serological testing using a nucleoprotein competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for AIV antibody, 1131 of 3645 sera had ≥ 40% inhibition, indicating an apparent seroprevalence of 31% (95% CI: 29.5%-32.6%). This value suggests that the low AP from virological testing does not reflect the dynamics of AIV infection in these populations. Spatiotemporal and species variations in seroprevalence were found at wetland sampling sites, with consistently higher values at Kununurra in Western Australia (AP  =  39%, 95% CI: 36.9%-41.4%) compared to other locations. At Kununurra, seroprevalence values had a two-year cyclical periodicity and suggest this location is a hotspot of AIV activity. From hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing using multiple subtype antigens, the highest AP of HI reactions were to H6 and H5 subtypes. The phenomenon of cyclic periodicity in NP seroprevalence at Kununurra is hypothesized as being related to the prevalent H6 subtype that may have either become predominant or cycled back into a mostly AIV naïve flock. The inclusion of serological testing provided insight into the dynamics of AIV infection in wild birds such as species risk profiles and spatiotemporal patterns, important epidemiological information for a risk-based approach to surveillance.

  11. Serological Surveillance of Wild Waterfowl in Northern Australia for Avian Influenza Virus Shows Variations in Prevalence and a Cyclical Periodicity of Infection.

    PubMed

    Curran, John M; Ellis, Trevor M; Robertson, Ian D

    2015-12-01

    The virological surveillance of 3582 wild waterfowl in northern Australia from 2004 to 2009 for avian influenza virus (AIV) found an apparent prevalence (AP) of 1% (31 of 2989 cloacal swabs; 95% CI: 0.71%-1.47%) using a Taqman Type A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test and no viral isolations from 593 swabs tested by the embryonating chicken egg culture method. From serological testing using a nucleoprotein competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for AIV antibody, 1131 of 3645 sera had ≥ 40% inhibition, indicating an apparent seroprevalence of 31% (95% CI: 29.5%-32.6%). This value suggests that the low AP from virological testing does not reflect the dynamics of AIV infection in these populations. Spatiotemporal and species variations in seroprevalence were found at wetland sampling sites, with consistently higher values at Kununurra in Western Australia (AP  =  39%, 95% CI: 36.9%-41.4%) compared to other locations. At Kununurra, seroprevalence values had a two-year cyclical periodicity and suggest this location is a hotspot of AIV activity. From hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing using multiple subtype antigens, the highest AP of HI reactions were to H6 and H5 subtypes. The phenomenon of cyclic periodicity in NP seroprevalence at Kununurra is hypothesized as being related to the prevalent H6 subtype that may have either become predominant or cycled back into a mostly AIV naïve flock. The inclusion of serological testing provided insight into the dynamics of AIV infection in wild birds such as species risk profiles and spatiotemporal patterns, important epidemiological information for a risk-based approach to surveillance. PMID:26629622

  12. Aeromagnetic Survey by Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Magneto-Resistant Magnetometer at the northern Kalgoorlie area, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, M.; Group, A.; Milligan, P.

    2006-12-01

    We have developed the technology of small drones (unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)) and an onboard magnetometer focussed on the aeromagnetic surveys under the Ant-Plane project. We succeeded long distant flight to 500km with agnetometer by Ant-Plene4 drone collaborated with Geoscience, Australia, in March 2006. The survey was carried out in the area 10kmx10km around Mt. Vetters Station, Kalgoorlie, West Australian. The magnetic data are obtained from 41 courses (250m in interval) of EW dierction. The altitude of the flight was 900m from sea level and 500m from the runway. The Ant-Plane #4 consists of 2.6m span and 2.0m length with 2-cycles and 2-cylinder 85cc gasoline engine, GPS navigation system by microcomputer and radio telemeter system. The total weight is 25kg including 12.4 litter fuels and the coursing speed is 130. The magnetometer system consists of a 3-component magneto- resistant magnetometer (MR) sensor (Honeywell HMR2300), GPS and data logger. Three components of magnetic field, latitude, longitude, altitude, the number of satellite and time can be recorded in every second during 6 hours. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is 7 nT and we use a total magnetic field intensity for magnetic analysis due to unknown direction of heading of the plane. MR-magnetometer sensor was installed at the tip of a FRP pipe of 1m length, and the pipe was fixed to the head of the plane in order to reduce the plane magnetization. After 4 hours 14 minutes from the takeoff, the 500km flight was accomplished and the magnetic data were obtained from the data logger. The straight flight course was almost consistent with the way point course, but the course was drastically disturbed when the plane was turning. The magnetic noise level during the flight increased to 30nT, when the plane was flight in the tail wind. However, it is much higher when the plane flew in the head wind. The anomaly pattern obtained from Ant-Plane 4 was compared with the magnetic anomaly map published by

  13. A modern analogue for tectonic, eustatic, and climatic processes in cratonic basins: Gulf of Carpentaria, northern Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edgar, N. Terence; Cecil, C. Blaine; Mattick, R.E.; de Deckker, Patrick; Djajadihardja, Yusuf S.

    2003-01-01

    The Gulf of Carpentaria is a tropical, silled epicontinental sea and may be a modern analogue for ancient cratonic basins. For the purpose of this study, the Gulf of Carpentaria is compared to Pennsylvanian cratonic basins of the United States. During the Pennsylvanian, the North American continent moved from the Southern Hemisphere, through the Equator, into the Northern Hemisphere. Today, the Gulf of Carpentaria–New Guinea region is a few degrees south of the Equator and is moving towards it. During the Pennsylvanian, the world was subjected to major glaciations and associated sea-level changes. The island of New Guinea and the Gulf of Carpentaria have undergone similar processes during the Quaternary. A reconnaissance seismic survey of the gulf conducted by the USGS and the Australian National University (ANU), combined with oil-exploration well data, provided the first step in a systematic evaluation of a modern tropical epicontinental system. During the Cenozoic, the region was dominated by terrestrial sedimentation in a temperate climate. At the same time, carbonates were being deposited on the northern shelf edge of the Australian Plate. During the Miocene, carbonate deposition expanded southward into the gulf region. Then in the Late Miocene, carbonate sedimentation was replaced by terrigenous clastics derived from the developing Central Range of the island of New Guinea, which developed a wetter climate while moving northwards into the tropics. At least 14 basin-wide transgressive–regressive cycles are identified by channels that were eroded under subaerial conditions since about the Miocene. Comparison of the modern Gulf of Carpentaria sequences with those of the Pennsylvanian reveals many similarities.

  14. Sedimentary responses to sub-aerial felsic volcanism from the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous northern Macalister Synclinorium, southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Halloran, G. J.; Gaul, A. J.

    1997-04-01

    Active sub-aerial volcanism has the capability to rapidly alter both the topographic and drainage characteristics of a landscape, and thus fundamentally influence resulting sedimentary facies. Relationships between sedimentation and volcanism are explored in this paper, via an investigation of the stratigraphy and early depositional history of the Upper Devonian volcano-sedimentary units of the northern Macalister Synclinorium, east-central Victoria. Complex interfingering relationships exist between sub-aerial felsic volcanic successions (Rose River Volcanics) and alluvial, fluvial and lacustrine sedimentary units (the Bindaree and Howitt Spur Formations). A depositional model is presented for these units, in which the Rose River Volcanics, an outflow (ignimbritic plateau) facies of the Tolmie caldera complex to the north, co-existed with a series of volcaniclastic alluvial fans and freshwater lakes. A dacitic volcanic centre (Refrigerator Gap Dacite) appears to have developed somewhat separately to the south, in the Jamieson River area. These lower successions of the northern Macalister Synclinorium record an episode of sedimentation in close proximity to an active felsic volcanic terrain, and in a landscape of significant topographic relief. The conglomerates of the Bindaree Formation, in particular, record the supply of abundant felsic volcanic detritus via high-gradient proximal alluvial stream systems. Comparisons can be made with sedimentological processes operating during deposition of overlying sedimentary successions, where influences by primary volcanic activity were less important. Well defined channel geometry successions and a diversification in clast and grain types within these younger units indicate ongoing headward erosion into metasedimentary basement rocks, and deposition within lower-gradient, higher-order stream systems.

  15. The archaeology, chronology and stratigraphy of Madjedbebe (Malakunanja II): A site in northern Australia with early occupation.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Chris; Smith, Mike; Marwick, Ben; Fullagar, Richard; Wallis, Lynley A; Faulkner, Patrick; Manne, Tiina; Hayes, Elspeth; Roberts, Richard G; Jacobs, Zenobia; Carah, Xavier; Lowe, Kelsey M; Matthews, Jacqueline; Florin, S Anna

    2015-06-01

    Published ages of >50 ka for occupation at Madjedbebe (Malakunanja II) in Australia's north have kept the site prominent in discussions about the colonisation of Sahul. The site also contains one of the largest stone artefact assemblages in Sahul for this early period. However, the stone artefacts and other important archaeological components of the site have never been described in detail, leading to persistent doubts about its stratigraphic integrity. We report on our analysis of the stone artefacts and faunal and other materials recovered during the 1989 excavations, as well as the stratigraphy and depositional history recorded by the original excavators. We demonstrate that the technology and raw materials of the early assemblage are distinctive from those in the overlying layers. Silcrete and quartzite artefacts are common in the early assemblage, which also includes edge-ground axe fragments and ground haematite. The lower flaked stone assemblage is distinctive, comprising a mix of long convergent flakes, some radial flakes with faceted platforms, and many small thin silcrete flakes that we interpret as thinning flakes. Residue and use-wear analysis indicate occasional grinding of haematite and woodworking, as well as frequent abrading of platform edges on thinning flakes. We conclude that previous claims of extensive displacement of artefacts and post-depositional disturbance may have been overstated. The stone artefacts and stratigraphic details support previous claims for human occupation 50-60 ka and show that human occupation during this time differed from later periods. We discuss the implications of these new data for understanding the first human colonisation of Sahul.

  16. Surveillance of Charadriiformes in northern Australia shows species variations in exposure to avian influenza virus and suggests negligible virus prevalence.

    PubMed

    Curran, John M; Ellis, Trevor M; Robertson, Ian D

    2014-06-01

    The virologic surveillance of 4248 Charadriiformes since 1992 primarily from coastal northwest Australia did not detect any evidence of avian influenza virus (AIV) excretion (test prevalence = 0%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-0.09%). Past exposure to AIV was evident from serologic testing using nucleoprotein (NP) competitive-ELISA (c-ELISA) with an overall seroprevalence of 8.8% (95% CI: 8%-9.7%). The c-ELISA seroprevalence of family Scolopacidae and genus Numenius was significantly higher when compared with other families and genera, respectively. Exposure risk profiles, based on c-ELISA seroprevalence, were compiled for 40 species with the following species having significantly higher values when compared with the combined value of all other species: eastern curlew (Numenius madagascariensis), whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola), little curlew (Numenius minutus), red knot (Calidris canutus), sharp-tailed sandpiper (Calidris acuminata), and red-necked stint (Calidris ruficollis). From hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing, the more prevalent HI reactions were against H2, H5, H6, and H9 subtypes, with no reactions against subtypes H11, H14, H15, and H16. Serologic testing using c-ELISA provided species risk profiles for optimizing a surveillance strategy for AIV in diverse populations of wild birds. The paucity of knowledge about the role of waders in the ecology of AIV and the overall very low to negligible virus prevalence reported globally, and in this study, suggests that waders are spillover hosts in shared ecosystems with a lesser role than previously considered.

  17. Surveillance of Charadriiformes in northern Australia shows species variations in exposure to avian influenza virus and suggests negligible virus prevalence.

    PubMed

    Curran, John M; Ellis, Trevor M; Robertson, Ian D

    2014-06-01

    The virologic surveillance of 4248 Charadriiformes since 1992 primarily from coastal northwest Australia did not detect any evidence of avian influenza virus (AIV) excretion (test prevalence = 0%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-0.09%). Past exposure to AIV was evident from serologic testing using nucleoprotein (NP) competitive-ELISA (c-ELISA) with an overall seroprevalence of 8.8% (95% CI: 8%-9.7%). The c-ELISA seroprevalence of family Scolopacidae and genus Numenius was significantly higher when compared with other families and genera, respectively. Exposure risk profiles, based on c-ELISA seroprevalence, were compiled for 40 species with the following species having significantly higher values when compared with the combined value of all other species: eastern curlew (Numenius madagascariensis), whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus), ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), grey plover (Pluvialis squatarola), little curlew (Numenius minutus), red knot (Calidris canutus), sharp-tailed sandpiper (Calidris acuminata), and red-necked stint (Calidris ruficollis). From hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing, the more prevalent HI reactions were against H2, H5, H6, and H9 subtypes, with no reactions against subtypes H11, H14, H15, and H16. Serologic testing using c-ELISA provided species risk profiles for optimizing a surveillance strategy for AIV in diverse populations of wild birds. The paucity of knowledge about the role of waders in the ecology of AIV and the overall very low to negligible virus prevalence reported globally, and in this study, suggests that waders are spillover hosts in shared ecosystems with a lesser role than previously considered. PMID:25055621

  18. Dissolved organic matter dynamics in streams of intermittent flow - linkages with ecohydrologic processes from pool to catchment in northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grierson, Pauline; Siebers, Andre; Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Fellman, Jason; Pettit, Neil; Dogramaci, Shawan

    2015-04-01

    Changes in both the frequency and intensity of flood-drought cycles of intermittent streams, either through changing climate or anthropogenic management, may have significant impacts on stream functioning. However, little is known about how and to what extent the quantity and composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) changes during inter-flood periods and how this relates to stream hydrology, particularly of intermittent rivers. We hypothesised that with increasing time since flooding, controls on stream biogeochemical processes transition from predominantly hydrological to more local scale environmental factors. We also argue that in strongly seasonal and oligotrophic regions, such as those of the tropical northwest of Australia, groundwater inputs of old DOC may increase the bioavailability of stream organic matter. We used δ18O and δ2H values of surface water and groundwater in the alluvium (AW) together with DOM fluorescence excitation-emission spectroscopy and radiocarbon dating to (i) characterise DOM and (ii) assess the relative importance of autochthonous versus allochthonous sources among pools according to how connected they are to groundwater. Our findings show that as streams increase in size and accumulate aromatic DOC from terrestrial plant material, percent bioavailability decreases concomitant with the modernization of the DOC pool. Therefore, rapid biotic uptake of old, bioavailable DOC originating in groundwater springs and the accumulation of modern, terrestrially derived DOC work in opposite directions affecting the dynamics of DOC along fluvial networks. The metabolism of old DOC in small streams is a direct link between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems but also provides a biogeochemical link between non-contemporary carbon fixation and modern river productivity. Recognition of the hydrologic complexity of dryland rivers is clearly necessary for more effective catchment-scale management strategies that balance an increasing demand for

  19. Site-specific water quality guidelines: 2. Development of a water quality regulation framework for pulse exposures of mine water discharges at a uranium mine in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, A; Tayler, K; van Dam, R; Hogan, A

    2014-01-01

    The Ranger Uranium Mine, in northern Australia, is monitored by the Supervising Scientist Division (SSD) of the Australian Government to ensure that it does not impact on the highly valued aquatic ecosystems of Kakadu National Park. In 2010, the SSD adopted the continuous monitoring of electrical conductivity (EC) and turbidity, in combination with event-triggered automated grab samples, as its primary water quality monitoring method. The continuous monitoring of EC has shown that mine discharges typically occur over short-term 'pulse' durations of minutes to hours. Given that magnesium (Mg) is the most likely mine-derived solute to approach or exceed the applicable water quality limit value, the focus has been on developing a pulse exposure assessment framework for Mg, as represented by its proxy EC, which is tracked by the continuous monitoring system. This study presents a possible ecotoxicologically derived Mg pulse exposure limit and trigger regulation framework for Magela and Gulungul Creeks and an assessment of historic continuous monitoring EC data from these creeks. This framework demonstrates potential to supersede the current EC guideline and associated trigger levels, which are statistically derived from historic grab sample data.

  20. Numerical investigation of salinity in controlling ore-forming fluid transport in sedimentary basins: example of the HYC deposit, Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianwen; Bull, Stuart; Large, Ross

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents the first hydrogeological model that fully couples transient fluid flow, heat and solute transport associated with the formation of the HYC SEDEX deposit in the McArthur Basin, northern Australia. Numerical results reveal that salinity plays an important role in controlling hydrothermal fluid migration. In particular, it appears that it is the distribution of evaporitic units within a given basin, rather than their absolute abundance, that controls the development of free convection. Relatively saline conditions at the seafloor strengthen the thermally-induced buoyancy force and hence promote free convection of basinal solutions; whereas high salinities at the bottom counteract the thermal function of natural geothermal gradient and suppress the development of convective hydrothermal fluid circulation. In the latter case, higher thermal gradients are required to initiate substantial free convective fluid flow. Numerical experiments also suggest the position of an ore body with respect to its vent system may be controlled by the spatial and temporal salinity distributions in the basin. Vent-distal ore formation, a result of exhalation of brines that are denser than seawater and hence can flow away from the vent region, is promoted by moderate salinity at the seafloor and higher salinity in the aquifer. Vent-proximal ore accumulation, a result of pluming upon exhalation of brines less dense than seawater, is favored by the highest salinity conditions occurring near the level of the seafloor.

  1. Molecular screening of microbial communities for candidate indicators of multiple metal impacts in marine sediments from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Cornall, Alyssa; Rose, Alea; Streten, Claire; McGuinness, Keith; Parry, David; Gibb, Karen

    2016-02-01

    Coastal sediments accumulate metals from anthropogenic sources and as a consequence industry is required to monitor sediment health. The total concentration of a metal does not necessarily reflect its potential toxicity or biological impact, so biological assessment tools are useful for monitoring. Rapid biological assessment tools sensitive enough to detect relatively small increases in metal concentrations would provide early warning of future ecosystem impact. The authors investigated in situ populations of Archaea and Bacteria as potential tools for rapid biological assessment in sediment at 4 northern Australian coastal locations over 2 yr, in both wet and dry seasons. The 1 M HCl-extractable concentrations of metals in sediment were measured, and Archaeal and Bacterial community profiles were obtained by next-generation sequencing of sediment deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Species response curves were used to identify several taxonomic groups with potential as biological indicators of metal impact. Spatial variation, sediment grain size, water depth, and dissolved oxygen also correlated with microbial population shifts. Seasonal variation was less important than geographic location. Metal-challenge culture trials supported the identification of metal-resistant and -sensitive taxa. In situ Archaea and Bacteria are potentially sensitive indicators for changes in bioavailable concentrations of metals; however, the complexity of the system suggests it is important to identify metal-specific functional genes that may be informed by these sequencing surveys, and thus provide a useful addition to identity-based assays.

  2. Arboviral diseases and malaria in Australia, 2008-09: annual report of the National Arbovirus and Malaria Advisory Committee.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons, Gerard J; Wright, Phil; Johansen, Cheryl A; Whelan, Peter I

    2010-09-01

    The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received 8,677 notifications of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes in Australia from 1 July 2008 to 30 June 2009. The alphaviruses, Barmah Forest and Ross River, accounted for 6,574 (78%) of these notifications during 2008-09. There were 1,009 notifications of dengue virus infection locally-acquired in North Queensland and 484 notified cases resulted from overseas travel. Notification rates of dengue virus infection for 2008-09, regardless of where infection was acquired, exceeded the five-year mean rate and may be attributed to increased disease activity in the Asia-Pacific region. North Queensland was the site of several outbreaks of locally-acquired dengue virus infection involving all 4 serotypes. These dengue outbreaks affected several locations with over 1,000 notifications. Detection of flavivirus seroconversions in sentinel chicken flocks across Australia provides an early warning of increased levels of Murray Valley encephalitis virus and Kunjin virus activity. Increased levels of flavivirus activity were detected in western and northern Australia, which prompted public health action. This action preceded 4 notifications of Murray Valley encephalitis infections, 2 (fatal) cases acquired in the Northern Territory and two in Western Australia. There were no notifications of locally-acquired malaria in Australia and 567 notifications of overseas-acquired malaria during 2008-09. This annual report presents information of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes in Australia and notified to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. PMID:21090179

  3. National Report on Schooling in Australia, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Education Council, Melbourne.

    This report provides information about the schooling of over three million students in approximately 10,000 schools in Australia's eight states and territories during 1991. Chapter 1 describes the Australian Education Council and offers a national overview of schooling in Australia including the structure of schooling and how to achieve and…

  4. Spatial patterns of sub-tidal seagrasses and their tissue nutrients in the Torres Strait, northern Australia: Implications for management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, James K.; Carter, Alex B.; McKenzie, Len J.; Pitcher, C. Roland; Coles, Robert G.

    2008-09-01

    The distribution and nutritional profiles of sub-tidal seagrasses from the Torres Strait were surveyed and mapped across an area of 31,000 km 2. Benthic sediment composition, water depth, seagrass species type and nutrients were sampled at 168 points selected in a stratified representative pattern. Eleven species of seagrass were present at 56 (33.3%) of the sample points. Halophila spinulosa, Halophila ovalis, Cymodocea serrulata and Syringodium isoetifolium were the most common species and these were nutrient profiled. Sub-tidal seagrass distribution (and associated seagrass nutrient concentrations) was generally confined to northern-central and south-western regions of the survey area (

  5. Pockmark development in the Petrel Sub-basin, Timor Sea, Northern Australia: Seabed habitat mapping in support of CO2 storage assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, W. A.; Nichol, S. L.; Howard, F. J. F.; Picard, K.; Dulfer, H.; Radke, L. C.; Carroll, A. G.; Tran, M.; Siwabessy, P. J. W.

    2014-07-01

    The extent to which fluids may leak from sedimentary basins to the seabed is a critical issue for assessing the potential of a basin for carbon capture and storage. The Petrel Sub-basin, located beneath central and eastern Joseph Bonaparte Gulf in tropical northern Australia, was identified as potentially suitable for the geological storage of CO2 because of its geological characteristics and proximity to offshore gas and petroleum resources. In May 2012, a multidisciplinary marine survey (SOL5463) was undertaken to collect data in two targeted areas of the Petrel Sub-basin to facilitate an assessment of its CO2 storage potential. This paper focuses on Area 1 of that survey, a 471 km2 area of sediment-starved shelf (water depths of 78 to 102 m), characterised by low-gradient plains, low-lying ridges, palaeo-channels and shallow pockmarks. Three pockmark types are recognised: small shallow unit pockmarks 10-20 m in diameter (generally <1 m, rarely to 2 m deep), composite pockmarks of 150-300 m diameter formed from the co-location of several cross-cutting pockmarks forming a broad shallow depression (<1 m deep), and pockmark clusters comprised of shallow unit pockmarks co-located side by side (150-300 m width overall, <1 m deep). Pockmark distribution is non-random, focused within and adjacent to palaeo-channels, with pockmark clusters also located adjacent to ridges. Pockmark formation is constrained by AMS 14C dating of in situ mangrove deposits and shells to have begun after 15.5 cal ka BP when a rapid marine transgression of Bonaparte Shelf associated with meltwater pulse 1A drowned coastal mangrove environments. Pockmark development is likely an ongoing process driven by fluid seepage at the seabed, and sourced from CO2 produced in the shallow sub-surface (<2 m) sediment. No evidence for direct connection to deeper features was observed.

  6. New tissue-dwelling species of Philometra Costa, 1845 and Philometroides Yamaguti, 1935 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P

    2016-09-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, three new species of philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from females collected in marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia: Philometra gracilis n. sp. and Philometroides branchiarum n. sp. from tissues behind the gills and gill arches, respectively, of the John's snapper Lutjanus johnii (Bloch) (Lutjanidae), and Philometroides stomachicus n. sp. from the stomach wall of the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Lacépède) (Sciaenidae). Philometra gracilis differs from other congeners described from the Lutjanidae mainly in the presence of large caudal projections, short gravid females (28-42 mm long), the oesophageal gland extending anteriorly far anterior to the level of the nerve-ring, the site in the host and its geographical distribution. Philometroides branchiarum is mainly characterised by the possession of conspicuous, sclerotised oesophageal teeth and very short gravid females (6-8 mm long), whereas P. stomachicus can be differentiated by the body length of gravid females (85-90 mm), the length of the oesophagus (2.67 mm) representing 3% of the body length, the maximum width/body length ratio of gravid females (1:28-32), cuticular bosses densely distributed throughout the body but absent from the oesophageal region, the absence of oesophageal teeth and caudal projections, and the site in the host. The presence of P. gracilis and P. branchiarum in L. johnii and that of P. stomachicus in P. diacanthus confirm the possibility of the coexistence of more philometrid species in different sites within sympatric specimens of one and the same definitive host. PMID:27522363

  7. New tissue-dwelling species of Philometra Costa, 1845 and Philometroides Yamaguti, 1935 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P

    2016-09-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, three new species of philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from females collected in marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia: Philometra gracilis n. sp. and Philometroides branchiarum n. sp. from tissues behind the gills and gill arches, respectively, of the John's snapper Lutjanus johnii (Bloch) (Lutjanidae), and Philometroides stomachicus n. sp. from the stomach wall of the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Lacépède) (Sciaenidae). Philometra gracilis differs from other congeners described from the Lutjanidae mainly in the presence of large caudal projections, short gravid females (28-42 mm long), the oesophageal gland extending anteriorly far anterior to the level of the nerve-ring, the site in the host and its geographical distribution. Philometroides branchiarum is mainly characterised by the possession of conspicuous, sclerotised oesophageal teeth and very short gravid females (6-8 mm long), whereas P. stomachicus can be differentiated by the body length of gravid females (85-90 mm), the length of the oesophagus (2.67 mm) representing 3% of the body length, the maximum width/body length ratio of gravid females (1:28-32), cuticular bosses densely distributed throughout the body but absent from the oesophageal region, the absence of oesophageal teeth and caudal projections, and the site in the host. The presence of P. gracilis and P. branchiarum in L. johnii and that of P. stomachicus in P. diacanthus confirm the possibility of the coexistence of more philometrid species in different sites within sympatric specimens of one and the same definitive host.

  8. N2O, NO, N2, and CO2 emissions from tropical savanna and grassland of Northern Australia: an incubation experiment with intact soil cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, C.; Reiser, K.; Dannenmann, M.; Hutley, L. B.; Jacobeit, J.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-06-01

    Strong seasonal variability of hygric and thermal soil conditions are a defining environmental feature in Northern Australia. However, how such changes affect the soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO) and dinitrogen (N2) is still not well explored. By incubating intact soil cores from four sites (3 savanna, 1 pasture) under controlled soil temperatures (ST) and soil moisture (SM) we investigated the release of the trace gas fluxes of N2O, NO and carbon dioxide (CO2). Furthermore, the release of N2 due to denitrification was measured using the helium gas flow soil core technique. Under dry pre-incubation conditions NO and N2O emission were very low (<7.0 ± 5.0 μg NO-N m-2 h-1; <0.0 ± 1.4 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1) or in case of N2O, even a net soil uptake was observed. Substantial NO (max: 306.5 μg N m-2 h-1) and relatively small N2O pulse emissions (max: 5.8 ± 5.0 μg N m-2 h-1) were recorded following soil wetting, but these pulses were short-lived, lasting only up to 3 days. The total atmospheric loss of nitrogen was dominated by N2 emissions (82.4-99.3% of total N lost), although NO emissions contributed almost 43.2% at 50% SM and 30 °C ST. N2O emissions were systematically higher for 3 of 12 sample locations, which indicates substantial spatial variability at site level, but on average soils acted as weak N2O sources or even sinks. Emissions were controlled by SM and ST for N2O and CO2, ST and pH for NO, and SM and pH for N2.

  9. Description of a new species of Tomiyamichthys from Australia with a discussion of the generic name.

    PubMed

    Hoese, Douglass F; Shibukawa, Kochi; Johnson, Jeffrey W

    2016-01-01

    Tomiyamichthys levisquama is described as a new species from the Northern Territory and Queensland, Australia from estuaries and soft bottom marine environments. It is distinctive in body and head shape, head coloration and by the absence of ctenoid scales on the body. It is compared with the related species Tomiyamichthys russus (Cantor 1849), which has ctenoid scales on the posterior part of the body. The validity of the name Tomiyamichthys over Flabelligobius is discussed, with both genera being described in the same paper, here accepting Tomiyamichthys as the appropriate name. PMID:27394210

  10. Assessing the impacts of climate change and dams on floodplain inundation and wetland connectivity in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Fazlul; Dutta, Dushmanta; Marvanek, Steve; Petheram, Cuan; Ticehurst, Catherine; Lerat, Julien; Kim, Shaun; Yang, Ang

    2015-03-01

    Floodplain wetlands and their hydrological connectivity with main river channels in the Australian wet-dry tropics are under increasing pressure from global climate change and water resource development, and there is a need for modelling tools to estimate the time dynamics of connectivity. This paper describes an integrated modelling framework combining conceptual rainfall-runoff modelling, river system modelling and hydrodynamic (HD) modelling to estimate hydrological connectivity between wetlands and rivers in the Flinders and Gilbert river catchments in northern Australia. Three historical flood events ranging from a mean annual flood to a 35-year return period flood were investigated using a two dimensional HD model (MIKE 21). Inflows from upstream catchments were estimated using a river network model. Local runoff within the HD modelling domain was simulated using the Sacramento rainfall-runoff model. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) derived 30 m DEM was used to reproduce floodplain topography, stream networks and wetlands in the HD model. The HD model was calibrated using stream gauge data and inundation maps derived from satellite (MODIS: MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) imagery. An algorithm was developed to combine the simulated water heights with the DEM to quantify inundation and flow connection between wetlands and rivers. The connectivity of 18 ecologically important wetlands on the Flinders floodplain and 7 on the Gilbert floodplain were quantified. The impacts of climate change and water resource development on connectivity to individual wetlands were assessed under a projected dry climate (2nd driest of 15 GCMs), wet climate (2nd wettest of 15 GCMs) and dam conditions. The results indicate that changes in rainfall under a wetter and drier future climate could have large impacts on area, duration and frequency of inundation and connectivity. Topographic relief, river bank elevation and flood magnitude were found to be the key

  11. Morphologies and depositional/erosional controls on evolution of Pliocene-Pleistocene carbonate platforms: Northern Carnarvon Basin, Northwest Shelf of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goktas, P.; Austin, J. A.; Fulthorpe, C. S.; Gallagher, S. J.

    2016-08-01

    The detailed morphologies, evolution and termination of latest Neogene tropical carbonate platforms in the Northern Carnarvon Basin (NCB), on the passive margin of the Northwest Shelf (NWS) of Australia, defined based upon mapping using 3D seismic images, reveal the history of local/regional oceanographic processes, fluctuations in relative sea-level and changing climate. Cool-water carbonate deposition, dominant during the early-middle Miocene, was followed by a siliciclastic influx, which prograded across the NWS beginning in the late-middle Miocene, during a period of long-term global sea-level fall. The resulting prograding clinoform sets, interpreted as delta lobes, created relict topographic highs following Pliocene termination of the siliciclastic influx. These highs constituted multiple favorable shallow-water environments for subsequent photozoan carbonate production. Resultant platform carbonate development, in addition to being a response to cessation of siliciclastic influx and the existence of suitable shallow-water substrate, was also influenced by development of the warm-water Leeuwin Current (LC), flowing southwestward along this margin. Four flat-topped platforms are mapped; each platform top is a sequence boundary defined by reflection onlap above and truncation below. Successive platforms migrated southwestward through time, along margin strike. All platforms exhibit predominantly progradational seismic geometries. Mapped tops are ≥10 km wide. Seismic evidence of karst on three of four platform tops, e.g., v-shaped troughs up to 50 m deep and ~1 km wide, and broader basins with areas up to 20 km2, suggests episodic subaerial exposure that may have contributed to platform demise. Platform 4, the most recent, is unique in having interpreted biohermal build-ups superimposed on the progradational platform base. The base of these interpreted patch reefs now lies at a water depth of ~153 m; therefore, we suggest that these reefs developed post

  12. Recovery of fish communities in the Finniss River, northern Australia, following remediation of the Rum Jungle uranium/copper mine site.

    PubMed

    Jeffree, R A; Twining, J R; Thomson, J

    2001-07-15

    The Finniss River in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia has received acid rock drainage (ARD) contaminants from the Rum Jungle uranium/copper mine site over more than four decades. Annual-cycle loads of Cu, Zn, Mn, and sulfate, calculated from daily water and flow measurements, have been determined both prior to and following mine-site remediation, that began in the early 1980s. The effects of varying contaminant loads on the relative abundances of seven fish species, sampled by enmeshing nets during dry seasons, were determined by nonmetric multidimensional scaling (nMDS), in combination with cluster-analysis and other nonparametric statistical techniques. These analyses showed that (i) prior to remediation, the impacted region of the Finniss River in 1974 had significantly dissimilar (P < 0.001) and more heterogeneous fish communities, generally characterized by reduced diversity and abundance, compared to sites unexposed to elevated contaminant water concentrations and (ii) postremediation, recovery in fish communities from the impacted region was indicated because they were not significantly dissimilar from those sampled at contemporary (P = 0.16) unimpacted sites, that were also similar to preremedial unimpacted sites. Even though considerable contaminant loads are still being delivered to the impacted region of the Finniss River over the annual cycle, the recovery in fish diversity and abundances is consistent with (a) reductions of in situ contaminant water concentrations at the time of fish sampling, (b) reductions in annual-cycle contaminant loads of sulfate, Cu, Zn, and Mn by factors of 3-7, (c) greatly reduced frequencies of occurrence and magnitude of elevated contaminant water concentrations over the annual cycle, that was most pronounced for Cu, and (d) the absence of extensive fish-kills during the first-flushes of contaminants into the Finniss river proper at the beginning of the wet season, that were observed prior to remediation. As such

  13. Plectorhinchus caeruleonothus, a new species of sweetlips (Perciformes:
    Haemulidae) from northern Australia and the resurrection of P. unicolor (Macleay, 1883), species previously confused with P. schotaf (Forsskål, 1775).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey W; Wilmer, Jessica Worthington

    2015-01-01

    Two distinct haemulid fishes from Australia and the Indo-Australian Archipelago respectively have long been confused with Plectorhinchus schotaf (Forsskål, 1775). Plectorhinchus caeruleonothus sp. nov. is described from 17 specimens collected off western and far northern Australia, between the Monte Bello Islands, Western Australia and Torres Strait, Queensland. It has also been confirmed outside this range by photographs taken at Ningaloo Reef and Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia, and at Claremont Isles and Lizard Island, Queensland. The new species is unique among the genus in having a combination of dorsal-fin rays XII, 18-20, lateral-line scales 56-61, gill rakers 7-9 on the upper limb and 18-20 on the lower limb of the first arch, nostrils minute, and fresh colouration in adults including body uniformly grey, cheek, opercles and posterior margin of the opercular membrane uniformly blue-grey, and rim of orbit and upper edge of maxilla dusky yellow. In contrast to its closest congeners, the juveniles have a distinctive pattern of narrow creamish-white to pale grey stripes on a dark grey to chocolate brown background on the head and body, and oblique dark stripes progressing with growth to spots on the caudal fin. Plectorhinchus unicolor (Macleay, 1883) from Japan to northern Australia is resurrected from the synonomy of P. schotaf and redescribed on the basis of the holotype and 24 non-type specimens. Plectorhinchus unicolor is most similar to P. schotaf, but can be distinguished by fresh colouration, modal dorsal and pectoral-fin ray counts and DNA barcoding. Plectorhinchus schotaf appears to be restricted to the region from southeast Africa to the Arabian Sea, including the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Plectorhinchus griseus (Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830) from Indian and Sri Lankan Seas has previously been treated as a junior synonym of P. schotaf, but in accordance with Smith (1962), is here confirmed as a valid species, readily distinguished from the

  14. The outstation model of rehabilitation as practiced in Central Australia: the case for its recognition and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Gillian; Ray, Tristan; McFarland, Blair

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the model of care provided by the Ilpurla remote outstation rehabilitation program in Australia's Northern Territory. Reflections are offered about the cultural antecedents of the model, and how it addresses the needs of young Indigenous people. Data describing client numbers, length of stay, the underlying approach to rehabilitation, and the practices of the program are presented. The paper aims to promote an understanding of the outstation model of care, highlight difficulties between programs and their funding sources, and encourages recognition of its importance in the response to drug and alcohol use-related problems among Indigenous people.

  15. Australia's national mental health policy.

    PubMed

    Whiteford, H A

    1993-10-01

    In April 1992 the health ministers of all Australian states, territories, and the federal government endorsed Australia's first National Mental Health Policy. The major principles outlined in the policy include protecting consumers' rights, setting national service standards, mainstreaming mental health services with general health services, better integrating inpatient and community mental health services to ensure continuity of care, and linking mental health services and other social and disability services. A five-year National Mental Health Plan, accompanied by additional federal funding, has also been released, with time frames for implementing the policy in all states and territories and at the federal level. PMID:8225277

  16. Multiple sclerosis disease modifying medicine utilisation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hollingworth, Samantha; Walker, Kimitra; Page, Andrew; Eadie, Mervyn

    2014-12-01

    With the introduction of new disease modifying medicines (DMM) for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in Australia, we aimed to examine trends in utilisation from 1996 to 2013. We analysed trends in use by administrative area (state/territory). Prescription data from Medicare Australia were converted to defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 population/day using population data. Overall RRMS DMM use increased progressively from 0.024 to 0.68 DDD/1000 population/day between 1996 and 2013. From 1996 to 1999 interferon β1B was the only such agent available. Interferon β1A became the most widely used RRMS DMM in 2001. Glatiramer acetate became available in 2004 and its use thereafter increased slowly. Natalizumab was introduced in 2008 with slow growth and fingolimod use grew substantially once it was subsidised in 2011. Both these medicines have accounted for the growth in total use of RRMS DMM in 2012 and 2013. Overall RRMS DMM use was higher in more southern states than in northern states. Patterns of preferred agent varied between different Australian states and territories. RRMS DMM use in Australia has grown progressively since 1996, probably related to growing medical and patient confidence in the benefits obtained from using such drugs, longer survival in MS patients (partly related to use of drug treatments), and easier recognition of MS with the wider availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The availability of fingolimod, the first DMM that can be taken by mouth, may have led RRMS patients who rejected parenteral therapy to commence treatment of their disease.

  17. Multiple sclerosis disease modifying medicine utilisation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hollingworth, Samantha; Walker, Kimitra; Page, Andrew; Eadie, Mervyn

    2014-12-01

    With the introduction of new disease modifying medicines (DMM) for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) in Australia, we aimed to examine trends in utilisation from 1996 to 2013. We analysed trends in use by administrative area (state/territory). Prescription data from Medicare Australia were converted to defined daily doses (DDD)/1000 population/day using population data. Overall RRMS DMM use increased progressively from 0.024 to 0.68 DDD/1000 population/day between 1996 and 2013. From 1996 to 1999 interferon β1B was the only such agent available. Interferon β1A became the most widely used RRMS DMM in 2001. Glatiramer acetate became available in 2004 and its use thereafter increased slowly. Natalizumab was introduced in 2008 with slow growth and fingolimod use grew substantially once it was subsidised in 2011. Both these medicines have accounted for the growth in total use of RRMS DMM in 2012 and 2013. Overall RRMS DMM use was higher in more southern states than in northern states. Patterns of preferred agent varied between different Australian states and territories. RRMS DMM use in Australia has grown progressively since 1996, probably related to growing medical and patient confidence in the benefits obtained from using such drugs, longer survival in MS patients (partly related to use of drug treatments), and easier recognition of MS with the wider availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The availability of fingolimod, the first DMM that can be taken by mouth, may have led RRMS patients who rejected parenteral therapy to commence treatment of their disease. PMID:25194821

  18. New reports of Australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Australian macropods.

    PubMed

    Dougall, A; Shilton, C; Low Choy, J; Alexander, B; Walton, S

    2009-10-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by various species of Leishmania is a significant zoonotic disease in many parts of the world. We describe the first cases of Australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in eight northern wallaroos, one black wallaroo and two agile wallabies from the Northern Territory of Australia. Diagnosis was made through a combination of gross appearance of lesions, cytology, histology, direct culture, serology and a species-specific real-time PCR. The causative organism was found to be the same unique species of Leishmania previously identified in red kangaroos. These clinical findings provide further evidence for the continuous transmission of the Australian Leishmania species and its presence highlights the importance of continued monitoring and research into the life-cycle of this parasite. PMID:19288959

  19. New reports of Australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in Northern Australian macropods.

    PubMed

    Dougall, A; Shilton, C; Low Choy, J; Alexander, B; Walton, S

    2009-10-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by various species of Leishmania is a significant zoonotic disease in many parts of the world. We describe the first cases of Australian cutaneous leishmaniasis in eight northern wallaroos, one black wallaroo and two agile wallabies from the Northern Territory of Australia. Diagnosis was made through a combination of gross appearance of lesions, cytology, histology, direct culture, serology and a species-specific real-time PCR. The causative organism was found to be the same unique species of Leishmania previously identified in red kangaroos. These clinical findings provide further evidence for the continuous transmission of the Australian Leishmania species and its presence highlights the importance of continued monitoring and research into the life-cycle of this parasite.

  20. Predictors of suicides occurring within suicide clusters in Australia, 2004-2008.

    PubMed

    Derek Cheung, Yee Tak; Spittal, Matthew J; Williamson, Michelle Kate; Tung, Sui Jay; Pirkis, Jane

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have investigated the presence of suicide clusters, but few have sought to identify risk and protective factors of a suicide occurring within a cluster. We aimed to identify socio-demographic and contextual characteristics of suicide clusters from national and regional analyses of suicide clusters. We searched the National Coroners Information System for all suicides in Australia from 2004 to 2008. Scan statistics were initially used to identify those deaths occurring within a spatial-temporal suicide cluster during the period. We then used logistic regression and generalized estimation equations to estimate the odds of each suicide occurring within a cluster differed by sex, age, marital status, employment status, Indigenous status, method of suicide and location. We identified 258 suicides out of 10,176 suicides during the period that we classified as being within a suicide cluster. When the deceased was Indigenous, living outside a capital city, or living in the northern part of Australia (in particular, Northern Territory, Queensland and Western Australia) then there was an increased likelihood of their death occurring within a suicide cluster. These findings suggest that suicide clustering might be linked with geographical and Indigenous factors, which supported sociological explanations of suicide clustering. This finding is significant for justifying resource allocation for tackling suicide clustering in particular areas.

  1. Predictors of suicides occurring within suicide clusters in Australia, 2004-2008.

    PubMed

    Derek Cheung, Yee Tak; Spittal, Matthew J; Williamson, Michelle Kate; Tung, Sui Jay; Pirkis, Jane

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have investigated the presence of suicide clusters, but few have sought to identify risk and protective factors of a suicide occurring within a cluster. We aimed to identify socio-demographic and contextual characteristics of suicide clusters from national and regional analyses of suicide clusters. We searched the National Coroners Information System for all suicides in Australia from 2004 to 2008. Scan statistics were initially used to identify those deaths occurring within a spatial-temporal suicide cluster during the period. We then used logistic regression and generalized estimation equations to estimate the odds of each suicide occurring within a cluster differed by sex, age, marital status, employment status, Indigenous status, method of suicide and location. We identified 258 suicides out of 10,176 suicides during the period that we classified as being within a suicide cluster. When the deceased was Indigenous, living outside a capital city, or living in the northern part of Australia (in particular, Northern Territory, Queensland and Western Australia) then there was an increased likelihood of their death occurring within a suicide cluster. These findings suggest that suicide clustering might be linked with geographical and Indigenous factors, which supported sociological explanations of suicide clustering. This finding is significant for justifying resource allocation for tackling suicide clustering in particular areas. PMID:25112568

  2. Total Solar Eclipse Australia - Nov. 13, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Nov. 13, 2012, a narrow corridor in the southern hemisphere experienced a total solar eclipse. The corridor lay mostly over the ocean but also cut across the northern tip of Australia where both...

  3. Diversity and Progress in School Accountability Systems in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurr, David

    2007-01-01

    School education in Australia is a complex interplay between federal and state governments, and between government and non-government schools. This article explores the supervision of schools in Australia through school accountability systems. Utilising publicly available documents a systematic analysis of the state and territory systems for…

  4. Inclusive Education in Australia Ten Years after Salamanca

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forlin, Chris

    2006-01-01

    While many states and territories in Australia were initially a little slow to develop a strong momentum towards inclusive educational practices, this has been addressed quite dramatically in the past ten years. Acknowledging that each jurisdiction in Australia has its own department of education and determines its own educational directions this…

  5. Privatizing Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, M.T.

    1995-07-01

    The sun is setting on Australia`s long tradition of state involvement in business. As part of efforts begun in the late-1980`s to stem the tide of debt rising within Australian federal and state treasuries, government-owned entities are being corporatized and privatized, and private companies are sponsoring a large share of the country`s new infrastructure projects.

  6. Indigenous community-based fisheries in Australia.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jennifer; Hill, Greg

    2007-12-01

    The commercial sea cucumber species known as Sandfish (Holothuria scabra) occurs intertidally and subtidally in the Northern Territory of Australia, on or adjacent to Aboriginal land. A 4-yr program of community-based fisheries research with Aboriginal Australians was implemented to assess the viability of indigenous Australians' involvement in the wild-stock fishery. The research involved extensive and intensive indigenous participation, unusual in Australian biophysical sciences research, during field survey and habitat mapping, complemented by commercial catch data modelling and discussion of its implications. Field surveys produced Sandfish distribution and site-specific density, and revealed some areas that were not commercially fished. Catch data modelling results suggested that no additional effort could be sustained, however commercial fishers increased their effort, expanding their operations into the newly mapped areas. These actions effectively precluded indigenous peoples' aspirations of entry into the commercial fishery. The efficacy and outcomes of participatory program design with indigenous Australians need critique in the absence of the political will and statutory backing to provide equitable access to resources.

  7. Improving the Quality of Teaching in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinham, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Australia needs to more effectively attract, train, support, retain, recognize, and reward quality teachers throughout their careers. After a slow start and decades of debate, the pieces of the quality teaching puzzle are now coming together. Increased federal government intervention and financial support, along with state and territorial support…

  8. Developing a National Geography Curriculum for Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maude, Alaric Mervyn

    2014-01-01

    Australia is in the process of implementing a national geography curriculum to replace the separate state and territory curriculums. The paper describes the process of curriculum development, and identifies the different groups that were involved. These included the board and staff of the national curriculum authority, geography teachers across…

  9. Novel measles virus genotype, East Timor and Australia.

    PubMed

    Chibo, Doris; Riddell, Michaela; Catton, Michael; Birch, Christopher

    2002-07-01

    Measles outbreaks in 1999 in Queensland and Victoria, Australia, were caused by a novel strain of clade G virus (proposed name g3). Epidemiologic and molecular evidence supports independent circulation of this virus in Queensland, northern Australia, in addition to importation of the virus by East Timor refugees seeking safe haven in Australia. PMID:12095446

  10. A review of factors that impact on the capacity of beef cattle females to conceive, maintain a pregnancy and wean a calf-Implications for reproductive efficiency in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Burns, B M; Fordyce, G; Holroyd, R G

    2010-10-01

    A review of factors that may impact on the capacity of beef cattle females, grazing semi-extensive to extensive pastures in northern Australia, to conceive, maintain a pregnancy and wean a calf was conducted. Pregnancy and weaning rates have generally been used to measure the reproductive performance of herds. However, this review recognises that reproductive efficiency and the general measures associated with it more effectively describe the economic performance of beef cattle enterprises. More specifically, reproductive efficiency is influenced by (1) pregnancy rate which is influenced by (i) age at puberty; (ii) duration of post-partum anoestrus; (iii) fertilisation failure and (iv) embryo survival; while (2) weight by number of calves per breeding female retained for mating is influenced by (i) cow survival; (ii) foetal survival; and (iii) calf survival; and (3) overall lifetime calf weight weaned per mating. These measures of reproductive efficiency are discussed in depth. Further, a range of infectious and non-infectious factors, namely, environmental, physiological, breed and genetic factors and their impact on these stages of the reproductive cycle are investigated and implications for the northern Australian beef industry are discussed. Finally, conclusions and recommendations to minimise reproductive inefficiencies based on current knowledge are presented.

  11. Removal of Fecal Indicators, Pathogenic Bacteria, Adenovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in Waste Stabilization Ponds in Northern and Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Sheludchenko, Maxim; Padovan, Anna; Katouli, Mohammad; Stratton, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Maturation ponds are used in rural and regional areas in Australia to remove the microbial loads of sewage wastewater, however, they have not been studied intensively until present. Using a combination of culture-based methods and quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed microbial removal rates in maturation ponds at four waste stabilization ponds (WSP) with (n = 1) and without (n = 3) baffles in rural and remote communities in Australia. Concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., F+ RNA coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia (oo) cysts in maturation ponds were measured at the inlet and outlet. Only the baffled pond demonstrated a significant removal of most of the pathogens tested and therefore was subjected to further study by analyzing E. coli and enterococci concentrations at six points along the baffles over five sampling rounds. Using culture-based methods, we found a decrease in the number of E. coli and enterococci from the initial values of 100,000 CFU per 100 mL in the inlet samples to approximately 1000 CFU per 100 mL in the outlet samples for both bacterial groups. Giardia cysts removal was relatively higher than fecal indicators reduction possibly due to sedimentation. PMID:26729150

  12. Tectonic events, sequence stratigraphy and prediction of petroleum play elements in the Cretaceous and Tertiary of the northern Carnarvon Basin, north west shelf, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Romine, K.K.; Durrant, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    The Carnarvon Basin is one of Australia`s most prolific oil and gas provinces. A recent Paleocene discovery has initiated a shift in exploration interest from traditional Jurassic/Triassic plays to the younger Cretaceous and Tertiary section. To improve play element prediction, a sequence stratigraphic study has been completed, utilizing newly acquired, regional high-resolution seismic data and 80 wells. The occurrence and distribution of the key play elements, reservoir, source and seal, is controlled by the interaction of tectonic subsidence, eustasy and paleogeography, with traps and migration pathways set up and modified by regional tectonic events. For example, a major rifting event commenced in the latest Kimmeridgian-Tithonian that resulted in structuring of older Jurassic sediments and initiation of seafloor spreading in the adjacent Cuvier-Gascoyne Abyssal Plain in the Valanginian. This event was accompanied by a dramatic fall in eustasy that initiated the deposition of high-quality reservoir sandstones of the Tithonian-Valanginian age Barrow Delta. The post-rift phase of thermal cooling and rapid subsidence resulted in transgression, accompanied by deposition of backstepping parasequences of the Mardie Greensand, a potential thief zone and reservoir, and culminated in maximum transgression and deposition of seal and source facies of the Muclerong Shale. The improved sequence stratigraphic framework established in this study provides a predictive tool for the development and assessment of new plays.

  13. Removal of Fecal Indicators, Pathogenic Bacteria, Adenovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in Waste Stabilization Ponds in Northern and Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Sheludchenko, Maxim; Padovan, Anna; Katouli, Mohammad; Stratton, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Maturation ponds are used in rural and regional areas in Australia to remove the microbial loads of sewage wastewater, however, they have not been studied intensively until present. Using a combination of culture-based methods and quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed microbial removal rates in maturation ponds at four waste stabilization ponds (WSP) with (n = 1) and without (n = 3) baffles in rural and remote communities in Australia. Concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., F+ RNA coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia (oo) cysts in maturation ponds were measured at the inlet and outlet. Only the baffled pond demonstrated a significant removal of most of the pathogens tested and therefore was subjected to further study by analyzing E. coli and enterococci concentrations at six points along the baffles over five sampling rounds. Using culture-based methods, we found a decrease in the number of E. coli and enterococci from the initial values of 100,000 CFU per 100 mL in the inlet samples to approximately 1000 CFU per 100 mL in the outlet samples for both bacterial groups. Giardia cysts removal was relatively higher than fecal indicators reduction possibly due to sedimentation. PMID:26729150

  14. Removal of Fecal Indicators, Pathogenic Bacteria, Adenovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in Waste Stabilization Ponds in Northern and Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Sheludchenko, Maxim; Padovan, Anna; Katouli, Mohammad; Stratton, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Maturation ponds are used in rural and regional areas in Australia to remove the microbial loads of sewage wastewater, however, they have not been studied intensively until present. Using a combination of culture-based methods and quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed microbial removal rates in maturation ponds at four waste stabilization ponds (WSP) with (n = 1) and without (n = 3) baffles in rural and remote communities in Australia. Concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., F+ RNA coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia (oo) cysts in maturation ponds were measured at the inlet and outlet. Only the baffled pond demonstrated a significant removal of most of the pathogens tested and therefore was subjected to further study by analyzing E. coli and enterococci concentrations at six points along the baffles over five sampling rounds. Using culture-based methods, we found a decrease in the number of E. coli and enterococci from the initial values of 100,000 CFU per 100 mL in the inlet samples to approximately 1000 CFU per 100 mL in the outlet samples for both bacterial groups. Giardia cysts removal was relatively higher than fecal indicators reduction possibly due to sedimentation.

  15. Vectors vs. humans in Australia--who is on top down under? An update on vector-borne disease and research on vectors in Australia.

    PubMed

    Russell, R C

    1998-06-01

    Australia has a diversity of vectors and vector-borne human diseases. Mosquito-borne arboviruses are of greatest concern, but there are issues with other vector and pathogen systems. Mosquitoes were responsible for more than 35,000 cases of Ross River virus during 1991-1997. Barmah Forest virus is increasing nationwide, and unidentified bunyaviruses suspected of causing illness have been isolated. Cases of Murray Valley encephalitis have occurred in 14 of the past 20 years in northern Australia. Dengue is a continuing problem for northern Queensland, with various serotypes being active. Japanese encephalitis has appeared in the Torres Strait Islands and threatens mainland Australia. Although malaria is eradicated, almost 1,000 cases are imported annually and occasional cases of local transmission occur. With ticks, paralysis in children occurs annually in eastern Australia. Tick typhus (Queensland Tick Typhus--Rickettsia australis) occurs down the east coast, and (Flinders Island Spotted Fever--Rickettsia honei) in Bass Strait and probably Tasmania. Lyme disease is reported but its presence is controversial. Fleas were responsible for a recent outbreak of murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi) in Western Australia. Mites cause scrub typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi), and there was a recent fatality in the Northern Territory. Overall, resources for investigation and control of vector-borne disease have generally been meager. However, various avenues of basic and applied research have been pursued, and have included investigations into mosquito ecology, vector competence, disease epidemiology, and vector control. Disease surveillance programs vary between states, and mosquito control programs are organized and effective in only a few regions. There are concerns for import of vectors such as Aedes albopictus and export of pathogens such as Ross River virus; the former has occurred but the species has not become established, and the latter has occurred and has resulted in a

  16. Vectors vs. humans in Australia--who is on top down under? An update on vector-borne disease and research on vectors in Australia.

    PubMed

    Russell, R C

    1998-06-01

    Australia has a diversity of vectors and vector-borne human diseases. Mosquito-borne arboviruses are of greatest concern, but there are issues with other vector and pathogen systems. Mosquitoes were responsible for more than 35,000 cases of Ross River virus during 1991-1997. Barmah Forest virus is increasing nationwide, and unidentified bunyaviruses suspected of causing illness have been isolated. Cases of Murray Valley encephalitis have occurred in 14 of the past 20 years in northern Australia. Dengue is a continuing problem for northern Queensland, with various serotypes being active. Japanese encephalitis has appeared in the Torres Strait Islands and threatens mainland Australia. Although malaria is eradicated, almost 1,000 cases are imported annually and occasional cases of local transmission occur. With ticks, paralysis in children occurs annually in eastern Australia. Tick typhus (Queensland Tick Typhus--Rickettsia australis) occurs down the east coast, and (Flinders Island Spotted Fever--Rickettsia honei) in Bass Strait and probably Tasmania. Lyme disease is reported but its presence is controversial. Fleas were responsible for a recent outbreak of murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi) in Western Australia. Mites cause scrub typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi), and there was a recent fatality in the Northern Territory. Overall, resources for investigation and control of vector-borne disease have generally been meager. However, various avenues of basic and applied research have been pursued, and have included investigations into mosquito ecology, vector competence, disease epidemiology, and vector control. Disease surveillance programs vary between states, and mosquito control programs are organized and effective in only a few regions. There are concerns for import of vectors such as Aedes albopictus and export of pathogens such as Ross River virus; the former has occurred but the species has not become established, and the latter has occurred and has resulted in a

  17. FUSE - Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Australian Science Teachers Journal, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Announces the establishment of a division of FUSE in Australia, at Sturt College of Advanced Education, for the purpose of disseminating the concept of unified science and to facilitate the development of unified science programs. (BR)

  18. Revision of the water-holding frogs, Cyclorana platycephala (Anura: Hylidae), from arid Australia, including a description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Anstis, Marion; Price, Luke C; Roberts, J Dale; Catalano, Sarah R; Hines, Harry B; Doughty, Paul; Donnellan, Stephen C

    2016-01-01

    The water-holding frog, Cyclorana platycephala, occurs in the Australian arid and semi-arid zones but not in the central Australian deserts. Recent inspection of morphological variation in adults and larvae suggests that the taxon comprises three regional populations: eastern, northern and western that may each represent separate species. To assess the systematic status of these populations, we documented phylogenetic relationships using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers, divergence in adult and larval morphology and male advertisement call. Our molecular genetic data demonstrates that the western population of C. platycephala is not the sister taxon of eastern and northern representatives of this nominate species, as the latter two are more closely related to another morphologically distinct species, C. verrucosa. Discriminant Function Analysis of 14 morphological traits in adults and 15 in larvae showed a high degree of morphological differentiation of western versus eastern/northern C. platycephala. Calls of eastern and western populations differed in duration, pulse rate, frequency and especially in amplitude modulation pattern across the call duration. We describe the western population as a new species, whose range is contained entirely within Western Australia. In addition, we redescribe Cyclorana platycephala, quantify morphological and genetic differences between the eastern and northern populations, and conclude that these data support recognition of a single species, Cyclorana platycephala, for populations found in New South Wales, the Barkly Tablelands and south-eastern Northern Territory, Queensland and South Australia.

  19. Revision of the water-holding frogs, Cyclorana platycephala (Anura: Hylidae), from arid Australia, including a description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Anstis, Marion; Price, Luke C; Roberts, J Dale; Catalano, Sarah R; Hines, Harry B; Doughty, Paul; Donnellan, Stephen C

    2016-01-01

    The water-holding frog, Cyclorana platycephala, occurs in the Australian arid and semi-arid zones but not in the central Australian deserts. Recent inspection of morphological variation in adults and larvae suggests that the taxon comprises three regional populations: eastern, northern and western that may each represent separate species. To assess the systematic status of these populations, we documented phylogenetic relationships using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers, divergence in adult and larval morphology and male advertisement call. Our molecular genetic data demonstrates that the western population of C. platycephala is not the sister taxon of eastern and northern representatives of this nominate species, as the latter two are more closely related to another morphologically distinct species, C. verrucosa. Discriminant Function Analysis of 14 morphological traits in adults and 15 in larvae showed a high degree of morphological differentiation of western versus eastern/northern C. platycephala. Calls of eastern and western populations differed in duration, pulse rate, frequency and especially in amplitude modulation pattern across the call duration. We describe the western population as a new species, whose range is contained entirely within Western Australia. In addition, we redescribe Cyclorana platycephala, quantify morphological and genetic differences between the eastern and northern populations, and conclude that these data support recognition of a single species, Cyclorana platycephala, for populations found in New South Wales, the Barkly Tablelands and south-eastern Northern Territory, Queensland and South Australia. PMID:27395600

  20. Southeastern Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... the summer 2002-2003 fire season in Victoria, the Australian Capital Territory and southern New South Wales, is the largest since 1938-1939, ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees ...

  1. Twentieth century occurrence of the Long-Beaked Echidna Zaglossus bruijnii in the Kimberley region of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Helgen, Kristofer M.; Miguez, Roberto Portela; James L. Kohen;  Lauren E. Helgen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The monotreme genus Zaglossus, the largest egg-laying mammal, comprises several endangered taxa today known only from New Guinea. Zaglossus is considered to be extinct in Australia, where its apparent occurrence (in addition to the large echidna genus Megalibgwilia) is recorded by Pleistocene fossil remains, as well as from convincing representations in Aboriginal rock art from Arnhem Land (Northern Territory). Here we report on the existence and history of a well documented but previously overlooked museum specimen (skin and skull) of the Western Long-Beaked Echidna (Zaglossus bruijnii) collected by John T. Tunney at Mount Anderson in the West Kimberley region of northern Western Australia in 1901, now deposited in the Natural History Museum, London. Possible accounts from living memory of Zaglossus are provided by Aboriginal inhabitants from Kununurra in the East Kimberley. We conclude that, like Tachyglossus, Zaglossus is part of the modern fauna of the Kimberley region of Western Australia, where it apparently survived as a rare element into the twentieth century, and may still survive. PMID:23459668

  2. Twentieth century occurrence of the Long-Beaked Echidna Zaglossus bruijnii in the Kimberley region of Australia.

    PubMed

    Helgen, Kristofer M; Miguez, Roberto Portela; James L Kohen; Lauren E Helgen

    2012-01-01

    The monotreme genus Zaglossus, the largest egg-laying mammal, comprises several endangered taxa today known only from New Guinea. Zaglossus is considered to be extinct in Australia, where its apparent occurrence (in addition to the large echidna genus Megalibgwilia) is recorded by Pleistocene fossil remains, as well as from convincing representations in Aboriginal rock art from Arnhem Land (Northern Territory). Here we report on the existence and history of a well documented but previously overlooked museum specimen (skin and skull) of the Western Long-Beaked Echidna (Zaglossus bruijnii) collected by John T. Tunney at Mount Anderson in the West Kimberley region of northern Western Australia in 1901, now deposited in the Natural History Museum, London. Possible accounts from living memory of Zaglossus are provided by Aboriginal inhabitants from Kununurra in the East Kimberley. We conclude that, like Tachyglossus, Zaglossus is part of the modern fauna of the Kimberley region of Western Australia, where it apparently survived as a rare element into the twentieth century, and may still survive. PMID:23459668

  3. Tectonic events, sequence stratigraphy and prediction of petroleum play elements in the Cretaceous and Tertiary of the northern Carnarvon Basin, north west shelf, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Romine, K.K. ); Durrant, J.D. )

    1996-01-01

    The Carnarvon Basin is one of Australia's most prolific oil and gas provinces. A recent Paleocene discovery has initiated a shift in exploration interest from traditional Jurassic/Triassic plays to the younger Cretaceous and Tertiary section. To improve play element prediction, a sequence stratigraphic study has been completed, utilizing newly acquired, regional high-resolution seismic data and 80 wells. The occurrence and distribution of the key play elements, reservoir, source and seal, is controlled by the interaction of tectonic subsidence, eustasy and paleogeography, with traps and migration pathways set up and modified by regional tectonic events. For example, a major rifting event commenced in the latest Kimmeridgian-Tithonian that resulted in structuring of older Jurassic sediments and initiation of seafloor spreading in the adjacent Cuvier-Gascoyne Abyssal Plain in the Valanginian. This event was accompanied by a dramatic fall in eustasy that initiated the deposition of high-quality reservoir sandstones of the Tithonian-Valanginian age Barrow Delta. The post-rift phase of thermal cooling and rapid subsidence resulted in transgression, accompanied by deposition of backstepping parasequences of the Mardie Greensand, a potential thief zone and reservoir, and culminated in maximum transgression and deposition of seal and source facies of the Muclerong Shale. The improved sequence stratigraphic framework established in this study provides a predictive tool for the development and assessment of new plays.

  4. Territorial Decentration and Geographic Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltman, Joseph P.

    Territorial decentration is a question of major significance to geographic educators. This paper reports the findings of a research project designed to determine the territorial decentration of an American sample of children. The primary purpose of the research was to determine if Piaget's territorial decentration stages are appropriate for…

  5. Intestinal spirochaetes colonizing aborigines from communities in the remote north of Western Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J. I.; Hampson, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Intestinal spirochaetal bacteria were isolated from 59 of 181 (32.6%) faecal samples obtained from Aboriginal children and a few adults living in communities in the Kimberley region in the north of Western Australia. Colonization was more common in young Aborigines between 2 and 18 years of age than it was in adults, or in babies and children less than 2 years of age. Three of 22 Aboriginal children who were sampled on two consecutive years were colonized on both occasions. None of four other children were found to be consistently colonized with the bacteria when sampled on three sequential years, but three were positive on two consecutive visits and the other child was positive on the first and third sampling. Most Aboriginal children had abnormal or watery stools, and both abnormal and watery stool samples were significantly more likely to contain spirochaetes than were normal samples. However, it was not possible to prove that the spirochaetes were the cause of the diarrhoea. In contrast, spirochaetes were only recovered from 8 of 695 (1.2%) faecal samples that were obtained from other mainly non-Aboriginal children and adults in Western Australia or the Northern Territory of Australia, even though most of these individuals were suffering from gastrointestinal disturbances. PMID:1499667

  6. Damselfish territories as a refuge for macroalgae on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoey, A. S.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2010-03-01

    Herbivory is widely accepted as a key process determining the benthic community structure and resilience of coral reefs. Recent studies have mostly focused on the importance of roving herbivorous fishes in ecosystem processes. Here, we examine the role of territorial damselfish in shaping patterns of macroalgal distribution based on benthic surveys and macroalgal bioassays. The territory composition and effect of resident damselfish on the removal of Sargassum bioassays were quantified for six species of damselfish on Lizard Island, a mid-shelf reef in the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). The functional composition of algal communities within territories varied markedly among species. The territories of four species ( Dischistodus perspicillatus, Dischistodus pseudochrysopoecilus, Plectroglyphidodon lacrymatus, and Stegastes nigricans) were characterized by algal turfs, while the territories of two species ( Dischistodus prosopotaenia and Hemiglyphidodon plagiometopon) were characterized by foliose and leathery brown macroalgae. Sargassum, a generally rare alga on mid-shelf reefs, was a particularly common alga within D. prosopotaenia territories on the leeward side of the island but absent within their territories on the windward side of the island. D. prosopotaenia was the only species to retain the transplanted Sargassum, with only a minimal reduction in Sargassum biomass (1.1%) being recorded within their territories at both leeward and windward sites over a 24-h period. In contrast, reductions in Sargassum biomass were high in areas adjacent to D. prosopotaenia territories (83.8%), and within and adjacent to the territories of the five remaining damselfish species (76.2-92.5%). Overall, only one of the six damselfish species provided a refuge for leathery brown macroalgae and may facilitate the development of this macroalgae on mid-shelf reefs of the GBR.

  7. Territorial impact assessment: integrating territorial aspects in sectoral policies.

    PubMed

    Golobic, Mojca; Marot, Naja

    2011-08-01

    Territorial impact assessment has recently gained attention as a tool to improve the coherence of sector policies with territorial cohesion objectives. The paper presents a method for territorial impact assessment and the results of applying this method on Slovenian energy policy. A two phase approach first disaggregates the problem into a three-dimensional matrix, consisting of policy measures, territorial objectives and territorial units. The synthesis phase aggregates measures and objectives in physical, economic or socio-cultural groups and observes their interrelation through an input-output matrix. The results have shown that such a two level approach is required to obtain complete and useful information for policy developers. In contrast to the relatively favourable evaluation of individual measures on the first level of assessment, the synthesis has revealed substantial and systemic weaknesses: considerable imbalance of energy policy favouring territorial effectiveness and mainly neglecting territorial identity as well as its counterproductiveness in reducing regional disparities.

  8. No evidence of exposure to environmental estrogens in two feral fish species sampled from the Yarra River, Australia: A comparison with Northern Hemisphere studies.

    PubMed

    Hassell, Kathryn; Pettigrove, Vincent; Beresford, Nicola; Jobling, Susan; Kumar, Anu

    2016-09-01

    Environmental estrogens originate from a variety of sources including sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents and adverse physiological effects (endocrine disruption) have been observed in several fish species sampled downstream of STP discharges. In this study we examined common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and roach (Rutilis rutilis) for signs of exposure to environmental estrogens in the iconic Yarra River, Melbourne, Australia. The Yarra River flows through the city of Melbourne and more than 2 million people live within the catchment. Two STPs discharge water into the Yarra River within the middle reaches, and the areas immediately downstream of these discharge locations were the focus of this study. Carp and roach were chosen as test species since both have been utilised extensively for endocrine disruption research throughout Europe, North America and Asia, and data from various international studies was used for comparison with the results of the present study. Neither species showed evidence of exposure to environmental estrogens, with no elevation of plasma vitellogenin levels in males and no incidence of intersex gonads. Most physiological endpoints in both species from this study were within ranges reported in carp and roach from reference sites in other studies, however some degenerative histological changes in both male and female gonads were observed. Surface water samples showed no estrogenic activity (measured by the yeast-estrogen screen, YES), but did display strong anti-estrogenic and weak androgenic activity (measured by the yeast-androgen screen, YAS). Whilst the results show no evidence of impacts from environmental estrogens in the Yarra River, the presence of both anti-estrogenic and androgenic activity in water samples, as well as some gonadal changes in carp is concerning and indicates that our focus needs to broaden, in order to look for biological impacts in resident fauna that might be due to environmental pollutants other than environmental

  9. New functionally dioecious bush tomato from northwestern Australia, Solanum ossicruentum, may utilize "trample burr" dispersal.

    PubMed

    Martine, Christopher T; Cantley, Jason T; Frawley, Emma S; Butler, Alice R; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E

    2016-01-01

    A new Australian species of functionally dioecious bush tomato of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum ossicruentum Martine & J.Cantley, sp. nov., is thought to be allied with members of the problematic "Dioicum Complex" lineage, but differs in its short silvery indumentum, long calyx lobes, larger stature, and an unusual fruit morphology that may represent "trample burr" seed dispersal. The species occurs in a range extending from the eastern Kimberley in Western Australia to far northwestern Northern Territory and has been recognized for decades as a variant of Solanum dioicum W.Fitzg. Specimens of this species were previously referred to by D.E. Symon and others as Solanum dioicum 'Tanami.' Ex situ crossing studies and SEM images of inaperturate pollen grains produced in morphologically hermaphrodite flowers indicate that this taxon is functionally dioecious. The scientific name was chosen with the help of 150 seventh grade life science students from Pennsylvania, USA. PMID:27489475

  10. A new acanthocephalan family, the Isthmosacanthidae (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchida), with the description of Isthmosacanthus fitzroyensis n. g., n. sp. from threadfin fishes (Polynemidae) of northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Smales, Lesley R

    2012-06-01

    Isthmosacanthus fitzroyensis n. g., n. sp. is described from two species of protandrous fish, Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw) and Polydactylus macrochir (Günther), from the waters around the coast of northern Australian. The new species can be distinguished from all others by the following combination of characters: proboscis shape and armature (22 rows of 13-14 hooks), short neck, trunk spined anteriorly and having two swellings (one bulbous) with a narrow isthmus in between, long tubular lemnisci and six tubular cement glands. Although I. fitzroyensis has been confused with a species of Pomphorhynchus Monticelli, 1905 in the literature, it can be distinguished from all pomphorhynchids, including species of Longicollum Yamaguti, 1935 and Pyriproboscis Amin, Abdullah & Mhaisen, 2003, by the suite of characters listed above. The placement of the species of Pyriproboscis in the Pomphorhynchidae Yamaguti, 1939 is problematical, because it has a short neck, two distinct hook types comprising the proboscis armature and only two rather than six cement glands. A new family, the Isthmosacanthidae n. fam., is erected to contain Isthmosacanthus together with Gorgorhynchoides Cable & Linderoth, 1963 and Golvanorhynchus Noronha, Fabio & Pinto, 1978, genera having an elongate to clavate proboscis, anterior trunk spines, elongate lemnisci, and six tubular cement glands. The validity of this determination, based on the importance of cement gland number and phylogenetic analysis, is argued.

  11. Robbing Public to Pay Private? Two Cases of Refinancing Education Infrastructure in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Stephen; Slee, Roger

    2005-01-01

    This paper will explore private sector participation in public sector education in the Australian context, focusing on case studies of Queensland and New South Wales, with reference to developments in other states and territories and internationally. In Australia, most states and territories have PPP policies and key projects include the Southbank…

  12. Genesis and preservation of a uranium-rich paleozoic epithermal system with a surface expression (Northern Flinders Ranges, South Australia): radiogenic heat driving regional hydrothermal circulation over geological timescales.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Joël; Wülser, Pierre-Alain; Foden, John

    2011-01-01

    The surface expressions of hydrothermal systems are prime targets for astrobiological exploration, and fossil systems on Earth provide an analogue to guide this endeavor. The Paleozoic Mt. Gee-Mt. Painter system (MGPS) in the Northern Flinders Ranges of South Australia is exceptionally well preserved and displays both a subsurface quartz sinter (boiling horizon) and remnants of aerial sinter pools that lie in near-original position. The energy source for the MGPS is not related to volcanism but to radiogenic heat produced by U-Th-K-rich host rocks. This radiogenic heat source drove hydrothermal circulation over a long period of time (hundreds of millions of years, from Permian to present), with peaks in hydrothermal activity during periods of uplift and high water supply. This process is reflected by ongoing hot spring activity along a nearby fault. The exceptional preservation of the MGPS resulted from the lack of proximal volcanism, coupled with tectonics driven by an oscillating far-field stress that resulted in episodic basement uplift. Hydrothermal activity caused the remobilization of U and rare earth elements (REE) in host rocks into (sub)economic concentrations. Radiogenic-heat-driven systems are attractive analogues for environments that can sustain life over geological times; the MGPS preserves evidence of episodic fluid flow for the past ∼300 million years. During periods of reduced hydrothermal activity (e.g., limited water supply, quiet tectonics), radiolytic H(2) production has the potential to support an ecosystem indefinitely. Remote exploration for deposits similar to those at the MGPS systems can be achieved by combining hyperspectral and gamma-ray spectroscopy.

  13. Genesis and preservation of a uranium-rich paleozoic epithermal system with a surface expression (Northern Flinders Ranges, South Australia): radiogenic heat driving regional hydrothermal circulation over geological timescales.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Joël; Wülser, Pierre-Alain; Foden, John

    2011-01-01

    The surface expressions of hydrothermal systems are prime targets for astrobiological exploration, and fossil systems on Earth provide an analogue to guide this endeavor. The Paleozoic Mt. Gee-Mt. Painter system (MGPS) in the Northern Flinders Ranges of South Australia is exceptionally well preserved and displays both a subsurface quartz sinter (boiling horizon) and remnants of aerial sinter pools that lie in near-original position. The energy source for the MGPS is not related to volcanism but to radiogenic heat produced by U-Th-K-rich host rocks. This radiogenic heat source drove hydrothermal circulation over a long period of time (hundreds of millions of years, from Permian to present), with peaks in hydrothermal activity during periods of uplift and high water supply. This process is reflected by ongoing hot spring activity along a nearby fault. The exceptional preservation of the MGPS resulted from the lack of proximal volcanism, coupled with tectonics driven by an oscillating far-field stress that resulted in episodic basement uplift. Hydrothermal activity caused the remobilization of U and rare earth elements (REE) in host rocks into (sub)economic concentrations. Radiogenic-heat-driven systems are attractive analogues for environments that can sustain life over geological times; the MGPS preserves evidence of episodic fluid flow for the past ∼300 million years. During periods of reduced hydrothermal activity (e.g., limited water supply, quiet tectonics), radiolytic H(2) production has the potential to support an ecosystem indefinitely. Remote exploration for deposits similar to those at the MGPS systems can be achieved by combining hyperspectral and gamma-ray spectroscopy. PMID:21774682

  14. [Mental health services in Australia].

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Lesage, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Canada is 1.5 times the size of Australia. Australia's population of 20 million is located principally on the east coast. Like Canada, the Australia has a federal system of Government with 5 States and two territories. Each State and territory has its own legislation on mental health. The federal (Commonwealth) Government is responsible for health care planning. In addition, the federal Government subsidizes an insurance program (Medicare) that covers visits to specialists and family physicians, while provincial governments are involved in the provision of hospital care and community mental health services. The Commonwealth government also subsidises the cost of medication through the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. These funds are supplemented by private health insurance. Mental health costs account for 6.5 per cent of all health care costs. Primary care treats the majority of common psychological disorders such as anxiety or depression, while specialist mental health services concentrate on those with severe mental illness. There have been 4 national mental health plans since 1992 with the long term aims of promoting mental health, increasing the quality and responsiveness of services, and creating a consistent approach to mental health service system reform among Australian states and territories. These systematic cycles of planning have first allowed a shift from psychiatric hospitals to community services, from reliance on psychiatric hospitals as pivotal to psychiatric care system. Community care budgets have increased, but overall have decreased with money not following patients; but recent deployment of federally funded through Medicare access to psychotherapy by psychologists for common mental disorders in primary care have increased overall budget. Concerns remain that shift to youth first onset psychosis clinics may come from older long-term psychotic patients, a form of discrimination whilst evidence amount of excess mortality by cardio

  15. [Mental health services in Australia].

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Lesage, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Canada is 1.5 times the size of Australia. Australia's population of 20 million is located principally on the east coast. Like Canada, the Australia has a federal system of Government with 5 States and two territories. Each State and territory has its own legislation on mental health. The federal (Commonwealth) Government is responsible for health care planning. In addition, the federal Government subsidizes an insurance program (Medicare) that covers visits to specialists and family physicians, while provincial governments are involved in the provision of hospital care and community mental health services. The Commonwealth government also subsidises the cost of medication through the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. These funds are supplemented by private health insurance. Mental health costs account for 6.5 per cent of all health care costs. Primary care treats the majority of common psychological disorders such as anxiety or depression, while specialist mental health services concentrate on those with severe mental illness. There have been 4 national mental health plans since 1992 with the long term aims of promoting mental health, increasing the quality and responsiveness of services, and creating a consistent approach to mental health service system reform among Australian states and territories. These systematic cycles of planning have first allowed a shift from psychiatric hospitals to community services, from reliance on psychiatric hospitals as pivotal to psychiatric care system. Community care budgets have increased, but overall have decreased with money not following patients; but recent deployment of federally funded through Medicare access to psychotherapy by psychologists for common mental disorders in primary care have increased overall budget. Concerns remain that shift to youth first onset psychosis clinics may come from older long-term psychotic patients, a form of discrimination whilst evidence amount of excess mortality by cardio

  16. Territorial occupancy dynamics in a forest raptor community.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Franco, María V; Martínez, José E; Calvo, José F

    2011-06-01

    A Markovian modeling approach was used to explore territorial interactions among three forest raptors coexisting in a forested natural area in southeast Spain: the booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus), the common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis). Using field data collected over a period of 12 years, 11 annual transition matrices were built, considering four occupancy states for each territory. The model describes transitional processes (colonization, abandonment, replacement and persistence), permits temporal variations in the transition matrix to be tested, and simulates territorial occupation for a few subsequent years. Parameters for the species and community dynamics were described in terms of turnover times and damping ratio. A perturbation analysis was performed to simulate the effects of changes in the transition probabilities on the stable state distribution. Our results indicate the existence of a stable community, largely dominated by the booted eagles, and described by a time-invariant transition matrix. Despite the stability observed, the territorial system is highly dynamic, with frequent abandonment and colonization events, although interspecific territorial interactions (the replacement of one species by another) are uncommon. Consequently, the three species appear to follow relatively independent occupancy dynamics. Simulation of potential management actions showed that substantial increases in the number of territories occupied by the less common species (goshawk and buzzard) can only be attained if relatively large increases in their reoccupation and colonization rates are considered.

  17. Fires in the Australian Capital Territory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The height and extent of billowing smoke plumes from bushfires near Canberra, the Australian capital, are illustrated by these views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The images were acquired on January 18, 2003. Never before had fires of this magnitude come so close to Australia's capital. Four people lost their lives and over 500 homes were destroyed, mostly in the southwestern suburbs. Australia's famous Mount Stromlo Observatory, located immediately west of the city, was also incinerated by the fires.

    The top panel portrays a natural-color view from MISR's nadir camera, in which the eastern portion of the Australian Capital Territory is located south of a pale, ephemeral lake in the upper left-hand corner (Lake George). Several smoke plumes originate within the eastern part of the Australian Capital Territory, while the major plumes originate to the west of the image area. The Australian Capital Territory and much of New South Wales are completely obscured by the smoke, which is driven by fierce westerly winds and extends eastward to the coast and over the Pacific Ocean.

    The lower panel provides a stereoscopically retrieved height field of the clouds and smoke plumes. The greenish areas indicate where smoke plumes extend several kilometers above a bank of patchy stratus clouds below. A few high clouds appear near the bottom of the image. Wind retrievals were excluded from this image in order to generate a smooth and continuous field. Although relative height variations are well-represented here, the inclusion of wind retrievals for this scene reduces the actual cloud height results by 1 to 2 kilometers. Areas where heights could not be retrieved are shown as dark gray.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuouslyand every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra

  18. Upper Secondary Education in Australia: Differing Responses to a Common Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Cherry

    1992-01-01

    Attempts to update chronology of events in noncompulsory upper secondary education in Australia since 1987. Identifies key differences among trajectories for Australia's conservative, progressive, and "common culture" states and territories as they deal with increased demand for higher level of schooling. Highlights some underlying issues…

  19. Administration and the Territorial Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Robert P.

    This paper explores some of the evidence relating similarities between lower animal behavior in defense of territory and administrative behavior in defense of position prerogative. The bureaucratic organization has a system of sanctions to penalize those who would infringe upon the territory of superordinates. Humans mark their domains by audio…

  20. Indicators of waste management efficiency related to different territorial conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Passarini, Fabrizio; Vassura, Ivano; Monti, Francesco; Morselli, Luciano; Villani, Barbara

    2011-04-15

    The amount of waste produced and the control of separate collection are crucial issues for the planning of a territorial Integrated Waste Management System, enabling the allocation of each sorted waste fraction to the proper treatment and recycling processes. The present study focuses on assessing indicators of different waste management systems in areas characterized by different territorial conditions. The investigated case study concerns the municipalities of Emilia Romagna (northern Italy), which present a rather uniform socioeconomic situation, but a variety of geographic, urban and waste management characteristics. A survey of waste generation and collection rates was carried out, and correlated with the different territorial conditions, classifying the municipalities according to altitude and population density. The best environmental performances, in terms of high separate collection rate, were found on average in rural areas in the plain, while the lowest waste generation was associated with rural hill towns.

  1. Quantifying Access to Services in Remote and Rural Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Dennis

    Each year commonwealth, state, and territory governments allocate millions of dollars to alleviate differing kinds of disadvantages among local communities in Australia. This paper is concerned with the allocation of resources to remote and rural areas by the Commonwealth Government on a national basis. Current formulas and resource allocation…

  2. Financing and Regulating Vocational Education and Training (VET) in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Australia has made significant changes in the ways it regulates and funds vocational education and training (VET), with increased emphasis on competition to promote efficient delivery of the type of programs that students and employers want. National, state and territory governments have increased the role of employers by basing nationally…

  3. Adolescent school-based vaccination in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Kirsten; Quinn, Helen; Bachelor, Michael; Bryant, Vicki; Campbell-Lloyd, Sue; Newbound, Angela; Scully, Megan; Webby, Rosalind; McIntyre, Peter B

    2013-06-30

    Adolescents have become an increasingly prominent target group for vaccination in Australia and other developed countries. Over the past decade, voluntary school-based vaccination programs have evolved to become the primary method of delivering adolescent vaccines funded under Australia's National Immunisation Program (NIP). These programs operate at a state and territory level and offer NIP vaccines to adolescents in specific school grades using local teams of trained vaccine providers. This paper summarises the current operation of voluntary school-based vaccination programs in Australia. Information was obtained through a literature review, semi-structured interviews with those managing and implementing school-based vaccination programs in each jurisdiction and a review of program resources. Available coverage data was obtained from each state or territory. Vaccines are delivered at the school, during school hours, and typically target late primary or early secondary school grades. Written parental consent is required for any vaccine to be administered. Operation of the programs is influenced by various factors at the school and provider level. Despite variability in program implementation, collection and analysis of coverage data, comparable coverage has been achieved across all states and territories. Coverage is higher than that reported by other countries where adolescent vaccines are mandated for school entry or available only through community vaccination providers. Voluntary school-based vaccination programs are an established mechanism for the delivery of adolescent vaccines in Australia and vaccines offered will continue to evolve in light of national recommendations. Current gaps in evidence include a detailed understanding of the influence of procedural factors on uptake, the best ways to maximise consent form return and, standardisation of coverage data reporting.

  4. 12 CFR 611.1124 - Territorial adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the major provisions of the Agreement. (3) The reason the territory transfer is proposed. (4) A map of... purpose of transferring territory from one association to another. (a) Territorial adjustments, except as... quorum is present. (b) When two or more associations agree to transfer territory, each association...

  5. Potential impact of AUSFTA on Australia's blood supply.

    PubMed

    Bambrick, Hilary J; Faunce, Thomas A; Johnston, Kellie

    2006-09-18

    Australia is largely self-sufficient in its supply of safe, fresh blood products because of the goodwill of non-remunerated, volunteer donors, plus rigorous testing and processing standards. CSL Limited is the sole provider of plasma fractionation services in Australia, enjoying exclusive rights under the Plasma Fractionation Agreement with the Australian Government. In the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA), Australia agreed to review its current contract with CSL Limited, and to recommend to the states and territories that the process be opened up to overseas tender. Overseas tenders for off-shore fractionation services are likely to be highly competitive due to their low manufacturing costs and accumulated expertise. Off-shore fractionation could compromise the safety of Australia's blood supply through delays in processing and transportation, issues related to quality control, and even the siphoning of stock to overseas markets. This could compromise the long-term care of Australian patients and create a serious national security risk in the event of a terrorist attack or natural disaster. Australia's AUSFTA obligation to recommend changes does not equate to an obligation to actually proceed. The states and territories should carefully consider whether such changes would be in our national interest. The long-term security of the Australian people in the current security environment is dependent on continuance of an on-shore fractionation plant and appropriate back-up facilities. PMID:16999673

  6. Australia's Political Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawer, Geoffrey

    1984-01-01

    Australia is an independent nation-state, federally constituted under a democratic parliamentary system. Being part of the Commonwealth of Nations, with feelings of loyalty to the Crown, Australia is also a democratic monarchy. Its political structure is discussed. (RM)

  7. Flood resilience urban territories. Flood resilience urban territories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraud, Hélène; Barroca, Bruno; Hubert, Gilles

    2010-05-01

    The flood's impact during the last twenty years on French territory reveals our lack of preparation towards large-extended floods which might cause the stopping of companies' activity, services, or lead to housing unavailability during several months. New Orleans' case has to exemplify us: four years after the disaster, the city still couldn't get back its dynamism. In France, more than 300 towns are flood-exposed. While these towns are the mainspring of territory's development, it is likely that the majority of them couldn't get up quickly after a large-extended flood. Therefore, to understand and improve the urban territory's resilience facing floods is a real stake for territory's development. Urban technical networks supply, unify and irrigate all urban territories' constituents. Characterizing their flood resilience can be interesting to understand better urban resilience. In this context, waste management during and after floods is completely crucial. During a flood, the waste management network can become dysfunctional (roads cut, waste storage installations or waste treatment flooded). How can the mayor respect his obligation to guarantee salubrity and security in his city? In post flood the question is even more problematic. The waste management network presents a real stake for territory's restart. After a flood, building materials, lopped-of branches, furniture, business stocks, farm stocks, mud, rubbles, animal cadavers are wet, mixed, even polluted by hydrocarbons or toxic substances. The waste's volume can be significant. Sanitary and environmental risks can be crucial. In view of this situation, waste's management in post crisis period raises a real problem. What to make of this waste? How to collect it? Where to stock it? How to process it? Who is responsible? Answering these questions is all the more strategic since this waste is the mark of disaster. Thus, cleaning will be the first population's and local actor's reflex in order to forget the

  8. New craniodental remains of Thylacinus potens (Dasyuromorphia: Thylacinidae), a carnivorous marsupial from the late Miocene Alcoota Local Fauna of central Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    New craniodental specimens that are referrable to the thylacinid marsupial, Thylacinus potens, are described from the late Miocene Alcoota Local Fauna of the Northern Territory, Australia. The remains include a largely complete maxilla and dentary, showing for the first time the anterior dentition of the dentary. The new remains indicate that Th. potens was a more variable species than previously recognised. The dentary, in particular, is more gracile, than other specimens referred to this species. A revised apomorphy-based diagnosis of Th. potens that takes this variability into account is presented. A cladistic analysis supports previous analyses that placed Th. potens in a derived position within Thylacinidae, close to the modern Th. cynocephalus. New estimations of body size are made using published regressions of dental measurements of dasyuromorphians as well as by assuming geometric similitude with Th. cynocephalus. All methods produce body mass estimates in excess of 35 kg. PMID:25237601

  9. Review of "Charting New Territory"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trujillo, Tina

    2011-01-01

    "Charting New Territory: Tapping Charter Schools to Turn Around the Nation's Dropout Factories" argues for a more prominent role for charter operators in turning around perennially low-performing high schools. However, the report's ultimate findings and conclusions are out of proportion to the strength of the research evidence on school…

  10. New Focus for Space Research in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, Iver

    Australia was the fourth nation to launch a spacecraft into orbit from its own territory, in 1967. Its second satellite followed 35 years later, when FedSat was launched in December 2002. Australia had and continues to have world experts in many areas of space science and technology. Several of these have participated in international missions, even sometimes with government support and funding to collaborate on designing and building an instrument for an international mission (e.g., AATSR on ESA's Envisat). Despite this Australia has no coordinated national space effort or dedicated funding for space research. Few linkages existed between Universities, Government units, and industry or across the field. This talk describes efforts to change this situation by developing the first Decadal Plan for Australian Space Science. The Plan's vision is "World-leading innovative space science and technology, strong domestic capability, and international collaborations that build Australia a long term, productive presence in Space". The talk describes the process and summarises the recommendations of the Australian space science community. These include creation of a national coordination committee (ACCSS), scientific themes and goals, and the science, education, and outreach projects necessary to accomplish them. The science projects involve ground-based assets, spacecraft missions, theory/modelling programs, and technology development and testing.

  11. Communicable Diseases Network Australia National Arbovirus and Malaria Advisory Committee annual report, 2005-06.

    PubMed

    Liu, Conan; Johansen, Cheryl; Kurucz, Nina; Whelan, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the epidemiology of mosquito-borne disease in Australia for the mosquito-borne disease season 1 July 2005 to 30 June 2006, in which the second largest number of notifications since 1995-96 was reported. Ross River virus (RRV) infections (66%), Barmah Forest virus (BFV) infections (23%) and malaria (9%) were the most common mosquito-borne diseases reported in 2005-06. National RRV notifications were the fifth largest on record. The Northern Territory had the highest rate of RRV notifications and the peak notification rate (in January 2006) was the third highest since 2000. National BFV notification rates were the highest on record. The Northern Territory also reported the highest BFV notification rate this season, peaking in February-March 2006, which was the highest reported BFV notification rate on record. BFV notification rates were significantly higher in teenagers compared to previous seasons. There were 731 notifications of malaria in 2005-06 of which none was reported as locally acquired. This was the third highest reporting period for malaria notifications since 2000. In contrast to previous years in which Plasmodium vivax was the predominant species, Plasmodium falciparum was reported as the infecting species in 45 per cent of the malaria notifications and Plasmodium vivax for 42 per cent of cases. Young adults in the 20-24 year age group had the highest number of cases and children in the 5-9 year age group accounted for 22 per cent of notifications. There were two cases of Kunjin virus (KUNV) infection and one case of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) infection reported in 2005-06, all from Western Australia. Sentinel chicken surveillance data for flaviviruses and sentinel pig surveillance data for Japanese encephalitis virus are reported. There were 200 notifications of dengue virus (DENV) infection in 2005-06, of which 46 per cent (n = 92) was reported as having been acquired overseas. Dengue serotypes 2 and 3 were detected

  12. Applicability of market-based instruments for safeguarding water quality in coastal waterways: Case study for Darwin Harbour, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Romy

    2014-02-01

    Water pollution of coastal waterways is a complex problem due to the cocktail of pollutants and multiplicity of polluters involved and pollution characteristics. Pollution control therefore requires a combination of policy instruments. This paper examines the applicability of market-based instruments to achieve effective and efficient water quality management in Darwin Harbour, Northern Territory, Australia. Potential applicability of instruments is examined in the context of biophysical and economic pollution characteristics, and experience with instruments elsewhere. The paper concludes that there is potential for inclusion of market-based instruments as part of an instrument mix to safeguard water quality in Darwin Harbour. It recommends, in particular, expanding the existing licencing system to include quantitative pollution limits for all significant point polluters; comprehensive and independent pollution monitoring across Darwin Harbour; public disclosure of water quality and emissions data; positive incentives for landholders in the Darwin Harbour catchment to improve land management practices; a stormwater offset program for greenfield urban developments; adoption of performance bonds for developments and operations which pose a substantial risk to water quality, including port expansion and dredging; and detailed consideration of a bubble licensing scheme for nutrient pollution. The paper offers an analytical framework for policy makers and resource managers tasked with water quality management in coastal waterways elsewhere in Australia and globally, and helps to scan for MBIs suitable in any given environmental management situation.

  13. Territoriality in the Red-winged Blackbird

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhouse, Chris

    1977-01-01

    Reports findings on research in Red-winged Blackbird territoriality and describes the educational potential of use of similar studies in the classroom. Territorial mapping and observational techniques are explained. (CS)

  14. A history of adolescent school based vaccination in Australia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Kirsten; Quinn, Helen; Menzies, Robert; McIntyre, Peter

    2013-06-30

    As adolescents have become an increasingly prominent target group for vaccination, school-based vaccination has emerged as an efficient and effective method of delivering nationally recommended vaccines to this often hard to reach group. School-based delivery of vaccines has occurred in Australia for over 80 years and has demonstrated advantages over primary care delivery for this part of the population. In the last decade school-based vaccination programs have become routine practice across all Australian states and territories. Using existing records and the recollection of experts we have compiled a history of school-based vaccination in Australia, primarily focusing on adolescents.

  15. 12 CFR 611.1124 - Territorial adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Consolidations, and Charter Amendments of Associations § 611.1124 Territorial adjustments. This section shall apply to any request submitted to the Farm Credit Administration to modify association charters for the purpose of transferring territory from one association to another. (a) Territorial adjustments, except...

  16. 12 CFR 611.1124 - Territorial adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Consolidations, and Charter Amendments of Associations § 611.1124 Territorial adjustments. This section shall apply to any request submitted to the Farm Credit Administration to modify association charters for the purpose of transferring territory from one association to another. (a) Territorial adjustments, except...

  17. Defining Educational Leadership in Canada's Yukon Territory: "Hmmm, that's a Good Question..."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakesley, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Studies examining educational leadership in northern Canada appear rare. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to present findings from a 2010 study of educational leadership in Canada's Yukon Territory. The study adopts a critical ethnographic approach to unpack educational leadership as construed and enacted by two male and two female…

  18. The Changing Role of Education in the Iraqi Disputed Territories: Assimilation, Segregation and Indoctrination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanks, Kelsey

    2016-01-01

    The oil-rich northern districts of Iraq were long considered a reflection of the country with a diversity of ethnic and religious groups: Arabs, Turkmen, Kurds, Assyrians, and Yezidi, living together and portraying Iraq's demographic make-up. Yet the territory has suffered from heightening ethno-political influence and sectarianism throughout its…

  19. Chromosome Territory Modeller and Viewer.

    PubMed

    Tkacz, Magdalena A; Chromiński, Kornel; Idziak-Helmcke, Dominika; Robaszkiewicz, Ewa; Hasterok, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents ChroTeMo, a tool for chromosome territory modelling, accompanied by ChroTeVi-a chromosome territory visualisation software that uses the data obtained by ChroTeMo. These tools have been developed in order to complement the molecular cytogenetic research of interphase nucleus structure in a model grass Brachypodium distachyon. Although the modelling tool has been initially created for one particular species, it has universal application. The proposed version of ChroTeMo allows for generating a model of chromosome territory distribution in any given plant or animal species after setting the initial, species-specific parameters. ChroTeMo has been developed as a fully probabilistic modeller. Due to this feature, the comparison between the experimental data on the structure of a nucleus and the results obtained from ChroTeMo can indicate whether the distribution of chromosomes inside a nucleus is also fully probabilistic or is subjected to certain non-random patterns. The presented tools have been written in Python, so they are multiplatform, portable and easy to read. Moreover, if necessary they can be further developed by users writing their portions of code. The source code, documentation, and wiki, as well as the issue tracker and the list of related articles that use ChroTeMo and ChroTeVi, are accessible in a public repository at Github under GPL 3.0 license. PMID:27505434

  20. Posterior cerebral artery territory infarctions.

    PubMed

    Cereda, Carlo; Carrera, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Infarctions in the territory of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) occur in about 5-10% of all ischemic strokes. The PCA can be divided into 'deep' (P1 and P2 segments) and 'superficial' (P3 and P4) segments. Occlusion of paramedian perforating arteries arising from P1 causes rostral midbrain infarction with or without thalamic lesion. The classical clinical triad after thalamomesencephalic infarcts is hypersomnolence, cognitive deficits and vertical oculomotor paresis. Two main arterial groups arise from P2: infarction in the territory of the thalamogeniculate arteries causes severe contralateral hypesthesia and ataxia, whereas infarction in the territory of the posterior choroidal arteries results in sectoranopia with involvement of the lateral geniculate body. After superficial PCA infarcts, visual field defects and somatosensory deficits are the most frequent signs. Additionally, disorders of reading may be seen after unilateral left infarction and disorientation for place and visual neglect after right lesion. After bilateral PCA infarcts, amnesia, cortical blindness (the patient cannot see but pretend he can) may occur. Acute thrombolysis is as useful after PCA infarctions as after anterior circulation strokes. Mortality after PCA strokes is low, but long-term behavioral and cognitive deficits are underestimated.

  1. Chromosome Territory Modeller and Viewer

    PubMed Central

    Idziak-Helmcke, Dominika; Robaszkiewicz, Ewa; Hasterok, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents ChroTeMo, a tool for chromosome territory modelling, accompanied by ChroTeVi–a chromosome territory visualisation software that uses the data obtained by ChroTeMo. These tools have been developed in order to complement the molecular cytogenetic research of interphase nucleus structure in a model grass Brachypodium distachyon. Although the modelling tool has been initially created for one particular species, it has universal application. The proposed version of ChroTeMo allows for generating a model of chromosome territory distribution in any given plant or animal species after setting the initial, species-specific parameters. ChroTeMo has been developed as a fully probabilistic modeller. Due to this feature, the comparison between the experimental data on the structure of a nucleus and the results obtained from ChroTeMo can indicate whether the distribution of chromosomes inside a nucleus is also fully probabilistic or is subjected to certain non-random patterns. The presented tools have been written in Python, so they are multiplatform, portable and easy to read. Moreover, if necessary they can be further developed by users writing their portions of code. The source code, documentation, and wiki, as well as the issue tracker and the list of related articles that use ChroTeMo and ChroTeVi, are accessible in a public repository at Github under GPL 3.0 license. PMID:27505434

  2. Information Activities in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Takeyoshi

    The last few years have seen an explosive growth in database and computer networking activities in Australia. At present there are six major information networks in Australia, which carry more than 400 locally produced databases and many others from overseas. AUSINET databases are exemplified. MIDAS (Multi-mode International Data Aquisition System) provides lower cost access to overseas databases than before. The paper also gives brief outline of various bodies which relate to information and library policy in Australia and regional cooperative activities.

  3. Temporary Territories?: Responses to Intrusions in a Public Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Debra Kaye; Taylor, Ralph B.

    1980-01-01

    This article describes a study concerning temporary territories in public settings. Implications of the results for territorial typologies, animal-human territorial differences, and future research on human territoriality are outlined. (Author/SA)

  4. Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harington, C. R.

    2011-08-01

    Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

  5. Influences Preceding "Nunatsiavut" Self-Determination: Historical, Political and Educational Influences on the People of Northern Labrador (Canada)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kirk David

    2007-01-01

    What were the influences on the Inuit of Northern Labrador preceding the creation of the self-governing territory of Nunatsiavut? What are the preterritorial influences of the Inuit on the territory's five schools? To answer these questions and to share the success of one Indigenous people, the Nunatsiavut Inuit (the Inuit of Northern Labrador,…

  6. Diagnosis of pertussis using nasopharyngeal IgA and polymerase chain reaction in specimens from outpatients in Australia.

    PubMed

    Beaman, Miles H; Karimi, Mahdad; Hodge, Meredith; Keil, Anthony D; Campbell, Peter

    2014-12-01

    We assessed IgA antibodies and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of pertussis in nasopharyngeal aspiration (NPA) samples from outpatients in Australia.   A total of 1700 patients (849 adults, 851 children) from Western Australia and the Northern Territory fulfilled the laboratory case definition for pertussis between 2004 and 2013: 732 specimens were positive by NPA IgA alone, 559 by PCR alone, and 409 by both tests. Overall, 968 cases (56.8%) were positive by PCR and 1141 cases (67.2%) by IgA [p < 0.00025]. Among pediatric patients, PCR was positive in 524 (61.3%) and IgA in 569 (67%). In 849 adult cases, the respective proportions were 52.3% and 67.4% [p < 0.00025].   The duration of cough in 507 patients was shorter in 262 pediatric cases (mean, 2.51 weeks; standard deviation [SD], 2.25) than 245 adult patients (3.27 weeks; SD, 2.79) [p = 0.0009]. PCR positivity showed a season-dependent variance (range, 5.6 to 85.9%) and peaked in the second week (71.7%) of illness. IgA antibodies peaked in the fifth week (89.5%) postinfection, and the positivity rate for NPA IgA was less variable (range, 38.3-97.2%).   Nasopharyngeal Bordetella pertussis-specific IgA antibodies are valuable in diagnosis of pertussis in Australia. Reliance on PCR alone misses a significant proportion of pertussis cases, especially those with a delayed presentation.

  7. Online Training in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzic, Joze

    2013-01-01

    On-line training is becoming an interesting phenomenon in Australia and has attracted a lot of interest across many industries and businesses (Chan and Ngai, 2007). The research reported here looks at the use of online training in corporations in Australia. It focuses on two aspects of online training, the factors that "warrant" its…

  8. Women Astronomers: Australia: Women astronomers in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    2001-08-01

    Ragbir Bhathal summarizes the role played by women astronomers in Australia's astronomy, now and in the past. Australia has a great tradition in astronomy, from the early observations of Aboriginal people through the colonial drive to explore and understand, culminating in the established excellence of research there today. Women have contributed to this achievement in no small way, yet their contribution has been unremarked, if not ignored. Here I summarize the historical and present state of affairs and look forward to a brighter and more equitable future.

  9. Lake Eyre, Simpson Desert, South Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Lake Eyre, Simpson Desert, South Australia, Australia (27.0S, 136.0E) is normally a dry lakebed for years on end. However on rare occasions small amounts of rainfall are recorded and ponding can be seen in low parts of the lake, as in this image, where an algae bloom in the water is seen as a dark pink area on the lakebed. The Finke Riverbed intersects Lake Eyre but it is normally a dry wash and seldom contributes water to the lake.

  10. Cannabis policy in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Abel, S

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes and compares current developments in policies to deal with cannabis in Australia and New Zealand. Both countries are bound by international conventions to control cannabis and in each case cannabis use, possession, cultivation and supply is illegal. In both countries almost all the supply is grown locally and patterns of use and health concerns appear to be similar. Strategies used to deal with cannabis include: demand reduction through enforcement of legislation, drug education and treatment; supply reduction through enforcement of legislation and crop recovery operations; and harm reduction through diversion of some offenders from the courts system, lenient enforcement policies for users and, in Australia, the formal decriminalization of cannabis use in two states/territories and de facto decriminalization in another. Australia has had a co-ordinated national drugs policy with a stated harm reduction focus for over a decade, while in New Zealand efforts to co-ordinate policy have been delayed by ongoing debates about cannabis's harm potential and what constitutes an appropriate approach. However, a national drugs policy with a professed harm reduction focus is currently being finalized. Despite these developments, government cut-backs and international and local prohibitionist influences on policy in both countries suggest that a harm reduction model may not necessarily be secure. PMID:16203457

  11. Application of effective drought index for quantification of meteorological drought events: a case study in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deo, Ravinesh C.; Byun, Hi-Ryong; Adamowski, Jan F.; Begum, Khaleda

    2016-01-01

    Drought indices (DIs) that quantify drought events by their onset, termination, and subsequent properties such as the severity, duration, and peak intensity are practical stratagems for monitoring and evaluating the impacts of drought. In this study, the effective drought index (EDI) calculated over daily timescales was utilized to quantify short-term (dry spells) and ongoing drought events using drought monitoring data in Australia. EDI was an intensive DI that considered daily water accumulation with a weighting function applied to daily rainfall data with the passage of time. A statistical analysis of the distribution of water deficit period relative to the base period was performed where a run-sum method was adopted to identify drought onset for any day (i) with EDI i < 0 (rainfall below normal). Drought properties were enumerated in terms of (1) severity (AEDI ≡ accumulated sum of EDIi < 0), (2) duration (DS ≡ cumulative number of days with EDIi < 0), (3) peak intensity (EDImin ≡ minimum EDI of a drought event), (4) annual drought severity (YAEDI ≡ yearly accumulated negative EDI), and (5) accumulated severity of ongoing drought using event-accumulated EDI (EAEDI). The analysis of EDI signal enabled the detection and quantification of a number of drought events in Australia: Federation Drought (1897-1903), 1911-1916 Drought, 1925-1929 Drought, World War II Drought (1937-1945), and Millennium Drought (2002-2010). In comparison with the other droughts, Millennium Drought was exemplified as an unprecedented dry period especially in Victoria (EAEDI ≈ -4243, DS = 1946 days, EDImin = -4.05, and YAEDI = -4903). For the weather station tested in Northern Territory, the worst drought was recorded during 1925-1929 period. The results justified the suitability of effective drought index as a useful scientific tool for monitoring of drought progression, onset and termination, and ranking of drought based on severity, duration, and peak intensity, which allows an

  12. A comparison of adult mosquito trapping regimes across seasons and ecosystems in Darwin, Australia.

    PubMed

    Jacups, Susan P; Whelan, Peter I

    2012-12-01

    Mosquitoes are problematic as vectors and pests in many tropical cities, including Darwin, the principal city in the Northern Territory of Australia. To monitor peaks in mosquito populations, the Medical Entomology unit of the Health Department sets overnight CO(2) -baited traps weekly. Trap setting and retrieving, followed by mosquito counting and identification, are labor intensive. Aiming to reduce this workload, we tested the hypothesis that fortnightly trapping is as effective as weekly trapping across seasons and ecologically distinct systems in Darwin. We applied cross-sectional negative binomial mixed effects models, which adjusted for rain and calendar month, to existing historical data. Culex annulirostris peaks were effectively identified using fortnightly trapping across all three ecological systems, during wet/dry and build-up seasonal patterns. For Aedes vigilax, fortnightly trapping was adequate in identifying peaks during wet and dry season months, but inadequate during build-up months across all three ecological systems. Therefore, weekly trapping should continue during build-up months, but trapping could be reduced to fortnightly for wet and dry season months for all ecological systems. Trapping for Cx. annulirostris monitoring could be reduced to fortnightly in all areas and seasons. Evaluation of programs can maximize staff efficiency and improve service delivery by reducing the need for unnecessary tasks.

  13. Arts practice and disconnected youth in Australia: Impact and domains of change

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Peter; Davies, Christina; Haseman, Brad; Down, Barry; White, Mike; Rankin, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper describes research conducted with Big hART, Australia's most awarded participatory arts company. It considers three projects, LUCKY, GOLD and NGAPARTJI NGAPARTJI across separate sites in Tasmania, Western NSW and Northern Territory, respectively, in order to understand project impact from the perspective of project participants, Arts workers, community members and funders. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 respondents. The data were coded thematically and analysed using the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis. Results: Seven broad domains of change were identified: psychosocial health; community; agency and behavioural change; the Art; economic effect; learning and identity. Conclusions: Experiences of participatory arts are interrelated in an ecology of practice that is iterative, relational, developmental, temporal and contextually bound. This means that questions of impact are contingent, and there is no one path that participants travel or single measure that can adequately capture the richness and diversity of experience. Consequently, it is the productive tensions between the domains of change that are important and the way they are animated through Arts practice that provides sign posts towards the impact of Big hART projects. PMID:25530802

  14. Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) emissions from biomass burning in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinardi, Simone; Simpson, Isobel J.; Blake, Nicola J.; Blake, Donald R.; Rowland, F. Sherwood

    2003-05-01

    We identify dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) as the major reduced sulfur-containing gas emitted from bushfires in Australia's Northern Territory. Like dimethyl sulfide (DMS), DMDS is oxidized in the atmosphere to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and methane sulfonic acid (MSA), which are intermediates in the formation of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The mixing ratios of DMDS and DMS were the highest we have ever detected, with maximum values of 113 and 35 ppbv, respectively, whereas background values were below the detection limit (10 pptv). Molar emission ratios relative to carbon monoxide (CO) were [1.6 +/- 0.1] × 10-5 and [6.2 +/- 0.3] × 10-6, for DMDS and DMS respectively, while molar emission ratios relative to carbon dioxide (CO2) were [4.7 +/- 0.4] × 10-6 and [1.4 +/- 0.4] × 10-7, respectively. Assuming these observations are representative of biomass burning, we estimate that biomass burning could yield up to 175 Gg/yr of DMDS (119 Gg S/yr) and 13 Gg/yr of DMS.

  15. Heroic frames: discursive constructions around the requested death movement in Australia in the late-1990s.

    PubMed

    McInerney, Fran

    2006-02-01

    This paper focuses on a critical development in the life of the requested death movement [McInerney, F. (2000). "Requested Death": A new social movement. Social Science & Medicine, 50(1), 137-54.], that being the passage of the Northern Territory of Australia's Rights of the Terminally Ill (ROTI) Act 1995. This legislation, for the first time anywhere in the world, allowed for lawful euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide, thereby fulfilling key requirements of the movement. Taking a constructionist perspective, I analyzed discursive representations of dying, death and medicine in selected Australian print media during this time period (1995-1997). The media's predilection for reporting dramatic and unusual death coincided with the movement's construction of contemporary dying as horrific, intractable, and intolerable. Across all analyzed publications and genres, an heroic discourse was found to be a dominant influence, couched within a dramatic framing that served to reinforce many of the claims of the requested death movement. The framing of requested death activists as heroes, and of requested death itself as a redeeming and transforming act for those seeking it, were preeminent in press portrayals. The dominance of this heroic discourse suggests that such media and movement frames worked in tandem to both resonate with and reinforce popular Australian notions of terminal illness and dying in the late 20th century. PMID:16046040

  16. The dominant erosion processes supplying fine sediment to three major rivers in tropical Australia, the Daly (NT), Mitchell (Qld) and Flinders (Qld) Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caitcheon, Gary G.; Olley, Jon M.; Pantus, Francis; Hancock, Gary; Leslie, Christopher

    2012-05-01

    The tropics of northern Australia have received relatively little attention with regard to the impact of soil erosion on the many large river systems that are an important part of Australia's water resource, especially given the high potential for erosion when long dry seasons are followed by intense wet season rain. Here we use 137Cs concentrations to determine the erosion processes supplying sediment to two major northern Australian Rivers; the Daly River (Northern Territory), and the Mitchell River (Queensland). We also present data from five sediment samples collected from a 100 km reach of the Cloncurry River, a major tributary of the Flinders River (Queensland). Concentrations of 137Cs in the surface soil and subsurface (channel banks and gully) samples were used to derive 'best fit' probability density functions describing their distributions. These modelled distributions are then used to estimate the relative contribution of these two components to the river sediments. Our results are consistent with channel and gully erosion being the dominant source of sediment, with more than 90% of sediment transported along the main stem of these rivers originating from subsoil. We summarize the findings of similar studies on tropical Australian rivers and conclude that the primary source of sediment delivered to these systems is gully and channel bank erosion. Previously, as a result of catchment scale modelling, sheet-wash and rill erosion was considered to be the major sediment source in these rivers. Identifying the relative importance of sediment sources, as shown in this paper, will provide valuable information for land management planning in the region. This study also reinforces the importance of testing model predictions before they are used to target investment in remedial action.

  17. The Education of Students with Emotional and Behavior Disabilities in Australia: Current Trends and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Therese M.

    2012-01-01

    A discussion about the current state of special education, more specifically the field of emotional and behavior disabilities (EBD), in Australia cannot take place without first providing an overview of the Australian education system. Education comes under the jurisdiction of state and territory responsibility. The federal government coordinates…

  18. Using the CPGI to Determine Problem Gambling Prevalence in Australia: Measurement Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Alun C.; Wynne, Harold; Dowling, Nicki A.; Tomnay, Jane E.; Thomas, Shane A.

    2010-01-01

    Most states and territories in Australia have adopted the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) of the Canadian Problem Gambling Index as the standard measure of problem gambling in their prevalence studies and research programs. However, notwithstanding this attempted standardisation, differences in sampling and recruitment methodologies and in…

  19. Juvenile Justice in Australia 2009-10. Juvenile Justice Series. Number 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aalders, Rachel; Morgan, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    In Australia, the state and territory governments are responsible for dealing with young people who are involved in crime. One major aspect of the juvenile justice system is the supervision of children and young people who have committed or are alleged to have committed an offence. This report presents information on the young people under…

  20. 40 CFR 81.270 - Northern Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Northern Arizona Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.270 Northern Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northern Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  1. 40 CFR 81.270 - Northern Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northern Arizona Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.270 Northern Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northern Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  2. 40 CFR 81.270 - Northern Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Northern Arizona Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.270 Northern Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northern Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  3. 40 CFR 81.270 - Northern Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Northern Arizona Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.270 Northern Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northern Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  4. 40 CFR 81.270 - Northern Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Northern Arizona Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.270 Northern Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northern Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  5. Utilisation of acute hospitals by age and sex in Australia, 1985.

    PubMed

    Mathers, C D; Moore, G

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides estimates of the utilisation rates of acute care (short-stay) hospitals, by age and sex, for the Australian population. Separation and bed-day rates per 1000 persons for public, Repatriation and private hospitals in 1985 have been estimated by age group, for each sex, in each State and Territory in Australia. The Australian Base Grant, negotiated between the Commonwealth, States and Territories in the new Medicare Agreements, distributes funds for the care and treatment of Medicare patients in public hospitals. The national bed-day utilisation rates reported in this article, have been used as the basis for population weights to allocate these funds. This paper presents the data and methods used to derive these weights, and examines the differences between them and the actual State and Territory utilisation patterns in 1985. The impact of population ageing on the overall utilisation rates for acute hospitals in Australia is examined.

  6. Quality of Care in the US Territories

    PubMed Central

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Bradley, Elizabeth H.; Herrin, Jeph; Santana, Calie; Curry, Leslie A.; Normand, Sharon-Lise T.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Health care quality in the US territories is poorly characterized. We used process measures to compare the performance of hospitals in the US territories and in the US states. Methods Our sample included nonfederal hospitals located in the United States and its territories discharging Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) patients with a principal discharge diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), or pneumonia (PNE) (July 2005–June 2008). We compared risk-standardized 30-day mortality and readmission rates between territorial and stateside hospitals, adjusting for performance on core process measures and hospital characteristics. Results In 57 territorial hospitals and 4799 stateside hospitals, hospital mean 30-day risk-standardized mortality rates were significantly higher in the US territories (P < .001) for AMI (18.8% vs 16.0%), HF (12.3% vs 10.8%), and PNE (14.9% vs 11.4%). Hospital mean 30-day risk-standardized readmission rates (RSRRs) were also significantly higher in the US territories for AMI (20.6% vs 19.8%; P=.04), and PNE (19.4% vs 18.4%; P=.01) but was not significant for HF (25.5% vs 24.5%; P=.07). The higher risk-standardized mortality rates in the US territories remained statistically significant after adjusting for hospital characteristics and core process measure performance. Hospitals in the US territories had lower performance on all core process measures (P< .05). Conclusions Compared with hospitals in the US states, hospitals in the US territories have significantly higher 30-day mortality rates and lower performance on every core process measure for patients discharged after AMI, HF, and PNE. Eliminating the substantial quality gap in the US territories should be a national priority. PMID:21709184

  7. MOBILESAT: Australia's own

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagg, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Australia will be introducing a dedicated Mobile Satellite Communications System following the launch of the AUSSAT-B satellites late in 1991. The Mobile Satellite System, MOBILESAT, will provide circuit switched voice/data services and packet-switched data services for land, aeronautical and maritime users. Here, an overview is given of the development program being undertaken within Australia to enable a fully commercial service to be introduced in 1992.

  8. 27 CFR 25.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Territorial extent. 25.2 Section 25.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to...

  9. 27 CFR 25.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Territorial extent. 25.2 Section 25.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to...

  10. 27 CFR 25.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Territorial extent. 25.2 Section 25.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to...

  11. 27 CFR 25.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Territorial extent. 25.2 Section 25.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to...

  12. 27 CFR 16.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Territorial extent. 16.2 Section 16.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Scope § 16.2 Territorial...

  13. 27 CFR 16.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Territorial extent. 16.2 Section 16.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Scope § 16.2 Territorial...

  14. 27 CFR 16.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Territorial extent. 16.2 Section 16.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Scope § 16.2 Territorial...

  15. 27 CFR 16.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Territorial extent. 16.2 Section 16.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Scope § 16.2 Territorial...

  16. 27 CFR 16.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territorial extent. 16.2 Section 16.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Scope § 16.2 Territorial...

  17. Wyoming: Territory to Statehood, Unit VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    Designed for elementary school students, this unit on the Wyoming evolution from territory to statehood provides concepts, activities, stories, resources, and maps. Concepts stress the five national flags which have flown over Wyoming, several other territories Wyoming was a part of, construction of the Union Pacific railroad, problems of the new…

  18. 27 CFR 25.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territorial extent. 25.2 Section 25.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to...

  19. 27 CFR 10.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territorial extent. 10.2 Section 10.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Scope of Regulations § 10.2 Territorial extent. This...

  20. 27 CFR 4.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Territorial extent. 4.2 Section 4.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.2 Territorial extent. This...

  1. Developing a Model for the Measurement of Social Inclusion and Social Capital in Regional Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Lou

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on social inclusion and social capital to develop a framework to guide the selection of items and measures for the forthcoming SA Department of Human Services Survey of Social Inclusion to be held in the region of Northern Adelaide in South Australia. Northern Adelaide is a region with areas of high socio-economic…

  2. Increasing Incidence of Salmonella in Australia, 2000-2013

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Kathryn; Veitch, Mark; Wardell, Rebecca; Polkinghorne, Ben; Dobbins, Timothy; Lal, Aparna; Kirk, Martyn D.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella is a key cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in Australia and case numbers are increasing. We used negative binomial regression to analyze national surveillance data for 2000–2013, for Salmonella Typhimurium and non-Typhimurium Salmonella serovars. We estimated incidence rate ratios adjusted for sex and age to show trends over time. Almost all states and territories had significantly increasing trends of reported infection for S. Typhimurium, with states and territories reporting annual increases as high as 12% (95% confidence interval 10–14%) for S. Typhimurium in the Australian Capital Territory and 6% (95% CI 5–7%) for non-Typhimurium Salmonella in Victoria. S. Typhimurium notification rates were higher than non-Typhimurium Salmonella rates in most age groups in the south eastern states of Australia, while non-Typhimurium rates were higher in most age groups elsewhere. The S. Typhimurium notification rate peaked at 12–23 months of age and the non-Typhimurium Salmonella notification rate peaked at 0–11 months of age. The age-specific pattern of S. Typhimurium cases suggests a foodborne origin, while the age and geographic pattern for non-Typhimurium may indicate that other transmission routes play a key role for these serovars. PMID:27732615

  3. Wolves adapt territory size, not pack size to local habitat quality.

    PubMed

    Kittle, Andrew M; Anderson, Morgan; Avgar, Tal; Baker, James A; Brown, Glen S; Hagens, Jevon; Iwachewski, Ed; Moffatt, Scott; Mosser, Anna; Patterson, Brent R; Reid, Douglas E B; Rodgers, Arthur R; Shuter, Jen; Street, Garrett M; Thompson, Ian D; Vander Vennen, Lucas M; Fryxell, John M

    2015-09-01

    1. Although local variation in territorial predator density is often correlated with habitat quality, the causal mechanism underlying this frequently observed association is poorly understood and could stem from facultative adjustment in either group size or territory size. 2. To test between these alternative hypotheses, we used a novel statistical framework to construct a winter population-level utilization distribution for wolves (Canis lupus) in northern Ontario, which we then linked to a suite of environmental variables to determine factors influencing wolf space use. Next, we compared habitat quality metrics emerging from this analysis as well as an independent measure of prey abundance, with pack size and territory size to investigate which hypothesis was most supported by the data. 3. We show that wolf space use patterns were concentrated near deciduous, mixed deciduous/coniferous and disturbed forest stands favoured by moose (Alces alces), the predominant prey species in the diet of wolves in northern Ontario, and in proximity to linear corridors, including shorelines and road networks remaining from commercial forestry activities. 4. We then demonstrate that landscape metrics of wolf habitat quality - projected wolf use, probability of moose occupancy and proportion of preferred land cover classes - were inversely related to territory size but unrelated to pack size. 5. These results suggest that wolves in boreal ecosystems alter territory size, but not pack size, in response to local variation in habitat quality. This could be an adaptive strategy to balance trade-offs between territorial defence costs and energetic gains due to resource acquisition. That pack size was not responsive to habitat quality suggests that variation in group size is influenced by other factors such as intraspecific competition between wolf packs. PMID:25757794

  4. Wolves adapt territory size, not pack size to local habitat quality.

    PubMed

    Kittle, Andrew M; Anderson, Morgan; Avgar, Tal; Baker, James A; Brown, Glen S; Hagens, Jevon; Iwachewski, Ed; Moffatt, Scott; Mosser, Anna; Patterson, Brent R; Reid, Douglas E B; Rodgers, Arthur R; Shuter, Jen; Street, Garrett M; Thompson, Ian D; Vander Vennen, Lucas M; Fryxell, John M

    2015-09-01

    1. Although local variation in territorial predator density is often correlated with habitat quality, the causal mechanism underlying this frequently observed association is poorly understood and could stem from facultative adjustment in either group size or territory size. 2. To test between these alternative hypotheses, we used a novel statistical framework to construct a winter population-level utilization distribution for wolves (Canis lupus) in northern Ontario, which we then linked to a suite of environmental variables to determine factors influencing wolf space use. Next, we compared habitat quality metrics emerging from this analysis as well as an independent measure of prey abundance, with pack size and territory size to investigate which hypothesis was most supported by the data. 3. We show that wolf space use patterns were concentrated near deciduous, mixed deciduous/coniferous and disturbed forest stands favoured by moose (Alces alces), the predominant prey species in the diet of wolves in northern Ontario, and in proximity to linear corridors, including shorelines and road networks remaining from commercial forestry activities. 4. We then demonstrate that landscape metrics of wolf habitat quality - projected wolf use, probability of moose occupancy and proportion of preferred land cover classes - were inversely related to territory size but unrelated to pack size. 5. These results suggest that wolves in boreal ecosystems alter territory size, but not pack size, in response to local variation in habitat quality. This could be an adaptive strategy to balance trade-offs between territorial defence costs and energetic gains due to resource acquisition. That pack size was not responsive to habitat quality suggests that variation in group size is influenced by other factors such as intraspecific competition between wolf packs.

  5. Animal Interactions and the Emergence of Territoriality

    PubMed Central

    Giuggioli, Luca; Potts, Jonathan R.; Harris, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Inferring the role of interactions in territorial animals relies upon accurate recordings of the behaviour of neighbouring individuals. Such accurate recordings are rarely available from field studies. As a result, quantification of the interaction mechanisms has often relied upon theoretical approaches, which hitherto have been limited to comparisons of macroscopic population-level predictions from un-tested interaction models. Here we present a quantitative framework that possesses a microscopic testable hypothesis on the mechanism of conspecific avoidance mediated by olfactory signals in the form of scent marks. We find that the key parameters controlling territoriality are two: the average territory size, i.e. the inverse of the population density, and the time span during which animal scent marks remain active. Since permanent monitoring of a territorial border is not possible, scent marks need to function in the temporary absence of the resident. As chemical signals carried by the scent only last a finite amount of time, each animal needs to revisit territorial boundaries frequently and refresh its own scent marks in order to deter possible intruders. The size of the territory an animal can maintain is thus proportional to the time necessary for an animal to move between its own territorial boundaries. By using an agent-based model to take into account the possible spatio-temporal movement trajectories of individual animals, we show that the emerging territories are the result of a form of collective animal movement where, different to shoaling, flocking or herding, interactions are highly heterogeneous in space and time. The applicability of our hypothesis has been tested with a prototypical territorial animal, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). PMID:21423708

  6. Animal interactions and the emergence of territoriality.

    PubMed

    Giuggioli, Luca; Potts, Jonathan R; Harris, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    Inferring the role of interactions in territorial animals relies upon accurate recordings of the behaviour of neighbouring individuals. Such accurate recordings are rarely available from field studies. As a result, quantification of the interaction mechanisms has often relied upon theoretical approaches, which hitherto have been limited to comparisons of macroscopic population-level predictions from un-tested interaction models. Here we present a quantitative framework that possesses a microscopic testable hypothesis on the mechanism of conspecific avoidance mediated by olfactory signals in the form of scent marks. We find that the key parameters controlling territoriality are two: the average territory size, i.e. the inverse of the population density, and the time span during which animal scent marks remain active. Since permanent monitoring of a territorial border is not possible, scent marks need to function in the temporary absence of the resident. As chemical signals carried by the scent only last a finite amount of time, each animal needs to revisit territorial boundaries frequently and refresh its own scent marks in order to deter possible intruders. The size of the territory an animal can maintain is thus proportional to the time necessary for an animal to move between its own territorial boundaries. By using an agent-based model to take into account the possible spatio-temporal movement trajectories of individual animals, we show that the emerging territories are the result of a form of collective animal movement where, different to shoaling, flocking or herding, interactions are highly heterogeneous in space and time. The applicability of our hypothesis has been tested with a prototypical territorial animal, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). PMID:21423708

  7. Healthcare in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dalton-Brown, Sally

    2016-07-01

    No single issue has dominated health practitioners' ethical debates in 2014 in Australia, but a controversial decision on gene patenting and the media focus on "Dr. Death," euthanasia campaigner Dr. Philip Nitschke, have given new life to these two familiar (and global) debates. Currently a dying with dignity bill, drafted by the Australian Green Party, is under examination. The Senate inquiry into the bill received more than 663 submissions, with 57% opposed and 43% in support of the bill, which has now been referred to a Senate committee. Will this be another of Australia's failed attempts to legalize euthanasia? The trial of Dr. Nitschke begins on November 10, 2014. PMID:27348826

  8. Relative importance of male and territory quality in pairing success of male rock ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, Jonathan; Earnst, Susan L.

    1999-01-01

    We studied pairing success in male rock ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) in northern Alaska to learn whether males obtaining more females possessed phenotypic traits that influenced female choice directly, whether these traits permitted males to obtain territories favored by females, or whether both processes occurred. The number of females per male varied from zero to three. Several male and territory traits were significantly correlated with number of females per male. We used multiple regression to obtain a single measure of male quality and a single measure of territory quality. These measures of male and territory quality correlated with each other and with male pairing success. We used path analysis to separate direct effects of male quality on pairing success from indirect effects due to high-quality males obtaining high-quality territories. Both direct and indirect pathways had significant effects on pairing success, and direct and indirect effects of male traits on pairing success were about equal. This study illustrates an analytical approach for estimating the relative importance of direct and indirect causal relationships in natural systems.

  9. Decomposition and arthropod succession in Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bygarski, Katherine; LeBlanc, Helene N

    2013-03-01

    Forensic arthropod succession patterns are known to vary between regions. However, the northern habitats of the globe have been largely left unstudied. Three pig carcasses were studied outdoors in Whitehorse, Yukon Territory. Adult and immature insects were collected for identification and comparison. The dominant Diptera and Coleoptera species at all carcasses were Protophormia terraneovae (R-D) (Fam: Calliphoridae) and Thanatophilus lapponicus (Herbst) (Fam: Silphidae), respectively. Rate of decomposition, patterns of Diptera and Coleoptera succession, and species dominance were shown to differ from previous studies in temperate regions, particularly as P. terraenovae showed complete dominance among blowfly species. Rate of decomposition through the first four stages was generally slow, and the last stage of decomposition was not observed at any carcass due to time constraints. It is concluded that biogeoclimatic range has a significant effect on insect presence and rate of decomposition, making it an important factor to consider when calculating a postmortem interval.

  10. Compensated transnational surrogacy in Australia: time for a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Newson, Ainsley J

    2016-01-18

    Commercial or compensated surrogacy involves providing payment for a woman to gestate a fetus to term and then hand over the child to commissioning parent(s). Compensated surrogacy is currently restricted by law or regulation in all Australian states and territories. New South Wales, Queensland and the Australian Capital Territory also restrict commissioning transnational compensated surrogacy, although there is evidence that this is not acting as a deterrent. Ethical issues arising in transnational compensated surrogacy include concerns relating to exploitation, commodification and welfare. The current status quo is unsatisfactory on legal, ethical and practical grounds. It is time to openly debate how Australia should balance the desire for childbearing through surrogacy with the limited domestic availability of women willing to act as surrogates.

  11. Compensated transnational surrogacy in Australia: time for a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Newson, Ainsley J

    2016-01-18

    Commercial or compensated surrogacy involves providing payment for a woman to gestate a fetus to term and then hand over the child to commissioning parent(s). Compensated surrogacy is currently restricted by law or regulation in all Australian states and territories. New South Wales, Queensland and the Australian Capital Territory also restrict commissioning transnational compensated surrogacy, although there is evidence that this is not acting as a deterrent. Ethical issues arising in transnational compensated surrogacy include concerns relating to exploitation, commodification and welfare. The current status quo is unsatisfactory on legal, ethical and practical grounds. It is time to openly debate how Australia should balance the desire for childbearing through surrogacy with the limited domestic availability of women willing to act as surrogates. PMID:26763818

  12. Seismic of the territory Toktogul reservoir, Kyrgyzstan

    SciTech Connect

    Kamchybekov, Murataly; Yegemberdiyeva, Kuliya

    2008-07-08

    In connection with that this seismic in the territory of Naryn cascade maybe has its peculiarity in cludding in the territory Toktogul reservoir before of the building of the Toktogul dam, during of the building and after accordingly was decided to consider the seismic in this space of times. The arm of the present paper is estimation seismic of the territory Toktogul reservoir for different times: before of the building of the Toktogul dam (1960-1973), during its filling (1974-1980) and since start it's of the uninterruptedly exploitation to present time (1981-2006). The territory in that located the cascade of Naryn River is considered that seismic active in the Central part of the Tien Shan. The tectonic motions are become here intensity. The presence of the large faults is complicating significantly the seismic situation of the study region.

  13. Territorial Invasion in the Classroom: Invadee Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Gilda Moss

    1980-01-01

    Reported are the results of a study testing dominance and subordination among the spatially central and peripheral in 14 college classrooms. Differences in the defense of territory, upon invasion, between spatially central and spatially peripheral humans were investigated. (BT)

  14. [Dengue fever in the Primorye Territory].

    PubMed

    Popov, A F; Simakova, A I; Kiriakov, V Iu; Petukhova, S A; Dadalova, O B; Sokotun, S A; Shapovalenko, A M

    2014-01-01

    Eighteen cases of dengue fever were imported to the Primorye Territory in 2012-2013. The cases were related to visits to Thailand, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Of the 18 patients, 17 and 1 had classic and hemorrhagic dengue fever, respectively.

  15. 27 CFR 6.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territorial extent. 6.2 Section 6.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to the several States of the United...

  16. 27 CFR 6.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Territorial extent. 6.2 Section 6.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to the several States of the United...

  17. 27 CFR 6.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Territorial extent. 6.2 Section 6.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to the several States of the United...

  18. 27 CFR 6.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Territorial extent. 6.2 Section 6.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to the several States of the United...

  19. 27 CFR 6.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Territorial extent. 6.2 Section 6.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.2 Territorial extent. This part applies to the several States of the United...

  20. [The territorial dimension of Quebec's international immigration].

    PubMed

    Seguin, A; Termote, M

    1993-09-01

    "This paper is devoted to the spatial distribution of Quebec's international immigrants, and to the main territorial stakes related to this type of migration. After analysing international immigration as a flow (distribution of the cohorts of immigrants who entered Quebec during a given period) as well as a stock (distribution of all immigrants surviving in Quebec and their redistribution through internal migration), a critical analysis of the territorial stakes as defined by various agents (active at different levels) is proposed." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  1. Assessment of Local Mosquito Species Incriminates Aedes aegypti as the Potential Vector of Zika Virus in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Pyke, Alyssa T.; Moore, Peter R.; Mackay, Ian M.; McMahon, Jamie L.; Ritchie, Scott A.; Taylor, Carmel T.; Moore, Frederick A.J.; van den Hurk, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Within the last 10 years Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused unprecedented epidemics of human disease in the nations and territories of the western Pacific and South America, and continues to escalate in both endemic and non-endemic regions. We evaluated the vector competence of Australian mosquitoes for ZIKV to assess their potential role in virus transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings Mosquitoes were exposed to infectious blood meals containing the prototype African ZIKV strain. After 14 days incubation at 28°C and high relative humidity, infection, dissemination and transmission rates were assessed. Infection in Culex annulirostris and Cx. sitiens could not be detected. 8% of Cx. quinquefasciatus were infected, but the virus did not disseminate in this species. Despite having infection rates > 50%, Aedes notoscriptus and Ae. vigilax did not transmit ZIKV. In contrast, Ae. aegypti had infection and transmission rates of 57% and 27%, respectively. In susceptibility trials, the virus dose required to infect 50% (ID50) of Ae. aegypti was106.4 tissue culture infectious dose50 (TCID50)/mL. Additionally, a threshold viral load within the mosquito of at least 105.1 TCID50 equivalents/mL had to be reached before virus transmission occurred. Conclusions/Significance We confirmed Ae. aegypti to be the most likely mosquito vector of ZIKV in Australia, although the restricted distribution of this species will limit the receptive zone to northern Queensland where this species occurs. Importantly, the role in ZIKV transmission of Culex and other Aedes spp. tested will be negligible. Despite being the implicated vector, the relatively high ID50 and need for a high titer disseminated infection in Ae. aegypti suggest that high mosquito population densities will be required to facilitate epidemic ZIKV transmission among the currently immunologically naïve human population in Australia. PMID:27643685

  2. Dispensing death, desiring death: an exploration of medical roles and patient motivation during the period of legalized euthanasia in Australia.

    PubMed

    Street, A; Kissane, D W

    A qualitative case study was conducted to explore the clinical decision making processes that underpinned the practice of euthanasia under the Rights of the Terminally Ill (ROTI) Act. The key informant for this research was Philip Nitschke, the general practitioner responsible for the legal cases of euthanasia. His information was supported by extensive document analysis based on the public texts created by patients in the form of letters and documentaries. Further collaborating sources were those texts generated by the media, rights groups, politicians, the coroner's cort, and the literature on euthanasia and assisted suicide. A key study finding was that the ROTI legislation did not adequately provide for the specific medical situation in the Northern Territory, Australia. The medical roles, as proscribed by the legislation, carried many inherent assumptions about the health care context and the availability of appropriately qualified medical staff committed to providing euthanasia. These assumptions translated into difficulties in establishing clinical practices for the provision of euthanasia. A further finding concerned the motivations of those who requested euthanasia. This article addresses the medical roles and the motivations of those seeking euthanasia. PMID:12578011

  3. Thylacinus (Marsupialia: Thylacinidae) from the Mio-Pliocene boundary and the diversity of Late Neogene thylacinids in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Thylacinus yorkellus is described as a new, moderately small-bodied species of thylacinid from the latest Miocene or, more likely, earliest Pliocene of South Australia. The new species can be diagnosed by the autapomorphic presence a strongly developed precingulid that terminates in a cuspidule on the anterobuccal face of the paraconid of the lower molars and a tiny basal anterior cuspidule on P2, P3 and the lower molars. It is found by cladistic analysis to be the sister species of the recently extinct Th. cynocephalus and distinct from the approximately coeval Th. megiriani from the Northern Territory. New dentary material is described and referred to Th. megiriani. These add character data and allow this species to be re-diagnosed based on autapomorphic character traits. Each of the three known late Miocene to early Pliocene Thylacinus species (Th. potens, Th. megiriani and Th. yorkellus) suggest that, instead of declining, there was a modest radiation of Thylacinus in the late Miocene. PMID:26019996

  4. The Distribution and Density of Water Mice (Xeromys myoides) in the Maroochy River of Southeast Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Kaluza, Janina; Donald, R. Lesley; Gynther, Ian C.; Leung, Luke K-P.; Allen, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    The water mouse is a small and vulnerable rodent present in coastal areas of south-west Papua New Guinea, and eastern Queensland and the Northern Territory of Australia. Current knowledge regarding the distribution of the water mouse is incomplete and the loss of one local population has been documented in southeast Queensland, a region where pressures from urban and industrial development are increasing. Water mouse populations have not been studied intensively enough to enable the primary factors responsible for the local decline to be identified. We surveyed the distribution and density of the water mouse along the Maroochy River of southeast Queensland, near the southern extent of the species’ range, to gather baseline data that may prove valuable for detecting any future decline in this population’s size or health. All areas of suitable habitat were surveyed on foot or by kayak or boat over a three-year period. We found 180 water mouse nests, of which ~94% were active. Permanent camera monitoring of one nest and limited supplementary live trapping suggested that up to three individual mice occupied active nests. Water mouse density was estimated to be 0.44 per hectare of suitable habitat along the Maroochy River. Should future monitoring reveal an adverse change in the water mouse population on the Maroochy River, a concerted effort should be made to identify contributing factors and address proximate reasons for the decline. PMID:26789521

  5. New functionally dioecious bush tomato from northwestern Australia, Solanum ossicruentum, may utilize “trample burr” dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Martine, Christopher T.; Cantley, Jason T.; Frawley, Emma S.; Butler, Alice R.; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new Australian species of functionally dioecious bush tomato of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum ossicruentum Martine & J.Cantley, sp. nov., is thought to be allied with members of the problematic “Dioicum Complex” lineage, but differs in its short silvery indumentum, long calyx lobes, larger stature, and an unusual fruit morphology that may represent “trample burr” seed dispersal. The species occurs in a range extending from the eastern Kimberley in Western Australia to far northwestern Northern Territory and has been recognized for decades as a variant of Solanum dioicum W.Fitzg. Specimens of this species were previously referred to by D.E. Symon and others as Solanum dioicum ‘Tanami.’ Ex situ crossing studies and SEM images of inaperturate pollen grains produced in morphologically hermaphrodite flowers indicate that this taxon is functionally dioecious. The scientific name was chosen with the help of 150 seventh grade life science students from Pennsylvania, USA. PMID:27489475

  6. The Distribution and Density of Water Mice (Xeromys myoides) in the Maroochy River of Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kaluza, Janina; Donald, R Lesley; Gynther, Ian C; Leung, Luke K-P; Allen, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    The water mouse is a small and vulnerable rodent present in coastal areas of south-west Papua New Guinea, and eastern Queensland and the Northern Territory of Australia. Current knowledge regarding the distribution of the water mouse is incomplete and the loss of one local population has been documented in southeast Queensland, a region where pressures from urban and industrial development are increasing. Water mouse populations have not been studied intensively enough to enable the primary factors responsible for the local decline to be identified. We surveyed the distribution and density of the water mouse along the Maroochy River of southeast Queensland, near the southern extent of the species' range, to gather baseline data that may prove valuable for detecting any future decline in this population's size or health. All areas of suitable habitat were surveyed on foot or by kayak or boat over a three-year period. We found 180 water mouse nests, of which ~94% were active. Permanent camera monitoring of one nest and limited supplementary live trapping suggested that up to three individual mice occupied active nests. Water mouse density was estimated to be 0.44 per hectare of suitable habitat along the Maroochy River. Should future monitoring reveal an adverse change in the water mouse population on the Maroochy River, a concerted effort should be made to identify contributing factors and address proximate reasons for the decline.

  7. Teaching about Australia. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Warren R.

    Many reasons can be offered for teaching about Australia. The field of Australian studies offers many opportunities for U.S. teachers and students to critically analyze aspects of their own culture, for there are many experiences in the history of Australia that parallel the U.S. experience. Australia and the United States have strong ongoing…

  8. Hypolactasia in the indigenous populations of northern Russia.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, A I

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of hypolactasia (PH) in the indigenous populations of the polar and related territories of the Russian Federation was investigated by an oral lactose tolerance. The frequency of hypolactasia in Kildin Saami population is 48%, Komi-Izhem-63%, Northern Mansi-71%, Northern Khanty-72%, West Siberia Nenets-78%. Generally hypolactasia frequencies in indigenous groups of Arctic and Sub-Arctic territories of Russia are higher than in the "reference" samples of Slav (Russian, 40-49%) and Permian Finn (Komi-Permiak and Udmurtian, 50-59%) groups.

  9. Australia in the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kerry; Welch, Ian

    1988-01-01

    Discusses Australia's growth since European settlement and its development into a major world trader in industrial and high technology raw materials. Examines the country's expanding relations with New Zealand and other Pacific states which is the outgrowth of the realization that all will gain from greater international cooperation. (GEA)

  10. Library Automation in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Karen L.

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of Australia's move toward library automation highlights development of a national bibliographic network, local and regional cooperation, integrated library systems, telecommunications, and online systems, as well as microcomputer usage, ergonomics, copyright issues, and national information policy. Information technology plans of the…

  11. Agricultural Education in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, R. N.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a comprehensive survey of education and training for agriculture in Australia. The present facilities are described, and then set against estimates of present and future needs. Constructive proposals are made as to how these needs can best be met by agricultural…

  12. Australia's Regional Youth Exodus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines media coverage of youth outmigration from Tasmania in the context of Australia's regional crisis. Focuses on how young people are constructed by others and positioned in others' visions of their rural home towns. Discusses two recurring narratives: strategies to keep youth at home, and preoccupation with the "best and brightest" young…

  13. English in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jernudd, Bjorn H.

    This paper provides a review of "English Transported: Essays on Australasian English," edited by W. S. Ramson. The book is a collection of articles on the various types of English spoken mainly in Australia and New Zealand. Articles discuss such varieties as nineteenth and twentieth century Australian English, New Zealand English, Pidgin English…

  14. Australia: a full house.

    PubMed

    Short, R

    1994-01-01

    Australia had a population of 17.6 million in 1991. In 1992, Australia's population grew at the rate of 1.06%, 0.8% due to natural increase and 0.26% from immigration. The recent Australian Bureau of Statistics Report estimates that it will grow to 18.9 million by the end of the century and 23.1 million by 2025, assuming fertility remains at current levels and net migration stabilizes at 70,000 per annum from the year 2000. The World Bank estimates that Australia's population will stabilize at 25 million some time in the future. Since Australia's politicians and economists fail to understand that the country already has a large enough population, no national population policy has been declared. The Department of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs, responsible for all population issues, gives no thought to the long-term environmental consequences of the rapidly growing population and determines the annual migrant intake simply on the basis of the nation's economic needs, demands from new immigrants for admission of their next of kin, and humanitarian considerations with regard to refugees. Population growth in Australia needs to be checked as soon as possible. Reducing the annual migrant intake to below 50,000, Australia could achieve a stable population of approximately 23 million by 2040; the annual intake of 150,000 immigrants will grow the population to 37 million. The total fertility rate (TFR) has been below replacement level since 1976, but the population's skewed age distribution will cause it to continue to grow through natural increase at the current rate of approximately 0.8% per year for some time to come. Improving educational opportunities for women and ensuring that all have ready access to modern contraception could help produce a further decline in TFR. Moreover, education about contraception must be made a part of every school curriculum. Steps taken now may avert any future flood of millions of ecological refugees from Southeast Asia, particularly

  15. Vaccine preventable diseases and vaccination coverage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, Australia 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Latika; Chiu, Clayton; Habig, Andrew; Lowbridge, Christopher; Jayasinghe, Sanjay; Wang, Han; McIntyre, Peter; Menzies, Robert

    2013-12-31

    This report outlines the major positive impacts of vaccines on the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from 2007 to 2010, as well as highlighting areas that require further attention. Hepatitis A disease is now less common in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in their non-Indigenous counterparts. Hepatitis A vaccination for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children was introduced in 2005 in the high incidence jurisdictions of the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. In 2002–2005, there were 20 hospitalisations for hepatitis A in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged<5 years--over 100 times more common than in other children--compared to none in 2006/07–2009/10. With respect to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), there has been a reduction of 87% in notifications of IPD caused by serotypes contained in 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) since the introduction of the childhood 7vPCV program among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. However, due to a lower proportion of IPD caused by 7vPCV types prior to vaccine introduction, the decline in total IPD notifications has been less marked in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in other children. Higher valency vaccines (10vPCV and 13vPCV) which replaced 7vPCV from 2011 are likely to result in a greater impact on IPD and potentially also non-invasive disease, although disease caused by non-vaccine serotypes appears likely to be an ongoing problem. Among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged ≥50 years, there have been recent increases in IPD, which appear related to low vaccination coverage and highlight the need for improved coverage in this high-risk target group. Since routine meningococcal C vaccination for infants and the high-school catch-up program were implemented in 2003, there has been a significant decrease in cases caused by serogroup C. However, the predominant

  16. Vaccine preventable diseases and vaccination coverage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, Australia 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Latika; Chiu, Clayton; Habig, Andrew; Lowbridge, Christopher; Jayasinghe, Sanjay; Wang, Han; McIntyre, Peter; Menzies, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This report outlines the major positive impacts of vaccines on the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from 2007 to 2010, as well as highlighting areas that require further attention. Hepatitis A disease is now less common in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in their non-Indigenous counterparts. Hepatitis A vaccination for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children was introduced in 2005 in the high incidence jurisdictions of the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. In 2002–2005, there were 20 hospitalisations for hepatitis A in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged<5 years--over 100 times more common than in other children--compared to none in 2006/07–2009/10. With respect to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), there has been a reduction of 87% in notifications of IPD caused by serotypes contained in 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vPCV) since the introduction of the childhood 7vPCV program among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. However, due to a lower proportion of IPD caused by 7vPCV types prior to vaccine introduction, the decline in total IPD notifications has been less marked in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children than in other children. Higher valency vaccines (10vPCV and 13vPCV) which replaced 7vPCV from 2011 are likely to result in a greater impact on IPD and potentially also non-invasive disease, although disease caused by non-vaccine serotypes appears likely to be an ongoing problem. Among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged ≥50 years, there have been recent increases in IPD, which appear related to low vaccination coverage and highlight the need for improved coverage in this high-risk target group. Since routine meningococcal C vaccination for infants and the high-school catch-up program were implemented in 2003, there has been a significant decrease in cases caused by serogroup C. However, the predominant

  17. Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    The anti-choice lobby has expressed concern that the government may consider reviewing or reforming abortion law in Northern Ireland. The legal status of abortion is similar to that in Britain before the introduction of the 1967 Abortion Act. However, the commemoration of the 30th anniversary of abortion law reform in Britain presents an opportunity to discuss the benefits of such change in Northern Ireland. Such discussion may cause ministers to reconsider the status of abortion. Anticipating possible discussion, some anti-choice Northern Ireland Members of Parliament tabled Early Day Motion (EDM) 352 "Northern Ireland and the Abortion Act," opposing the introduction of abortion services into Northern Ireland. Member of Parliament Harry Barnes tabled an amendment to the motion noting that current abortion law in Northern Ireland violates the standards of international human rights law and that about 2000 women travel from Northern Ireland annually for abortions. EDM 352 has been signed by 17 Members of Parliament; the amendment, by 13. PMID:12321442

  18. Otosclerosis in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Gristwood, R E; Venables, W N

    1984-08-01

    In this paper we report on the prevalence of clinical otosclerosis in South Australia, and discuss some aspects of its distribution and character. Our data comes from an exhaustive search for stapedectomy patients in a relatively closed population within a fixed time span, and hence our figures represent a lower limit for the true prevalence and not an unbiased estimate. Nevertheless, even with no allowance for this downward bias it would seem that South Australia has a high prevalence of otosclerosis by world standards, particularly of obliterative cases. The highest prevalence is about 5 per 1 000 of population for men and 10 per 1 000 of population for women, which occurs in the 50-59 year old age group. In common with many other studies, our data shows a prevalence for females approximately twice that for males, over most age groups. PMID:6333941

  19. Geothermal development in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.L.; Creelman, R.A.; Buckingham, N.W.; Harrington, H.J. |

    1995-03-01

    In Australia, natural hot springs and hot artesian bores have been developed for recreational and therapeutic purposes. A district heating system at Portland, in the Otway Basin of western Victoria, has provided uninterrupted service for 12 Sears without significant problems, is servicing a building area of 18 990 m{sup 2}, and has prospects of expansion to manufacturing uses. A geothermal well has provided hot water for paper manufacture at Traralgon, in the Gippsland Basin of eastern Victoria. Power production from hot water aquifers was tested at Mulka in South Australia, and is undergoing a four-year production trial at Birdsville in Queensland. An important Hot Dry Rock resource has been confirmed in the Cooper Basin. It has been proposed to build an HDR experimental facility to test power production from deep conductive resources in the Sydney Basin near Muswellbrook.

  20. Coal as an option for power generation in US territories of the Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I. Y.

    1981-11-30

    A survey of general considerations relating to the use of coal in US territories and trust territories of the Pacific suggests that coal is a viable option for power generation. Future coal supplies, principally from Australia and the west coast of America, promise to be more than adequate, but large bulk carriers will probably not be able to land coal directly because of inadequate port facilities. Hence, smaller than Panamax-class vessels (60,000 dwt) or some arrangement utilizing self-loading barges or lighters would have to be used. Except for Guam, with peak power requirements on the order of 175 MW/sub e/, most territories have current, albeit inadequate, installations of 1 to 25 MW/sub e/ Turnkey, conventional-coal-fired, electrical-power generating systems are available in that size range. US environmental laws are now applicable to Guam and American Samoa; the trust territories are exempt. However, the small power requirements of many small islands will qualify for exemption from the New Source Performance Standards called for in the Clean Air Act. The principal problems with coal use in the territories, apart from the shallow draft of most harbors, are the limited amount of land available and the high capital costs associated with conversion. Ocean dumping of ash and sludge can be permitted under existing Environmental Protection Agency regulations, and barge-mounted power installations are not out of the question. The feasibility of converting from oil-fired to coal-fired electrical-power generating systems must be determined with site-specific information.

  1. Geophysical Studies in the Territory of Mtskheta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goguadze, Nino; Vepkhvadze, Sophie; Kachakhidze, Nino; Kachakhidze, Manana; Djakhutashvili, Mamuka

    2014-05-01

    The abstract concerns of survive problem of one ancient and main temple - Svetitskhoveli because of its wetting and south wall breaking out. The presented work takes into account the complex searching of Svetitskhoveli temple and surrounding territory in order to study buried archeological memorials (buried graves in deep depths) and geological structure of territory, to establish moist horizons and direction of moving of underground water. The tasks noted in the project will let us: 1) To separate water saturated geological horizons. 2) To specify the location of the source feeding of water saturated horizons. 3) To study direction of water moving in the water saturated horizons. 4) To establish the reason of temple and enclosure wall wetting. 5) To elaborate the plan of excluding of temple and enclosure wall wetting. 6) To reveal deep archeological objects in the temple and in the territory of yard.

  2. Using High Resolution Vegetation Images to study Ecogeomorphologic Thresholds in Semiarid Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azadi, Samira; Saco, Patricia; Moreno-de las Heras, Mariano; Willgoose, Garry

    2016-04-01

    Arid and Semiarid sites are very sensitive to climatic or anthropogenic pressures. Several previous studies argue that ecosystem function in these areas tends to display critical degradation thresholds which make rehabilitation efforts considerably difficult. This threshold behaviour is linked to coevolving eco-geomorphic processes triggered by climatic or anthropogenic disturbances. A common trigger is the removal of vegetation (by grazing or harvesting activities) which increases landscape hydrological connectivity and can induce a substantial loss of water and soil affecting ecosystem function (e.g. decreasing the rainfall-use efficiency of the landscape). Here we present results exploring the impact of degradation processes induced by grazing pressure on rainfall-use efficiency along a precipitation gradient (250 mm to 490 mm annual average rainfall). The sites were carefully selected in the mulga lands bioregion (New South Wales, Queensland) and in sites of the Northern Territory in Australia, and display similar vegetation characteristics and good quality rainfall information. Vegetation patterns and percentage cover are derived from high resolution remote sensing images (IKONOS, QuickBird and complement this information with high resolution images obtained from Google Earth). We compute rainfall use efficiency and precipitation marginal response using local precipitation data and MODIS vegetation indices. The analysis of the NDVI MODIS data shows the presence of a clear critical degradation threshold, associated with loss of vegetation cover in the drier sites. Below this threshold we found what we call "functional landscapes" with high vegetation cover that display high rainfall use efficiency. Above this threshold, we found "dysfunctional landscapes" with much lower rainfall use efficiency. We compare the different behaviours for several sites along the precipitation gradient, and find that the wetter sites do not tend to display this threshold behaviour

  3. Paleostress perturbations and salt tectonics in the Subhercynian Basin, northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, C.; Schmidt, C.; Tanner, D.; Winsemann, J.

    2012-04-01

    Paleostress field analysis provide valuable data about deformation phases of a sedimentary basin and are of particular interest to understand modern stress-field patterns. Salt domes commonly represent inhomogeneities in a basin-fill that can cause significant stress pertubations, which can seriously influence the choice of exploration targets and the course of drilling campaigns (Koupriantchik et al., 2007). The Subhercynian Basin, located between the Harz and Flechting basement highs in northern Germany, is an ideal natural laboratory to study the paleostress field in a structurally-complex, salt-dominated basin. The basin-fill is characterized by a set of alternating narrow and broad, NW-SE trending, salt-cored anticlines. We use a multi-scale approach that combines outcrop-scale observations with regional-scale deformation structures to analyse the central and northwestern part of the Subhercynian Basin. We determined paleostress data from the orientation of faults, slickensides, joints and stylolites. On a regional scale, the major normal paleo-stress vector was mainly horizontally NNE-SSW-oriented, which reflects the Late Creatceous inversion phase in Central Europe, but locally the paleostress field shows distinct perturbations that are related to the salt structures. In some cases, the maximum principle normal paleostress vector is deflected by up to 80° from the regional trend. Nevertheless, this deflection is predictable, because our dataset shows that the maximum principle normal paleostress is always perpendicular to the axes of the salt anticlines. Another perturbation occurs at the edges of the salt structures; towards the tips of anticlines, the maximum principle normal paleostress vector tends to rotate towards the trend of the anticline axis. Reference Koupriantchik, D., Hunt, S.P., Boult, P.J. & Meyers, A.G. (2007) Geomechanical modelling of salt diapirs: 3D salt structures from the Officer Basin, South Australia. In: Munson, T.J. and Ambrose, G

  4. Virulence and Evolution of West Nile Virus, Australia, 1960–2012

    PubMed Central

    Prow, Natalie A.; Edmonds, Judith H.; Williams, David T.; Setoh, Yin X.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Suen, Willy W.; Hobson-Peters, Jody; van den Hurk, Andrew F.; Pyke, Alyssa T.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Northill, Judith A.; Johansen, Cheryl A.; Warrilow, David; Wang, Jianning; Kirkland, Peter D.; Doggett, Stephen; Andrade, Christy C.; Brault, Aaron C.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, West Nile virus (WNV) causes encephalitis in humans, horses, and birds. The Kunjin strain of WNV (WNVKUN) is endemic to northern Australia, but infections are usually asymptomatic. In 2011, an unprecedented outbreak of equine encephalitis occurred in southeastern Australia; most of the ≈900 reported cases were attributed to a newly emerged WNVKUN strain. To investigate the origins of this virus, we performed genetic analysis and in vitro and in vivo studies of 13 WNVKUN isolates collected from different regions of Australia during 1960–2012. Although no disease was recorded for 1984, 2000, or 2012, isolates collected during those years (from Victoria, Queensland, and New South Wales, respectively) exhibited levels of virulence in mice similar to that of the 2011 outbreak strain. Thus, virulent strains of WNVKUN have circulated in Australia for >30 years, and the first extensive outbreak of equine disease in Australia probably resulted from a combination of specific ecologic and epidemiologic conditions. PMID:27433830

  5. 40 CFR 81.116 - Northern Missouri Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.116 Section 81.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.116 Northern Missouri Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northern Missouri Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  6. Effects of spatial disturbance on common loon nest site selection and territory success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, K.P.; DeStefano, S.

    2011-01-01

    The common loon (Gavia immer) breeds during the summer on northern lakes and water bodies that are also often desirable areas for aquatic recreation and human habitation. In northern New England, we assessed how the spatial nature of disturbance affects common loon nest site selection and territory success. We found through classification and regression analysis that distance to and density of disturbance factors can be used to classify observed nest site locations versus random points, suggesting that these factors affect loon nest site selection (model 1: Correct classification = 75%, null = 50%, K = 0.507, P < 0.001; model 2: Correct classification = 78%, null = 50%, K = 0.551, P < 0.001). However, in an exploratory analysis, we were unable to show a relation between spatial disturbance variables and breeding success (P = 0.595, R 2 = 0.436), possibly because breeding success was so low during the breeding seasons of 2007-2008. We suggest that by selecting nest site locations that avoid disturbance factors, loons thereby limit the effect that disturbance will have on their breeding success. Still, disturbance may force loons to use sub-optimal nesting habitat, limiting the available number of territories, and overall productivity. We advise that management efforts focus on limiting disturbance factors to allow breeding pairs access to the best nesting territories, relieving disturbance pressures that may force sub-optimal nest placement. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  7. Integrated water resource assessment for the Adelaide region, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, James W.; Akeroyd, Michele; Oliver, Danielle P.

    2016-10-01

    South Australia is the driest state in the driest inhabited country in the world, Australia. Consequently, water is one of South Australia's highest priorities. Focus on water research and sources of water in the state became more critical during the Millenium drought that occurred between 1997 and 2011. In response to increased concern about water sources the South Australian government established The Goyder Institute for Water Research - a partnership between the South Australian State Government, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Flinders University, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia. The Goyder Institute undertakes cutting-edge science to inform the development of innovative integrated water management strategies to ensure South Australia's ongoing water security and enhance the South Australian Government's capacity to develop and deliver science-based policy solutions in water management. This paper focuses on the integrated water resource assessment of the northern Adelaide region, including the key research investments in water and climate, and how this information is being utilised by decision makers in the region.

  8. The viruses of Australia and the risk to tourists.

    PubMed

    Smith, David W; Speers, David J; Mackenzie, John S

    2011-05-01

    Australia is a climatically diverse country varying from a tropical climate in the north to arid central desert and grassland regions, and to temperate climates in the south. There are many viral infections found in Australia that are common to developed countries worldwide, but this article will focus on those that pose a special risk for travellers to Australia, especially the mosquito-borne viruses. The commonest are the members of the alphavirus genus, particularly Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus, which cause predominantly arthralgia with or without fever or rash. Less frequent but more serious illness is seen with the encephalitic flaviviruses, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, and the Kunjin strain of West Nile virus. In addition dengue occurs intermittently on the northern part of Queensland, and in recent years Japanese encephalitis virus has been found in the Torres Strait Islands and the tip of far north Queensland. Also of interest, but with a much lower risk, are the bat-borne viruses, Hendra virus and Australian bat lyssavirus, that have caused a small number of human infections. However, it is important to remember that most tourists pass through other countries in the Asia/Pacific region on their way to and from Australia and may therefore have acquired infections prior to or after leaving Australia.

  9. Northern Exposures: Models of Experiential Learning in Indigenous Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kevin Barry

    2009-01-01

    This research involves the current educational challenges facing First Nation students of northern Canada through examination of two experiential and place-based educational programs presently being applied in both the public school system of the Yukon Territory (Experiential Programs in Whitehorse and surrounding communities) and in two Cree…

  10. Oocysts and high seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dogs living in remote Aboriginal communities and wild dogs in Australia.

    PubMed

    King, Jessica S; Brown, Graeme K; Jenkins, David J; Ellis, John T; Fleming, Peter J S; Windsor, Peter A; Slapeta, Jan

    2012-06-01

    Canines are definitive hosts of Neospora caninum (Apicomplexa). For horizontal transmission from canines to occur, viable oocysts of N. caninum must occur in the environment of susceptible intermediate hosts. Canids in Australia include wild dogs and Aboriginal community dogs. Wild dogs are those dogs that are not dependent on humans for survival and consist of the dingo, feral domestic dog and their hybrid genotypes. Aboriginal community dogs are dependent on humans, domesticated and owned by a family, but are free-roaming and have free access throughout the community. In this study the extent of N. caninum infection was determined in a total of 374 dogs (75 wild dogs and 299 Aboriginal community dogs) using a combination of microscopic, molecular and serological techniques. Oocysts of N. caninum were observed in the faeces of two juvenile Aboriginal community dogs (2/132; 1.5%). To estimate N. caninum prevalence, a new optimised cut-off of 18.5% inhibition for a commercial competitive ELISA was calculated using a two-graph receiver-operating characteristic (TG-ROC) analysis and IFAT as the gold standard resulting in equal sensitivity and specificity of 67.8%. Of the 263 dog sera tested the true prevalence of N. caninum antibodies was 27.0% (95% confidence limit: 10.3-44.1%). The association between the competitive ELISA results in dogs less than 12 month old and older dogs was significant (P=0.042). To our knowledge this is the first large scale parasitological survey of the Aboriginal community dogs and wild dogs from Australia. The high prevalence of N. caninum infection in Aboriginal community dogs illustrates that horizontal transmission of N. caninum is occurring in Australia. These results demonstrated that N. caninum in dogs is widespread, including the semi-arid to arid regions of north-western New South Wales and the Northern Territory. The populations of free-ranging dogs are likely to be important contributors to the sylvatic life cycle of N. caninum

  11. Area Handbook for the Indian Ocean Territories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Theodore L.; And Others

    This volume, one of a series of handbooks on foreign culture, is intended as a reference tool for military and other personnel requiring an objective, comprehensive, and balanced description of the Indian Ocean Territories, namely, the two republics of Meldives and Mauritius, and the two European dependencies of Seychelles and Reunion. An…

  12. Gaming and Territorial Negotiations in Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarsand, Pal Andre; Aronsson, Karin

    2009-01-01

    This article examines territorial negotiations concerning gaming, drawing on video recordings of gaming practices in middle-class families. It explores how private vs public gaming space was co-construed by children and parents in front of the screen as well as through conversations about games. Game equipment was generally located in public…

  13. 21 CFR 26.79 - Territorial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT EVALUATION REPORTS: UNITED STATES AND THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY â... apply, on the one hand, to the territories in which the Treaty establishing the European Community...

  14. Probabilistic Simulation of Territorial Seismic Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, Alessandro; Corbi, Ileana

    2008-07-08

    The paper is focused on a stochastic process for the prevision of seismic scenarios on the territory and developed by means of some basic assumptions in the procedure and by elaborating the fundamental parameters recorded during some ground motions occurred in a seismic area.

  15. Vocational Training and the Territorial Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Training, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This document contains nine articles about vocational training (VT) policy and the impact of decentralization and issues of territory on VT in the European Community (EC) member states. The following articles are included: "Vocational Training and Regional Policies: The Same Challenge..." (Landaburu); "Vocational Training in a Regional Europe:…

  16. 27 CFR 646.142 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Territorial extent. 646.142 Section 646.142 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO...

  17. 27 CFR 646.142 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territorial extent. 646.142 Section 646.142 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO...

  18. [Backup territorial coordination, nursing roles and skills].

    PubMed

    Benyahia, Amina; Abraham, Éliane

    2016-06-01

    Backup territorial coordination provides accompaniment and support for professionals who work with the fragile elderly people in an area. It aligns the sanitary, medical-social and social approaches, and mobilizes useful resources to optimize the treatment pathway. It has been implemented in the Nancy urban area by an operational team including nurses and a geriatric physician.

  19. Paleozoic oil in Uzbekistan and adjacent territories

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhkov, O.A.; Khaimov, R.N.; Vitchinkin, M.M.; Zuev, Yu.N.

    1983-01-01

    Direct evidence of the presence of oil in the region is characteristically widespread within a broad stratigraphic span as well as territorially. This Paleozoic oil is of the naphthene aromatic type, in contrast with the Mesozoic and Tertiary oils of Uzbekistan, suggesting a justifiable hypothesis of an independent Paleozoic cycle of oleogenesis involving accumulation of hydrocarbons.

  20. 21 CFR 26.79 - Territorial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Territorial application. 26.79 Section 26.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  1. 21 CFR 26.79 - Territorial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Territorial application. 26.79 Section 26.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  2. 21 CFR 26.79 - Territorial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Territorial application. 26.79 Section 26.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  3. 21 CFR 26.79 - Territorial application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Territorial application. 26.79 Section 26.79 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE...

  4. [Backup territorial coordination, nursing roles and skills].

    PubMed

    Benyahia, Amina; Abraham, Éliane

    2016-06-01

    Backup territorial coordination provides accompaniment and support for professionals who work with the fragile elderly people in an area. It aligns the sanitary, medical-social and social approaches, and mobilizes useful resources to optimize the treatment pathway. It has been implemented in the Nancy urban area by an operational team including nurses and a geriatric physician. PMID:27338688

  5. Politics, Global Territories and Educational Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buenfil-Burgos, Rosa Nidia

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the author argues that the problematization of territorial movements in the process of globalization can provide important insights to understand some educational aspects of contemporary migration, especially if the theoretical ingredients involved in the political analysis of the signifying dimension of this process are articulated…

  6. Learning: Tradition & Change in the Northwest Territories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Legislative Assembly, Yellowknife. Special Committee on Education.

    In 1981-82 the Legislative Assembly's Special Committee on Education held 43 public hearings throughout the Northwest Territories to gather information on all aspects of public concern about education. Written in English and Inupiaq, this document outlines problems related to: (1) preparation for a traditional Native life versus preparation for…

  7. Child Homicide on the Territory of Belgrade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baralic, Ivanka; Savic, Slobodan; Alempijevic, Djordje M.; Jecmenica, Dragan S.; Sbutega-Milosevic, Gorica; Obradovic, Miroljub

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the incidence and other epidemiological and medico-legal characteristics of child homicide in the territory of Belgrade, Republic of Serbia. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all autopsies carried out at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Belgrade during a 15 year period between 1991 and 2005,…

  8. Electromagnetic induction in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilley, F. E. M.

    Electromagnetic induction at the terrestrial surface is a general and ubiquitous process. This note, which covers research on the subject in Australia, reflects the writer's own interest and refers particularly to induction by natural source fields in the period range of 1 minute to 1 day.Such source fields arise external to Earth, in the ionosphere and beyond, in the magnetosphere. The process of electromagnetic induction by these fields involves the flow through Earth of tens of thousands of amperes, over scale lengths of thousands of kilometers.

  9. Evaluation of Seismic Risk of Siberia Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Soloviev, V. M.; Emanov, A. F.

    The outcomes of modern geophysical researches of the Geophysical Survey SB RAS, directed on study of geodynamic situation in large industrial and civil centers on the territory of Siberia with the purpose of an evaluation of seismic risk of territories and prediction of origin of extreme situations of natural and man-caused character, are pre- sented in the paper. First of all it concerns the testing and updating of a geoinformation system developed by Russian Emergency Ministry designed for calculations regarding the seismic hazard and response to distructive earthquakes. The GIS database contains the catalogues of earthquakes and faults, seismic zonation maps, vectorized city maps, information on industrial and housing fund, data on character of building and popula- tion in inhabited places etc. The geoinformation system allows to solve on a basis of probabilistic approaches the following problems: - estimating the earthquake impact, required forces, facilities and supplies for life-support of injured population; - deter- mining the consequences of failures on chemical and explosion-dangerous objects; - optimization problems on assurance technology of conduct of salvage operations. Using this computer program, the maps of earthquake risk have been constructed for several seismically dangerous regions of Siberia. These maps display the data on the probable amount of injured people and relative economic damage from an earthquake, which can occur in various sites of the territory according to the map of seismic zona- tion. The obtained maps have allowed determining places where the detailed seismo- logical observations should be arranged. Along with it on the territory of Siberia the wide-ranging investigations with use of new methods of evaluation of physical state of industrial and civil establishments (buildings and structures, hydroelectric power stations, bridges, dams, etc.), high-performance detailed electromagnetic researches of ground conditions of city

  10. Tourmalinites from the Golden Dyke Dome, Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plimer, I. R.

    1986-10-01

    Tourmalinites occur at five stratigraphic levels within the low metamorphic grade multiply deformed Lower Proterozoic metasediments and metavolcanics of the Golden Dyke Dome. The geological setting, exhalite associations, sedimentary structures and tourmaline chemistry all preclude a granitic origin. Tourmalinite derived from the isochemical metamorphism of an exhalite comprising silica and tourmaline. Tourmalinite and other exhalites are hosted by carbonaceous pelitic metasediments and were deposited in deeper basinal areas. The ore fluid was probably dolerite-heated seawater which leached a thick pile of argillaceous sediments and acquired metals and boron by leaching. The first and second increase in geothermal gradient produced tourmalinite, the third produced auriferous tourmalinite and iron formations with tourmalinite and exhalative Pb-Zn deposits forming during the period of maximum geothermal gradient. More tourmalinite formed during the subsequent decline in geothermal gradient. Tourmalinites are regarded as B-rich iron formations which can be the host for or associated with exhalative deposits of Au and base metals.

  11. Process water treatment at the Ranger uranium mine, Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Topp, H; Russell, H; Davidson, J; Jones, D; Levy, V; Gilderdale, M; Davis, S; Ring, R; Conway, G; Macintosh, P; Sertorio, L

    2003-01-01

    The conceptual development and piloting of an innovative water treatment system for process water produced by a uranium mine mill is described. The process incorporates lime/CO2 softening (Stage 1), reverse osmosis (Stage 2) and biopolishing (Stage 3) to produce water of quality suitable for release to the receiving environment. Comprehensive performance data are presented for each stage. The unique features of the proposed process are: recycling of the lime/CO2 softening sludge to the uranium mill as a neutralant, the use of power station off-gas for carbonation, the use of residual ammonia as the pH buffer in carbonation; and the recovery and recycling of ammonia from the RO reject stream.

  12. Microbial Remains in Middle Proterozoic Rocks of Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Astafieva, Marina; Rozanov, Alexei Yu.; Hoover, Richard B.; Vickers-Rich, P.; Wilde, A.

    2004-01-01

    Investigation of the samples of the McArthur River complex ore deposit, one of the most zinc-lead m i n d provinces in the world, brings us to conclusion about the possibility of the biogenic origin of sulfides in McArthur River ore deposit and to make suppositions about the formation of the studied rocks in the photic zone of sea.

  13. Planning Australia's hospital workforce.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mary; Gavel, Paul; Conn, Warwick

    2002-01-01

    Growing government support has been evident during the past decade for macro-level workforce planning to ensure that future populations have access to appropriate health care services. Population ageing is impacting on workforce requirements and on workforce supply within Australia and internationally. Changes in financing and the organisation of health services are impacting on the availability of training and on the quality of working life. The age and gender profile and career expectations of young Australians are changing. These factors are all adding to the importance and complexity of workforce planning. This paper draws on data from various sources to describe Australia's hospital workforce, to explore supply-side workforce trends and to discuss some contemporary issues of concern to policy makers and workforce planners. The paper finds that in recent years there has been a 3 per cent decline in the number of full time equivalent staff in public hospitals, while the number in the private hospital workforce has increased by 28 per cent. The paper concludes that, nationally, there are serious limitations in the data available to describe and monitor the hospital workforce and that there is a need to remedy this situation.

  14. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  15. Carbonate platform development in northeast Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, P.J.; Symonds, P.A.; Feary, D.A.; Pigram, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    In northeast Australia, the Great Barrier Reef and the Queensland and Marion plateaus comprise carbonate platforms separated by major rift basins. Cenozoic platform evolution has been dependent upon (1) northward drift of Australia from temperate into tropical latitudes; (2) subsidence pulses in the Eocene/Oligocene and the Pliocene/Pleistocene; (3) sea level oscillations; (4) continental and oceanic influences; and (5) paleophysiography and paleo-ocean chemistry. The evolution of each platform reflects the interaction of these factors on its development. Further, the evolution of the Queensland Plateau has markedly affected that of the Great Barrier Reef through its influence on circulation patterns. In the Eocene/Oligocene, and shelf on which the Great Barrier Reef grew protected the Marion Plateau from terrigenous influences, while in the late Miocene to early Pliocene the Marion Plateau formed the springboard from which the central and southern Great Barrier Reef developed. Models of platform development must take account of 1)early Eocene reef initiation on the Queensland Plateau concomitant with marine transgression into the adjacent rift troughs; 2)Eocene/Oligocene subsidence resulting in stepback of the reefs from the flank of the Queensland Plateau and reestablishment at higher bathymetric levels, concomitant clastic sedimentation along the tropical northern continental margin and temperate(.) carbonate progradation along the margin of the Marion Plateau; 3)extensive growth of Miocene reef complexes on the Queensland Plateau and the initiation of reef complexes on the Marion Plateau and on the northern section of the Great Barrier Reef; and 4)Pliocene subsidence leading to contraction of the area of reef growth on the Queensland Plateau, with almost total drowning of the Marion Plateau and stepback of the Miocene barrier and platform reefs to their present position on the central Great Barrier Reef.

  16. 15 CFR 303.4 - Determination of territorial distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS WATCHES, WATCH MOVEMENTS AND JEWELRY PROGRAM Watches and Watch Movements § 303.4 Determination of territorial... considering, inter alia, the territorial capacity to produce and ship watch units. The Secretaries...

  17. 15 CFR 303.4 - Determination of territorial distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS WATCHES, WATCH MOVEMENTS AND JEWELRY PROGRAM Watches and Watch Movements § 303.4 Determination of territorial... considering, inter alia, the territorial capacity to produce and ship watch units. The Secretaries...

  18. 15 CFR 303.4 - Determination of territorial distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS WATCHES, WATCH MOVEMENTS AND JEWELRY PROGRAM Watches and Watch Movements § 303.4 Determination of territorial... considering, inter alia, the territorial capacity to produce and ship watch units. The Secretaries...

  19. 15 CFR 303.4 - Determination of territorial distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS WATCHES, WATCH MOVEMENTS AND JEWELRY PROGRAM Watches and Watch Movements § 303.4 Determination of territorial... considering, inter alia, the territorial capacity to produce and ship watch units. The Secretaries...

  20. The ecological and evolutionary stability of interspecific territoriality.

    PubMed

    Losin, Neil; Drury, Jonathan P; Peiman, Kathryn S; Storch, Chaya; Grether, Gregory F

    2016-03-01

    Interspecific territoriality may play an important role in structuring ecological communities, but the causes of this widespread form of interference competition remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the phenotypic, ecological and phylogenetic correlates of interspecific territoriality in wood warblers (Parulidae). Interspecifically territorial species have more recent common ancestors and are more similar phenotypically, and are more likely to hybridise, than sympatric, non-interspecifically territorial species. After phylogenetic corrections, however, similarity in plumage and territorial song are the only significant predictors of interspecific territoriality besides syntopy (fine-scale geographic overlap). Our results do not support the long-standing hypothesis that interspecific territoriality occurs only under circumstances in which niche divergence is restricted, which combined with the high incidence of interspecific territoriality in wood warblers (39% of species), suggests that this interspecific interaction is more stable, ecologically and evolutionarily, than commonly assumed. PMID:26757047

  1. Australia: The Dictation Test Redux?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Tim

    2009-01-01

    In its late colonial history and early years as an independent nation, Australia practised a policy of ruthless exclusion of immigrants on the basis of race by means of a language test: the notorious Dictation Test. In the 50 years following World War II, Australia adopted policies encouraging immigration with bipartisan political support.…

  2. Changes in Snow Cover Characteristics Over the Russian Territory in Recent Decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulygina, O. N.; Razuvaev, V. N.; Groisman, P. Y.

    2007-12-01

    The state of snow cover is one of the most important characteristics of the Northern Eurasia climate. The present work sheds light on the snow variations by using empirical and statistical analysis of time series of daily snow depth over Russia. For 400 Russian stations, time series of the daily snow depth and of the extent to which the near-station territory is covered by snow have been prepared in RIHMI-WDC for the period 1951-2006. Our analyses revealed the following regional features in the change of snow cover characteristics. Increases in winter precipitation and surface air temperature affected the variability of snow characteristics. In particular, tendencies towards the increase in the average snow depth over the Russian territory are prevailing, while only a few Russian regions show a decrease in winter snow depth. The largest variations in the average snow depth occur in the late winter - early spring period. In the recent three decades a substantial part of the Russian territory exhibits a shorter snow-cover period. The regionally-averaged snow cover characteristics were analyzed across the seven quasi-homogeneous climatic regions of Russia as well as for the entire nation. In the European part of Russia and in the Russian Far East, the increase in the average snow depth is controlled by winter and autumn precipitation growth. Time series of the number of days with different snow depths have been derived from daily snow depth observations. In the past decades, the number of days with the snow depth above 1 cm tends to decrease in the west of European Russia, in the Urals, Siberia and the Chukotka Peninsula (i.e., over most of Russia), while the number of days with significant snow depth (above 20 cm) tends to increase slightly. Taking into account that the Russian territory dominates the snow-covered areas of Eurasia, we conclude that across most of Northern Eurasia the snowy season became shorter but more "intense".

  3. Microdiversity of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto in Australia.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Rojas, C A; Ebi, D; Gauci, C G; Scheerlinck, J P; Wassermann, M; Jenkins, D J; Lightowlers, M W; Romig, T

    2016-07-01

    Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato) is now recognized as an assemblage of cryptic species, which differ considerably in morphology, development, host specificity (including infectivity/pathogenicity for humans) and other aspects. One of these species, E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), is now clearly identified as the principal agent causing cystic echinococcosis in humans. Previous studies of a small section of the cox1 and nadh1 genes identified two variants of E. granulosus s.s. to be present in Australia; however, no further work has been carried out to characterize the microdiversity of the parasite in its territory. We have analysed the sequence of the full length of the cox1 gene (1609 bp) from 37 isolates of E. granulosus from different hosts and geographic regions of Australia. The analysis shows that seven haplotypes of E. granulosus s.s. not previously described were found, together with five haplotypes known to be present in other parts of the world, including the haplotype EG01 which is widespread and present in all endemic regions. These data extend knowledge related to the geographical spread and host range of E. granulosus s.s. in a country such as Australia in which the parasite established around 200 years ago.

  4. 12 CFR 616.6200 - Out-of-territory leasing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Out-of-territory leasing. 616.6200 Section 616.6200 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LEASING § 616.6200 Out-of-territory leasing. A System institution may make leases outside its chartered territory....

  5. 46 CFR 308.504 - Definition of territories and possessions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of territories and possessions. 308.504... possessions. Whenever reference is made to the territories and possessions of the United States in this..., said territories and possessions shall be deemed to include only the Virgin Islands of the...

  6. The Territorial Sea: Prospects for the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Richard K.

    The history of the territorial sea and legislative practices associated with its boundaries are examined in this study. The survey includes information related to: (l) the history of territorial zones (tracing evolutionary development and impacts); (2) United States practices (examining the purpose of authority asserted in the territorial sea);…

  7. Territoriality: Necessary Concept in Conflict Theories of Organization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumbaugh, Robert B.

    This paper examines the Ardrey Concept of territoriality -- that in his dealing with others, man is driven by a "territorial imperative" -- for its possible relevance to the design of more powerful conflict theories of organization. The importance of territoriality is explored as a conceivable precondition necessary to eventual understanding. An…

  8. Serving rural Australia with reproductive health expertise.

    PubMed

    Mirza, T; Kovacs, G T; Kinfu, Y

    2001-10-01

    This study aimed to review the use of reproductive health services in Family Planning clinics by women from rural (non-metropolitan) Australia through a retrospective analysis of data collected at clinics of seven state/territory Family Planning Organisations (FPO). From a total of 146 157 client visits to FPO clinics between July 1998 and June 1999, 42 497 (29.1%) were by clients who lived outside metropolitan areas. Some 97% of clients were women. Our results show the use of reproductive health services by women from rural areas was different from the services used by women from metropolitan areas. There were fewer male clients, more women over 40 years of age, and fewer clients from a non-English speaking background. More of the attendees had pension cards and fewer were privately insured. We concluded there is considerable demand for reproductive health services among the rural population and reproductive health care needs to be expanded to reach rural women. PMID:11736848

  9. Australia's marine virtual laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, http://portal.aodn.org.au/webportal/) in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and

  10. Detention and treatment down under: human rights and mental health laws in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    McSherry, Bernadette; Wilson, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Mental health law reform in recent decades has drawn on the international human rights movement. The entering into force of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on May 3 2008 has been hailed by some as signalling a new era in relation to how domestic mental health laws should be reformed. Both Australia and New Zealand have ratified the CRPD and Australia has acceded to its Optional Protocol. New Zealand and the Australian Capital Territory and Victoria have statutory bills of rights which have an interpretive effect, but are unable to render other statutes invalid. Drawing on the results of interviews conducted with fifty-two representatives of consumer and carer organisations, lawyers, and mental health professionals across Australia and New Zealand, this paper examines the current thinking on human rights and mental health laws in these countries and outlines what changes, if any, may be brought to domestic legislation in light of the Convention.

  11. The Current Status of Mapping in the World - Spotlight on Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinder, J.

    2014-04-01

    Prior to 1950, there was very limited mapping in Australia covering only strategic areas. After World War II, the Federal Government funded the small scale mapping of the whole country. This involved the development of the Australian National Spheroid in 1966, the Australian Geodetic Datum in 1966 and 1984 (AGD66 and AGD84) which were replaced by the Australian Geocentric Datum in 1994 (GDA94). The mapping of the country was completed in 1987 with 100 % of the country mapped at 1:100,000 and 1:250,000 although about half of the 1:100,000 are unpublished products. The Federal Government through Geoscience Australia continues to provide digital data, such as the GEODATA 250K (now series 3). Mapping at larger scales is undertaken by the states and territories, including cadastral mapping. This paper will demonstrate the extent of mapping in Australia as part of the current UN global survey of mapping.

  12. Intimate partner violence in the Canadian territorial north: perspectives from a literature review and a media watch

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Pertice; Fikowski, Heather; Mauricio, Marshirette; Mackenzie, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Family violence is a complex, multidimensional and pervasive presence in many Aboriginal communities. Although practitioners acknowledge that intimate partner violence (IPV) is a grave concern in the North, as in other jurisdictions in Canada, there is a paucity of literature about IPV and the local response to that violence. Objective The purpose of this study is to report on a synthesis of Northern Territorial literature and a 3-year media watch conducted in the Canadian territories. Design This review is part of a multidisciplinary 5-year study occurring in the Northwest Territories (NT) and northern regions of the Prairie Provinces of Canada. The methods included a review of the literature through CINAHL, PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Social Sciences Index and JSTOR (1990–2012) combined with a media watch from 2009 to 2012. A thematic content analysis was completed. Results Themes included: colonization; alcohol and substance use; effects of residential schooling; housing inadequacies; help-seeking behaviors; and gaps within the justice system. Identified themes from the media watch were: murders from IPV; reported assaults and criminal charges; emergency protection orders; and awareness campaigns and prevention measures. Conclusion When synthesized, the results of the literature review and media surveillance depict a starting context and description of IPV in the Canadian territories. There are many questions left unanswered which build support for the necessity of the current research, outline the public outcry for action in local media and identify the current published knowledge about IPV. PMID:23986894

  13. Building a Continental Scale Land Cover Monitoring Framework for Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thankappan, Medhavy; Lymburner, Leo; Tan, Peter; McIntyre, Alexis; Curnow, Steven; Lewis, Adam

    2012-04-01

    Land cover information is critical for national reporting and decision making in Australia. A review of information requirements for reporting on national environmental indicators identified the need for consistent land cover information to be compared against a baseline. A Dynamic Land Cover Dataset (DLCD) for Australia has been developed by Geoscience Australia and the Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics and Sciences (ABARES) recently, to provide a comprehensive and consistent land cover information baseline to enable monitoring and reporting for sustainable farming practices, water resource management, soil erosion, and forests at national and regional scales. The DLCD was produced from the analysis of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data at 250-metre resolution derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for the period from 2000 to 2008. The EVI time series data for each pixel was modelled as 12 coefficients based on the statistical, phenological and seasonal characteristics. The time series were then clustered in coefficients spaces and labelled using ancillary information on vegetation and land use at the catchment scale. The accuracy of the DLCD was assessed using field survey data over 25,000 locations provided by vegetation and land management agencies in State and Territory jurisdictions, and by ABARES. The DLCD is seen as the first in a series of steps to build a framework for national land cover monitoring in Australia. A robust methodology to provide annual updates to the DLCD is currently being developed at Geoscience Australia. There is also a growing demand from the user community for land cover information at better spatial resolution than currently available through the DLCD. Global land cover mapping initiatives that rely on Earth observation data offer many opportunities for national and international programs to work in concert and deliver better outcomes by streamlining efforts on development and

  14. Migrant women in Australia.

    PubMed

    Misztal, B A

    1991-01-01

    The author compares the status of non-English speaking (NES) migrant women with that of their native-born counterparts in Australia. She concludes that "Australian born women and migrant women have certain experiences in common; low economic position, being the target of discriminatory practices in education and in work, and their overall marginality in the power structure. In addition their jobs have much in common: for all women are disadvantaged compared with men in terms of earnings, occupational status, and job mobility. However,...NES migrant women tend to be employed in much lower-level, lower-status, and lower-paying occupations than Australian born women.... They face circumstances unique to their ethnic groups which they share with the men of their ethnic groups. Migrant women, even more than indigenous working class women see the family as a site of solidarity and supportive alliance against a hostile or new environment...."

  15. Australia's Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef extends for 2,000 kilometers along the northeastern coast of Australia. It is not a single reef, but a vast maze of reefs, passages, and coral cays (islands that are part of the reef). This nadir true-color image was acquired by the MISR instrument on August 26, 2000 (Terra orbit 3679), and shows part of the southern portion of the reef adjacent to the central Queensland coast. The width of the MISR swath is approximately 380 kilometers, with the reef clearly visible up to approximately 200 kilometers from the coast. It may be difficult to see the myriad details in the browse image, but if you retrieve the higher resolution version, a zoomed display reveals the spectacular structure of the many reefs.

    The more northerly coastal area in this image shows the vast extent of sugar cane cultivation, this being the largest sugar producing area in Australia, centered on the city of Mackay. Other industries in the area include coal, cattle, dairying, timber, grain, seafood, and fruit. The large island off the most northerly part of the coast visible in this image is Whitsunday Island, with smaller islands and reefs extending southeast, parallel to the coast. These include some of the better known resort islands such as Hayman, Lindeman, Hamilton, and Brampton Islands.

    Further south, just inland of the small semicircular bay near the right of the image, is Rockhampton, the largest city along the central Queensland coast, and the regional center for much of central Queensland. Rockhampton is just north of the Tropic of Capricorn. Its hinterland is a rich pastoral, agricultural, and mining region.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  16. Negotiation of territorial boundaries in a songbird

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Jesse M.; Cropp, Brett F.; Koltz, John M.

    2014-01-01

    How do territorial neighbors resolve the location of their boundaries? We addressed this question by testing the predictions of 2 nonexclusive game theoretical models for competitive signaling: the sequential assessment game and the territorial bargaining game. Our study species, the banded wren, is a neotropical nonmigratory songbird living in densely packed territorial neighborhoods. The males possess repertoires of approximately 25 song types that are largely shared between neighbors and sequentially delivered with variable switching rates. Over 3 days, boundary disputes among pairs of neighboring males were synchronously recorded, their perch positions were marked, and their behavioral interactions were noted. For each countersinging interaction between 2 focal males, we quantified approach and retreat order, a variety of song and call patterns, closest approach distance, distance from the territorial center, and female presence. Aggressors produced more rattle-buzz songs during the approaching phase of interactions, whereas defenders overlapped their opponent’s songs. During the close phase of the interaction, both males matched frequently, but the key determinant of which one retreated first was song-type diversity—first retreaters sang with a higher diversity. Retreaters also produced more unshared song types during the interaction, and in the retreating phase of the interaction, they overlapped more. A negative correlation between song-type diversity asymmetry and contest duration suggested sequential assessment of motivational asymmetry. The use of this graded signal, which varied with distance from the center and indicated a male’s motivation to defend a particular position, supported the bargaining model. The bargaining game could be viewed as a series of sequential assessment contests. PMID:25419086

  17. Birth Territory: a theory for midwifery practice.

    PubMed

    Fahy, Kathleen M; Parratt, Jenny Anne

    2006-07-01

    The theory of Birth Territory describes, explains and predicts the relationships between the environment of the individual birth room, issues of power and control, and the way the woman experiences labour physiologically and emotionally. The theory was synthesised inductively from empirical data generated by the authors in their roles as midwives and researchers. It takes a critical post-structural feminist perspective and expands on some of the ideas of Michel Foucault. Theory synthesis was also informed by current research about the embodied self and the authors' scholarship in the fields of midwifery, human biology, sociology and psychology. In order to demonstrate the significance of the theory, it is applied to two clinical stories that both occur in hospital but are otherwise different. This analysis supports the central proposition that when midwives use 'midwifery guardianship' to create and maintain the ideal Birth Territory then the woman is most likely to give birth naturally, be satisfied with the experience and adapt with ease in the post-birth period. These benefits together with the reduction in medical interventions also benefit the baby. In addition, a positive Birth Territory is posited to have a broader impact on the woman's partner, family and society in general.

  18. Mapping superficial lymphatic territories in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Soto-Miranda, Miguel A; Suami, Hiroo; Chang, David W

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the anatomy of the lymphatic system in the rabbit with regard to relationships between the lymphatic vessel and lymph node. According to our previous studies in human cadavers and canines, the superficial lymphatic system could be divided into lymphatic territories. The aim of this study was to completely map the superficial lymphatic system in the rabbit. We used our microinjection technique and histological analysis for dissecting studies and recently developed indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent lymphography for demonstrating dynamic lymph flow in living rabbits. Real-time ICG fluorescent lymphography was performed in two living New Zealand White rabbits, and direct dye microinjection of the lymphatic vessels was performed in eight dead rabbits. To assess the relationships between the vascular and lymphatic systems in rabbits, we performed radiocontrast injection into arteries in two dead rabbits prior to the lymphatic injection. The ICG fluorescent lymphography revealed eight lymphatic territories in the preauricular, submandibular, root of the lateral neck, axillary, lumbar, inguinal, root of the tail, and popliteal regions. We injected blue acrylic dye into every lymphatic vessel 0.1 mm in diameter or larger. We then dissected and chased the stained lymphatic vessels proximally until the vessels connected to the first tier lymph node. This procedure was repeated throughout the body until all the relationships between the lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes were defined. The lymphatic system of the rabbit could be defined as eight lymphatic territories, each with its own lymphatic vessels and lymph node.

  19. Community food program use in Inuvik, Northwest Territories

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Community food programs (CFPs) provide an important safety-net for highly food insecure community members in the larger settlements of the Canadian Arctic. This study identifies who is using CFPs and why, drawing upon a case study from Inuvik, Northwest Territories. This work is compared with a similar study from Iqaluit, Nunavut, allowing the development of an Arctic-wide understanding of CFP use – a neglected topic in the northern food security literature. Methods Photovoice workshops (n=7), a modified USDA food security survey and open ended interviews with CFP users (n=54) in Inuvik. Results Users of CFPs in Inuvik are more likely to be housing insecure, female, middle aged (35–64), unemployed, Aboriginal, and lack a high school education. Participants are primarily chronic users, and depend on CFPs for regular food access. Conclusions This work indicates the presence of chronically food insecure groups who have not benefited from the economic development and job opportunities offered in larger regional centers of the Canadian Arctic, and for whom traditional kinship-based food sharing networks have been unable to fully meet their dietary needs. While CFPs do not address the underlying causes of food insecurity, they provide an important service for communities undergoing rapid change, and need greater focus in food policy herein. PMID:24139485

  20. Quantifying the effects of uniconazole on growth and yield of pyrethrum in Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of the plant growth regulator uniconazole (Sumagic®) was evaluated in replicated and field-scale demonstrations trials in each of three years (2009 to 2011) for manipulating pyrethrum canopy architecture and enhancing yield, in commercial fields across northern Tasmania, Australia. Tri...