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Sample records for northern territory australia

  1. Sporotrichosis from the Northern Territory of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Subedi, Shradha; Kidd, Sarah E.; Baird, Robert W.; Coatsworth, Nicholas; Ralph, Anna P.

    2014-01-01

    We report three cases of lymphocutaneous infection caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii from Australia's tropical Northern Territory. Two cases were acquired locally, making them the first to be reported from this region. All three cases presented with ulceration in the limb; however, the classical sporotrichoid spread was present only in the first two cases. Their occurrence within several weeks of each other was suggestive of a common source of environmental contamination such as hay used as garden mulch. Diagnoses were delayed in each case, with each patient having substantial exposure to ineffective antibiotics before the correct diagnosis was made. These cases bring the total number of reported sporotrichosis cases in Australia since 1951 to 199. Lessons from these cases are to consider the diagnosis of sporotrichosis in lesions of typical appearance, even in geographical settings from where this pathogen has not previously been reported. PMID:25200259

  2. Health inequity in the Northern Territory, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Understanding health inequity is necessary for addressing the disparities in health outcomes in many populations, including the health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. This report investigates the links between Indigenous health outcomes and socioeconomic disadvantage in the Northern Territory of Australia (NT). Methods Data sources include deaths, public hospital admissions between 2005 and 2007, and Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas from the 2006 Census. Age-sex standardisation, standardised rate ratio, concentration index and Poisson regression model are used for statistical analysis. Results There was a strong inverse association between socioeconomic status (SES) and both mortality and morbidity rates. Mortality and morbidity rates in the low SES group were approximately twice those in the medium SES group, which were, in turn, 50% higher than those in the high SES group. The gradient was present for most disease categories for both deaths and hospital admissions. Residents in remote and very remote areas experienced higher mortality and hospital morbidity than non-remote areas. Approximately 25-30% of the NT Indigenous health disparity may be explained by socioeconomic disadvantage. Conclusions Socioeconomic disadvantage is a shared common denominator for the main causes of deaths and principal diagnoses of hospitalisations for the NT population. Closing the gap in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations will require improving the socioeconomic conditions of Indigenous Australians. PMID:24034417

  3. Death, dying, and euthanasia: Australia versus the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Fleming, J I

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain what has happened in the euthanasia debate in the Australian States and Territories, and to give a more detailed account of how the Northern Territory's euthanasia laws were overturned by the Federal Government. Dr. Fleming begins with a review of euthanasia legislation in each State and Territory, then proceeds with an analysis of the events in the Northern Territory leading to reversal of its euthanasia laws, and includes the effect of the euthanasia law on the Aboriginal people. He concludes that the repeal of the 1995 Northern Territory's Rights of the Terminally Ill Act was a significant setback for the pro-euthanasia movement not only in Australia, but worldwide.

  4. Novel G10P[14] Rotavirus Strain, Northern Territory, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Celeste M.; Roczo-Farkas, Susie; Kirkwood, Carl D.

    2013-01-01

    We identified a genotype G10P[14] rotavirus strain in 5 children and 1 adult with acute gastroenteritis from the Northern Territory, Australia. Full genome sequence analysis identified an artiodactyl-like (bovine, ovine, and camelid) G10-P[14]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A11-N2-T6-E2-H3 genome constellation. This finding suggests artiodactyl-to-human transmission and strengthens the need to continue rotavirus strain surveillance. PMID:23876354

  5. Burkholderia pseudomallei Genotype Distribution in the Northern Territory, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Chapple, Stephanie N. J.; Price, Erin P.; Sarovich, Derek S.; McRobb, Evan; Mayo, Mark; Kaestli, Mirjam; Spratt, Brian G.; Currie, Bart J.

    2016-01-01

    Melioidosis is a tropical disease of high mortality caused by the environmental bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei. We have collected clinical isolates from the highly endemic Northern Territory of Australia routinely since 1989, and animal and environmental B. pseudomallei isolates since 1991. Here we provide a complete record of all B. pseudomallei multilocus sequence types (STs) found in the Northern Territory to date, and distribution maps of the eight most common environmental STs. We observed surprisingly restricted geographic distributions of STs, which is contrary to previous reports suggesting widespread environmental dissemination of this bacterium. Our data suggest that B. pseudomallei from soil and water does not frequently disperse long distances following severe weather events or by migration of infected animals. PMID:26526925

  6. Case report: Sporotrichosis from the Northern Territory of Australia.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Shradha; Kidd, Sarah E; Baird, Robert W; Coatsworth, Nicholas; Ralph, Anna P

    2014-12-01

    We report three cases of lymphocutaneous infection caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii from Australia's tropical Northern Territory. Two cases were acquired locally, making them the first to be reported from this region. All three cases presented with ulceration in the limb; however, the classical sporotrichoid spread was present only in the first two cases. Their occurrence within several weeks of each other was suggestive of a common source of environmental contamination such as hay used as garden mulch. Diagnoses were delayed in each case, with each patient having substantial exposure to ineffective antibiotics before the correct diagnosis was made. These cases bring the total number of reported sporotrichosis cases in Australia since 1951 to 199. Lessons from these cases are to consider the diagnosis of sporotrichosis in lesions of typical appearance, even in geographical settings from where this pathogen has not previously been reported.

  7. A New Species of Mesonivirus from the Northern Territory, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Roy A.; Davis, Steven S.; Weir, Richard; Kurucz, Nina; Whelan, Peter; Allcock, Richard; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; O’Brien, Caitlin A.; Hobson-Peters, Jody

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe Casuarina virus (CASV), a new virus in the family Mesoniviridae. This is the first report of a mesonivirus in Australia, which extends the geographical range of this virus family to 3 continents. The virus was isolated in 2010 from Coquillettidia xanthogaster mosquitoes during surveillance in the suburbs of Darwin, the capital of the Northern Territory. Cryo-electron microscopy of the CASV virions revealed spherical particles of 65 nm in size with large club-shaped projections of approximately 15 nm in length. The new virus was most closely related to Alphamesonivirus 1, the only currently recognized species in the family. In 2013 a further 5 putative new mesonivirus species were described: Hana, Méno, Nsé, Moumo and Dak Nong viruses. The evolutionary distance between CASV and two of its closest relatives, Cavally and Hana viruses (Jones-Taylor-Thornton distance of 0.151 and 0.224, respectively), along with its isolation from a different genus of mosquitoes captured on a separate continent indicate that CASV is a new species. PMID:24670468

  8. Characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates from infected skin lesions in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Claire L; Fagan, Peter; Hennessy, Jann; Baird, Robert

    2011-11-01

    Corynebacterium diphtheriae is commonly isolated from cutaneous skin lesions in the Northern Territory of Australia. We prospectively assessed 32 recent isolates from infected skin lesions, in addition to reviewing 192 isolates collected over 5 years for toxin status. No isolates carried the toxin gene. Toxigenic C. diphtheriae is now a rare occurrence in the Northern Territory.

  9. Distribution of heavy metals in Elcho Island, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Peerzada, N; Pakkiyaretnam, T; Skliros, S; Guinea, M; Ryan, P

    1992-06-01

    The concentration of four metals in waters and seven metals in oysters, clams and sediments from Elcho Island, Northern Territory, were determined during the dry season of 1987. The measured concentration of cadmium, zinc, copper and lead in unfiltered water were: cadmium, 0.02-0.27; zinc, 0.09-3.70; copper, 0.60-4.78; lead, 0.12-2.39 micrograms l-1, and iron, cadmium, zinc, manganese, copper, nickel and lead in oysters, 13.07-273.55, 0.29-10.63, 2.39-8.51, 0.25-4.84, 0.45-8.76, 0.16-0.59, 2.59-9.38 micrograms g-1 wet weight, and in clam, 94.84-419, 6.0-20.3, 1.09-6.28, 2515-6256, 0.47-3.18, 1.71-5.64, 0.45-2.17 micrograms g-1 wet weight, and in sediments, 3219.1-10871.1, 1.36-2.68, 2.7-6.55, 19.4-105.7, 0.65-1.91, 4.16-21.8 and 5.66-23.9 micrograms g-1 dry weight. Accumulation of manganese in razor clam was highest in spite of low concentration in the surrounding sediment, therefore it could be used as a bioindicator of manganese in a tropical environment. The level of cadmium and lead exceeded the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) recommended limit. In general, level of other metals were lower as compared to the concentration of these metals in Darwin Harbour.

  10. Promoting Assessment for Learning through Curriculum-Based Performance Standards: Teacher Responses in the Northern Territory of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Lisl

    2017-01-01

    Governments in Australia claim that standards-based reforms to schooling will result in greater use of assessment for and as learning. This study analyses the assessment practices that evolved within the planned curricula for senior secondary schooling in the Northern Territory of Australia during standards-based reforms. Case-study methodology…

  11. Promoting Assessment for Learning through Curriculum-Based Performance Standards: Teacher Responses in the Northern Territory of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Lisl

    2017-01-01

    Governments in Australia claim that standards-based reforms to schooling will result in greater use of assessment for and as learning. This study analyses the assessment practices that evolved within the planned curricula for senior secondary schooling in the Northern Territory of Australia during standards-based reforms. Case-study methodology…

  12. Field evaluation of commercial repellent formulations against mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Frances, S P; Waterson, D G E; Beebe, N W; Cooper, R D

    2005-12-01

    Field trials comparing commercially available repellent formulations containing picaridin (1-piperidinecarboxylate acid, 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-methylpropylester) and deet (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) against mosquitoes in Northern Territory, Australia, were conducted. Three repellents were compared: Autan Repel containing 9.3% picaridin, RID containing 10% deet, and Bushman Ultra containing 80% deet in a gel. The predominant mosquito species collected were Culex annulirostris Skuse (63.2%), Ochlerotatus normanensis (Taylor) (19.6%), and Anopheles meraukensis Venhuis (8.6%). Autan Repel provided >95% protection against all mosquitoes for 2 h, RID for 7 h, and Bushman for >8 h. Against Cx. annulirostris, Autan Repel provided >95% protection for 5 h, RID for 7 h, and Bushman for >8 h. The study showed that both deet formulations provided significantly better protection against mosquitoes than picaridin (Autan Repel). All 3 repellents provided good protection against Cx. annulirostris, an important vector of arboviruses in Australia.

  13. The comparative cost of food and beverages at remote Indigenous communities, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Megan; O'Dea, Kerin; Chatfield, Mark; Moodie, Marjory; Altman, Jon; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2016-04-01

    To determine the average price difference between foods and beverages in remote Indigenous community stores and capital city supermarkets and explore differences across products. A cross-sectional survey compared prices derived from point-of-sale data in 20 remote Northern Territory stores with supermarkets in capital cities of the Northern Territory and South Australia for groceries commonly purchased in remote stores. Average price differences for products, supply categories and food groups were examined. The 443 products examined represented 63% of food and beverage expenditure in remote stores. Remote products were, on average, 60% and 68% more expensive than advertised prices for Darwin and Adelaide supermarkets, respectively. The average price difference for fresh products was half that of packaged groceries for Darwin supermarkets and more than 50% for food groups that contributed most to purchasing. Strategies employed by manufacturers and supermarkets, such as promotional pricing, and supermarkets' generic products lead to lower prices. These opportunities are not equally available to remote customers and are a major driver of price disparity. Food affordability for already disadvantaged residents of remote communities could be improved by policies targeted at manufacturers, wholesalers and/or major supermarket chains. © 2015 The Authors.

  14. Meningitis and a Febrile Vomiting illness Caused by Echovirus Type 4, Northern Territory, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Joshua S.; Harnett, Gerry B.; Williams, Simon H.; Speers, David J.

    2010-01-01

    In July 2007, a cluster of meningitis cases caused by an echovirus 4 strain was detected in 1 indigenous community in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Illness was characterized by fever, vomiting, and headache. Over the next 4 months, additional cases of meningitis and the fever and vomiting syndrome emerged in other indigenous communities and subsequently in the major urban center of Darwin. We describe the epidemiology of 95 laboratory-confirmed meningitis cases and conclude that the epidemic fever and vomiting syndrome was caused by the same enterovirus. Nucleotide sequencing of the whole genome verified this enterovirus (AUS250G) as a strain of echovirus type 4. Viral protein 1 nucleotide sequencing demonstrated 96% homology with an echovirus 4 strain responsible for a large outbreak of meningitis in the Yanbian Prefecture of China in 1996. PMID:20031044

  15. Discrete fracture simulations of the hydrogeology at Koongarra, Northern Territory, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, J.L.

    1992-04-01

    The US Department of Energy is studying the Alligator Rivers Natural Analogue Project site at Koongarra, Northern Territory, Australia to investigate and simulate radionuclide migration in fractured rocks. Discrete fracture simulations were conducted within a cubic volume (180-m edge length) of fractured Cahill Formation schist oriented with one major axis parallel to the trend of the Koongarra Fault. Five hundred fractures are simulated within this domain. The fractures have a mean orientation parallel to the idealized plane of the Koongarra Fault dipping 55{degrees} SE. Simple flow modeling of this fracture network was conducted by assigning constant head boundaries to upgradient and downgradient vertical faces of the cube, which trend parallel to the fault. No-flow boundaries were assigned to all other faces. The fracture network allows hydraulic communication across the block, in spite of relatively low fracture density across the block.

  16. Comment on Boretti (2013), `Statistical analysis of the temperature records for the Northern Territory of Australia'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trewin, Blair C.; Jones, David A.

    2015-04-01

    Boretti (Theor Appl Clim 114:567-573, 2013) presents an analysis of observed temperature trends in the Northern Territory, Australia, and claims that this analysis is inconsistent with trends reported by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and thus that the Bureau of Meteorology results are flawed. This paper presents evidence that the results presented by Boretti (2013) are at least partly attributable to his failure to account for inhomogeneities in the underlying station data and to the use of time periods for trends which are different to those in the Bureau of Meteorology analyses with which he is comparing them. The evidence, as presented in this paper, therefore fails to support his conclusions of inconsistencies between the Bureau of Meteorology analyses and the station data.

  17. Discrete fracture simulations of the hydrogeology at Koongarra, Northern Territory, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, J.L.

    1992-04-01

    The US Department of Energy is studying the Alligator Rivers Natural Analogue Project site at Koongarra, Northern Territory, Australia to investigate and simulate radionuclide migration in fractured rocks. Discrete fracture simulations were conducted within a cubic volume (180-m edge length) of fractured Cahill Formation schist oriented with one major axis parallel to the trend of the Koongarra Fault. Five hundred fractures are simulated within this domain. The fractures have a mean orientation parallel to the idealized plane of the Koongarra Fault dipping 55{degrees} SE. Simple flow modeling of this fracture network was conducted by assigning constant head boundaries to upgradient and downgradient vertical faces of the cube, which trend parallel to the fault. No-flow boundaries were assigned to all other faces. The fracture network allows hydraulic communication across the block, in spite of relatively low fracture density across the block.

  18. What Can We Learn from "Innovative" Child Care Services? Children's Services Purposes and Practices in Australia's Northern Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasoli, Lyn; Moss, Bonita

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the diversity of services designed for young children currently operating in Australia in remote Northern Territory (NT) Indigenous communities as a provocation for the renewal and revitalisation of mainstream (typical Australian conventional, Western values oriented and urban-based) child care services. Australian society…

  19. Case Studies Involving Co-operation between Industry and Education in Australia's Northern Territory: The Role of the Professional Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, W. P.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide case studies of co-operation between education and industry in the Northern Territory in particular; the study also provides exemplars of co-operation between education and industry in Australia and worldwide. The existence of such co-operation is not surprising as education and industry share many common…

  20. Diabetic Foot Care: Developing Culturally Appropriate Educational Tools for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jennifer; Obersteller, Elizabeth A.; Rennie, Linda; Whitbread, Cherie

    2001-01-01

    Participatory research in Australia's Northern Territory sought opinions from nurses, general practitioners, Aboriginal health workers, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders on the development of culturally relevant foot care education for Indigenous people with diabetes. They decided to use a visual approach (posters and flip charts) to…

  1. What Can We Learn from "Innovative" Child Care Services? Children's Services Purposes and Practices in Australia's Northern Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasoli, Lyn; Moss, Bonita

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the diversity of services designed for young children currently operating in Australia in remote Northern Territory (NT) Indigenous communities as a provocation for the renewal and revitalisation of mainstream (typical Australian conventional, Western values oriented and urban-based) child care services. Australian society…

  2. Field evaluation of repellent formulations containing deet and picaridin against mosquitoes in Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Frances, S P; Waterson, D G E; Beebe, N W; Cooper, R D

    2004-05-01

    Field efficacy of repellent formulations containing picaridin (1-methyl-propyl 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperidinecarboxylate) or deet (N,N,-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) against mosquitoes in Northern Territory, Australia, was evaluated. The following repellent treatments were evaluated: 19.2% picaridin (Autan Repel Army 20), a solution of 20% deet in ethanol, and 35% deet in a gel (Australian Defense Force [ADF]). The predominant mosquito species were Culex annulirostris Skuse (57.8%), Anopheles merankensis Venhuis (15.4%), and Anopheles bancroftii Giles (13.2%). The protection provided by repellents against Anopheles spp. was relatively poor, with 19.2% picaridin and ADF deet providing >95% protection for only 1 h, whereas 20% deet provided <95% protection at 1 h after repellent application. In contrast, the repellents provided good protection against Cx. annulirostris, with 19.2% picaridin providing >95% protection for 5 h and both deet formulations providing >95% protection for 7 h when collections ceased. This study provides additional field data showing tolerance of Anopheles spp. for repellents. The response of field populations of Cx. annulirostris, an important vector of arboviruses in Australia, to repellents containing deet and picaridin is reported for the first time.

  3. First report of Cryptosporidium species in farmed and wild buffalo from the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Zahedi, Alireza; Phasey, Jordan; Boland, Tony; Ryan, Una

    2016-03-01

    A molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in the Northern Territory in Australia was conducted. Fecal samples were collected from adult farmed (n = 50) and wild buffalo (n = 50) and screened using an 18S quantitative PCR (qPCR). Positives were typed by sequence analysis of 18S nested PCR products. The qPCR prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in farmed and wild buffalo was 30 and 12 %, respectively. Sequence analysis identified two species: C. parvum and C. bovis, with C. parvum accounting for ~80 % of positives typed from the farmed buffalo fecal samples compared to 50 % for wild buffalo. Subtyping at the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) locus identified C. parvum subtypes IIdA19G1 (n = 4) and IIdA15G1 (n = 1) in the farmed buffalo and IIaA18G3R1 (n = 2) in the wild buffalo. The presence of C. parvum, which commonly infects humans, suggests that water buffaloes may contribute to contamination of rivers and waterways with human infectious Cryptosporidium oocysts, and further research on the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in buffalo populations in Australia is required.

  4. Statistical analysis of the temperature records for the Northern Territory of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boretti, Alberto

    2013-11-01

    The Northern Territory of Australia has a unique situation of an extension larger than France and a population of 200,000, with only three meteorology stations open for more than 40 years, Darwin (DW), Alice Springs (AS) and Tennant Creek, and only two of them, DW and AS, providing data over 100 years, and from 500 to more than 1,000 km separating these stations and the stations in the neighbouring states of Australia. Homogenizations of data in between different measuring sites for the same location as well as the way to derive the missed data to complete at least 100 years from the neighbouring locations are analysed in details and the effects on the temperature trends are straightforwardly investigated. Using properly homogenised data over 130 years and a linear fitting, the warming maximum and minimum temperatures are +0.009 and +0.057 °C/10 years for Alice Springs and -0.025 and 0.064 °C/10 years for Darwin. With the data available, the only option to produce warming trends is to overweight the cold years in the middle of the 1970s and the subsequent return to warmer temperatures. Starting from 1980, to compute trends, there is still a clear warming in Alice Springs, but also clear cooling in Tennant Creek, and a mixed behaviour with warming maximum temperatures and cooling minimum temperatures in Darwin.

  5. Understanding coastal processes to assist with coastal erosion management in Darwin Harbour, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonyes, S. G.; Wasson, R. J.; Munksgaard, N. C.; Evans, K. G.; Brinkman, R.; Williams, D. K.

    2017-02-01

    Sand transport pathways in Darwin Harbour, Northern Territory, Australia, are being investigated to assist with coastal management. Coastal erosion, which threatens public and private infrastructure, is one of the major problems along the harbour beaches. A study of sediment transport is essential to identify the challenges encountered by the stakeholders in coastal management. Darwin Harbour, located in the tropical, cyclone prone area of Australia, was, until recently, considered a near pristine estuary. A semi-diurnal macro-tidal embayment, the tidal variation in the harbour reaches up to 8 m with a mean tidal range of 3.7 m. The beach morphology consists of sandy pocket beaches between coastal cliffs, sandbars, rocky shore platforms, tidal flats and mangrove fringes. A two-dimensional depth averaged finite-element hydrodynamic model (RMA-2), coupled with a sediment transport model (RMA-11) from Resource Modelling Associates, has been used to infer the sources and the depositional areas of sand in the harbour. Grain size distributions and geochemical analysis are also used to characterize the sand and its source(s). Initial results show that the beach sand is mostly of offshore origin with small sand input from the rivers. Potential supplementary sand sources are the eroded materials from the shore platforms and the rocky cliffs. Due to the rapid development in Darwin Harbour, this study is fundamental in understanding coastal processes to support decision making in coastal management, particularly in a macro-tidal, tropical estuary.

  6. Surveys of tidal river systems in the northern territory of Australia and their crocodile populations

    SciTech Connect

    Vorlicek, G.C.; Messel, H.; Green, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an update on the population dynamics of Crocodylus porous in the tidal waterways of Van Diemen Gulf and the Southern Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia, during 1984 and 1985. Contents: Prologue; Dedication; Introduction; Status of Crocodylus porous. July 1984, in the tidal waterways of the Alligator Region and in the Adelaide River System of Northern Australia: recovery underway; Resurvey of Crocodylus porous populations in the tidal waterways of the southern Gulf of Carpentaria, September - October 1985; Local knowledge - Northern Australia style.

  7. Changes in the clinical and epidemiological features of group A streptococcal bacteraemia in Australia's Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Gear, R J; Carter, J C; Carapetis, J R; Baird, R; Davis, J S

    2015-01-01

    Invasive group A streptococcus (iGAS) disease is an important cause of mortality globally. The incidence of iGAS in Australia's tropical Northern Territory (NT) has been previously reported as 32.2/100 000 in Indigenous people for the period 1991-1996. We aimed to measure the incidence and severity of iGAS disease in the NT since this time. We collected demographic data for all GAS blood culture isolates over a 12-year period (1998-2009) from the three hospital laboratories serving the tropical NT. We then collected detailed clinical information from hospital records and databases for the subset of these patients who were admitted to Royal Darwin Hospital during 2005-2009. There were 295 confirmed cases of GAS bacteraemia over the study period, with a mean (SD) age of 42.1 (22.0) years, and 163 (55.0%) were male. The annual age-adjusted incidence was 15.2 (95% CI 13.4-16.9)/100 000 overall and 59.4 (95% CI 51.2-67.6) in Indigenous Australians. For 2005-2009, there were 123 cases with the most common focus of infection being skin/soft tissue [44 (35.6%)]; 29 patients (23.6%) required intensive care unit admission and 20 (16.3%) had streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Antecedent sore throat or use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was rare, but current or recent scabies, pyoderma and trauma were common. The incidence and severity of iGAS are high and increasing in tropical northern Australia, and urgent attention is needed to improve surveillance and the social determinants of health in this population. This study adds to emerging data suggesting increasing importance of iGAS in low- and middle-income settings globally. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Prevalence and distribution of Neospora caninum in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    PubMed

    Neverauskas, Claudia E; Nasir, Amar; Reichel, Michael P

    2015-10-01

    The seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and domestic cattle in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia has never been determined. A total of 480 serum samples from water buffalo and 192 serum samples from cattle, collected by the NT Government from 1993 through to 2001, at 18 different survey sites throughout the Northern Territory were tested by commercial ELISA for anti-N. caninum antibodies. The water buffalo samples demonstrated a seroprevalence of 88.3% (95% CI ± 2.9%), while 31.8% (±6.1%) of the cattle sera tested positive for N. caninum antibodies. Individual buffalo from the same herd, sampled over years, showed considerable fluctuations in S/P ratios. Overall, seropositivity was consistent across buffalo herds, and showed a slight decline over the years. The study presents evidence for the first time that N. caninum infection in water buffalo in the Northern Territory is a highly endemic and that infection rates are higher than those for cattle. This is important for an understanding of any potential sylvatic life cycle of N. caninum in Northern Australia. This survey also tests cattle from that territory for the first time for evidence of N. caninum infection and makes an important contribution to the understanding of disease management issues for the beef industry in the region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chloritization and associated alteration at the Jabiluka unconformity-type uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nutt, Constance J.

    1989-01-01

    Jabiluka is the largest of four known uncomformity-type uranium deposits that are hosted by brecciated and altered metasedimentary rocks in the Pine Creek geosyncline, Northern Territory, Australia. The alteration zone at Jabiluka is dominated by chlorite, but also contains white mica, tourmaline and apatite; hematite is present, but only in minor amounts. Added quartz is mainly restricted to fractures and breccias. Chlorite, which formed during episodic fluid movement, partly to totally replaced all pre-existing minerals. Chloritized rocks are enriched in Mg, and depleted in K, Ca, Na and Si. Five types of chlorite are optically and chemically distinguishable in the rocks at Jabiluka. Chloritization is proposed as a mechanism that lowered the pH of the circulating fluid, and also caused significant loss of silica from the altered rocks. The proposed constraints on alteration, and presumably on at least part of the uranium mineralization, neither require nor preclude the existence of the unconformity as necessary for the formation of ore.

  10. Snakebite in tropical Australia: a prospective study in the "Top End" of the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Currie, Bart J

    To describe the epidemiology of snakebite in the "Top End" of the Northern Territory, and the envenoming syndromes of individual snake species. Prospective collection of clinical data and snake identity. Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH), a 300-bed tertiary hospital servicing a population of 140,000 spread over 522 561 km2. All patients with bites by confirmed snake species between September 1989 and March 2003, and all suspected snakebite cases between September 1989 and March 1998. Incidence rates of definite snakebite and envenoming. Clinical features of bites from defined snake species. There were 348 suspected snakebites over 8.6 years, with 114 aerial evacuations to RDH, 216 patients (62%) definitely bitten (23.2/100,000 per year) and 79 (23%) envenomed (7.6/100,000 per year). There were 156 bites from confirmed species over 13.6 years: 31 (20%) from western brown snakes (Pseudonaja nuchalis), with early collapse in 14 (45%), consumptive coagulopathy in 26 (84%) and 25 (81%) given antivenom; 21 from death adders (Acanthophis spp.), with neurotoxicity in 8 (38%) and 6 (29%) given antivenom; and 20 from mulga snakes (Pseudechis australis), with local swelling in 19 (95%), myotoxicity in 12 (60%) and 15 (75%) given antivenom. In 34 bites from less venomous species, there was no life-threatening envenoming. There were no deaths. Snakebite still causes morbidity in tropical Australia, but, with access to hospital and antivenom, deaths are rare. This study has enabled further definition of the envenoming syndromes of three highly venomous Australasian elapids.

  11. Traditional food availability and consumption in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Megan; Brown, Clare; Georga, Claire; Miles, Edward; Wilson, Alyce; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2017-06-01

    To explore availability, variety and frequency consumption of traditional foods and their role in alleviating food insecurity in remote Aboriginal Australia. Availability was assessed through repeated semi-structured interviews and consumption via a survey. Quantitative data were described and qualitative data classified. Aboriginal and non-Indigenous key informants (n=30 in 2013; n=19 in 2014) from 20 Northern Territory (NT) communities participated in interviews. Aboriginal primary household shoppers (n=73 in 2014) in five of these communities participated in a survey. Traditional foods were reported to be available year-round in all 20 communities. Most participants (89%) reported consuming a variety of traditional foods at least fortnightly and 71% at least weekly. Seventy-six per cent reported being food insecure, with 40% obtaining traditional food during these times. Traditional food is consumed frequently by Aboriginal people living in remote NT. Implications for public health: Quantifying dietary contribution of traditional food would complement estimated population dietary intake. It would contribute evidence of nutrition transition and differences in intakes across age groups and inform dietary, environmental and social interventions and policy. Designing and conducting assessment of traditional food intake in conjunction with Aboriginal leaders warrants consideration. © 2017 The Authors.

  12. Identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei Near-Neighbor Species in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    PubMed

    Ginther, Jennifer L; Mayo, Mark; Warrington, Stephanie D; Kaestli, Mirjam; Mullins, Travis; Wagner, David M; Currie, Bart J; Tuanyok, Apichai; Keim, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Identification and characterization of near-neighbor species are critical to the development of robust molecular diagnostic tools for biothreat agents. One such agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei, a soil bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis, is lacking in this area because of its genomic diversity and widespread geographic distribution. The Burkholderia genus contains over 60 species and occupies a large range of environments including soil, plants, rhizospheres, water, animals and humans. The identification of novel species in new locations necessitates the need to identify the true global distribution of Burkholderia species, especially the members that are closely related to B. pseudomallei. In our current study, we used the Burkholderia-specific recA sequencing assay to analyze environmental samples from the Darwin region in the Northern Territory of Australia where melioidosis is endemic. Burkholderia recA PCR negative samples were further characterized using 16s rRNA sequencing for species identification. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that over 70% of the bacterial isolates were identified as B. ubonensis indicating that this species is common in the soil where B. pseudomallei is endemic. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis reveals many novel branches within the B. cepacia complex, one novel B. oklahomensis-like species, and one novel branch containing one isolate that is distinct from all other samples on the phylogenetic tree. During the analysis with recA sequencing, we discovered 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the reverse priming region of B. oklahomensis. A degenerate primer was developed and is proposed for future use. We conclude that the recA sequencing technique is an effective tool to classify Burkholderia and identify soil organisms in a melioidosis endemic area.

  13. A new cryptically dioecious species of bush tomato (Solanum) from the Northern Territory, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Martine, Christopher T.; Symon, David E.; Evans, Elizabeth C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of dioecious Solanum from the Australian “Dioicum Complex” of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum cowiei Martine sp. nov., is allied with other members of this problematic lineage, but differs in its slender leaves, limited armature and diminutive habit. The species was first segregated by botanists at the Northern Territory Herbarium as Solanum sp. Litchfield (I.D. Cowie 1428); and specimens representing this species have also been referred to by Symon as Solanum sp. Fitzmaurice River. Collections suggest that this is an endemic of the sub-arid tropical zone of the Northern Territory. SEM images support initial assumptions that the new species is cryptically dioecious via production of inaperturate pollen grains in morphologically hermaphrodite flowers. PMID:24399898

  14. Working in hot conditions--a study of electrical utility workers in the northern territory of Australia.

    PubMed

    Brearley, Matt; Harrington, Phillip; Lee, Doug; Taylor, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Environmental conditions of Australia's Northern Territory are seasonally conducive to excessive body heat storage by outdoor workers. For electrical utility workers who periodically work at height, in confined space, and in proximity to live power sources, the impact of the climate may be considered a hazardous condition. Therefore, this study examined the physiological and fluid balance responses of 20 power network workers (31.5 years; 86.0 kg; 1.71 m; BMI 29.5) throughout work shifts in the Northern and Southern regions of the Northern Territory, Australia. Twenty male heat-acclimatized power network workers provided written informed consent to be monitored during maintenance of electrical infrastructure that included replacing power pole components and transformer and substation repairs in the Northern (n = 13) and Southern regions (n = 7) of the Northern Territory (mean wet-bulb globe temperatures of 32.0°C and 28.7°C, respectively). An ingestible telemetry pill provided measurement of gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi), that when combined with heart rate values, provided physiological strain index (PSI). Urine specific gravity, sweat rate, and level of dehydration were also determined. The Tgi values of this study were within the ISO9886 limit for monitored, heat-acclimatized workers, with a peak of 38.4°C. Mean PSI was 2.6, which represents overall low strain, with periods of moderate strain. Urinary analysis indicated that workers were dehydrated prior to and following the work shift, however the mean sweat rate of 0.44 L.h(-1) was matched by fluid consumption of 0.42 L.h(-1) to limit body mass loss to 0.1% during the shift. This study demonstrates that heat acclimatized electrical utility workers adhere to ISO9886 requirements when undertaking self-paced activity in hot conditions.

  15. Geographical and Environmental Education in the Northern Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battalis, Chrissie; Boland, Judy

    2006-01-01

    The Northern Territory is a semi-autonomous region in the north of Australia. It is one of three Territories and six States that constitute the Commonwealth of Australia. The mainland States and Territories all maintain separate education systems, responsible to the Minister for Education in each State or Territory. In the Northern Territory's…

  16. Geographical and Environmental Education in the Northern Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battalis, Chrissie; Boland, Judy

    2006-01-01

    The Northern Territory is a semi-autonomous region in the north of Australia. It is one of three Territories and six States that constitute the Commonwealth of Australia. The mainland States and Territories all maintain separate education systems, responsible to the Minister for Education in each State or Territory. In the Northern Territory's…

  17. Organisational intervention to reduce occupational stress and turnover in hospital nurses in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Rickard, Greg; Lenthall, Sue; Dollard, Maureen; Opie, Tessa; Knight, Sabina; Dunn, Sandra; Wakerman, John; MacLeod, Martha; Seller, Jo; Brewster-Webb, Denise

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of an organisational intervention aimed to reduce occupational stress and turnover rates of 55% in hospital nurses. The evaluation used a pre- and post-intervention design, triangulating data from surveys and archival information. Two public hospitals (H1 and H2) in the Northern Territory (NT) Australia participated in the intervention. 484 nurses from the two NT hospitals (H1, Wave 1, N = 103, Wave 2, N = 173; H2, Wave 1, N = 75, Wave 2, N = 133) responded to questionnaires administered in 2008 and in 2010. The intervention included strategies such as the development and implementation of a nursing workload tool to assess nurse workloads, roster audits, increased numbers of nursing personnel to address shortfall, increased access to clinical supervision and support for graduates, increased access to professional development including postgraduate and short courses, and a recruitment campaign for new graduates and continuing employees. We used an extended Job Demand-Resources framework to evaluate the intervention and 17 evaluation indicators canvassing psychological distress, emotional exhaustion, work engagement, job satisfaction, job demands, job resources, and system factors such as psychosocial safety climate. Turnover rates were obtained from archival data. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in psychological distress and emotional exhaustion and a significant improvement in job satisfaction, across both hospitals, and a reduction in turnover in H2 from 2008 and 2010. Evidence suggests that the intervention led to significant improvements in system capacity (adaptability, communication) in combination with a reduction in job demands in both hospitals, and an increase in resources (supervisor and coworker support, and job control) particularly in H1. The research addresses a gap in the theoretical and intervention literature regarding system/organisation level approaches to occupational stress. The approach was very successful

  18. Methods and approaches to support Indigenous water planning: An example from the Tiwi Islands, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoverman, Suzanne; Ayre, Margaret

    2012-12-01

    SummaryIndigenous land owners of the Tiwi Islands, Northern Territory Australia have begun the first formal freshwater allocation planning process in Australia entirely within Indigenous lands and waterways. The process is managed by the Northern Territory government agency responsible for water planning, the Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport, in partnership with the Tiwi Land Council, the principal representative body for Tiwi Islanders on matters of land and water management and governance. Participatory planning methods ('tools') were developed to facilitate community participation in Tiwi water planning. The tools, selected for their potential to generate involvement in the planning process needed both to incorporate Indigenous knowledge of water use and management and raise awareness in the Indigenous community of Western science and water resources management. In consultation with the water planner and Tiwi Land Council officers, the researchers selected four main tools to develop, trial and evaluate. Results demonstrate that the tools provided mechanisms which acknowledge traditional management systems, improve community engagement, and build confidence in the water planning process. The researchers found that participatory planning approaches supported Tiwi natural resource management institutions both in determining appropriate institutional arrangements and clarifying roles and responsibilities in the Islands' Water Management Strategy.

  19. Roaming behaviour of dogs in four remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory, Australia: preliminary investigations.

    PubMed

    Molloy, S; Burleigh, A; Dürr, S; Ward, M P

    2017-03-01

    To estimate the home range (HR) and investigate the potential predictors for roaming of 58 dogs in four Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory. Prospective study. Global positioning system (GPS) collars were attached to the dogs for 1-4 days, recording location fixes every 1-3 min. Utilisation distributions (UDs) and extended (95% isopleth) and core (50% isopleth) HRs of dogs were determined. Potential predictors of roaming were assessed. Estimated core (median, 0.27 ha) and extended (median, 3.1 ha) HRs differed significantly (P = 0.0225 and 0.0345, respectively) between the four communities; dogs in the coastal community travelled significantly (P < 0.0001) more per day than dogs in the three inland communities studied. Significant associations were found between extended HR size and sex (P = 0.0050) and sex + neuter (P = 0.0218), and between core HR size and sex (P = 0.0010), neuter status (P = 0.0255) and sex + neuter (P = 0.0025). Entire males roamed more than neutered females. The core HR of dogs with poor/fair body condition scores (BCSs) was larger than dogs with ideal/obese BCSs (P = 0.0394). Neutered male dogs also travelled more per day than entire female dogs (P = 0.0475). Roaming information can be used to inform the management of dogs in remote communities and to design disease control programs. Widespread data collection across the Northern Territory should be undertaken to further investigate the associations found in this study, considering that data were collected during relatively short periods of time in one season. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  20. A geospatial evaluation of Aedes vigilax larval control efforts across a coastal wetland, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kurucz, N; Whelan, P I; Carter, J M; Jacups, S P

    2009-12-01

    Adjacent to the northern suburbs of Darwin is a coastal wetland that contains important larval habitats for Aedes vigilax (Skuse), the northern salt marsh mosquito. This species is a vector for Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus, as well as an appreciable human pest. In order to improve aerial larval control efforts, we sought to identify the most important vegetation categories and climatic/seasonal aspects associated with control operations in these wetlands. By using a generalized linear model to compare aerial control for each vegetation category, we found that Schoenoplectus/mangrove areas require the greatest amount of control for tide-only events (30.1%), and also extensive control for tide and rain events coinciding (18.2%). Our results further indicate that tide-affected reticulate vegetation indicated by the marsh grasses Sporobolus virginicus and Xerochloa imberbis require extensive control for Ae. vigilax larvae after rain-only events (44.7%), and tide and rain events coinciding (38.0%). The analyses of vector control efforts by month indicated that September to January, with a peak in November and December, required the most control. A companion paper identifies the vegetation categories most associated with Aedes vigilax larvae population densities in the coastal wetland. To maximize the efficiency of aerial salt marsh mosquito control operations in northern Australia, aerial control efforts should concentrate on the vegetation categories with high larval densities between September and January.

  1. Post-retirement intentions of nurses and midwives living and working in the Northern Territory of Australia.

    PubMed

    Voit, Katharina; Carson, D B

    2014-01-01

    Previous research undertaken in the Northern Territory of Australia has identified interest among nurses in engaging in the active workforce post-retirement. Relatively little is known about which nurses are interested in such engagement, and the types of work arrangements that might be of interest. This study aims to provide an enhanced understanding of the retirement plans and post-retirement employment intentions of nurses and midwives living and working in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. An online survey was developed to examine retirement intentions, and investigate the types and facilitators significant for post-retirement engagement. The results indicated a strong interest among nurses and midwives in engaging in post-retirement work, with 73.2% of respondents (n=207) having considered continuing in the active workforce. The most preferred types of engagement included the gradual reduction of hours in current workplaces, part-year or seasonal employment, short-term placements, job-sharing or job-rotation, mentoring, research and policy development or acting as 'Northern Territory representatives' promoting jobs to prospective nurses and midwives elsewhere in Australia. A range of facilitators for post-retirement engagement was found, including for nurses who had not currently considered such engagement. The data collected from this research also identified barriers to post-retirement employment. The most favoured facilitators were financial incentives (90.0% of respondents identified it as a facilitator for post-retirement engagement), followed by support from line management (82.0%). Regardless of whether they had considered engaging post-retirement, the largest proportion of respondents intended to leave the NT for the time of their retirement (33.7%). The most prominent barrier to post-retirement engagement was that only a smaller proportion intended to retire in the NT (24.1%). Importantly, many nurses who had not currently considered post

  2. Differential Effects of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 on Remote and Indigenous Groups, Northern Territory, Australia, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Laurie, Karen Louise; McDonnell, Joseph; Kelso, Anne; Markey, Peter Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza spread through the Northern Territory, Australia, during June–August 2009. We performed 2 cross-sectional serologic surveys on specimens from Northern Territory residents, with 445 specimens obtained prepandemic and 1,689 specimens postpandemic. Antibody titers were determined by hemagglutination inhibition against reference virus A/California/7/2009 on serum samples collected opportunistically from outpatients. All specimens had data for patients’ gender, age, and address, with patients’ indigenous status determined for 94.1%. Protective immunity (titer >40) was present in 7.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.2%–10.1%) of prepandemic specimens and 19.5% (95% CI 17.6%–21.4%) of postpandemic specimens, giving a population-standardized attack rate of 14.9% (95% CI 11.0%–18.9%). Prepandemic proportion of immune persons was greater with increasing age but did not differ by other demographic characteristics. Postpandemic proportion of immune persons was greater in younger groups and around double in indigenous persons. Postpandemic proportion immune was geographically heterogeneous, particularly among remote-living and indigenous groups. PMID:21888786

  3. Evaluation of Bistar 80SC (bifenthrin) as a tent treatment for protection against mosquitoes in Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    McGinn, D; Frances, S P; Sweeney, A W; Brown, M D; Cooper, R D

    2008-11-01

    A field trial to assess the efficacy of Bistar 80 SC as a barrier treatment of Australian military tents was conducted over 10 d at Mount Bundey Military Training Area, Northern Territory, Australia, in March 2003. Four pairs of standard eight-person tents were erected, with a single tent in each pair treated with 0.1% Bistar 80 SC as a course spray, and the remainder left as untreated control tents. Carbon dioxide-baited traps were operated in each tent nightly, and biting collections conducted over 8 nights. There was a mean increase in protection of 81% for mosquitoes entering treated tents and 90.4% increase in protection against biting of predominantly Culex annulirostris Skuse. In addition, bifenthrin applied to the military tents enhances the protection of occupants against bites from this important arbovirus vector.

  4. Promising performance of a juvenile justice diversion programme in remote Aboriginal communities, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Clough, Alan R; Kim San Lee, Kylie; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2008-07-01

    Diversion from court and prison has been recommended for Indigenous Australian youth who commit offences. As no evaluations of such programmes have been published, we describe processes and early outcomes of a diversion programme in the Northern Territory. From 2003 to 2006, among 1700 remote Indigenous community residents, 35 young people (aged 11-18 years, median 15 years) committed offences. They were diverted from criminal justice and referred to a community-based diversion initiative. Client assessment records and staff interviews furnished data to examine clients' diversion pathways and early programme results. Eighteen clients were reportedly using a substance at the time of their offence; cannabis (n = 9), petrol (n = 5), alcohol (n = 4). The remaining 17 had histories of using one or more of these. Two clients could not complete local diversion programs because they moved to other regions; one case was not pursued for legal reasons, leaving 32 clients exposed to the local programme. By July 2006, four clients were continuing in their programmes, three had breached them, but 25 had completed them in periods ranging from 2 to 60 weeks (median = 26 weeks), a completion rate of 89% (25/28). Just one client re-offended after completing diversion. A high completion rate was achieved despite: a dearth of locally available drug and alcohol treatment services and diversion options; shifts in police approaches; heavy administrative burdens to meet legal requirements; and difficulties communicating across cultural barriers.

  5. Davenport Ranges, Northern Territory, Australia, SRTM Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-01-06

    The Davenport Ranges of central Australia have been inferred to be among the oldest persisting landforms on Earth, founded on the belief that the interior of Australia has been tectonically stable for at least 700 million years.

  6. Investigation into High Barmah Forest Virus Disease Case Numbers Reported in the Northern Territory, Australia in 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Kurucz, Nina; Markey, Peter; Draper, Anthony; Melville, Lorna; Weir, Richard; Davis, Steven; Warchot, Allan; Boyd, Rowena; Stokeld, Danielle

    2016-02-01

    Between October 2012 and October 2013, unprecedented high numbers of Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease cases were reported in the Northern Territory (NT). An investigation was launched by the NT Department of Health in cooperation with the Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries and the Department of Land Resource Management to investigate possible causes for this phenomenon. The investigation included virus isolations from mosquitoes collected in Darwin urban areas, BFV antibody testing in peri-urban small mammals and a human BFV disease case series investigation of recent cases. No BFV was isolated from the 4641 mosquitoes tested, none of the mammals tested positive for BFV antibodies, and the high BFV disease case numbers did not correlate with the relatively low mosquito vector numbers trapped in 2012-2013. It was estimated that up to 89% of the 79 human cases investigated did not have an acute arboviral illness and therefore had tested falsely positive. An Alere PanBio BFV immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit is generally used to test for BFV, with the BFV disease case definition based on immunoglobulin M positives only. Other jurisdictions in Australia also reported high numbers of BFV disease cases, with the majority of the cases suspected to be false positives. Therefore, current testing methods need to be revised to reflect the true numbers of BFV disease cases occurring in Australia and to provide correct diagnoses for patients.

  7. Description of drill-hole VIIIV core from the Jabiluka unconformity-type uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Nutt, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Jabiluka unconformity-type uranium deposit is one of four large unconformity-type deposits in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Field in the eastern part of the Pine Creek geosyncline, Northern Territory, Australia. These unconformity-type uranium deposits occur as veins, disseminations, and breccia matrix in metasedimentary rocks of the Lower Proterozoic Cahill Formation and are near a regional unconformity that separates the Cahill from the sedimentary rocks of the Middle Proterozoic Kombolgie Formation. The study of unconformity-type deposits - a new type of uranium deposit typified by deposits discovered in the past 15 years in Australia and Canada - is part of the US Geological Survey uranium program; funding was also provided by the US Department of Energy National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. Pancontinental Mining Limited kindly gave us access to Jabiluka core and made their geological and geophysical data available for inclusion in our reports. Data and interpretations from the mineralogy and stratigraphy of Jabiluka should aid in defining characteristics and setting of these world class deposits and guide exploration for similar deposits in the United States. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Age and paragenesis of mineralisation at Coronation Hill uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orth, Karin; Meffre, Sebastien; Davidson, Garry

    2014-06-01

    Coronation Hill is a U + Au + platinum group elements deposit in the South Alligator Valley (SAV) field in northern Australia, south of the better known unconformity-style U East Alligator Rivers (EAR) field. The SAV field differs from the EAR by having a more complex basin-basement architecture. A volcanically active fault trough (Jawoyn Sub-basin) developed on older basement and then was disrupted by renewed faulting, before being buried beneath regional McArthur Basin sandstones that are also the main hanging wall to the EAR deposits. Primary mineralisation at Coronation Hill formed at 1607 ± 26 Ma (rather than 600-900 Ma as previously thought), and so it is likely that the SAV was part of a single west McArthur Basin dilational event. Most ore is hosted in sub-vertical faults and breccias in the competent volcanic cover sequence. This favoured fluid mixing, acid buffering (forming illite) and oxidation of Fe2+ and reduced C-rich assemblages as important uranium depositional mechanisms. However, reduction of U in fractured older pyrite (Pb model age of 1833 ± 67 Ma) is an important trap in diorite. Some primary ore was remobilised at 675 ± 21 Ma to form coarse uraninite + Ni-Co pyrite networks containing radiogenic Pb. Coronation Hill is polymetallic, and in this respect resembles the `egress'-style U deposits in the Athabascan Basin (Canada). However, these are all cover-hosted. A hypothesis for further testing is that Coronation Hill is also egress-style, with ores formed by fluids rising through basement-hosted fault networks (U reduction by diorite pyrite and carbonaceous shale), and into veins and breccias in the overlying Jawoyn Sub-basin volcano-sedimentary succession.

  9. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Rickettsia felis exposure in dogs from Southeast Queensland and the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hii, Sze-Fui; Abdad, Mohammad Y; Kopp, Steven R; Stenos, John; Rees, Robert L; Traub, Rebecca J

    2013-06-03

    The recent detection of Rickettsia felis DNA in dogs in Australia suggests that dogs are potential mammalian reservoir hosts for this emerging rickettsia. To date, there is no published report addressing the seroprevalence of R. felis in dogs in Australia. Antigens for R. felis were produced by inoculating confluent XTC-2 monolayer cell cultures with three pools of cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) homogenates. Infection was confirmed by real-time (qPCR), conventional or nested PCRs targeting the ompB, gltA, 17 kDa and ompA genes. Two hundred and ninety-two dogs from Southeast Queensland and the Northern Territory were tested for the presence of R. felis antibodies using a microimmunofluorescence (IF) test and the seroprevalence and associated risk factors for exposure were determined using both uni- and multi-variate analyses. Rickettsia felis was successfully isolated in cell culture from all three cat-flea pools. One hundred and forty-eight dogs (50.7%) showed seropositivity with titres ≥64 and 54 (18.5%) with titres ≥128. At antibody titres ≥64, dogs with active ectoparasite control were less likely to be seropositive to R. felis (OR: 2.60; 95% CI: 1.20 - 5.56). This first reported isolation of R. felis in cell culture in Australia allowed for the production of antigen for serological testing of dogs. Results of this serological testing reflects the ubiquitous exposure of dogs to R. felis and advocate for owner vigilance with regards to ectoparasite control on domestic pets.

  10. Cleanskin Structure, Northern Territory and Queensland, Australia: Evidence for an Impact Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, P. W.; Sweet, I. P.; Mitchell, K.

    2012-09-01

    The Cleanskin structure, Australia, is a 15 km diameter circular feature with central uplift. Evidence for impact-produced shock includes shatter cones, planar fractures with feather features and possible planar deformation features in quartz.

  11. Arbovirus models to provide practical management tools for mosquito control and disease prevention in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Jacups, Susan P; Whelan, Peter I; Harley, David

    2011-03-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) causes the most common human arbovirus disease in Australia. Although the disease is nonfatal, the associated arthritis and postinfection fatigue can be debilitating for many months, impacting on workforce participation. We sought to create an early-warning system to notify of approaching RRV disease outbreak conditions for major townships in the Northern Territory. By applying a logistic regression model to meteorologic factors, including rainfall, a postestimation analysis of sensitivity and specificity can create rainfall cut-points. These rainfall cut-points indicate the rainfall level above which previous epidemic conditions have occurred. Furthermore, rainfall cut-points indirectly adjust for vertebrate host data from the agile wallaby (Macropus agilis) as the life cycle of the agile wallaby is intricately meshed with the wet season. Once generated, cut-points can thus be used prospectively to allow timely implementation of larval survey and control measures and public health warnings to preemptively reduce RRV disease incidence. Cut-points are location specific and have the capacity to replace previously used models, which require data management and input, and rarely provide timely notification for vector control requirements and public health warnings. These methods can be adapted for use elsewhere.

  12. Alignment of the policy planets: behind the implementation of the Northern Territory (Australia) Living With Alcohol programme.

    PubMed

    D'Abbs, Peter

    2004-03-01

    The Northern Territory Living With Alcohol Programme (LWAP), implemented in Australia from 1991 to 2000, has been hailed as a successful example of a comprehensive public health alcohol policy, especially in its first 4 years--1991/92 to 1995/96. This paper draws upon a policy analysis of the LWAP currently in progress to identify and describe the factors that made implementation possible at this time. I argue that programme implementation was shaped by a remarkable alignment of agencies and actors in the political, fiscal, administrative and industrial domains. This alignment of forces, however, owed as much to contingency as to planning and did not endure. Although the policy itself remained unchanged and continued to generate significant achievements, the alignment of forces sustaining it began to fragment from late 1995 onwards. The paper concludes by exploring the implications of the analysis for alcohol policy in other domains, and for the relationship between evidence regarding effectiveness and other components of the policy process.

  13. A study of radium bioaccumulation in freshwater mussels, Velesunio angasi, in the Magela Creek catchment, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bollhöfer, Andreas; Brazier, Jenny; Humphrey, Chris; Ryan, Bruce; Esparon, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    Freshwater mussels, Velesunio angasi, along Magela Creek in Australia's Northern Territory were examined to study radionuclide activities in mussel flesh and to investigate whether the Ranger Uranium mine is contributing to the radium loads in mussels downstream of the mine. Radium loads in mussels of the same age were highest in Bowerbird Billabong, located 20 km upstream of the mine site. Variations in the ratio of [Ra]:[Ca] in filtered water at the sampling sites accounted for the variations found in mussel radium loads with natural increases in calcium (Ca) in surface waters in a downstream gradient along the Magela Creek catchment gradually reducing radium uptake in mussels. At Mudginberri Billabong, 12 km downstream of the mine, concentration factors for radium have not significantly changed over the past 25 years since the mine commenced operations and this, coupled with a gradual decrease of the (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratios observed along the catchment, indicates that the (226)Ra accumulated in mussels is of natural rather than mine origin. The (228)Th/(228)Ra ratio has been used to model radium uptake and a radium biological half-life in mussels of approximately 13 years has been determined. The long biological half-life and the low Ca concentrations in the water account for the high radium concentration factor of 30,000-60,000 measured in mussels from the Magela Creek catchment.

  14. Molecular and morphological description of a Hepatozoon species in reptiles and their ticks in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Vilcins, Inger-Marie E; Ujvari, Beata; Old, Julie M; Deane, Elizabeth

    2009-04-01

    Ticks, representing 3 species of Amblyomma, were collected from the water python (Liasis fuscus) and 3 additional reptile species in the Northern Territory, Australia, and tested for the presence of Hepatozoon sp., the most common blood parasites of snakes. In addition, blood smears were collected from 5 reptiles, including the water python, and examined for the presence of the parasite. Hepatozoon sp. DNA was detected in all tick and reptile species, with 57.7% of tick samples (n = 187) and 35.6% of blood smears (n=35) showing evidence of infection. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rRNA gene demonstrated that half of the sequences obtained from positive tick samples matched closest with a Hepatozoon species previously identified in the water python population. The remaining sequences were found to be more closely related to mammalian and amphibian Hepatozoon species. This study confirms that species of Amblyomma harbor DNA of the same Hepatozoon species detected in the water pythons. The detection of an additional genotype suggests the ticks may be exposed to 2 Hepatozoon species, providing further opportunity to study multiple host-vector-parasite relationships.

  15. A new species of freshwater turtle of the genus Elseya (Testudinata: Pleurodira: Chelidae) from the Northern Territory of Australia.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Scott; Georges, Arthur

    2016-01-04

    The genus Elseya has had a checkered taxonomic history, but is now restricted to species characterized by an alveolar ridge on the triturating surfaces of the jaw. The Australian forms were once regarded as a single widespread species extending from the Mary River of south-eastern Queensland to the Fitzroy River of north Western Australia, but a number of Australian species have now been identified based on a combination of molecular and morphological data-Elseya dentata, E. irwini, E. lavarackorum and E. albagula. The genus is represented in New Guinea by E. branderhorsti, E. novaeguineae, E. schultzii, and E. rhodini. One additional Australian taxon first identified in 1981 and subsequently established as a distinct taxon by molecular studies, is described here. It is a large chelid turtle that can be distinguished from all other Australian members of the genus Elseya by the distinctive cream or yellow plastron, free of the dark streaking, blotches or suffusing present in other species; an extensive bridge with little or no abrupt angle between the bridge and the ventral surface of the plastron; a head shield broken into a series of small plates rather than a single unit; flat uncornified temporal scales; and a narrower, less robust skull. Osteologically, it can be distinguished from Elseya dentata by the contact of the vomer and the pterygoids. The carapace is typically a light to medium brown in color whereas the carapace of Elseya dentata is typically dark brown to almost black in color. Distribution is the Mary, South Alligator, East Alligator, Goyder and Mann River drainages of the north east of the Northern Territory, Australia. It does not appear to be in sympatry with any other member of Elseya. It is, however, in sympatry with three species of Chelodina, at least two species of Emydura, Myuchelys latisternum and Carettochelys insculpta.

  16. New Population and Life Expectancy Estimates for the Indigenous Population of Australia's Northern Territory, 1966–2011

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Background The Indigenous population of Australia suffers considerable disadvantage across a wide range of socio-economic indicators, and is therefore the focus of many policy initiatives attempting to ‘close the gap’ between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Unfortunately, past population estimates have proved unreliable as denominators for these indicators. The aim of the paper is to contribute more robust estimates for the Northern Territory Indigenous population for the period 1966–2011, and hence estimate one of the most important of socio-economic indicators, life expectancy at birth. Method A consistent time series of population estimates from 1966 to 2011, based off the more reliable 2011 official population estimates, was created by a mix of reverse and forward cohort survival. Adjustments were made to ensure sensible sex ratios and consistency with recent birth registrations. Standard life table methods were employed to estimate life expectancy. Drawing on an approach from probabilistic forecasting, confidence intervals surrounding population numbers and life expectancies were estimated. Results The Northern Territory Indigenous population in 1966 numbered between 23,800 and 26,100, compared to between 66,100 and 73,200 in 2011. In 1966–71 Indigenous life expectancy at birth lay between 49.1 and 56.9 years for males and between 49.7 and 57.9 years for females, whilst by 2006–11 it had increased to between 60.5 and 66.2 years for males and between 65.4 and 70.8 for females. Over the last 40 years the gap with all-Australian life expectancy has not narrowed, fluctuating at about 17 years for both males and females. Whilst considerable progress has been made in closing the gap in under-five mortality, at most other ages the mortality rate differential has increased. Conclusions A huge public health challenge remains. Efforts need to be redoubled to reduce the large gap in life expectancy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians

  17. Northern Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern ... inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely ... Australia location:  Australia and New Zealand thumbnail:  ...

  18. Trends in Indigenous and non-Indigenous caesarean section births in the Northern Territory of Australia, 1986-2012: a total population-based study.

    PubMed

    Thompson, F; Dempsey, K; Mishra, G

    2016-10-01

    To examine trends in caesarean section deliveries and factors associated with these trends for Indigenous and non-Indigenous mothers. Total population-based study. Northern Territory of Australia, 1986-2012. Pregnancies among Northern Territory residents, limited to singleton live births with cephalic presentations delivered at 37-42 weeks' gestation (n = 78 561). Descriptive analyses of demographic and obstetric risk factors. Poisson regression with robust variance to estimate the likelihood of caesarean delivery with and without labour compared with vaginal delivery, over time and between Indigenous and non-Indigenous mothers, adjusting for risk factors. Trends in caesarean sections and risk of caesarean delivery compared with vaginal delivery. The total rate of caesarean deliveries in the Northern Territory increased between 1986 and 2012. From the year 2000, the rise was driven by increases in caesareans with labour among nulliparous mothers and no labour caesareans among multiparous mothers. Increases in demographic and obstetric risk factors explained the rise in caesareans with labour among nulliparous Indigenous mothers, whereas other unmeasured variables contributed to the rise among non-Indigenous mothers. Increases in previous caesarean delivery contributed to the rise in all caesareans among multiparous mothers. Following adjustment, the risk of Indigenous nulliparous mothers having a caesarean with labour was 47% greater than for non-Indigenous nulliparous mothers [adjusted risk ratio 1.47 (95% CI 1.34-1.60)]. Increases in demographic and obstetric risk factors partially explained the increase in caesarean rates in the Northern Territory and the contribution of these factors differed between Indigenous and non-Indigenous mothers. Caesarean section rates increased between 1986 and 2012 in the Northern Territory of Australia. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  19. Nocardiosis in the Tropical Northern Territory of Australia, 1997–2014

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Sarah E.; Baird, Rob; Currie, Bart J.; Ralph, Anna P.; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Price, Ric N.; Davis, Joshua S.; Tong, Steven Y. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Nocardia is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause life-threatening disease. We aimed to characterize the epidemiological, microbiological, and clinical features of nocardiosis in the tropical north of Australia. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of nocardiosis diagnosed between 1997 and 2014. Population-based incidences were calculated using district population data. Results. Clinically significant nocardiosis was identified in 61 patients. The unadjusted population-based annual incidence of nocardiosis was 2.02 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55–2.60) per 100000 people and was 1.7 (95% CI, .96–2.90) fold higher in Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous persons (P = .027). Of 61 patients, 47 (77%) had chronic lung disease, diabetes, and/or hazardous alcohol consumption; 22 (36%) were immunocompromised; and 8 (13%) had no identified comorbidities. Disease presentations included pulmonary (69%; 42 of 61), cutaneous (13%; 8 of 61), and disseminated nocardiosis (15%; 9 of 61). The most commonly identified species were Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia cyriacigeorgica (each 11%). Linezolid was the only antimicrobial to which isolates were universally susceptible; 89% (48 of 54), 60% (32 of 53), and 48% (26 of 54) of isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, and imipenem, respectively. Eighteen patients (30%) required intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and 1-year mortality was 31%. Conclusions. The incidence of nocardiosis in tropical Australia is amongst the highest reported globally. Nocardiosis occurs in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts, and it is associated with high rates of ICU admission, 1-year mortality, and resistance to commonly recommended antimicrobials. Diagnosis should be considered in patients with consistent clinical features, particularly if they are Indigenous or have chronic lung disease. PMID:27942539

  20. Davenport Ranges, Northern Territory, Australia, SRTM Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Davenport Ranges of central Australia have been inferred to be among the oldest persisting landforms on Earth, founded on the belief that the interior of Australia has been tectonically stable for at least 700 million years. New rock age dating techniques indicate that substantial erosion has probably occurred over that time period and that the landforms are not nearly that old, but landscape evolution certainly occurs much slower here (at least now) than is typical across Earth's surface.

    Regardless of their antiquity, the Davenport Ranges exhibit a striking landform pattern as shown in this display of elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Quartzites and other erosion resistant strata form ridges within anticlinal (arched up) and synclinal (arched down) ovals and zigzags. These structures, if not the landforms, likely date back at least hundreds of millions of years, to a time when tectonic forces were active. Maximum local relief is only about 60 meters (about 200 feet), which is enough to contrast greatly with the extremely low relief surrounding terrain.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northeast-southwest (image top to bottom) direction, so that northeast slopes appear bright and southwest slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To

  1. Remote and Invisible: The Voices of Female Indigenous Educational Leaders in Northern Territory Remote Community Schools in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamara, Martha

    2017-01-01

    While the literature on women and educational leadership has been addressed in substantive ways in recent years, the experiences that reflect female Australian educational leaders are rare. This article reports findings from a study of five female Indigenous principals in the Northern Territory utilising biographic narratives and foregrounds their…

  2. Strong purifying selection in endogenous retroviruses in the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) in the Northern Territory of Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are remnants of exogenous retroviruses that have integrated into the nuclear DNA of a germ-line cell. Here we present the results of a survey into the ERV complement of Crocodylus porosus, the saltwater crocodile, representing 45 individuals from 17 sampling locations in the Northern Territory of Australia. These retroelements were compared with published ERVs from other species of Crocodylia (Crocodilians; alligators, caimans, gharials and crocodiles) as well as representatives from other vertebrates. This study represents one of the first in-depth studies of ERVs within a single reptilian species shedding light on the diversity of ERVs and proliferation mechanisms in crocodilians. Results Analyses of the retroviral pro-pol gene region have corroborated the presence of two major clades of ERVs in C. porosus and revealed 18 potentially functional fragments out of the 227 recovered that encode intact pro-pol ORFs. Interestingly, we have identified some patterns of diversification among those ERVs as well as a novel sequence that suggests the presence of an additional retroviral genus in C. porosus. In addition, considerable diversity but low genetic divergence within one of the C. porosus ERV lineages was identified. Conclusions We propose that the ERV complement of C. porosus has come about through a combination of recent infections and replication of ancestral ERVs. Strong purifying selection acting on these clades suggests that this activity is recent or still occurring in the genome of this species. The discovery of potentially functional elements is an interesting development that warrants further investigation. PMID:23217152

  3. Genesis of the central zone of the Nolans Bore rare earth element deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoneveld, Louise; Spandler, Carl; Hussey, Kelvin

    2015-08-01

    The Nolans Bore rare earth element (REE) deposit consists of a network of fluorapatite-bearing veins and breccias hosted within Proterozoic granulites of the Reynolds Range, Central Australia. Mineralisation is divided into three zones (north, central, and south-east), with the north and south-east zones consisting of massive REE-bearing fluorapatite veins, with minor brecciation and carbonate infill. The central zone is distinctively different in mineralogy and structure; it features extensive brecciation, a high allanite content, and a large, epidote-rich enveloping alteration zone. The central zone is a reworking of the original solid apatite veins that formed during the Chewings Orogeny at ca. 1525 Ma. These original apatite veins are thought to derive from phosphate-rich magmatic-hydrothermal fluid exsolved from as-yet unrecognised alkaline magmatic bodies at depth. We define four ore breccia types (BX1-4) in the central zone on the basis of detailed petrological and geochemical analysis of drillcore and thin sections. BX1 ore comprises fluorapatite with minor crackle brecciation with carbonate infill and resembles ore of the north and south-east zones. Breccia types BX2, BX3, and BX4 represent progressive stages of ore brecciation and development of calc-silicate mineral (amphibole, epidote, allanite, calcite) infill. Comparison of bulk ore sample geochemistry between breccia types indicates that REEs were not mobilised more than a few centimetres during hydrothermal alteration and brecciation. Instead, most of the REEs were partitioned from the original REE fluorapatite into newly formed allanite, REE-poor fluorapatite and minor REE carbonate in the breccias. Negative europium (Eu) anomalies in the breccia minerals are accounted for by a large positive Eu anomaly in epidote from the alteration zones surrounding the ore breccias. This observation provides a direct link between ore recrystallisation and brecciation, and the formation of the alteration halo in

  4. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of mafic-ultramafic suites of the Irindina Province, Northern Territory, Australia: Implications for the Neoproterozoic to Devonian evolution of central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Madeline L.; Jowitt, Simon M.; Saleem, Ahmad

    2015-10-01

    Petrological and geochemical data for magmatic mafic-ultramafic suites of the Irindina and Aileron provinces of the Eastern Arunta region, Northern Territory, Australia constrain the petrogenesis and tectonic setting of magmatic events covering ~ 500 million years. Six geochemically distinct magmatic suites, here named A-F, have been identified and provide evidence of the tectonic history of this region and also are linked to two mineralisation-related magmatic events: the Lloyd Gabbro (Ni-Cu-PGE mineralisation) and the Riddoch Amphibolite (Cyprus-style Cu-Co volcanogenic massive sulphide mineralisation). The whole-rock geochemistry of Suites A and F is indicative of melts derived from a range of mantle depths (garnet to spinel lherzolite) and source enrichment. Suite D is likely related to the ~ 1070 Ma Warakurna/Giles event of central Australia, including the Alcurra (Musgrave) and Stuart (Arunta) dyke swarms, and likely formed through either: a) melting of subduction modified, sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) by an upwelling mantle plume; or b) a combination of intra-plate tectonic processes involving a long-lived thermal anomaly, lithospheric-scale architecture that focussed magmatism, and large-scale tectonism. Suite F represents more alkaline magmas, derived from a deeper source, but most likely formed during the same Warakurna LIP event (possibly contemporaneously) as Suite D. Suite E (the Riddoch Amphibolite) was most likely emplaced in a back-arc basin (BAB) setting at ~ 600 Ma, coincident with Delamerian subduction and BAB formation along the eastern Proterozoic margin of Australia from Queensland to the eastern Arunta and possibly further south. Subsequent destabilisation of the SCLM underneath the North Australian Craton generated the ~ 510 Ma Kalkarindji LIP in the form of Suite B intrusions that assimilated some of the older Suite E (Riddoch) material. This event is locally known as the ~ 506 Ma Stanovos Igneous Suite and represents the most

  5. Historical Consequences of Colonialism, Disempowerment, and Reactionary Government Decisions in Relation to Imprisonment Rates in Australia's Northern Territory: A Potential Solution.

    PubMed

    Kapellas, Kostas; Jamieson, Lisa M

    2016-02-01

    The Northern Territory (N.T.) of Australia has the highest imprisonment rate per capita in the country. The vast majority of prisoners (86%) are Indigenous Australian despite only 30% of the N.T. population identifying as Indigenous. This paper investigates factors influencing this over-representation. The most common reason for imprisonment concerns violence. Alcohol is consumed in high quantities, particularly in Central Australia and is thought to affect incarceration rates. Recent strategies to control alcohol abuse in the N.T. have been ineffective in comparison with other states of Australia. Notwithstanding that crimes committed are serious enough to warrant arrest, the cumulative effects of past and recent history have resulted in poor educational outcomes for Indigenous Australian children which influence employment opportunities. Solutions to reduce imprisonment must address the nexus between education, meaningful employment and community-led alcohol management strategies. Failure to adopt this approach may perpetuate ever-increasing imprisonment of Indigenous Australians.

  6. The biochronology and palaeobiogeography of Baru (Crocodylia: Mekosuchinae) based on new specimens from the Northern Territory and Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    New records of the Oligo–Miocene mekosuchine crocodylian, Baru, from Queensland and the Northern Territory are described. Baru wickeni and Baru darrowi are accepted as valid species in the genus and their diagnoses are revised. Both species are present in Queensland and the Northern Territory but are restricted in time, with B. wickeni known from the late Oligocene and B. darrowi from the middle Miocene. The broad geographic distributions and restricted time spans of these species indicate that this genus is useful for biochronology. The record of B. wickeni from the Pwerte Marnte Marnte Local Fauna in the Northern Territory establishes that the species inhabited the north-western margin of the Lake Eyre Basin (LEB) drainage system. More southerly Oligo–Miocene sites in the LEB contain only one crocodylian species, Australosuchus clarkae. The Pwerte Marnte Marnte occurrence of B. wickeni indicates that the separation of Baru and Australosuchus did not correspond with the boundaries of drainage basins and that palaeolatitude was a more likely segregating factor. PMID:28649471

  7. Patterns of resident health workforce turnover and retention in remote communities of the Northern Territory of Australia, 2013-2015.

    PubMed

    Russell, Deborah J; Zhao, Yuejen; Guthridge, Steven; Ramjan, Mark; Jones, Michael P; Humphreys, John S; Wakerman, John

    2017-08-15

    The geographical maldistribution of the health workforce is a persisting global issue linked to inequitable access to health services and poorer health outcomes for rural and remote populations. In the Northern Territory (NT), anecdotal reports suggest that the primary care workforce in remote Aboriginal communities is characterised by high turnover, low stability and high use of temporary staffing; however, there is a lack of reliable information to guide workforce policy improvements. This study quantifies current turnover and retention in remote NT communities and investigates correlations between turnover and retention metrics and health service/community characteristics. This study used the NT Department of Health 2013-2015 payroll and financial datasets for resident health workforce in 53 remote primary care clinics. Main outcome measures include annual turnover rates, annual stability rates, 12-month survival probabilities and median survival. At any time point, the clinics had a median of 2.0 nurses, 0.6 Aboriginal health practitioners (AHPs), 2.2 other employees and 0.4 additional agency-employed nurses. Mean annual turnover rates for nurses and AHPs combined were extremely high, irrespective of whether turnover was defined as no longer working in any remote clinic (66%) or no longer working at a specific remote clinic (128%). Stability rates were low, and only 20% of nurses and AHPs remain working at a specific remote clinic 12 months after commencing. Half left within 4 months. Nurse and AHP turnover correlated with other workforce measures. However, there was little correlation between most workforce metrics and health service characteristics. NT Government-funded remote clinics are small, experience very high staff turnover and make considerable use of agency nurses. These staffing patterns, also found in remote settings elsewhere in Australia and globally, not only incur higher direct costs for service provision-and therefore may compromise long

  8. A Regional Initiative to Reduce Skin Infections amongst Aboriginal Children Living in Remote Communities of the Northern Territory, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Ross M.; Kearns, Therese; Connors, Christine; Parker, Colin; Carville, Kylie; Currie, Bart J.; Carapetis, Jonathan R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Linked to extreme rates of chronic heart and kidney disease, pyoderma is endemic amongst Aboriginal children in Australia's Northern Territory (NT). Many of those with pyoderma will also have scabies. We report the results of a community-based collaboration within the East Arnhem Region, which aimed to reduce the prevalence of both skin infections in Aboriginal children. Methodology/Principal Findings Commencing September 2004, we conducted an ecological study that included active surveillance for skin infections amongst children aged <15 years in five remote East Arnhem communities over a three year period. Screening was undertaken by trained local community workers, usually accompanied by another project team member, using a standard data collection form. Skin infections were diagnosed clinically with the aid of a pictorial flip chart developed for the purpose. Topical 5% permethrin was provided for age-eligible children and all household contacts whenever scabies was diagnosed, whilst those with pyoderma were referred to the clinic for treatment in accordance with current guidelines. In addition, annual mass scabies treatment (5% permethrin cream) was offered to all community residents in accordance with current guidelines but was not directly observed. Pyoderma and scabies prevalence per month was determined from 6038 skin assessments conducted on 2329 children. Pyoderma prevalence dropped from 46.7% at baseline to a median of 32.4% (IQR 28.9%–41.0%) during the follow-up period – an absolute reduction of 14.7% (IQR 4.7%–16.8%). Compared to the first 18 months of observation, there was an absolute reduction in pyoderma prevalence of 18 cases per 100 children (95%CI −21.0, −16.1, p≤0.001) over the last 18 months. Treatment uptake increased over the same period (absolute difference 13.4%, 95%CI 3.3, 23.6). While scabies prevalence was unchanged, the prevalence of infected scabies (that is with superimposed pyoderma) decreased from 3.7% (95

  9. Drinking and Smoking Habits of Students at Northern Territory University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kathryn L.; Jackson, Adrian S.

    Persons in the Northern Territory who drink have the highest per capita daily consumption of alcohol and the highest rate of tobacco smoking in Australia. This study identifies the drinking patterns and demographic and personal variables that might predict risk levels for Northern Territory University (NTU) students and therefore give direction to…

  10. Policy approaches to support local community control over the supply and distribution of kava in the Northern Territory (Australia).

    PubMed

    Clough, Alan R; Jones, Peter J

    2004-03-01

    The health consequences of kava abuse in Arnhem Land Aboriginal populations in the Northern Territory (NT) and the persistence of an illegal kava trade with its associated social harms have been a cause for concern for 20 years. Despite these concerns, some Arnhem Land groups seek to continue using kava and to control its sale, distribution and the profits from the enterprise. In response, policy makers in the NT have embraced principles of harm reduction and created regulatory mechanisms to address broader public concerns and to support local management of kava supply while reinforcing control over the consequences of its use. This paper describes the kava regulatory system now being implemented in the NT which features kava management plans developed in consultation between Aboriginal communities and licensing authorities. It complements the earlier Harm Reduction Digest 9 by McDonald & Jowitt which looked at Kava in the South Pacific.

  11. Measuring what matters in delivering services to remote-dwelling Indigenous mothers and infants in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, Malinda; Rumbold, Alice R; Kildea, Sue; Bar-Zeev, Sarah J; Kruske, Sue; Dunbar, Terry; Barclay, Lesley

    2012-08-01

    In the Northern Territory, 64% of Indigenous births are to remote-dwelling mothers. Delivering high-quality health care in remote areas is challenging, but service improvements, informed by participative action research, are under way. Evaluation of these initiatives requires appropriate indicators. Few of the many existing maternal and infant health indicators are specifically framed for the remote context or exemplify an Indigenous consumer perspective. We aimed to identify an indicator framework with appropriate indicators to demonstrate improvements in health outcomes, determinants of health and health system performance for remote-dwelling mothers and infants from pregnancy to first birthday. We reviewed existing indicators; invited input from experts; investigated existing administrative data collections and examined findings from a record audit, ethnographic work and the evaluation of the Darwin Midwifery Group Practice. Northern Territory. About 660 potentially relevant indicators were identified. We adapted the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework and populated the resulting framework with chosen indicators. We chose the indicators best able to monitor the impact of changes to remote service delivery by eliminating duplicated or irrelevant indicators using expert opinion, triangulating data and identifying key issues for remote maternal and infant health service improvements. We propose 31 indicators to monitor service delivery to remote-dwelling Indigenous mothers and infants. Our inclusive indicator framework covers the period from pregnancy to the first year of life and includes existing indicators, but also introduces novel ones. We also attempt to highlight an Indigenous consumer. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  12. A comparison of Aedes vigilax larval population densities and associated vegetation categories in a coastal wetland, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Jacups, S P; Kurucz, N; Whelan, P I; Carter, J M

    2009-12-01

    Darwin's northern suburbs border an extensive coastal reed and upper mangrove wetland recognized as an important larval habitat for Aedes vigilax (Skuse), the northern salt marsh mosquito, an established vector for Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses and an appreciable pest species. We sought to identify the most important vegetation categories associated with Ae. vigilax breeding to maximize the efficiency of mosquito control efforts. Using a generalized linear model with negative binominal distribution and log link, this study compares larval densities, determined by focused dipping, between 13 discernable vegetation categories. The incidence rate ratios (RR) generated can be used to compare the magnitude of larval densities for each vegetation category, compared with the reference category. Aedes vigilax larval densities were almost ten times greater in artificial drainage areas (RR=9.82), followed by tide-affected reticulate (Sporobolus/Xerochloa) areas (RR=8.15), then Schoenoplectus/mangroves (RR=2.29), compared with the reference vegetation category "lower mangroves." Furthermore, larval densities were highest in May, due to tidal inundation, for drainage areas and tide-affected reticulates (RR=12.2, 11.7, respectively) compared with March, the reference month. Thus, to maximize the efficiency of aerial salt marsh mosquito control operations in this wetland, larval control is best accomplished by concentrating on drains, Schoenoplectus/mangroves, and tide-affected reticulate areas, commencing early after the wet season. These results should apply to other areas of salt marsh mosquito breeding across northern Australia.

  13. A new species of long-necked turtle (Pleurodira: Chelidae: Chelodina) from the late Miocene Alcoota Local Fauna, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Yates, Adam M

    2013-01-01

    The new species Chelodina (Chelodina) murrayi is described from the late Miocene Alcoota Local Fauna of central Australia, in the Northern Territory. The new species is based on shell fragments and can be diagnosed by a ventrally reflexed anterior margin of the plastron, a ventrally narrowed cervical scute and strongly dorsally curved margins of the carapace extending from approximately peripheral two to peripheral nine or ten as well as by a unique combination of characters. Within Chelodina the new species is part of the nominal subgenus and within that subgenus it is most closely related to the Chelodina (Chelodina) novaeguineae species group. This is not only the oldest record but also the most southerly occurrence of this species group.

  14. New craniodental remains of Wakaleo alcootaensis (Diprotodontia: Thylacoleonidae) a carnivorous marsupial from the late Miocene Alcoota Local Fauna of the Northern Territory, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    New jaws and teeth referable to the rare thylacoleonid marsupial Wakaleo alcootaensis are figured and described. The species is the geologically youngest known member of the genus and is only known from the late Miocene Alcoota Local Fauna of the Northern Territory, Australia. A revised diagnosis of the species is presented which is found to be morphologically distinct from its congeners. W. alcootaensis can be distinguished from other species of Wakaleo by its greater size, deeply recessed masseteric fossa, more steeply angled I1, loss of P2, greater P3 to M1 ratio and loss of M3. Several characters of W. alcootaensis, including the increase in size, steeply angled I1, increase of the relative size of P3, and reduction of the molar row are present in at least some species of Thylacoleo. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that these character states are convergences and that there was parallel evolution in these two thylacoleonid lineages. PMID:26587359

  15. Gambling, housing conditions, community contexts and child health in remote indigenous communities in the Northern Territory, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent government reports have identified gambling, along with alcohol abuse, drug abuse and pornography, as contributing to child neglect and abuse in Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory (NT). These reports also identify gaps in empirical evidence upon which to base sound policy. To address this shortfall, data from ten remote Indigenous communities was analysed to determine the relationship between gambling problems, housing conditions, community contexts and child health in indigenous communities. Methods Logistic regression was used to assess associations between gambling problems, community contexts, housing conditions and child health. Separate multivariable models were developed for carer reported gambling problems in houses and six child health outcomes. Results Carer reported gambling problems in households across the ten communities ranged from 10% to 74%. Inland tropical communities had the highest level of reported gambling problems. Less access to a doctor in the community showed evidence of a multivariable adjusted association with gambling problems in houses. No housing variables showed evidence for a multivariable association with reported gambling problems. There was evidence for gambling problems having a multivariable adjusted association with carer report of scabies and ear infection in children. Conclusions The analyses provide evidence that gambling is a significant problem in Indigenous communities and that gambling problems in households is related to poor child health outcomes. A comprehensive (prevention, treatment, regulation and education) public health approach to harm minimisation associated with gambling amongst the Indigenous population is required that builds on current normative community regulation of gambling. PMID:22632458

  16. Obtaining biophysical measurements of woody vegetation from high resolution digital aerial photography in tropical and arid environments: Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staben, G. W.; Lucieer, A.; Evans, K. G.; Scarth, P.; Cook, G. D.

    2016-10-01

    communities across the Northern Territory.

  17. Genotyping of whole genome amplified reduced representation libraries reveals a cryptic population of Culicoides brevitarsis in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Onyango, Maria G; Aitken, Nicola C; Jack, Cameron; Chuah, Aaron; Oguya, James; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Kemp, Steve; Bellis, Glenn A; Nicholas, Adrian; Walker, Peter J; Duchemin, Jean-Bernard

    2016-09-30

    The advent of genotyping by Next Generation Sequencing has enabled rapid discovery of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and high throughput genotyping of large populations at an affordable cost. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS), a reduced representation library sequencing method, allows highly multiplexed sequencing of genomic subsets. This method has limitations for small organisms with low amounts of genomic DNA, such as the bluetongue virus (BTV) vectors, Culicoides midges. This study employed the GBS method to isolate SNP markers de novo from whole genome amplified Culicoides brevitarsis genomic DNA. The individuals were collected from regions representing two different Australian patterns of BTV strain distribution: the Northern Territory (NT) and the east coast. We isolated 8145 SNPs using GBS. Phylogenetic analysis conducted using the filtered 3263 SNPs revealed the presence of a distinct C. brevitarsis sub-population in the NT and this was confirmed by analysis of mitochondrial DNA. Two loci showed a very strong signal for selection and were unique to the NT population. Bayesian analysis with STRUCTURE indicated a possible two-population cluster. The results suggest that genotyping vectors with high density markers in combination with biological and environmental data is useful. However, more extensive sampling over a wider spatial and temporal range is needed. The presence of sub-structure in populations and loci under natural selection indicates the need for further investigation of the role of vectors in shaping the two Australian systems of BTV transmission. The described workflow is transferable to genotyping of small, non-model organisms, including arthropod vectors of pathogens of economic and medical importance.

  18. Acute Post-Streptococcal Glomerulonephritis in the Northern Territory of Australia: A Review of 16 Years Data and Comparison with the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Catherine S.; Cheng, Allen C.; Markey, Peter G.; Towers, Rebecca J.; Richardson, Leisha J.; Fagan, Peter K.; Scott, Lesley; Krause, Vicki L.; Currie, Bart J.

    2011-01-01

    Data relating to acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) from the notifiable diseases surveillance system in the Northern Territory of Australia was extracted and analyzed. Isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes from confirmed cases were emm sequence typed. From 1991 to July 2008, there were 415 confirmed cases and 23 probable cases of APSGN notified. Four hundred fifteen (94.7%) of these were Indigenous Australians and 428 (97.7%) were people living in remote or very remote locations. The median age of cases was 7 years (range 0–54). The incidence of confirmed cases was 12.5/100,000 person-years, with an incidence in Indigenous Australian children younger than 15 years of age of 94.3 cases/100,000 person-years. The overall rate ratio of confirmed cases in Indigenous Australians to non-Indigenous Australians was 53.6 (95% confidence interval 32.6–94.8). Outbreaks of disease across multiple communities occurred in 1995 (N = 68), 2000 (N = 55), and 2005 (N = 87 [confirmed cases]). Various emm types of S. pyogenes were isolated from cases of APSGN including some types not previously recognized to be nephritogenic. The widespread outbreak in 2005 was caused by emm55.0 S. pyogenes. Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis continues to occur in remote Indigenous communities in Australia at rates comparable to or higher than those estimated in developing countries. Improvements in preventative and outbreak control strategies are needed. PMID:21976576

  19. Indigenous Tertiary Education--We Are All Learning: Both-Ways Pedagogy in the Northern Territory of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bat, Melodie; Kilgariff, Claire; Doe, Tina

    2014-01-01

    In this new era in tertiary education in Australia, the opportunity exists not only to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students and thus redress low access and participation rates, but also to build a system that privileges Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander knowledges and ways of learning. To be able to do such a thing…

  20. Case-control study of the association between kava use and pneumonia in eastern Arnhem and Aboriginal communities (Northern Territory, Australia).

    PubMed Central

    Clough, A. R.; Wang, Z.; Bailie, R. S.; Burns, C. B.; Currie, B. J.

    2003-01-01

    Pneumonia causes significant morbidity and mortality in Aboriginal populations in Australia's Northern Territory (NT). Kava, consumed in Arnhem Land since 1982, may be a risk factor for infectious disease including pneumonia. A case-control study (n = 115 cases; n = 415 controls) was conducted in 7001 Aboriginal people (4217 over 15 years). Odds ratios (OR) were calculated by conditional logistic regression with substance use and social factors as confounders. Pneumonia was not associated with kava use. Crude OR = 1.26 (0.74-2.14, P = 0.386), increased after controlling for confounders (OR = 1.98, 0.63-6.23, P = 0.237) but was not significant. Adjusted OR for pneumonia cases involving kava and alcohol users was 1.19 (0.39-3.62, P = 0.756). In communities with longer kava-using histories, adjusted OR was 2.19 (0.67-7.14, P = 0.187). There was no kava dose-response relationship. Crude ORs for associations between pneumonia and cannabis use (OR = 2.27, 1 18-4.37, P = 0.014) and alcohol use (OR = 1.95, 1.07-3.53, P = 0.026) were statistically significant and approached significance for petrol sniffing (OR = 1.98, 0.99-3.95, P = 0.056). PMID:12948361

  1. Improving health service delivery for women with diabetes in pregnancy in remote Australia: survey of care in the Northern Territory Diabetes in Pregnancy Partnership.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Laura; Connors, Christine; Whitbread, Cherie; Brown, Alex; Oats, Jeremy; Maple-Brown, Louise

    2014-12-01

    In the Northern Territory (NT), 38% of 3500 births each year are to Indigenous women, 80% of whom live in regional and remote areas. Compared with the general Australian population, rates of pre-existing type 2 diabetes in pregnancy are 10-fold higher and rates of gestational diabetes are 1.5-fold higher among Indigenous women. Current practices in screening for diabetes in pregnancy in remote Australia are not known. To assess current health service delivery for NT women with diabetes in pregnancy (DIP) by surveying healthcare professionals' views and practices in DIP screening and management. A cross-sectional survey of NT healthcare professionals providing clinical care for women with DIP was conducted based on pre-identified themes of communication, care-coordination, education, orientation and guidelines, logistics and access, and information technology. Of the 116 responders to the survey, 78% were primary healthcare professionals, 32% midwives and 25% general practitioners. High staff turnover was evident: of Central Australian professionals, only 33% (urban) and 18% (regional/remote) had been in their current position over 5 years. DIP screening was conducted at first antenatal visit by 66% and at 24-28-week gestation by 81%. Only 50% of respondents agreed that most women at their health service received appropriate care for DIP, and 41% of primary care practitioners were neutral or not confident in their skills to manage DIP. It is promising that many healthcare professionals report following new guidelines in conducting early pregnancy screening for DIP in high risk women. Several challenges were identified in healthcare delivery to a high risk population in remote Australia. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. Re-evaluation of the petrogenesis of the Proterozoic Jabiluka unconformity-related uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polito, Paul A.; Kurt Kyser, T.; Thomas, David; Marlatt, Jim; Drever, Garth

    2005-11-01

    The world class Jabiluka unconformity-related uranium deposit in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Field, Australia, contains >163,000 tons of contained U3O8. Mineralization is hosted by shallow-to-steeply dipping basement rocks comprising graphitic units of chlorite-biotite-muscovite schist. These rocks are overlain by flat-lying coarse-grained sandstones belonging to the Kombolgie Subgroup. The deposit was discovered in 1971, but has never been mined. The construction of an 1,150 m decline into the upper eastern sector of the Jabiluka II deposit combined with closely spaced underground drilling in 1998 and 1999 allowed mapping and sampling from underground for the first time. Structural mapping, drill core logging and petrographic studies on polished thin sections established a detailed paragenesis that provided the framework for subsequent electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction, fluid inclusion, and O-H, U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar isotope analysis. Uranium mineralization is structurally controlled within semi-brittle shears that are sub-conformable to the basement stratigraphy, and breccias that are developed within the hinge zone of fault-related folds adjacent to the shears. Uraninite is intimately associated with chlorite, sericite, hematite ± quartz. Electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction analysis of syn-ore illite and chlorite indicates a mineralization temperature of 200°C. Pre- and syn-ore minerals extracted from the Kombolgie Subgroup overlying the deposit and syn-ore alteration minerals in the Cahill Formation have δ18Ofluid and δ D fluid values of 4.0±3.7 and -27±17‰, respectively. These values are indistinguishable from illite separates extracted from diagenetic aquifers in the Kombolgie Subgroup up to 70 km to the south and east of the deposit and believed to be the source of the uraniferous fluid. New fluid inclusion microthermometry data reveal that the mineralising brine was saline, but not saturated. U-Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios of uraninite by

  3. Anthropogenic ecological change and impacts on mosquito breeding and control strategies in salt-marshes, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Jacups, Susan; Warchot, Allan; Whelan, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Darwin, in the tropical north of Australia, is subject to high numbers of mosquitoes and several mosquito-borne diseases. Many of Darwin's residential areas were built in close proximity to tidally influenced swamps, where long-term storm-water run-off from nearby residences into these swamps has led to anthropogenic induced ecological change. When natural wet-dry cycles were disrupted, bare mud-flats and mangroves were transformed into perennial fresh to brackish-water reed swamps. Reed swamps provided year-round breeding habitat for many mosquito species, such that mosquito abundance was less predictable and seasonally dependent, but constant and often occurring in plague proportions. Drainage channels were constructed throughout the wetlands to reduce pooled water during dry-season months. This study assesses the impact of drainage interventions on vegetation and mosquito ecology in three salt-marshes in the Darwin area. Findings revealed a universal decline in dry-season mosquito abundance in each wetland system. However, some mosquito species increased in abundance during wet-season months. Due to the high expense and potentially detrimental environmental impacts of ecosystem and non-target species disturbance, large-scale modifications such as these are sparingly undertaken. However, our results indicate that some large scale environmental modification can assist the process of wetland restoration, as appears to be the case for these salt marsh systems. Drainage in all three systems has been restored to closer to their original salt-marsh ecosystems, while reducing mosquito abundances, thereby potentially lowering the risk of vector-borne disease transmission and mosquito pest biting problems.

  4. Health promotion in Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care services: case studies from South Australia and the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Freeman, Toby; Jolley, Gwyn; Lawless, Angela; Bentley, Michael; Värttö, Kaisu; Boffa, John; Labonte, Ronald; Sanders, David

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports on the health promotion and disease prevention conducted at Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care (PHC) services and considers the ways in which the organizational environment affects the extent and type of health promotion and disease prevention activity. The study involves five PHC services in Adelaide and one in Alice Springs. Four are managed by a state health department and two by boards of governance. The study is based on an audit of activities and on 68 interviews conducted with staff. All the sites undertake health promotion and recognize its importance but all report that this activity is under constant pressure resulting from the need to provide services to people who have health problems. We also found an increased focus on chronic disease management and prevention which prioritized individuals and behavioural change strategies rather than addressing social determinants affecting whole communities. There was little health promotion work that reflected a salutogenic approach to the creation of health. Most activity falls under three types: parenting and child development, chronic disease prevention and mental health. Only the non-government organizations reported advocacy on broader policy issues. Health reform and consequent reorganizations were seen to reduce the ability of some services to undertake health promotion. The paper concludes that PHC in Australia plays an important role in disease prevention, but that there is considerable scope to increase the amount of community-based health promotion which focuses on a salutogenic view of health and which engages in community partnerships. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. How Do Pre-Service Teachers Cope with a Literacy Intervention Program in a Remote Indigenous Community? The Community Action Support Program in the Northern Territory, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Loshini

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a new community education initiative, Community Action Support (CAS) that helps facilitate learning in Indigenous young people from Tennant Creek in the Northern Territory. CAS is an innovative partnership program between the Australian Literacy and Numeracy Foundation and the University of Western Sydney. The core aim of the…

  6. The impacts of low-cost treatment options upon scale formation potential in remote communities reliant on hard groundwaters. A case study: Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kinsela, Andrew S; Jones, Adele M; Collins, Richard N; Waite, T David

    2012-02-01

    The majority of small, remote communities within the Northern Territory (NT) in Central Australia are reliant on groundwater as their primary supply of domestic, potable water. Saturation indices for a variety of relevant minerals were calculated using available thermodynamic speciation codes on collected groundwater data across the NT. These saturation indices were used to assess the theoretical formation of problematic mineral-scale, which manifests itself by forming stubborn coatings on domestic appliances and fixtures. The results of this research show that 63% of the measured sites within the NT have the potential to form calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) scale, increasing to 91% in arid, central regions. The data also suggests that all groundwaters are over-saturated with respect to amorphous calcium-bridged ferric-silica polymers, based on the crystalline mineral index (Ca(3)Fe(2)Si(3)O(12)), although the quantitative impact of this scale is limited by low iron concentrations. An assessment of possible low-cost/low-technology management options was made, including; lowering the temperature of hot-water systems, diluting groundwater with rainwater and modifying the pH of the source water. Source water pH modification (generally a reduction to pH 7.0) was shown to clearly alleviate potential carbonate-based scale formation, over and above the other two options, albeit at a greater technical and capital expense. Although low-cost/low-technology treatment options are unlikely to remove severe scale-related issues, their place in small, remote communities with minor scale problems should be investigated further, owing to the social, technical and capital barriers involved with installing advanced treatment plants (e.g. reverse osmosis) in such locations.

  7. A cost-consequences analysis of a midwifery group practice for Aboriginal mothers and infants in the top end of the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Gold, Lisa; Josif, Cath; Bar-Zeev, Sarah; Steenkamp, Malinda; Barclay, Lesley; Zhao, Yuejen; Tracy, Sally; Kildea, Sue

    2014-04-01

    to compare the cost-effectiveness of two models of service delivery: Midwifery Group Practice (MGP) and baseline cohort. a retrospective and prospective cohort study. a regional hospital in Northern Territory (NT), Australia. baseline cohort included all Aboriginal mothers (n=412), and their infants (n=416), from two remote communities who gave birth between 2004 and 2006. The MGP cohort included all Aboriginal mothers (n=310), and their infants (n=315), from seven communities who gave birth between 2009 and 2011. The baseline cohort mothers and infant's medical records were retrospectively audited and the MGP cohort data were prospectively collected. All the direct costs, from the Department of Health (DH) perspective, occurred from the first antenatal presentation to six weeks post partum for mothers and up to 28 days post births for infants were included for analysis. analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0 and Stata 12.1. Independent sample of t-tests and χ2 were conducted. women receiving MGP care had significantly more antenatal care, more ultrasounds, were more likely to be admitted to hospital antenatally, and had more postnatal care in town. The MGP cohort had significantly reduced average length of stay for infants admitted to Special Care Nursery (SCN). There was no significant difference between the two cohorts for major birth outcomes such as mode of birth, preterm birth rate and low birth weight. Costs savings (mean A$703) were found, although these were not statistically significant, for women and their infants receiving MGP care compared to the baseline cohort. for remote dwelling Aboriginal women of all risk who travelled to town for birth, MGP was likely to be cost effective, and women received better care and resulting in equivalent birth outcomes compared with the baseline maternity care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The epidemiology of community acquired bacteremic pneumonia, due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, in the Top End of the Northern Territory, Australia--over 22 years.

    PubMed

    Jacups, Susan P; Cheng, Allen

    2011-07-26

    Diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Furthermore, detrimental outcomes are more pronounced in some populations--such as those living in third world poverty, and Indigenous people who live in developed nations. This study describes the epidemiology of blood culture positive S. pneumoniae community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. Demographics, indigenous status, medical risk factors, serotype and outcomes were collected from adults presenting to hospital with blood culture positive S. pneumoniae CAP, from 1987 to 2008. We report 205 cases, with a median age of 40 years. The average overall incidence rate ratio was 10.3 for indigenous adults compared with non-indigenous adults. There was no statistical difference between incidence rates pre and post-23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPPV) introduction. Serotypes in presenting cases were predominantly (84.7%) 23vPPV types. The whole-population logistic regression model identified significant adjusted relative risks: 95% CI, for age 45 and older 1.6: 1.1, 2.2, indigenous 5.9: 3.7, 9.5, diabetes 2.3: 1.6, 3.3, excess alcohol 4.8: 2.8, 8.3, smoking 2.7: 1.9, 3.7 with indigenous+excess alcohol 18.5: 17.3, 19.7 as predictive for bacteremic S. pneumoniae CAP presentation. Our results suggest that, the national 23vPPV program appears to be under-utilized. An integrated Public Health approach vigorously targeting indigenous adolescents, before substances such as alcohol and smoking are habitual, together with increased vaccine coverage, will reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease in this population. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of three methods for the recovery of skin pathogens from impetigo swabs collected in a remote community of Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Asha C; Tong, Steven Y C; Chatfield, Mark D; Andrews, Ross M; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2013-06-01

    Impetigo is a common infection in children living in remote areas. Immediate plating of impetigo swabs is the gold standard for bacterial recovery but is rarely feasible in remote regions. Bacterial culture increases our understanding of antibiotic resistance and strain diversity, which guides treatment protocols and epidemiological monitoring. We investigated three practical alternatives for recovering Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus from transported swabs: dry swabs transported at 4°C with desiccant and plated within 48 h; swabs inoculated into skim milk tryptone glucose glycerol broth (STGGB), transported at 4°C, stored at -70°C and plated within 61 days; and ESwabs inoculated into Amies broth, transported at 4°C and plated within 48 h. Detection of Strep. pyogenes and Staph. aureus from simultaneously collected swabs was compared for the dry vs STGGB (36 sores) and the STGGB vs Amies (39 sores) methods. Swabs were collected from 43 children (75 sores sampled) in a remote community of Northern Territory, Australia in November 2011. The children had impetigo and were participating in the Skin Sore Trial [Australian Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000858291]. Recovery of Strep. pyogenes for dry vs STGGB was 72% (26/36) and 92% (33/36) and for STGGB vs Amies was 92% (36/39) for both methods. Staphylococcus aureus recovery for dry vs STGGB was 69% (25/36) and 72% 26/36) and for STGGB vs Amies was 74% (29/39) and 85% (33/39). STGGB and Amies media provided higher recovery of Strep. pyogenes than dry swabs. These results and the opportunity to batch and store specimens for molecular studies support the use of STGGB transport media for future impetigo research.

  10. Early palaeozoic palaeomagnetism in Australia I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, C. T.

    1980-04-01

    considerable intensity. Two characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Late Cambrian—Early Ordovician age (S-pole at: 75.8°E 17.4°N, d p = 4.2°, d m = 1.9°, N = 54 specimens), attributed to thermochemical activity predating the main folding phases of the Delamarian Orogeny. (B) A primary magnetic component corresponding to a S-pole position at 15.1°E 33.8°S (d p = 6.2°, d m = 12.3°, N = 16 sites). Both the primary and the secondary magnetic component are in very good directional agreement with the magnetization pattern from the correlated Billy Creek Formation of the Flinders Ranges (I). Consequently, noticeable rotational movement since late-Early Cambrian times between Kangaroo Island and the northwestern part of the Adelaide "Geosyncline" can be ruled out. III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin (Northern Territory) A total of 328 samples from a Middle Cambrian red-bed succession and a Middle to early-Late Cambrian carbonate succession in the Amadeus Basin (Central Australia) have been analyzed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples contained a recent field component of considerable intensity which became broken down, respectively below 200°C in the carbonate samples and between 300°C and 500°C in the red-bed samples. Another recent field component, broken down between 600°C and 675°C, was noted in some of the red-bed samples. Three characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Late Devonian—Early Carboniferous age (S-pole at 110.5°E 46.9°S, N = 2 localities) which predates the main folding phase of the Early Carboniferous Alice Springs Orogeny. (B) Another secondary magnetic component (S-pole at 60.8°E 33.8°N, N = 2 localities) which is very similar to a thermo-chemically induced Cambro-Ordovician magnetic component, noted in rocks from the Adelaide "Geosyncline". (C) A primary magnetic component which suggests

  11. Fires in Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Several fires were detected in Northern Australia by MODIS. The fires show up as red dots, superimposed on a surface reflectance product. The image also shows the Clarence Strait, which separates the mainland from Melville Island to the northwest and the smaller Bathurst Island to its west. The Strait connects the more confined, bowl-shaped Van Diemen Gulf to the Beagle Gulf. To the right of the image at the top is the Gulf of Carpentaria, which appears to be full of phytoplankton, as evidenced by the blue-green swirls in the waters

  12. Better health outcomes at lower costs: the benefits of primary care utilisation for chronic disease management in remote Indigenous communities in Australia's Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuejen; Thomas, Susan L; Guthridge, Steven L; Wakerman, John

    2014-10-04

    Indigenous residents living in remote communities in Australia's Northern Territory experience higher rates of preventable chronic disease and have poorer access to appropriate health services compared to other Australians. This study compared health outcomes and costs at different levels of primary care utilisation to determine if primary care represents an efficient use of resources for Indigenous patients with common chronic diseases namely hypertension, diabetes, ischaemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and renal disease. This was an historical cohort study involving a total of 14,184 Indigenous residents, aged 15 years and over, who lived in remote communities and used a remote clinic or public hospital from 2002 to 2011. Individual level demographic and clinical data were drawn from primary care and hospital care information systems using a unique patient identifier. A propensity score was used to improve comparability between high, medium and low primary care utilisation groups. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and acceptability curves were used to analyse four health outcome measures: total and, avoidable hospital admissions, deaths and years of life lost. Compared to the low utilisation group, medium and high levels of primary care utilisation were associated with decreases in total and avoidable hospitalisations, deaths and years of life lost. Higher levels of primary care utilisation for renal disease reduced avoidable hospitalisations by 82-85%, deaths 72-75%, and years of life lost 78-81%. For patients with ischaemic heart disease, the reduction in avoidable hospitalisations was 63-78%, deaths 63-66% and years of life lost 69-73%. In terms of cost-effectiveness, primary care for renal disease and diabetes ranked as more cost-effective, followed by hypertension and ischaemic heart disease. Primary care for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was the least cost-effective of the five conditions. Primary care in remote

  13. PneuMum: Impact from a randomised controlled trial of maternal 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination on middle ear disease amongst Indigenous infants, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Binks, Michael J; Moberley, Sarah A; Balloch, Anne; Leach, Amanda J; Nelson, Sandra; Hare, Kim M; Wilson, Cate; Morris, Peter S; Nelson, Jane; Chatfield, Mark D; Tang, Mimi L K; Torzillo, Paul; Carapetis, Jonathan R; Mulholland, E Kim; Andrews, Ross M

    2015-11-27

    We assessed maternal 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide (23vPPV) vaccine efficacy (VE) against middle ear disease and pneumococcal carriage amongst Australian Indigenous infants. In an open label, allocation concealed, outcome-assessor blinded, community stratified, randomised controlled trial, healthy pregnant Indigenous women aged 17-39 years in the Northern Territory of Australia received the 23vPPV (1:1:1) at: 30-36 weeks gestation, birth, or were unvaccinated (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00714064). Co-primary outcomes were the point prevalences of infant middle ear disease and 23vPPV-type carriage at age 7 months. The consent rate was 50% (313/632). Among 227 eligible participants randomised, retention rates were 86% (66/77) controls; 89% (67/75) pregnancy vaccinees; 88% (66/75) birth vaccinees. At infant age 7 months, ear disease prevalence was: 71% (47/66) controls, 63% (42/67) pregnancy vaccinees, 76% (50/66) birth vaccinees; and 23vPPV-type carriage was: 26% (17/66) controls, 18% (12/67) pregnancy vaccinees, 18% (12/66) birth vaccinees. For pregnancy vaccinees, VE was 12% (95% CI -12% to 31%) against infant ear disease and 30% (95% CI -34% to 64%) against 23vPPV-type carriage. In a post-hoc analysis, VE against infant ear disease concurrent with carriage of 23vPPV or related types was 51% (95% CI -2% to 76%). There were no serious adverse effects following receipt of the 23vPPV in pregnancy or at birth. In a high risk population, our study was unable to demonstrate efficacy of 23vPPV in pregnancy against the co-primary outcomes of either all-cause infant ear disease or 23vPPV-type nasopharyngeal carriage at age 7 months. Efficacy against ear disease concurrent with carriage of vaccine-related serotypes (a more specific outcome) suggests 23vPPV in pregnancy may complement childhood pneumococcal vaccination programs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Describing and analysing primary health care system support for chronic illness care in Indigenous communities in Australia's Northern Territory - use of the Chronic Care Model.

    PubMed

    Si, Damin; Bailie, Ross; Cunningham, Joan; Robinson, Gary; Dowden, Michelle; Stewart, Allison; Connors, Christine; Weeramanthri, Tarun

    2008-05-28

    Indigenous Australians experience disproportionately high prevalence of, and morbidity and mortality from chronic illness such as diabetes, renal disease and cardiovascular disease. Improving the understanding of how Indigenous primary care systems are organised to deliver chronic illness care will inform efforts to improve the quality of care for Indigenous people. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 Indigenous communities in Australia's Northern Territory. Using the Chronic Care Model as a framework, we carried out a mail-out survey to collect information on material, financial and human resources relating to chronic illness care in participating health centres. Follow up face-to-face interviews with health centre staff were conducted to identify successes and difficulties in the systems in relation to providing chronic illness care to community members. Participating health centres had distinct areas of strength and weakness in each component of systems: 1) organisational influence - strengthened by inclusion of chronic illness goals in business plans, appointment of designated chronic disease coordinators and introduction of external clinical audits, but weakened by lack of training in disease prevention and health promotion and limited access to Medicare funding; 2) community linkages - facilitated by working together with community organisations (e.g. local stores) and running community-based programs (e.g. "health week"), but detracted by a shortage of staff especially of Aboriginal health workers working in the community; 3) self management - promoted through patient education and goal setting with clients, but impeded by limited focus on family and community-based activities due to understaffing; 4) decision support - facilitated by distribution of clinical guidelines and their integration with daily care, but limited by inadequate access to and support from specialists; 5) delivery system design - strengthened by provision of transport for

  15. Describing and analysing primary health care system support for chronic illness care in Indigenous communities in Australia's Northern Territory – use of the Chronic Care Model

    PubMed Central

    Si, Damin; Bailie, Ross; Cunningham, Joan; Robinson, Gary; Dowden, Michelle; Stewart, Allison; Connors, Christine; Weeramanthri, Tarun

    2008-01-01

    Background Indigenous Australians experience disproportionately high prevalence of, and morbidity and mortality from chronic illness such as diabetes, renal disease and cardiovascular disease. Improving the understanding of how Indigenous primary care systems are organised to deliver chronic illness care will inform efforts to improve the quality of care for Indigenous people. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 Indigenous communities in Australia's Northern Territory. Using the Chronic Care Model as a framework, we carried out a mail-out survey to collect information on material, financial and human resources relating to chronic illness care in participating health centres. Follow up face-to-face interviews with health centre staff were conducted to identify successes and difficulties in the systems in relation to providing chronic illness care to community members. Results Participating health centres had distinct areas of strength and weakness in each component of systems: 1) organisational influence – strengthened by inclusion of chronic illness goals in business plans, appointment of designated chronic disease coordinators and introduction of external clinical audits, but weakened by lack of training in disease prevention and health promotion and limited access to Medicare funding; 2) community linkages – facilitated by working together with community organisations (e.g. local stores) and running community-based programs (e.g. "health week"), but detracted by a shortage of staff especially of Aboriginal health workers working in the community; 3) self management – promoted through patient education and goal setting with clients, but impeded by limited focus on family and community-based activities due to understaffing; 4) decision support – facilitated by distribution of clinical guidelines and their integration with daily care, but limited by inadequate access to and support from specialists; 5) delivery system design

  16. A population-based investigation into inequalities amongst Indigenous mothers and newborns by place of residence in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Steenkamp, Malinda; Rumbold, Alice; Barclay, Lesley; Kildea, Sue

    2012-06-09

    Comparisons of birth outcomes between Australian Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations show marked inequalities. These comparisons obscure Indigenous disparities. There is much variation in terms of culture, language, residence, and access to services amongst Australian Indigenous peoples. We examined outcomes by region and remoteness for Indigenous subgroups and explored data for communities to inform health service delivery and interventions. Our population-based study examined maternal and neonatal outcomes for 7,560 mothers with singleton pregnancies from Australia's Northern Territory Midwives' Data Collection (2003-2005) using uni- and multivariate analyses. Groupings were by Indigenous status; region (Top End (TE)/Central Australia (CA)); Remote/Urban residence; and across two large TE communities. Of the sample, 34.1% were Indigenous women, of whom 65.6% were remote-dwelling versus 6.7% of non-Indigenous women. In comparison to CA Urban mothers: TE Remote (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.47, 95%CI: 1.13, 1.90) and TE Urban mothers (aOR 1.36 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.80) were more likely, but CA Remote mothers (aOR 0.43; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.58) less likely to smoke during pregnancy; CA Remote mothers giving birth at >32 weeks gestation were less likely to have attended ≥ five antenatal visits (aOR 0.55; 95%CI: 0.36, 0.86); TE Remote (aOR 0.71; 95%CI: 0.53, 0.95) and CA Remote women (aOR 0.68; 95%CI: 0.49, 0.95) who experienced labour had lower odds of epidural/spinal/narcotic pain relief; and TE Remote (aOR 0.47; 95%CI: 0.34, 0.66), TE Urban (aOR 0.67; 95%CI: 0.46, 0.96) and CA Remote mothers (aOR 0.52; 95%CI: 0.35, 0.76) all had lower odds of having a 'normal' birth. The aOR for preterm birth for TE Remote newborns was 2.09 (95%CI: 1.20, 3.64) and they weighed 137 g (95%CI: -216 g, -59 g) less than CA Urban babies. There were few significant differences for communities, except for smoking prevalence. This paper is one of few quantifying inequalities

  17. The human colonisation of Australia: optical dates of 53,000 and 60,000 years bracket human arrival at Deaf Adder Gorge, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Richard G.; Jones, Rhys; Spooner, Nigel A.; Head, M. J.; Murray, Andrew S.; Smith, M. A.

    The date at which people entered Australia has important implications for the debate on modern human origins. Thermoluminescence dates of 50-60 ka, reported for initial occupation of the Malakunanja II site in northern Australia, have been used as a means of calibrating the rate of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA evolution in modern humans. Optical dating of unburnt quartzose sediments from a rock shelter site (Nauwalabila I, Lindner Site) in Deaf Adder Gorge, 70 km south of Malakunanja II, provides new evidence for the timing of the colonisation of the continent. Optical dates were determined for several stratigraphic levels within a 3 m deep excavation, in which flaked stone artefacts and ground pigments were found in primary depositional setting. The lowest human occupation levels are bracketed by dates of 53.4 ± 5.4 ka and 60.3 ± 6.7 ka, while the upper levels show good agreement between optical and calibrated 14C age estimates. High-quality haematite with ground facets and striations is associated directly with the 53 ka level and indicates the use of pigments by these early Australians. The optical dates independently confirm evidence for the colonisation of northern Australia shortly after 60 ka and should be seen in the context of this region as having been a likely entry route for the first human movements into Sahul.

  18. A population-based investigation into inequalities amongst Indigenous mothers and newborns by place of residence in the Northern territory, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Comparisons of birth outcomes between Australian Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations show marked inequalities. These comparisons obscure Indigenous disparities. There is much variation in terms of culture, language, residence, and access to services amongst Australian Indigenous peoples. We examined outcomes by region and remoteness for Indigenous subgroups and explored data for communities to inform health service delivery and interventions. Methods Our population-based study examined maternal and neonatal outcomes for 7,560 mothers with singleton pregnancies from Australia’s Northern Territory Midwives’ Data Collection (2003–2005) using uni- and multivariate analyses. Groupings were by Indigenous status; region (Top End (TE)/Central Australia (CA)); Remote/Urban residence; and across two large TE communities. Results Of the sample, 34.1% were Indigenous women, of whom 65.6% were remote-dwelling versus 6.7% of non-Indigenous women. In comparison to CA Urban mothers: TE Remote (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.47, 95%CI: 1.13, 1.90) and TE Urban mothers (aOR 1.36 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.80) were more likely, but CA Remote mothers (aOR 0.43; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.58) less likely to smoke during pregnancy; CA Remote mothers giving birth at >32 weeks gestation were less likely to have attended ≥ five antenatal visits (aOR 0.55; 95%CI: 0.36, 0.86); TE Remote (aOR 0.71; 95%CI: 0.53, 0.95) and CA Remote women (aOR 0.68; 95%CI: 0.49, 0.95) who experienced labour had lower odds of epidural/spinal/narcotic pain relief; and TE Remote (aOR 0.47; 95%CI: 0.34, 0.66), TE Urban (aOR 0.67; 95%CI: 0.46, 0.96) and CA Remote mothers (aOR 0.52; 95%CI: 0.35, 0.76) all had lower odds of having a ‘normal’ birth. The aOR for preterm birth for TE Remote newborns was 2.09 (95%CI: 1.20, 3.64) and they weighed 137 g (95%CI: -216 g, -59 g) less than CA Urban babies. There were few significant differences for communities, except for smoking prevalence. Conclusions This

  19. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  20. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  1. Solanum watneyi, a new bush tomato species from the Northern Territory, Australia named for Mark Watney of the book and film “The Martian”

    PubMed Central

    Martine, Christopher T.; Frawley, Emma S.; Cantley, Jason T.; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of andromonoecious Solanum from the Australian “bush tomato clade” of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum watneyi Martine & Frawley, sp. nov. is closely allied with Solanum eburneum, and is sympatric with it in parts of its range in the Northern Territory. The new species has been recognized as a variant of Solanum eburneum for decades, at times being referred to by local botanists as Solanum sp. “Bullita” because of its relative abundance in the vicinity of the Bullita Station area of Judbarra/Gregory National Park. Morphometric analyses show that Solanum watneyi differs statistically from Solanum eburneum in several key reproductive and vegetative characters and field observations suggest that the two sister species may represent a case of edaphic speciation. We provide morphometric evidence for the novelty of Solanum watneyi, a complete description, and cite specimens for both species. PMID:27081345

  2. Relative frequency, characteristics, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., Chromobacterium violaceum, and Shewanella spp. in the northern territory of Australia, 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, Gary N; Hennessy, Jann; Baird, Robert W

    2015-03-01

    Vibrio, Aeromonas, Chromobacterium violaceum, and Shewanella (VACS) are water-associated Gram-negative organisms that can cause a variety of infections. The frequency, patient characteristics, and antimicrobial susceptibilities for 468 isolates from 442 patients from the Northern Territory were reviewed. Aeromonas spp. (312 of 468; 67%) were most commonly isolated followed by Vibrio spp. (71 of 468; 15%), Shewanella spp. (61 of 468; 13%), and C. violaceum (24 of 468; 5%). A strong male predominance was found (male to female ratio of 2.3:1). Skin and soft tissue isolations (373 of 468; 80%) from lower limb infections (222 of 371; 60%) were the most common clinical manifestation. The episodes were usually polymicrobial (281 of 468; 60%). Coisolates included Staphylococcus aureus (137 of 468; 29%), β-hemolytic streptococci (74 of 468; 16%), enterobacteriaceae (111 of 468; 24%), non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli (35 of 468; 7%), and other VACS organisms (37 of 468; 8%). Antimicrobial resistance of VACS organisms to ciprofloxacin (0-4%), cefepime (0-3%), and gentamicin (0-0.8%) and Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., and Shewanella to cotrimoxazole (0-3%) was rarely shown. For water-associated lower limb skin and soft tissue infections in the tropics, clinicians should consider empirical antimicrobial therapy with agents active against S. aureus and VACS organisms.

  3. Land application of mine water causes minimal uranium loss offsite in the wet-dry tropics: Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Saqib; Streten, Claire; Parry, David L; McGuinness, Keith A; Lu, Ping; Gibb, Karen S

    2015-11-01

    Ranger Uranium Mine (RUM) is situated in the wet-dry tropics of Northern Australia. Land application (irrigation) of stockpile (ore and waste) runoff water to natural woodland on the mine lease is a key part of water management at the mine. Consequently, the soil in these Land Application Areas (LAAs) presents a range of uranium (U) and other metals concentrations. Knowledge of seasonal and temporal changes in soil U and physicochemical parameters at RUM LAAs is important to develop suitable management and rehabilitation strategies. Therefore, soil samples were collected from low, medium, high and very high U sites at RUM LAAs for two consecutive years and the effect of time and season on soil physicochemical parameters particularly U and other major solutes applied in irrigation water was measured. Concentrations of some of the solutes applied in the irrigation water such as sulphur (S), iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca) showed significant seasonal and temporal changes. Soil S, Fe and Ca concentration decreased from year 1 to year 2 and from dry to wet seasons during both years. Soil U followed the same pattern except that we recorded an increase in soil U concentrations at most of the RUM LAAs after year 2 wet season compared to year 2 dry season. Thus, these sites did not show a considerable decrease in soil U concentration from year 1 to year 2. Sites which contained elevated U after wet season 2 also had higher moisture content which suggests that pooling of U containing rainwater at these sites may be responsible for elevated U. Thus, U may be redistributed within RUM LAAs due to surface water movement. The study also suggested that a decrease in U concentrations in LAA soils at very high U (>900 mg kg(-1)) sites is most likely due to transport of particulate matter bound U by surface runoff and U may not be lost from the surface soil due to vertical movement through the soil profile. Uranium attached to particulate matter may reduce its potential for environmental

  4. Mining pollution and the diet of the purple-striped Gudgeon Mogurnda Mogurnda Richardson (Eleotridae) in the Finniss River, Northern Territory, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffree, R.A.; Williams, N.J.

    1980-01-01

    During the dry season of 1974, collections of the purple-striped Gudgeon Mogurnda Mogurnda were taken from the Finniss River of the Northern Territory; during the wet season, this river receives acidic and metallic pollutants from the formerly mined area of Rum Jungle. The fish consumed a great variety of foods, with high abundances of dytiscidae, chironomidae, ceratopogonidae, trichoptera, odonata, copepoda, decapoda, and pisces. For no food was there a significant regression against habitat descriptors in both of the zones; this emphasizes that pollution effects are more complex than simply depressing or raising the abundances of the dietary species. Five foods were more abundant in the diets of the polluted zone, and three in those of the unpolluted zone. The dietary abundances of two foods, both crustacean, increased in the polluted zone, compared to the unpolluted zone, through the dry season. Two categories of foods: (1) those obtaining oxygen directly from the atmosphere or via a film or bubble of air; and (2) the converse set (aquatic respirers), were contrasted for their usefulness in distinguishing between the zones, by both hierarchical agglomerative and discriminant function analyses. One collection from the polluted zone was reclassified as unpolluted on the basis of its grouping behaviour. The relevance for pollution studies of dietary analysis of euryphagous fish, rather than sampling aquatic fauna directly, is discussed in terms of food substitution, switching, strategies for abundance and recovery by the fauna, and possible effects of the pollutants on the fish as an intervening collector. Downstream patterns of abundance of the invertebrate fauna in this study are broadly similar to those of other studies in which such chemically diverse metals as Pb, Zn, and Cu are the pollutants, but there are differences for some faunal components.

  5. The Northern Territory Teaching Schools Program: Exploring the Promise of Partnerships in Regional Professional Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckworth, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    One of the key challenges for education in Northern Australia is attracting and recruiting teachers who can respond to the challenges of the region at the start of their careers through professional experience in the region. For pre-service students in regional locations such as the Northern Territory these challenges include coping with the…

  6. Education, Equity, and the Crisis in the Rural Community. Proceedings of the Rural Education Research Association Conference (Alice Springs, Northern Territory, Australia, February, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, J. M. R., Ed.; Griffith, D. A., Ed.

    This document summarizes the proceedings of a national forum for persons with an interest in and commitment to research into issues affecting people living in rural and remote areas across Australia. The six sub-themes of the conference were: (1) the role of the community in teacher preparation; (2) the quality of education in rural Australia; (3)…

  7. Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The oval shaped basin of the sedimentary rocks of the Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia (23.0S, 119.0E) dominates the center of this near nadir view. The Fortescue River is the remarkably straight, fault controlled feature bordering the Hammersley on the north. Sand dunes are the main surface features in the northeast and southwest. Many dry lakebeds can be seen to the east as light grey colored patches along the watercourses.

  8. Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The oval shaped basin of the sedimentary rocks of the Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia (23.0S, 119.0E) dominates the center of this near nadir view. The Fortescue River is the remarkably straight, fault controlled feature bordering the Hammersley on the north. Sand dunes are the main surface features in the northeast and southwest. Many dry lakebeds can be seen to the east as light grey colored patches along the watercourses.

  9. Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-04-29

    The oval shaped basin of the sedimentary rocks of the Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia (23.0S, 119.0E) dominates the center of this near nadir view. The Fortescue River is the remarkably straight, fault controlled feature bordering the Hammersley on the north. Sand dunes are the main surface features in the northeast and southwest. Many dry lakebeds can be seen to the east as light grey colored patches along the watercourses.

  10. Professional Development Programmes for Teachers in the Northern Territory of Australia: Enablers and Inhibiters for Success in Two Aspirant Leadership Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speering, Glen

    2016-01-01

    Professional development programmes for teachers have become an increasing focus in the quest to improve teacher quality. In regional and remote areas of Australia the delivery of professional development programmes can become problematic. This study compares and contrasts the two separate professional development programmes evaluated (Programme A…

  11. Professional Development Programmes for Teachers in the Northern Territory of Australia: Enablers and Inhibiters for Success in Two Aspirant Leadership Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speering, Glen

    2016-01-01

    Professional development programmes for teachers have become an increasing focus in the quest to improve teacher quality. In regional and remote areas of Australia the delivery of professional development programmes can become problematic. This study compares and contrasts the two separate professional development programmes evaluated (Programme A…

  12. Melioidosis and Aboriginal seasons in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen C; Jacups, Susan P; Ward, Linda; Currie, Bart J

    2008-12-01

    Melioidosis, an infection due to the environmental bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, is endemic to Southeast Asia and northern Australia, with cases strongly correlated with the monsoonal wet season. We hypothesized that seasonal variation in the mode of acquisition, informed by traditional knowledge, would result in variations in disease characteristics as well as disease incidence. We explored the seasonal variation in acute, culture-confirmed melioidosis using local Aboriginal definitions of seasons in presentations to the Royal Darwin Hospital, the referral centre for the Top End of the Northern Territory, Australia. In 387 patients, we observed an increased proportion of patients with pneumonia (60%) and severe sepsis (25%) associated with presentations in the wet seasons Gunumeleng (October-December) and Gudjewg (January-March) compared with the drier seasons Wurrgeng (June August) and Gurrung (August-October) (pneumonia 26%, severe sepsis 13%). This observation supports the hypothesis that in the wet seasons there may be changes in the mode and/or magnitude of exposure to B. pseudomallei, with a shift from percutaneous inoculation to aerosol inhalation, for instance.

  13. Fixation of radionuclides in the 238U decay series in the vicinity of mineralized zones: 1. The Austatom Uranium Prospect, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirvington, P. J.

    1983-03-01

    The minimum age of a zone of secondary uranium mineralization, located at the Austatom Prospect in the Alligator Rivers region of Australia, is estimated to be 3.6 × 10 5y. This is derived from a geochronological model based on retarded leaching of 234U with respect to 238U and on ratios within the ore of these members of the 238U decay series. Although kaolinite is a dominant mineral in the weathered schist-host-rocks, retarded dissolution of 234U occurs only in the presence of the clay minerals illite and montmorillonite. In their absence the reverse occurs. A model is proposed to explain the results. Ratios of 230Th to 238U indicate that the mineralization has probably remained stationary within the weathered schist for at least 1 to 2 × 10 5y. Future use of clay minerals as buffers in radioactive waste repositories is supported by the excellent long-term retention obtained for oxidized uranium, probably due in part to isomorphic substitution into the clay crystal lattice.

  14. Education Policy Reforms of Secondary Education in the Northern Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Bill

    2004-01-01

    An original study of the Ramsay Committee report entitled "Future Directions for Secondary Education in the Northern Territory" (the "Secondary Review") was presented in December 2004 at the ANZCIES National Conference in Melbourne. This was prior to the Northern Territory Government deciding how many of the recommendations of…

  15. Freshwater fishes of northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Pusey, Bradley J; Burrows, Damien W; Kennard, Mark J; Perna, Colton N; Unmack, Peter J; Allsop, Quentin; Hammer, Michael P

    2017-04-11

    Northern Australia is biologically diverse and of national and global conservation signicance. Its ancient landscape contains the world's largest area of savannah ecosystem in good ecological condition and its rivers are largely free-flowing. Agriculture, previously confined largely to open range-land grazing, is set to expand in extent and to focus much more on irrigated cropping and horticulture. Demands on the water resources of the region are thus, inevitably increasing. Reliable information is required to guide and inform development and help plan for a sustainable future for the region which includes healthy rivers that contain diverse fish assemblages. Based on a range of information sources, including the outcomes of recent and extensive new field surveys, this study maps the distribution of the 111 freshwater fishes (excluding elasmobranches) and 42 estuarine vagrants recorded from freshwater habitats of the region. We classify the habitat use and migratory biology of each species. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the diversity and distribution of fishes of the region within a standardised nomenclatural framework. In addition, we summarise the outcomes of recent phylogeographic and phylogenetic research using molecular technologies to identify where issues of taxonomy may need further scrutiny. The study provides an informed basis for further research on the spatial arrangement of biodiversity and its relationship to environmental factors (e.g. hydrology), conservation planning and phylogentic variation within individual taxa.

  16. Northern Territory Emergency Response: criticism, support and redesign.

    PubMed

    Evans, Brendon W

    2012-06-01

    The recent Federal Government Report and Media release, Stronger Futures in the Northern Territory: Report on Consultations and its claim of 'widespread Indigenous Support' has brought the topic of the Northern Territory Emergency Response (the Intervention) back into the public mind. This article provides a synthesis of four years of debate around the Northern Territory Emergency Response, at a time when the program is nearing the end of its time frame. It outlines the main arguments supporting the Intervention, the central criticisms and the government's response to these evaluations, with the aim of providing a primer or summary for health professionals to the discussion around this important public issue.

  17. Our Stories: Innovation and Excellence in Rural Education. Proceedings of National Rural Education Conference of the Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (21st, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia, October 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Colin, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The papers contained in this document represent the keynote addresses, refereed and non-refereed conference papers from the 21st National Conference of the Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA). The theme for this national annual conference was: Our Stories: Innovation and Excellence in Rural Education. Keynote…

  18. Country Education Profiles: Australia, and Australia-Territories (Papua, New Guinea and Norfolk Island).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Bureau of Education, Geneva (Switzerland).

    One of a series of profiles prepared by the Cooperative Educational Abstracting Service, this brief outline provides basic background information on educational principles, system of administration, structure and organization, curricula, and teacher training in Australia and Australian Territories (Papua, New Guinea and Norfolk Island). Statistics…

  19. The Northern Territories: Case Study in Japanese-Soviet Relations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    December 14 1854, the situation was entirely changed. Russia was anxious 9 to conclude a treaty, as its interests lay in the west. On the other side of...made territorial concessions in the interests of good relations with other nations. In returning the Soviet zone in Austria, the Porkkala naval base in...ern Kuriles take on even greater significance. It is also interesting to note that the maritime industries around the Northern Territories provide

  20. Aboriginal Language Use in the Northern Territory: 5 Reports. Work Papers of SIL-AAIB, Series B, Volume 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, M. J., Ed.

    Five studies of aboriginal language use in Australia's Northern Territory include: (1) "Yanyuwa--A Dying Language" (Jean F. Kirton), which outlines the factors contributing to the demise of the use of Yanyuwa since 1963 and the trend toward use of Kriol; (2) "Kriol in the Barkly Tableland" (Phillip L. Graber), presenting…

  1. An Australian Creole in the Northern Territory: A Description of Ngukurr-Bamyili Dialects (Part 1). Work Papers of SIL-AAB, Series B, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandefur, John R.

    A description of the creole language spoken in the Roper River area of Australia's Northern Territory, this paper is intended for the practical use of Europeans working in the area. An introductory section discusses the role and status of pidgins and creoles in modern Australia, the development of creole in the Roper River area, and the…

  2. Rural electrification: Waste biomass Russian northern territories. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, S.

    1998-02-01

    The primary objective of this pre-feasibility evaluation is to examine the economic and technical feasibility of replacing distillate fuel with local waste biomass in the village of Verkhni-Ozerski, Arkhangelsk Region, Russia. This village is evaluated as a pilot location representing the off-grid villages in the Russian Northern Territories. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has agreed to provide technical assistance to the Ministry of Fuel and Energy (MFE). MFE has identified the Northern Territories as a priority area requiring NREL`s assistance. The program initially affects about 900 off-grid villages. Biomass and wind energy, and to a lesser extent small hydro (depending on resource availability) are expected to play the dominant role in the program, Geothermal energy may also have a role in the Russian Far East. The Arkhangelsk, Kariela, and Krasnoyarsk Regions, all in the Russian Northern Territories, have abundant forest resources and forest products industries, making them strong candidates for implementation of small-scale waste biomass-to-energy projects. The 900 or so villages included in the renewable energy program span nine administrative regions and autonomous republics. The regional authorities in the Northern Territories proposed these villages to MFE for consideration in the renewable energy program according to the following selection criteria: (a) Remote off-grid location, (b) high cost of transporting fuel, old age of existing power generation equipment, and (d) preliminary determination as to availability of alternative energy resources. Inclusion of indigenous minorities in the program was also heavily emphasized. The prefeasibility study demonstrates that the project merits continuation and a full feasibility analysis. The demonstrated rate of return and net positive cash flow, the willingness of Onegales and local/regional authorities to cooperate, and the immense social benefits are all good reasons to continue the project.

  3. Phylogeography of the antilopine wallaroo (Macropus antilopinus) across tropical northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Jessica J; Fordham, Damien A; Thomson, Vicki A; Ritchie, Euan G; Austin, Jeremy J

    2016-11-01

    The distribution of antilopine wallaroo, Macropus antilopinus, is marked by a break in the species' range between Queensland and the Northern Territory, coinciding with the Carpentarian barrier. Previous work on M. antilopinus revealed limited genetic differentiation between the Northern Territory and Queensland M. antilopinus populations across this barrier. The study also identified a number of divergent lineages in the Northern Territory, but was unable to elucidate any geographic structure. Here, we re-examine these results to (1) determine phylogeographic patterns across the range of M. antilopinus and (2) infer the biogeographic barriers associated with these patterns. The tropical savannahs of northern Australia: from the Cape York Peninsula in the east, to the Kimberley in the west. We examined phylogeographic patterns in M. antilopinus using a larger number of samples and three mtDNA genes: NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2, cytochrome b, and the control region. Two datasets were generated and analyzed: (1) a subset of samples with all three mtDNA regions concatenated together and (2) all samples for just control region sequences that included samples from the previous study. Analysis included generating phylogenetic trees based on Bayesian analysis and intraspecific median-joining networks. The contemporary spatial structure of M. antilopinus mtDNA lineages revealed five shallow clades and a sixth, divergent lineage. The genetic differences that we found between Queensland and Northern Territory M. antilopinus samples confirmed the split in the geographic distribution of the species. We also found weak genetic differentiation between Northern Territory samples and those from the Kimberley region of Western Australia, possibly due to the Kimberley Plateau-Arnhem Land barrier. Within the Northern Territory, two clades appear to be parapatric in the west, while another two clades are broadly sympatric across the Northern Territory. MtDNA diversity of M

  4. Quaternary Tipping Points in Tropical Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Patrick; Dunbar, Gavin; Croke, Jacky; Katunar, Rosie

    2016-04-01

    Tropical northern Queensland, particularly the volcanic Atherton Tableland, contains some of the most detailed and longest terrestrial palaeoenvironmental archives in Australia and when combined with adjacent marine sediment records provides key insight into potential environmental 'tipping points' for the entire Quaternary period and beyond. This presentation will provide an overview of some of the key tipping points (i.e. significant landscape transformation) that have occurred within the tropical northern Australian region over the Quaternary, as well as discussing potential causes and subsequent impacts of these transformation episodes. These events include the development of the Great Barrier Reef, transition from obliquity to eccentricity dominated glacial-interglacial cycles, the Mid-Brunhes event, the Oxygen Isotope Stage 6 episode, the arrival of people into the region, Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition and European settlement.

  5. Implementing guideline based heart failure care in the Northern Territory: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Iyngkaran, Pupalan; Harris, Melanie; Ilton, Marcus; Kangaharan, Nadarajan; Battersby, Malcolm; Stewart, Simon; Brown, Alex

    2014-05-01

    The Northern Territory of Australia is a vast area serviced by two major tertiary hospitals. It has both a unique demography and geography, which pose challenges for delivering optimal heart failure services. The prevalence of congestive heart failure continues to increase, imposing a significant burden on health infrastructure and health care costs. Specific patient groups suffer disproportionately from increased disease severity or service related issues often represented as a "health care gap". The syndrome itself is characterised by ongoing symptoms interspersed with acute decompensation requiring lifelong therapy and is rarely reversible. For the individual client the overwhelming attention to heart failure care and the impact of health care gaps can be devastating. This gap may also contribute to widening socio-economic differentials for families and communities as they seek to take on some of the care responsibilities. This review explores the challenges of heart failure best practice in the Northern Territory and the opportunities to improve on service delivery. The discussions highlighted could have implications for health service delivery throughout regional centres in Australia and health systems in other countries.

  6. Wholesale data for surveillance of Australian Aboriginal tobacco consumption in the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David P; Fitz, Joseph W; Johnston, Vanessa; Townsend, Joanne; Kneebone, Warwick

    2011-07-01

    Effective monitoring of trends in tobacco use is an essential element of tobacco control policy. Monitoring tobacco consumption using tobacco wholesale data has advantages over other methods of surveillance. In the present work, a research project that monitored tobacco consumption in 25 remote Aboriginal communities and its translation to a policy to implement this monitoring routinely in the entire Northern Territory of Australia is described. Tobacco consumption and trends were estimated using wholesale (or occasionally sales) data from all retail outlets in 25 remote Aboriginal communities. Self-reported consumption was estimated from the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey in 2008. Local consumption results were fed back in posters to local organisations and health staff. Estimates of consumption from wholesale data and self-report were similar (6.8 and 6.7 cigarettes/day/person aged 15 and over). Consumption was higher in the tropical Top End than in arid Central Australia, and 24% of tobacco was consumed as loose tobacco. The overall trend in monthly consumption was not significantly different from 0. Local communities could be ranked by their local trends in monthly consumption. Monitoring tobacco consumption using wholesale tobacco data is a practical and unobtrusive surveillance method that is being introduced as a new condition of tobacco retail licenses in the Northern Territory of Australia. It overcomes some problems with consumption estimates from routine surveys, enables rapid feedback and use of results and is particularly well suited for hard-to-reach discrete populations, such as remote Aboriginal communities in Australia. It has already been used to evaluate the impact of local tobacco control activities.

  7. Distribution, territory occupancy, dispersal, and demography of northern goshawks on the Kaibab Plateau, Arizona

    Treesearch

    Richard T. Reynolds; Suzanne M. Joy

    1998-01-01

    We studied 347 nesting attempts on 107 nesting territories of northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) on 1,732 km2 of the Kaibab Plateau, Arizona from 1991-1996. Mark and recapture methodology was used to estimate survival probabilities, territory and mate fidelity, turnover on territories, and dispersal. Territories were regularly spaced at a mean...

  8. Lake Mackay, Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-27

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows Lake Mackay, the largest of hundreds of ephemeral lakes scattered throughout Western Australia and the Northern Territory, and is the second largest lake in Australia.

  9. Alcohol-Related Violence among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: Prioritizing an Agenda for Prevention-Narrative Review Article.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Jayaraj, Rama; Notaras, Leonard; Thomas, Mahiban

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol - related violence among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (also called as "Indigenous") is a major public health concern in Northern Territory of Australia. There is dearth of epidemiological data that link three contributing epidemics: alcohol misuse, violence, and trauma in the Northern Territory. In this review, we aimed to concentrate on how these epidemics intersect among the Indigenous people in the Northern Territory. In our descriptive review, we have searched published papers, publicly available government and health department reports web sites reporting relevant data on these three risk factors in the Northern Territory. The high rate of family and domestic violence and assaults in the Australian Territory indicates an increased correlation with high risk alcohol use compared to unintentional injuries. Heavy drinking pattern and harmful use of alcohol among Indigenous people are more likely to be associated with the incidence of violent assaults and physical injuries in the Northern Territory. We are trying to emphasize our understanding of co-occurring risk factors on the alcohol - violence relationship and urging a need for interventional approaches to reduce the public health issues in the Northern Territory.

  10. The Introduction of Middle Schools in the Northern Territory: Processes and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Bill

    2006-01-01

    The year 2006 has been a year in which a decision on the introduction of middle schools has been made by the Labor government of the Northern Territory. The initial impetus for the change came from the 2003 Secondary Education Review "Future Directions for Secondary Education in the Northern Territory," chaired by Gregor Ramsay. There…

  11. Teachers' Emotional Responses to New Pedagogical Tools in High Challenge Settings: Illustrations from the Northern Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Helen

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the role of teachers' emotions in adopting new pedagogical tools in urban and remote schools in the Northern Territory. The discussion is illustrated through case study material of Northern Territory teachers who had taken up using a web-based early childhood literacy resource called ABRACADABRA. A sociocultural perspective is…

  12. Teachers' Emotional Responses to New Pedagogical Tools in High Challenge Settings: Illustrations from the Northern Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Helen

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the role of teachers' emotions in adopting new pedagogical tools in urban and remote schools in the Northern Territory. The discussion is illustrated through case study material of Northern Territory teachers who had taken up using a web-based early childhood literacy resource called ABRACADABRA. A sociocultural perspective is…

  13. Trajectories of women's homelessness in Canada's 3 northern territories.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Rose; Hrenchuk, Charlotte; Bopp, Judie; Poole, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Repairing the Holes in the Net was a 2-year, multilevel action research project designed to inform the development of culturally appropriate and gender-specific services for northern women who are homeless or marginally housed and who face mental health and substance use concerns. The study was designed to learn about the barriers and supports experienced by homeless women in the North when accessing mental health care, shelter, housing and other services; and to inform the work of northern service providers and policy advocates in a position to implement adjustments in their praxis. This article describes the trajectories of women's service access and their ideas for service improvement from 61 qualitative, semi-structured interviews conducted with homeless women in Whitehorse, Yukon (YT), Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (NT), and Iqualit, Nunavut (NU). Unresolved trauma, poverty and social exclusion, inability to find and maintain housing and ineffective services emerged as interconnected and multifaceted challenges related to women's service engagement. In the face of these challenges, women displayed significant resilience and resistance, and offered important ideas for service improvement. The 4 interconnected systemic challenges identified in the research, coupled with specific ideas for change cited by the resilient homeless women interviewed, offer points of entry to improve service policy and delivery. Implementing trauma-informed approaches emerged as a key example of how access to, and quality of, services could be improved for homeless women in the North.

  14. Trajectories of women's homelessness in Canada's 3 northern territories

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Rose; Hrenchuk, Charlotte; Bopp, Judie; Poole, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background Repairing the Holes in the Net was a 2-year, multilevel action research project designed to inform the development of culturally appropriate and gender-specific services for northern women who are homeless or marginally housed and who face mental health and substance use concerns. The study was designed to learn about the barriers and supports experienced by homeless women in the North when accessing mental health care, shelter, housing and other services; and to inform the work of northern service providers and policy advocates in a position to implement adjustments in their praxis. Methods This article describes the trajectories of women's service access and their ideas for service improvement from 61 qualitative, semi-structured interviews conducted with homeless women in Whitehorse, Yukon (YT), Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (NT), and Iqualit, Nunavut (NU). Results Unresolved trauma, poverty and social exclusion, inability to find and maintain housing and ineffective services emerged as interconnected and multifaceted challenges related to women's service engagement. In the face of these challenges, women displayed significant resilience and resistance, and offered important ideas for service improvement. Conclusions The 4 interconnected systemic challenges identified in the research, coupled with specific ideas for change cited by the resilient homeless women interviewed, offer points of entry to improve service policy and delivery. Implementing trauma-informed approaches emerged as a key example of how access to, and quality of, services could be improved for homeless women in the North. PMID:26700413

  15. Greener Pastures in Northern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    After a 19 month rainfall deficiency, heavy rainfall during January 2004 brought drought relief to much of northern Queensland. Local graziers hope for good long-term responses in pasture growth from the heavy rains. These images and maps from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) portray part of Australia's Mitchell Grasslands bioregion before summer rainfall, on October 18, 2003 (left) and afterwards, on February 7, 2004 (right).

    The top pair of images are natural color views from MISR's nadir camera. The green areas in the post-rainfall image highlight the growth of vegetation. The middle panels show the reflectivity of the surface over the photosynthetically active region (PAR) of visible light (400 - 700 nm), expressed as a directional-hemispherical reflectance (DHR-PAR), or albedo. That portion of the radiation that is not reflected back to the atmosphere or space is absorbed by either the vegetation or the soil. The fraction of PAR radiation absorbed by green vegetation, known as FPAR, is shown in the bottom panels. FPAR is one of the quantities that establishes the photosynthetic and carbon uptake efficiency of live vegetation. MISR's FPAR product makes use of aerosol retrievals to correct for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and uses plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar radiation. Both of these aspects are facilitated by the multiangular nature of the MISR measurements.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 20397 and 22028. The panels cover an area of about 290 kilometers x 228 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 106 to 108 within World Reference System-2 path 96.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA

  16. Greener Pastures in Northern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    After a 19 month rainfall deficiency, heavy rainfall during January 2004 brought drought relief to much of northern Queensland. Local graziers hope for good long-term responses in pasture growth from the heavy rains. These images and maps from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) portray part of Australia's Mitchell Grasslands bioregion before summer rainfall, on October 18, 2003 (left) and afterwards, on February 7, 2004 (right).

    The top pair of images are natural color views from MISR's nadir camera. The green areas in the post-rainfall image highlight the growth of vegetation. The middle panels show the reflectivity of the surface over the photosynthetically active region (PAR) of visible light (400 - 700 nm), expressed as a directional-hemispherical reflectance (DHR-PAR), or albedo. That portion of the radiation that is not reflected back to the atmosphere or space is absorbed by either the vegetation or the soil. The fraction of PAR radiation absorbed by green vegetation, known as FPAR, is shown in the bottom panels. FPAR is one of the quantities that establishes the photosynthetic and carbon uptake efficiency of live vegetation. MISR's FPAR product makes use of aerosol retrievals to correct for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and uses plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar radiation. Both of these aspects are facilitated by the multiangular nature of the MISR measurements.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 20397 and 22028. The panels cover an area of about 290 kilometers x 228 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 106 to 108 within World Reference System-2 path 96.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA

  17. Epidemiology, etiology, and motivation of alcohol misuse among Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory: a descriptive review.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Jayaraj, Rama; Notaras, Leonard; Thomas, Mahiban

    2015-01-01

    The per capita alcohol consumption of the Northern Territory, Australia, is second highest in the world, estimated 15.1 liters of pure alcohol per year. Alcohol abuse is a major public health concern among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Australia. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Northern Territory consume approximately 16.9 liters of pure alcohol per year. This descriptive review is based on current published and grey literature in the context of high risk alcohol use, with a special focus on the epidemiological, etiological, and social factors, to predict alcohol misuse among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Northern Territory. The methodology involved a descriptive search on PubMed, Northern Territory government reports, health databases, and Web sites with an emphasis on the etiology and epidemiology of high-risk alcohol consumption among the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders of the Northern Territory. This review has its own limitations because it does not rely on systematic review methodologies. However, it presents real data on the motives for binge drinking and alcohol-related violent assaults of this vulnerable population. Alcohol abuse and alcohol-related harms are considerably high among the rural and remote communities where additional research is needed. High-risk alcohol misuse within Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders communities often leads to a series of physical and social consequences. This review highlights the need for culturally appropriate intervention approaches focusing on alcohol misuse among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders population of the Northern Territory.

  18. Tool marks from ca. 1750 Ma, northern Australia: Evidence for large drifting algal filaments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, Peter W.

    1997-03-01

    Tool marks are reported from ca. 1750 Ma storm deposits in the upper Cottee Formation, McArthur basin, Northern Territory, Australia. The tool marks are distinct from the common forms produced by bouncing and skimming intraclasts and pebbles, and it is interpreted that they were produced by drifting elongate strands and clusters of strands of a flexible material gently dragging across the sea floor. The only known natural substances with these properties are organic. It is interpreted that the marks were produced by drifting filaments of eukaryotic algae significantly larger than any known from actual fossils in rocks of this antiquity.

  19. Genomic and phylogenetic characterization of Leanyer virus, a novel orthobunyavirus isolated in northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Savji, Nazir; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Hutchison, Stephen; Celone, Christopher; Hui, Jeffrey; Briese, Thomas; Calisher, Charles H.; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Leanyer virus (LEAV), currently classified as a member of the genus Orthobunyavirus, in the family Bunyaviridae, was originally isolated from a pool of Anopheles meraukensis mosquitoes, collected at Leanyer, Northern Territory, Australia in 1974. When it failed to react in serological tests with antisera from other known viruses, full-length genomic sequencing was pursued to determine the relationship of LEAV to other orthobunyavirus species. Genetic and serological characterization confirmed its antigenic distance from other orthobunyaviruses, including to its closest genetic neighbours, the Simbu group viruses, suggesting that it may represent a new antigenic complex. PMID:21402599

  20. Burns first aid treatment in remote Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Read, David J; Tan, Swee Chin; Ward, Linda; McDermott, Kathleen

    2017-08-12

    It is well demonstrated that adequate burns first aid treatment (BFAT) improves clinical outcomes for the injured but adequacy remains low in many studies. This study presents a twelve month assessment of the adequacy of burns first aid treatment for patients managed by the Burns Service, Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH). Prospective study design of all patients managed by the Burns Service, Royal Darwin Hospital. Data were collated from two sources; RDH Burns Registry, and the Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand (BRANZ). Inclusion criterion was all patients managed by the Burns Service, Royal Darwin Hospital for the period 1 January 2014-31 December 2014. Variables collected and analysed include: demographics, burn mechanism, burn wound depth and adequacy of and circumstances around first aid. Overall 310 cases were analysed. Most injuries involved adults (68%), 19% Indigenous persons and 70% of all patients had their burn injury occur in the urban region. Adequate BFAT occurred in 41% of cases. Adults, contact burns and those where the burn injury occurred in the remote regions were less likely to receive adequate BFAT. Indigenous persons were less likely to attempt any BFAT at all and when they did receive BFAT it was more likely applied by an emergency responder or health professional. Overall adequacy of BFAT is low in the Top End of the Northern Territory. Remote dwellers and Indigenous persons are at increased risk of not applying or receiving adequate BFAT. The poor level of adequate BFAT demonstrated in this study suggests that the Top End community particularly remote and Indigenous persons would benefit from targeted BFAT education programs that are delivered in a culturally and linguistically appropriate fashion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  1. Northern Territory Heart Failure Initiative–Clinical Audit (NTHFI–CA)–a prospective database on the quality of care and outcomes for acute decompensated heart failure admission in the Northern Territory: study design and rationale

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, Pupalan; Tinsley, Jeff; Smith, David; Haste, Mark; Nadarajan, Kangaharan; Ilton, Marcus; Battersby, Malcolm; Stewart, Simon; Brown, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Congestive heart failure is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Australia. Accurate data for the Northern Territory and Indigenous Australians are not presently available. The economic burden of this chronic cardiovascular disease is felt by all funding bodies and it still remains unclear what impact current measures have on preventing the ongoing disease burden and how much of this filters down to more remote areas. Clear differentials also exist in rural areas including a larger Indigenous community, greater disease burden, differing aetiologies for heart failure as well as service and infrastructure discrepancies. It is becoming increasingly clear that urban solutions will not affect regional outcomes. To understand regional issues relevant to heart failure management, an understanding of the key performance indicators in that setting is critical. Methods and analysis The Northern Territory Heart Failure Initiative—Clinical Audit (NTHFI-CA) is a prospective registry of acute heart failure admissions over a 12-month period across the two main Northern Territory tertiary hospitals. The study collects information across six domains and five dimensions of healthcare. The study aims to set in place an evidenced and reproducible audit system for heart failure and inform the developing heart failure disease management programme. The findings, is believed, will assist the development of solutions to narrow the outcomes divide between remote and urban Australia and between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians, in case they exist. A combination of descriptive statistics and mixed effects modelling will be used to analyse the data. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by respective ethics committees of both the admitting institutions. All participants will be provided a written informed consent which will be completed prior to enrolment in the study. The study results will be disseminated through local and international

  2. Challenges of Conducting Systematic Research in Australia's Northern Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmer, Janet; Harper, Helen; Lea, Tess; Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Chalkiti, Kalotina

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the challenges of conducting systematic research, using our experiences of conducting a study to evaluate the effectiveness of ABRACADABRA, an online tool for early childhood literacy instruction as the contextual framework. By discussing how the research team resolved such perennial issues as high teacher turnover, low or…

  3. Sediment dynamics in Darwin Harbour, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Wang, X. H.; Williams, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    The sediment dynamics of Darwin Harbour is studied by a sediment model (Wang, 2002) and a hydrodynamic model based on FVCOM. The sediment model bathymetry includes the high resolution Darwin Harbour coastal lines and sea surface area. The hydrodynamic model is forced by tides at the ocean open boundary with constant salinity and temperature. 20 sigma layers with 3/4 logarithmic layers near the surface/bottom and 13 evenly distributed layers in the middle are used in the model. The sediment model focuses on suspended fine sediment, and is initialized with limited bed thickness and one sediment type. The observed tidal elevation, currents and the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) data were used to calibrate the model. The simulation finds that the SSC in the harbour reaches its maximum at the bottom near Nightcliff Jetty and in the channel at spring and neap tide with a value of 10.0 and 0.1 g m-3, respectively. During spring tides, vertical averaged residual flux of SSC is mainly landward with a value of 0.8 g m-2s-1. During neap tide, vertical averaged residual flux of SSC is seaward with peak value of 0.05 g m-2s-1. Erosion happens near Darwin City and deposition appears near East Arm Wharf. An eddy in the East Arm found by David (2009) is also well reproduced by the model.

  4. Challenges of Conducting Systematic Research in Australia's Northern Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmer, Janet; Harper, Helen; Lea, Tess; Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Chalkiti, Kalotina

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the challenges of conducting systematic research, using our experiences of conducting a study to evaluate the effectiveness of ABRACADABRA, an online tool for early childhood literacy instruction as the contextual framework. By discussing how the research team resolved such perennial issues as high teacher turnover, low or…

  5. Northern Territory HealthConnect: shared electronic health record service implementation experiences and benefits realised in indigenous health.

    PubMed

    Moo, Stephen; Fletcher, John

    2007-01-01

    This presentation summarises the learnings from the HealthConnect Northern Territory (HCNT) Shared Electronic Health Record Service (SEHR) from Trial to Implementation and the emerging benefits realized as the project is implemented across the Northern Territory of Australia. The presentation: * explores the challenges and experiences of implementing a SEHR service in urban and in some of the remotest regions on the Australian continent. * demonstrates the emerging health benefits e-Health can provide in enabling the sharing of medical information between public and private health service providers in particular the service delivery and benefits provided to a highly mobile Indigenous population who currently experience the greatest health problems and experience difficulties accessing continuum of care created by factors which include remoteness, mobility and communication. * explores the evolvement of the "opt in" consumer consent model adopted by the Territory for the implementation of the HCNT SEHR.* advises of plans for future development, which inform other implementations, and NeHTA standards development for the implementation of the National SEHR Service. * Informs project plans to incorporate NeHTA standards as they are developed and transition the HCNT SEHR to the National SEHR Service when implemented recognising the importance of developing strong partnerships with key stakeholders, in particular consumers, health care providers and system vendors who inform project development and implementation.

  6. Australian Football League clinics promoting health, hygiene and trachoma elimination: the Northern Territory experience.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Josie R; Boudville, Andrea I; Stanford, Emma E; Lange, Fiona D; Anjou, Mitchell D

    2014-01-01

    Australia is the only developed country to suffer trachoma and it is only found in remote Indigenous communities. In 2009, trachoma prevalence was 14%, but through screening, treatment and health promotion, rates had fallen to 4% in 2012. More work needs to be done to sustain these declining rates. In 2012, 25% of screened communities still had endemic trachoma and 8% had hyperendemic trachoma. In addition, only 58% of communities had reached clean face targets in children aged 5-9 years. Australian Football League (AFL) players are highly influential role models and the community love of football provides a platform to engage and strengthen community participation in health promotion. The University of Melbourne has partnered with Melbourne Football Club since 2010 to run trachoma football hygiene clinics in the Northern Territory (NT) to raise awareness of the importance of clean faces in order to reduce the spread of trachoma. This activity supports Federal and state government trachoma screening and treatment programs. Between 2010 and 2013, 12 football clinics were held in major towns and remote communities in the NT. Almost 2000 children and adults attended football clinics run by 16 partner organisations. Awareness of the football clinics has grown and has become a media feature in the NT trachoma elimination campaign. The hygiene station featured within the football clinic could be adapted for other events hosted in remote NT community events to add value to the experience and reinforce good holistic health and hygiene messages, as well as encourage interagency collaboration.

  7. Lessons for Aboriginal tobacco control in remote communities: an evaluation of the Northern Territory 'Tobacco Project'.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David; Johnston, Vanessa; Fitz, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate a Northern Territory (NT) government-led pilot 'Tobacco Project' in six remote communities. Monthly surveys of staff, semi-structured interviews with staff and community members, observation of the delivery of tobacco control interventions, review of Project documents, and monitoring of tobacco consumption using sales (or wholesale orders) of tobacco. There was a substantive amount of tobacco control activity delivered in three of the Project communities. In two of these locations, the majority of work was primarily driven and undertaken by resident staff. Overall, most of the Project's efforts related to community education and awareness-raising. There was variable impact of the Project on tobacco consumption across the six communities. More tobacco control activity was consistently associated with a greater reduction in tobacco consumption. An important predictor of local activity was the presence of strong community drivers. A significant obstacle to the Project was the lack of new resources. Despite the minimal impact of this Project on tobacco consumption overall, there was a consistent association between on-the-ground tobacco control activity and reductions in tobacco consumption. New initiatives will not only need to provide new funding, but identify and then support local staff, who are central to improving local tobacco control activity and so reducing smoking and smoking-related illnesses and deaths. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.

  8. Lode-gold mineralization in the Tanami region, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huston, David L.; Vandenberg, Leon; Wygralak, Andrew S.; Mernagh, Terrence P.; Bagas, Leon; Crispe, Andrew; Lambeck, Alexis; Cross, Andrew; Fraser, Geoff; Williams, Nick; Worden, Kurt; Meixner, Tony; Goleby, Bruce; Jones, Leonie; Lyons, Pat; Maidment, David

    2007-01-01

    The Tanami region of northern Australia has emerged over the last two decades as the largest gold-producing region in the Northern Territory. Gold is hosted by epigenetic quartz veins in sedimentary and mafic rocks, and by sulfide-rich replacement zones within iron formation. Although limited, geochronological data suggest that most mineralization occurred at about 1,805-1,790 Ma, during a period of extensive granite intrusion, although structural relationships suggest that some deposits predate this period. There are three main goldfields in the Tanami region: the Dead Bullock Soak goldfield, which hosts the world-class Callie deposit; The Granites goldfield; and the Tanami goldfield. In the Dead Bullock Soak goldfield, deposits are hosted by carbonaceous siltstone and iron formation where a late (D5) structural corridor intersects an early F1 anticlinorium. In The Granites goldfield, deposits are hosted by highly sheared iron formation and are interpreted to predate D5. The Tanami goldfield consists of a large number of small, mostly basalt-hosted deposits that probably formed at a high structural level during D5. The D5 structures that host most deposits formed in a convergent structural regime with σ 1 oriented between E-W and ENE-WSW. Structures active during D5 include NE-trending oblique thrust (dextral) faults and ESE-trending (sinistral) faults that curve into N- to NNW-trending reverse faults localized in supracrustal belts between and around granite complexes. Granite intrusions also locally perturbed the stress field, possibly localizing structures and deposits. Forward modeling and preliminary interpretations of reflection seismic data indicate that all faults extend into the mid-crust. In areas characterized by the N- to NW-trending faults, orebodies also tend to be N- to NW-trending, localized in dilational jogs or in fractured, competent rock units. In areas characterized by ESE-trending faults, the orebodies and veins tend to strike broadly east

  9. Biomass burning and biogenic aerosols in northern Australia during the SAFIRED campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milic, Andelija; Mallet, Marc D.; Cravigan, Luke T.; Alroe, Joel; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Selleck, Paul; Lawson, Sarah J.; Ward, Jason; Desservettaz, Maximilien J.; Paton-Walsh, Clare; Williams, Leah R.; Keywood, Melita D.; Miljevic, Branka

    2017-03-01

    There is a lack of knowledge of how biomass burning aerosols in the tropics age, including those in the fire-prone Northern Territory in Australia. This paper reports chemical characterization of fresh and aged aerosols monitored during the 1-month-long SAFIRED (Savannah Fires in the Early Dry Season) field study, with an emphasis on the chemical signature and aging of organic aerosols. The campaign took place in June 2014 during the early dry season when the surface measurement site, the Australian Tropical Atmospheric Research Station (ATARS), located in the Northern Territory, was heavily influenced by thousands of wild and prescribed bushfires. ATARS was equipped with a wide suite of instrumentation for gaseous and aerosol characterization. A compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer was deployed to monitor aerosol chemical composition. Approximately 90 % of submicron non-refractory mass was composed of organic material. Ozone enhancement in biomass burning plumes indicated increased air mass photochemistry. The diversity in biomass burning emissions was illustrated through variability in chemical signature (e.g. wide range in f44, from 0.06 to 0.18) for five intense fire events. The background particulate loading was characterized using positive matrix factorization (PMF). A PMF-resolved BBOA (biomass burning organic aerosol) factor comprised 24 % of the submicron non-refractory organic aerosol mass, confirming the significance of fire sources. A dominant PMF factor, OOA (oxygenated organic aerosol), made up 47 % of the sampled aerosol, illustrating the importance of aerosol aging in the Northern Territory. Biogenic isoprene-derived organic aerosol factor was the third significant fraction of the background aerosol (28 %).

  10. Review of the genus Sekaliporus Watts, 1997 with description of a new species from northern Australia (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae).

    PubMed

    Hendrich, Lars; Balke, Michael

    2015-07-02

    Sekaliporus davidi sp. n. is described from northern Australia. It is the second species in the genus. It occurs from the Kimberley region in the northwest of Western Australia to north-eastern Queensland. The new species is morphologically similar to S. kriegi Watts, 1997 described from the Kakadu area in the Northern Territory but well characterized by its constantly larger size, six yellowish markings on elytra, the different form of the apical triangular spine of elytra, and the form of the median lobe. Sekaliporus davidi sp. n. is a lotic species from intermittent creeks and slow flowing rivers and their residual pools. Important species characters (median lobes, parameres and colour patterns) of the two species are figured, and notes on their habitats and distribution are given. Both species are capable of flight and were also collected at light.

  11. Promoting Teacher Quality and Continuity: Tackling the Disadvantages of Remote Indigenous Schools in the Northern Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasche, Inga; Harrington, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    The complexity associated with reducing inequality in Indigenous education incorporates a multitude of causal factors. Issues associated with education delivery and outcomes in remote Indigenous communities are endemic nationally, yet the communities of the Northern Territory are uniquely disadvantaged due to their geographical and cultural…

  12. Promoting Teacher Quality and Continuity: Tackling the Disadvantages of Remote Indigenous Schools in the Northern Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasche, Inga; Harrington, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    The complexity associated with reducing inequality in Indigenous education incorporates a multitude of causal factors. Issues associated with education delivery and outcomes in remote Indigenous communities are endemic nationally, yet the communities of the Northern Territory are uniquely disadvantaged due to their geographical and cultural…

  13. Kidney disease in Aboriginal Australians: a perspective from the Northern Territory

    PubMed Central

    Hoy, Wendy E.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines the increasing awareness, service development and research in renal disease in Aboriginal people in Australia's Northern Territory, among whom the rates of renal replacement therapy (RRT) are among the highest in the world. Kidney failure and RRT dominate the intellectual landscape and consume the most professional energy, but the underlying kidney disease has recently swung into view, with increasing awareness of its connection to other chronic diseases and to health profiles and trajectories more broadly. Albuminuria is the marker of the underlying kidney disease and the best treatment target, and glomerulomegaly and focal glomerulosclerosis are the defining histologic features. Risk factors in its multideterminant genesis reflect nutritional and developmental disadvantage and inflammatory/infectious milieu, while the major putative genetic determinants still elude detection. A culture shift of “chronic disease prevention” has been catalyzed in part by the human pain, logistic problems and great costs associated with RRT. Nowadays chronic disease management is the central focus of indigenous primary care, with defined protocols for integrated testing and management of chronic diseases and with government reimbursed service items and free medicines for people in remote areas. Blood pressure, cardiovascular risk and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are all mitigated by good treatment, which centres on renin-angiotensin system blockade and good metabolic control. RRT incidence rates appear to be stabilizing in remote Aboriginal people, and chronic disease deaths rates are falling. However, the profound levels of disadvantage in many remote settings remain appalling, and there is still much to be done, mostly beyond the direct reach of health services. PMID:25503952

  14. Kidney disease in Aboriginal Australians: a perspective from the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Wendy E

    2014-12-01

    This article outlines the increasing awareness, service development and research in renal disease in Aboriginal people in Australia's Northern Territory, among whom the rates of renal replacement therapy (RRT) are among the highest in the world. Kidney failure and RRT dominate the intellectual landscape and consume the most professional energy, but the underlying kidney disease has recently swung into view, with increasing awareness of its connection to other chronic diseases and to health profiles and trajectories more broadly. Albuminuria is the marker of the underlying kidney disease and the best treatment target, and glomerulomegaly and focal glomerulosclerosis are the defining histologic features. Risk factors in its multideterminant genesis reflect nutritional and developmental disadvantage and inflammatory/infectious milieu, while the major putative genetic determinants still elude detection. A culture shift of "chronic disease prevention" has been catalyzed in part by the human pain, logistic problems and great costs associated with RRT. Nowadays chronic disease management is the central focus of indigenous primary care, with defined protocols for integrated testing and management of chronic diseases and with government reimbursed service items and free medicines for people in remote areas. Blood pressure, cardiovascular risk and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are all mitigated by good treatment, which centres on renin-angiotensin system blockade and good metabolic control. RRT incidence rates appear to be stabilizing in remote Aboriginal people, and chronic disease deaths rates are falling. However, the profound levels of disadvantage in many remote settings remain appalling, and there is still much to be done, mostly beyond the direct reach of health services.

  15. Oral health behaviours and perceptions reported by Indigenous Australians living in Darwin, Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Amarasena, N; Kapellas, K; Skilton, M; Maple-Brown, L; Brown, A; Bartold, P M; O'Dea, K; Celermajer, D; Slade, G; Jamieson, L M

    2014-03-01

    To describe the reported oral health behaviours and perceptions of Indigenous Australians living in Darwin, Northern Territory and to compare those with estimates for Darwin and Australia derived from the National Survey of Adult Oral Health (NSAOH). A total of 181 Indigenous Australians aged 22 years and over living in Darwin, participating in screening for a wider randomised clinical trial, were included. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, oral health status including oral health behaviours and perceptions was collected using a questionnaire. Differences between the Darwin study (DS) participants and Australians in NSAOH were made based on non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals. Almost 72% of DS participants had last seen a dentist over a year earlier, compared to 47% and 39% of NSAOH Darwin and Australian participants, respectively. A higher proportion of DS participants usually visited a dentist because of a problem than NSAOH Darwin and NSAOH Australian participants. A higher proportion of DS participants had avoided or delayed a dental visit because of cost than NSAOH participants. Over three times as many DS participants rated their oral health as fair/poor compared to NSAOH participants. A higher proportion of DS participants had perceived gum disease and one or more symptoms of gum disease than NSAOH participants. A higher proportion of DS participants experienced toothache, felt uncomfortable about appearance of their mouth and avoided eating because of oral problems than NSAOH participants. A higher proportion of Indigenous Australians living in Darwin presented with non-optimal oral health behaviours and perceptions compared with both the Darwin and Australian general populations.

  16. Spatial analysis of Northern Goshawk Territories in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klaver, Robert W.; Backlund, Douglas; Bartelt, Paul E.; Erickson, Michael G.; Knowles, Craig J.; Knowles, Pamela R.; Wimberly, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) is the largest of the three North American species ofAccipiter and is more closely associated with older forests than are the other species. Its reliance on older forests has resulted in concerns about its status, extensive research into its habitat relationships, and litigation. Our objective was to model the spatial patterns of goshawk territories in the Black Hills, South Dakota, to make inferences about the underlying processes. We used a modification of Ripley's K function that accounts for inhomogeneous intensity to determine whether territoriality or habitat determined the spacing of goshawks in the Black Hills, finding that habitat conditions rather than territoriality were the determining factor. A spatial model incorporating basal area of trees in a stand of forest, canopy cover, age of trees >23 cm in diameter, number of trees per hectare, and geographic coordinates provided good fit to the spatial patterns of territories. There was no indication of repulsion at close distances that would imply spacing was determined by territoriality. These findings contrast with those for the Kaibab Plateau, Arizona, where territoriality is an important limiting factor. Forest stands where the goshawk nested historically are now younger and have trees of smaller diameter, probably having been modified by logging, fire, and insects. These results have important implications for the goshawk's ecology in the Black Hills with respect to mortality, competition, forest fragmentation, and nest-territory protection.

  17. Three Decades of Implementation of School-Based Management in the Australian Capital Territory and Victoria in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammage, David T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how the process of implementation of school-based management (SBM) has worked within the public school systems in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and Victoria in Australia. The period covered was 1976-2006. Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted was the mixed methodology which…

  18. Northern Territory perspectives on heart failure with comorbidities – understanding trial validity and exploring collaborative opportunities to broaden the evidence base.

    PubMed

    Iyngkaran, P; Majoni, W; Cass, A; Sanders, Prashanthan; Ronco, C; Brady, S; Kangaharan, N; Ilton, M; Hare, D L; Thomas, M C

    2015-06-01

    Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is an ambulatory care sensitive condition, associated with significant morbidity and mortality, rarely with cure. Outpatient based pharmacological management represents the main and most important aspect of care, and is usually lifelong. This narrative styled opinion review looks at the pharmacological agents recommended in the guidelines in context of the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. We explore the concept of validity, a term used to describe the basis of standardising a particular trial or study and the population to which it is applicable. We aim to highlight the problems of the current guidelines based approach. We also present alternatives that could utilise the core principles from major trials, while incorporating regional considerations, which could benefit clients living in the NT and remote Australia. Copyright © 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Description of a new Tiporus Watts, 1985 from northern Queensland, Australia (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae).

    PubMed

    Hendrich, Lars; Balke, Michael; Watts, Chris H S

    2016-11-09

    Tiporus queenslandicus sp. n. is described from NE Queensland. The new species is similar to T. undecimmaculatus (Clark, 1862) and T. giuliani (Watts, 1978) from the Northern Territory and north-western Australia but well characterized by its larger size, more elongate habitus, and form of median lobe and parameres. Tiporus queenslandicus sp. n. is a lotic species being collected from rest pools of intermittent creeks and rivers with a sandy bottom. Important species-defining characters (habitus, median lobe, paramere, protibia of male) are illustrated. Together with T. queenslandicus sp. n. the genus comprises now 13 species.

  20. Three new species of the sucking louse genus Hoplopleura (Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Hoplopleuridae) from rodents (Mammalia: Rodentia: Muridae) in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Haylee J

    2017-03-23

    Three new species of the rodent louse genus Hoplopleura (Anoplura: Hoplopleuridae) are described and illustrated from Australia: H. melomydis new species from Melomys burtoni (Muridae: Hydromyini, grassland melomys) and M. capensis (Muridae: Hydromyini, Cape York melomys) from Queensland; H. notomydis new species and H. setosa new species from Notomys alexis (Muridae: Hydromyini, spinifex hopping mouse) from the Northern Territory. These new louse species are the first lice recorded from each of the three host rodent species.

  1. Patterns of youth injury: a comparison across the northern territories and other parts of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Jessica; King, Nathan; Hawe, Penelope; Peters, Paul; Pickett, William; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Background Injury is the leading cause of death for young people in Canada. For those living in the northern territories (Yukon, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories), injury represents an even greater problem, with higher rates of injury for people of all ages in northern areas compared with the rest of Canada; however, no such comparative studies have focussed specifically on non-fatal injury in youth. Objectives To profile and examine injuries and their potential causes among youth in the northern territories as compared with other parts of Canada. Design Cross-sectional data from the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (youth aged 11–15 years) were examined for the Canadian northern territories and the provinces (n=26,078). Individual survey records were linked to community-level data to profile injuries and then study possible determinants via multilevel regression modelling. Results The prevalence of injury reported by youth was similar in northern populations and other parts of Canada. There were some minimal differences by injury type: northern youth experienced a greater percentage of neighbourhood (p<0.001) and fighting (p=0.02) injuries; youth in the Canadian provinces had a greater proportion of sport-related injuries (p=0.01). Among northern youth, female sex (RR=0.87, 95% CI 0.81–0.94), average (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80–0.97) or above-average affluence (RR=0.84, 95% CI 0.76–0.91), not being drunk in the past 12 months (RR=0.77, 95% CI 0.69–0.85), not riding an all-terrain vehicle (RR=0.81, 95% CI 0.68–0.97) and not having permanent road access (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.80–0.98) were protective against injury; sport participation increased risk (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.33–1.59). Conclusions Patterns of injury were similar across youth from the North and other parts of Canada. Given previous research, this was unexpected. When implementing injury prevention initiatives, individual and community-level risk factors are essential to

  2. Patterns of youth injury: a comparison across the northern territories and other parts of Canada.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Jessica; King, Nathan; Hawe, Penelope; Peters, Paul; Pickett, William; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Background Injury is the leading cause of death for young people in Canada. For those living in the northern territories (Yukon, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories), injury represents an even greater problem, with higher rates of injury for people of all ages in northern areas compared with the rest of Canada; however, no such comparative studies have focussed specifically on non-fatal injury in youth. Objective To profile and examine injuries and their potential causes among youth in the northern territories as compared with other parts of Canada. Design Cross-sectional data from the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (youth aged 11-15 years) were examined for the Canadian northern territories and the provinces (n=26,078). Individual survey records were linked to community-level data to profile injuries and then study possible determinants via multilevel regression modelling. Results The prevalence of injury reported by youth was similar in northern populations and other parts of Canada. There were some minimal differences by injury type: northern youth experienced a greater percentage of neighbourhood (p<0.001) and fighting (p=0.02) injuries; youth in the Canadian provinces had a greater proportion of sport-related injuries (p=0.01). Among northern youth, female sex (RR=0.87, 95% CI 0.81-0.94), average (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.97) or above-average affluence (RR=0.84, 95% CI 0.76-0.91), not being drunk in the past 12 months (RR=0.77, 95% CI 0.69-0.85), not riding an all-terrain vehicle (RR=0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.97) and not having permanent road access (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.80-0.98) were protective against injury; sport participation increased risk (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.33-1.59). Conclusions Patterns of injury were similar across youth from the North and other parts of Canada. Given previous research, this was unexpected. When implementing injury prevention initiatives, individual and community-level risk factors are essential to understand

  3. Patterns of youth injury: a comparison across the northern territories and other parts of Canada.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Jessica; King, Nathan; Hawe, Penelope; Peters, Paul; Pickett, William; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death for young people in Canada. For those living in the northern territories (Yukon, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories), injury represents an even greater problem, with higher rates of injury for people of all ages in northern areas compared with the rest of Canada; however, no such comparative studies have focussed specifically on non-fatal injury in youth. To profile and examine injuries and their potential causes among youth in the northern territories as compared with other parts of Canada. Cross-sectional data from the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (youth aged 11-15 years) were examined for the Canadian northern territories and the provinces (n=26,078). Individual survey records were linked to community-level data to profile injuries and then study possible determinants via multilevel regression modelling. The prevalence of injury reported by youth was similar in northern populations and other parts of Canada. There were some minimal differences by injury type: northern youth experienced a greater percentage of neighbourhood (p<0.001) and fighting (p=0.02) injuries; youth in the Canadian provinces had a greater proportion of sport-related injuries (p=0.01). Among northern youth, female sex (RR=0.87, 95% CI 0.81-0.94), average (RR=0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.97) or above-average affluence (RR=0.84, 95% CI 0.76-0.91), not being drunk in the past 12 months (RR=0.77, 95% CI 0.69-0.85), not riding an all-terrain vehicle (RR=0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.97) and not having permanent road access (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.80-0.98) were protective against injury; sport participation increased risk (RR=1.45, 95% CI 1.33-1.59). Patterns of injury were similar across youth from the North and other parts of Canada. Given previous research, this was unexpected. When implementing injury prevention initiatives, individual and community-level risk factors are essential to understand; however, specific positive safety assets that might

  4. Indigenous values and water markets: Survey insights from northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakis, William D.; Grafton, R. Quentin; To, Hang

    2013-09-01

    Drawing upon on the literature on Indigenous values to water, water markets and the empirical findings from a survey of 120 Indigenous and non-Indigenous respondents across northern Australia, the paper makes important qualitative and statistical comparisons between Indigenous and non-Indigenous values to water markets. The study is the first comparison of Indigenous and non-Indigenous values to water markets based on the same survey instrument. Key results from Indigenous respondents include: (1) water markets are held to be an acceptable approach to managing water; (2) markets must be carefully designed to protect customary and ecological values; (3) the allocation of water rights need to encompass equity considerations; and (4) water and land rights should not be separated even if this enhances efficiency, as it runs counter to Indigenous holistic values. Overall, the survey results provide the basis for a proposed adaptive decision loop, which allows decision makers to incorporate stakeholder values in water markets.

  5. High risk alcohol-related trauma among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Northern Territory

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    High risk drinking is linked with high rates of physical harm. The reported incidence of alcohol - related trauma among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the Northern Territory is the highest in the world. Facial fractures are common among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. They are often linked with misuse of alcohol in the Northern Territory and are frequently secondary to assault. This review focuses on alcohol-related trauma in the Territory and draws attention to an urgent need for preventative health approach to address this critical issue. PMID:22862897

  6. Barred owls and landscape attributes influence territory occupancy of northern spotted owls.

    PubMed

    Sovern, Stan G; Forsman, Eric D; Olson, Gail S; Biswell, Brian L; Taylor, Margaret; Anthony, Robert G

    2014-11-01

    We used multi-season occupancy analyses to model 2 fates of northern spotted owl territories in relation to habitat amount, habitat fragmentation, and the presence of barred owls in Washington State, USA, 1989-2005. Local colonization is the probability a territory unoccupied by a spotted owl in year i would be occupied in year i + 1, and local extinction is the probability a territory that was occupied by a spotted owl in year i would be unoccupied in year i + 1. We found a negative relationship between local extinction probability and amount of late-seral forest edge. We found a negative relationship between colonization probability and the number of late-seral forest patches (higher fragmentation), and a negative relationship between colonization probability and the amount of non-habitat within 600 m of a spotted owl territory center (Akaike weight = 0.59). The presence of barred owls was positively related to extinction probability and negatively related to detection probability of spotted owls. The negative relationship between presence of barred owls and detectability of spotted owls indicated that spotted owls could be modifying their calling behavior in the presence of barred owls. The positive relationship between barred owl detections and local extinction probability suggests that because of competition with barred owls, spotted owls are being displaced. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Barred owls and landscape attributes influence territory occupancy of northern spotted owls

    PubMed Central

    Sovern, Stan G; Forsman, Eric D; Olson, Gail S; Biswell, Brian L; Taylor, Margaret; Anthony, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    We used multi-season occupancy analyses to model 2 fates of northern spotted owl territories in relation to habitat amount, habitat fragmentation, and the presence of barred owls in Washington State, USA, 1989–2005. Local colonization is the probability a territory unoccupied by a spotted owl in year i would be occupied in year i + 1, and local extinction is the probability a territory that was occupied by a spotted owl in year i would be unoccupied in year i + 1. We found a negative relationship between local extinction probability and amount of late-seral forest edge. We found a negative relationship between colonization probability and the number of late-seral forest patches (higher fragmentation), and a negative relationship between colonization probability and the amount of non-habitat within 600 m of a spotted owl territory center (Akaike weight = 0.59). The presence of barred owls was positively related to extinction probability and negatively related to detection probability of spotted owls. The negative relationship between presence of barred owls and detectability of spotted owls indicated that spotted owls could be modifying their calling behavior in the presence of barred owls. The positive relationship between barred owl detections and local extinction probability suggests that because of competition with barred owls, spotted owls are being displaced. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:25558093

  8. Sustainable management for rangelands in a variable climate: evidence and insights from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Reagain, P J; Scanlan, J C

    2013-03-01

    Inter-annual rainfall variability is a major challenge to sustainable and productive grazing management on rangelands. In Australia, rainfall variability is particularly pronounced and failure to manage appropriately leads to major economic loss and environmental degradation. Recommended strategies to manage sustainably include stocking at long-term carrying capacity (LTCC) or varying stock numbers with forage availability. These strategies are conceptually simple but difficult to implement, given the scale and spatial heterogeneity of grazing properties and the uncertainty of the climate. This paper presents learnings and insights from northern Australia gained from research and modelling on managing for rainfall variability. A method to objectively estimate LTCC in large, heterogeneous paddocks is discussed, and guidelines and tools to tactically adjust stocking rates are presented. The possible use of seasonal climate forecasts (SCF) in management is also considered. Results from a 13-year grazing trial in Queensland show that constant stocking at LTCC was far more profitable and largely maintained land condition compared with heavy stocking (HSR). Variable stocking (VAR) with or without the use of SCF was marginally more profitable, but income variability was greater and land condition poorer than constant stocking at LTCC. Two commercial scale trials in the Northern Territory with breeder cows highlighted the practical difficulties of variable stocking and provided evidence that heavier pasture utilisation rates depress reproductive performance. Simulation modelling across a range of regions in northern Australia also showed a decline in resource condition and profitability under heavy stocking rates. Modelling further suggested that the relative value of variable v. constant stocking depends on stocking rate and land condition. Importantly, variable stocking may possibly allow slightly higher stocking rates without pasture degradation. Enterprise

  9. Evolution of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 1 in Northern Australia over 30 Years

    PubMed Central

    Amos-Ritchie, Rachel; Broz, Ivano; Melville, Lorna; Flanagan, David; Davis, Steven; Hunt, Neville; Weir, Richard

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV 1) was first isolated in Australia from cattle blood collected in 1979 at Beatrice Hill Farm (BHF), Northern Territory (NT). From long-term surveillance programs (1977 to 2011), 2,487 isolations of 10 BTV serotypes were made. The most frequently isolated serotype was BTV 1 (41%, 1,019) followed by BTV 16 (17.5%, 436) and BTV 20 (14%, 348). In 3 years, no BTVs were isolated, and in 12 years, no BTV 1 was isolated. Seventeen BTV 1 isolates were sequenced and analyzed in comparison with 10 Australian prototype serotypes. BTV 1 showed an episodic pattern of evolutionary change characterized by four distinct periods. Each period consisted primarily of slow genetic drift which was punctuated from time to time by genetic shifts generated by segment reassortment and the introduction of new genome segments. Evidence was found for coevolution of BTV genome segments. Evolutionary dynamics and selection pressure estimates showed strong temporal and clock-like molecular evolutionary dynamics of six Australian BTV genome segments. Bayesian coalescent estimates of mean substitution rates clustered in the range of 3.5 × 10−4 to 5.3 × 10−4 substitutions per site per year. All BTV genome segments evolved under strong purifying (negative) selection, with only three sites identified as under pervasive diversifying (positive) selection. The obligate replication in alternate hosts (insect vector and vertebrate hosts) imposed strong evolutionary constraints. The dominant mechanism generating genetic diversity of BTV 1 at BHF was through the introduction of new viruses and reassortment of genome segments with existing viruses. IMPORTANCE Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the causative agent of bluetongue disease in ruminants. It is a disease of concern globally and is transmitted by biting midges (Culicoides species). Analysis of the evolutionary and selection pressures on BTV 1 at a single surveillance site in northern Australia showed strong

  10. Prediction of Bluetongue virus seropositivity on pastoral properties in northern Australia using remotely sensed bioclimatic variables.

    PubMed

    Klingseisen, Bernhard; Stevenson, Mark; Corner, Robert

    2013-06-01

    To monitor Bluetongue virus (BTV) activity in northern and eastern Australia the National Arbovirus Monitoring Program (NAMP) collects data from a network of sentinel herds. Groups of young cattle, previously unexposed to infection, are regularly tested to detect evidence of seroconversion. While this approach has been successful in fulfilling international surveillance requirements, it is labour and cost intensive and operationally challenging in the remote area of the northern Australian rangelands. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of remotely sensed data as a means for predicting the distribution of BTV seroprevalence. For the period 2000-2009, bioclimatic variables were derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data products for the entire Northern Territory. A generalised linear model, based on the seasonal Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and minimum land surface temperature, was developed to predict BTV seropositivity. The odds of seropositivity in locations with NDVI estimates >0.45 was 3.90 (95% CI 1.11 to 13.7) times that of locations where NDVI estimates were between 0 and 0.45. Unit increases in minimum night land surface temperature in the previous winter increased the odds of seropositivity by a factor of 1.40 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.91). The area under a Receiver Operator Characteristic curve generated on the basis of the model predictions was 0.8. Uncertainty in the model's predictions was attributed to the spatio-temporal inconsistency in the precision of the available serosurveillance data. The discriminatory ability of models of this type could be improved by ensuring that exact location details and date of NAMP BTV test events are consistently recorded. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatial organization of northern flying squirrels, Glaucomys sabrinus: Territoriality in females?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J.R.; Vuren, D.H.V.; Kelt, D.A.; Johnson, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    We determined home-range overlap among northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) to assess their spatial organization. We found extensive home-range overlap among females, and though this overlap could reflect social behavior, we found no evidence of attraction among females, with only one instance of den sharing. Instead, our results suggest that females share foraging areas but may be territorial in portions of the home range, especially around den trees and during young-rearing. Home-range overlap could also result from, the extrinsic effect of forest fragmentation due to timber harvest, which might impede dispersal and force squirrels to cluster on remaining fragments of suitable habitat.

  12. Australia's Vocational Education & Training System Annual National Report, 1996. Volume 2: Commonwealth, State & Territory Achievements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Training Authority, Brisbane.

    This document contains a chapter from each Australian State and Territory and from the Commonwealth on their full range of achievements in 1996 related to the National Strategy for Vocational Education and Training. Achievements of all State and Territory Training Authorities are outlined in terms of the four themes of the national strategy:…

  13. Multiple approaches to microbial source tracking in tropical northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Neave, Matthew; Luter, Heidi; Padovan, Anna; Townsend, Simon; Schobben, Xavier; Gibb, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Microbial source tracking is an area of research in which multiple approaches are used to identify the sources of elevated bacterial concentrations in recreational lakes and beaches. At our study location in Darwin, northern Australia, water quality in the harbor is generally good, however dry-season beach closures due to elevated Escherichia coli and enterococci counts are a cause for concern. The sources of these high bacteria counts are currently unknown. To address this, we sampled sewage outfalls, other potential inputs, such as urban rivers and drains, and surrounding beaches, and used genetic fingerprints from E. coli and enterococci communities, fecal markers and 454 pyrosequencing to track contamination sources. A sewage effluent outfall (Larrakeyah discharge) was a source of bacteria, including fecal bacteria that impacted nearby beaches. Two other treated effluent discharges did not appear to influence sites other than those directly adjacent. Several beaches contained fecal indicator bacteria that likely originated from urban rivers and creeks within the catchment. Generally, connectivity between the sites was observed within distinct geographical locations and it appeared that most of the bacterial contamination on Darwin beaches was confined to local sources. PMID:25224738

  14. Bedload parting in western Torres Strait, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James J.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a new style of bedload parting from western Torres Strait, northern Australia. Outputs from a hydrodynamic model identified an axis of bedload parting centred on the western Torres Strait islands (~142°15‧E). This bedload parting is similar to others documented from mixed tidal regimes as it is driven dominantly by the O1, K1 and M2 tidal constituents. However, parting is aided by overtides on the eastern, mixed semidiurnal side of the strait. Bedload parting is also strongly impacted by wind-driven currents. Wind-driven currents during the trade wind season lead to the average estimates of bedload transport to be directed west, through the strait, over the 8 year model duration. As a result, east and west directed bedload parting is only active during the monsoon season when the influence of wind-driven circulation is negligible. A simulation of bedload transport using a range of sediment grain sizes indicated that sediments with a grainsize greater than ~2 mm were transported in a direction consistent with tidally driven bedload parting, as opposed to residual wind-driven flow.

  15. Rheumatic chorea in northern Australia: a clinical and epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Carapetis, J.; Currie, B.

    1999-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of Sydenham's chorea in the Aboriginal population of northern Australia a review was conducted of 158 episodes in 108 people: 106 were Aborigines, 79 were female, and the mean age was 10.9 years at first episode. Chorea occurred in 28% of cases of acute rheumatic fever, carditis occurred in 25% of episodes of chorea, and arthritis in 8%. Patients with carditis or arthritis tended to have raised acute phase reactants and streptococcal serology. Two episodes lasted at least 30 months. Mean time to first recurrence of chorea was 2.1 years compared with 1.2 years to second recurrence. Established rheumatic heart disease developed in 58% of cases and was more likely in those presenting with acute carditis, although most people who developed rheumatic heart disease did not have evidence of acute carditis with chorea. Differences in the patterns of chorea and other manifestations of acute rheumatic fever in different populations may hold clues to its pathogenesis. Long term adherence to secondary prophylaxis is crucial following all episodes of acute rheumatic fever, including chorea, to prevent recurrence.

 PMID:10086943

  16. Dry season aerosol iron solubility in tropical northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winton, V. Holly L.; Edwards, Ross; Bowie, Andrew R.; Keywood, Melita; Williams, Alistair G.; Chambers, Scott D.; Selleck, Paul W.; Desservettaz, Maximilien; Mallet, Marc D.; Paton-Walsh, Clare

    2016-10-01

    Marine nitrogen fixation is co-limited by the supply of iron (Fe) and phosphorus in large regions of the global ocean. The deposition of soluble aerosol Fe can initiate nitrogen fixation and trigger toxic algal blooms in nitrate-poor tropical waters. We present dry season soluble Fe data from the Savannah Fires in the Early Dry Season (SAFIRED) campaign in northern Australia that reflects coincident dust and biomass burning sources of soluble aerosol Fe. The mean soluble and total aerosol Fe concentrations were 40 and 500 ng m-3 respectively. Our results show that while biomass burning species may not be a direct source of soluble Fe, biomass burning may substantially enhance the solubility of mineral dust. We observed fractional Fe solubility up to 12 % in mixed aerosols. Thus, Fe in dust may be more soluble in the tropics compared to higher latitudes due to higher concentrations of biomass-burning-derived reactive organic species in the atmosphere. In addition, biomass-burning-derived particles can act as a surface for aerosol Fe to bind during atmospheric transport and subsequently be released to the ocean upon deposition. As the aerosol loading is dominated by biomass burning emissions over the tropical waters in the dry season, additions of biomass-burning-derived soluble Fe could have harmful consequences for initiating nitrogen-fixing toxic algal blooms. Future research is required to quantify biomass-burning-derived particle sources of soluble Fe over tropical waters.

  17. Multiple approaches to microbial source tracking in tropical northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Neave, Matthew; Luter, Heidi; Padovan, Anna; Townsend, Simon; Schobben, Xavier; Gibb, Karen

    2014-12-01

    Microbial source tracking is an area of research in which multiple approaches are used to identify the sources of elevated bacterial concentrations in recreational lakes and beaches. At our study location in Darwin, northern Australia, water quality in the harbor is generally good, however dry-season beach closures due to elevated Escherichia coli and enterococci counts are a cause for concern. The sources of these high bacteria counts are currently unknown. To address this, we sampled sewage outfalls, other potential inputs, such as urban rivers and drains, and surrounding beaches, and used genetic fingerprints from E. coli and enterococci communities, fecal markers and 454 pyrosequencing to track contamination sources. A sewage effluent outfall (Larrakeyah discharge) was a source of bacteria, including fecal bacteria that impacted nearby beaches. Two other treated effluent discharges did not appear to influence sites other than those directly adjacent. Several beaches contained fecal indicator bacteria that likely originated from urban rivers and creeks within the catchment. Generally, connectivity between the sites was observed within distinct geographical locations and it appeared that most of the bacterial contamination on Darwin beaches was confined to local sources.

  18. Impact craters as biospheric microenvironments, Lawn Hill Structure, Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, John; Brasier, Martin

    2006-04-01

    Impact craters on Mars act as traps for eolian sediment and in the past may have provided suitable microenvironments that could have supported and preserved a stressed biosphere. If this is so, terrestrial impact structures such as the 18-km-diameter Lawn Hill Structure, in northern Australia, may prove useful as martian analogs. We sampled outcrop and drill core from the carbonate fill of the Lawn Hill Structure and recorded its gamma-log signature. Facies data along with whole rock geochemistry and stable isotope signatures show that the crater fill is an outlier of the Georgina Basin and was formed by impact at, or shortly before, approximately 509-506 million years ago. Subsequently, it was rapidly engulfed by the Middle Cambrian marine transgression, which filled it with shallow marine carbonates and evaporites. The crater formed a protected but restricted microenvironment in which sediments four times the thickness of the nearby basinal succession accumulated. Similar structures, common on the martian surface, may well have acted as biospheric refuges as the planet's water resources declined. Low-pH aqueous environments on Earth similar to those on Mars, while extreme, support diverse ecologies. The architecture of the eolian crater fill would have been defined by long-term ground water cycles resulting from intermittent precipitation in an extremely arid climate. Nutrient recycling, critical to a closed lacustrine sub-ice biosphere, could be provided by eolian transport onto the frozen water surface.

  19. Achieving compliance with the International Health Regulations by overseas territories of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Hamblion, Esther L; Salter, Mark; Jones, Jane

    2014-11-01

    The 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR) came into force for all Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) in June 2007 and the deadline for achieving compliance was June 2012. The purpose of the IHR is to prevent, protect against, control - and provide a public health response to - international spread of disease. The territory of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and that of several other Member States, such as China, Denmark, France, the Netherlands and the United States of America, include overseas territories, which cover a total population of approximately 15 million people. Member States have a responsibility to ensure that all parts of their territory comply with the IHR. Since WHO has not provided specific guidance on compliance in the special circumstances of the overseas territories of Member States, compliance by these territories is an issue for self-assessment by Member States themselves. To date, no reports have been published on the assessment of IHR compliance in countries with overseas territories. We describe a gap analysis done in the United Kingdom to assess IHR compliance of its overseas territories. The findings and conclusions are broadly applicable to other countries with overseas territories which may have yet to assess their compliance with the IHR. Such assessments are needed to ensure compliance across all parts of a Member States' territory and to increase global health security.

  20. Achieving compliance with the International Health Regulations by overseas territories of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Salter, Mark; Jones, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR) came into force for all Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) in June 2007 and the deadline for achieving compliance was June 2012. The purpose of the IHR is to prevent, protect against, control – and provide a public health response to – international spread of disease. The territory of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and that of several other Member States, such as China, Denmark, France, the Netherlands and the United States of America, include overseas territories, which cover a total population of approximately 15 million people. Member States have a responsibility to ensure that all parts of their territory comply with the IHR. Since WHO has not provided specific guidance on compliance in the special circumstances of the overseas territories of Member States, compliance by these territories is an issue for self-assessment by Member States themselves. To date, no reports have been published on the assessment of IHR compliance in countries with overseas territories. We describe a gap analysis done in the United Kingdom to assess IHR compliance of its overseas territories. The findings and conclusions are broadly applicable to other countries with overseas territories which may have yet to assess their compliance with the IHR. Such assessments are needed to ensure compliance across all parts of a Member States’ territory and to increase global health security. PMID:25378745

  1. Describing rainfall in northern Australia using multiple climate indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilks Rogers, Cassandra Denise; Beringer, Jason

    2017-02-01

    Savanna landscapes are globally extensive and highly sensitive to climate change, yet the physical processes and climate phenomena which affect them remain poorly understood and therefore poorly represented in climate models. Both human populations and natural ecosystems are highly susceptible to precipitation variation in these regions due to the effects on water and food availability and atmosphere-biosphere energy fluxes. Here we quantify the relationship between climate phenomena and historical rainfall variability in Australian savannas and, in particular, how these relationships changed across a strong rainfall gradient, namely the North Australian Tropical Transect (NATT). Climate phenomena were described by 16 relevant climate indices and correlated against precipitation from 1900 to 2010 to determine the relative importance of each climate index on seasonal, annual and decadal timescales. Precipitation trends, climate index trends and wet season characteristics have also been investigated using linear statistical methods. In general, climate index-rainfall correlations were stronger in the north of the NATT where annual rainfall variability was lower and a high proportion of rainfall fell during the wet season. This is consistent with a decreased influence of the Indian-Australian monsoon from the north to the south. Seasonal variation was most strongly correlated with the Australian Monsoon Index, whereas yearly variability was related to a greater number of climate indices, predominately the Tasman Sea and Indonesian sea surface temperature indices (both of which experienced a linear increase over the duration of the study) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation indices. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the climatic processes driving variability and, subsequently, the importance of understanding the relationships between rainfall and climatic phenomena in the Northern Territory in order to project future rainfall patterns in the

  2. Australia.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia.

  3. Uncertainties around the Implementation of a Clearing-Control Policy in a Unique Catchment in Northern Australia: Exploring Equity Issues and Balancing Competing Objectives

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Vanessa M.; Pressey, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Land use change is the most significant driver linked to global species extinctions. In Northern Australia, the landscape is still relatively intact with very low levels of clearing. However, a re-energized political discourse around creating a northern food bowl means that currently intact ecosystems in northern Australia could be under imminent threat from increased land clearing and water extraction. These impacts are likely to be concentrated in a few regions with suitable soils and water supplies. The Daly River Catchment in the Northern Territory is an important catchment for both conservation and development. Land use in the Daly catchment has been subject to clearing guidelines that are largely untested in terms of their eventual implications for the spatial configuration of conservation and development. Given the guidelines are not legislated they might also be removed or revised by subsequent Territory Governments, including the recently-elected one. We examine the uncertainties around the spatial implications of full implementation of the Daly clearing guidelines and their potential effects on equity of opportunity across land tenures and land uses. We also examine how removal of the guidelines could affect conservation in the catchment. We conclude that the guidelines are important in supporting development in the catchment while still achieving conservation goals, and we recommend ways of implementing the guidelines to make best use of available land resources for intensified production. PMID:24798486

  4. Uncertainties around the implementation of a clearing-control policy in a unique catchment in northern Australia: exploring equity issues and balancing competing objectives.

    PubMed

    Adams, Vanessa M; Pressey, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    Land use change is the most significant driver linked to global species extinctions. In Northern Australia, the landscape is still relatively intact with very low levels of clearing. However, a re-energized political discourse around creating a northern food bowl means that currently intact ecosystems in northern Australia could be under imminent threat from increased land clearing and water extraction. These impacts are likely to be concentrated in a few regions with suitable soils and water supplies. The Daly River Catchment in the Northern Territory is an important catchment for both conservation and development. Land use in the Daly catchment has been subject to clearing guidelines that are largely untested in terms of their eventual implications for the spatial configuration of conservation and development. Given the guidelines are not legislated they might also be removed or revised by subsequent Territory Governments, including the recently-elected one. We examine the uncertainties around the spatial implications of full implementation of the Daly clearing guidelines and their potential effects on equity of opportunity across land tenures and land uses. We also examine how removal of the guidelines could affect conservation in the catchment. We conclude that the guidelines are important in supporting development in the catchment while still achieving conservation goals, and we recommend ways of implementing the guidelines to make best use of available land resources for intensified production.

  5. Cyanobacterial crusts linked to soil productivity under different grazing management practices in Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alchin, Bruce; Williams, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    In arid and semi-arid Australia, the central role of healthy soil ecosystems in broad-acre grazing lands may be attributed to the widespread presence of cyanobacterial crusts. In terms of soil nutrient cycling and stability their role is particularly crucial in a climate dominated by annual dry seasons and variable wet seasons. In this study, we aimed to measure the contribution of cyanobacteria to soil nutrient cycling under contrasting levels of disturbance associated with grazing management. Field sampling was carried out on six paired sites (twelve properties) located across an east-west 3,000 km transect that covered different rangeland types on grazing properties in northern Australia (Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia). At each location paired sites were established and two different management systems were assessed, cell-paddock rotations (25-400 ha) and continuous grazing (200-2,000 ha). Cyanobacterial soil crusts were recorded from all of the twelve sites and cyanobacteria with the capacity to fix nitrogen were found at ten of the twelve sites. The overall diversity of cyanobacteria varied from three to ten species under any type of grazing system. As field work was conducted in the dry season, it is likely that the diversity may be greater in the wet season than the initial data may indicate. The average cyanobacterial soil crust cover across soil surfaces, between grass tussocks, during the dry season was estimated to be 50.9% and, 42.6% in the early wet season. This reflected longer established crust cover (dry season) versus newly established crusts. There was a high level of variability in the biomass of cyanobacteria however; the grazing system did not have any marked effect on the biomass for any one rangeland type. The grazing system differences did not appear to significantly influence the diversity at any location except on a floodplain in the Pilbara (WA). Biological nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria was recorded at all

  6. Differential Effects of Temperature Extremes on Hospital Admission Rates for Respiratory Disease between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Green, Donna; Bambrick, Hilary; Tait, Peter; Goldie, James; Schultz, Rosalie; Webb, Leanne; Alexander, Lisa; Pitman, Andrew

    2015-12-03

    The health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians may be exacerbated by climate change if temperature extremes have disproportionate adverse effects on Indigenous people. To explore this issue, we analysed the effect of temperature extremes on hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, stratified by age, Indigenous status and sex, for people living in two different climates zones in the Northern Territory during the period 1993-2011. We examined admissions for both acute and chronic respiratory diagnoses, controlling for day of the week and seasonality variables. Our analysis showed that: (1) overall, Indigenous hospital admission rates far exceeded non-Indigenous admission rates for acute and chronic diagnoses, and Top End climate zone admission rates exceeded Central Australia climate zone admission rates; (2) extreme cold and hot temperatures were associated with inconsistent changes in admission rates for acute respiratory disease in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children and older adults; and (3) no response to cold or hot temperature extremes was found for chronic respiratory diagnoses. These findings support our two hypotheses, that extreme hot and cold temperatures have a different effect on hospitalisations for respiratory disease between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, and that these health risks vary between the different climate zones. We did not, however, find that there were differing responses to temperature extremes in the two populations, suggesting that any increased vulnerability to climate change in the Indigenous population of the Northern Territory arises from an increased underlying risk to respiratory disease and an already greater existing health burden.

  7. Bull selection and use in northern Australia. 1. Physical traits.

    PubMed

    McGowan, M R; Bertram, J D; Fordyce, G; Fitzpatrick, L A; Miller, R G; Jayawardhana, G A; Doogan, V J; De Faveri, J; Holroyd, R G

    2002-05-15

    A systematic breeding soundness examination, including assessment of serving capacity was conducted on 5/8 Brahman, Brahman and Belmont Red bulls, most aged 2-4 years, at 12 different cattle properties across northern Australia. A subset of bulls (n=235) were subsequently mated in various groups, as multiple-sires, to cows and heifers at bull:female ratios of 2.5-6%. The number of calves sired by individual bulls (calf output) was determined by DNA typing for paternity. Overall, the incidence of physical abnormalities that were judged likely to result in reduced reproductive performance was low (5.6-12% of bulls). Measures of key physical traits scrotal circumference, sheath depth (vertical distance from ventral abdominal wall to preputial orifice), and sheath score were moderately to highly repeatable. Except in Belmont Red bulls, liveweight was positively correlated with scrotal circumference (r=0.36-0.78; P<0.01), and both traits increased with age. In 2-year-old Brahman bulls only, percent normal spermatozoa was correlated with scrotal circumference (r=0.34; P<0.05). However, 12 and 15% of Santa Gertrudis and Brahman bulls, respectively, with greater than or equal to the recommended threshold values for scrotal circumferences, had less than 50% morphologically normal spermatozoa. Size and conformation of the umbilicus was associated with conformation of the sheath, and influenced mating ability in 2-year-old Brahman and 3-year-old Santa Gertrudis bulls. In 2-year-old Brahman bulls umbilical cord thickness was positively related (r=0.36; P<0.05) to sheath depth, and negatively related (r=-0.65; P<0.05) to number of mounts and serves in a serving capacity test. In 3-year-old Santa Gertrudis bulls navel (external umbilical scar) score was negatively related to the number of serves (r=-0.53; P<0.01) in a serving capacity test. None of the physical traits measured were consistently included in the final regression model for calf output for each breed.

  8. Estuarine infill and coastal progradation, southern van diemen gulf, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodroffe, C. D.; Mulrennan, M. E.; Chappell, J.

    1993-03-01

    There are several estuaries associated with the pronouncedly seasonal rivers which drain northwards from the Middle Proterozoic sandstone Arnhem Land plateau, and the Tertiary Koolpinyah land surface, into the macrotidal van Diemen Gulf, in the Northern Territory of Australia. The Holocene development of these, investigated in greatest detail for the South Alligator River with an upland catchment of > 10,000 km 2. through drilling, palynology and radiocarbon dating, comprises both estuarine infill and coastal progradation. Three phases of estuarine infill can be recognised: (i) a transgressive phase (8000-6800 years B.P.) of marine incursion; (ii) a big swamp phase (6800-5300 years B.P.) of widespread mangrove forest development; and (iii) a sinuous/cuspate phase of floodplain development since 5300 years B.P., during which the tidal river has meandered and reworked earlier estuarine sediments. Since 6000 years B.P., the South Alligator coastal plain has prograded at a decelerating rate, with two phases of chenier ridge formation. A similar pattern of estuarine infill, and decelerating coastal plain progradation, is demonstrated for the Adelaide and Mary Rivers, both with catchments of > 6000 km 2. The southern shore of van Diemem Gulf appears to have changed its overall position little during the last 2000 years. The major source for the clay, silt and fine sands which have infilled the estuary and coastal plain has been from seaward. Dispite the similarity of development, coastal sediment build up has had different effects on the morphology of each tidal river. The Adelaide has undergone a major diversion and no longer flows directly into van Diemen Gulf, but occupies a former fluvial course, and the Mary has been blocked entirely, and its former estuarine palaeochannels have been infilled with tide-transported sediment.

  9. Impact of income management on store sales in the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Julie K; McDonnell, Joseph; Barnes, Adam; Dhurrkay, Joanne Garnggulkpuy; Thomas, David P; Bailie, Ross S

    2010-05-17

    To examine the impact of a government income management program on store sales. An interrupted time series analysis of sales data in 10 stores in 10 remote Northern Territory communities during 1 October 2006 to 30 September 2009, which included an 18-month period before income management; a 4-6-month period after the introduction of income management; a 3-month period that coincided with a government stimulus payment; and the remaining income-management period. Trends in (i) total store sales; (ii) total food and beverage sales; (iii) fruit and vegetables sales; (iv) soft drink sales; and v) tobacco sales. Modest monthly increases indicative of inflation were found for all outcome measures before the introduction of income management, except for soft drink sales, which remained constant. No change from the increasing rate of monthly sales before income management was seen in the first 4-6 months of income management or for the income-management period thereafter for total store sales, food and beverage sales, fruit and vegetable sales and tobacco sales. The rate of soft drink sales declined significantly with the introduction of income management and then increased significantly thereafter. The 3-month government stimulus payment period (during the period of income management) was associated with a significant increase in the rate of sales for all outcome measures. Income management independent of the government stimulus payment appears to have had no beneficial effect on tobacco and cigarette sales, soft drink or fruit and vegetable sales.

  10. An outbreak of salmonellosis associated with duck prosciutto at a Northern Territory restaurant.

    PubMed

    Draper, Anthony Dk; Morton, Claire N; Heath, Joshua Ni; Lim, Justin A; Schiek, Anninka I; Davis, Stephanie; Krause, Vicki L; Markey, Peter G

    2017-03-31

    In June 2015, an outbreak of salmonellosis occurred among people who had eaten at a restaurant in Darwin, Northern Territory over 2 consecutive nights. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of diners who ate at the restaurant on 19 and 20 June 2015. Diners were telephoned and a questionnaire recorded symptoms and menu items consumed. An outbreak case was defined as anyone with laboratory confirmed Salmonella Typhimurium PT9 (STm9) or a clinically compatible illness after eating at the restaurant. Environmental health officers inspected the premises and collected food samples. We contacted 79/83 of the cohort (response rate 95%); 21 were cases (attack rate 27%), and 9 had laboratory confirmed STm9 infection. The most commonly reported symptoms were diarrhoea (100%), abdominal pain (95%), fever (95%) and nausea (95%). Fifteen people sought medical attention and 7 presented to hospital. The outbreak was most likely caused by consumption of duck prosciutto, which was consumed by all cases (OR 18.6, CI 3.0-∞, P < 0.01) and was prepared on site. Salmonella was not detected in any food samples but a standard plate count of 2 x 10(7) colony forming units per gram on samples of duck prosciutto demonstrated bacterial contamination. The restaurant used inappropriate methodology for curing the duck prosciutto. Restaurants should consider purchasing pre-made cured meats, or if preparing them on site, ensure that they adhere to safe methods of production.

  11. Body mass index and mortality in aboriginal Australians in the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Hoy, Wendy E

    2002-08-01

    To assess the association between body mass index and the risk of all-cause and disease-specific mortalities in Australian Aborigines in a remote community. A community based cohort study. 744 Aboriginal adults aged 20 to 77 years in a remote community in Northern Territory. Eighty-seven deaths occurred during the follow-up period of 5,040.8 person-years. Mortality data for the period of 1992 and June 2000 were collected. Mortality rate ratios for each body mass index quartile was determined using a Cox proportional hazards model with adjustment for age, sex, and smoking and drinking status. An inverse relationship between BMI quartiles and the risk of all-cause, natural, and non-CVD mortality was found. Adjusted rate ratios (95% CI) of all-cause mortality were 0.92 (0.54-1.59), 0.71 (0.40-1.26) and 0.38 (0.19-0.75) for second, third and fourth BMI quartiles, respectively, with the first quartile as the reference. The fourth BMI quartile had the lowest risk of mortality with adjusted rate ratios of 0.38, 0.28, and 0.16 for deaths from all-cause, natural, and non-CVD, respectively. However, the associations between BMI and CVD and renal deaths did not reach statistical significance. BMI and mortality are inversely associated in Aboriginal adults in a remote community. Individuals with relatively higher BMI have a lower risk of death.

  12. Estimating hydraulic properties from tidal attenuation in the Northern Guam Lens Aquifer, territory of Guam, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rotzoll, Kolja; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Jenson, John W.; El-Kadi, Aly I.

    2013-01-01

    Tidal-signal attenuations are analyzed to compute hydraulic diffusivities and estimate regional hydraulic conductivities of the Northern Guam Lens Aquifer, Territory of Guam (Pacific Ocean), USA. The results indicate a significant tidal-damping effect at the coastal boundary. Hydraulic diffusivities computed using a simple analytical solution for well responses to tidal forcings near the periphery of the island are two orders of magnitude lower than for wells in the island’s interior. Based on assigned specific yields of ~0.01–0.4, estimated hydraulic conductivities are ~20–800 m/day for peripheral wells, and ~2,000–90,000 m/day for interior wells. The lower conductivity of the peripheral rocks relative to the interior rocks may best be explained by the effects of karst evolution: (1) dissolutional enhancement of horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the interior; (2) case-hardening and concurrent reduction of local hydraulic conductivity in the cliffs and steeply inclined rocks of the periphery; and (3) the stronger influence of higher-conductivity regional-scale features in the interior relative to the periphery. A simple numerical model calibrated with measured water levels and tidal response estimates values for hydraulic conductivity and storage parameters consistent with the analytical solution. The study demonstrates how simple techniques can be useful for characterizing regional aquifer properties.

  13. The logics of planned birthplace for remote Australian Aboriginal women in the northern territory: A discourse and content analysis of clinical practice manuals.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Sarah; Belton, Suzanne; Saggers, Sherry

    2015-10-01

    the aim of this research is to review the content, and describe the structural and contextual discourse around planned birthplace in six clinical practice manuals used to care for pregnant Aboriginal women in Australia׳s remote Northern Territory. The purpose is to better understand where, how and why planned birthplaces for Aboriginal women have changed over time. content and discourse analysis was applied to the written texts pertaining to maternal health care and the results placed within a theoretical framework of Daviss׳s Logic. the manuals demonstrate the use of predominantly scientific and clinical logic to sanction birthplace. Planned birthplace choices have declined over time, with hospital now represented as the only place to give birth. This is in opposition to Aboriginal women׳s longstanding requests and is not supported by robust scientific evidence. despite scientific and clinical logics dominating the sanctioning of birthplace for Aboriginal women, conjecture is apparent between assumed logics and evidence. There needs to be further critical reflection on why Aboriginal women do not have planned birthplace choices, and these reasons, once identified, debated and addressed both in research agendas and policy re-development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A revision of the Ewartia oldfieldi (Distant) species complex (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettinae) with five new species from eastern and northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Popple, Lindsay W

    2017-05-10

    The identity of Ewartia oldfieldi (Distant) is re-examined and this species is redescribed. Five new species belonging to the genus Ewartia Moulds are described. Ewartia oldfieldi s. str. occurs in association with wattles (Acacia spp.; Mimosaceae) with large or fleshy phyllodes growing in soils derived from sandstone and coarse-grained metasediments throughout the south-eastern third of Queensland. Ewartia roberti n. sp. is associated with wattles that possess narrow or delicate phyllodes, growing in loam soils in southern Queensland and northern New South Wales. Ewartia lapidosa n. sp. occurs in dryer inland and semi-arid areas between Croydon in northern Queensland and the Capertee Valley in central New South Wales where it occurs on various wattles growing in hard, rocky soils, including those derived from laterite and sandstone. Ewartia etesia n. sp. occurs principally on wattles growing along drainage lines in the Top End of the Northern Territory and the eastern edge of the Kimberley in Western Australia. Ewartia thamna n. sp. occurs in low, shrubby vegetation (presumably on wattles) in gravelly soils on low rises and along floodplains at the southern edge of the Top End in the Northern Territory. Ewartia carina n. sp. occurs in transitional habitats with tropical rainforest elements on the eastern edge of Cape York Peninsula in north Queensland. The distinctive, sometimes variable and typically complex calling songs specific to each of the species are illustrated and documented as part of these descriptions and comparisons.

  15. Hearing Parents' and Carers' Voices: Experiences of Accessing Quality Long Day Care in Northern Regional Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Nonie; Tinning, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This article explores parents' and carers' experiences of accessing quality long day care in northern regional Australia. The data was gathered in 2009, after the collapse of ABC Developmental Learning Centres (herein referred to as ABC Learning) and before the implementation of the "National Quality Framework," and provides a snapshot…

  16. Examining the Impact of ABRACADABRA on Early Literacy in Northern Australia: An Implementation Fidelity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Abrami, Philip C.; Helmer, Janet; Savage, Robert; Harper, Helen; Lea, Tess

    2014-01-01

    To address students' poor literacy outcomes, an intervention using a computer-based literacy tool, ABRACADABRA, was implemented in 6 Northern Australia primary schools. A pretest, posttest parallel group, single blind multisite randomized controlled trial was conducted with 308 students between the ages of 4 and 8 years old (M age = 5.8 years, SD…

  17. Drinking & Congenital Birth Defects: Alcohol Awareness in the Northern Rivers Region of New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeigh, Tony; Dip, Grad; Kean, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Guidelines developed to minimise the risk of harm associated with alcohol consumption in Australia focus on promoting population health by changing cultural attitudes. This research study was conducted to uncover attitudes toward maternal drinking and awareness of alcohol-related birth defects within the semi-rural Northern Rivers area of…

  18. Differential Effects of Temperature Extremes on Hospital Admission Rates for Respiratory Disease between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory

    PubMed Central

    Green, Donna; Bambrick, Hilary; Tait, Peter; Goldie, James; Schultz, Rosalie; Webb, Leanne; Alexander, Lisa; Pitman, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians may be exacerbated by climate change if temperature extremes have disproportionate adverse effects on Indigenous people. To explore this issue, we analysed the effect of temperature extremes on hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, stratified by age, Indigenous status and sex, for people living in two different climates zones in the Northern Territory during the period 1993–2011. We examined admissions for both acute and chronic respiratory diagnoses, controlling for day of the week and seasonality variables. Our analysis showed that: (1) overall, Indigenous hospital admission rates far exceeded non-Indigenous admission rates for acute and chronic diagnoses, and Top End climate zone admission rates exceeded Central Australia climate zone admission rates; (2) extreme cold and hot temperatures were associated with inconsistent changes in admission rates for acute respiratory disease in Indigenous and non-Indigenous children and older adults; and (3) no response to cold or hot temperature extremes was found for chronic respiratory diagnoses. These findings support our two hypotheses, that extreme hot and cold temperatures have a different effect on hospitalisations for respiratory disease between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people, and that these health risks vary between the different climate zones. We did not, however, find that there were differing responses to temperature extremes in the two populations, suggesting that any increased vulnerability to climate change in the Indigenous population of the Northern Territory arises from an increased underlying risk to respiratory disease and an already greater existing health burden. PMID:26633456

  19. Use of maternal health services by remote dwelling Aboriginal women in northern Australia and their disease burden.

    PubMed

    Bar-Zeev, Sarah; Barclay, Lesley; Kruske, Sue; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Gao, Yu; Kildea, Sue

    2013-09-01

    Disparities exist in pregnancy and birth outcomes between Australian Aboriginal women and their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Understanding patterns of health service use by Aboriginal women is critical. This study describes the use of maternal health services by remote dwelling Aboriginal women in northern Australia during pregnancy, birth and the postpartum period and their burden of disease. A retrospective cohort study of maternity care for all 412 maternity cases from two remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory of Australia, 2004-2006. Primary endpoints were the number and type of maternal health-related complications and service episodes at the health centers and regional hospital during pregnancy, birth, and the first 6 months postpartum. Ninety-three percent of women attended antenatal care. This often commenced late in pregnancy. High levels of complications were identified and 23 percent of all women required antenatal hospitalization. Birth occurred within the regional hospital for 90 percent of women. By 6 months postpartum, 45 percent of women had documented postnatal morbidities and 8 percent required hospital admission. The majority of women accessed remote health services at least once; however, only one third had a record of a postnatal care within 2 months of giving birth. Maternal health outcomes were poor despite frequent service use throughout pregnancy, birth, and the first 6 months postpartum suggesting quality of care rather than access issues. These findings reflect outcomes that are more aligned with the developing rather than developed world and have significant implications for future planning of maternity services that must be urgently addressed. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Chris; Jacobs, Zenobia; Marwick, Ben; Fullagar, Richard; Wallis, Lynley; Smith, Mike; Roberts, Richard G; Hayes, Elspeth; Lowe, Kelsey; Carah, Xavier; Florin, S Anna; McNeil, Jessica; Cox, Delyth; Arnold, Lee J; Hua, Quan; Huntley, Jillian; Brand, Helen E A; Manne, Tiina; Fairbairn, Andrew; Shulmeister, James; Lyle, Lindsey; Salinas, Makiah; Page, Mara; Connell, Kate; Park, Gayoung; Norman, Kasih; Murphy, Tessa; Pardoe, Colin

    2017-07-19

    The time of arrival of people in Australia is an unresolved question. It is relevant to debates about when modern humans first dispersed out of Africa and when their descendants incorporated genetic material from Neanderthals, Denisovans and possibly other hominins. Humans have also been implicated in the extinction of Australia's megafauna. Here we report the results of new excavations conducted at Madjedbebe, a rock shelter in northern Australia. Artefacts in primary depositional context are concentrated in three dense bands, with the stratigraphic integrity of the deposit demonstrated by artefact refits and by optical dating and other analyses of the sediments. Human occupation began around 65,000 years ago, with a distinctive stone tool assemblage including grinding stones, ground ochres, reflective additives and ground-edge hatchet heads. This evidence sets a new minimum age for the arrival of humans in Australia, the dispersal of modern humans out of Africa, and the subsequent interactions of modern humans with Neanderthals and Denisovans.

  1. “People like numbers”: a descriptive study of cognitive assessment methods in clinical practice for Aboriginal Australians in the Northern Territory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Achieving culturally fair assessments of cognitive functioning for Aboriginal people is difficult due to a scarcity of appropriately validated tools for use with this group. As a result, some Aboriginal people with cognitive impairments may lack fair and equitable access to services. The objective of this study was to examine current clinical practice in the Northern Territory regarding cognitive assessment for Aboriginal people thereby providing some guidance for clinicians new to this practice setting. Method Qualitative enquiry was used to describe practice context, reasons for assessment, and current practices in assessing cognition for Aboriginal Australians. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 clinicians working with Aboriginal clients in central and northern Australia. Results pertaining to assessment methods are reported. Results A range of standardised tests were utilised with little consistency across clinical practice. Nevertheless, it was recognised that such tests bear severe limitations, requiring some modification and significant caution in their interpretation. Clinicians relied heavily on informal assessment or observations, contextual information and clinical judgement. Conclusions Cognitive tests developed specifically for Aboriginal people are urgently needed. In the absence of appropriate, validated tests, clinicians have relied on and modified a range of standardised and informal assessments, whilst recognising the severe limitations of these. Past clinical training has not prepared clinicians adequately for assessing Aboriginal clients, and experience and clinical judgment were considered crucial for fair interpretation of test scores. Interpretation guidelines may assist inexperienced clinicians to consider whether they are achieving fair assessments of cognition for Aboriginal clients. PMID:23368850

  2. Arboviruses recovered from sentinel livestock in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Gard, G P; Shorthose, J E; Weir, R P; Walsh, S J; Melville, L F

    1988-10-01

    Over 700 arboviruses were recovered between 1981 and 1987 from the blood of sentinel livestock near Darwin. Twenty-three isolates were made from sheep, goats, swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and horses, and the remainder were from cattle. The isolates have been typed as 27 separate viruses belonging to the bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, Palyam, Simbu, bovine ephemeral fever, Tibrogargan and alphavirus groups. Ten of these viruses have not been isolated elsewhere in Australia and four have been isolated only in Darwin. Considerable annual variations in virus activity and in the durations of detectable viraemia were observed.

  3. Biomass burning emissions over northern Australia constrained by aerosol measurements: I—Modelling the distribution of hourly emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, C. P. (Mick); Luhar, Ashok K.; Mitchell, Ross M.

    Emissions of aerosol from biomass burning in northern Australia are globally significant, yet existing estimates of their magnitude are essentially unconstrained by observation. This two-part series (see Part II by Luhar et al. [2008. Biomass burning emissions over northern Australia constrained by aerosol measurements: II—Model validation, and impacts on air quality and radiative forcing. Atmospheric Environment, submitted for publication] seeks to address this by first formulating a scheme to determine the emissions from the Top End region of the Northern Territory during the 2004 burning season at a high temporal and spatial resolution (1 h, 1 km). The emissions are then validated using a meteorological and transport model called TAPM coupled with a variety of field measurements. The high resolution not only enables validation against various meteorological and aerosol data sets, but also allows prediction of local air quality events. Essential inputs to the emission calculations are satellite-based measurements of fire scars, yielding burnt areas, and hotspots, providing timing information on daily basis. It is shown that hotspots without associated fire scars must be taken into account in order to produce credible aerosol fields. Prediction of emissions at hourly time resolution is enabled by assigning a diurnal variation based on a McArthur fire danger meter. The total carbon emission for the 2004 season is computed to be 67.6 Tg, in remarkable agreement with the bulk estimate of 64.3 Tg derived for the Australian National Greenhouse Gas Inventory, and comparable to the figure of 57.0 Tg determined from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFEDv2). The total PM 2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less) emission is computed to be 0.67 Tg. The transport modelling shows that emissions leaving the study region are largely advected to the west over the Timor Sea towards the Indonesian archipelago from April to September, shifting to

  4. Renal transplantation in indigenous Australians of the Northern Territory: closing the gap.

    PubMed

    Majoni, S W; Abeyaratne, A

    2013-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease causes high morbidity and mortality among Indigenous Australians of the Northern Territory (NT). Studies have shown chronic kidney disease rates of 4-10 times higher in indigenous than non-indigenous Australians and prevalent dialysis rates of 700-1200 per million population. For most patients with end-stage renal failure, renal transplantation provides the optimal treatment for people with end-stage renal disease. It reduces morbidity and mortality, and improves survival and quality of life. Graft and patient survival rates of over 80% at 5 years depending on the donor source (deceased vs living donor) are expected worldwide. However, this is not the case in Indigenous Australians of the NT where graft and patient survival are both around 50% at 5 years suggesting death with functioning graft as the most common cause of graft loss. It would provide the best treatment option for indigenous people most of who live in remote (18%) and very remote communities (63%). Many have to relocate from their communities to urban or regional centres for dialysis. Available options to avoid relocation include peritoneal dialysis, home haemodialysis and community health centre dialysis, but the acceptance rates for these are low, hence renal transplantation would provide the best option. There is evidence of identified barriers to renal transplantation for indigenous people of the NT. This review explores published data on why rates of renal transplantation in indigenous people of the NT are low and the reasons for poor outcomes highlighting possible areas of improvement. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. Intussusception in the Northern Territory: the incidence is low in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

    PubMed

    Webby, Rosalind J; Bines, Julie E; Barnes, Graeme L; Tindall, Helen; Krause, Vicki; Patel, Mahomed

    2006-05-01

    To describe the epidemiology, immunisation status and management of children with intussusception in the Northern Territory (NT), 1993-2003. Intussusception data were obtained from all NT hospitals using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD 9/10) codes for children under 18 years of age between 1993 and 2003. Medical records of these children were used to collect information on demographics, admission date, clinical symptoms, signs and management. Immunisation data were obtained from the NT immunisation register. The NT mortality database was reviewed for deaths from intussusception in children between 1993 and 2003. One death in an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander child was found in the NT mortality database. Medical records for this child were destroyed and so the case definition for intussusception used in this study was not fulfilled and the child was excluded. Intussusception proven by radiological or surgical means was identified in 23 children from hospital records. The incidence for children with intussusception in NT is 0.65/1000 live births. The incidence of intussusception was lower in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children (0.16/1000 live births) than in non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children (0.92/1000 live births) (P < 0.01). The incidence of intussusception in the NT is similar to other developed countries but Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children have a very low incidence of intussusception. Intussusception is a rare event in the NT and will require a sensitive surveillance system to detect any potential increased risk of intussusception after the introduction of a new rotavirus vaccine.

  6. Factors contributing to frequent attendance to the emergency department of a remote Northern Territory hospital.

    PubMed

    Quilty, Simon; Shannon, Geordan; Yao, Anthony; Sargent, William; McVeigh, Michael F

    2016-02-15

    To determine the clinical and environmental variables associated with frequent presentations by adult patients to a remote Australian hospital emergency department (ED) for reasons other than chronic health conditions. Unmatched case-control study of all adult patients attending Katherine Hospital ED between 1 January and 31 December 2012. Cases were defined as frequent attenders (FAs) without a chronic health condition who presented to the ED six or more times during the 12-month period. A single presentation was randomly selected for data collection. Controls were patients who presented on only one occasion. Basic demographic data were collected, including clinical outcomes, Indigenous status, living arrangements, and whether alcohol and violence contributed to the presentation. Environmental variables were extracted from the Bureau of Meteorology database and mapped to each presentation. FAs were much more likely to be homeless (odds ratio [OR], 16.4; P < 0.001) and to be Aboriginal (OR, 2.16; P < 0.001); alcohol as a contributing factor was also more likely (OR, 2.77; P = 0.001). FAs were more likely to present in hotter, wetter weather, although the association was statistically weak. Clinical presentations by cases and controls were similar; the annual death rates for both groups were high (3.6% and 1.5%, respectively). There was a strong association between FA and Aboriginal status, homelessness and the involvement of alcohol, but alcohol was more likely to contribute to presentation by non-Aboriginal FAs who had stable living conditions. FAs and non-FAs had similar needs for emergency medical care, with strikingly higher death rates than the national average in both groups. As a result of this study, Katherine Hospital has initiated a Frequent Attender Pathway that automatically triggers a dedicated ED service for those at greatest clinical risk. Homelessness is a serious problem in the Northern Territory, and is associated with poor health outcomes.

  7. Culex annulirostris (Diptera: Culicidae) host feeding patterns and Japanese encephalitis virus ecology in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Jansen, Cassie C; Cheah, Wai Yuen; Montgomery, Brian L; Hall, Roy A; Ritchie, Scott A; Van den Hurk, Andrew F

    2012-03-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) transmission in northern Australia has, in the past, been facilitated by Culex annulirostris Skuse feeding on domestic pigs, the primary amplifying hosts of the virus. To further characterize mosquito feeding behavior in northern Australia, 1,128 bloodmeals from Cx. annulirostris were analyzed using a double-antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, Cx. annulirostris obtained > 94% of blood meals from mammals, comprising marsupials (37%), pigs (20%), dogs (16%), and cows (11%), although the proportion feeding on each of these host types varied between study locations. Where JEV activity was detected, feeding rates on pigs were relatively high. At the location that yielded the first Australian mainland isolate of JEV from mosquitoes, feral pigs (in the absence of domestic pigs) accounted for 82% of bloodmeals identified, representing the first occasion that feeding on feral pigs has been associated with JEV transmission in Australia. Interestingly, < 3% of Cx. annulirostris had fed on pigs at locations on Badu Island where JEV was detected in multiple pools of mosquitoes in a concurrent study. This suggests that either alternative hosts, such as birds, which comprised 21% of blood meals identified, or infected mosquitoes immigrating from areas where domestic pigs are housed, may have contributed to transmission at this location. Because Cx. annulirostris is both an opportunistic feeder and the primary JEV vector in the region, environmental characteristics and host presence can determine JEV transmission dynamics in northern Australia.

  8. Tropospheric carbon monoxide and hydrogen measurements over Kalimantan in Indonesia and northern Australia during October, 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawa, Yousuke; Matsueda, Hidekazu; Tsutsumi, Yukitomo; Jensen, Jørgen B.; Inoue, Hisayuki Y.; Makino, Yukio

    During the PACE-5 campaign over Australia and Indonesia in October 1997, we used an aircraft to measure carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2). Latitudinal distributions of CO and H2 clearly showed a large increase from northern Australia to Kalimantan in Indonesia. Elevated CO levels over northern Australia were observed only in the smoke plumes of savanna fires. A thick smoke haze from forest fires over Kalimantan contained very high CO mixing ratios of 3 to 9 ppm. These enhanced CO mixing ratios correlated well with increased concentrations of H2, nitrogen oxides (NOx), and aerosols. Emission ratios from biomass burning in Kalimantan ranged 0.06 0.1 for H2/CO (ppb/ppb), 0.0002 to 0.0005 for NOx/CO (ppb/ppb), and 0.43 to 1.0 for number of aerosols/CO (cm-3/ppb). These values were much lower than emission ratios in northern Australia. This difference suggests that the biomass burning in Indonesia was intense and that, due to a strong El Niño event, an unique composition of trace gases was formed in the smoke haze.

  9. Differing impact of a major biogeographic barrier on genetic structure in two large kangaroos from the monsoon tropics of Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Mark D B; Potter, Sally; Johnson, Christopher N; Ritchie, Euan G

    2014-03-01

    Tropical savannas cover 20-30% of the world's land surface and exhibit high levels of regional endemism, but the evolutionary histories of their biota remain poorly studied. The most extensive and unmodified tropical savannas occur in Northern Australia, and recent studies suggest this region supports high levels of previously undetected genetic diversity. To examine the importance of barriers to gene flow and the environmental history of Northern Australia in influencing patterns of diversity, we investigated the phylogeography of two closely related, large, vagile macropodid marsupials, the antilopine wallaroo (Macropus antilopinus; n = 78), and the common wallaroo (Macropus robustus; n = 21). Both species are widespread across the tropical savannas of Australia except across the Carpentarian Barrier (CB) where there is a break in the distribution of M. antilopinus. We determined sequence variation in the hypervariable Domain I of the mitochondrial DNA control region and genotyped individuals at 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci to assess the historical and contemporary influence of the CB on these species. Surprisingly, we detected only limited differentiation between the disjunct Northern Territory and QueenslandM. antilopinus populations. In contrast, the continuously distributedM. robustus was highly divergent across the CB. Although unexpected, these contrasting responses appear related to minor differences in species biology. Our results suggest that vicariance may not explain well the phylogeographic patterns in Australia's dynamic monsoonal environments. This is because Quaternary environmental changes in this region have been complex, and diverse individual species' biologies have resulted in less predictable and idiosyncratic responses.

  10. Correlates of Recent Declines of Rodents in Northern and Southern Australia: Habitat Structure Is Critical.

    PubMed

    Lawes, Michael J; Fisher, Diana O; Johnson, Chris N; Blomberg, Simon P; Frank, Anke S K; Fritz, Susanne A; McCallum, Hamish; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Abbott, Brett N; Legge, Sarah; Letnic, Mike; Thomas, Colette R; Thurgate, Nikki; Fisher, Alaric; Gordon, Iain J; Kutt, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Australia has experienced dramatic declines and extinctions of its native rodent species over the last 200 years, particularly in southern Australia. In the tropical savanna of northern Australia significant declines have occurred only in recent decades. The later onset of these declines suggests that the causes may differ from earlier declines in the south. We examine potential regional effects (northern versus southern Australia) on biological and ecological correlates of range decline in Australian rodents. We demonstrate that rodent declines have been greater in the south than in the tropical north, are strongly influenced by phylogeny, and are consistently greater for species inhabiting relatively open or sparsely vegetated habitat. Unlike in marsupials, where some species have much larger body size than rodents, body mass was not an important predictor of decline in rodents. All Australian rodent species are within the prey-size range of cats (throughout the continent) and red foxes (in the south). Contrary to the hypothesis that mammal declines are related directly to ecosystem productivity (annual rainfall), our results are consistent with the hypothesis that disturbances such as fire and grazing, which occur in non-rainforest habitats and remove cover used by rodents for shelter, nesting and foraging, increase predation risk. We agree with calls to introduce conservation management that limits the size and intensity of fires, increases fire patchiness and reduces grazing impacts at ecological scales appropriate for rodents. Controlling feral predators, even creating predator-free reserves in relatively sparsely-vegetated habitats, is urgently required to ensure the survival of rodent species, particularly in northern Australia where declines are not yet as severe as those in the south.

  11. Correlates of Recent Declines of Rodents in Northern and Southern Australia: Habitat Structure Is Critical

    PubMed Central

    Lawes, Michael J.; Fisher, Diana O.; Johnson, Chris N.; Blomberg, Simon P.; Frank, Anke S. K.; Fritz, Susanne A.; McCallum, Hamish; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Abbott, Brett N.; Legge, Sarah; Letnic, Mike; Thomas, Colette R.; Thurgate, Nikki; Fisher, Alaric; Gordon, Iain J.; Kutt, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Australia has experienced dramatic declines and extinctions of its native rodent species over the last 200 years, particularly in southern Australia. In the tropical savanna of northern Australia significant declines have occurred only in recent decades. The later onset of these declines suggests that the causes may differ from earlier declines in the south. We examine potential regional effects (northern versus southern Australia) on biological and ecological correlates of range decline in Australian rodents. We demonstrate that rodent declines have been greater in the south than in the tropical north, are strongly influenced by phylogeny, and are consistently greater for species inhabiting relatively open or sparsely vegetated habitat. Unlike in marsupials, where some species have much larger body size than rodents, body mass was not an important predictor of decline in rodents. All Australian rodent species are within the prey-size range of cats (throughout the continent) and red foxes (in the south). Contrary to the hypothesis that mammal declines are related directly to ecosystem productivity (annual rainfall), our results are consistent with the hypothesis that disturbances such as fire and grazing, which occur in non-rainforest habitats and remove cover used by rodents for shelter, nesting and foraging, increase predation risk. We agree with calls to introduce conservation management that limits the size and intensity of fires, increases fire patchiness and reduces grazing impacts at ecological scales appropriate for rodents. Controlling feral predators, even creating predator-free reserves in relatively sparsely-vegetated habitats, is urgently required to ensure the survival of rodent species, particularly in northern Australia where declines are not yet as severe as those in the south. PMID:26111037

  12. Modelling strategies for the management of the critically endangered Carpentarian rock-rat (Zyzomys palatalis) of northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Brook, Barry W; Griffiths, Anthony D; Puckey, Helen L

    2002-08-01

    The Carpentarian rock-rat (Zyzomys palatalis) is a critically endangered endemic rodent known from only four sandstone gorges in the southeast Gulf of Carpentaria, Northern Territory, Australia. These gorges harbour thickets of monsoon rainforest and broadleaf woodland, surrounded by a Eucalypt savanna matrix. The long-term persistence of Z. palatalis is threatened by altered fire regimes, grazing by feral animals and stock, weed intrusion, and the stochastic hazards associated with small, fragmented populations. To assess the relative importance of these threats and develop practical management options, a population and habitat simulation model was developed, based on the best existing data. Population viability was predicted to be highly sensitive to the frequency of hot, late dry-season fires. Progressive habitat degradation (due predominantly to intense late dry-season fires) is likely to substantially reduce population size and lead to the probable extinction of the species within the next 100 years. The most effective management strategy to counteract this threat would be regular, controlled, fuel reduction burns in the vegetation around the gorge entrances during the early dry season. Establishing a new population (through translocation of captive-bred individuals) would not appreciably reduce extinction risk, but could provide valuable additional data on the impact of threats, if conducted as an adaptive management experiment.

  13. High Protein- and High Lipid-Producing Microalgae from Northern Australia as Potential Feedstock for Animal Feed and Biodiesel

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Van Thang; Ahmed, Faruq; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Quigley, Simon; Nowak, Ekaterina; Schenk, Peer M.

    2015-01-01

    Microalgal biomass can be used for biodiesel, feed, and food production. Collection and identification of local microalgal strains in the Northern Territory, Australia was conducted to identify strains with high protein and lipid contents as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel production, respectively. A total of 36 strains were isolated from 13 samples collected from a variety of freshwater locations, such as dams, ponds, and streams and subsequently classified by 18S rDNA sequencing. All of the strains were green microalgae and predominantly belong to Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Desmodesmus sp., Chlamydomonas sp., Pseudomuriella sp., Tetraedron caudatum, Graesiella emersonii, and Mychonastes timauensis. Among the fastest growing strains, Scenedesmus sp. NT1d possessed the highest content of protein; reaching up to 33% of its dry weight. In terms of lipid production, Chlorella sp. NT8a and Scenedesmus dimorphus NT8e produced the highest triglyceride contents of 116.9 and 99.13 μg mL−1 culture, respectively, as measured by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy of fatty acid methyl esters. These strains may present suitable candidates for biodiesel production after further optimization of culturing conditions, while their protein-rich biomass could be used for animal feed. PMID:26042215

  14. A new focus of scrub typhus in tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Currie, B; O'Connor, L; Dwyer, B

    1993-10-01

    A new focus of scrub typhus (Rickettsia tsutsugamushi) is described in a remote rain forest region of the Northern Territory of Australia. Five serologically confirmed cases, two near fatal with multisystem involvement, have occurred since the area became accessible to tourists. As tourism increases, other remote foci of vectors and organisms may also be recognized in tropical Australia.

  15. PROGRESS REPORT ON GEOLOGIC STUDIES OF THE RANGER OREBODIES, NORTHERN TERRITORY, AUSTRALIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas; Frishman, David; ,

    1985-01-01

    The Ranger No. 1 and No. 3 orebodies contain about 124,000 tonnes U//3O//8 in highly chloritized metasediments of the lower Proterozoic Cahill Formation within about 500 m of the projected sub-Kombolgie Formation unconformity. In both orebodies, oxidized and reduced uranium minerals occur chiefly in quartzose schists that have highly variable amounts of muscovite, sericite, and chlorite. The effects of several periods of alteration are pervasive in the vicinity of orebodies where biotite and garnet are altered to chlorite, and feldspars to white mica or chlorite. Oxidized uranium minerals, associated with earthy iron oxides, occur from the surface to a depth of about 60 m. Below the oxidized zone, uranium occurs chiefly as uraninite and pitchblende disseminated through thick sections of quartz-chlorite-muscovite schist and has no apparent association with graphite or sulphides. The geologic age(s) of uranium emplacement are obscure because there are few age criteria. Reduced uranium minerals are younger than 1. 8-b. y. -old granite dykes, and some occur locally in 1. 65-b. y. -old Kombolgie Formation.

  16. Seasonal variation of heavy metals in oysters from Darwin Harbor, Northern Territory, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Peerzada, N.; Kozlik, E. )

    1992-01-01

    In this study the authors report the seasonal variation in the concentrations of zinc, lead, cadmium, copper, and iron in oysters over a period of eight months from five different sites in Darwin Harbor. The site selection was based on previous work, with the exception of Darwin Wharf. Seasonal variation of heavy metals in marine organisms, especially bivalves, has been reported by many workers. The highest concentrations of zinc and copper were found in the summer month of January and the lowest at the end of winter month of October. Darwin Harbor lies well within the tropics and is subjected to two weather systems. The dry season extends from April to October approximately, when southeast trade winds prevail, and the wet season extends from November to April, when the northwest monsoon prevails. Sea-surface temperatures of Darwin Harbor show no great variation between wet and dry seasons. It is virtually constant during the wet season (about 28-29C) and only a few degrees lower during the dry season (25-28C). Salinity ranges from 27.8 to 35.5 ppt between the months of February and September.

  17. Non-radiological contaminants from uranium mining and milling at Ranger, Jabiru, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Noller, B N

    1991-10-01

    Protection from the hazards from radioactivity is of prime importance in the management of uranium mine and mill wastes. Such wastes also contain non-radiological contaminants (heavy metals, acids and neutralising agents) which give rise to potential long-term health and environmental hazards and short-term hazards to the aquatic ecosystem, e.g. as a result of release of waste water. This study seeks to identify non-radiological contaminants (elements) transferred to waste water at the Ranger uranium mine/mill complex at Jabiru, which are likely to hazardous to the aquatic environment.The two principal sources of contaminants are: (i) ore and waste rock mobilised from mining; and (ii) process reagents used in the milling and mineral extraction process. These substances may or may not already be present in the natural environment but may lead to deleterious effects on the aquatic environment if increased above threshold levels.Rhenium, derived from the ore body, was found to be significantly enriched in waste water from Ranger, indicating its suitability as an indicator element for water originating from the mining and milling process, but only uranium, likewise derived from the ore, and magnesium, manganese and sulfur (as sulfate) from the milling process were found to be significant environmental contaminants.

  18. Progress report on geologic studies of the Ranger orebodies, Northern Territory, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J.T.; Frishman, David

    1982-01-01

    The Ranger No. 1 and No. 3 orebodies contain about 124,000 tonnes U3O8 in highly chloritized metasediments of the lower Proterozoic Cahill Formation within about 500 m of the projected sub-Kombolgie Formation unconformity. In both orebodies, oxidized and reduced uranium minerals occur chiefly in quartzose schists that have highly variable amounts of muscovite, sericite, and chlorite. The effects of several periods of alteration are pervasive in the vicinity of orebodies where biotite and garnet are altered to chlorite, and feldspars to white mica or chlorite. Oxidized uranium minerals, associated with earthy iron oxides, occur from the surface to a depth of about 60 m. Below the oxidized zone, uranium occurs chiefly as uraninite and pitchblende disseminated through thick sections of quartz-chlorite-muscovite schist and has no apparent association with graphite or sulfides. In fact, graphite is rare and sulfides are generally low in abundance (<0.5 percent). Higher ore grades occur in disrupted zones a few centimeters thick and in some quartz-chlorite vein-like zones of uncertain origin. Uranium correlates strongly with chlorite, but not all of the many ages of chlorite have associated uranium. At least five textural varieties of chlorite are present and represent at least 3 ages. Preliminary microprobe analyses suggest that Mg-Fe-Al contents are relatively uniform. Apatite commonly occurs with chlorite. Uranium is not common in carbonate rocks and seems to occur only in disrupted zones that have chlorite alteration. Chloritization and silicification are more widespread and intense in the No. 1 orebody than in the No. 3. In both orebodies, hematite occurs tens to hundreds of meters below the weathered zone, in both altered and largely unaltered rocks, with and without uranium. The structure of the orebodies is outwardly simple, particularly in No. 3; dips are less than 40? on most lithologic contacts. The No. 1 orebody is in a basin-like structure about 400 m wide that probably formed in part by progressive removal of carbonate rocks that are as much as 200 m thick adjacent to the No. 1 orebody and below the No. 3 orebody. Quartz-chlorite breccias have formed in the zone of carbonate thinning; uranium is spotty and low grade in these breccias. Chloritized and uraniferous broken and sheared zones, a few centimeters to a few meters thick, have an unknown attitude but must have small displacement. Blocks of altered Kombolgie sandstone are downfaulted into the No. 3 orebody and locally contain reduced uranium minerals. One or more shear zones 5-30 m thick of crushed and smeared fine to coarse rock fragments occur below the orebodies, and other low-angle shears probably occur in the orebodies. The shear zone dips about 40 o and displacement on it is not known. The footwall rocks generally are less retrograded than those in the hanging wall (orebody) and consist of quartz-biotite-feldspar schists and gneisses flanking the Nanambu Complex. A few scattered fractures in the footwall sequence contain pitchblende of unknown age and origin. Major element chemical analyses confirm the lithologic observations of large changes in composition during multiple stages of alteration. Granitic dikes and pelitic schists have gained Fe and Mg and lost Si, Ca, Na, and K during chloritization. Marbles have gained Si, Al, Fe, and P, and lost Mg, Ca, and K during jasperoid-chlorite alteration. Total net chemical gains and losses in the Ranger No. 1 orebody were huge: equal to about 37 percent of the mass of the ore-bearing rock that will be mined. There were net gains in Si and P and net losses in Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, and Na. The geologic age(s) of uranium emplacement are obscure because there are few age criteria. Reduced uranium minerals are younger than 1.8-b.y.-old granite dikes, and some occur locally in 1.65-b.y.-old Kombolgie Formation. Diabase dikes (age not known) are thoroughly chloritized and contain sparse ore minerals. Oxidized ura

  19. Age of uranium ores at Ranger and Jabiluka unconformity vein deposits, Northern Territory, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, K.R.; Grauch, R.I.; Nutt, C.J.; Frishman, D.; Nash, J.T.; Simmons, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Ranger and Jabiluka uranium deposits are the largest in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Field (ARUF), which contains at least 20% of the world's low-cost uranium reserves. Ore occurs in early Proterozoic metasediments, below an unconformity with sandstones of the 1.65 Ga Kombolgie Formation. This study uses U-Pb isotope data from over 60 whole-rock drill core samples that contained a variety of mineral assemblages and textures. Data for Ranger samples indicate a well-defined age of 1.74 +/-.02 Ga. This 1.74 Ga age is distinctly pre-Kombolgie, so the Ranger deposit cannot have been formed by processes requiring its presence. This Ranger age is consistent, however, with mineralization related to heating associated with either the emplacement of early post-metamorphic granites, or possibly with intrusion of the nearby Oenpelli Dolerite. In contrast, data for the least-altered Jabiluka ores yield a concordia-intercept age of 1.44 +/-.02 Ga--significantly younger than the Ranger age, and also younger than the Komobolgie. This age may correspond to a regional thermal event, as indicated both by mafic dikes of roughly this age and a zircon lower-intercept age from a nearby granite-gneiss. Thus, together with the well-defined approx.900 Ma age of ores at the Nabarlek deposit, there are at least 3 distinct periods of major U-mineralization in the ARUF. Data for both Ranger and Jabiluka indicate the same, profound isotopic disturbance at some time in the interval of 0.4-0.6 Ga. Possibly this time corresponds to the development of basins and associated basalt flows to the W and SW, a suggested by Crick et. al. (1980).

  20. Strangways Crater, Northern Territory, Australia: siderophile element enrichment and lithophile element fractionation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, J.W.; Wandless, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Seven samples of melt rock and four samples of country rock from the Strangways crater were analysed for Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Zr, Sb, Cs, Ba, REE, Hf, Ta, Th, U, Ni, Se, Pd, Ag, Cd, Re, Os, Ir and Au. The data indicate that the crater may have been formed by the impact of an olivine-rich achondrite, and melt rocks appear to contain approx 3 wt.% of projectile material.-B.M.

  1. Radium concentration factors in passionfruit (Passiflora foetida) from the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Medley, Peter; Bollhöfer, Andreas; Parry, David; Martin, Paul

    2013-12-01

    In this study, uptake of Ra from soil into the edible fruit of the wild passionfruit species Passiflora foetida was investigated, using selective extraction from the soil samples. A wide range of environmental exposure conditions were represented by the locations that were sampled, including both natural soils, and soils influenced by past and present uranium mining activities. The bioavailable (226)Ra fraction in soils was found to be a better predictor of (226)Ra fruit activity concentrations than the total soil activity concentration, or any of the other fractions studied. Concentration Factors (CFs) derived using the bioavailable fraction varied by only a factor of 7 between different locations, whereas CFs derived using other fractions and total soil varied by up to two orders of magnitude. CFs were highest for those soils containing the lowest concentrations of Mg, Ca and Ba, and approached a saturation value at higher soil concentrations. This finding suggests that group II elements influence radium uptake, most likely the result of increased pressure on the plant to take up essential nutrient group II elements from soil with the lower concentrations, with Ra being taken up as an analogue element. It is also possible that at higher concentrations of bioavailable Ca and Mg in the soil, these ions will outcompete Ra for adsorption sites in the soil and/or on the root surfaces. The study also shows that (228)Ra can potentially be a significant contributor to ingestion doses and should also be considered when assessing committed effective doses from the ingestion of fruits. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence and validity of self-reported smoking in Indigenous and non-Indigenous young adults in the Australian Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Mark S; Mann, Kay D; Singh, Gurmeet; Davison, Belinda; Sayers, Susan M

    2014-08-21

    In this study, we used data from Australia's Northern Territory to assess differences in self-reported smoking prevalence between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. We also used urinary cotinine data to assess the validity of using self-reported smoking data in these populations. The Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC) is a prospective study of 686 Aboriginal babies born in Darwin 1987-90. The Top End Cohort (TEC) is a study of non-Indigenous adolescents, all born in Darwin 1987-91. In both studies, participants aged between 16 and 21 years, were asked whether they smoked. Urinary cotinine measurements were made from samples taken at the same visits. Self-reported smoking prevalence was 68% in the ABC and 14% in the TEC. Among the self-reported non-smokers, the median cotinine levels were higher in the ABC (33 ng/ml) than in the TEC (5 ng/ml), with greater percentages of reported non-smokers in the under 50 ng/ml group in the TEC than in the ABC CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of smoking was much higher in the ABC than in the TEC. The higher cotinine levels in ABC non-smokers may reflect an underestimated prevalence, but is also likely to reflect higher levels of passive smoking. A broader approach encompassing social, cultural and language factors with increased attention to smoking socialisation factors is required.

  3. West Nile Virus (Kunjin Subtype) Disease in the Northern Territory of Australia—A Case of Encephalitis and Review of All Reported Cases

    PubMed Central

    Burrow, James N.; Markey, Peter G.; Whelan, Peter I.; Jackson, Justin; Smith, David W.; Currie, Bart J.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus Kunjin subtype (WNV/KUNV) is enzootic across the tropical north of Australia, with epizootic spread into other jurisdictions. The clinical spectrum of illness in humans is poorly described. We report a clinical case of WNV/KUNV encephalitis and performed a retrospective chart audit of all cases of WNV/KUNV notified in the Northern Territory from 1992 to 2010. Thirteen cases of WNV/KUNV disease were identified; case notes were available for 10 of these presentations. Six of these patients had confirmed infection and presented with neuroinvasive illness, whereas the other four suspect cases comprised three cases with arthralgia, myalgia, and/or rash and one case with fever alone. On the available evidence, WNV/KUNV is of lower virulence compared with the New York 1999 strain. Difficulties in serological diagnosis, especially when paired acute and convalescent sera are not available, may adversely impact the accuracy of the epidemiological and clinical understanding of this virus. PMID:22049056

  4. Pure and Bitter Spaces: Gender, Identity and Territory in Northern Irish Youth Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrellis, Sheena

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines young peoples' narratives of space and territory and the ways in which they are gender specific. Drawing upon data from two ESRC funded research projects beginning in 1996, the paper focuses upon the ways in which boundaries are perceived, constructed and managed in the everyday lives of young women and men growing up in one…

  5. Genetic analysis of Giardia and Cryptosporidium from people in Northern Australia using PCR-based tools.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Janine; Koehler, Anson V; Robertson, Gemma; Bradbury, Richard S; Jex, Aaron R; Haydon, Shane R; Stevens, Melita A; Norton, Robert; Joachim, Anja; Gasser, Robin B

    2015-12-01

    To date, there has been limited genetic study of the gastrointestinal pathogens Giardia and Cryptosporidium in northern parts of Australia. Here, PCR-based methods were used for the genetic characterization of Giardia and Cryptosporidium from 695 people with histories of gastrointestinal disorders from the tropical North of Australia. Genomic DNAs from fecal samples were subjected to PCR-based analyses of regions from the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), small subunit (SSU) of the nuclear ribosomal RNA and/or the glycoprotein (gp60) genes. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 13 and four of the 695 samples, respectively. Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B were found in 4 (31%) and 9 (69%) of the 13 samples in persons of <9 years of age. Cryptosporidium hominis (subgenotype IdA18), Cryptosporidium mink genotype (subgenotype IIA16R1) and C. felis were also identified in single patients of 11-21 years of age. Future studies might focus on a comparative study of these and other protists in rural communities in Northern Australia.

  6. Isotopic Evidence for C4 Grass Expansion During the Last Glacial Maximum and Younger Dryas in Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. J.; Wakeham, S.; Gelinas, Y.; Luly, J.; Miller, G.

    2004-12-01

    In northern and central Australia, late Quaternary records of terrestrial environmental change are rare due to generally poor preservation of pollen grains and a derth of long-term, continuous lacustrine sedimentary deposits. The Wombe mound spring in the Keep River National Park, Northern Territory, is an organic mound and isolated patch of monsoon vine thicket thought to have formed tens of thousands of years ago. In an effort to obtain a record of paleovegetation and fire history from northern Australia, a 3.4 m sediment core was recovered from the Wombe mound spring and subject to multiple types of analyses. The core represents a continuous depositional sequence with radiocarbon ages spanning the last 35 ka cal years (hereafter referred to as 35 ka). Paleovegetation was reconstructed using a combination of pollen and carbon isotopes in bulk sediment and higher plant leaf wax (HPLW) lipid biomarkers. The fire history was reconstructed from paired graphitic black carbon (GBC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analyses of the core sediments. Between 35 and 11 ka, the bulk organic carbon (OC) isotope data fluctuate between -22 and -15%, with the most isotopically enriched values measured at 11.4 ka. Between 12.3 and 6.8 ka, OC isotope values decrease by 13%, and remain steady from 6.8 ka to the present at -28%. There are two distinct peaks of isotopic enrichment in the higher plant leaf wax biomarkers. These two peaks coincide with the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 21 ka) and the Younger Dryas (YD; 11.4 ka) and represent maximum increases in C4 grasses relative to C3 plants. Relative increases in C4 grasses during the LGM in other parts of the tropics (i.e., Sacred Lake, Mt. Kenya) have been attributed to the competitive advantage of C4 plants relative to C3 plants under reduced atmospheric pCO2 and is likely the cause for C4 expansion in northern Australia. The increase in C4 grasses during the YD is reflected in the bulk sediment and HPLW isotope data and is

  7. An examination of supportive management practices promoting health workforce stability in remote northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Onnis, Leigh-ann Lesley

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine management practices that support the wellbeing of health professionals working in remote regions, which may improve workforce retention. An online questionnaire was distributed to health professionals working in remote regions of the Kimberley and North Queensland. A response rate of 20% was achieved. The findings suggest that, for health professionals working in remote regions of northern Australia, accessing adequate support is one of the most challenging aspects of working in remote regions. Hence, in remote regions where turnover is high, retention of competent health professionals may benefit from management practices that provide improved personal and professional support. Health professionals working in remote Australia face unique pressures due to their geographical and professional isolation. Therefore, providing support improves their professional competence and personal wellbeing, and promotes workforce stability, which benefits the remote community through better access to health services. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  8. Socio-hydrology and integrated water resources management in northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Michael; Jackson, Sue

    2017-04-01

    Australia's tropical rivers account for more than half of the nation's freshwater resources. Nearly all of these rivers flow freely to the sea, with less than 0. 01% of river flows diverted for human use, but there is increasing interest in developing the region's water resources for irrigated agriculture. Interdisciplinary research conducted over the past decade has demonstrated the reliance of biodiversity on free-flowing rivers and has also identified a broad range of benefits that people derive from these river systems including irrigated agriculture, tourism, commercial and recreational fishing and Indigenous subsistence harvesting. This has revealed the highly coupled nature of the socio-hydrological system in northern Australia's catchments and the trade-offs among different water users. This paper provides an overview of past and current research with a focus on how socio-hydrology may assist in undertaking integrated water resource management in this region.

  9. Reliability of biomass burning estimates from savanna fires: Biomass burning in northern Australia during the 1999 Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment B field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell-Smith, Jeremy; Edwards, Andrew C.; Cook, Garry D.

    2003-02-01

    This paper estimates the two-daily extent of savanna burning and consumption of fine (grass and litter) fuels from an extensive 230,000 km2 region of northern Australia during August-September 1999 encompassing the Australian continental component of the Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment B (BIBLE B) campaign [, 2002]. The extent of burning for the study region was derived from fire scar mapping of imagery from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite. The mapping was calibrated and verified with reference to one Landsat scene and associated aerial transect validation data. Fine fuel loads were estimated using published fuel accumulation relationships for major regional fuel types. It is estimated that more than 43,000 km2 was burnt during the 25 day study period, with about 19 Mt of fine (grass and litter) fuels. This paper examines assumptions and errors associated with these estimates. It is estimated from uncalibrated fire mapping derived from AVHRR imagery that 417,500 km2 of the northern Australian savanna was burnt in 1999, of which 136,405 km2, or 30%, occurred in the Northern Territory study region. Using generalized fuel accumulation equations, such biomass burning consumed an estimated 212.3 Mt of fine fuels, but no data are available for consumption of coarse fuels. This figure exceeds a recent estimate, based on fine fuels only, for the combined Australian savanna and temperate grassland biomass burning over the period 1990-1999 but is lower than past estimates derived from classification approaches. We conclude that (1) fire maps derived from coarse-resolution optical imagery can be applied relatively reliably to estimate the extent of savanna fires, generally with 70-80% confidence using the approach adopted here, over the major burning period in northern Australia and (2) substantial further field assessment and associated modeling of fuel accumulation

  10. Potential field analysis images Paleoproterozoic terrane boundaries in the unexposed Northern Gawler Craton, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, G.; Giles, D.; Betts, P.; Backé, G.

    2008-12-01

    In areas of limited or zero basement exposure, potential field analysis provides an invaluable tool for determining the architecture continental cratons. We present an example from the Northern Gawler Craton, Australia. Here, the basement rocks are almost completely covered by Neoproterozoic and younger sedimentary rocks (with <<1% basement outcrop), so are amongst the least studied on the Australian continent. However, these rocks should preserve the best record of the Gawler Craton's interactions with neighbouring cratons during the amalgamation of Proterozoic Australia. We focus on the basement architecture in the Marla region of the northernmost Gawler Craton. We use geophysical techniques and apply a top-down approach to penetrate the significant thickness of cover and determine the structure of the unexposed northern Gawler Craton. The architecture, density and magnetic susceptibility of the overlying cover sequences are constrained from the surficial geology, borehole data and seismic reflection profiles. The effect of these cover sequences is then removed from gravity and magnetic data highlighting the basement structure. We then determine the architecture of the basement with depth from the potential field data by combining depth-to-source analyses, with forward and inverse modelling techniques constrained by petrophysical data from drill-holes. Results of this analysis include the observation of a major crustal boundary at the NE-SW trending Middle Bore Fault. To the NW of this boundary, crustal scale sources produce large gravity and magnetic anomalies. Whereas to the SE anomalies are sourced in the upper crust and overlie uniform middle to lower crust. We suggest that the Middle Bore Fault represents a boundary between allochthonous terranes that may have accreted to the Gawler craton during the Kimban Orogeny (~1.7 Ga) and the Archaean Gawler Craton that is overlain by Paleoproterozoic metasediments. The basement structure revealed by this approach

  11. Modelling seasonal habitat suitability for wide-ranging species: Invasive wild pigs in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Froese, Jens G; Smith, Carl S; Durr, Peter A; McAlpine, Clive A; van Klinken, Rieks D

    2017-01-01

    Invasive wildlife often causes serious damage to the economy and agriculture as well as environmental, human and animal health. Habitat models can fill knowledge gaps about species distributions and assist planning to mitigate impacts. Yet, model accuracy and utility may be compromised by small study areas and limited integration of species ecology or temporal variability. Here we modelled seasonal habitat suitability for wild pigs, a widespread and harmful invader, in northern Australia. We developed a resource-based, spatially-explicit and regional-scale approach using Bayesian networks and spatial pattern suitability analysis. We integrated important ecological factors such as variability in environmental conditions, breeding requirements and home range movements. The habitat model was parameterized during a structured, iterative expert elicitation process and applied to a wet season and a dry season scenario. Model performance and uncertainty was evaluated against independent distributional data sets. Validation results showed that an expert-averaged model accurately predicted empirical wild pig presences in northern Australia for both seasonal scenarios. Model uncertainty was largely associated with different expert assumptions about wild pigs' resource-seeking home range movements. Habitat suitability varied considerably between seasons, retracting to resource-abundant rainforest, wetland and agricultural refuge areas during the dry season and expanding widely into surrounding grassland floodplains, savanna woodlands and coastal shrubs during the wet season. Overall, our model suggested that suitable wild pig habitat is less widely available in northern Australia than previously thought. Mapped results may be used to quantify impacts, assess risks, justify management investments and target control activities. Our methods are applicable to other wide-ranging species, especially in data-poor situations.

  12. Modelling seasonal habitat suitability for wide-ranging species: Invasive wild pigs in northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Invasive wildlife often causes serious damage to the economy and agriculture as well as environmental, human and animal health. Habitat models can fill knowledge gaps about species distributions and assist planning to mitigate impacts. Yet, model accuracy and utility may be compromised by small study areas and limited integration of species ecology or temporal variability. Here we modelled seasonal habitat suitability for wild pigs, a widespread and harmful invader, in northern Australia. We developed a resource-based, spatially-explicit and regional-scale approach using Bayesian networks and spatial pattern suitability analysis. We integrated important ecological factors such as variability in environmental conditions, breeding requirements and home range movements. The habitat model was parameterized during a structured, iterative expert elicitation process and applied to a wet season and a dry season scenario. Model performance and uncertainty was evaluated against independent distributional data sets. Validation results showed that an expert-averaged model accurately predicted empirical wild pig presences in northern Australia for both seasonal scenarios. Model uncertainty was largely associated with different expert assumptions about wild pigs’ resource-seeking home range movements. Habitat suitability varied considerably between seasons, retracting to resource-abundant rainforest, wetland and agricultural refuge areas during the dry season and expanding widely into surrounding grassland floodplains, savanna woodlands and coastal shrubs during the wet season. Overall, our model suggested that suitable wild pig habitat is less widely available in northern Australia than previously thought. Mapped results may be used to quantify impacts, assess risks, justify management investments and target control activities. Our methods are applicable to other wide-ranging species, especially in data-poor situations. PMID:28472113

  13. Commercialisation of regenerative human tissue: regulation and reform in Australia and England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sonja; Then, Shih-Ning

    2007-02-01

    The commercialisation of therapeutic products containing regenerative human tissue is regulated by the common law, statute and ethical guidelines in Australia and England, Wales and Northern Ireland. This article examines the regulatory regimes in these jurisdictions and considers whether reform is required to both support scientific research and ensure conformity with modern social views on medical research and the use of human tissue. The authors consider the crucial role of informed consent in striking the balance between the interests of researchers and the interests of the public.

  14. Successes and unintended consequences of the Northern Territory's smoke-free prisons policy: results from a process evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hefler, Marita; Hopkins, Robyn; Thomas, David P

    2016-04-15

    In 2013, the Northern Territory was the first Australian jurisdiction to introduce a smoke-free policy for all correctional facilities. We report on a process evaluation to identify what worked well, key challenges and unintended consequences. We interviewed 87 people, comprising remand, medium-security and low-security prisoners; visiting family members; and prison staff (including prison management and health workers). A realist evaluation approach was used. A long lead-in time, collaborative planning and a comprehensive communication strategy were vital for generating support for the policy and ensuring a smooth transition, with no riots or major incidents. Many prisoners expressed a preference for cessation support options other than nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). An unintended consequence was misuse of NRT patches. A comprehensive approach to creating support among staff and prisoners is important for smooth implementation of policies for smoke-free prisons. Planning should include assessment of prisoners' preferred form of cessation support and strategies to minimise NRT diversion.

  15. Train-borne Measurements of Enhanced Wet Season Methane Emissions in Northern Australia - Implications for Australian Tropical Wetland Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutscher, N. M.; Griffith, D. W.; Paton-Walsh, C.

    2008-12-01

    We present the first transect measurements of CH4, CO2, CO and N2O taken on the Ghan railway travelling on a N-S transect of the Australian continent between Adelaide (34.9°S, 138.6°E) and Darwin (12.5°S, 130.9°E). The Ghan crosses Australia from the mainly agricultural mid-latitude south through the arid interior to the wet-dry tropical savannah south of and around Darwin. In the 2008 wet season (February) we observed a significant latitudinal gradient of CH4 increasing towards the north. The same pattern was observed in the late 2008 wet season (March-April), with a smaller latitudinal gradient. These will be compared with a dry season transect, to be undertaken in September/October 2008. The Air Pollution Model (TAPM), a regional scale prognostic meteorological model, is used to estimate the surface methane source strength required to explain the observed latitudinal gradient in CH4 in the wet season, and investigate the source type. Fluxes from cattle and termites together contribute up to 25% of the enhancements seen, leaving wetlands as the major source of wet season methane in the Australian tropics. Wetlands are the largest natural source of methane to the atmosphere, and tropical wetlands are responsible for the majority of the interannual variation in methane source strength. We attempt to quantify the annual methane flux contributed by anaerobic organic breakdown due to wet- season flooding in tropical Northern Territory.

  16. Fire spatial heterogeneity, fire seasonality and burned area mapping accuracy in the tropical savannas of Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Sofia L. J.; Campagnolo, Manuel L.; Pereira, Jose M. C.; Russell-Smith, Jeremy

    2013-04-01

    Accurate burned area mapping from remotely sensed data should be able to identify spatial heterogeneity within a fire perimeter, for an improved representation of fire effects as experienced by plants and animals. In order to derive a very high spatial resolution characterization of fire patterns in the tropical savannas of the Northern Territory, Australia, we walked 38.2km of line transects, sampling the presence/absence of burning evidence at 1m intervals, in 35 different fires that occurred between 2009 and 2011. Transects were sampled in the early and in the late dry season, and in five dominant vegetation classes. We used lacunarity analysis and spatial autocorrelation to assess the dominant scale of burned area patches, which turns out to be approximately 200m. Lacunarity analysis also suggests that burnt areas exhibit a clustered pattern and that fire heterogeneity is more pronounced in the early dry season. This is consistent with our observation that patches in the late dry season tend to be smaller and more randomly distributed. Finally, we used our high resolution data date to simulate remote sensing detection of burnt areas for a range of spatial resolutions. We quantify the omission error for each sensor and conclude that if resolution is lower than the dominant scale, then the error tends to be small. Our results also suggest that sensors with spatial resolution higher than the dominant scale have similar omission errors over a broad range of resolution values. The forthcoming Sentinel-2 satellites, which combine 5-day revisit, and systematic acquisition of all land surfaces at 10-20 m spatial resolution, with a large number of spectral bands, ought to allow for very accurate and timely mapping of fire heterogeneity, for improved assessment of fire impacts on biodiversity and pyrogenic emissions.

  17. Biogeography of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the Torres Strait Islands of Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Baker, Anthony; Mayo, Mark; Owens, Leigh; Burgess, Graham; Norton, Robert; McBride, William John Hannan; Currie, Bart J; Warner, Jeffrey

    2013-08-01

    It has been hypothesized that biogeographical boundaries are a feature of Burkholderia pseudomallei ecology, and they impact the epidemiology of melioidosis on a global scale. This study examined the relatedness of B. pseudomallei sourced from islands in the Torres Strait of Northern Australia to determine if the geography of isolated island communities is a determinant of the organisms' dispersal. Environmental sampling on Badu Island in the Near Western Island cluster recovered a single clone. An additional 32 clinical isolates from the region were sourced. Isolates were characterized using multilocus sequence typing and a multiplex PCR targeting the flagellum gene cluster. Gene cluster analysis determined that 69% of the isolates from the region encoded the ancestral Burkholderia thailandensis-like flagellum and chemotaxis gene cluster, a proportion significantly lower than that reported from mainland Australia and consistent with observations of isolates from southern Papua New Guinea. A goodness-of-fit test indicated that there was geographic localization of sequence types throughout the archipelago, with the exception of Thursday Island, the economic and cultural hub of the region. Sequence types common to mainland Australia and Papua New Guinea were identified. These findings demonstrate for the first time an environmental reservoir for B. pseudomallei in the Torres Strait, and multilocus sequence typing suggests that the organism is not randomly distributed throughout this region and that seawater may provide a barrier to dispersal of the organism. Moreover, these findings support an anthropogenic dispersal hypothesis for the spread of B. pseudomallei throughout this region.

  18. Biogeography of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the Torres Strait Islands of Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Anthony; Mayo, Mark; Owens, Leigh; Burgess, Graham; Norton, Robert; McBride, William John Hannan; Currie, Bart J.

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that biogeographical boundaries are a feature of Burkholderia pseudomallei ecology, and they impact the epidemiology of melioidosis on a global scale. This study examined the relatedness of B. pseudomallei sourced from islands in the Torres Strait of Northern Australia to determine if the geography of isolated island communities is a determinant of the organisms' dispersal. Environmental sampling on Badu Island in the Near Western Island cluster recovered a single clone. An additional 32 clinical isolates from the region were sourced. Isolates were characterized using multilocus sequence typing and a multiplex PCR targeting the flagellum gene cluster. Gene cluster analysis determined that 69% of the isolates from the region encoded the ancestral Burkholderia thailandensis-like flagellum and chemotaxis gene cluster, a proportion significantly lower than that reported from mainland Australia and consistent with observations of isolates from southern Papua New Guinea. A goodness-of-fit test indicated that there was geographic localization of sequence types throughout the archipelago, with the exception of Thursday Island, the economic and cultural hub of the region. Sequence types common to mainland Australia and Papua New Guinea were identified. These findings demonstrate for the first time an environmental reservoir for B. pseudomallei in the Torres Strait, and multilocus sequence typing suggests that the organism is not randomly distributed throughout this region and that seawater may provide a barrier to dispersal of the organism. Moreover, these findings support an anthropogenic dispersal hypothesis for the spread of B. pseudomallei throughout this region. PMID:23698533

  19. Crustal Structure of Southeast Asia and Northern Australia using Bayesian Inversion of Seismic Ambient Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Suhardjono, S.; Harjadi, P.

    2013-12-01

    We image Southeast Asia and the northern part of Australia by cross-correlating ambient seismic noise recorded at over 500 stations. The group velocities are measured through applying narrow band filters on the retrieved Rayleigh wave Green's functions and used in a probabilistic tomographic approach to map the velocity structure of the region. The inverted images from 8 seconds to 40 seconds show details of the seismic structure of the region beneath the Indonesian archipelago, South China Sea, and northern shelf of Australia, including the boundaries of the oceanic lithosphere. Transdimensional Bayesian tomography is used to invert the traveltimes of Green's functions for periods between 8 and 40 seconds. Transdimensional Bayesian tomography does not require an explicit choice of smoothing, damping or grid parameterization; the resolution if the solution instead varies spatially and is determined by the data. By sampling the resulting tomographic images at different spatial points, we construct the group velocity dispersion curves. These curves are later inverted, again with a transdimensional Bayesian approach, to create the 2D shear wave velocity distrbition of the region. Various features are imaged, including low-velocity sedimentary basins at shallow depth and high velocities associated with the ongoing subduction of the Australian lithosphere beneath the Sunda Plate.

  20. Photochemical production of O3 in biomass burning plumes in the boundary layer over northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.; Ko, M.; Koike, M.; Kita, K.; Blake, D. R.; Hu, W.; Scott, C.; Kawakami, S.; Miyazaki, Y.; Russell-Smith, J.; Ogawa, T.

    2003-05-01

    In situ aircraft measurements of ozone (O3) and its precursors were made over northern Australia in August-September 1999 during the Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment Phase B (BIBLE-B). A clear positive correlation of O3 with carbon monoxide (CO) was found in biomass burning plumes in the boundary layer (<3 km). The ΔO3/ΔCO ratio (linear regression slope of O3-CO correlation) is found to be 0.12 ppbv/ppbv, which is comparable to the ratio of 0.15 ppbv/ppbv observed at 0-4 km over the Amazon and Africa in previous studies. The net flux of O3 exported from northern Australia during BIBLE-B is estimated to be 0.3 Gmol O3/day. In the biomass burning region, large enhancements of O3 were coincident with the locations of biomass burning hot spots, suggesting that major O3 production occurred near fires (horizontal scale <50 km).

  1. Crustal Structure of Southeast Asia and Northern Australia from Bayesian Inversion of Seismic Ambient Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygin, Erdinc; Cummins, Phil; Suhardjono, Suhardjono; Harjadi, Prih

    2014-05-01

    We image Southeast Asia and the northern part of Australia by cross-correlating ambient seismic noise recorded at over 500 stations. The group velocities are measured through applying narrow band filters on the retrieved Rayleigh wave Green's functions and used in a probabilistic tomographic approach to map the velocity structure of the region. The inverted images from 8 seconds to 40 seconds show details of the seismic structure of the region beneath the Indonesian archipelago, South China Sea, and northern shelf of Australia, including the boundaries of the oceanic lithosphere. Transdimensional Bayesian tomography is used to invert the traveltimes of Green's functions for periods between 8 and 40 seconds. Transdimensional Bayesian tomography does not require an explicit choice of smoothing, damping or grid parameterization; the resolution if the solution instead varies spatially and is determined by the data. By sampling the resulting tomographic images at different spatial points, we construct the group velocity dispersion curves. These curves are later inverted, again with a transdimensional Bayesian approach, to create the 2D shear wave velocity distribution of the region. Various features are imaged, including low-velocity sedimentary basins at shallow depth and high velocities associated with the ongoing subduction of the Australian lithosphere beneath the Sunda Plate.

  2. Euthanasia in the Commonwealth of Australia.

    PubMed

    Quirk, P

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the debate over the euthanasia law of the Northern Territory of Australia in its constitutional context. After considering the juridical status of the Northern Territory and related topics, this article outlines the judicial and legislative challenges to the Rights of the Terminally Ill Act (RTI Act) of the Northern Territory and concludes by offering some justifications for the passing of the Euthanasia Laws Act 1997 (Commonwealth), which effectively repeals the RTI Act. In dealing with these issues special emphasis will be given to the problem of Commonwealth law overriding Territory law and the concept of fundamental common law rights. The appropriateness of a Parliamentary solution--as opposed to a resolution through the courts--is defended.

  3. Microclimate and limits to photosynthesis in a diverse community of hypolithic cyanobacteria in northern Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tracy, Christopher R.; Streten-Joyce, Claire; Dalton, Robert; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Gibb, Karen S.; Christian, Keith A.

    2010-01-01

    Hypolithic microbes, primarily cyanobacteria, inhabit the highly specialized microhabitats under translucent rocks in extreme environments. Here we report findings from hypolithic cyanobacteria found under three types of translucent rocks (quartz, prehnite, agate) in a semiarid region of tropical Australia. We investigated the photosynthetic responses of the cyanobacterial communities to light, temperature and moisture in the laboratory, and we measured the microclimatic variables of temperature and soil moisture under rocks in the field over an annual cycle. We also used molecular techniques to explore the diversity of hypolithic cyanobacteria in this community and their phylogenetic relationships within the context of hypolithic cyanobacteria from other continents. Based on the laboratory experiments, photosynthetic activity required a minimum soil moisture of 15% (by mass). Peak photosynthetic activity occurred between approximately 8°C and 42°C, though some photosynthesis occurred between −1°C and 51°C. Maximum photosynthesis rates also occurred at light levels of approximately 150–550 μmol m−2 s−1. We used the field microclimatic data in conjunction with these measurements of photosynthetic efficiency to estimate the amount of time the hypolithic cyanobacteria could be photosynthetically active in the field. Based on these data, we estimated that conditions were appropriate for photosynthetic activity for approximately 942 h (∼75 days) during the year. The hypolithic cyanobacteria community under quartz, prehnite and agate rocks was quite diverse both within and between rock types. We identified 115 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), with each rock hosting 8–24 OTUs. A third of the cyanobacteria OTUs from northern Australia grouped with Chroococcidiopsis, a genus that has been identified from hypolithic and endolithic communities from the Gobi, Mojave, Atacama and Antarctic deserts. Several OTUs identified from northern Australia have

  4. Microclimate and limits to photosynthesis in a diverse community of hypolithic cyanobacteria in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Christopher R; Streten-Joyce, Claire; Dalton, Robert; Nussear, Kenneth E; Gibb, Karen S; Christian, Keith A

    2010-03-01

    Hypolithic microbes, primarily cyanobacteria, inhabit the highly specialized microhabitats under translucent rocks in extreme environments. Here we report findings from hypolithic cyanobacteria found under three types of translucent rocks (quartz, prehnite, agate) in a semiarid region of tropical Australia. We investigated the photosynthetic responses of the cyanobacterial communities to light, temperature and moisture in the laboratory, and we measured the microclimatic variables of temperature and soil moisture under rocks in the field over an annual cycle. We also used molecular techniques to explore the diversity of hypolithic cyanobacteria in this community and their phylogenetic relationships within the context of hypolithic cyanobacteria from other continents. Based on the laboratory experiments, photosynthetic activity required a minimum soil moisture of 15% (by mass). Peak photosynthetic activity occurred between approximately 8 degrees C and 42 degrees C, though some photosynthesis occurred between -1 degrees C and 51 degrees C. Maximum photosynthesis rates also occurred at light levels of approximately 150-550 micromol m(-2) s(-1). We used the field microclimatic data in conjunction with these measurements of photosynthetic efficiency to estimate the amount of time the hypolithic cyanobacteria could be photosynthetically active in the field. Based on these data, we estimated that conditions were appropriate for photosynthetic activity for approximately 942 h (approximately 75 days) during the year. The hypolithic cyanobacteria community under quartz, prehnite and agate rocks was quite diverse both within and between rock types. We identified 115 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), with each rock hosting 8-24 OTUs. A third of the cyanobacteria OTUs from northern Australia grouped with Chroococcidiopsis, a genus that has been identified from hypolithic and endolithic communities from the Gobi, Mojave, Atacama and Antarctic deserts. Several OTUs identified

  5. Networking in Education: From Concept to Action--An Analytical View on the Educational Territories of Priority Intervention (TEIP) in Northern Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Marisa; da Silva, Sofia Marques; Araújo, Helena C

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of school principals' perspectives on networking concerning schools and school clusters from areas of social vulnerability (Educational Territories of Priority Intervention (TEIP)) in Northern Portugal. The meanings, purpose, benefits and difficulties of networking in education are examined, based on interviews…

  6. Considerations on geomorphological maps for territorial planning in the Modena Apennines (Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldini, D.; Ghinoi, A.; Maccaferri, A.

    2012-02-01

    This contribution shows, through some examples, that the current instability processes sometimes do not completely correspond (concerning presence, location, state of activity and/or extent) with those mapped by PTCP Hydrogeological Hazard Maps, which is the document used by the Province Administration for its territorial planning. The differences highlighted are due to different causes. One of them is the fact that the PTCP Hydrogeological Hazard Maps are practically derived from the Regional Geological maps in which superficial deposits have secondary importance, while bedrock and structural-tectonic aspects are given the highest relevance. Another cause is represented by the very active and intense geomorphological dynamics of the Apennines which may produce or reactivate instability conditions. An important aspect to underline is that the PTCP Hydrogeological Hazard Maps identify areas with planning constraints, which have effects at a municipal scale; it does so by starting from a cartographical basis whose primary aim is not the definition of instability processes and whose updating is not homogeneous. Taking into account this aspect, the PTCP Hydrogeological Hazard Maps should be updated not only on the base of traditional geological mapping, but also following the criteria of detailed geomorphological mapping which can precisely define the genesis, dynamics and morphometry of instability phenomena. An important consideration, in relation to territorial planning, is that the PTCP Hydrogeological Hazard Maps should be used just as a "base document", which requires more necessary detailed deepening at the municipal scale, accomplished through accurate geomorphological mapping, at least for the areas that are going to be urbanized. The geomorphological mapping should also update those elements of the landscape which could have changed from the official topographic base map. Detailed geomorphological mapping, possibly undertaken with the methodology proposed in

  7. The influence of the La Niña-El Niño cycle on giant mud crab (Scylla serrata) catches in Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynecke, Jan-Olaf; Grubert, Mark; Arthur, James Michael; Boston, Ray; Lee, Shing Yip

    2012-03-01

    Mud crabs (Scylla spp.) are a high value commodity harvested in the Indo-West Pacific. Scylla species support important artisanal fisheries in south-east Asia and intensive commercial fisheries in Australia where the market demand and catch has increased markedly over the last decade. Over-fishing of Scylla spp. has been observed at varying levels throughout its distribution. Fluctuations in catch rates and abundance are thought to be driven by climate parameters. Here we analyse monthly, seasonal and annual patterns in catch and effort data (from 1990 to 2008) for the commercial giant mud crab (Scylla serrata) fishery in the Northern Territory, Australia, with corresponding climatic data (rainfall, freshwater runoff, sea surface temperature) and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) as an indicator of La Niña/El Niño events. Between 30 and 40% of the variation in catch per unit effort can be explained by rainfall and SOI alone. This result was supported by linear mixed models which identified SOI as the main contributor to the model. Spectral analyses showed that catch peaks coincided with a four year La Niña cycle. One- and two-year time lags (consistent with S. Serrata's life cycle) were also significantly correlated to SOI values and rainfall. These outcomes may assist fishery managers in planning fishing exposure period and duration. Furthermore, findings of this study provide information on the vulnerability of S. serrata to fluctuations in environmental conditions and can help to apply protective measures when and where necessary.

  8. A Code of Ethics for the Early Childhood Field in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde, Margaret; Rodd, Jillian

    A study examined the ethical dilemmas faced by Australian early childhood professionals. Data were obtained from responses to a questionnaire mailed to 25 preschool centers and 25 child care centers in Western Australia, South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, and the Northern Territory. Of 300 questionnaires mailed, a total of 99…

  9. Making Progress: Women in Management in Primary & Secondary Education in Australia. Report of a National Conference (3rd, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia, August 1-4, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Shirley, Ed.

    This report describes the third conference that the Australian College of Education has conducted on women in educational administration in Australia. Over 150 educators attended, 90 percent of whom were women. Meetings and workshops were designed to canvass four major issues: (1) a political view of imperatives for change; (2) research reports on…

  10. Betting on the evidence: reported gambling problems among the Indigenous population of the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Matthew; Young, Martin

    2009-12-01

    To address a shortfall in evidence with which to justify gambling-specific interventions for the Indigenous population, we analysed two surveys (2002 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey and General Social Survey) that contain information on reported gambling problems for the NT. Estimates of reported gambling problems are presented for each state and territory by remoteness for the Indigenous and total population for 2002. Factor analysis was used to identify the relationship between gambling problems and other negative life events for the NT Indigenous and total population. High levels of reported gambling problems were apparent for the Indigenous population particularly in the remote parts of the NT and Queensland. Gambling problems were associated with other stressors relating to social transgressions. Among the NT Indigenous population, gambling problems were correlated with levels of crowding, community involvement, personal and community violence and self-assessed health status. The high levels of reported gambling problems suggest that gambling is causing significant problems for Indigenous people. The multivariable adjusted associations indicate that gambling-related problems are intimately connected to a range of community contexts. Policies of intervention need to address broader social and environmental contexts that are intrinsically associated with gambling (and associated problems), in addition to public education in harm associated with gambling and provision of counselling services to assist problem gamblers.

  11. Association of the Melioidosis Agent Burkholderia pseudomallei with Water Parameters in Rural Water Supplies in Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Draper, A. D. K.; Mayo, M.; Harrington, G.; Karp, D.; Yinfoo, D.; Ward, L.; Haslem, A.; Currie, B. J.; Kaestli, M.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed water parameters and the occurrence of the melioidosis agent Burkholderia pseudomallei in 47 water bores in Northern Australia. B. pseudomallei was associated with soft, acidic bore water of low salinity but high iron levels. This finding aids in identifying water supplies at risk of contamination with this pathogenic bacterium. PMID:20543039

  12. A Retrospective Case-Series of Children With Bone and Joint Infection From Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Brischetto, Anna; Leung, Grace; Marshall, Catherine S.; Bowen, Asha C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Our clinical workload as infectious diseases pediatricians in northern Australia is dominated by complicated bone and joint infections in indigenous children. We reviewed the clinical presentation, microbiology, management, and outcomes of children presenting to Royal Darwin Hospital with bone and joint infections between 2010 and 2013, and aimed to compare severity and incidence with other populations worldwide. A retrospective audit was performed on children aged 0 to 18 years who were admitted to Royal Darwin Hospital between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013 with a bone and joint infection. Seventy-nine patients were identified, of whom 57 (72%) had osteomyelitis ± associated septic arthritis and 22 (28%) had septic arthritis alone. Sixty (76%) were indigenous Australians. The incidence rate of osteomyelitis for indigenous children was 82 per 100,000 children. Staphylococcus aureus was the confirmed pathogen in 43/79 (54%), of which 17/43 (40%) were methicillin resistant. Median length of stay was 17 days (interquartile range: 10–31 days) and median length of IV antibiotics was 15 days (interquartile range: 6–24 days). Fifty-six (71%) required at least 1 surgical procedure. Relapse within 12 months was documented in 12 (15%) patients. We report 3 key findings: osteomyelitis incidence in indigenous children of northern Australia is amongst the highest reported in the world; methicillin-resistant S aureus accounts for 36% of osteomyelitis with a positive microbiological diagnosis; and the severity of disease requires extended antibiotic therapy. Despite this, 15% of the cohort relapsed within 12 months and required readmission. PMID:26937926

  13. Removal of NOx and NOy in biomass burning plumes in the boundary layer over northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.; Koike, M.; Ko, M.; Kita, K.; Blake, D. R.; Nishi, N.; Hu, W.; Liley, J. B.; Kawakami, S.; Shirai, T.; Miyazaki, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Russel-Smith, J.; Ogawa, T.

    2003-05-01

    The Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment Phase B (BIBLE-B) aircraft measurement campaign was conducted over the western Pacific and Australia in August and September 1999. In situ aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), total reactive nitrogen (NOy), ozone (O3), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and other species were made during BIBLE-B. Meteorological analysis shows that the trace gases emitted from biomass burning in northern Australia were mostly confined within the planetary boundary layer (below ˜3 km) by strong subsidence in the free troposphere. Removal processes of NOx (equal to measured NO + calculated NO2) and NOy in biomass burning plumes in the boundary layer are examined on the basis of correlation analysis. The photochemical lifetime of NOx in biomass burning plumes during the daytime is estimated to be 0.1 to 0.3 days using the correlations of NOx with short-lived NMHCs and hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration calculated from a constrained photochemical model. Correlation of NOy with CO shows that ˜60% of the NOy molecules originating from biomass burning were removed in the boundary layer within 2-3 days. This result is consistent with dry deposition of nitric acid (HNO3) in the plumes. It is likely that only a small fraction of NOy emitted from biomass burning was exported from the boundary layer to the free troposphere during the BIBLE-B period.

  14. Landscape Changes Influence the Occurrence of the Melioidosis Bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei in Soil in Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Kaestli, Mirjam; Mayo, Mark; Harrington, Glenda; Ward, Linda; Watt, Felicity; Hill, Jason V.; Cheng, Allen C.; Currie, Bart J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The soil-dwelling saprophyte bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the cause of melioidosis, a severe disease of humans and animals in southeast Asia and northern Australia. Despite the detection of B. pseudomallei in various soil and water samples from endemic areas, the environmental habitat of B. pseudomallei remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a large survey in the Darwin area in tropical Australia and screened 809 soil samples for the presence of these bacteria. B. pseudomallei were detected by using a recently developed and validated protocol involving soil DNA extraction and real-time PCR targeting the B. pseudomallei–specific Type III Secretion System TTS1 gene cluster. Statistical analyses such as multivariable cluster logistic regression and principal component analysis were performed to assess the association of B. pseudomallei with environmental factors. The combination of factors describing the habitat of B. pseudomallei differed between undisturbed sites and environmentally manipulated areas. At undisturbed sites, the occurrence of B. pseudomallei was found to be significantly associated with areas rich in grasses, whereas at environmentally disturbed sites, B. pseudomallei was associated with the presence of livestock animals, lower soil pH and different combinations of soil texture and colour. Conclusions/Significance This study contributes to the elucidation of environmental factors influencing the occurrence of B. pseudomallei and raises concerns that B. pseudomallei may spread due to changes in land use. PMID:19156200

  15. Biomass burning emissions over northern Australia constrained by aerosol measurements: II—Model validation, and impacts on air quality and radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhar, Ashok K.; Mitchell, Ross M.; (Mick) Meyer, C. P.; Qin, Yi; Campbell, Susan; Gras, John L.; Parry, David

    This two-part series investigates the emission and transport of biomass burning aerosol (or particulate matter) across the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. In Part I, Meyer et al. [2008. Biomass burning emissions over northern Australia constrained by aerosol measurements: I—Modelling the distribution of hourly emissions. Atmospheric Environment, in press, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.10.089.] used a fuel load distribution coupled with a satellite-derived imagery of fire scars and hotspots and the diurnal variation of a fire danger index to estimate hourly emission rates of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM 2.5) for the dry season April-November 2004 at a spatial resolution of 1 km×1 km. In the present paper, these emission rates are used in TAPM, a three-dimensional meteorological and air pollution model, and the modelled PM 2.5 concentrations and aerosol optical depths are compared with satellite and ground-based measurements. This exercise also seeks to fine-tune and validate the emission calculation methodology, a process through which it is found that cases with hotspots without any corresponding fire scars (e.g. in mountainous terrain), which were initially ignored, need to be included to improve the accuracy of model predictions. Overall, the model is able to describe the measurements satisfactorily, considering the issues associated with the model resolution, emission uncertainty, and modelled meteorology. The model hindcasts numerous exceedences of the advisory maximum PM 2.5 exposure limit across the study region, with large areas in excess of 30 exceedences during the study period. Estimated mean top of atmosphere direct radiative forcing due to aerosol shows a seasonal mean of -1.8 W m -2 with a region of strong enhancement over the western portion of the Top End.

  16. Influence of climatic and hydrological factors on structure and composition of peat from northern wetland territories with low anthropogenic impact.

    PubMed

    Parfenova, L N; Selyanina, S B; Trufanova, M V; Bogolitsyn, K G; Orlov, A S; Volkova, N N; Ponomareva, T I; Sokolova, T V

    2016-05-01

    Northern wetlands ecosystems play an important role in the hydrological balance of neighboring areas, where they act as chemical barriers against anthropogenic and technogenic contaminations. Studied region is well known for quantity of peat deposits and the volume of peat resources. Peat can be considered as a highly informative marker for assessing change in environmental conditions. The study presents the results of the first investigation of peat samples, collected from representative ecosystems of northern wetland territories with low anthropogenic impact. Component and element composition of various peat types were studied in a relation to hydrologic, climate and sampling conditions. It was found out that organic and ash contents are more dependent on the type of the bog, than geographic location. Climatic factors are more important for the formation of bitumen. The degradation degree in peat increases proportionally to content of humates. High content of biogenic and lithogenic elements was observed in transition- and low-moor peat. The content of trace elements in peat samples do not depend on the type of the peat. The structural properties of peat were studied by the light microscopy, AFM and dynamic light scattering. It was determined that the conformation of studied peat samples is characterized by elements of asymmetry. The observed particles in the solutions exist in dynamic equilibrium with separated globular macromolecules. The size of these nanoparticles is comparable with the size of the particles of other biopolymers of similar nature. Swelling of peat in liquid water was studied. The relationship between structural specificities, origin of peat and its maximum degree of swelling was found. The degree of swelling can be used as structural-sensitive parameter in further research.

  17. Magnetotelluric characterization of the northern margin of the Yilgarn Craton (Western Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piña-Varas, Perla; Dentith, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The northern margin of the Yilgarn Craton (Western Australia) was deformed during the convergence and collision with the Pilbara Craton and the intervening Glenburgh Terrain that created the Capricorn Orogen. The Yilgarn Craton is one of the most intensively mineralised areas of continental crust with world class deposits of gold and nickel. However, the region to its north has surprisingly few deposits. Cratonic margins are considered to be key indicators of prospectivity at a regional scale. The northern limit of the Yilgarn Craton within the Capricorn Orogen is not well resolved at date because of overlying Proterozoic sedimentary basins. We present here some of the results of an extensive magnetotelluric (MT) study that is being performed in the area. This study is a component of large multi-disciplinary geoscience project on the 'Distal Footprints of Giant Ore Systems' in the Capricorn Orogen. The MT dataset consists of a total of 240 broadband magnetotelluric stations (BBMT) and 84 long period stations (LMT). Analysis of the dataset reveals a clear 3-D geoelectrical behaviour and extreme complexity for most of the sites, including an extremely high number of sites with phases out-of-quadrant at long periods. 3-D inverse modelling of the MT data shows high resistivity Archean units and low resistivity Paleoproterozoic basins, including very low resistivity structures at depth. These strong resistivity contrasts allow us to successfully map northern margin of the Yilgarn Craton beneath basin cover, as well as identifying major lateral conductivity changes in the deep crust suggestive of different tectonic blocks. Upper crustal conductive zones can be correlated with faults on seismic reflection data. Our results suggest MT surveys are a useful tool for regional-scale exploration in the study area and in area of thick cover in general.

  18. Hydrology and bedload transport relationships for sand-bed streams in the Ngarradj Creek catchment, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erskine, W. D.; Saynor, M. J.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryRainfall, discharge and bedload were measured at three gauging stations (East Tributary, Upper Swift Creek and Swift Creek) in the Ngarradj Creek catchment at Jabiluka, Northern Territory, Australia. Hand-held, pressure difference, Helley-Smith bedload samplers were used to measure bedload fluxes for the 1998/1999, 1999/2000, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 wet seasons. Rainfall is strongly seasonal over the Ngarradj Creek catchment, being concentrated in the wet season between November and April. Mean annual point rainfall between 1998 and 2007 for the water year, September to August, inclusive varied over the Ngarradj Creek catchment from 1731 ± 98 mm (SE) to 1754 ± 116 mm. Between 190 and 440 mm of rainfall are required before streamflow commences in December in most years. Streamflow persists until at least April. Mean annual runoff, as a percentage of mean annual rainfall, decreases slightly with increasing catchment area. Bedload ratings were calculated for four data sets. Significant bedload ratings were defined as those that were not only statistically significant (ρ ⩽ 0.05) but also explained at least 0.60 of the variance in bedload flux. For the three stations, twenty-three bedload ratings complied with the above criteria. Sixteen equations were accepted for East Tributary, four bedload ratings were accepted for Upper Swift Creek and three bedload ratings were accepted for Swift Creek. Significant bedload ratings were established between bedload flux and discharge, unit bedload flux and discharge, transport rate of unsuspended bedload by immersed weight per unit width and time and both unit and excess unit stream power, and finally, adjusted submersed bedload weight and both unit and excess unit stream power for raw and log10-transformed data. 'Censored data sets' were compiled for Upper Swift Creek and Swift Creek to include only bedload fluxes measured when there was no apparent scour or fill so that there were no changes in sand supply from the

  19. The impact of health promotion on trachoma knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) of staff in three work settings in remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory

    PubMed Central

    Ritte, Rebecca; Brown, Haley E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Globally, trachoma is the leading cause of infectious blindness and Australia is the only developed country with endemic trachoma. It is found in remote Indigenous communities burdened with poverty, overcrowding and poor hygiene. Lack of culturally appropriate health promotion, a small trachoma workforce and lack of awareness and support for trachoma elimination in general, were early barriers. Methods A cross-sectional pre-post study using a convenience sample, was conducted in clinics, schools and community work-settings from 63 of the 82 remote Aboriginal communities identified as being at risk of trachoma in the Northern Territory (NT). The study assessed the effect of a multi-component health promotion strategy aimed at increasing knowledge, attitude and practice amongst health, education and community support settings staff. Data were collected between 2010 and 2012. The health promotion initiatives were introduced in communities in staggered delivery over a one-year period; 272 participants were surveyed at baseline and 261 at follow-up. Results Trachoma related knowledge, attitudes and practice increased across all settings and for all primary outcome measures. Across all settings, there was a significant increase in the proportion of participants reporting the most important thing to do if a child has a ‘dirty’ face is to ‘wash it every time its dirty’ (61.6% cf 69.7%; X2p = 0.047), a significant reduction in the proportion of respondents answering ‘no’ to the question “Is it normal for kids to have dirty faces in your community’ (40.5% cf 29.6%; X2p = 0.009) and a significant increase in reported capacity to teach others about trachoma prevention (70.8% cf 83.3%; X2p <0.001). Conclusion Health promotion was associated with increased trachoma knowledge, attitude and practice amongst health, education and community support staff working with children and in remote NT communities. In the early stages of the trachoma health

  20. The impact of health promotion on trachoma knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) of staff in three work settings in remote Indigenous communities in the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Lange, Fiona D; Jones, Kelly; Ritte, Rebecca; Brown, Haley E; Taylor, Hugh R

    2017-05-01

    Globally, trachoma is the leading cause of infectious blindness and Australia is the only developed country with endemic trachoma. It is found in remote Indigenous communities burdened with poverty, overcrowding and poor hygiene. Lack of culturally appropriate health promotion, a small trachoma workforce and lack of awareness and support for trachoma elimination in general, were early barriers. A cross-sectional pre-post study using a convenience sample, was conducted in clinics, schools and community work-settings from 63 of the 82 remote Aboriginal communities identified as being at risk of trachoma in the Northern Territory (NT). The study assessed the effect of a multi-component health promotion strategy aimed at increasing knowledge, attitude and practice amongst health, education and community support settings staff. Data were collected between 2010 and 2012. The health promotion initiatives were introduced in communities in staggered delivery over a one-year period; 272 participants were surveyed at baseline and 261 at follow-up. Trachoma related knowledge, attitudes and practice increased across all settings and for all primary outcome measures. Across all settings, there was a significant increase in the proportion of participants reporting the most important thing to do if a child has a 'dirty' face is to 'wash it every time its dirty' (61.6% cf 69.7%; X2p = 0.047), a significant reduction in the proportion of respondents answering 'no' to the question "Is it normal for kids to have dirty faces in your community' (40.5% cf 29.6%; X2p = 0.009) and a significant increase in reported capacity to teach others about trachoma prevention (70.8% cf 83.3%; X2p <0.001). Health promotion was associated with increased trachoma knowledge, attitude and practice amongst health, education and community support staff working with children and in remote NT communities. In the early stages of the trachoma health promotion program, this increased trachoma awareness and

  1. Assessing the Risk of a Canine Rabies Incursion in Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Emily G; Brookes, Victoria J; Ward, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    Rabies is a globally distributed virus that causes approximately 60,00 human deaths annually with >99% of cases caused by dog bites. Australia is currently canine rabies free. However, the recent eastward spread of rabies in the Indonesian archipelago has increased the probability of rabies entry into northern Australian communities. In addition, many northern Australian communities have large populations of free-roaming dogs, capable of maintaining rabies should an incursion occur. A risk assessment of rabies entry and transmission into these communities is needed to target control and surveillance measures. Illegal transportation of rabies-infected dogs via boat landings is a high-risk entry pathway and was the focus of the current study. A quantitative, stochastic, risk assessment model was developed to evaluate the risk of rabies entry into north-west Cape York Peninsula, Australia, and rabies introduction to resident dogs in one of the communities via transport of rabies-infected dogs on illegal Indonesian fishing boats. Parameter distributions were derived from expert opinion, literature, and analysis of field studies. The estimated median probability of rabies entry into north-west Cape York Peninsula and into Seisia from individual fishing boats was 1.9 × 10(-4)/boat and 8.7 × 10(-6)/boat, respectively. The estimated annual probability that at least one rabies-infected dog enters north-west Cape York Peninsula and into Seisia was 5.5 × 10(-3) and 3.5 × 10(-4), respectively. The estimated median probability of rabies introduction into Seisia was 4.7 × 10(-8)/boat, and the estimated annual probability that at least one rabies-infected dog causes rabies transmission in a resident Seisia dog was 8.3 × 10(-5). Sensitivity analysis using the Sobol method highlighted some parameters as influential, including but not limited to the prevalence of rabies in Indonesia, the probability of a dog on board an Indonesian fishing boat, and the

  2. Field evaluations of the efficacy of Distance Plus on invasive ant species in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Webb, Garry A; Hoffmann, Benjamin D

    2013-08-01

    The efficacy of Distance Plus Ant Bait, containing the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen, was tested in the field against two invasive ant species in northern Australia: African big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala (F.)) and yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes (Fr. Smith)). Results were also gained for a third pest species, Singapore ant (Monomorium destructor (Jerdon)), from one trial focused primarily on P. megacephala. Five studies were conducted throughout northern Australia, each with different protocols, but common to all was the broad-scale dispersal of Distance Plus, coupled with long-term monitoring of ant population levels. Additionally, a laboratory trial was conducted to assess if there was a direct toxic effect by the bait on A. gracilipes workers, and ant community data were collected at some sites in the A. gracilipes trial to assess nontarget impacts and subsequent ecological recovery. All three species were greatly affected by the treatments. The abundance of P. megacephala declined dramatically in all trials, and by the final assessment for each study, very few ants remained, with those remaining being attributable to edge effects from neighboring untreated properties. At both sites that it occurred, M. destructor was initially at least codominant with P. megacephala, but by the final assessment, only three M. destructor individuals were present at one lure at one site, and only a single individual at the other site. Abundance of A. gracilipes fell, on average, to 31% of control levels by 91 d and then slowly recovered, with subsequent treatments only providing slightly greater control. No direct toxic effect on workers was found in the laboratory trial, indicating that population declines of A. gracilipes were typical bait-related declines resulting from reduced worker replacement. Nontarget impacts of the bait could not be distinguished from the negative competitive impacts ofA. gracilipes, but there was a noticeable absence of some key

  3. Assessing the Risk of a Canine Rabies Incursion in Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Emily G.; Brookes, Victoria J.; Ward, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Rabies is a globally distributed virus that causes approximately 60,00 human deaths annually with >99% of cases caused by dog bites. Australia is currently canine rabies free. However, the recent eastward spread of rabies in the Indonesian archipelago has increased the probability of rabies entry into northern Australian communities. In addition, many northern Australian communities have large populations of free-roaming dogs, capable of maintaining rabies should an incursion occur. A risk assessment of rabies entry and transmission into these communities is needed to target control and surveillance measures. Illegal transportation of rabies-infected dogs via boat landings is a high-risk entry pathway and was the focus of the current study. A quantitative, stochastic, risk assessment model was developed to evaluate the risk of rabies entry into north-west Cape York Peninsula, Australia, and rabies introduction to resident dogs in one of the communities via transport of rabies-infected dogs on illegal Indonesian fishing boats. Parameter distributions were derived from expert opinion, literature, and analysis of field studies. The estimated median probability of rabies entry into north-west Cape York Peninsula and into Seisia from individual fishing boats was 1.9 × 10−4/boat and 8.7 × 10−6/boat, respectively. The estimated annual probability that at least one rabies-infected dog enters north-west Cape York Peninsula and into Seisia was 5.5 × 10−3 and 3.5 × 10−4, respectively. The estimated median probability of rabies introduction into Seisia was 4.7 × 10−8/boat, and the estimated annual probability that at least one rabies-infected dog causes rabies transmission in a resident Seisia dog was 8.3 × 10−5. Sensitivity analysis using the Sobol method highlighted some parameters as influential, including but not limited to the prevalence of rabies in Indonesia, the probability of a dog on board an Indonesian fishing boat, and the

  4. Diversity of Polychaeta (Annelida) and other worm taxa in mangrove habitats of Darwin Harbour, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, K. N.; Glasby, C. J.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper data on the diversity, distribution and abundance of polychaetes and other worm taxa in the mangroves of Darwin Harbour, northern Australia, are presented and compared with those of other tropical mangrove areas. Aspects of the feeding guild ecology and the effects of disturbance on mangrove worms are also examined. Data were collected over a period of four years, across four mangrove assemblages. Samples were obtained using three sampling techniques: 1 m × 1 m quadrat searches, epifauna searches and a new infaunal sampling technique, the anoxic mat. A total of 76 species (68 polychaetes, 1 oligochaete, 1 echiuran, 3 sipunculans, 2 nemerteans, 1 turbellarian) were recorded from the four main mangrove assemblages. Of these, 30 species are widespread, occurring in mangrove and non-mangrove habitats throughout the Indo-west Pacific. Only seven species (all polychaetes) appear to be restricted to the mangroves of Darwin Harbour and northern Australia. Polychaetes are predominant, comprising 80-96% of all worms sampled, with three families—Nereididae, Capitellidae and Spionidae—accounting for 46% of all species. The highest diversity and abundance was recorded in the soft, unconsolidated substrates of the seaward assemblage, with diversity and abundance decreasing progressively in the landward assemblages. Most of the worm fauna was infaunal (70%), but the intensive sampling regime revealed a hitherto unknown significant percentage of epifaunal species (18%) and species occurring as both infauna and epifauna (12%). Univariate analyses showed annual and seasonal differences in worm species richness and abundance—presumably associated with the intensity of the monsoon and recruitment success. The worm fauna differed between mangrove assemblages but the proportion of species in each feeding guild was relatively consistent across the four assemblages studied. Herbivores were the most species-rich and abundant, followed by carnivores and sub

  5. Trends in cancer incidence and survival for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Condon, John R; Zhang, Xiaohua; Dempsey, Karen; Garling, Lindy; Guthridge, Steven

    2016-11-21

    To assess trends in cancer incidence and survival for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians in the Northern Territory. Retrospective analysis of population-based cancer registration data. New cancer diagnoses in the NT, 1991-2012. Age-adjusted incidence rates; rate ratios comparing incidence in NT Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations with that for other Australians; 5-year survival; multivariable Poisson regression of excess mortality. The incidence of most cancers in the NT non-Indigenous population was similar to that for other Australians. For the NT Indigenous population, the incidence of cancer at several sites was much higher (v other Australians: lung, 84% higher; head and neck, 325% higher; liver, 366% higher; cervix, 120% higher). With the exception of cervical cancer (65% decrease), incidence rates in the Indigenous population did not fall between 1991-1996 and 2007-2012. The incidence of several other cancers (breast, bowel, prostate, melanoma) was much lower in 1991-1996 than for other Australians, but had increased markedly by 2007-2012 (breast, 274% increase; bowel, 120% increase; prostate, 116% increase). Five-year survival was lower for NT Indigenous than for NT non-Indigenous patients, but had increased for both populations between 1991-2000 and 2001-2010. The incidence of several cancers that were formerly less common in NT Indigenous people has increased, without a concomitant reduction in the incidence of higher incidence cancers (several of which are smoking-related). The excess burden of cancer in this population will persist until lifestyle risks are mitigated, particularly by reducing the extraordinarily high prevalence of smoking.

  6. Reclaiming Indigenous Youth in Australia: Families and Schools Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechielsen,Jack; Galbraith, Mal; White, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Australia's Northern Territory is twice the size of Texas, with only 230,000 people living in its enormous space. About half reside in the capital Darwin in the tropical far north; the next biggest town with a population of 25,000 people is Alice Springs, 1600 kilometers south in the central desert. Some 70,000 Indigenous people form 30% of the…

  7. Reclaiming Indigenous Youth in Australia: Families and Schools Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechielsen,Jack; Galbraith, Mal; White, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Australia's Northern Territory is twice the size of Texas, with only 230,000 people living in its enormous space. About half reside in the capital Darwin in the tropical far north; the next biggest town with a population of 25,000 people is Alice Springs, 1600 kilometers south in the central desert. Some 70,000 Indigenous people form 30% of the…

  8. The role of energy cost in food choices for an Aboriginal population in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Julie K; O'Dea, Kerin

    2009-05-18

    To explore the relationship between dietary quality and energy density of foods (MJ/kg) and energy cost ($/MJ) for an Aboriginal population living in a remote region of northern Australia. For a 3-month period in 2005, we collected food and non-alcoholic beverage supply data from food outlets available to the study population. From these data, we compared the energy density of foods with their energy cost. Energy density and energy cost of food purchases. The diet of the study population was high in refined carbohydrates and low in fresh fruit and vegetables. Foods with high energy density were associated with lower costs and contributed disproportionately to energy availability. The energy-cost differential between energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and energy-dilute, nutrient-rich foods influences the capacity of Australian Aboriginal people living in remote communities to attain a healthy diet. This is consistent with the "economics of food choice" theory, whereby people on low incomes maximise energy availability per dollar in their food purchasing patterns, and has particular relevance for developing nutrition policy and strategies in Aboriginal communities, where poor nutrition is a major determinant of preventable chronic disease.

  9. Late Quaternary structure and development of the northern Ningaloo Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Lindsay B.; Zhu, Zhong Rong; Wyrwoll, Karl-Heinz; Eisenhauer, Anton

    2003-06-01

    Ningaloo Reef, situated on the central west coast, is Australia's largest fringing reef system extending southward from 22°S for over 200 km. Its narrow lagoon is backed by a coastal plain, which is largely composed of an emergent Last Interglacial reef on the flank of folded Tertiary limestones. The west-facing reef is exposed to strong oceanic swells across a narrow (8 km) continental shelf. Climatic aridity, cyclones, tsunamis, and the poleward flowing Leeuwin Current all influence the reef system. Seismic profiling and a coring and dating program along a transect through a reef pass indicate two periods of reef development in the northern part of the reef: Holocene and Last Interglacial. Seaward of the crest, the Holocene reef forms either a prominent 500 m-wide bulge with 10 m of relief and an abrupt seaward slope, or a series of discrete patch reefs. Holocene reef development is limited to depths of less than 30 m and reaches a maximum thickness of ca. 10-15 m below the reef crest. U/Th TIMS dates from distal parts of the Last Interglacial section between -18 and -36 m give ages toward the end of the high stand (120-115 ka). Last Interglacial reef growth was more extensive of the two, filling much of the available accommodation space, perhaps as a result of a stronger Leeuwin Current. This substrate subsequently provided an antecedent foundation for Holocene reef development.

  10. Monitoring Contrasting Land Management in the Savanna Landscapes of Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Donald C.; Petty, Aaron M.; Williamson, Grant J.; Brook, Barry W.; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2008-04-01

    We compared measures of ecosystem state across six adjacent land-tenure groups in the intact tropical savanna landscapes of northern Australia. Tenure groups include two managed by Aboriginal owners, two national parks, a cluster of pastoral leases, and a military training area. This information is of relevance to the debate about the role of indigenous lands in the Australian conservation estate. The timing and frequency of fire was determined by satellite imagery; the biomass and composition of the herb-layer and the abundance of large feral herbivores by field surveys; and weediness by analysis of a Herbarium database. European tenures varied greatly in fire frequencies but were consistently burnt earlier in the dry season than the two Aboriginal tenures, the latter having intermediate fire frequencies. Weeds were more frequent in the European tenures, whilst feral animals were most abundant in the Aboriginal tenures. This variation strongly implies a signature of current management and/or recent environmental history. We identify indices suitable for monitoring of management outcomes in an extensive and sparsely populated landscape. Aboriginal land offers a unique opportunity for the conservation of biodiversity through the maintenance of traditional fire regimes. However, without financial support, traditional practices may prove unsustainable both economically and because exotic weeds and feral animals will alter fire regimes. An additional return on investment in Aboriginal land management is likely to be improved livelihoods and health outcomes for these disadvantaged communities.

  11. Radionuclide migration at the Koongarra uranium deposit, Northern Australia Lessons from the Alligator Rivers analogue project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Timothy E.; Airey, Peter L.

    The Koongarra uranium deposit in Northern Australia provides a ‘natural analogue’ for processes that are of relevance for assessing the safety of radioactive waste disposal. In an international project extending over two decades, the Koongarra ore body was studied to increase the understanding of radionuclide migration and retention mechanisms that might occur in the vicinity of a geological repository. The research effort included extensive characterisation of the geological, hydrological and geochemical conditions at the site. Patterns of the distribution of radionuclides (predominantly members of the 238U decay chain, but also the rare isotopes 239Pu, 99Tc and 129I) were studied in both solid and groundwater phases. The project included detailed studies of uranium adsorption on mineral surfaces, and of subsequent processes that may lead to long-term uranium immobilisation. Numerous models for uranium migration were developed during the project. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the research at Koongarra, and assesses the value of the site for integrating the results of a complex series of laboratory, modelling and field studies. The insights gained from this review of the Koongarra project may assist in maximising the potential scientific benefit of future natural analogue studies.

  12. Monitoring contrasting land management in the savanna landscapes of northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Donald C; Petty, Aaron M; Williamson, Grant J; Brook, Barry W; Bowman, David M J S

    2008-04-01

    We compared measures of ecosystem state across six adjacent land-tenure groups in the intact tropical savanna landscapes of northern Australia. Tenure groups include two managed by Aboriginal owners, two national parks, a cluster of pastoral leases, and a military training area. This information is of relevance to the debate about the role of indigenous lands in the Australian conservation estate. The timing and frequency of fire was determined by satellite imagery; the biomass and composition of the herb-layer and the abundance of large feral herbivores by field surveys; and weediness by analysis of a Herbarium database. European tenures varied greatly in fire frequencies but were consistently burnt earlier in the dry season than the two Aboriginal tenures, the latter having intermediate fire frequencies. Weeds were more frequent in the European tenures, whilst feral animals were most abundant in the Aboriginal tenures. This variation strongly implies a signature of current management and/or recent environmental history. We identify indices suitable for monitoring of management outcomes in an extensive and sparsely populated landscape. Aboriginal land offers a unique opportunity for the conservation of biodiversity through the maintenance of traditional fire regimes. However, without financial support, traditional practices may prove unsustainable both economically and because exotic weeds and feral animals will alter fire regimes. An additional return on investment in Aboriginal land management is likely to be improved livelihoods and health outcomes for these disadvantaged communities.

  13. Burkholderia pseudomallei is frequently detected in groundwater that discharges to major watercourses in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Baker, Anthony L; Warner, Jeffrey M

    2016-07-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the environmental bacterium that causes the serious disease melioidosis. Recently, a high prevalence of viable B. pseudomallei was reported from natural groundwater seeps around Castle Hill, a clinical focus of melioidosis in Townsville, Australia. This study sought to expand previous findings to determine the extent of B. pseudomallei in more diverse natural groundwater seeps in northern Queensland to ascertain if the presence of the organism in groundwater on Castle Hill was an isolated occurrence. Analysis of water samples (n = 26) obtained from natural groundwater seeps following an intensive rainfall event in the Townsville region determined the presence of B. pseudomallei DNA in duplicates of 18 samples (69.2 % [95 % CI, 51.5 to 87.0]). From 26 water samples, a single isolate of B. pseudomallei was recovered despite plating of both pre-enriched samples and original water samples onto selective media, indicating that the sensitivity of these molecular techniques far exceeds culture-based methods. Furthermore, the identification of new environments endemic for melioidosis may be more effectively determined by analysing surface groundwater seeps than by the analysis of random soil samples. This study suggests that a higher incidence of melioidosis following monsoonal rains may be partially the result of exposure to groundwater sources carrying B. pseudomallei, and that modifications to public health messages in endemic regions may be warranted. Moreover, these findings have implications for predictive models of melioidosis, effective models requiring consideration of topographical and surface hydrological data.

  14. Implications of Sponge Biodiversity Patterns for the Management of a Marine Reserve in Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Przeslawski, Rachel; Alvarez, Belinda; Kool, Johnathan; Bridge, Tom; Caley, M Julian; Nichol, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Marine reserves are becoming progressively more important as anthropogenic impacts continue to increase, but we have little baseline information for most marine environments. In this study, we focus on the Oceanic Shoals Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) in northern Australia, particularly the carbonate banks and terraces of the Sahul Shelf and Van Diemen Rise which have been designated a Key Ecological Feature (KEF). We use a species-level inventory compiled from three marine surveys to the CMR to address several questions relevant to marine management: 1) Are carbonate banks and other raised geomorphic features associated with biodiversity hotspots? 2) Can environmental (depth, substrate hardness, slope) or biogeographic (east vs west) variables help explain local and regional differences in community structure? 3) Do sponge communities differ among individual raised geomorphic features? Approximately 750 sponge specimens were collected in the Oceanic Shoals CMR and assigned to 348 species, of which only 18% included taxonomically described species. Between eastern and western areas of the CMR, there was no difference between sponge species richness or assemblages on raised geomorphic features. Among individual raised geomorphic features, sponge assemblages were significantly different, but species richness was not. Species richness showed no linear relationships with measured environmental factors, but sponge assemblages were weakly associated with several environmental variables including mean depth and mean backscatter (east and west) and mean slope (east only). These patterns of sponge diversity are applied to support the future management and monitoring of this region, particularly noting the importance of spatial scale in biodiversity assessments and associated management strategies.

  15. Measurement of personal exposure to outdoor aeromycota in northern New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Green, Brett James; O'Meara, Timothy; Sercombe, Jason; Tovey, Euan

    2006-01-01

    Aerobiological sampling traditionally uses a volumetric spore trap located in a fixed position to estimate personal exposure to airborne fungi. In this study, the number and identity of fungi inhaled by human subjects (n=34), wearing Intra-nasal air samplers (INASs), was measured over 2-hour periods in an outdoor community setting, and compared to fungal counts made with a Burkard spore trap and Institute of Occupational Medicine personal filter air samplers (IOMs). All sampling devices were in close proximity and located in an outdoor environment in Casino, northern New South Wales, Australia. Using INASs, the most prevalent fungi inhaled belonged to soil or vegetation borne spores of Alternaria, Arthrinium, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Epicoccum, Exserohilum, Fusarium, Pithomyces, Spegazzinia and Tetraploa species, Xylariaceae ascospores, in addition to hyphal fragments. These results showed that inhaled fungal exposure in most people varied in a 2-fold range with 10-fold outliers. In addition, the INASs and personal air filters agreed more with each other than with Burkard spore trap counts (r=0.74, p < 0.0001). These findings further support a new paradigm of personal fungal exposure, which implicates the inhalation of a spectrum of fungi more closely associated with soil or vegetation borne mycoflora and hyphal fragments than what is collected by stationary spore traps in the same geographic region.

  16. Qualitative Research to Design Sustainable Community-Based Surveillance for Rabies in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Brookes, Victoria J; Kennedy, Emma; Dhagapan, Phillipa; Ward, Michael P

    2017-01-01

    Given the proximity and recent spread of rabies in Indonesia, effective rabies surveillance in dogs is a priority in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG). Reporting of potential cases requires community engagement; therefore, the value and acceptability of such a system is critical to ensure sustainable surveillance. We used qualitative research methods to identify factors that influence the acceptability and value of community-based rabies surveillance. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in 16 communities in East Arnhem, the Northern Peninsula Area, the Torres Strait in Australia, and in Western Province, PNG. Thematic analysis identified common themes including the importance of verbal communication, particularly via radio, community meetings, and direct conversation. We also found that dogs have high value to community members through connection to culture, economic (especially hunting), and companionship. The greatest barrier to the reporting of sick dogs was insufficient veterinary services and the subsequent lack of treatment response. In some regions, acceptance that sick dogs are a normal daily occurrence and lack of trust of authorities were also barriers to reporting. The findings from this study will be used to design sustainable rabies surveillance in Northern Australia and PNG by utilizing traditional communication channels and building on existing and valued animal-management services. The methods and findings of this study complement previous quantitative research, so as to target surveillance to high-risk areas within these regions.

  17. Qualitative Research to Design Sustainable Community-Based Surveillance for Rabies in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Brookes, Victoria J.; Kennedy, Emma; Dhagapan, Phillipa; Ward, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Given the proximity and recent spread of rabies in Indonesia, effective rabies surveillance in dogs is a priority in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea (PNG). Reporting of potential cases requires community engagement; therefore, the value and acceptability of such a system is critical to ensure sustainable surveillance. We used qualitative research methods to identify factors that influence the acceptability and value of community-based rabies surveillance. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in 16 communities in East Arnhem, the Northern Peninsula Area, the Torres Strait in Australia, and in Western Province, PNG. Thematic analysis identified common themes including the importance of verbal communication, particularly via radio, community meetings, and direct conversation. We also found that dogs have high value to community members through connection to culture, economic (especially hunting), and companionship. The greatest barrier to the reporting of sick dogs was insufficient veterinary services and the subsequent lack of treatment response. In some regions, acceptance that sick dogs are a normal daily occurrence and lack of trust of authorities were also barriers to reporting. The findings from this study will be used to design sustainable rabies surveillance in Northern Australia and PNG by utilizing traditional communication channels and building on existing and valued animal-management services. The methods and findings of this study complement previous quantitative research, so as to target surveillance to high-risk areas within these regions. PMID:28275611

  18. A simultaneous journal / wiki publication and dissemination of a new species description: Neobidessodes darwiniensis sp. n. from northern Australia (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Bidessini).

    PubMed

    Hendrich, Lars; Balke, Michael

    2011-02-03

    Here, we describe a new Australian species in journal format and simultaneously open the description in a wiki format on the www.species-id.net. The wiki format will always link to the fixed original journal description of the taxon, however it permits future edits and additions to species' taxonomy and biology. The diving beetle Neobidessodes darwiniensissp. n. (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Bidessini) is described based on a single female, collected in a rest pool of the Harriet Creek in the Darwin Area, Northern Territory. Within Neobidessodes the new species is well characterized by its elongate oval body with rounded sides, short and stout segments of antennae, length of body and dorsal surface coloration. In addition to external morphology, we used mitochondrial cox1 sequence data to support generic assignment and to delineate the new species from other Australian Bidessini including all other known Neobidessodes. Illustrations based on digital images are provided here and as online resources. A modified key is provided. Altogether ten species of the genus are now known worldwide, nine from Australia and one from New Guinea.

  19. Dynamics of arsenic in the mining sites of Pine Creek Geosyncline, Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Eapaea, Miro Peter; Parry, David; Noller, Barry

    2007-07-01

    The transportation and fixation of arsenic (As) in soil and sediments from five mine sites within the Pine Creek Geosyncline, Northern Territory, were examined based on measurements of operationally-defined fractions of As in soils, sediment and evaporates. Arsenic was mainly retained in sediments in the form iron arsenate (Fe-As). In wetland systems, As was retained as Fe-As together with calcium arsenate (Ca-As) from alkaline groundwater and organic-bound As from detrital material. In retention ponds As was retained as Fe-As, Ca-As and residual As (Res-As) up to 1700 mg/kg. Sediment traps can retain As from alkaline and acidic source seepages. The retention of Res-As and other mineral particulates during erosional or controlled process water discharges was associated with high Fe-As and organic-bound As in sediment. Arsenic was retained as Fe-As, Ca-As and residual As in 100 year old tailings at Millar's Battery, Union Reefs mine nearby McKinlay River and the small copper mine lease MLN 95 adjacent Copperfield Creek nearby Pine Creek. Natural geo-mobilisation of As was observed in upstream sediments at Copperfield Creek (5-8 mg/kg), Mt. Bundey Creek (10-12 mg/kg), upstream Ryan's Creek (10-12 mg/kg) and downstream East branch Ryan's Creek (7 mg/kg). Erosion of As-containing mineralisation was observed in the McKinlay River upstream and downstream (23-26 mg/kg) and upstream Ryan's Creek boundary of the Goodall mine lease MLN 1049 (24-40 mg/kg). Overall, As was mainly retained in sediments in the form Fe-As. The concentration data for As were used to propose mechanisms of As dispersion and retention occurring at the various mine sites that can be utilised for future mine water management design to minimise As dispersion.

  20. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Locally-Acquired Dengue Transmission in Northern Queensland, Australia, 1993–2012

    PubMed Central

    Naish, Suchithra; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S.; McBride, John; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia since it re-emerged in Queensland in 1992–1993. We explored spatio-temporal characteristics of locally-acquired dengue cases in northern tropical Queensland, Australia during the period 1993–2012. Methods Locally-acquired notified cases of dengue were collected for northern tropical Queensland from 1993 to 2012. Descriptive spatial and temporal analyses were conducted using geographic information system tools and geostatistical techniques. Results 2,398 locally-acquired dengue cases were recorded in northern tropical Queensland during the study period. The areas affected by the dengue cases exhibited spatial and temporal variation over the study period. Notified cases of dengue occurred more frequently in autumn. Mapping of dengue by statistical local areas (census units) reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time and place. Statistically significant differences in dengue incidence rates among males and females (with more cases in females) (χ2 = 15.17, d.f. = 1, p<0.01). Differences were observed among age groups, but these were not statistically significant. There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of dengue incidence for the four sub-periods, with the Moran's I statistic ranging from 0.011 to 0.463 (p<0.01). Semi-variogram analysis and smoothed maps created from interpolation techniques indicate that the pattern of spatial autocorrelation was not homogeneous across the northern Queensland. Conclusions Tropical areas are potential high-risk areas for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue. This study demonstrated that the locally-acquired dengue cases have exhibited a spatial and temporal variation over the past twenty years in northern tropical Queensland, Australia. Therefore, this study provides an impetus for further investigation of clusters and risk factors in these high-risk areas. PMID:24691549

  1. Comparative water use by the riparian trees Melaleuca argentea and Corymbia bella in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, A P; Eamus, D; Cook, P G; Lamontagne, S

    2006-02-01

    We examined sources of water and daily and seasonal water use patterns in two riparian tree species occupying contrasting niches within riparian zones throughout the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia: Corymbia bella Hill and Johnson is found along the top of the levee banks and Melaleuca argentea W. Fitzg. is restricted to riversides. Patterns of tree water use (sap flow) and leaf water potential were examined in four trees of each species at three locations along the Daly River in the Northern Territory. Predawn leaf water potential was higher than -0.5 MPa throughout the dry season in both species, but was lower at the end of the dry season than at the beginning of the dry season. Contrary to expectations, predawn leaf water potential was lower in M. argentea trees along the river than in C. bella trees along the levees. In contrast, midday leaf water potential was lower in the C. bella trees than in M. argentea trees. There were no seasonal differences in tree water use in either species. Daily water use was lower in M. argentea trees than in C. bella trees. Whole-tree hydraulic conductance, estimated from the slope of the relationship between leaf water potential and sap flow, did not differ between species. Xylem deuterium concentrations indicated that M. argentea trees along the riverbank were principally reliant on river water or shallow groundwater, whereas C. bella trees along the levee were reliant solely on soil water reserves. This study demonstrated strong gradients of tree water use within tropical riparian communities, with implications for estimating riparian water use requirements and for the management of groundwater resources.

  2. Canine tick-borne pathogens and associated risk factors in dogs presenting with and without clinical signs consistent with tick-borne diseases in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Hii, S F; Traub, R J; Thompson, M F; Henning, J; O'Leary, C A; Burleigh, A; McMahon, S; Rees, R L; Kopp, S R

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the proportion of canine tick-borne disease (CTBD) pathogens in dogs from northern states of Australia presenting with and without clinical signs/laboratory abnormalities suggestive of CTBD and to evaluate associated risk factors. Client-owned dogs presented to a general practice clinic in the Northern Territory (NT; n = 138) and five referral hospitals in south-east Queensland (SEQ; n = 100) were grouped into CTBD-suspect and -control groups based on clinical and laboratory criteria. Blood and sera were screened for haemotropic Mycoplasma spp., Babesia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. using microscopic examination, in-clinic ELISA testing and PCR assays. Dog-specific risk factors associated with the presence of CTBD pathogens were evaluated. Overall, 24.4% of the suspect group and 12.2% of the control group dogs were infected. The proportions of M. haemocanis, B. vogeli, A. platys, Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum, and C. Mycoplasma haemobos were 7.1%, 5.0%, 3.8%, 1.7% and 0.4%, respectively. Dogs originating from the NT were 3.6-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.51-8.62; P = 0.004) more likely to be infected with CTBD pathogens than those from SEQ. Male dogs were 2.3-fold (95% CI 1.17-4.80, P = 0.024) more likely to be PCR-positive to CTBD pathogens than female dogs. Dogs presenting with clinical signs consistent with CTBD and thrombocytopenia were more likely to be infected by CTBD pathogens (odds ratio 2.85; 95% CI 1.16, 7.02; P = 0.019). Haemotropic mycoplasmas were the most common tick-borne pathogen infecting client-owned dogs. Subclinical cases were common in dogs from the NT. Veterinary practitioners should be aware of the proportion of CTBD pathogens and the presenting features of clinical and subclinical disease in their area. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  3. Electrical conductivity structure from inversion analysis of magnetotelluric data acquired in northern Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seong Kon; Jong Lee, Tae; Uchida, Toshihiro; Park, In Hwa; Dennis, Zara; Song, Yoonho; Cull, Jim

    2010-05-01

    Two campaigns of MT soundings were carried out successively in 2007 and 2008, in central Victoria, Australia, as a collaboration research between Republic of Korea, Australia, and Japan. The main purpose of these surveys are to investigate electrical conductivity and thus help understanding of tectonic structure in central Victoria, which is believed to be closely linked to mineralization and magmatic processes of this region. The strategy of MT surveys is to firstly acquire MT data along a seismic surveyed line and then compare electromagnetic and seismic survey results each other to check if the two data set produce the compatible results and/or how much they are correlated and see if we could identify structural similarity in the subsurface apart from the first line by successive MT survey. For this purposes, the first MT survey was done in 2007 along the seismic transect of 2006 done by Geoscience Victoria, and obtained compatible images between electromagnetic (EM) and seismic methods. As a second stage, the second MT survey was done in 2008 to investigate geological structure of northern part of the first survey line. The survey areas are located in western Lachlan Fold Belts, which is the part of Tasman Fold Belts in southeastern Australia. In both surveys, we locate MT stations in west-east direction considering regional geological strike is in N-S direction. An MT profile of 2008 is almost parallel to the one of 2007 and approximately 50 km away. We operated remote reference (RR) sites in both surveys. We acquired two electric field components and three magnetic field components of MT band from 0.00034 ~ 317 Hz, and extracted impedances of good quality via remote reference processing. Two-dimensional inversions with various algorithms were done along survey lines. The first MT survey line, which was established along the seismic survey line, shows that the positions of conductivity discontinuity near surface are well matched with the positions of major

  4. Maximum Flow Efficiency in an Anabranching River, Magela Creek, Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, J. D.; Nanson, G. C.

    2002-12-01

    In this field- and laboratory-based study, we demonstrate that the development of anabranching channels in some rivers increases the conveyance of sediment and water, compared with a single channel at the same flow discharge. That is, under certain conditions, anabranching channels exhibit greater sediment transporting capacity per unit available stream power. Anabranching is a globally widespread river pattern noted in diverse physiographic, hydrologic and sedimentologic environments, and recent efforts have sought to unravel controls on their origin and maintenance. It is widely held that most rivers form a single-channel in order to minimise boundary roughness while conveying water and sediment, but do all rivers show a tendency to develop a single channel? And if so, what factors lead to long-term anabranching? The observation that anabranching commonly develops in environments where water and sediment conveyance is maintained with little or no recourse to increasing energy slope prompted the hypothesis that rivers may adopt a multiple channel pattern in order to optimise their efficiency where they cannot otherwise increase slope. It is reasoned that development of a system of multiple channels reduces total flow width and raises mean flow depth, thereby maximising sediment transport per unit area of the channel bed and maintaining or enhancing water and sediment throughput. In testing the hypothesis we present: (1) results of a field experiment in which hydraulic variables and bedload discharge are measured and compared for single-channel versus multichannel reaches of the same river (Magela Creek, northern Australia); (2) comparison of these field results with bedload transport modelling via well known bedload equations; and (3) results of an experimental flume study comparing hydraulic variables and sediment flux in single-channel versus divided flow. Magela Creek is representative of several anabranching systems draining the Alligators Rivers Region of

  5. Bull selection and use in northern Australia. 5. Social behaviour and management.

    PubMed

    Fordyce, G; Fitzpatrick, L A; Cooper, N J; Doogan, V J; De Faveri, J; Holroyd, R G

    2002-05-15

    Calf output of bulls was derived using DNA typing for paternity following multiple-sire mating at two sites in northern Australia. At Swan's Lagoon Beef Cattle Research Station, 12, mixed-age, Brahman cross bulls were continuously mated with an average of 325 females in a 22km2 open-savannah paddock. Water was available in two troughs. Behaviour of the bulls and location of cows were monitored. At Kamilaroi Station, 2- to 2.5-year-old Brahman bulls were introduced to the study. Twenty-four bulls (HIGH%) were mated in an 84km2 paddock for 3.5 months to 411 heifers in 1995/1995 and for 4.5 months to 350 heifers and 320 first-lactation cows in 1995/1996. A second group of 10 bulls (LOW%) selected on reproductive soundness was mated concurrently in a neighbouring 60km2 paddock to 411 heifers in 1995/1995 and to 350 heifers and 298 first-lactation cows in 1995/1996. In each paddock in both years, 300-350 females were expected to cycle during mating. Both paddocks were flat and semi-forested and water was available only at troughs. At both sites, detailed physical and reproductive examinations of all bulls were conducted prior to and post-mating.Calf output of individual bulls was highly variable but repeatable (r=0.6-0.7) between years. Up to 90% of the 270-380 calves resulting from each mating were sired by between 6 and 8 bulls. Reducing from 3.7 to 2.8% bulls:females at Swan's Lagoon did not delay conceptions. At Kamilaroi, reproductively sound bulls achieved an estimated 5-6 conceptions per week over the peak mating period when sufficient cycling females were available. Differences in pregnancy rates between paddocks appeared due to differences in nutrition and it appeared that conceptions were not delayed with LOW% vs. HIGH% bulls. Variance between bulls in calf output was substantially lower when fewer bulls were used. Bull attrition occurred each year in the HIGH% paddock but not in the LOW% paddock. Calf output was unrelated to body condition of bulls. Seven of

  6. Simulating the evolution of glyphosate resistance in grains farming in northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Thornby, David F.; Walker, Steve R.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The evolution of resistance to herbicides is a substantial problem in contemporary agriculture. Solutions to this problem generally consist of the use of practices to control the resistant population once it evolves, and/or to institute preventative measures before populations become resistant. Herbicide resistance evolves in populations over years or decades, so predicting the effectiveness of preventative strategies in particular relies on computational modelling approaches. While models of herbicide resistance already exist, none deals with the complex regional variability in the northern Australian sub-tropical grains farming region. For this reason, a new computer model was developed. Methods The model consists of an age- and stage-structured population model of weeds, with an existing crop model used to simulate plant growth and competition, and extensions to the crop model added to simulate seed bank ecology and population genetics factors. Using awnless barnyard grass (Echinochloa colona) as a test case, the model was used to investigate the likely rate of evolution under conditions expected to produce high selection pressure. Key Results Simulating continuous summer fallows with glyphosate used as the only means of weed control resulted in predicted resistant weed populations after approx. 15 years. Validation of the model against the paddock history for the first real-world glyphosate-resistant awnless barnyard grass population shows that the model predicted resistance evolution to within a few years of the real situation. Conclusions This validation work shows that empirical validation of herbicide resistance models is problematic. However, the model simulates the complexities of sub-tropical grains farming in Australia well, and can be used to investigate, generate and improve glyphosate resistance prevention strategies. PMID:19567415

  7. Fire regimes and vegetation change in tropical northern Australia during the late-Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackenzie, Lydia; Moss, Patrick; Ulm, Sean; Sloss, Craig; Heijnis, Henk; Jacobsen, Geraldine

    2016-04-01

    This study explores the impact of human occupation and abandonment on fire regimes and vegetation communities in the South Wellesley Islands, Gulf of Carpentaria, tropical northern Australia, using charcoal and pollen analysis from four sediment records. Pollen analysis from wetland sediments reveal vegetation succession from mangrove communities to hypersaline mudflats and open woodlands occurred during the late-Holocene. Aquatic species replaced salt tolerant species as the prograding shoreline and dune development formed the Marralda wetlands by 800 cal a BP on the south east coast of Bentinck Island. Wetlands developed on the north and west coast by 500 and 450 cal a BP, respectively. The timing of wetland initiation indicates localised late-Holocene sea level regression, stabilisation and coastal plain development in the Gulf of Carpentaria. Wetland initiation encouraged permanent human occupation of the South Wellesley archipelago, with ongoing archaeological research finding permanent occupation in the last 1500 years, followed by a significant increase in sites from 700 years ago, which peaks over the last 300 years. Macro-charcoal (>125μm) accumulation rates provide a record of fire intensity and frequency across the Island. Both local and regional fire events increase in the last 700 years as traditional owners occupied the Island, with local fires occurring every 104 and 74 years on average (N= 4 and 5 respectively). In the 1950's traditional Indigenous Kaiadilt fire management practices ceased, with the frequency and peak magnitude of fire events significantly increasing and vegetation communities becoming more open. The South Wellesley Islands were unoccupied until the 1980's and were not influenced by European occupation. This study of an Island ecosystem during the late-Holocene provides insight into the effect of human presence and fire regimes on vegetation composition and distribution in a fire resilient environment.

  8. Mega-scale Groundwater Flow in the Submarine Plover Aquifer, Continental Shelf of Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garven, G.; James, B.; Gale, J.

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes a continental-scale groundwater flow system that exists under the sea floor along the ~2,000+ km long passive margin of northern Australia. The flow system has been mapped using data from off-shore petroleum exploration wells, and is confined within a 30~300-m thick sequence of quartzose sandstones of the Plover Formation. The Plover Aquifer comprises a Jurassic-age siliciclastic fluviodeltaic interval that grades stratigraphically into Cretaceous marine sandstones of the overlying Flamingo Group. Observed patterns of hydraulic head indicate a gentle northeast-to-southwest hydraulic gradient, which is parallel to a strong structural fabric created by faulting and extension along the Timor Trench/Australian continental margin. We propose that mostly lateral flow exists within the highly permeable Plover and Flamingo sandstones, over a distance of 1500-2000 km, that extends from the southern foreland basin of Papua, Indonesia, across the Arafura Basin and arches, and the 5-10 km thick passive margin sequence of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic age Sahul Platform. We further propose that this giant hydrodynamic system was created and sustained since Eocene time during uplift of the New Guinea fold-and-thrust belt. The flow system observed today is a paleohydrologic relict of Pleistocene-Holocene times, when glaciation-induced sea level lowstands resulted in subaerial emergence of the Arafura Basin and Sahul Platform. Finite element modeling supports our hypothesis that simple topographically-driven flow created this mega-scale groundwater flow system, which has since been submerged by rising sea levels in the most recent Holocene.

  9. Implications of Sponge Biodiversity Patterns for the Management of a Marine Reserve in Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Przeslawski, Rachel; Alvarez, Belinda; Kool, Johnathan; Bridge, Tom; Caley, M. Julian; Nichol, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Marine reserves are becoming progressively more important as anthropogenic impacts continue to increase, but we have little baseline information for most marine environments. In this study, we focus on the Oceanic Shoals Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) in northern Australia, particularly the carbonate banks and terraces of the Sahul Shelf and Van Diemen Rise which have been designated a Key Ecological Feature (KEF). We use a species-level inventory compiled from three marine surveys to the CMR to address several questions relevant to marine management: 1) Are carbonate banks and other raised geomorphic features associated with biodiversity hotspots? 2) Can environmental (depth, substrate hardness, slope) or biogeographic (east vs west) variables help explain local and regional differences in community structure? 3) Do sponge communities differ among individual raised geomorphic features? Approximately 750 sponge specimens were collected in the Oceanic Shoals CMR and assigned to 348 species, of which only 18% included taxonomically described species. Between eastern and western areas of the CMR, there was no difference between sponge species richness or assemblages on raised geomorphic features. Among individual raised geomorphic features, sponge assemblages were significantly different, but species richness was not. Species richness showed no linear relationships with measured environmental factors, but sponge assemblages were weakly associated with several environmental variables including mean depth and mean backscatter (east and west) and mean slope (east only). These patterns of sponge diversity are applied to support the future management and monitoring of this region, particularly noting the importance of spatial scale in biodiversity assessments and associated management strategies. PMID:26606745

  10. Aerosols and their influence on radiation partitioning and savanna productivity in northern Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Kanniah, K. D.; Beringer, J.; Tapper, N. J.; Long, Charles N.

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the effect of aerosols and clouds on the Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) of savannas in northern Australia using aerosol optical depth, clouds and radiation data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Darwin and carbon flux data measured from eddy covariance techniques from a site at Howard Springs, 35km southeast of Darwin. Generally we found that the concentration of aerosols in this region was relatively low than observed at other sites, therefore the proportion of diffuse radiation reaching the earths surface was only ~ 30%. As a result, we observed only a modest change in carbon uptake under aerosol laden skies and there was no significant difference for dry season Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE) between clear sky, aerosols or thin clouds. On the other hand thick clouds in the wet season produce much more diffuse radiation than aerosols or thin clouds and therefore the initial canopy quantum efficiency was seen to increase 45 and 2.5 times more than under thin clouds and aerosols respectively. The normalized carbon uptake under thick clouds is 57% and 50% higher than under aerosols and thin clouds respectively even though the total irradiance received under thick clouds was reduced 59% and 50% than under aerosols and thin clouds respectively. However, reduction in total irradiance decreases the mean absolute carbon uptake as much as 22% under heavy cloud cover compared to thin clouds or aerosols. Thus, any increase in aerosol concentration or cloud cover that can enhance the diffuse component may have large impacts on productivity in this region.

  11. Diet, Physical Activity, and Obesity in School-Aged Indigenous Youths in Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Valery, Patricia C.; Ibiebele, Torukiri; Harris, Mark; Green, Adèle C.; Cotterill, Andrew; Moloney, Aletia; Sinha, Ashim K.; Garvey, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relationship between diet, physical activity, and obesity in Indigenous youths from northern Australia. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, physical activity and dietary intake (“short nutrition questionnaire”) were assessed among all youths during a face-to-face interview. For 92 high school youths, additional dietary information was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess associations. Results. Of the 277 youths included, 52% had ≤2 servings of fruit and 84% had <4 servings of vegetables per day; 65% ate fish and 27%, take-away food (“fast food”) at least twice a week. One in four ate local traditional sea food including turtle and dugong (a local sea mammal) at least twice a week. Overweight/obese youths engaged in fewer days of physical activity in the previous week than normal weight youths (OR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.43–4.40), though patterns of physical activity differed by sex and age (P < 0.001). Overweight/obese youths were 1.89 times (95% CI 1.07–3.35) more likely to eat dugong regularly than nonobese youths. Analysis of food-frequency data showed no difference by weight assessment among high-school students. Conclusions. Low fruit and vegetable intake were identified in these Indigenous youths. Regular consumption of fried dugong and low frequency of physical activity were associated with overweight/obesity reinforcing the need to devise culturally appropriate health promotion strategies and interventions for Indigenous youths aimed at improving their diet and increasing their physical activity. PMID:22720140

  12. Irrigator responses to groundwater resource management in northern Victoria, southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Bruce C.; Webb, John; Wilkinson, Roger; Cherry, Don

    2014-10-01

    In northern Victoria, farmers are the biggest users of groundwater and therefore the main stakeholders in plans that seek to sustainably manage the resource. Interviews with 30 irrigation farmers in two study areas, analysed using qualitative social research methods, showed that the overwhelming majority of groundwater users agreed with the need for groundwater management and thought that the current plans had achieved sustainable resource use. The farmers also expressed a strong need for clear technical explanations for management decisions, in particular easily understood water level data. The social licence to implement the management plans arose through effective consultation with the community during plan development. Several additional factors combined to gain acceptance for the plans: good data on groundwater usage and aquifer levels is available; irrigation farmers had been exposed to usage restrictions since the late 1990s; an ‘adaptive’ management approach is in use which allowed refinements to be readily incorporated and fortuitously, plan development coincided with the 1998-2009 drought, when declines in groundwater levels reinforced the usefulness of the plans. The imposition of a nation-wide water use reduction plan in 2012 had relatively little impact in Victoria because of the early implementation of effective groundwater management plans. However, economic difficulties that reduce groundwater users’ capacity to pay groundwater management charges mean that the future of the plans in Victoria is not assured. Nevertheless, the high level of trust that exists between Victorian irrigation farmers and the management agencies suggests that the continued use of a consultative approach will continue to produce workable outcomes. Lessons from the Victorian experience may be difficult to apply in other areas of groundwater use in Australia and overseas, where there may be a quite different history of development and culture of groundwater management.

  13. Species composition and biomasses of fishes in tropical seagrasses at Groote Eylandt, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaber, S. J. M.; Brewer, D. T.; Salini, J. P.; Kerr, J. D.; Conacher, C.

    1992-12-01

    The species composition and biomasses of fishes in the tropical seagrasses of Groote Eylandt, northern Australia, were studied in 1989 and 1990. A total of 156 species was recorded. Tall dense seagrass, short seagrass and control (no seagrass) sites in different depths were compared. Shallow (<1 m) sites were dominated by small resident species and juveniles of non-resident species, while deeper waters (to 7 m) were dominated by larger species. Species composition was not significantly different between sites, but species diversity ( H) and evenness ( E) were higher in non-vegetated areas. In slightly deeper water (<2 m) species composition was different between habitats and species diversity was highest in tall seagrass and least in open areas. Most species were more abundant in tall seagrass and least abundant in open areas. Most of the larger fishes, including 11 species of sharks, are piscivores, and most move into shallow sea-grass areas at night, irrespective of tide height. Only five species showed abundance patterns related to tide height and there were no significant seasonal patterns of abundance in any of the communities. The biomasses for all sites and sampling methods were mostly from 1 to 2 g m -2, which is low relative to other inshore tropical areas. The possible causes—the characteristics of adjacent habitats (coral reefs and mangroves) and the role of seagrasses in the life cycle of fishes are discussed. It is suggested that habitat structure is a major determinant of the species composition of fish in tropical seagrass areas, primarily because it affects food availability, both for small residents and juveniles, and for visiting predators.

  14. Characterisation of microcontaminants in Darwin Harbour, a tropical estuary of northern Australia undergoing rapid development.

    PubMed

    French, Veronica A; King, Susan Codi; Kumar, Anu; Northcott, Grant; McGuinness, Keith; Parry, David

    2015-12-01

    The detection of microcontaminants in aquatic environments raises concerns about their potential to exert ecotoxicological effects and impact human health. In contrast to freshwater habitats, little information is available on environmental concentrations in urban estuarine and marine environments. This study investigated an extensive range of organic and inorganic microcontaminants in the Darwin Harbour catchment, a tropical estuary in northern Australia undergoing rapid urbanisation and industrial development. We sampled wastewater effluent and surface water from seven sites in Darwin Harbour for pharmaceuticals and personal care products, alkylphenols, hormones, pesticides, herbicides and metals. In vitro bioassays were used to estimate the (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic activities of samples. Seventy-nine of 229 organic microcontaminants analysed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 20 μg/L, with acesulfame, paracetamol, cholesterol, caffeine, DEET and iopromide detected at the highest concentrations in wastewater effluent (20 μg/L, 17 μg/L, 11 μg/L, 11 μg/L, 10 μg/L and 7.6 μg/L, respectively). Levels of estrogenic activity ranged from estradiol equivalency quotients (EEQs) of <0.10 to 6.29±0.16 ng/L while levels of androgenic activity ranged from dihydrotestosterone equivalency quotients (DHTEQs) of <3.50 to 138.23±3.71 ng/L. Environmental concentrations of organic microcontaminants were comparable to ranges reported from aquatic environments worldwide with sewage effluent discharges representing the dominant source of entry into Darwin Harbour. The measured concentration range of DEET was higher than ranges reported in previous studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Diet, physical activity, and obesity in school-aged indigenous youths in northern australia.

    PubMed

    Valery, Patricia C; Ibiebele, Torukiri; Harris, Mark; Green, Adèle C; Cotterill, Andrew; Moloney, Aletia; Sinha, Ashim K; Garvey, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relationship between diet, physical activity, and obesity in Indigenous youths from northern Australia. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, physical activity and dietary intake ("short nutrition questionnaire") were assessed among all youths during a face-to-face interview. For 92 high school youths, additional dietary information was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess associations. Results. Of the 277 youths included, 52% had ≤2 servings of fruit and 84% had <4 servings of vegetables per day; 65% ate fish and 27%, take-away food ("fast food") at least twice a week. One in four ate local traditional sea food including turtle and dugong (a local sea mammal) at least twice a week. Overweight/obese youths engaged in fewer days of physical activity in the previous week than normal weight youths (OR = 2.52, 95% CI 1.43-4.40), though patterns of physical activity differed by sex and age (P < 0.001). Overweight/obese youths were 1.89 times (95% CI 1.07-3.35) more likely to eat dugong regularly than nonobese youths. Analysis of food-frequency data showed no difference by weight assessment among high-school students. Conclusions. Low fruit and vegetable intake were identified in these Indigenous youths. Regular consumption of fried dugong and low frequency of physical activity were associated with overweight/obesity reinforcing the need to devise culturally appropriate health promotion strategies and interventions for Indigenous youths aimed at improving their diet and increasing their physical activity.

  16. Simulating the evolution of glyphosate resistance in grains farming in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Thornby, David F; Walker, Steve R

    2009-09-01

    The evolution of resistance to herbicides is a substantial problem in contemporary agriculture. Solutions to this problem generally consist of the use of practices to control the resistant population once it evolves, and/or to institute preventative measures before populations become resistant. Herbicide resistance evolves in populations over years or decades, so predicting the effectiveness of preventative strategies in particular relies on computational modelling approaches. While models of herbicide resistance already exist, none deals with the complex regional variability in the northern Australian sub-tropical grains farming region. For this reason, a new computer model was developed. The model consists of an age- and stage-structured population model of weeds, with an existing crop model used to simulate plant growth and competition, and extensions to the crop model added to simulate seed bank ecology and population genetics factors. Using awnless barnyard grass (Echinochloa colona) as a test case, the model was used to investigate the likely rate of evolution under conditions expected to produce high selection pressure. Simulating continuous summer fallows with glyphosate used as the only means of weed control resulted in predicted resistant weed populations after approx. 15 years. Validation of the model against the paddock history for the first real-world glyphosate-resistant awnless barnyard grass population shows that the model predicted resistance evolution to within a few years of the real situation. This validation work shows that empirical validation of herbicide resistance models is problematic. However, the model simulates the complexities of sub-tropical grains farming in Australia well, and can be used to investigate, generate and improve glyphosate resistance prevention strategies.

  17. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Watson, Charlotte

    2015-09-18

    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length < 5 mm). This complex resolved into 7 new species, described herein: Paleanotus inornatus n. sp., P. adornatus n. sp., P. chrysos n. sp., P. aquifolia n. sp., P. latifolia n. sp., P. silus n. sp., and P. silopsis n. sp. A key is provided to the new species and Paleanotus distinguished from Treptopale and Hyalopale, two closely related genera. Diagnostic features of the apical structure and shape of the notochaetal main paleae plus median paleae shape and raised rib pattern, differentiates each species from the other. Gametous states are described. Two cryptic species pairs (Paleanotus silopsis n. sp. and P. silus n. sp.; Paleanotus aquifolia n. sp. and P. latifolia n. sp.) were identified. In each case one species is restricted to either the NE or NW Australian coast. In each pair the most eastern point for the NW Australian species range occurs at Darwin, western Arnhemland, Northern Territory. Additional material for each species pair extends their respective ranges northwards: NW Australia to Thailand, Andaman Sea, eastern Indian Ocean or NE Australia, Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia.

  18. Preventive medical care in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory: a follow-up study of the impact of clinical guidelines, computerised recall and reminder systems, and audit and feedback.

    PubMed

    Bailie, Ross S; Togni, Samantha J; Si, Damin; Robinson, Gary; d'Abbs, Peter H N

    2003-07-30

    Interventions to improve delivery of preventive medical services have been shown to be effective in North America and the UK. However, there are few studies of the extent to which the impact of such interventions has been sustained, or of the impact of such interventions in disadvantaged populations or remote settings. This paper describes the trends in delivery of preventive medical services following a multifaceted intervention in remote community health centres in the Northern Territory of Australia. The intervention comprised the development and dissemination of best practice guidelines supported by an electronic client register, recall and reminder systems and associated staff training, and audit and feedback. Clinical records in seven community health centres were audited at regular intervals against best practice guidelines over a period of three years, with feedback of audit findings to health centre staff and management. Levels of service delivery varied between services and between communities. There was an initial improvement in service levels for most services following the intervention, but improvements were in general not fully sustained over the three year period. Improvements in service delivery are consistent with the international experience, although baseline and follow-up levels are in many cases higher than reported for comparable studies in North America and the UK. Sustainability of improvements may be achieved by institutionalisation of relevant work practices and enhanced health centre capacity.

  19. New cryptic species of Teratosphaeria on Eucalyptus in Australia.

    PubMed

    Andjic, Vera; Maxwell, Aaron; Hardy, Giles E StJ; Burgess, Treena I

    2016-12-01

    Teratosphaeria destructans and T. viscida are serious pathogens causing leaf, bud and shoot blight diseases of Eucalyptus plantations in the subtropics and tropics of South-East Asia (T. destructans) and North Queensland, Australia (T. viscida). During disease surveys in northern Western Australia and the Northern Territory of Australia, symptoms resembling those of T. destructans were observed on young and adult leaves of native and plantation Eucalyptus spp. and its hybrids. Phylogenetic studies revealed Teratosphaeria species associated with these symptoms are new taxonomic novelties described here as T. novaehollandiae and T. tiwiana spp. nov. Isolates from previous records of T. destructans recorded in Australia were re-examined and based upon the phylogenetic evidence are reassigned to these new taxa. We conclude that T. destructans is absent from Australia.

  20. Understanding the sources and effects of abandoned, lost, and discarded fishing gear on marine turtles in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Chris; Heathcote, Grace; Goldberg, Jennifer; Gunn, Riki; Peel, David; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-02-01

    Globally, 6.4 million tons of fishing gear are lost in the oceans annually. This gear (i.e., ghost nets), whether accidently lost, abandoned, or deliberately discarded, threatens marine wildlife as it drifts with prevailing currents and continues to entangle marine organisms indiscriminately. Northern Australia has some of the highest densities of ghost nets in the world, with up to 3 tons washing ashore per kilometer of shoreline annually. This region supports globally significant populations of internationally threatened marine fauna, including 6 of the 7 extant marine turtles. We examined the threat ghost nets pose to marine turtles and assessed whether nets associated with particular fisheries are linked with turtle entanglement by analyzing the capture rates of turtles and potential source fisheries from nearly 9000 nets found on Australia's northern coast. Nets with relatively larger mesh and smaller twine sizes (e.g., pelagic drift nets) had the highest probability of entanglement for marine turtles. Net size was important; larger nets appeared to attract turtles, which further increased their catch rates. Our results point to issues with trawl and drift-net fisheries, the former due to the large number of nets and fragments found and the latter due to the very high catch rates resulting from the net design. Catch rates for fine-mesh gill nets can reach as high as 4 turtles/100 m of net length. We estimated that the total number of turtles caught by the 8690 ghost nets we sampled was between 4866 and 14,600, assuming nets drift for 1 year. Ghost nets continue to accumulate on Australia's northern shore due to both legal and illegal fishing; over 13,000 nets have been removed since 2005. This is an important and ongoing transboundary threat to biodiversity in the region that requires attention from the countries surrounding the Arafura and Timor Seas. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Carriers of Mitochondrial DNA Macrohaplogroup N Lineages Reached Australia around 50,000 Years Ago following a Northern Asian Route

    PubMed Central

    Larruga, Jose M.; Abu-Amero, Khaled K.; González, Ana M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The modern human colonization of Eurasia and Australia is mostly explained by a single-out-of-Africa exit following a southern coastal route throughout Arabia and India. However, dispersal across the Levant would better explain the introgression with Neanderthals, and more than one exit would fit better with the different ancient genomic components discovered in indigenous Australians and in ancient Europeans. The existence of an additional Northern route used by modern humans to reach Australia was previously deduced from the phylogeography of mtDNA macrohaplogroup N. Here, we present new mtDNA data and new multidisciplinary information that add more support to this northern route. Methods MtDNA hypervariable segments and haplogroup diagnostic coding positions were analyzed in 2,278 Saudi Arabs, from which 1,725 are new samples. Besides, we used 623 published mtDNA genomes belonging to macrohaplogroup N, but not R, to build updated phylogenetic trees to calculate their coalescence ages, and more than 70,000 partial mtDNA sequences were screened to establish their respective geographic ranges. Results The Saudi mtDNA profile confirms the absence of autochthonous mtDNA lineages in Arabia with coalescence ages deep enough to support population continuity in the region since the out-of-Africa episode. In contrast to Australia, where N(xR) haplogroups are found in high frequency and with deep coalescence ages, there are not autochthonous N(xR) lineages in India nor N(xR) branches with coalescence ages as deep as those found in Australia. These patterns are at odds with the supposition that Australian colonizers harboring N(xR) lineages used a route involving India as a stage. The most ancient N(xR) lineages in Eurasia are found in China, and inconsistently with the coastal route, N(xR) haplogroups with the southernmost geographical range have all more recent radiations than the Australians. Conclusions Apart from a single migration event via a southern route

  2. Carriers of Mitochondrial DNA Macrohaplogroup N Lineages Reached Australia around 50,000 Years Ago following a Northern Asian Route.

    PubMed

    Fregel, Rosa; Cabrera, Vicente; Larruga, Jose M; Abu-Amero, Khaled K; González, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    The modern human colonization of Eurasia and Australia is mostly explained by a single-out-of-Africa exit following a southern coastal route throughout Arabia and India. However, dispersal across the Levant would better explain the introgression with Neanderthals, and more than one exit would fit better with the different ancient genomic components discovered in indigenous Australians and in ancient Europeans. The existence of an additional Northern route used by modern humans to reach Australia was previously deduced from the phylogeography of mtDNA macrohaplogroup N. Here, we present new mtDNA data and new multidisciplinary information that add more support to this northern route. MtDNA hypervariable segments and haplogroup diagnostic coding positions were analyzed in 2,278 Saudi Arabs, from which 1,725 are new samples. Besides, we used 623 published mtDNA genomes belonging to macrohaplogroup N, but not R, to build updated phylogenetic trees to calculate their coalescence ages, and more than 70,000 partial mtDNA sequences were screened to establish their respective geographic ranges. The Saudi mtDNA profile confirms the absence of autochthonous mtDNA lineages in Arabia with coalescence ages deep enough to support population continuity in the region since the out-of-Africa episode. In contrast to Australia, where N(xR) haplogroups are found in high frequency and with deep coalescence ages, there are not autochthonous N(xR) lineages in India nor N(xR) branches with coalescence ages as deep as those found in Australia. These patterns are at odds with the supposition that Australian colonizers harboring N(xR) lineages used a route involving India as a stage. The most ancient N(xR) lineages in Eurasia are found in China, and inconsistently with the coastal route, N(xR) haplogroups with the southernmost geographical range have all more recent radiations than the Australians. Apart from a single migration event via a southern route, phylogeny and phylogeography of N

  3. The Concertina Coast: a history of repeated inversion during basin formation on Australia's northern margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keep, M.

    2016-12-01

    The present day configuration of Australia's northern margin includes a series of Phanerozoic basins forming the North West Shelf. Their polyphase history includes the early formation of intracratonic basins (mid-Devonian), overprinted by Permo-Carboniferous rifting that generated the dominant NE-trending structural trends that persist to the present-day. Subsequent Mesozoic extension, associated with the formation of abyssal plains, further refined the margin, creating additional depocentres. During this polyphase rift history, a number of periods of inversion have punctuated the margin. These include a Carboniferous event, the Meda Transpression, late Permian to Early Triassic event, sometimes referred to as the Bedout Movement (possibly transtensional), and two events, one in the Middle to Late Triassic, followed by another in the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, often referred to as the Fitzroy events. These various events, recorded locally in specific basins, caused inversion, folding, uplift and erosion where documented, with the Fitzroy events described as transpressional, resulting from right-lateral oblique inversion. Subsequent inversion during the Cretaceous, also attributed to dextral transpression, caused long wavelength folding and fault inversion in some basins. Whereas the effects of earlier inversions are somewhat sporadic across the North West Shelf, the effects of Neogene inversion have been documented across both the active and passive segments of the present day North West Shelf, and also appear to be strongly controlled by right-lateral oblique reactivation mechanisms, with associated seismicity and focal mechanism solutions. The history of the North West Shelf therefore includes 6 discrete episodes of reactivation and inversion, apparently strongly dominated by oblique mechanisms, which punctuate the long, multi-phase extensional history. Whereas Neogene to Recent inversions can be attributed at least in part to plate collision (locally) and

  4. 3-D Teleseismic Tomography of the Crust and Upper Mantle Beneath Northern Tasmania, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlinson, N.; Kennett, B. L.; Reading, A. M.

    2004-12-01

    The TIGGER project is a multi-faceted seismic study of Tasmania and southern Victoria (SE Australia) undertaken by the Australian National University in 2001/2002. As part of this project, an array of 72 short period and broadband seismic recorders with a nominal spacing of 15 km was deployed across northern Tasmania for a period of five months. To date, nearly 6,000 relative arrival times from 100 earthquakes have been picked using a newly developed and robust adaptive stacking technique. The azimuthal coverage of teleseisms is generally good, with many events to the north and east (e.g.~Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand, Fiji), although fewer from the south and west(e.g.~South Sandwich Islands, mid- Indian ridge). A new iterative non-linear tomographic inversion procedure based on the fast marching method (FMM), a grid based eikonal solver, and a subspace inversion scheme, is used to map traveltime residual patterns as P-wave velocity anomalies from an ak135 reference model. The 3-D model volume beneath the array is parameterized using cubic B-spline functions in spherical coordinates; a total of nearly 10,000 vertices at approximately 15 km grid spacing is used to describe the TIGGER model. Preliminary tomographic results from the TIGGER experiment show significant lateral variations in P-wave velocity structure within the Tasmanian lithosphere. Geological inferences made from these early results include: (1) Within the crust, the first-order E-W velocity variations strongly support the idea that eastern Tasmania is underlain by dense rocks with an oceanic crustal affinity, contrasting with the continentally derived lower crustal rocks of western Tasmania; (2) the Tamar Fracture System, often defined as a lithospheric scale discontinuity, probably does not exist; (3) the elevated crustal velocities beneath the Rocky Cape Group and Arthur Lineament, compared to the Tyennan Element and Mt. Read Volcanics to the east, also support a mafic

  5. Aerosol Characteristics in the Northern Territory of Australia During the Dry Season With an Emphasis on Biomass Burning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    eucalyptus ) in an open forest with an understorey of (sorghum) tussock grasses. The same eucalypt species were...pe cie s c on ce ntr ati on in T SP sea-salt smoke secondary June 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Mg nssK nssSO4 NO3 Fr ac tio n o f s pe cie s c on ce ntr...ati on in T SP PM10 to PM1 (coarse particles) PM1 (fine particles) sea-salt smoke secondary Fr ac tio n o f s pe cie s c on ce ntr ati on in T SP

  6. Age of uranium mineralization at the Jabiluka and Ranger deposits, Northern Territory, Australia: New U- Pb isotope evidence.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Grauch, R.I.; Nutt, C.J.; Nash, J.T.; Frishman, D.; Simmons, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Ranger and Jabiluka uranium deposits are the largest in the Alligator Rivers uranium field, which contains at least 20% of the world's low-cost uranium reserves. Ore occurs in early Proterozoic metasediments, below an unconformity with sandstones of the 1.65 b.y.-old Kombolgie Formation. This study has used U-Pb isotope data from a large number of whole-rock drill core samples with a variety of mineral assemblages and textures. Both Ranger and Jabiluka reflect a common, profound isotopic disturbance at about 400 to 600 m.y. This disturbance, which was especially pronounced at Jabiluka, may correspond to the development of basins and associated basalt flows to the W and SW.-from Authors

  7. Reorienting health services in the Northern Territory of Australia: a conceptual model for building health promotion capacity in the workforce.

    PubMed

    Judd, Jenni; Keleher, Helen

    2013-06-01

    Reorienting work practices to include health promotion and prevention is complex and requires specific strategies and interventions. This paper presents original research that used 'real-world' practice to demonstrate that knowledge gathered from practice is relevant for the development of practice-based evidence. The paper shows how practitioners can inform and influence improvements in health promotion practice. Practitioner-informed evidence necessarily incorporates qualitative research to capture the richness of their reflective experiences. Using a participatory action research (PAR) approach, the research question asked 'what are the core dimensions of building health promotion capacity in a primary health care workforce in a real-world setting?' PAR is a method in which the researcher operates in full collaboration with members of the organisation being studied for the purposes of achieving some kind of change, in this case to increase the amount of health promotion and prevention practice within this community health setting. The PAR process involved six reflection and action cycles over two years. Data collection processes included: survey; in-depth interviews; a training intervention; observations of practice; workplace diaries; and two nominal groups. The listen/reflect/act process enabled lessons from practice to inform future capacity-building processes. This research strengthened and supported the development of health promotion to inform 'better health' practices through respectful change processes based on research, practitioner-informed evidence, and capacity-building strategies. A conceptual model for building health promotion capacity in the primary health care workforce was informed by the PAR processes and recognised the importance of the determinants approach. Practitioner-informed evidence is the missing link in the evidence debate and provides the links between evidence and its translation to practice. New models of health promotion service delivery can be developed in community settings recognising the importance of involving practitioners themselves in these processes.

  8. Chemical data and statistical interpretations for rocks and ores from the Ranger uranium mine, Northern Territory, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas; Frishman, David

    1983-01-01

    Analytical results for 61 elements in 370 samples from the Ranger Mine area are reported. Most of the rocks come from drill core in the Ranger No. 1 and Ranger No. 3 deposits, but 20 samples are from unmineralized drill core more than 1 km from ore. Statistical tests show that the elements Mg, Fe, F, Be, Co, Li, Ni, Pb, Sc, Th, Ti, V, CI, As, Br, Au, Ce, Dy, La Sc, Eu, Tb, Yb, and Tb have positive association with uranium, and Si, Ca, Na, K, Sr, Ba, Ce, and Cs have negative association. For most lithologic subsets Mg, Fe, Li, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Y, Sm, Sc, Eu, and Yb are significantly enriched in ore-bearing rocks, whereas Ca, Na, K, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ce, and Cs are significantly depleted. These results are consistent with petrographic observations on altered rocks. Lithogeochemistry can aid exploration, but for these rocks requires methods that are expensive and not amenable to routine use.

  9. Dirofilaria immitis in the dingo (Canis familiaris dingo) in a tropical region of the Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Starr, T W; Mulley, R C

    1988-01-01

    The heart and lungs from 32 adult dingoes (Canis familiaris dingo) were examined for canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection. Eighteen of 32 (56%) samples were infected, with intensity of infection ranging from 1 to 31 worms per animal. Seven of 18 (39%) infections were single sex infections. Large numbers of circulating microfilariae were present in blood from all dingoes infected with both sexes of worms.

  10. Effect of Ambient Temperature on Australian Northern Territory Public Hospital Admissions for Cardiovascular Disease among Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Populations

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Leanne; Bambrick, Hilary; Tait, Peter; Green, Donna; Alexander, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Hospitalisations are associated with ambient temperature, but little is known about responses in population sub-groups. In this study, heat responses for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in two age groups were examined for two categories of cardiac diseases using daily hospital admissions from five Northern Territory hospitals (1992–2011). Admission rates during the hottest five per cent of days and the coolest five per cent of days were compared with rates at other times. Among 25–64 year olds, the Indigenous female population was more adversely affected by very hot days than the non-Indigenous female population, with admission rates for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) increasing by 32%. People older than 65 were more sensitive to cold, with non-Indigenous male admissions for heart failure increasing by 64%, and for IHD by 29%. For older Indigenous males, IHD admissions increased by 52% during cold conditions. For older non-Indigenous females, increases in admissions for heart failure were around 50% on these cold days, and 64% for older Indigenous females. We conclude that under projected climate change conditions, admissions for IHD amongst younger Indigenous people would increase in hot conditions, while admissions among elderly people during cold weather may be reduced. The responses to temperature, while showing significant relationships across the Northern Territory, may vary by region. These variations were not explored in this assessment. PMID:24531121

  11. Effect of ambient temperature on Australian northern territory public hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease among indigenous and non-indigenous populations.

    PubMed

    Webb, Leanne; Bambrick, Hilary; Tait, Peter; Green, Donna; Alexander, Lisa

    2014-02-13

    Hospitalisations are associated with ambient temperature, but little is known about responses in population sub-groups. In this study, heat responses for Indigenous and non-Indigenous people in two age groups were examined for two categories of cardiac diseases using daily hospital admissions from five Northern Territory hospitals (1992-2011). Admission rates during the hottest five per cent of days and the coolest five per cent of days were compared with rates at other times. Among 25-64 year olds, the Indigenous female population was more adversely affected by very hot days than the non-Indigenous female population, with admission rates for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) increasing by 32%. People older than 65 were more sensitive to cold, with non-Indigenous male admissions for heart failure increasing by 64%, and for IHD by 29%. For older Indigenous males, IHD admissions increased by 52% during cold conditions. For older non-Indigenous females, increases in admissions for heart failure were around 50% on these cold days, and 64% for older Indigenous females. We conclude that under projected climate change conditions, admissions for IHD amongst younger Indigenous people would increase in hot conditions, while admissions among elderly people during cold weather may be reduced. The responses to temperature, while showing significant relationships across the Northern Territory, may vary by region. These variations were not explored in this assessment.

  12. Seafloor morphology and high-energy processes, Northern Carnarvon Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, J. G.; Fulthorpe, C.; Austin, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Seafloor morphology in the east-central portion of the Northern Carnarvon Basin (NCB), Northwest Shelf (NWS), Australia, has been mapped using 27,500km2 of 2D and 3D seismic data encompassing the middle shelf to the rise. The shelf edge bisects the study area and is convex basinward in map view. A 40 by 25km shelf-edge platform (~40m water depth) in the SE rises 100m above the seafloor at its northern margin, but the remainder of the platform is capped by sediment drape. This platform is interpreted as a partially buried, drowned reef and may fit a pattern of northeastward-trending reef drowning recognized on the ancient and modern NWS. An arcuate, 85 by 6.5km succession of 3 ridges, possibly sediment waves, trends N66degE on the outer shelf in water depths of 150-200m. Their average wavelength is ~500m and ridge heights vary from 2-7m. These ridges may be extensions of a previously reported planktic ridge to the east. Fluvial discharge from the arid Pilbara Coast supplies little modern sediment to the middle shelf. The negligible amount of fine-grained sediments and low levels of suspended sediment on the middle-outer shelf suggest that only high-energy processes can affect sediment dispersal and erosion. The Leeuwin Current (LC) is the dominant ocean current in the region; its shallow depth and local SW-directed flow may influence the growth of the sediment ridges observed on the outer shelf. However, the LC is low-energy in comparison to strong internal tides, which have been documented on this part of the NCB. Measured maximum bottom layer shear stress is SE-directed and occurs at ~180m, just above the shelf break. Such tides can initiate sediment movement upslope, so they could also influence evolution of the sediment ridges. The slope in the SW part of the region is steep (6deg) and incised by 14 ~1km-long gullies with widths of 1-2km at the shelf edge; widths increase down the slope to 3-5km in water depths of ~1,400m. The slope becomes less steep (0.6deg

  13. Roaming of dogs in remote Indigenous communities in northern Australia and potential interaction between community and wild dogs.

    PubMed

    Bombara, C; Dürr, S; Gongora, J; Ward, M P

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the roaming of Indigenous community dogs and potential interaction with wild dogs and dingoes. Cross-sectional survey and longitudinal follow-up study. Six remote Indigenous communities in Cape York Peninsula and Arnhem Land in northern Australia were selected. Hair samples were collected from community dogs and microsatellite DNA analyses were used to determine hybrid (>10% dingo DNA) status. Dogs were fitted with GPS collars and home range (ha) was estimated during monitoring periods of up to 3 days. In Cape York Peninsula, 6% of the 35 dogs sampled were dingo hybrids, whereas in Arnhem Land 41% of the 29 dogs sampled were hybrids. The median extended home range was estimated to be 4.54 ha (interquartile range, 3.40 - 7.71). Seven community dogs were identified with an estimated home range > 20 ha and home ranges included the bushland surrounding communities. No significant difference in home ranges was detected between hybrid and non-hybrid dogs. Study results provide some evidence (dingo hybridisation, bushland forays) of the potential interaction between domestic and wild dogs in northern Australia. The nature of this interaction needs further investigation to determine its role in disease transmission; for example, in the case of a rabies incursion in this region. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  14. Comparative uranium-thorium and thermoluminescence dating of weathered quaternary alluvium in the tropics of Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanson, Gerald C.; Price, David M.; Short, Stephen A.; Young, Robert W.; Jones, Brian G.

    1991-05-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) age determinations of alluvial sediments in the tropics are evaluated by comparison with U/Th age determinations of pedogenic accumulations in the alluvium of the lower Gilbert River, a large fan delta in the wet-dry tropics of northern Queensland, Australia. This study extends U/Th dating by applying it not only to calcretes, but also to Fe/Mn oxyhydroxide/oxide accumulations. While a direct correlation cannot be made between U/Th dates from secondary minerals and TL dates from the host sediments, both sets of data show broad consistency. In addition to providing a minima for acceptable TL ages, U/Th dates are useful for determining the chronology of pedogenesis/diagenesis. They show that calcretes and ferricretes have formed under similar climatic conditions in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia during the late pleistocene. Beneath about 5-12 m the Gilbert fan delta consists of an extensive sand body older than 85,000 yr and probably about 120,000 yr in age, representative of a period of major fluvial activity not repeated since this time. Above are muds and fine sandy muds that extend uninterrupted to the present surface except in the downstream fan where they are bisected by a thin unit of medium sand that TL dates at 40,000-50,000 yr B.P. A system of sandy distributary channels over the fan surface represents an early Holocene fluvial phase probably more active than at present.

  15. Australia: a continuing genocide?

    PubMed

    Short, Damien

    2010-01-01

    Debates about genocide in Australia have for the most part focussed on past frontier killings and child removal practices. This article, however, focuses on contemporary culturally destructive policies, and the colonial structures that produce them, through the analytical lens of the concept of genocide. The article begins with a discussion of the meaning of cultural genocide, locating the idea firmly in Lemkin's work before moving on to engage with the debates around Lemkin's distinction between genocide and cultural 'diffusion.' In contrast to those scholars who prefer the word 'ethnocide,' the underlying conceptual contention is that the term 'cultural genocide' simply describes a key method of genocide and should be viewed, without the need for qualification, as genocide. While direct physical killing and genocidal child removal practices may have ceased in Australia, some indigenous activists persuasively contend that genocide is a continuing process in an Australia that has failed to decolonise. Concurring with these views the article argues that the contemporary expression of continuing genocidal relations in Australia can be seen principally, and perversely, in the colonial state's official reconciliation process, native title land rights regime and the recent interventionist 'solutions' to indigenous 'problems' in the Northern Territory.

  16. A new phasmid gecko (Squamata: Diplodactylidae: Strophurus) from the Arnhem Plateau: more new diversity in rare vertebrates from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Paul M; Parkin, Tom

    2014-10-22

    The Arnhem Plateau is a rugged expanse of sandstone escarpment in the Australian Monsoonal Tropics with a highly endemic biota. Here we describe a new species of small spinifex dwelling Strophurus (phasmid gecko) that also appears to be endemic to this region. Strophurus horneri sp. nov. can be diagnosed from all congeners by aspects of size, coloration and scalation. Even with the description of this new species, however, levels of morphological and genetic diversity within Strophurus from the stone country of the Northern Territory suggest additional divergent lineages are present. A number of recent studies have now provided preliminary evidence of evolutionary diversity within the Arnhem Plateau, but data remains scant and almost nothing is known about how topography and historical processes have shaped the endemic biota of this region. 

  17. New species of Metatrichia Coquillett (Diptera: Scenopinidae) from Australia and Venezuela

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two new species of the cosmopolitan genus Metatrichia Coquillett are described. Metatrichia dhimurru sp. nov. is described from Arnhem Land (Northern Territory), Australia and represents the third species of the genus to be described from the Australian-Papuan region. Metatrichia venezuelensis sp. n...

  18. Using GIS techniques to detect the impact of territorial evolution on producing natural hazard in Northern Romania, commune Vorniceni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gălbău, Ionela

    2015-04-01

    Using techniques of information, such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS), on spatial analysis, offers numerous possibilities in terms of spatial emphasizing the study area and marking hazard risk areas (especially landslides). Although the means ultra modern techniques have advanced, using GIS in spatial planning remains the most important technique used. Also, GIS maps obtained are more objective than paper made by hand, using the same data and the same conceptual model. The study area, commune Vorniceni is situated in the north of Romania, Ibaneasa River basin, a tributary of Jijiei and occupies an area of 63 km2. The area has experienced over the past 50 years, a trend not only territorial but also morphological and morphometric. This study involves a relation between the evolution of territorial distribution of the population of the commune Vorniceni and influence on the environment. The construction of the dam reservoir Ibaneasa River using poor borrow pits, meant a starting point for the development of landslides. Brutal antropic intervention on the environment by building a dam or lake clogging the two reservoirs (ponds) increased possibility of negative phenomena in the area. These phenomena directly affect the village population as territorial evolution involved the construction of settlements in areas with potential risk of landslides. The analysis of the factors that have influenced the evolution of territorial and producing negative phenomena and making GIS database will be followed by the realization of a hypsometric map of slopes, slope inclination and land use. All this, highlights the relationship anthropic environment - natural environment, and not turning both low population provides another opportunity to use the land in a beneficial way by harnessing the risk map obtained. Although not without shortcomings, the method proved to be a feasible and cost-effective approach for assessing landslide susceptibility and mapping. "ACKNOWLEDGMENT This

  19. Chronic respiratory disease in the regional and remote population of the Northern Territory Top End: A perspective from the specialist respiratory outreach service.

    PubMed

    Kruavit, Anuk; Fox, Melissa; Pearson, Rebecca; Heraganahally, Subash

    2017-06-15

    To study the demographic, rates and types of chronic respiratory conditions in Indigenous and non-Indigenous patients in regional and remote communities of Northern Territory Top End, who were referred to the specialist respiratory outreach service. A retrospective, observational study over a 2 years period. Remote community health clinics within the Northern Territory Top End visited by the specialist respiratory outreach team. Only patients referred to respiratory specialist outreach team were included. There were 444 participants, with 210 males and 234 females. In total, 79.3% were Indigenous. The rates of chronic respiratory disease diagnoses and smoking status within the different communities and health district regions. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was the most common primary respiratory condition in our cohort of patients (50.5%) followed by sleep apnoea in (14.2%), bronchiectasis in (11.6%), asthma (11%), interstitial lung disease (2.5%), nodule/cancer (1.8%) sarcoidosis (0.2%) and others (9.2%). COPD, smoking status and bronchiectasis was more frequently noted among the Indigenous patients compared to non-Indigenous patients (56.3% versus 28.3%, P < 0.001), (52.6% versus 25.0%, P < 0.001), and (12.5% versus 3.3%, P = 0.01) respectively. Obstructive sleep apnoea was more commonly diagnosed in non-Indigenous patients. Indigenous patients of the remote and rural communities of the Top End have significantly higher rates of smoking and COPD compared to non-Indigenous patients. Bronchiectasis is also more common among Indigenous patients. Further efforts are warranted to develop strategies to address the disparity and optimise the respiratory outreach service to this population. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  20. Checklist and Bibliography of Benthic Marine Macroalgae Recorded from Northern Australia. I. Rhodophyta,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Puerto Rico." Bot. Jb., 9, 457-470. 76 I Hering, D. (1841). "Diagnoses algarum novarum a cl. Dre. Ferdinand Krauss in Africa australi lectarum." Ann...ASCOT VALE (AUSTRALIA) UNCLASSIFIED J A LEWIS JAN 84 MRL-R-912 F/6 6/3 NLKIIEIIIEEIIF IIII IIU’~" m2 IIIJIL125 1111𔃾L 111 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TESI

  1. Dracunculus mulbus n. sp. (Nematoda: Spirurida) from the water python Liasis fuscus (Serpentes: Boidae) in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hugh I; Mulder, Eridani

    2007-03-01

    A new species of Dracunculus Reichard, 1759 (Nematoda: Spirurida) is described from the tissues surrounding organs in the body-cavity of the water python Liasis fuscus Peters in northern Australia. One to 14 worms were recovered from 22% (27/120) of pythons examined. Males were located principally around the lungs, liver and heart of the hosts, and females were recovered from peritoneal tissue surrounding the intestines and lining the body-cavity. This species differs from previously described species of Dracunculus in the position of the papillae at the posterior end in males, and in the possession of thick, narrow caudal alae. Submedian cephalic papillae are single in both sexes. Dorsal and ventral anterior cephalic papillae are absent in males. This is the first report of a species of Dracunculus from the Australian region.

  2. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John's snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37-3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126-141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae.

  3. Quaternary stratigraphy, geochronology and evolution of the Magela Creek catchment in the monsoon tropics of northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanson, Gerald C.; East, T. Jon; Roberts, Richard G.

    1993-03-01

    Magela Creek, a major tributary of the East Alligator River in northern Australia, has left a detailed sedimentary record of a fluvial landscape dominated by climatic and eustatic changes associated with Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles. Uranium-series dates from young pisoliths in floodplain deposits indicate that ferruginisation is probably ongoing under present conditions while ferricretes in degraded terraces that flank the lower valley reveal a fluvial history extending back to early Pleistocene or Tertiary time. Inset within this older alluvium is a valley fill which, from thermoluminescence dates, was initiated about 300 kyr ago. With each glacial climate change and associated fall in sea level, distinct palaeochannels have been eroded into these floodplains, infilling later with alluvium when climate and base-level conditions were conducive to fluvial deposition. Radiocarbon dates show that the most recent palaeochannel beneath the modern Magela Creek last started to fill by downstream progradation and vertical accretion of bedload sand about 8 kyr. The palaeochannel filled at an accelerating rate, probably as a result of declining stream competence associated with drier conditions in the late Holocene augmented by the backwater effects of sea-level rise. Continued aggradation blocked the mouths of tributary valleys along Magela Creek, forming alluvial-dammed tributary lakes and deferred-junction tributary streams. From about 300 kyr, cyclic episodes of channel incision and sediment evacuation in this tropical-monsoon river valley have become less effective, possibly because increasing aridity in the late Quaternary has reduced the erosional effectiveness of Australia's northern rivers. Reduced flow regime and rising sea level in the late Holocene has resulted in the latest phase of alluvial accretion.

  4. Is Drosera meristocaulis a pygmy sundew? Evidence of a long-distance dispersal between Western Australia and northern South America

    PubMed Central

    Rivadavia, F.; de Miranda, V. F. O.; Hoogenstrijd, G.; Pinheiro, F.; Heubl, G.; Fleischmann, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims South America and Oceania possess numerous floristic similarities, often confirmed by morphological and molecular data. The carnivorous Drosera meristocaulis (Droseraceae), endemic to the Neblina highlands of northern South America, was known to share morphological characters with the pygmy sundews of Drosera sect. Bryastrum, which are endemic to Australia and New Zealand. The inclusion of D. meristocaulis in a molecular phylogenetic analysis may clarify its systematic position and offer an opportunity to investigate character evolution in Droseraceae and phylogeographic patterns between South America and Oceania. Methods Drosera meristocaulis was included in a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Droseraceae, using nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and plastid rbcL and rps16 sequence data. Pollen of D. meristocaulis was studied using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques, and the karyotype was inferred from root tip meristem. Key Results The phylogenetic inferences (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches) substantiate with high statistical support the inclusion of sect. Meristocaulis and its single species, D. meristocaulis, within the Australian Drosera clade, sister to a group comprising species of sect. Bryastrum. A chromosome number of 2n = approx. 32–36 supports the phylogenetic position within the Australian clade. The undivided styles, conspicuous large setuous stipules, a cryptocotylar (hypogaeous) germination pattern and pollen tetrads with aperture of intermediate type 7–8 are key morphological traits shared between D. meristocaulis and pygmy sundews of sect. Bryastrum from Australia and New Zealand. Conclusions The multidisciplinary approach adopted in this study (using morphological, palynological, cytotaxonomic and molecular phylogenetic data) enabled us to elucidate the relationships of the thus far unplaced taxon D. meristocaulis. Long-distance dispersal between southwestern

  5. Field evaluation of repellent formulations against daytime and nighttime biting mosquitoes in a tropical rainforest in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Frances, S P; Van Dung, Nguye; Beebe, N W; Debboun, Mustapha

    2002-05-01

    Field trials to compare repellent formulations containing either picaridin or deet against rainforest mosquitoes in northern Queensland, Australia, were conducted. Three repellents were compared at night: 9.3% picaridin and 19.2% picaridin (Autan Repel and Autan Repel Army 20, respectively, Bayer, Sydney, Australia) and 35% deet in a gel (Australian Defense Force [ADF]). During the day, the following three repellents were compared: 19.2% picaridin, 20% deet in a controlled release formulation (Sawyer Controlled Release Deet), and 33% deet in a polymer formulation (U.S. Army Extended Duration Topical Insect and Arthropod Repellent [EDTIAR]). The predominant mosquito species collected was Verrallina lineata (Taylor), with smaller numbers of Ochlerotatus kochi (Donitz), Anopheles farauti s.s. Laveran, Ochlerotatus notoscriptus (Skuse), and Coquilletidia xanthogaster (Edwards). In nighttime tests, 19.2% picaridin provided >94.7% protection for at least 9 h, and ADF deet provided >95% protection for 7 h. The 9.3% picaridin formulation provided >95% protection for only 2 h, and provided 60% protection at 9 h. In daytime tests, Sawyer 20% deet provided >95% protection for 6 h, and both 19.2% picaridin and U.S. Army EDTIAR provided >95% protection for 8 h. In both nighttime and daytime tests 19.2% picaridin provided similar or better protection than deet formulations.

  6. Morbillivirus infection in live stranded, injured, trapped, and captive cetaceans in southeastern Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Stone, Brett M; Blyde, David J; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Morton, John M

    2012-01-01

    We report serologic evidence of cetacean morbillivirus (CMV) infection in five of eight cetacean species found live stranded, injured, or trapped along the coast of southeastern Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia between December 2005 and January 2011. Antibody to CMV was detected in 13 of 27 (48%) wild cetaceans sampled. Antibody prevalence was significantly higher in clinically diseased (69%) compared to nondiseased (18%) animals (P=0.018). There was high antibody prevalence (83%, n=6) in melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra). Two of 13 (15%) captive cetaceans sampled between November 2005 and January 2011 had CMV antibodies and, as infection was unlikely to have occurred while in captivity, CMV infection appears to have been present in Australian wild cetaceans since at least 1985. These results indicate that morbillivirus infection is occurring without widespread cetacean mortality in this region. However, as the deaths of two immature Australian offshore bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were attributed to CMV infection, morbillivirus infection should be included in the differential diagnosis of disease in cetaceans in Australia. Captive cetacean populations may be prone to significant mortality as a result of CMV introduction, so strict quarantine procedures should be enforced when injured or stranded cetaceans are hospitalized and rehabilitated at Australian zoos and marine parks.

  7. Low-temperature thermochronology of the northern Thomson Orogen: Implications for exhumation of basement rocks in NE Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdel, Charles; Stockli, Daniel; Purdy, David

    2016-01-01

    The Tasmanides of eastern Australia record much of the Phanerozoic tectonic development of the retreating Pacific-Australia plate boundary and are an oft-cited example of an orogen that has undergone "tectonic mode switching." To begin to constrain the timing of exhumation of basement rocks that are now exposed in portions of the NE Tasmanides, we measured apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages from the Thomson Orogen and overlying Paleozoic strata in the back-arc of the New England Orogen in NE Australia. Zircon (U-Th)/He ages from basement samples (including those recovered from boreholes at depths of up to 1.1 km) are characterized by large inter- and intra-sample variability and range from approximately 180 Ma (Early Jurassic) to 375 Ma (Late Devonian). (U-Th)/He zircon ages from several individual samples are negatively correlated with effective uranium (eU), a pattern that is also true of the dataset as a whole, suggesting that variations in U and Th zoning and radiation damage are partially responsible for the age variability. The oldest zircon (U-Th)/He cooling ages coincide with the formation of regionally extensive Late Devonian-early Carboniferous back-arc basins, suggesting that Late Devonian extension played a significant role in exhumation of parts of the northern Thomson Orogen. Apatite (U-Th)/He ages from a basement sample and a late Permian sandstone in the overlying Bowen Basin, which are also marked by intra-sample variability and age-eU correlations, span from the Early Cretaceous through Oligocene, in general agreement with previous apatite fission track data. In conjunction with observations of key geologic relationships and prior K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar data, our results suggest four overall phases in the thermal history of the northern Thomson Orogen: (1) Cambrian-early Silurian metamorphism during the Delamerian and Benambran Orogenies; (2) protracted cooling during the Late Devonian through mid-Permian that likely resulted from extensional

  8. Indigenous Gambling Motivations, Behaviour and Consequences in Northern New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen M.; Hing, Nerilee; Gordon, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Against a background of public health, we sought to examine and explain gambling behaviours, motivations and consequences of Indigenous Australians in northern New South Wales. Adhering to national Aboriginal and ethical guidelines and using qualitative methods, 169 Indigenous Australians were interviewed individually and in small groups using…

  9. Indigenous Gambling Motivations, Behaviour and Consequences in Northern New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen M.; Hing, Nerilee; Gordon, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Against a background of public health, we sought to examine and explain gambling behaviours, motivations and consequences of Indigenous Australians in northern New South Wales. Adhering to national Aboriginal and ethical guidelines and using qualitative methods, 169 Indigenous Australians were interviewed individually and in small groups using…

  10. Groundwater interaction with surface drains in the Ord River Irrigation Area, northern Australia: investigation by multiple methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Anthony J.; Pollock, Daniel W.; Palmer, Duncan

    2010-08-01

    Following 35 years of persistent groundwater rise beneath northern Ivanhoe Plain in the Ord River Irrigation Area, northern Australia, the water table appears to have stabilized near the base of the irrigation surface-drain network. Hydrometric evidence indicates that intersection of the deepest surface drains by the rising water table simultaneously reduced aquifer recharge from surface-water infiltration and increased aquifer discharge by groundwater exfiltration. Water-table analysis supports the working hypothesis that the largest irrigation drain D4 on north Ivanhoe Plain has been receiving a significant amount of groundwater discharge since the mid-1990s. The rate of groundwater discharge to surface drains on north Ivanhoe Plain was estimated to be around 15-20 million (M)L/day based on groundwater-flow modelling. Groundwater tracing using radon and electrical conductivity indicated that groundwater discharge to drain D4 was ˜6-12 ML/day in August 2007. The rate of groundwater discharge was significantly larger where the drain traverses a very-permeable sand and gravel palaeochannel. Relatively modest exfiltration rates of order of magnitude tens to hundreds of mm/day into the drain were estimated to mitigate 0.5 m/year groundwater accretion for a land area of order of magnitude hundreds to thousands of ha.

  11. The role of density dependence in growth patterns of ceded territory walleye populations of northern Wisconsin: Effects of changing management regimes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, G.G.; Hewett, S.W.; Beard, T.D.; Fayram, A.H.; Kitchell, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    We assessed density-related changes in growth of walleye Sander vitreus in the ceded territory of northern Wisconsin from 1977 to 1999. We used asymptotic length (Lz), growth rate near t0 (??), and body condition as measures of walleye growth to determine the relationship between growth and density. Among lakes, there was weak evidence of density-dependent growth: adult density explained only 0-6% of the variability in the growth metrics. Within lakes, growth was density dependent. Lz, ??, and body condition of walleyes changing with density for 69, 28, and 62% of the populations examined, respectively. Our results suggest that walleye growth was density dependent within individual lakes. However, growth was not coherently density dependent among lakes, which was possibly due to inherent differences in the productivity, surface area, forage base, landscape position, species composition, and management regime of lakes in the ceded territory. Densities of adult walleyes averaged 8.3 fish/ha and did not change significantly during 1990-1999. Mean Lz and body condition of walleyes were signilicantly higher before 1990 than after 1990, which may indicate an increase in density due to changes in management regimes. The observed growth changes do not appear to be a consequence of the statewide 15-in minimum size limit adopted in 1990 but rather a response to the treaty rights management regime. We conclude that walleye growth has the potential to predict regional-scale adult walleye densities if lake-specific variables are included in a model to account for regional-scale differences among walleye populations and lakes.

  12. Reproductive strategies of two invasive tilapia species Oreochromis mossambicus and Tilapia mariae in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Russell, D J; Thuesen, P A; Thomson, F E

    2012-05-01

    The reproductive biology of two invasive tilapia species, Oreochromis mossambicus and Tilapia mariae, resident in freshwater habitats in north-eastern Australia was investigated. Oreochromis mossambicus exhibited plasticity in some of its life-history characteristics that enhanced its ability to occupy a range of habitats. These included a shallow, weed-choked, freshwater coastal drain that was subject to temperature and dissolved oxygen extremes and water-level fluctuations to cooler, relatively high-altitude impoundments. Adaptations to harsher conditions included a decreased total length (L(T) ) and age (A) at 50% maturity (m50), short somatic growth intervals, early maturation and higher relative fecundities. Potential fecundity in both species was relatively low, but parental care ensured high survival rates of both eggs and larvae. No significant difference in the relative fecundity of T. mariae populations in a large impoundment and a coastal river was found, but there were significant differences in relative fecundities between several of the O. mossambicus populations sampled. Total length (L(T) ) and age at 50% maturity of O. mossambicus populations varied considerably depending on habitat. The L(Tm50) and A(m50) values for male and female O. mossambicus in a large impoundment were considerably greater than for those resident in a small coastal drain. Monthly gonad developmental stages and gonado-somatic indices suggested that in coastal areas, spawning of O. mossambicus and T. mariae occurred throughout most of the year while in cooler, high-altitude impoundments, spawning peaked in the warmer, summer months. The contribution these reproductive characteristics make to the success of both species as colonizers is discussed in the context of future control and management options for tilapia incursions in Australia. © 2012 Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, Queensland. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the

  13. Crustal structure of the northern Perth Basin, southwest margin of Australia: insights from three-dimensional density models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzrichter, Nils; Hackney, Ron; Johnston, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The northern Perth Basin formed from the Palaeozoic to Mesozoic within an obliquely oriented extensional rift system on the southwest continental margin of Australia. Knowledge of the basin in onshore and inboard areas reflects better accessibility and the existence of proven hydrocarbon resources. In contrast, outboard parts of the basin have poorer data coverage and hydrocarbon potential remains to be proven. In order to better constrain sediment thickness and crustal structure in the northern Perth Basin, particularly in offshore areas where coverage of seismic data is less extensive, we adopted a 3-D density modelling approach whereby simple models were initially constructed as a means to highlight the level of agreement between measured and calculated gravity. These initial models are based only on available constraints, automated extrapolation of interpreted horizons into areas without constraints, and different interpretations of Moho depth. The initial models show that the processes leading to formation of sediment depocentres in the northern Perth Basin are not governed by simple local isostasy. We show instead that a model incorporating an existing Moho model for the Australian region leads to a better fit. In this model, the Moho is deeper under the thick sediments of the onshore Dandaragan Trough. As a result, the crystalline crust between the Beagle Ridge and basin-bounding Darling Fault has a relatively constant thickness that is consistent with crustal-scale tilting and normal displacement on a steeply west-dipping Darling Fault. In the outboard parts of the basin, our modelling suggests that the deep water Zeewyck Sub-basin is a deep and steep-sided depocentre, but this area lacks constraints and uncertainty in its interpretation cannot be resolved without additional data. Despite this, the steep edges, thick sediments and the large lateral variations in Moho depth are consistent with the geometry expected of a transtensional basin. We also present

  14. Arts-based HIV and STI prevention intervention with Northern and Indigenous youth in the Northwest Territories: study protocol for a non-randomised cohort pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Lys, Candice; Logie, Carmen H; MacNeill, Nancy; Loppie, Charlotte; Dias, Lisa V; Masching, Renée; Gesink, Dionne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Indigenous youth are disproportionately represented in new HIV infection rates in Canada. Current and historical contexts of colonisation and racism, disconnection from culture and land, as well as intergenerational trauma resulting from the legacy of residential schools are social drivers that elevate exposure to HIV among Indigenous peoples. Peer-education and arts-based interventions are increasingly used for HIV prevention with youth. Yet limited studies have evaluated longitudinal effects of arts-based approaches to HIV prevention with youth. The authors present a rationale and study protocol for an arts-based HIV prevention intervention with Northern and Indigenous youth in the Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada. Methods and analysis This is a multicentre non-randomised cohort pilot study using a pretest/post-test design with a 12-month follow-up. The target population is Northern and Indigenous youth in 18 communities in the NWT. The aim is to recruit 150 youth using venue-based sampling at secondary schools. Participants will be involved in an arts-based intervention, Fostering Open eXpression among Youth (FOXY). Participants will complete a pretest, post-test survey directly following the intervention, and a 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome is new or enhanced HIV knowledge, and secondary outcomes to include: new or enhanced sexually transmitted infections knowledge, and increased self-esteem, resilience, empowerment, safer sex self-efficacy and cultural connectedness. Mixed effects regression analyses will be conducted to evaluate pretest and post-test differences in outcome measurement scores. Ethics and dissemination This study has received approval from the HIV Research Ethics Board at the University of Toronto (REB: 31602). In addition, the project is currently registered in the NWT with the Aurora Research Institute (Licence: 15741). Trial results will be published according to the Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with

  15. Inflammation, high ferritin, and erythropoietin resistance in indigenous maintenance hemodialysis patients from the Top End of Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Majoni, Sandawana William; Ellis, Joy-Anne; Hall, Heather; Abeyaratne, Asanga; Lawton, Paul D

    2014-10-01

    Use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) has improved the management of anemia in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Iron deficiency and inflammation cause ESAs resistance and are both common among indigenous people of Northern Australia. As part of quality assurance in our Renal Anaemia Management program, we observed that there was use of higher doses of ESAs and adjuvant iron therapy in our MHD patients. This study aimed to explore the relationship among iron studies, inflammation, ESA responsiveness, and ESAs and iron requirements in indigenous patients on MHD from the Top End of Northern Australia. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of anemia management in a cohort of our patients on MHD. We extracted data for 178 indigenous and 19 non-indigenous patients from 1 March 2009 to 28 February 2010 from the Renal Anaemia Management database, which collects data prospectively in MHD patients. Ninety-nine percent of the whole sample had a ferritin level above the international guidelines threshold of >500 µg/L. Indigenous patients had higher ferritin (1534 ± 245.5 µg/L vs. 1013 ± 323.3 µg/L, P = 0.002). C-reactive protein (CRP) was high in 56.9% of the total cohort. One hundred percent of those with normal CRP had high ferritin (>500 µg/L). C-reactive protein was higher in indigenous than in non-indigenous patients. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents hyporesponsiveness was higher in indigenous patients (P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in ESAs hyporesponsiveness among different levels of CRP (P = 0.116), ferritin (P = 0.408), and transferrin saturation (P = 0.503). Indigenous patients required higher total iron dose (2820.30 [2000-4350] vs. 2336.12 [1912-2900], P = 0.02). There was no significant relationship between the high ferritin and CRP. In indigenous dialysis patients, iron therapy and ESAs use are higher. The high iron use is due to a lack of published evidence to guide the

  16. Environmental Attributes Influencing the Distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Anthony L.; Ezzahir, Jessica; Gardiner, Christopher; Shipton, Warren; Warner, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Factors responsible for the spatial and temporal clustering of Burkholderia pseudomallei in the environment remain to be elucidated. Whilst laboratory based experiments have been performed to analyse survival of the organism in various soil types, such approaches are strongly influenced by alterations to the soil micro ecology during soil sanitisation and translocation. During the monsoonal season in Townsville, Australia, B. pseudomallei is discharged from Castle Hill (an area with a very high soil prevalence of the organism) by groundwater seeps and is washed through a nearby area where intensive sampling in the dry season has been unable to detect the organism. We undertook environmental sampling and soil and plant characterisation in both areas to ascertain physiochemical and macro-floral differences between the two sites that may affect the prevalence of B. pseudomallei. In contrast to previous studies, the presence of B. pseudomallei was correlated with a low gravimetric water content and low nutrient availability (nitrogen and sulphur) and higher exchangeable potassium in soils favouring recovery. Relatively low levels of copper, iron and zinc favoured survival. The prevalence of the organism was found to be highest under the grasses Aristida sp. and Heteropogon contortus and to a lesser extent under Melinis repens. The findings of this study indicate that a greater variety of factors influence the endemicity of melioidosis than has previously been reported, and suggest that biogeographical boundaries to the organisms’ distribution involve complex interactions. PMID:26398904

  17. Temporal variability in shell mound formation at Albatross Bay, northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Petchey, Fiona; Allely, Kasey; Shiner, Justin I.; Bailey, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    We report the results of 212 radiocarbon determinations from the archaeological excavation of 70 shell mound deposits in the Wathayn region of Albatross Bay, Australia. This is an intensive study of a closely co-located group of mounds within a geographically restricted area in a wider region where many more shell mounds have been reported. Valves from the bivalve Tegillarca granosa (Linnaeus, 1758) were dated. The dates obtained are used to calculate rates of accumulation for the shell mound deposits. These demonstrate highly variable rates of accumulation both within and between mounds. We assess these results in relation to likely mechanisms of shell deposition and show that rates of deposition are affected by time-dependent processes both during the accumulation of shell deposits and during their subsequent deformation. This complicates the interpretation of the rates at which shell mound deposits appear to have accumulated. At Wathayn, there is little temporal or spatial consistency in the rates at which mounds accumulated. Comparisons between the Wathayn results and those obtained from shell deposits elsewhere, both in the wider Albatross Bay region and worldwide, suggest the need for caution when deriving behavioural inferences from shell mound deposition rates, and the need for more comprehensive sampling of individual mounds and groups of mounds. PMID:28854234

  18. Temporal variability in shell mound formation at Albatross Bay, northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Holdaway, Simon J; Fanning, Patricia C; Petchey, Fiona; Allely, Kasey; Shiner, Justin I; Bailey, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    We report the results of 212 radiocarbon determinations from the archaeological excavation of 70 shell mound deposits in the Wathayn region of Albatross Bay, Australia. This is an intensive study of a closely co-located group of mounds within a geographically restricted area in a wider region where many more shell mounds have been reported. Valves from the bivalve Tegillarca granosa (Linnaeus, 1758) were dated. The dates obtained are used to calculate rates of accumulation for the shell mound deposits. These demonstrate highly variable rates of accumulation both within and between mounds. We assess these results in relation to likely mechanisms of shell deposition and show that rates of deposition are affected by time-dependent processes both during the accumulation of shell deposits and during their subsequent deformation. This complicates the interpretation of the rates at which shell mound deposits appear to have accumulated. At Wathayn, there is little temporal or spatial consistency in the rates at which mounds accumulated. Comparisons between the Wathayn results and those obtained from shell deposits elsewhere, both in the wider Albatross Bay region and worldwide, suggest the need for caution when deriving behavioural inferences from shell mound deposition rates, and the need for more comprehensive sampling of individual mounds and groups of mounds.

  19. A new species of death adder (Acanthophis: Serpentes: Elapidae) from north-western Australia.

    PubMed

    Maddock, Simon T; Ellis, Ryan J; Doughty, Paul; Smith, Lawrence A; Wüster, Wolfgang

    2015-08-28

    Australian death adders (genus Acanthophis) are highly venomous snakes with conservative morphology and sit-and-wait predatory habits, with only moderate taxonomic diversity that nevertheless remains incompletely understood. Analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences and morphological characteristics of death adders in northern Australia reveal the existence of a new species from the Kimberley region of Western Australia and the Northern Territory, which we describe as Acanthophis cryptamydros sp. nov. Although populations from the Kimberley were previously considered conspecific with Northern Territory death adders of the A. rugosus complex, our mtDNA analysis indicates that its closest relatives are desert death adders, A. pyrrhus. We found that A. cryptamydros sp. nov. is distinct in both mtDNA and nDNA analysis, and possesses multiple morphological characteristics that allow it to be distinguished from all other Acanthophis species. This study further supports the Kimberley region as an area with high endemic biodiversity.

  20. "Boys Business": An Unusual Northern Australian Music Program for Boys in the Middle Years of Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bob

    2004-01-01

    The Northern Territory's population commingles Anglo, European and Asian cultural communities. At over 25 percent, it also has Australia's proportionately largest indigenous population. Consequently it presents an amazing proving ground for people-related research projects. One such project is "Boys Business", involving middle years'…

  1. Primary production in the tropical continental shelf seas bordering northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furnas, Miles J.; Carpenter, Edward J.

    2016-10-01

    Pelagic primary production (14C uptake) was measured 81 times between 1990 and 2013 at sites spanning the broad, shallow Northern Australian Shelf (NAS; 120-145°E) which borders the Australian continent. The mean of all areal production measurements was 1048±109 mg C m-2 d-1 (mean±95% CI). Estimates of areal primary production were correlated with integral upper-euphotic zone chlorophyll stocks (above the 50% and 20% light penetration depths) accessible to ocean color remote sensing and total water column chlorophyll standing crop, but not surface (0-2 m) chlorophyll concentrations. While the NAS is subject to a well characterized monsoonal climate regime (austral summer-NW monsoon -wet: austral winter- SE monsoon -dry), most seasonal differences in means of regional-scale chlorophyll standing crop (11-33 mg Chl m-2 for 12 of 15 season-region combinations) and areal primary production (700-1850 mg C m- day-1 for 12 of 15 season-region combinations) fell within a 3-fold range. Apart from the shallow waters of the Torres Strait and northern Great Barrier Reef, picoplankton (<2 μm size fraction) dominated chlorophyll standing crop and primary production with regional means of picoplankton contributions ranging from 45 to >80%. While the range of our post-1990 areal production estimates overlaps the range of production estimates made in NAS waters during 1960-62, the mean of post-1990 estimates is over 2-fold greater. We regard the difference to be due to improvements in production measurement techniques, particularly regarding the reduction of potential metal toxicity and incubations in more realistic light regimes.

  2. Revision of the genus Hydroides (Annelida: Serpulidae) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanan; Wong, Eunice; ten Hove, Harry A; Hutchings, Pat A; Williamson, Jane E; Kupriyanova, Elena K

    2015-09-01

    Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 is the largest and one of the economically most important genera of calcareous tubeworms (Serpulidae, Annelida) that includes a number of notorious fouling and bioinvading species. Although the representatives of the genus are typically found in shallow waters of tropical and subtropical areas worldwide, the species composition of the genus in Australia has never been revised. We conducted the first detailed regional taxonomic revision of Hydroides species based both on the historical collections from Australian museums (Australian Museum, Museum Victoria, South Australian Museum, Western Australian Museum, Queensland Museum, and Museum and Art Gallery of Northern Territory) and newly collected material from New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Northern Territory, and Western Australia. In total, 25 species are currently considered valid in Australia, including three new species: H. amri n. sp. from NSW, SA, and Vic (previously referred to as H. cf. brachyacantha), as well as H. glasbyi n. sp. and H. qiui n. sp., both from NT, and two new records of H. furcifera and H. multispinosa for Australia. We have synonymised H. spiratubus with H. albiceps, and H. spiculitubus with H. tambalagamensis in this study. The status of the taxon H. cf. recta remains undecided. An identification key and diagnoses accompanied by original high-quality photographs for all species recorded in Australia are provided. Application of molecular genetics is needed to resolve the status of some problematic species.

  3. Unprecedented Melioidosis Cases in Northern Australia Caused by an Asian Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain Identified by Using Large-Scale Comparative Genomics.

    PubMed

    Price, Erin P; Sarovich, Derek S; Smith, Emma J; MacHunter, Barbara; Harrington, Glenda; Theobald, Vanessa; Hall, Carina M; Hornstra, Heidie M; McRobb, Evan; Podin, Yuwana; Mayo, Mark; Sahl, Jason W; Wagner, David M; Keim, Paul; Kaestli, Mirjam; Currie, Bart J

    2016-02-01

    Melioidosis is a disease of humans and animals that is caused by the saprophytic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Once thought to be confined to certain locations, the known presence of B. pseudomallei is expanding as more regions of endemicity are uncovered. There is no vaccine for melioidosis, and even with antibiotic administration, the mortality rate is as high as 40% in some regions that are endemic for the infection. Despite high levels of recombination, phylogenetic reconstruction of B. pseudomallei populations using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has revealed surprisingly robust biogeographic separation between isolates from Australia and Asia. To date, there have been no confirmed autochthonous melioidosis cases in Australia caused by an Asian isolate; likewise, no autochthonous cases in Asia have been identified as Australian in origin. Here, we used comparative genomic analysis of 455 B. pseudomallei genomes to confirm the unprecedented presence of an Asian clone, sequence type 562 (ST-562), in Darwin, northern Australia. First observed in Darwin in 2005, the incidence of melioidosis cases attributable to ST-562 infection has steadily risen, and it is now a common strain in Darwin. Intriguingly, the Australian ST-562 appears to be geographically restricted to a single locale and is genetically less diverse than other common STs from this region, indicating a recent introduction of this clone into northern Australia. Detailed genomic and epidemiological investigations of new clinical and environmental B. pseudomallei isolates in the Darwin region and ST-562 isolates from Asia will be critical for understanding the origin, distribution, and dissemination of this emerging clone in northern Australia. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Unprecedented Melioidosis Cases in Northern Australia Caused by an Asian Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain Identified by Using Large-Scale Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Emma J.; MacHunter, Barbara; Harrington, Glenda; Theobald, Vanessa; Hall, Carina M.; Hornstra, Heidie M.; McRobb, Evan; Podin, Yuwana; Mayo, Mark; Sahl, Jason W.; Wagner, David M.; Keim, Paul; Kaestli, Mirjam; Currie, Bart J.

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis is a disease of humans and animals that is caused by the saprophytic bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Once thought to be confined to certain locations, the known presence of B. pseudomallei is expanding as more regions of endemicity are uncovered. There is no vaccine for melioidosis, and even with antibiotic administration, the mortality rate is as high as 40% in some regions that are endemic for the infection. Despite high levels of recombination, phylogenetic reconstruction of B. pseudomallei populations using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has revealed surprisingly robust biogeographic separation between isolates from Australia and Asia. To date, there have been no confirmed autochthonous melioidosis cases in Australia caused by an Asian isolate; likewise, no autochthonous cases in Asia have been identified as Australian in origin. Here, we used comparative genomic analysis of 455 B. pseudomallei genomes to confirm the unprecedented presence of an Asian clone, sequence type 562 (ST-562), in Darwin, northern Australia. First observed in Darwin in 2005, the incidence of melioidosis cases attributable to ST-562 infection has steadily risen, and it is now a common strain in Darwin. Intriguingly, the Australian ST-562 appears to be geographically restricted to a single locale and is genetically less diverse than other common STs from this region, indicating a recent introduction of this clone into northern Australia. Detailed genomic and epidemiological investigations of new clinical and environmental B. pseudomallei isolates in the Darwin region and ST-562 isolates from Asia will be critical for understanding the origin, distribution, and dissemination of this emerging clone in northern Australia. PMID:26607593

  5. Are High-Impact Species Predictable? An Analysis of Naturalised Grasses in Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    van Klinken, Rieks D.; Panetta, F. Dane; Coutts, Shaun R.

    2013-01-01

    Predicting which species are likely to cause serious impacts in the future is crucial for targeting management efforts, but the characteristics of such species remain largely unconfirmed. We use data and expert opinion on tropical and subtropical grasses naturalised in Australia since European settlement to identify naturalised and high-impact species and subsequently to test whether high-impact species are predictable. High-impact species for the three main affected sectors (environment, pastoral and agriculture) were determined by assessing evidence against pre-defined criteria. Twenty-one of the 155 naturalised species (14%) were classified as high-impact, including four that affected more than one sector. High-impact species were more likely to have faster spread rates (regions invaded per decade) and to be semi-aquatic. Spread rate was best explained by whether species had been actively spread (as pasture), and time since naturalisation, but may not be explanatory as it was tightly correlated with range size and incidence rate. Giving more weight to minimising the chance of overlooking high-impact species, a priority for biosecurity, meant a wider range of predictors was required to identify high-impact species, and the predictive power of the models was reduced. By-sector analysis of predictors of high impact species was limited by their relative rarity, but showed sector differences, including to the universal predictors (spread rate and habitat) and life history. Furthermore, species causing high impact to agriculture have changed in the past 10 years with changes in farming practice, highlighting the importance of context in determining impact. A rationale for invasion ecology is to improve the prediction and response to future threats. Although our study identifies some universal predictors, it suggests improved prediction will require a far greater emphasis on impact rather than invasiveness, and will need to account for the individual circumstances of

  6. Qualitative mathematical models to support ecosystem-based management of Australia's Northern Prawn Fishery.

    PubMed

    Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Rothlisberg, Peter C; Loneragan, Neil R

    2015-01-01

    A major decline in the catch of the banana prawn [shrimp], Penaeus (Fenneropenaeus) merguiensis, occurred over a six-year period in the Weipa region of the northeastern Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia. Three main hypotheses have been developed to explain this decline: (1) prawn recruitment collapsed due to overfishing; (2) recruitment collapsed due to a change in the prawn's environment; and (3) adult banana prawns were still present, but fishers could no longer effectively find or catch them. Qualitative mathematical models were used to link population biology, environmental factors, and fishery dynamics to evaluate the alternative hypotheses. This modeling approach provides the means to rapidly integrate knowledge across disciplines and consider alternative hypotheses about how the structure and function of an ecosystem affects its dynamics. Alternative models were constructed to address the different hypotheses and also to encompass a diversity of opinion about the underlying dynamics of the system. Key findings from these analyses are that: instability in the system can arise when discarded fishery bycatch supports relatively high predation pressure; system stability can be enhanced by management of fishing effort or stock catchability; catch per unit effort is not necessarily a reliable indicator of stock abundance; a change in early-season rainfall should affect all stages in the banana prawn's life cycle; and a reduced catch in the Weipa region can create and reinforce a shift in fishing effort away from Weipa. Results from the models informed an approach to test the hypotheses (i.e., an experimental fishing program), and promoted understanding of the system among researchers, management agencies, and industry. The analytical tools developed in this work to address stages of a prawn life cycle and fishery dynamics are generally applicable to any exploited natural. resource.

  7. The potential for modification in cloning and vitrification technology to enhance genetic progress in beef cattle in Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Robinson, Andrew W; Walton, Simon; Swain, David L; Walsh, Kerry B; Vajta, Gábor

    2014-08-01

    Recent advances in embryology and related research offer considerable possibilities to accelerate genetic improvement in cattle breeding. Such progress includes optimization and standardization of laboratory embryo production (in vitro fertilization - IVF), introduction of a highly efficient method for cryopreservation (vitrification), and dramatic improvement in the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (cloning) in terms of required effort, cost, and overall outcome. Handmade cloning (HMC), a simplified version of somatic cell nuclear transfer, offers the potential for relatively easy and low-cost production of clones. A potentially modified method of vitrification used at a centrally located laboratory facility could result in cloned offspring that are economically competitive with elite animals produced by more traditional means. Apart from routine legal and intellectual property issues, the main obstacle that hampers rapid uptake of these technologies by the beef cattle industry is a lack of confidence from scientific and commercial sources. Once stakeholder support is increased, the combined application of these methods makes a rapid advance toward desirable traits (rapid growth, high-quality beef, optimized reproductive performance) a realistic goal. The potential impact of these technologies on genetic advancement in beef cattle herds in which improvement of stock is sought, such as in northern Australia, is hard to overestimate. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P.

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John’s snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37–3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126–141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae. PMID:25654578

  9. Stoibocephalum n. gen. (Cestoda: Lecanicephalidea) from the sharkray, Rhina ancylostoma Bloch & Schneider (Elasmobranchii: Rhinopristiformes), from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Cielocha, Joanna J; Jensen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of lecanicephalidean cestode, Stoibocephalum arafurense n. gen., n. sp., is described from the sharkray, Rhina ancylostoma Bloch & Schneider, off northern Australia. Stoibocephalum arafurense n. gen., n. sp. is apolytic, and possesses a large, muscular, retractable apical organ, 3 pairs of excretory vessels, and testes in several columns and layers. The presence of 3 pairs of excretory vessels distinguishes this new genus from all other valid lecanicephalidean genera, except Hexacanalis Perrenoud, 1931, from which it can be distinguished based on ovary shape and egg morphology. Stoibocephalum n. gen. most closely resembles Tylocephalum Linton, 1890 but differs from that genus in its ability to completely retract its apical organ into the scolex proper. Scolex microthrix pattern and histological sections of scoleces attached in situ suggest S. arafurense n. gen., n. sp. to attach to the host's intestinal mucosa with apical organ and scolex proper surfaces, rather than just the apical organ surface. This is the third lecanicephalidean species described from the sharkray.

  10. Greenschist facies regional and contact metamorphism of the Thalanga volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposit (northern Queensland, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulick, Holger; Franz, Gerhard

    2001-12-01

    The conditions of two separate greenschist facies metamorphic events have been reconstructed at the syn-genetic Thalanga massive sulfide deposit (northern Queensland, Australia) using scarce garnet-biotite- and garnet-chlorite-bearing samples from the felsic volcano-sedimentary host-rock succession. Regional metamorphism (peak temperature: 440 to 480 °C) generated a foliation defined by aligned chlorite, muscovite and biotite, and rare, euhedral spessartine-almandine(-grossular)-rich garnets. The emplacement of a post-tectonic diorite pluton was associated with contact metamorphism and scarce anhedral spessartine-almandine-rich garnet poikiloblasts crystallized within a ~650-m wide aureole at temperatures of ~500 °C. Both metamorphic stages occurred under pressure conditions of ≤3.5 kbar. Our study documents a useful method for geothermobarometric reconstruction of metamorphosed, syn-genetic ore deposits where calculations based on sulfide assemblages failed to produce unequivocal constraints. Furthermore, we show that hydrothermally altered footwall rhyolite have higher than unaltered rocks, which may help to identify fossil, metamorphosed, hydrothermal systems associated with massive sulfide deposits similar to Thalanga.

  11. Profile stratification of carbon and nitrogen in a native perennial pasture in northern New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walela, Christine; Daniel, Heiko; Wilson, Brian; Lockwood, Peter; Cowie, Annette

    2010-05-01

    Organic carbon in the soil profile is highly stratified typically with largest concentrations in the top 30 cm. Despite low carbon concentrations in the subsoil, these deeper soil horizons nevertheless have the capacity to sequester large amounts of soil organic carbon. The importance of carbon sequestration in sub soils is steadily growing with regard to greenhouse gas mitigation, with increasing evidence of its low turnover rates and relatively stable forms. However, most work to date in Australia has been focused on the surface layers and our knowledge of subsurface carbon distribution is limited. Of the many factors influencing stratification of soil organic carbon in a profile, land use has been shown to have a significant influence on its distribution and quantity. Perennial grass systems in particular, are deeply rooted with various studies reporting a belowground translocation of photosynthetic C of about 30-80% and a global mean soil organic carbon sequestration potential of 0.54 Mg C/ha/yr. Defining the depth at which these carbon densities occur is important as this can give an indication of the stability of the carbon stored in these systems. The objective of the present study was therefore to characterize the distribution of soil carbon and nitrogen stored down the whole soil profile and particularly in the subsoil of a mixed perennial pasture in northern NSW. The study was carried out at Kirby Research Station in northern New South Wales, Australia where a mixed native pasture has grown for over 10 years. Sampling followed a randomized design with 10 replicates. Soils were sampled up to 1m depth and divided into 11 depth increments of 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-50, 50-60, 60-70, 70-80, 80-90 and 90-100 cm in October 2009. Samples were analysed for total organic carbon and total nitrogen (using LECO C/N auto analyser) down the soil profile. Further, an incubation experiment has been set up to determine the sizes and fluxes (turnover rates) of

  12. Handbook on Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    A study unit on Australia for secondary students is divided into eight sections. Section 1 introduces students to the states, territories, and capitals of the country. Section two, land and people, discusses the size, location, geology, climate, flora and fauna, and population of Australia. Sections 3 and 4 outline Australian history and include…

  13. Handbook on Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    A study unit on Australia for secondary students is divided into eight sections. Section 1 introduces students to the states, territories, and capitals of the country. Section two, land and people, discusses the size, location, geology, climate, flora and fauna, and population of Australia. Sections 3 and 4 outline Australian history and include…

  14. Seismic stratigraphy of Devonian reef complexes, northern Canning basin, western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, M.F.

    1987-12-01

    Seismic stratigraphic modeling of the Devonian reef complexes of the northern Canning basin suggests that the model of reef development proposed by Playford can be applied judiciously to the subsurface reefs. Playford proposed, based on outcrop geology, that reef development occurred on the edge of upright, backstepping platforms during the Frasnian and on the edge of advancing platforms during the Famennian. The modeling shows four diagnostic characteristics: (1) tuned trough-on-peak seismic wavelet character of the advanced Famennian reefs, (2) distinct trough wavelet character of backstepped Frasnian platform (underlying the advancing reefs), (3) local dips on migrated seismic data that can be correlated with marginal-slope facies, and (4) pull-up on seismic sections beneath the carbonate buildups. The most useful of these characteristics is the trough-on-peak wavelet pattern defining the front of the Fammennian reefs. As the Famennian back-reef facies is a known hydrocarbon reservoir, the trough-on-peak pattern can provide valuable clues to the Famennian reef geometry.

  15. Climate change impacts on the water balance of coastal and montane rainforests in northern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Jim; McJannet, Dave

    2012-12-01

    SummaryHow the water balance of coastal and montane rainforests in northern Queensland could change in response to climate change was examined using physically based models of interception and transpiration along with long term weather records. Future rainfall and temperature changes were based on the most recent climate modelling for the region and were assumed to fall within the range ±20% for rainfall with a temperature increase of 1-3 K. Climate change will affect the water balance of Australian rainforests primarily via rainfall changes rather than temperature. Any given change in rainfall produces a greater change in downstream runoff, the amplification ranging from 1.1 to 1.5 in the wet season to a factor of 12 in the dry season. Changes in wet season rainfall (80% of the annual total) dominate the total annual amount of water released for downstream flow, but dry season rainfall (20% of the annual total) changes are also very important as they affect onset and the duration of the period when there is no runoff. This period is currently ˜110 days and this would change by ±30 days under the above climate scenarios. There are also potential in situ impacts of climate change that affect how long the rainforest canopy is wet, which may have important implications for the epiphytes and mosses that depend on these wet canopy conditions. Similarly there may be significant impacts on downstream freshwater species whose life cycles are adapted to the current dry season flow regime.

  16. Modelling interception in coastal and montane rainforests in northern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Jim; McJannet, Dave

    2008-01-01

    SummaryThis paper reports a comparison of measured and modelled interception for three different forest types at six rainforest locations in northern Queensland. The Gash interception model was able to reproduce cumulative interception at the sites accurately, provided an appropriate value of canopy storage capacity ( S) was used, 2.0-3.6 mm. These values are significantly higher than S values generally reported in other rainforest studies (˜1 mm) and the reason may be that Australian rainforests contain many epiphytes and mosses, which can trap significant quantities of water within the canopy. There is also some evidence of a seasonal variation in S and wet canopy evaporation rate ( E), both being lower in the dry season than the wet season. However, although the rainfall rate ( R), S and E all affect the seasonal value of interception, the changes in these three parameters tend to compensate and so the biggest factor affecting seasonal variations in interception is the number of small storms. The consequence of this is that it is still possible to get good estimates of seasonal and annual interception using R, S and E values that are fixed for the entire year. Values of E fell in the range 0.35-0.81 mm h -1, which are 1.4-9 times the concurrent rates estimated using the Penman-Monteith equation. This implies that either our rainforests received very large amounts of advected energy during rain storms, or the Penman-Monteith E values are too low. Some advection of energy to our sites is quite feasible given their proximity to the ocean and generally well exposed locations. However, most of the above discrepancy is probably due to underestimation of the Penman-Monteith values of E, because of errors in the estimation of the above canopy relative humidity, due to the use of weather data adjacent to rather than above the forests and inherent difficulties of measuring the very high humidity's that occur during rainfall.

  17. Quantifying the relative importance of greenhouse gas emissions from current and future savanna land use change across northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, Mila; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Beringer, Jason; Livesley, Stephen J.; Edwards, Andrew C.; Arndt, Stefan K.

    2016-11-01

    The clearing and burning of tropical savanna leads to globally significant emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs); however there is large uncertainty relating to the magnitude of this flux. Australia's tropical savannas occupy the northern quarter of the continent, a region of increasing interest for further exploitation of land and water resources. Land use decisions across this vast biome have the potential to influence the national greenhouse gas budget. To better quantify emissions from savanna deforestation and investigate the impact of deforestation on national GHG emissions, we undertook a paired site measurement campaign where emissions were quantified from two tropical savanna woodland sites; one that was deforested and prepared for agricultural land use and a second analogue site that remained uncleared for the duration of a 22-month campaign. At both sites, net ecosystem exchange of CO2 was measured using the eddy covariance method. Observations at the deforested site were continuous before, during and after the clearing event, providing high-resolution data that tracked CO2 emissions through nine phases of land use change. At the deforested site, post-clearing debris was allowed to cure for 6 months and was subsequently burnt, followed by extensive soil preparation for cropping. During the debris burning, fluxes of CO2 as measured by the eddy covariance tower were excluded. For this phase, emissions were estimated by quantifying on-site biomass prior to deforestation and applying savanna-specific emission factors to estimate a fire-derived GHG emission that included both CO2 and non-CO2 gases. The total fuel mass that was consumed during the debris burning was 40.9 Mg C ha-1 and included above- and below-ground woody biomass, course woody debris, twigs, leaf litter and C4 grass fuels. Emissions from the burning were added to the net CO2 fluxes as measured by the eddy covariance tower for other post-deforestation phases to provide a total GHG emission from

  18. Bottom currents and sediment waves on a shallow carbonate shelf, Northern Carnarvon Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belde, Johannes; Reuning, Lars; Back, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The modern seafloor of the Australian Northwest Shelf between Exmouth and Dampier was analyzed for large scale sedimentary bedforms on 3D seismic reflection data. The Carnarvon MegaSurvey of Petroleum Geo-Services (PGS), a merged dataset of multiple industrial 3D seismic reflection surveys with a total size of 49,717 km2, offers an extensive view of the continental shelf, slope and rise of the Northern Carnarvon Basin. Over the shelf two fields of large scale sediment waves were observed in water depths between 55-130 m, where the seafloor may be influenced by different processes including internal waves, tides and storms. Based on the dimensions and orientations of the sediment waves the dominant direction and approximate strength of local bottom currents could be estimated. Information on local sediment grain-size distribution was provided by the auSEABED database allowing a classification of the observed sediment waves into sand- or mudwaves. The first sediment wave field is positioned northwest of the Montebello Islands where the shelf is comparatively narrow and local sediment is mainly sand-sized. It most likely formed by increased bottom currents induced by the diversion of tidal flows around the islands. The second sediment wave field is located north of the Serrurier and Bessieres Islands within a local seafloor depression. Local sediments are poorly sorted, containing significant amounts of mud and gravel in addition to the mainly sand-sized grains. The coarser sediment fraction could have been reworked to sandwaves by cyclone-induced bottom currents. Alternatively, the finer sediment fraction could form mudwaves shaped by less energetic along-slope oriented currents in the topographic depression. The sediment waves consist partially of carbonate grains such as ooids and peloids that formed in shallow water during initial stages of the post glacial sea-level rise. These stranded carbonate grains thus formed in a different environment than the sediment

  19. Assessing the Association between Serum Ferritin, Transferrin Saturation, and C-Reactive Protein in Northern Territory Indigenous Australian Patients with High Serum Ferritin on Maintenance Haemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, Paul D.; Barzi, Federica; Cass, Alan; Hughes, Jaquelyne T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the significance of high serum ferritin observed in Indigenous Australian patients on maintenance haemodialysis in the Northern Territory, we assessed the relationship between ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) as measures of iron status and ferritin and C-reactive protein (CRP) as markers of inflammation. Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of data from adult patients (≥18 years) on maintenance haemodialysis (>3 months) from 2004 to 2011. Results. There were 1568 patients. The mean age was 53.9 (11.9) years. 1244 (79.3%) were Indigenous. 44.2% (n = 693) were male. Indigenous patients were younger (mean age [52.3 (11.1) versus 57.4 (15.2), p < 0.001]) and had higher CRP [14.7 mg/l (7–35) versus 5.9 mg/l (1.9–17.5), p < 0.001], higher median serum ferritin [1069 µg/l (668–1522) versus 794.9 µg/l (558.5–1252.0), p < 0.001], but similar transferrin saturation [26% (19–37) versus 28% (20–38), p = 0.516]. We observed a small positive correlation between ferritin and TSAT (r2 = 0.11, p < 0.001), no correlation between ferritin and CRP (r2 = 0.001, p < 0.001), and positive association between high serum ferritin and TSAT (p < 0.001), Indigenous ethnicity (p < 0.001), urea reduction ratio (p = 0.001), and gender (p < 0.001) after adjustment in mixed regression analysis. Conclusion. Serum ferritin and TSAT may inadequately reflect iron status in this population. The high ferritin was poorly explained by inflammation. PMID:28243472

  20. Impact of perinatal health and socio-demographic factors on school education outcomes: A population study of Indigenous and non-Indigenous children in the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Guthridge, Steven; Li, Lin; Silburn, Sven; Li, Shu Qin; McKenzie, John; Lynch, John

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the association between early-life risk factors and school education outcomes. This is an historical cohort study of 7601 children (61% were Indigenous) born in the Northern Territory between 1999 and 2004. Information was linked, for each child on: perinatal health, student enrolment and National Assessment Program - Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) Year 3 results. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between selected risk factors and a NAPLAN result 'below' the national minimum standard (NMS) in reading and numeracy. Indigenous children had much higher odds, than non-Indigenous children, of a result below the NMS for both reading (odds ratio (OR): 8.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 7.55-9.74) ) and numeracy (OR: 11.52, 95% CI: 9.94-13.35). When adjusted for all other variables, the increased odds were attenuated for both reading (OR: 2.89, 95% CI: 2.46-3.40) and numeracy (OR: 3.19, 95% CI: 2.65-3.84). Common risk factors for Indigenous and non-Indigenous children included higher birth order, maternal smoking in pregnancy and being a boy. There were gradients of decreasing risk with increasing education level of primary care giver and increasing maternal age. Among Indigenous children only, risks increased when living in remote areas, with younger age (<8 years) and low birthweight. The study highlights that many of the risk factors associated with poor education outcomes among Indigenous children are shared with the general population. The results inform a targeted, cross-agency response to address modifiable early-life risk factors for educational disadvantage. Data linkage, using existing administrative datasets, provides a useful addition to methods that identify priority areas for prevention and early intervention. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. The role of decarbonization and structure in the Callie gold deposit, Tanami Region of northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Nicholas C.

    2007-01-01

    The Callie deposit is the largest (6.0 Moz Au) of several gold deposits in the Dead Bullock Soak goldfield of the Northern Territory’s Tanami Region, 550 km northwest of Alice Springs. The Callie ore lies within corridors, up to 180 m wide, of sheeted en echelon quartz veins where they intersect the 500-m-wide hinge of an ESE-plunging F1 anticlinorium. The host rocks are the Blake beds, of the Paleoproterozoic Dead Bullock Formation, which consist of a > 350-m-thick sequence of lower greenschist facies graphitic turbidites and mudstones overlying in excess of 100 m of thickly bedded siltstones and fine sandstones. The rocks are Fe-rich and dominated by assemblages of chlorite and biotite, both of which are of hydrothermal and metamorphic origin. A fundamental characteristic of the hydrothermal alteration is the removal of graphite, a process which is associated with bleaching and the development of bedding-parallel bands of coarse biotite augen. Gold is found only in quartz veins and only where they cut decarbonized chloritic rock with abundant biotite augen and no sulfide minerals. Auriferous quartz veins differ from barren quartz veins by the presence of ilmenite, apatite, xenotime, and gold and the absence of sulfide minerals. The assemblage of gold-ilmenite-apatite-xenotime indicates a linked genesis and mobility of Ti, P, and Y in the mineralizing fluids. Geochemical analysis of samples throughout the deposit shows that gold only occurs in sedimentary rocks with high FeO/(FeO+Fe2O3) and low C/(C+CO2) ratios (> 0.8 and < 0.2, respectively). This association can be explained by reactions that convert C from reduced graphitic host rocks into CO2 and reduce ferric iron in the host rocks to ferrous iron in biotite and chlorite. These reactions would increase the CO2 content of the fluid, facilitating the transport of Ti, P, and Y from the host rocks into the veins. Both CO2 and CH4 produced by reaction of H2O with graphite, effervesced under the lower confining

  2. Varied Diazotrophies, Morphologies, and Toxicities of Genetically Similar Isolates of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Nostocales, Cyanophyceae) from Northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Saker, Martin L.; Neilan, Brett A.

    2001-01-01

    The potentially toxic freshwater cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii has become increasingly prevalent in tropical and temperate water bodies worldwide. This paper investigates the effects of different nitrogen sources (NO3−, NH4+, and omission of a fixed form of nitrogen) on the growth rates, morphologies, and cylindrospermopsin (CYL) concentrations (expressed as a percentage of the freeze-dried weight) of seven C. raciborskii isolates obtained from a range of water bodies in northern Australia and grown in batch culture. In general, growth rates were lowest in the absence of a fixed-nitrogen source and highest with NH4+ as the nitrogen source. Conversely, the highest concentrations of CYL were recorded in cultures grown in the absence of a fixed-nitrogen source and the lowest were found in cultures supplied with NH4+. Cultures supplied with NO3− were intermediate with respect to both CYL concentration and growth rate. Different nitrogen sources resulted in significant differences in the morphology of C. raciborskii trichomes. Most notable were the loss of heterocysts and the tapering of end cells in cultures supplied with NH4+ and the statistically significant increase in vegetative cell length (nitrogen depleted < NO3− < NH4+). The morphological changes induced by different nitrogen sources were consistent for all isolates, despite measurable differences in vegetative-cell and heterocyst dimensions among isolates. Such induced morphological variation has implications for Cylindrospermopsis taxonomy, given that distinctions between species are based on minor and overlapping differences in cell lengths and widths. The close phylogenetic association among all seven isolates was confirmed by the high level (>99.8%) of similarity of their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Another genetic technique, analysis of the HIP1 octameric-palindrome repeated sequence, showed greater heterogeneity among the isolates and appears to be a useful method for distinguishing

  3. Soil chloride and deep drainage responses to land clearing for cropping at seven sites in central Queensland, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radford, B. J.; Silburn, D. M.; Forster, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    SummarySoil cores were taken at seven paired sites (native vegetation and adjacent dryland cropping on cracking clay soils) which had been cropped for 10-65 years in the Fitzroy Basin in central Queensland, northern Australia. Levels of soil chloride (Cl -) and nitrate nitrogen (NO 3-N) were determined in 0.3 m increments to a depth of 5 m where possible. The amounts of Cl - in the soil (0-1.5 m depth) under native vegetation were generally high (10-23 t ha -1 at six of the seven sites). The amounts of Cl - that had leached below 1.5 m depth during dryland cropping varied from 2.2 to 16.8 t ha -1 or 19-91% of the original totals at 0-1.5 m. Leaching of salt from the crop rooting zone in combination with higher rates of deep drainage can lead to outbreaks of soil salinisation but can also increase the soil plant available water capacity (PAWC). NO 3-N had also been leached below crop rooting depth at three sites. Such leaching not only contaminates the groundwater but also wastes crop nutrients. The transient chloride mass balance approach was used to determine mean annual rates of deep drainage below crop rooting depth (1.5 m). At all seven sites annual deep drainage was low under native vegetation (0.2-1.7 mm yr -1) but increased under dryland cropping (1.6-27.5 mm yr -1). Drainage losses showed an inverse relationship with plant available water content (PAWC). Drainage losses waste the limited supply of water available for dryland cropping but can be reduced by practising opportunity cropping or by growing ley (temporary) pastures in rotation with annual crops.

  4. Putative spawner-isolated mortality virus associated with mid-crop mortality syndrome in farmed Penaeus monodon from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Owens, L; Haqshenas, G; McElnea, C; Coelen, R

    1998-11-30

    Beginning in 1994, farms in northern Australia experienced a higher than normal mortality rate in 12 to 15 g prawns from growout ponds. The farmers named this problem mid-crop mortality syndrome (MCMS). Intramuscular injection of filtered (450 nm), cell-free extracts of moribund prawns from these ponds killed healthy prawns between 5 to 30 d post-injection. A 20 nm virus was visualized by electron microscopy from a 1.4 g ml-1 band recovered from caesium chloride gradients of extracts from the moribund prawns. DNA was extracted from this band, restriction enzyme digested and ligated into pGEM7zf(+) vector. A digoxigenin-labelled polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-generated, gene probe was subsequently prepared by amplifying an inserted sequence (approximately 2 kb) of one selected clone specific for the virus. Specimens of the moribund prawns stained positively by in situ DNA hybridization in endodermal tissues, including the apical ends of hepatopancreatic tubules, the midgut and hindgut caecae, the midgut, and the hindgut folds. In prawns that showed haemocytic enteritis, some haemocytes in the affected midgut showed limited staining. The positively-staining cells showed no cytolysis. In prawns injected with cell-free viral extracts, additional tissues were positive by probe analysis, including strong staining in the male reproductive tract, specifically in the terminal ampoule and the medial vas deferens. Limited staining also occurred in the ovary and in both the stromal matrix and spheroid cells of the lymphoid organ. It was evident that the infection was enteric by natural pathways and systemic by injection. Historical specimens of Penaeus monodon experimentally infected with spawner-isolated mortality virus (SMV) were probe-positive in exactly the same pattern as the naturally and experimental MCMS prawns. Altogether, the evidence suggested that the MCMS agent was a parvo-like virus very similar or identical to SMV.

  5. "Only your blood can tell the story"--a qualitative research study using semi-structured interviews to explore the hepatitis B related knowledge, perceptions and experiences of remote dwelling Indigenous Australians and their health care providers in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jane; Bukulatjpi, Sarah; Sharma, Suresh; Davis, Joshua; Johnston, Vanessa

    2014-11-28

    Hepatitis B is endemic in the Indigenous communities of the Northern Territory of Australia and significantly contributes to liver-related morbidity and mortality. It is recognised that low health literacy levels, different worldviews and English as a second language all contribute to the difficulties health workers often have in explaining biomedical health concepts, relevant to hepatitis B infection, to patients. The aim of this research project was to explore the knowledge, perceptions and experiences of remote dwelling Indigenous adults and their health care providers relating to hepatitis B infection with a view to using this as the evidence base to develop a culturally appropriate educational tool. The impetus for this project came from health clinic staff at a remote community in Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory, in partnership with a visiting specialist liver clinic from the Royal Darwin Hospital. Participants were clinic patients with hepatitis B (n = 12), community members (n = 9) and key informants (n = 13); 25 were Indigenous individuals.A participatory action research project design was used with purposive sampling to identify participants. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken to explore: current understanding of hepatitis B, desire for knowledge, and perspectives on how people could acquire the information needed. All individuals were offered the use of an interpreter. The data were examined using deductive and inductive thematic analysis. Low levels of biomedical knowledge about Hepatitis B, negative perceptions of Hepatitis B, communication (particularly language) and culture were the major themes that emerged from the data. Accurate concepts grounded in Indigenous culture such as "only your blood can tell the story" were present but accompanied by a feeling of disempowerment due to perceived lack of "medical" understanding, and informed partnerships between caregiver and patient. Culturally appropriate discussions in a

  6. New and newly recorded micro-caddisfly species (Insecta: Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) from Australia's north, including islands of Torres Strait.

    PubMed

    Wells, Alice; Dostine, Peter

    2016-06-24

    From the north of Australia's Northern Territory, far northeastern Queensland and Torres Strait Islands, six new species of microcaddisfly are described: Hydroptila roperi sp. nov., Hellyethira khukri sp. nov., Oxyethira (Trichoglene) bamaga sp. nov., Oxyethira (Dampfitrichia) torresiana sp. nov., Orthotrichia pethericki sp. nov., and Orthotrichia becca sp. nov. Oxyethira torresiana is recorded from the northwest of York Peninsula and Badu Island in the Torres Strait as well as from Papua New Guinea. Northern Australian records are given for Orthotrichia veikaba Wells and Orthotrichia ensiformis Wells, previously known only from Papua New Guinea. Northern Australian distributions are extended eastwards for  Tricholeiochiton jabirella Wells and westwards for Oxyethira (Trichoglene) triangulata Wells, until now recorded only from the Northern Territory and northeastern Australia, respectively. Brief notes are given on collecting methods and sites.

  7. A new species of Neoheterocotyle Hargis, 1955 (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) from the gills of Pristis clavata Garman (Pristidae) from Darwin, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, L A; Whittington, I D

    2000-06-01

    Neoheterocotyle darwinensis n. sp. is described from between the secondary gill lamellae of the dwarf sawfish Pristis clavata Garman (Pristidae) collected at the mouth of Buffalo Creek near Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. This is only the second monocotylid species to be described from northern Australia. N. darwinensis is distinguished from the other seven valid species in the genus by the morphology of the hamuli, the dorsal haptoral accessory sclerites and the male copulatory organ. The similarities between N. darwinensis and Nonacotyle pristis Ogawa, 1991 from the gills of the freshwater sawfish Pristis microdon Latham collected in Papua New Guinea are discussed.

  8. Remote links: Redesigning maternity care for Aboriginal women from remote communities in Northern Australia - A comparative cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kildea, Sue; Gao, Yu; Rolfe, Margaret; Josif, Cathryn M; Bar-Zeev, Sarah J; Steenkamp, Malinda; Kruske, Sue; Williams, Desley; Dunbar, Terry; Barclay, Lesley M

    2016-03-01

    to compare the quality of care before and after the introduction of the new Midwifery Group Practice. a cohort study. the health centers (HCs) in two of the largest remote Aboriginal communities (population 2200-2600) in the Top End of the Northern Territory (NT), each located approximately 500km from Darwin. The third study site was the Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH) which provides tertiary care. a 2004-06 retrospective cohort (n=412 maternity cases) provided baseline data. A clinical redesign of maternity services occurring from 2009 onwards focused on increasing Continuity of Carer, Communication, Choice, Collaboration and Co-ordination of Care (5Cs). Data from a 2009-11 prospective cohort (n=310 maternity cases) were collected to evaluate the service redesign. Outcome measures included indicators on the quality of care delivery, adherence to recommended antenatal guidelines and maternal and neonatal health outcomes. statistically significant improvements were recorded in many areas reflecting improved access to, and quality of, care. For example: fewer women had <4 visits in pregnancy (14% versus 8%), a higher proportion of women had routine antenatal tests recorded (86% versus 97%) and improved screening rates for urine (82% versus 87%) and sexual tract infections (78% versus 93%). However, the treatment of conditions according to recommended guidelines worsened significantly in some areas; for example antibiotics prescribed for urine infections (86% versus 52%) and treatment for anaemia in pregnancy (77% versus 67%). High preterm (21% versus 20%), low birth weight (18% versus 20%) and PPH (29% versus 31%) rates did not change over time. The out of hospital birth rate remained high and unchanged in both cohorts (10% versus 10%). this model addresses some of the disparities in care for remote-dwelling Aboriginal women. However, much work still needs to occur before maternity care and outcomes are equal to that of non-Aboriginal women. Targeted program

  9. Chromosome Territories

    PubMed Central

    Cremer, Thomas; Cremer, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Chromosome territories (CTs) constitute a major feature of nuclear architecture. In a brief statement, the possible contribution of nuclear architecture studies to the field of epigenomics is considered, followed by a historical account of the CT concept and the final compelling experimental evidence of a territorial organization of chromosomes in all eukaryotes studied to date. Present knowledge of nonrandom CT arrangements, of the internal CT architecture, and of structural interactions with other CTs is provided as well as the dynamics of CT arrangements during cell cycle and postmitotic terminal differentiation. The article concludes with a discussion of open questions and new experimental strategies to answer them. PMID:20300217

  10. Six species of Calyptotheca (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata, Lanceoporidae) from the Gulf of Carpentaria and northern Australia, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Robyn L; Tilbrook, Kevin J

    2014-07-03

    A new diagnosis is presented for Calyptotheca Harmer, 1957 and six species are described from the Gulf of Carpentaria: C. wasinensis (Waters, 1913) (type species), C. australis (Haswell, 1880), C. conica Cook, 1965 (with a redescription of the holotype), C. tenuata Harmer, 1957, C. triquetra (Harmer, 1957) and C. lardil n. sp. These are the first records of Bryozoa from the Gulf of Carpentaria, and the first Australian records for C. wasinensis, C. tenuata and C. triquetra. The limit of distribution of three species is extended east to the Gulf of Carpentaria, from Kenya for C. wasinensis, from China for C. tenuata, and from northwestern Australia for C. conica. The number of tropical Calyptotheca species in Australian territorial waters is increased from seven to eleven.

  11. Cyanobacteria and prawn farming in northern New South Wales, Australia--a case study on cyanobacteria diversity and hepatotoxin bioaccumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kankaanpaeae, Harri T.; Holliday, Jon; Schroeder, Helge; Goddard, Timothy J.; Fister, Richard von; Carmichael, Wayne W

    2005-03-15

    Harmful cyanobacteria pose a hazard to aquatic ecosystems due to toxins (hepatotoxic microcystins, nodularins, and cylindrospermopsin) they produce. The microcystins and nodularins are potent toxins, which are also tumor promoters. The microcystins and nodularins may accumulate into aquatic organisms and be transferred to higher trophic levels, and eventually affect vector animals and consumers. Prawn farming is a rapidly growing industry in Australia. Because information regarding effects of cyanobacteria at prawn farms was lacking, we examined diversity of cyanobacteria and toxin production plus bioaccumulation into black tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) under both field (northern New South Wales, Australia, December 2001-April 2002) and laboratory conditions. Samples were analyzed for hepatotoxins using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The maximum density of cyanobacteria (1 x 10{sup 6} to 4 x 10{sup 6} cells/l) was reached in April. Cyanobacteria encountered were Oscillatoria sp. (up to 4 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), Pseudanabaena sp. (up to 1.8 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), Microcystis sp. (up to 3.5 x 10{sup 4} cells/l), and Aphanocapsa sp. (up to 2 x 10{sup 4} cells/l). An uncommon cyanobacterium, Romeria sp. (up to 2.2 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), was also observed. Contrasting earlier indications, toxic Nodularia spumigena was absent. Despite that both Oscillatoria sp. and Microcystis sp. are potentially hepatotoxic, hepatotoxin levels in phytoplankton samples remained low (up to 0.5-1.2 mg/kg dw; ELISA) in 2001-2002. ELISA was found suitable not only for phytoplankton but prawn tissues as well. Enzymatic pretreatment improved extractability of hepatotoxin from cyanobacteria (nodularin from N. spumigena as an example), but did not generally increase toxin recovery from prawn hepatopancreas. There were slightly increasing hepatotoxin concentrations in prawn hepatopancreas (from 6-20 to 20-80 {mu}g/kg dw; ELISA) during the

  12. An Examination of Visa Free Travel for Russian and Chinese Citizens to U.S. Territories in the Pacific (Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    31 “Anchor Babies” and Birth Tourism ............................................................................ 33 Other Territories...with a non-immigrant visa category B-1, B-2, or B-1/B-2 (temporary business, tourism /pleasure, or combination of both). .....59 Figure 4. ESTA...culture on Guam was influenced by 300 years of Spanish rule before it became a U.S. Trust Territory. Guam relies on tourism as its primary source of

  13. The Concertina Coast: the role of basement inheritance during repeated reactivation events along Australia's northern margin since the Permian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keep, Myra; Gartrell, Anthony

    2017-04-01

    The present day configuration of Australia's northern margin includes a series of Phanerozoic sedimentary basins forming the North West Shelf. Their polyphase history, dominantly extensional, and closely associated with the breakup of Eastern Gondwana, includes the early formation of intracratonic basins (from the mid-Devonian), overprinted by Permo-Carboniferous rifting that generated the dominant NE-trending structural trends that persist to the present-day. Subsequent Mesozoic extension, associated with the formation of abyssal plains, further refined the margin, creating additional depocentres. During this polyphase rift history, a number of periods of inversion have punctuated the margin. These include a Carboniferous event (the Meda Transpression), a late Permian to Early Triassic event, sometimes referred to as the Bedout Movement (possibly transtensional), and two events, one in the Middle to Late Triassic, followed by another in the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, often referred to as the Fitzroy events. These various events, recorded locally, caused inversion, folding, uplift and erosion where documented, with the Fitzroy events described as transpressional, resulting from right-lateral oblique inversion. Subsequent inversion during the Cretaceous, also attributed to dextral transpression, caused long wavelength folding and fault inversion in some basins. Whereas the effects of earlier inversions are somewhat sporadic across the North West Shelf, the effects of Neogene inversion have been documented across both the active and passive segments of the present day North West Shelf, and also appear to be strongly controlled by right-lateral oblique reactivation mechanisms, with associated seismicity and focal mechanism solutions. The history of the North West Shelf therefore includes 6 discrete episodes of reactivation and inversion, apparently strongly dominated by oblique mechanisms, which punctuate the long, multi-phase extensional history. Whereas

  14. Community Management of Endemic Scabies in Remote Aboriginal Communities of Northern Australia: Low Treatment Uptake and High Ongoing Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    La Vincente, Sophie; Kearns, Therese; Connors, Christine; Cameron, Scott; Carapetis, Jonathan; Andrews, Ross

    2009-01-01

    Background Scabies and skin infections are endemic in many Australian Aboriginal communities. There is limited evidence for effective models of scabies treatment in high prevalence settings. We aimed to assess the level of treatment uptake amongst clinically diagnosed scabies cases and amongst their household contacts. In addition, we aimed to determine the likelihood of scabies acquisition within these households over the 4 weeks following treatment provision. Methods and Findings We conducted an observational study of households in two scabies-endemic Aboriginal communities in northern Australia in which a community-based skin health program was operating. Permethrin treatment was provided for all householders upon identification of scabies within a household during home visit. Households were visited the following day to assess treatment uptake and at 2 and 4 weeks to assess scabies acquisition among susceptible individuals. All 40 households in which a child with scabies was identified agreed to participate in the study. Very low levels of treatment uptake were reported among household contacts of these children (193/440, 44%). Household contacts who themselves had scabies were more likely to use the treatment than those contacts who did not have scabies (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.1, 5.4), whilst males (OR 0.6, 95%CI 0.42, 0.95) and individuals from high-scabies-burden households (OR 0.2, 95%CI 0.08, 0.77) were less likely to use the treatment. Among 185 susceptible individuals, there were 17 confirmed or probable new diagnoses of scabies recorded in the subsequent 4 weeks (9.2%). The odds of remaining scabies-free was almost 6 times greater among individuals belonging to a household where all people reported treatment uptake (OR 5.9, 95%CI 1.3, 27.2, p = 0.02). Conclusion There is an urgent need for a more practical and feasible treatment for community management of endemic scabies. The effectiveness and sustainability of the current scabies program was compromised

  15. Five new species of Acanthobothrium (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) from an unusual species of Himantura (Rajiformes: Dasyatidae) from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Fyler, Carrie A; Caira, Janine N; Jensen, Kirsten

    2009-06-01

    Five new species of Acanthobothrium van Beneden, 1850 from the spiral intestine of a specimen of an unusual species of Himantura from the Arafura Sea off northern Australia are described. Acanthobothrium oceanharvestae sp. n. is one of 26 category 1 species (sensu Ghoshroy and Caira 2001) lacking post-ovarian testes; it differs from these in total length, number of proglottids, number of testes, cirrus sac size and details of the terminal genitalia. Acanthobothrium popi sp. n. is unique among category 2 species in its possession of post-ovarian testes. Acanthobothrium rodmani sp. n. is a category 6 species distinct from all congeners in the dense blade-like spinitriches on the distal surfaces of its anterior-most bothridial loculi and conspicuously tapered posterior bothridial margins, which are reflexed anteriorly. Acanthobothrium romanowi sp. n. differs from most other category 1 species in that its genital pore is distinctly posterior. It differs from the remaining category 1 species in size, testis number, cephalic peduncle microthrix form, proglottid shape, and bothridial loculus dimensions. Acanthobothrium zimmeri sp. n. is among the six category 1 species with post-ovarian testes. It differs from these species in total length, ovary shape, number of proglottids and testes and vas deferens extent. This brings the number of Acanthobothrium species with post-ovarian testes to 10, all of which are Indo-Pacific in distribution, and 7 of which parasitize Himantura species. A key to the five new species parasitizing Himantura sp. is provided. Sequence data for the D1-D3 region of 28S rDNA for the five new species and two congeners parasitizing other Himantura species shows no intraspecific variation. Analysis of these and comparable data for two species available in GenBank (Acanthobothrium parviuncinatum and Acanthobothrium sp. 1) showed an interspecific variation of 0.7-11.3% among species pairs. Bayesian, Likelihood and Parsimony phylogenetic analyses of these

  16. Abortion law across Australia--A review of nine jurisdictions.

    PubMed

    de Costa, Caroline; Douglas, Heather; Hamblin, Julie; Ramsay, Philippa; Shircore, Mandy

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the current legal status of abortion in Australia and its implications. Australian abortion law has been a matter for the states since before Federation. In the years since Federation there have been significant reforms and changes in the abortion laws of some jurisdictions, although not all. Across Australia there are now nine sets of laws, state and Commonwealth, concerned with abortion. The test of a lawful abortion varies greatly across jurisdictions. In a number of states and territories, it is necessary to establish a serious risk to the physical or mental health of the woman if the pregnancy was to continue. In some cases, the certification of two doctors is required, particularly for abortions at later gestations. There are also physical restrictions on access, such as in South Australia and the Northern Territory where abortion must take place in a hospital. Only in the ACT has abortion been removed from the criminal law altogether. Variations in the law and restrictions arising from these are not consistent with the aims and provision of the universal, accessible health care system aspired to in Australia. There is an urgent need for overall reform and the introduction of uniformity to Australia's abortion laws, including removal of abortion from the criminal law.

  17. The legislation of active voluntary euthanasia in Australia: will the slippery slope prove fatal?

    PubMed Central

    Kerridge, I H; Mitchell, K R

    1996-01-01

    At 2.00 am on the morning of May 24, 1995 the Northern Territory Legislative Assembly Australia passed the Rights of the Terminally Ill Act by the narrow margin of 15 votes to 10. The act permits a terminally ill patient of sound mind and over the age of 18 years, and who is either in pain or suffering, or distress, to request a medical practitioner to assist the patient to terminate his or her life. Thus, Australia can lay claim to being the first country in the world to legalise voluntary active euthanasia. The Northern Territory's act has prompted Australia-wide community reaction, particularly in South Australia, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory where proposals to legalise euthanasia have already been defeated on the floor of parliament. In New South Wales (NSW) the AIDS Council of NSW has prepared draft euthanasia legislation to be introduced into the Upper House as a Private Member's Bill some time in 1996. In this paper, we focus on a brief description of events as they occurred and on the arguments for and against the legalisation of euthanasia which have appeared in the media. PMID:8910778

  18. The legislation of active voluntary euthanasia in Australia: will the slippery slope prove fatal?

    PubMed

    Kerridge, I H; Mitchell, K R

    1996-10-01

    At 2.00 am on the morning of May 24, 1995 the Northern Territory Legislative Assembly Australia passed the Rights of the Terminally Ill Act by the narrow margin of 15 votes to 10. The act permits a terminally ill patient of sound mind and over the age of 18 years, and who is either in pain or suffering, or distress, to request a medical practitioner to assist the patient to terminate his or her life. Thus, Australia can lay claim to being the first country in the world to legalise voluntary active euthanasia. The Northern Territory's act has prompted Australia-wide community reaction, particularly in South Australia, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory where proposals to legalise euthanasia have already been defeated on the floor of parliament. In New South Wales (NSW) the AIDS Council of NSW has prepared draft euthanasia legislation to be introduced into the Upper House as a Private Member's Bill some time in 1996. In this paper, we focus on a brief description of events as they occurred and on the arguments for and against the legalisation of euthanasia which have appeared in the media.

  19. Providing specialist services in Australia across barriers of distance and culture.

    PubMed

    Carson, Phillip J

    2009-08-01

    Most of Australia's population live in urban environments and have ready access to high-quality specialist surgical services. The 1% of Australians (210,600 people) who live in the Northern Territory of Australia sparsely occupy more than one-sixth of Australia's land mass and have varied cultural backgrounds. The organization of surgical services in the Northern Territory provides a case study in providing specialist surgical services to disadvantaged, rural and remote populations in a developed country. Historical and current initiatives to overcome barriers of distance include a coordinated network of health clinics, regional hospitals, and specialist surgical facilities staffed by health care practitioners with broad training and a wide scope of practice. Aeromedical services that facilitate patient and medical team transport were among the first worldwide. Recent initiatives to overcome barriers posed by cultural differences include an Indigenous Languages Interpreter Service, dedicated Indigenous health educators, and specialist outreach visits. Specialist services in the Northern Territory are delivered locally by appropriately trained generalists in cooperation with and supported by specialists from larger centers. This cooperative model of delivery of specialist services maximizes population access to the whole range of surgical therapies and encourages the efficient use of both specialists and generalists. Adoption of the principles of this model may lead to increasingly efficient delivery of specialist services in more densely populated regions.

  20. Long-term changes in the numbers of Helicoverpa punctigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in a cotton production landscape in northern New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Baker, G H; Tann, C R

    2017-04-01

    Two noctuid moths, Helicoverpa punctigera and Helicoverpa armigera, are pests of several agricultural crops in Australia, most notably cotton. Cotton is a summer crop, grown predominantly in eastern Australia. The use of transgenic (Bt) cotton has reduced the damage caused by Helicoverpa spp., but the development of Bt resistance in these insects remains a threat. In the past, large populations of H. punctigera have built up in inland Australia, following autumn-winter rains. Moths have then migrated to the cropping regions in spring, when their inland host plants dried off. To determine if there have been any long-term changes in this pattern, pheromone traps were set for H. punctigera throughout a cropping landscape in northern New South Wales from 1992 to 2015. At least three generations of moths were caught from spring to autumn. The 1st generation (mostly spring migrants) was the most numerous. Trap captures varied between sites and decreased in time, especially for moths in the 1st generation. Nearby habitat type influenced the size of catch and there was some evidence that local weather also influenced the numbers of moths caught. There was no correlation between trap catches in the cropping region and rainfall in the inland. In addition, there was little evidence that Bt cotton has reduced the abundance of H. punctigera at landscape scale. The apparent decline in the number of presumably Bt susceptible moths arriving each spring in the cropping regions from inland habitats is of concern in relation to the management of Bt resistance.

  1. Phylogeography of the olive sea snake, Aipysurus laevis (Hydrophiinae) indicates Pleistocene range expansion around northern Australia but low contemporary gene flow.

    PubMed

    Lukoschek, V; Waycott, M; Marsh, H

    2007-08-01

    Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations profoundly changed landmass configurations around northern Australia. The cyclic emergence of the Torres Strait land bridge and concomitant shifts in the distribution of shallow-water marine habitats repeatedly sundered east and west coast populations. These biogeographical perturbations invoke three possible scenarios regarding the directions of interglacial range expansion: west to east, east to west, or bidirectional. We evaluated these scenarios for the olive sea snake, Aipysurus laevis, by exploring its genetic structure around northern Australia based on 354 individuals from 14 locations in three regions (Western Australia, WA; Gulf of Carpentaria, GoC; Great Barrier Reef, GBR). A 726-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA ND4 region revealed 41 variable sites and 38 haplotypes, with no shared haplotypes among the three regions. Population genetic structure was strong overall, phiST=0.78, P<0.001, and coalescent analyses revealed no migration between regions. Genetic diversity was low in the GBR and GoC and the genetic signatures of these regions indicated range or population expansions consistent with their recent marine transgressions around 7000 years ago. By contrast, genetic diversity on most WA reefs was higher and there were no signals of recent expansion events on these reefs. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that GBR and GoC haplotypes were derived from WA haplotypes; however, statistical parsimony suggested that recent range expansion in the GBR-GoC probably occurred from east coast populations, possibly in the Coral Sea. Levels of contemporary female-mediated gene flow varied within regions and reflected potential connectivity among populations afforded by the different regional habitat types.

  2. Australia's energy outlook; Down under pipeline grid no longer a dream

    SciTech Connect

    Scholes, W.A

    1989-09-01

    Natural gas has established itself as Australia's leading final source of energy, accounting for approximately 17.5% of the continent's total energy consumption. Gas utilities serve more than 2 million customers, a figure that is growing by almost 4%/yr. This growth has been made possible by the development of gas reserves in the Bass Strait, South Australia, the North West Shelf, Queensland and the Northern Territory. According to the author, a large gas pipeline across the Australian continent is no longer considered the fanciful dream it was thought to be in 1975. This paper describes how such a pipeline can be possible.

  3. Geographic Variation of the Incidence Rate of Lower Limb Amputation in Australia from 2007-12

    PubMed Central

    Fortington, Lauren V.; Akram, Muhammad; Erbas, Bircan; Kohler, Friedbert

    2017-01-01

    In Australia, little is known about how the incidence rate (IR) of lower limb amputation (LLA) varies across the country. While studies in other economically developed countries have shown considerable geographic variation in the IR-LLA, mostly these have not considered whether the effect of common risk factors are the same across regions. Mapping variation of the IR-LLA, and the effect of common risk factors, is an important first step to focus research into areas of greatest need and support the development of regional specific hypotheses for in-depth examination. The aim of this study was to describe the geographic variation in the IR-LLA across Australia and understand whether the effect of common risk factors was the same across regions. Using hospital episode data from the Australian National Hospital Morbidity database and Australian Bureau of Statistics, the all-cause crude and age-standardised IR-LLA in males and females were calculated for the nation and each state and territory. Generalised Linear Models were developed to understand which factors influenced geographic variation in the crude IR-LLA. While the crude and age-standardised IR-LLA in males and females were similar in most states and territories, they were higher in the Northern Territory. The effect of older age, being male and the presence of type 2 diabetes was associated with an increase of IR-LLA in most states and territories. In the Northern Territory, the younger age at amputation confounded the effect of sex and type 2 diabetes. There are likely to be many factors not included in this investigation, such as Indigenous status, that may explain part of the variation in the IR-LLA not captured in our models. Further research is needed to identify regional- and population- specific factors that could be modified to reduce the IR-LLA in all states and territories of Australia. PMID:28118408

  4. Quality failures in residential aged care in Australia: The relationship between structural factors and regulation imposed sanctions.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Richard; Chenoweth, Lynnette; Dela Rama, Marie; Liu, Zhixin

    2015-12-01

    To examine the relationship between structural factors and the imposition of sanctions on residential aged care services across Australia for regulatory compliance failure. Poisson Regression analysis was used to examine the association between the number of sanctions imposed and the structural characteristics of residential aged care services in Australia. Residential aged care services that have a greater likelihood of having government sanctions imposed on them are operated by for-profit providers and located in remote locations and in Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory. The findings confirm the international literature on the relationship between residential aged care service location, ownership type and the likelihood of sanctions. In the light of the predicted expansion of residential aged care services, policy makers should give consideration to structural elements most likely to be associated with a failure to meet and maintain service standards. © 2014 ACOTA.

  5. Lake Mackay, Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Lake Mackay is the largest of hundreds of ephemeral lakes scattered throughout Western Australia and the Northern Territory, and is the second largest lake in Australia. The darker areas indicate some form of desert vegetation or algae, moisture within the soils, and lowest elevations where water pools. The image was acquired on September 19, 2010 and covers an area of 27 x 41 km. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on Terra. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. More information about ASTER is available at asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/. Image Credit: NASA/GSFC/METI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  6. [Genetic polymorphism of blood group and erythrocyte enzymes in three ethno-territorial groups of the northern European part of Russia].

    PubMed

    Evseeva, I V; Spitsyn, V A; Makarov, S V; Bychkovskaia, L S; Paé, G V

    2001-11-01

    Using the data on five red cell markers (AB0, PGM1, ACP1, GLO1, and ESD) polymorphisms, the population genetic structure of three ethnic territorial groups from the north of European Russia (Continental Nentsy, Kola Saami, and Russian Coast-dwellers) was described. In general, the groups studied a Caucasoid pattern of the frequency distribution of erythrocytic marker alleles. However, a substantial contribution of a Mongoloid component to the Nenets gene pool, expressed as a high frequency of the PGM1*1 allele along with a low frequency of the GLO1*1 allele, was observed. Three ethnic territorial groups examined were close to one another with respect to the distribution of classical biochemical markers. The interpopulation diversity was low (the mean FST = 0.015). The differences observed were for the most part caused by the genetic characteristics of Nentsy. The maximum interpopulation diversity was observed for the GLO1 locus (FST = 0.056).

  7. Influence of group II metals on Radium-226 concentration ratios in the native green plum (Buchanania obovata) from the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Medley, Peter; Bollhöfer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, uptake of Ra from soil, and the influence of group II metals on Ra uptake, into the stones and edible flesh of the fruit of the wild green plum, Buchanania obovata, was investigated. Selective extraction of the exchangeable fraction of the soil samples was undertaken but was not shown to more reliably predict Ra uptake than total soil Ra activity concentration. Comparison of the group II metal to Ca ratios (i.e. Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Ra/Ca) in the flesh with exchangeable Ca shows that Ca outcompetes group II metals for root uptake and that the uptake pathway discriminated against group II metals relative to ionic radius, with uptake of Ca > Sr > Ba > Ra. Flesh and stone analysis showed that movement of group II metals to these components of the plant, after root uptake, was strongly related. This supports the hypothesis that Sr, Ba and Ra are being taken up as analogue elements, and follow the same uptake and translocation pathways, with Ca. Comparison with previously reported data from a native passion fruit supports the use of total soil CRs on natural, undisturbed sites. As exchangeable CRs for Ra reach a saturation value it may be possible to make more precise predictions using selective extraction techniques for contaminated or disturbed sites.

  8. A methodology for the assessment of rehabilitation success of post mining landscapes--sediment and radionuclide transport at the former Nabarlek uranium mine, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hancock, G R; Grabham, M K; Martin, P; Evans, K G; Bollhöfer, A

    2006-02-01

    Protection of the environment post-mining is an important issue, especially where runoff and erosion can lead to undesirable material leaving post-mining landscapes and contaminating surrounding land and watercourses. Methods for assessment of the environmental impact and long-term behaviour of post-mining landforms based on scientific methodology are needed especially where field data are absent or poor. An appraisal of the former Nabarlek uranium mine was conducted to assess the site from a soil erosion perspective as part of an independent evaluation of overall rehabilitation success. Determination of the gross erosion occurring, sediment discharge to Cooper Creek and the resultant sediment associated radionuclide load in Cooper Creek were the primary objectives of the study. These objectives were achieved through the application of several models using parameter values collected from the site. The study found that the area containing the mill tailings repository is extremely stable and meets the guidelines established for long-term storage of uranium mill tailings. Most other areas on the site are stable; however there are some areas with a high sediment loss. Sediment concentration in Cooper Creek, which drains the site, was found to be within the Australian water quality guidelines for fresh water, however sediment concentrations in tributaries were found to exceed recommended levels. Radionuclide determinations on soil samples showed that the highest specific activities (Bq kg-1) were present on a small (0.44 ha) area with a relatively high erosion rate. This small area contributed the majority of the estimated flux to Cooper Creek of uranium-series radionuclides sorbed or structurally incorporated to eroded soil particles sourced from the mine site. This study provides a methodology for assessment of the erosional stability of such a landscape and consequent impact on water quality, using extensive field data and readily available and well known models and methodologies.

  9. The mitochondrial 12S gene is a suitable marker of populations of Sarcoptes scabiei from wombats, dogs and humans in Australia.

    PubMed

    Skerratt, L F; Campbell, N J H; Murrell, A; Walton, S; Kemp, D; Barker, S C

    2002-04-01

    We sequenced part of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene of 23 specimens of Sarcoptes scabiei from eight wombats, one dog and three humans. Twelve of the 326 nucleotide positions varied among these mites and there were nine haplotypes (sequences) that differed by 1-8 nucleotides. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that these mites were from two lineages: (1) mites from wombats from Victoria, Australia, and mites from the humans and dog from the Northern Territory, Australia (haplotypes 1-4, 9); and (2) mites from the humans and dog from the Northern Territory (haplotypes 5-8). Mites from the three different hosts (wombats, a dog and humans) had not diverged phylogenetically; rather, these mites had similar 12S sequences. Thus, we conclude that these mites from wombats, humans and a dog are closely related, and that they diverged from a common ancestor relatively recently. This conclusion is consistent with the argument that people and/or their dogs introduced to Australia the S. scabiei mites that infect wombats in Australia . So, S. scabiei, which has been blamed for the extinction of populations of wombats in Australia, may be a parasitic mite that was introduced to Australia with people and/or their dogs. These data show that the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene may be a suitable population marker of S. scabiei from wombats, dogs and humans in Australia.

  10. Career Development in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Colin; Mountain, Elizabeth

    Australia has a federal system, comprising the national Commonwealth government and eight state and territory governments. At the Commonwealth level, the ministries of Education, Training and Youth Affairs, and Employment, Workplace Relations and Small Business have primary roles in the career information and services field. Education and training…

  11. Description of a new species of brooding spider crab in the genus Paranaxia Rathbun, 1924 (Brachyura: Majoidea), from northern Australia and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hosie, Andrew M; Hara, Ana

    2016-06-22

    A new species, Paranaxia keesingi sp. nov., is described based on specimens collected in northern Australia. The new species differs from its only congener, P. serpulifera (Guérin, 1832, in Guérin-Méneville 1829-1837), by several characters including carapace setation, sternal cavities, absence of a subhepatic spine, presence of a sharp spine on the posterodistal angle of the cheliped merus, relatively shorter chelipeds, and longer and more slender ambulatory legs. Morphological separation of the two species is supported by 12s rDNA sequence divergences of 7.4-8.2%. Like P. serpulifera, the newly described species exhibits direct development with females carrying juvenile individuals under the pleon. Both species are sympatric, but Paranaxia keesingi sp. nov. is found in deeper waters than P. serpulifera.

  12. Application of Scan Statistics to Detect Suicide Clusters in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Spittal, Matthew J.; Williamson, Michelle Kate; Tung, Sui Jay; Pirkis, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background Suicide clustering occurs when multiple suicide incidents take place in a small area or/and within a short period of time. In spite of the multi-national research attention and particular efforts in preparing guidelines for tackling suicide clusters, the broader picture of epidemiology of suicide clustering remains unclear. This study aimed to develop techniques in using scan statistics to detect clusters, with the detection of suicide clusters in Australia as example. Methods and Findings Scan statistics was applied to detect clusters among suicides occurring between 2004 and 2008. Manipulation of parameter settings and change of area for scan statistics were performed to remedy shortcomings in existing methods. In total, 243 suicides out of 10,176 (2.4%) were identified as belonging to 15 suicide clusters. These clusters were mainly located in the Northern Territory, the northern part of Western Australia, and the northern part of Queensland. Among the 15 clusters, 4 (26.7%) were detected by both national and state cluster detections, 8 (53.3%) were only detected by the state cluster detection, and 3 (20%) were only detected by the national cluster detection. Conclusions These findings illustrate that the majority of spatial-temporal clusters of suicide were located in the inland northern areas, with socio-economic deprivation and higher proportions of indigenous people. Discrepancies between national and state/territory cluster detection by scan statistics were due to the contrast of the underlying suicide rates across states/territories. Performing both small-area and large-area analyses, and applying multiple parameter settings may yield the maximum benefits for exploring clusters. PMID:23342098

  13. Three new genera and six new species of lecanicephalideans (Cestoda) from eagle rays of the genus Aetomylaeus (Myliobatiformes: Myliobatidae) from northern Australia and Borneo.

    PubMed

    Koch, K R; Jensen, K; Caira, J N

    2012-02-01

    New lecanicephalidean cestodes inhabiting the spiral intestine were investigated in 4 of the 6 known species of eagle rays of the genus Aetomylaeus Garman. Hosts examined consisted of 5 specimens of Aetomylaeus vespertilio from northern Australia, 5 of Aetomylaeus maculatus from Borneo, 10 of Aetomylaeus nichofii sensu stricto from Borneo, and 7 of Aetomylaeus cf. nichofii 2 from northern Australia. As a result of these new collections, 3 new genera and 6 new species of lecanicephalideans are formally described. Aetomylaeus vespertilio hosted the new genera and species Collicocephalus baggioi n. gen., n. sp. and Rexapex nanus n. gen., n. sp., as well as Aberrapex weipaensis n. sp. Aetomylaeus maculatus and A. nichofii sensu stricto hosted 3 new species of the novel genus Elicilacunosus , with the former eagle ray hosting Elicilacunosus sarawakensis n. sp. and the latter hosting both Elicilacunosus dharmadii n. sp. and Elicilacunosus fahmii n. sp. No new lecanicephalideans were described from A. cf. nichofii 2. Collicocephalus n. gen. is conspicuously unique among the genera of its order in possessing a large, retractable apical organ that, in cross-section, is transversely oblong, rather than round. Rexapex n. gen. is distinctive in its possession of an apical organ that bears 18 papilliform projections around its perimeter, and Elicilacunosus n. gen. is unlike any other known lecanicephalidean, or eucestode, in its possession of a region of musculo-glandular tissue along the midline of the dorsal and ventral surfaces of its proglottids, manifested externally as a tandem series of depressions. Among other features, A. weipaensis n. sp. differs from its congeners in its lack of post-ovarian vitelline follicles. All 6 new species were each restricted to a single species of Aetomylaeus . These records formally establish species of Aetomylaeus as hosts of lecanicephalideans. A summary of cestodes of myliobatid rays is presented.

  14. Natural outbreak of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) infection in wild giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), and other wild fish in northern Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bowater, R O; Forbes-Faulkner, J; Anderson, I G; Condon, K; Robinson, B; Kong, F; Gilbert, G L; Reynolds, A; Hyland, S; McPherson, G; Brien, J O'; Blyde, D

    2012-03-01

    Ninety-three giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), were found dead in Queensland, Australia, from 2007 to 2011. Most dead fish occurred in northern Queensland, with a peak of mortalities in Cairns in June 2008. In 2009, sick wild fish including giant sea catfish, Arius thalassinus (Rüppell), and javelin grunter, Pomadasys kaakan (Cuvier), also occurred in Cairns. In 2009 and 2010, two disease epizootics involving wild stingrays occurred at Sea World marine aquarium. Necropsy, histopathology, bacteriology and PCR determined that the cause of deaths of 12 giant Queensland grouper, three wild fish, six estuary rays, Dasyatis fluviorum (Ogilby), one mangrove whipray, Himantura granulata (Macleay), and one eastern shovelnose ray, Aptychotrema rostrata (Shaw), was Streptococcus agalactiae septicaemia. Biochemical testing of 34 S. agalactiae isolates from giant Queensland grouper, wild fish and stingrays showed all had identical biochemical profiles. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of isolates confirmed all isolates were S. agalactiae; genotyping of selected S. agalactiae isolates showed the isolates from giant Queensland grouper were serotype Ib, whereas isolates from wild fish and stingrays closely resembled serotype II. This is the first report of S. agalactiae from wild giant Queensland grouper and other wild tropical fish and stingray species in Queensland, Australia. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and State of Queensland.

  15. Apparent seismic attenuation observations in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smale, J.; Bezada, M.

    2016-12-01

    Seismic attenuation is a valuable observation that can provide insight into lithospheric structure complementary to the more commonly studied seismic velocity. We map apparent attenuation beneath the Australian mainland and Tasmania using 21 deep-focus teleseismic events recorded on Geoscience Australia's seismic network. In contrast to the traditional frequency-domain approach, we use a time-domain based procedure. For each event, we estimate a source waveform from the highest quality recordings, apply an attenuation operator to the source estimate using a range of t* values to find the best fit to the record at each station, and invert the ensemble of t* estimates to produce a smooth map. Our results are broadly consistent with velocity models obtained from surface-wave tomography. Lowest apparent attenuation occurs in the Northern Territory near Darwin, with low attenuation appearing to extend down to the Southern Territory's southern coast. The Archean Gawler, Pilbara and Yilgarn cratons also correspond to regions of lower attenuation. New South Wales and Victoria are primarily dominated by high attenuation values, with the highest apparent attenuation occurring in Tasmania, possibly associated with the East Australia Plume System.

  16. Intraplate deformation on north-dipping basement structures in the Northern Gawler Craton, Australia: reactivation of original terrane boundaries or later intra-cratonic thrusts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, G.; Giles, D.; Betts, P. G.; Backé, G.

    2007-12-01

    Multiple intraplate orogenic events have deformed Neoproterozoic to Carboniferous sedimentary sequences that cover the Archean to Mesoproterozoic basement of the northern Gawler Craton, Australia. These intraplate orogenies reactivated north-dipping basement penetrating faults that are imaged on seismic reflection profiles. These north-dipping structures pre-date Neoproterozoic deposition but their relationships to significant linear magnetic and gravity anomalies that delineate unexposed Archean to Early Mesoproterozoic basement terranes are unclear. The north-dipping structures are either terrane boundaries that formed during continental amalgamation or later faults, which formed during a mid- to late-Mesoproterozoic transpressional orogeny and cross-cut the original lithological terrane boundaries. We model magnetic and gravity data to determine the 3D structure of the unexposed basement of the northern Gawler Craton. These models are constrained by drill hole and surface observations, seismic reflection profiles and petrophysical data, such that geologically reasonable models that can satisfy the data are limited. The basement structures revealed by this modelling approach constrain the origin and significance of the north-dipping structures that were active during the later intraplate Petermann, Delamerian and Alice Springs Orogenies. These results have bearing on which structures are likely to be active during present-day intraplate deformation in other areas, including, for example, current seismic activity along similar basement structures in the Adelaide "Geosyncline".

  17. Trachoma surveillance in Australia, 2009. A report by the National Trachoma Surveillance and Reporting Unit.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kristie S; Burgess, John A; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Taylor, Hugh

    2010-12-01

    Trachoma is highly prevalent in remote Indigenous communities in Australia. The National Trachoma Surveillance and Reporting Unit was established in 2006 as a result of a Federal Government initiative to provide comprehensive surveillance data from regional and remote Indigenous communities considered by the jurisdictional population health staff to be 'At Risk' for endemic trachoma, defined as a trachoma prevalence of 5% or more. This report details the findings from the 2009 trachoma screening program together with trends in trachoma prevalence and screening coverage since 2006. Aboriginal children aged 1-9 years resident in At Risk communities were examined for trachoma using the World Health Organization (WHO) simplified trachoma grading criteria. In the Northern Territory, screening was conducted by staff from the Healthy School Age Kids program and the Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services. In South Australia, screening was conducted by the Eye Health and Chronic Disease Specialist Support Program and a team of visiting ophthalmologists and optometrists. In Western Australia, screening was conducted by staff from State Government population health units and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services. In the Northern Territory, 53 of 86 At Risk communities were screened and data were reported for 2283 children. In South Australia, 12 of 72 At Risk communities were screened and data were reported for 149 children. In Western Australia, 68 of 74 At Risk communities were screened and data were reported for 1684 children. The prevalence of active trachoma ranged from 1%-44% in the Northern Territory, 0%-57% in South Australia and 13%-15% in Western Australia. Trend analysis across all three jurisdictions combined found that neither the prevalence of trachoma nor community screening coverage changed significantly between 2006 and 2009. When trend analysis was "done by jurisdiction, there was a significant decrease in trachoma prevalence and a

  18. Engineering and design of vehicles for long distance road transport of livestock: the example of cattle transport in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Lapworth, John W

    2008-01-01

    The author outlines the design of road vehicles for the long distance transport of livestock, mainly cattle, which are used in the tropical and sub-Mediterranean climatic regions of Australia and which have been engineered to meet animal welfare principles. Over 50% of journeys exceed 500 km. Journeys of 2 000 to 3 000 km do occur and involve the resting of animals once or twice during the journey. Specialised vehicles, known as 'road trains', are employed and these consist of multiple trailers with multi-deck containers or stock crates for animals, which are hauled by a prime mover or tractor. The starting point for design is safety for both people and animals and the need to preserve transport infrastructure such as roads and bridges. The move to volume livestock loading, where livestock are loaded according to the volume they occupy rather than their weight, was a major early breakthrough. Details are given of the design of vehicles and loading facilities. Vehicle design includes suspensions and the floors, interior walls, doors, partitions and penning, deck supports and arrangements for through loading of stock crates. Loading and unloading ramps can be a major source of stress and standardised heights have been adopted in Australia.

  19. Prevalence, genetic diversity and potential clinical impact of blood-borne and enteric protozoan parasites in native mammals from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Amanda; Reiss, Andrea; Jackson, Bethany; Warren, Kristin; Paparini, Andrea; Gillespie, Graeme; Stokeld, Danielle; Irwin, Peter; Ryan, Una

    2017-04-04

    A molecular survey was conducted to provide baseline information on the prevalence, genetic diversity and potential clinical impacts of blood-borne and enteric protozoans in native wild mammals from the Northern Territory (NT). A total of 209 blood and 167 faecal samples were collected from four target species; the northern brown bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus), common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), northern quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus) and brush-tailed rabbit-rat (Conilurus penicillatus). Blood samples were screened by PCR at the 18S rRNA gene for trypanosomes, piroplasms and haemogregarines, with faecal samples tested for Cryptosporidium spp. at the 18S rRNA locus, and for Giardia spp. at the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and 18S rRNA loci. The potential clinical impact was investigated by associating clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters with presence or absence of infection. Overall, 22.5% (95% CI: 17.0-28.8%) of the animals tested were positive for haemoprotozoans. Trypanosomes were found in 26.6% (95% CI: 18.7-35.7%) of the bandicoots and were identified as Trypanosoma vegrandis G6, except for one unique genotype, most similar to T. vegrandis G3 (genetic distance=7%). The prevalence of trypanosomes in possums was 23.7% (95% CI: 11.4-40.2%), and the genotypes identified clustered within the T. noyesi clade. The presence of Babesia sp. and Hepatozoon sp. was confirmed in bandicoots only, both at a prevalence of 9.7% (95% CI: 2.7-9.2%). The total prevalence of intestinal protozoan parasites observed was relatively low (3%; 95% CI: 1.0-6.9%). No evidence of clinical disease associated with protozoan parasitic infection was observed, however bandicoots positive for Trypanosoma exhibited a significantly lower packed cell volume (PCV) compared to negative bandicoots (p=0.046). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first research conducted in the NT to characterise protozoan parasites in threatened native mammals using both molecular and

  20. Development of urban centres on the western and northern territories of Poland--an attempt of recapitulation by means of the settlement system of Poland.

    PubMed

    Drobek, W; Heffner, K

    1997-01-01

    The authors discuss the development of urban areas in western and northern Poland since the 1930s. Sections are included on the development of towns under the German settlement system; changes during military operations between 1939 and 1945; inclusion of towns into the Polish urban system; and prospects of future development.

  1. Territorial and nesting behavior in southern Boobook (Ninox novaeseelandiae)

    Treesearch

    Jerry Olsen; Susan Trost

    1997-01-01

    During 1993-1997, three adjacent nesting pairs of the Southern Boobook (Ninox novaeseelandiae) were located and observations made on their behavioral interactions, nests, and young in Canberra, Australia. Territory size was close to 100 ha; not the 4 to 10 ha reported in the literature. Males advertized territorial boundaries with the "boobook...

  2. A Boom for Whom? Exploring the Impacts of a Rapid Increase in the Male Population Upon Women's Services in Darwin, Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Ennis, Gretchen; Tofa, Matalena; Finlayson, Mary; U'Ren, Julie

    2016-05-03

    A rapidly expanding natural-resource extraction industry and a growing military presence mean an increasingly male-skewed population for the city of Darwin, Australia. This has sparked concerns about the potential for increased violence against women. In this article, we present qualitative research detailing the views of 13 participants from 10 women's support services in the Darwin area. We argue that women's support services bear witness to and are tasked with responding to the impacts of population change on women, yet their work is undermined by uncertainties that stem from neoliberal funding rationales and limited demands on companies to address social issues. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Southern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    South-central Australia is home to several deserts, including the Simpson Desert, whose reddish-orange sands are seen in the upper left quadrant of this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from July 1, 2002. Several impermanent, salty, lakes stand whitely out against the arid terrain. The largest is North Lake Eyre, southwest of center. At bottom center, Spencer Gulf separates the triangular Eyre Peninsula from the Yorke Peninsula. The Gulf of St. Vincent separates Yorke Peninsula from the mainland. In Spencer Gulf, colorful blue-green swirls indicate the presence of a bloom of marine plants called phytoplankton, whose brightly colored photosynthetic pigments stain the water. Water quality in the Gulf is an ongoing problem for Australia, as irrigation projects have diverted the already small flow of freshwater that empties into the Gulf. Other problems include contamination with pesticides and agricultural and residential fertilizer. On both the Eyre Peninsula and in the Victoria Territory to the east of Spencer Gulf, dark-colored rectangles show the boundaries of parks and nature preserves where the natural, drought-tolerant vegetation thrives.

  4. Remote supervision of medical training via videoconference in northern Australia: a qualitative study of the perspectives of supervisors and trainees

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Robin; Sabesan, Sabe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Telemedicine has revolutionised the ability to provide care to patients, relieve professional isolation and provide guidance and supervision to junior medical officers in rural areas. This study evaluated the Townsville teleoncology supervision model for the training of junior medical officers in rural areas of North Queensland, Australia. Specifically, the perspectives of junior and senior medical officers were explored to identify recommendations for future implementation. Design A qualitative approach incorporating observation and semistructured interviews was used to collect data. Interviews were uploaded into NVivo 10 data management software. Template analysis enabled themes to be tested and developed through consensus between researchers. Setting One tertiary level and four secondary level healthcare centres in rural and regional Queensland, Australia. Participants 10 junior medical officers (Interns, Registrars) and 10 senior medical officers (Senior Medical Officers, Consultants) who participated in the Townsville teleoncology model of remote supervision via videoconference (TTMRS) were included in the study. Primary and Secondary outcome measures Perspectives on the telemedicine experience, technology, engagement, professional support, satisfaction and limitations were examined. Perspectives on topics raised by participants were also examined as the interviews progressed. Results Four major themes with several subthemes emerged from the data: learning environment, beginning the learning relationship, stimulus for learning and practicalities of remote supervision via videoconference. While some themes were consistent with the current literature, new themes like increased professional edge, recognising non-verbal cues and physical examination challenges were identified. Conclusions Remote supervision via videoconference provides readily available guidance to trainees supporting their delivery of appropriate care to patients. However, resources

  5. An Impact Crater in Palm Valley, Central Australia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Buchel, Andrew; O'Neill, Craig; Britton, Tui R.

    2011-05-01

    We explore the origin of a 280 m wide, heavily eroded circular depression in Palm Valley, Northern Territory, Australia using gravity, morphological, and mineralogical data collected from a field survey in September 2009. From the analysis of the survey, we debate probable formation processes, namely erosion and impact, as no evidence of volcanism is found in the region or reported in the literature. We argue that the depression was not formed by erosion and consider an impact origin, although we acknowledge that diagnostics required to identify it as such (e.g. meteorite fragments, shatter cones, shocked quartz) are lacking, leaving the formation process uncertain. We encourage further discussion of the depression's origin and stress a need to develop recognition criteria that can help identify small, ancient impact craters. We also encourage systematic searches for impact craters in Central Australia as it is probable that many more remain to be discovered.

  6. Leptospiral antibodies in flying foxes in Australia.

    PubMed

    Smythe, L D; Field, H E; Barnett, L J; Smith, C S; Dohnt, M F; Symonds, M L; Moore, M R; Rolfe, P F

    2002-01-01

    The sera of 271 pteropid bats (or flying foxes) collected from Queensland, New South Wales, Western Australia, and the Northern Territory were screened against a reference panel of 21 Leptospira spp. using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Sera were collected from December 1997 through August 1999. The MAT panel represented those serovars previously isolated in Australia, as well as exotic serovars found in neighboring countries. Leptospiral antibodies were detected in 75 (28%) of the sera and represented seven serovars, one of which, L. interrogans serovar cynopteri has been regarded as exotic to Australia. Sixty sera were reactive to one serovar, 12 sera were reactive to two serovars, and three sera were reactive to three serovars. The L. kirschneri serovar australis was most frequently identified (60.2%). The findings suggest a previously unrecognized role of pteropid bats in the natural history of leptospirosis. The potential exists for establishment of infection in new host species, the transmission of new serovars to known host species, and for changes in virulence of leptospires as a result of passage through these species.

  7. Comparative adoption of cone beam computed tomography and panoramic radiography machines across Australia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, A; Critchley, S; Monsour, P A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the current adoption of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and panoramic radiography (PR) machines across Australia. Information regarding registered CBCT and PR machines was obtained from radiation regulators across Australia. The number of X-ray machines was correlated with the population size, the number of dentists, and the gross state product (GSP) per capita, to determine the best fitting regression model(s). In 2014, there were 232 CBCT and 1681 PR machines registered in Australia. Based on absolute counts, Queensland had the largest number of CBCT and PR machines whereas the Northern Territory had the smallest number. However, when based on accessibility in terms of the population size and the number of dentists, the Australian Capital Territory had the most CBCT machines and Western Australia had the most PR machines. The number of X-ray machines correlated strongly with both the population size and the number of dentists, but not with the GSP per capita. In 2014, the ratio of PR to CBCT machines was approximately 7:1. Projected increases in either the population size or the number of dentists could positively impact on the adoption of PR and CBCT machines in Australia. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  8. Serological Surveillance of Wild Waterfowl in Northern Australia for Avian Influenza Virus Shows Variations in Prevalence and a Cyclical Periodicity of Infection.

    PubMed

    Curran, John M; Ellis, Trevor M; Robertson, Ian D

    2015-12-01

    The virological surveillance of 3582 wild waterfowl in northern Australia from 2004 to 2009 for avian influenza virus (AIV) found an apparent prevalence (AP) of 1% (31 of 2989 cloacal swabs; 95% CI: 0.71%-1.47%) using a Taqman Type A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test and no viral isolations from 593 swabs tested by the embryonating chicken egg culture method. From serological testing using a nucleoprotein competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for AIV antibody, 1131 of 3645 sera had ≥ 40% inhibition, indicating an apparent seroprevalence of 31% (95% CI: 29.5%-32.6%). This value suggests that the low AP from virological testing does not reflect the dynamics of AIV infection in these populations. Spatiotemporal and species variations in seroprevalence were found at wetland sampling sites, with consistently higher values at Kununurra in Western Australia (AP  =  39%, 95% CI: 36.9%-41.4%) compared to other locations. At Kununurra, seroprevalence values had a two-year cyclical periodicity and suggest this location is a hotspot of AIV activity. From hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing using multiple subtype antigens, the highest AP of HI reactions were to H6 and H5 subtypes. The phenomenon of cyclic periodicity in NP seroprevalence at Kununurra is hypothesized as being related to the prevalent H6 subtype that may have either become predominant or cycled back into a mostly AIV naïve flock. The inclusion of serological testing provided insight into the dynamics of AIV infection in wild birds such as species risk profiles and spatiotemporal patterns, important epidemiological information for a risk-based approach to surveillance.

  9. Evolution of the Mount Woods Inlier, northern Gawler Craton, Southern Australia: an integrated structural and aeromagnetic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Peter G.; Valenta, Rick K.; Finlay, Jim

    2003-05-01

    Structural mapping integrated with interpretation and forward modelling of aeromagnetic data form complimentary and powerful tools for regional structural analysis because both techniques focus on architecture and overprinting relationships. This approach is used to constrain the geometry and evolution of the sparsely exposed Mount Woods Inlier in the northern Gawler Craton. The Mount Woods Inlier records a history of poly-phase deformation, high-temperature metamorphism, and syn- and post-orogenic magmatism between ca. 1736 and 1584 Ma. The earliest deformation involved isoclinal folding, and the development of bedding parallel and axial planar gneissic foliation (S 1). This was accompanied by high-temperature, upper amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism at ca. 1736 Ma. During subsequent north-south shortening (D 2), open to isoclinal south-southeast-oriented F 2 folds developed as the Palaeoproterozoic successions of the inlier were thrust over the Archaean nuclei of the Gawler Craton. The syn-D 2 Engenina Adamellite was emplaced at ca. 1692 Ma. The post-D 2 history involved shear zone development and localised folding, exhumation of metamorphic rocks, and deposition of clastic sediments prior to the emplacement of the ca. 1584 Ma Granite Balta Suite. The Mount Woods Inlier is interpreted as the northern continuation of the Kimban Orogen.

  10. Aeromagnetic Survey by Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Magneto-Resistant Magnetometer at the northern Kalgoorlie area, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, M.; Group, A.; Milligan, P.

    2006-12-01

    We have developed the technology of small drones (unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)) and an onboard magnetometer focussed on the aeromagnetic surveys under the Ant-Plane project. We succeeded long distant flight to 500km with agnetometer by Ant-Plene4 drone collaborated with Geoscience, Australia, in March 2006. The survey was carried out in the area 10kmx10km around Mt. Vetters Station, Kalgoorlie, West Australian. The magnetic data are obtained from 41 courses (250m in interval) of EW dierction. The altitude of the flight was 900m from sea level and 500m from the runway. The Ant-Plane #4 consists of 2.6m span and 2.0m length with 2-cycles and 2-cylinder 85cc gasoline engine, GPS navigation system by microcomputer and radio telemeter system. The total weight is 25kg including 12.4 litter fuels and the coursing speed is 130. The magnetometer system consists of a 3-component magneto- resistant magnetometer (MR) sensor (Honeywell HMR2300), GPS and data logger. Three components of magnetic field, latitude, longitude, altitude, the number of satellite and time can be recorded in every second during 6 hours. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is 7 nT and we use a total magnetic field intensity for magnetic analysis due to unknown direction of heading of the plane. MR-magnetometer sensor was installed at the tip of a FRP pipe of 1m length, and the pipe was fixed to the head of the plane in order to reduce the plane magnetization. After 4 hours 14 minutes from the takeoff, the 500km flight was accomplished and the magnetic data were obtained from the data logger. The straight flight course was almost consistent with the way point course, but the course was drastically disturbed when the plane was turning. The magnetic noise level during the flight increased to 30nT, when the plane was flight in the tail wind. However, it is much higher when the plane flew in the head wind. The anomaly pattern obtained from Ant-Plane 4 was compared with the magnetic anomaly map published by

  11. Age-Specific Cluster of Cases of Serotype 1 Streptococcus pneumoniae Carriage in Remote Indigenous Communities in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Vaughan, H.; Marsh, R.; Mackenzie, G.; Fisher, J.; Morris, P. S.; Hare, K.; McCallum, G.; Binks, M.; Murphy, D.; Lum, G.; Cook, H.; Krause, V.; Jacups, S.; Leach, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination commenced in 2001 for Australian indigenous infants. Pneumococcal carriage surveillance detected substantial replacement with nonvaccine serotypes and a cluster of serotype 1 carriage. Our aim was to review Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 carriage and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) data for this population and to analyze serotype 1 isolates. Carriage data were collected between 1992 and 2004 in the Darwin region, one of the five regions in the Northern Territory. Carriage data were also collected in 2003 and 2005 from four regions in the Northern Territory. Twenty-six cases of serotype 1 IPD were reported from 1994 to 2007 in the Northern Territory. Forty-four isolates were analyzed by BOX typing and 11 by multilocus sequence typing. In the Darwin region, 26 children were reported carrying serotype 1 (ST227) in 2002 but not during later surveillance. Scattered cases of serotype 1 carriage were noted in two other regions. Cocolonization of serotype 1 with other pneumococcal serotypes was common (34% serotype 1-positive swabs). In conclusion, pneumococcal carriage studies detected intermittent serotype 1 carriage and an ST227 cluster in children in indigenous communities in the Northern Territory of Australia. There was no apparent increase in serotype 1 IPD during this time. The rate of serotype 1 cocolonization with other pneumococcal serotypes suggests that carriage of this serotype may be underestimated. PMID:19091995

  12. SHRIMP U Pb analyses of detrital zircon: a window to understanding the Paleoproterozoic development of the Tanami Region, northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, A. J.; Crispe, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Poorly exposed Paleoproterozoic turbiditic to shallow marine sedimentary rocks of the Tanami Basin, NT, Australia are largely the erosional products of either the ˜1.87 1.85 Hooper Orogeny and/or magmatism associated with the ˜1.87 Ga Nimbuwah Event. Dating of detrital zircon from six of the principal sedimentary units shows that deposition spanned at least the period ˜1.84 1.77 Ga. Collectively, the detrital zircon ages reveal a progression in provenance that is a record of the development of the orogen. The basal Dead Bullock Formation contains only zircon derived from Archean basement and no contemporaneous products of orogeny. Its deposition age is inferred to be ˜1.87 1.84 Ga. Orogenic ˜1.86 Ga zircon appears in the overlying Killi Killi Formation, deposited between ˜1.84 1.82 Ga and persists, probably due to recycling in all overlying units except one, the Mount Charles Formation. The accepted stratigraphic position of this unit might be incorrect.

  13. A modern analogue for tectonic, eustatic, and climatic processes in cratonic basins: Gulf of Carpentaria, northern Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edgar, N. Terence; Cecil, C. Blaine; Mattick, R.E.; de Deckker, Patrick; Djajadihardja, Yusuf S.

    2003-01-01

    The Gulf of Carpentaria is a tropical, silled epicontinental sea and may be a modern analogue for ancient cratonic basins. For the purpose of this study, the Gulf of Carpentaria is compared to Pennsylvanian cratonic basins of the United States. During the Pennsylvanian, the North American continent moved from the Southern Hemisphere, through the Equator, into the Northern Hemisphere. Today, the Gulf of Carpentaria–New Guinea region is a few degrees south of the Equator and is moving towards it. During the Pennsylvanian, the world was subjected to major glaciations and associated sea-level changes. The island of New Guinea and the Gulf of Carpentaria have undergone similar processes during the Quaternary. A reconnaissance seismic survey of the gulf conducted by the USGS and the Australian National University (ANU), combined with oil-exploration well data, provided the first step in a systematic evaluation of a modern tropical epicontinental system. During the Cenozoic, the region was dominated by terrestrial sedimentation in a temperate climate. At the same time, carbonates were being deposited on the northern shelf edge of the Australian Plate. During the Miocene, carbonate deposition expanded southward into the gulf region. Then in the Late Miocene, carbonate sedimentation was replaced by terrigenous clastics derived from the developing Central Range of the island of New Guinea, which developed a wetter climate while moving northwards into the tropics. At least 14 basin-wide transgressive–regressive cycles are identified by channels that were eroded under subaerial conditions since about the Miocene. Comparison of the modern Gulf of Carpentaria sequences with those of the Pennsylvanian reveals many similarities.

  14. Sedimentary responses to sub-aerial felsic volcanism from the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous northern Macalister Synclinorium, southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Halloran, G. J.; Gaul, A. J.

    1997-04-01

    Active sub-aerial volcanism has the capability to rapidly alter both the topographic and drainage characteristics of a landscape, and thus fundamentally influence resulting sedimentary facies. Relationships between sedimentation and volcanism are explored in this paper, via an investigation of the stratigraphy and early depositional history of the Upper Devonian volcano-sedimentary units of the northern Macalister Synclinorium, east-central Victoria. Complex interfingering relationships exist between sub-aerial felsic volcanic successions (Rose River Volcanics) and alluvial, fluvial and lacustrine sedimentary units (the Bindaree and Howitt Spur Formations). A depositional model is presented for these units, in which the Rose River Volcanics, an outflow (ignimbritic plateau) facies of the Tolmie caldera complex to the north, co-existed with a series of volcaniclastic alluvial fans and freshwater lakes. A dacitic volcanic centre (Refrigerator Gap Dacite) appears to have developed somewhat separately to the south, in the Jamieson River area. These lower successions of the northern Macalister Synclinorium record an episode of sedimentation in close proximity to an active felsic volcanic terrain, and in a landscape of significant topographic relief. The conglomerates of the Bindaree Formation, in particular, record the supply of abundant felsic volcanic detritus via high-gradient proximal alluvial stream systems. Comparisons can be made with sedimentological processes operating during deposition of overlying sedimentary successions, where influences by primary volcanic activity were less important. Well defined channel geometry successions and a diversification in clast and grain types within these younger units indicate ongoing headward erosion into metasedimentary basement rocks, and deposition within lower-gradient, higher-order stream systems.

  15. The archaeology, chronology and stratigraphy of Madjedbebe (Malakunanja II): A site in northern Australia with early occupation.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Chris; Smith, Mike; Marwick, Ben; Fullagar, Richard; Wallis, Lynley A; Faulkner, Patrick; Manne, Tiina; Hayes, Elspeth; Roberts, Richard G; Jacobs, Zenobia; Carah, Xavier; Lowe, Kelsey M; Matthews, Jacqueline; Florin, S Anna

    2015-06-01

    Published ages of >50 ka for occupation at Madjedbebe (Malakunanja II) in Australia's north have kept the site prominent in discussions about the colonisation of Sahul. The site also contains one of the largest stone artefact assemblages in Sahul for this early period. However, the stone artefacts and other important archaeological components of the site have never been described in detail, leading to persistent doubts about its stratigraphic integrity. We report on our analysis of the stone artefacts and faunal and other materials recovered during the 1989 excavations, as well as the stratigraphy and depositional history recorded by the original excavators. We demonstrate that the technology and raw materials of the early assemblage are distinctive from those in the overlying layers. Silcrete and quartzite artefacts are common in the early assemblage, which also includes edge-ground axe fragments and ground haematite. The lower flaked stone assemblage is distinctive, comprising a mix of long convergent flakes, some radial flakes with faceted platforms, and many small thin silcrete flakes that we interpret as thinning flakes. Residue and use-wear analysis indicate occasional grinding of haematite and woodworking, as well as frequent abrading of platform edges on thinning flakes. We conclude that previous claims of extensive displacement of artefacts and post-depositional disturbance may have been overstated. The stone artefacts and stratigraphic details support previous claims for human occupation 50-60 ka and show that human occupation during this time differed from later periods. We discuss the implications of these new data for understanding the first human colonisation of Sahul.

  16. Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Fish Assemblages Following an Artificially Extended Floodplain Inundation Event, Northern Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolls, Robert J.; Wilson, G. Glenn

    2010-04-01

    Water extraction from dryland rivers is often associated with declines in the health of river and floodplain ecosystems due to reduced flooding frequency and extent of floodplain inundation. Following moderate flooding in early 2008 in the Narran River, Murray-Darling Basin, Australia, 10,423 ML of water was purchased from agricultural water users and delivered to the river to prolong inundation of its terminal lake system to improve the recruitment success of colonial waterbirds that had started breeding in response to the initial flooding. This study examined the spatial and temporal patterns of fish assemblages in river and floodplain habitats over eight months following flooding to assess the possible ecological benefits of flood extension. Although the abundances of most fish species were greater in river channel habitats, the fish assemblage used floodplain habitats when inundated. Young-of-the-year (4-12 months age) golden perch ( Macquaria ambigua) and bony bream ( Nematalosa erebi) were consistently sampled in floodplain sites when inundated, suggesting that the floodplain provides rearing habitat for these species. Significant differences in the abundances of fish populations between reaches upstream and downstream of a weir in the main river channel indicates that the effectiveness of the environmental water release was limited by restricted connectivity within the broader catchment. Although the seasonal timing of flood extension may have coincided with sub-optimal primary production, the use of the environmental water purchase is likely to have promoted recruitment of fish populations by providing greater access to floodplain nursery habitats, thereby improving the ability to persist during years of little or no flow.

  17. Dissolved organic matter dynamics in streams of intermittent flow - linkages with ecohydrologic processes from pool to catchment in northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grierson, Pauline; Siebers, Andre; Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Fellman, Jason; Pettit, Neil; Dogramaci, Shawan

    2015-04-01

    Changes in both the frequency and intensity of flood-drought cycles of intermittent streams, either through changing climate or anthropogenic management, may have significant impacts on stream functioning. However, little is known about how and to what extent the quantity and composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) changes during inter-flood periods and how this relates to stream hydrology, particularly of intermittent rivers. We hypothesised that with increasing time since flooding, controls on stream biogeochemical processes transition from predominantly hydrological to more local scale environmental factors. We also argue that in strongly seasonal and oligotrophic regions, such as those of the tropical northwest of Australia, groundwater inputs of old DOC may increase the bioavailability of stream organic matter. We used δ18O and δ2H values of surface water and groundwater in the alluvium (AW) together with DOM fluorescence excitation-emission spectroscopy and radiocarbon dating to (i) characterise DOM and (ii) assess the relative importance of autochthonous versus allochthonous sources among pools according to how connected they are to groundwater. Our findings show that as streams increase in size and accumulate aromatic DOC from terrestrial plant material, percent bioavailability decreases concomitant with the modernization of the DOC pool. Therefore, rapid biotic uptake of old, bioavailable DOC originating in groundwater springs and the accumulation of modern, terrestrially derived DOC work in opposite directions affecting the dynamics of DOC along fluvial networks. The metabolism of old DOC in small streams is a direct link between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems but also provides a biogeochemical link between non-contemporary carbon fixation and modern river productivity. Recognition of the hydrologic complexity of dryland rivers is clearly necessary for more effective catchment-scale management strategies that balance an increasing demand for

  18. A new genus with two new species of lecanicephalidean tapeworms (Cestoda) from the mangrove whipray, Urogymnus granulatus (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae),from the Solomon Islands and northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Kaylee S; Jensen, Kirsten

    2017-02-06

    A new lecanicephalidean genus is erected for cestodes previously recognised as "New Genus 12" (Polypocephalidae) in a phylogenetic analysis of the interrelationship of members of this order. Examination of the cestode fauna of the mangrove whipray, Urogymnus granulatus (Macleay) (Myliobatiformes: Dasyatidae) from the Solomon Islands and northern Australia revealed the existence of specimens representing two new species, consistent in morphology with "New Genus 12." Corollapex gen. n. is unique among the 24 valid lecanicephalidean genera in its possession of an apical organ in the form of an external retractable central disk surrounded by eight concave muscular, membrane-bound pads and an internal heterogeneous glandular component. The two new species described herein, Corollapex cairae sp. n. (type species) and Corollapex tingoi sp. n., differ from one another in overall size and number of mature and immature proglottids, and are noted to demonstrate a differential distribution between mature and juvenile host individuals. Additional species diversity in the new genus, beyond C. cairae sp. n., C. tingoi sp. n., and "New Genus 12 n. sp. 1" of Jensen et al. (2016) is suggested. Corollapex gen. n. appears to be restricted to dasyatid hosts in the Indo-West Pacific region.

  19. Molecular screening of microbial communities for candidate indicators of multiple metal impacts in marine sediments from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Cornall, Alyssa; Rose, Alea; Streten, Claire; McGuinness, Keith; Parry, David; Gibb, Karen

    2016-02-01

    Coastal sediments accumulate metals from anthropogenic sources and as a consequence industry is required to monitor sediment health. The total concentration of a metal does not necessarily reflect its potential toxicity or biological impact, so biological assessment tools are useful for monitoring. Rapid biological assessment tools sensitive enough to detect relatively small increases in metal concentrations would provide early warning of future ecosystem impact. The authors investigated in situ populations of Archaea and Bacteria as potential tools for rapid biological assessment in sediment at 4 northern Australian coastal locations over 2 yr, in both wet and dry seasons. The 1 M HCl-extractable concentrations of metals in sediment were measured, and Archaeal and Bacterial community profiles were obtained by next-generation sequencing of sediment deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Species response curves were used to identify several taxonomic groups with potential as biological indicators of metal impact. Spatial variation, sediment grain size, water depth, and dissolved oxygen also correlated with microbial population shifts. Seasonal variation was less important than geographic location. Metal-challenge culture trials supported the identification of metal-resistant and -sensitive taxa. In situ Archaea and Bacteria are potentially sensitive indicators for changes in bioavailable concentrations of metals; however, the complexity of the system suggests it is important to identify metal-specific functional genes that may be informed by these sequencing surveys, and thus provide a useful addition to identity-based assays. © 2015 SETAC.

  20. Impact on blood Pb levels of maternal and early infant feeding practices of First Nation Cree in the Mushkegowuk Territory of northern Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hanning, Rhona M; Sandhu, Ranjit; MacMillan, Angus; Moss, Lorraine; Tsuji, Leonard J S; Nieboer, Evert

    2003-04-01

    Exposure to Pb in-utero and in infancy has been associated with cognitive risk, even at low blood Pb levels of 0.48-0.96 micromol L(-1). Based on the hypothesis that wild game consumed by First Nation women of Mushkegowuk Territory contains Pb that might be transferred through blood or breast-milk to the fetus or infant, the study's objectives were to describe: (1) Pb in maternal and cord blood at birth and infant blood at 4 months, and (2) dietary influence on Pb status. Cord and maternal Pb were 0.10 +/- 0.08 and 0.11 +/- 0.06 micromol L(-1) (x +/- SD), respectively, and were significantly correlated (r = 0.77, p < 0.0001, n = 70), as was infant blood Pb (0.08 +/- 0.05 micromol L(-1)) with matched cord blood (r = 0.65, p < 0.0001, n = 30). Two cord blood samples (3%) were above 0.48 micromol L(-1). Pb in breast-milk at 0.010 +/- 0.008 micromol L(-1) (n = 25), was significantly lower than Pb in commercial formula or evaporated milk-based feedings (range 0.02-0.05 micromol L(-1), p < 0.05), and correlated with matched maternal blood Pb (r = 0.55, p < 0.005). However, in a sub-sample of infants (n = 31), blood Pb was similar for breastfed and formula-fed groups, though above the evaporated milk-fed group (p < 0.05). Maternal consumption of wild fowl, mammals and fish, estimated from the previous year, provided, respectively, 128 +/- 124, 46 +/- 68 and 8 +/- 13 MJ annum(-1). Traditional animal food intake, especially wild fowl, correlated significantly with cord blood Pb (Spearman rank correlation, p = 0.017). Although blood and milk Pb levels were largely within acceptable ranges, the presence of some elevated levels and association between blood Pb and traditional game consumption may reflect the legacy of using lead-containing ammunition.

  1. A new insect-specific flavivirus from northern Australia suppresses replication of West Nile virus and Murray Valley encephalitis virus in co-infected mosquito cells.

    PubMed

    Hobson-Peters, Jody; Yam, Alice Wei Yee; Lu, Jennifer Wei Fei; Setoh, Yin Xiang; May, Fiona J; Kurucz, Nina; Walsh, Susan; Prow, Natalie A; Davis, Steven S; Weir, Richard; Melville, Lorna; Hunt, Neville; Webb, Richard I; Blitvich, Bradley J; Whelan, Peter; Hall, Roy A

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports of a novel group of flaviviruses that replicate only in mosquitoes and appear to spread through insect populations via vertical transmission have emerged from around the globe. To date, there is no information on the presence or prevalence of these insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) in Australian mosquito species. To assess whether such viruses occur locally, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flavivirus universal primers that are specific to the NS5 gene to detect these viruses in mosquito pools collected from the Northern Territory. Of 94 pools of mosquitoes, 13 were RT-PCR positive, and of these, 6 flavivirus isolates were obtained by inoculation of mosquito cell culture. Sequence analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that these isolates are genetically and phylogenetically similar to ISFs reported from other parts of the world. The entire coding region of one isolate (designated 56) was sequenced and shown to have approximately 63.7% nucleotide identity and 66.6% amino acid identity with its closest known relative (Nakiwogo virus) indicating that the prototype Australian ISF represents a new species. All isolates were obtained from Coquillettidia xanthogaster mosquitoes. The new virus is tentatively named Palm Creek virus (PCV) after its place of isolation. We also demonstrated that prior infection of cultured mosquito cells with PCV suppressed subsequent replication of the medically significant West Nile and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses by 10-43 fold (1 to 1.63 log) at 48 hr post-infection, suggesting that superinfection exclusion can occur between ISFs and vertebrate-infecting flaviviruses despite their high level of genetic diversity. We also generated several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that are specific to the NS1 protein of PCV, and these represent the first ISF-specific mAbs reported to date.

  2. A New Insect-Specific Flavivirus from Northern Australia Suppresses Replication of West Nile Virus and Murray Valley Encephalitis Virus in Co-infected Mosquito Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hobson-Peters, Jody; Yam, Alice Wei Yee; Lu, Jennifer Wei Fei; Setoh, Yin Xiang; May, Fiona J.; Kurucz, Nina; Walsh, Susan; Prow, Natalie A.; Davis, Steven S.; Weir, Richard; Melville, Lorna; Hunt, Neville; Webb, Richard I.; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Whelan, Peter; Hall, Roy A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports of a novel group of flaviviruses that replicate only in mosquitoes and appear to spread through insect populations via vertical transmission have emerged from around the globe. To date, there is no information on the presence or prevalence of these insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) in Australian mosquito species. To assess whether such viruses occur locally, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flavivirus universal primers that are specific to the NS5 gene to detect these viruses in mosquito pools collected from the Northern Territory. Of 94 pools of mosquitoes, 13 were RT-PCR positive, and of these, 6 flavivirus isolates were obtained by inoculation of mosquito cell culture. Sequence analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that these isolates are genetically and phylogenetically similar to ISFs reported from other parts of the world. The entire coding region of one isolate (designated 56) was sequenced and shown to have approximately 63.7% nucleotide identity and 66.6% amino acid identity with its closest known relative (Nakiwogo virus) indicating that the prototype Australian ISF represents a new species. All isolates were obtained from Coquillettidia xanthogaster mosquitoes. The new virus is tentatively named Palm Creek virus (PCV) after its place of isolation. We also demonstrated that prior infection of cultured mosquito cells with PCV suppressed subsequent replication of the medically significant West Nile and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses by 10–43 fold (1 to 1.63 log) at 48 hr post-infection, suggesting that superinfection exclusion can occur between ISFs and vertebrate-infecting flaviviruses despite their high level of genetic diversity. We also generated several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that are specific to the NS1 protein of PCV, and these represent the first ISF-specific mAbs reported to date. PMID:23460804

  3. Territorial defense, territory size, and population regulation.

    PubMed

    López-Sepulcre, Andrés; Kokko, Hanna

    2005-09-01

    The carrying capacity of an environment is determined partly by how individuals compete over the available resources. To territorial animals, space is an important resource, leading to conflict over its use. We build a model where the carrying capacity for an organism in a given environment results from the evolution of territorial defense effort and the consequent space use. The same evolutionary process can yield two completely different modes of population regulation. Density dependence arises through expanding and shrinking territories if fecundity is low, breeding success increases gradually with territory size, and/or defense is cheap. By contrast, when fecundity is high, breeding success sharply saturates with territory size, and/or defense is costly, we predict fixed territory sizes and regulation by floaters. These "surplus" individuals form a buffer against population fluctuations. Yet floaters can also harm breeder performance, and by comparing population growth of a territorial population to a nonterritorial (and individually suboptimal) alternative, we can quantify the harmful effect of evolutionary conflict on population performance. Territoriality has often been found to increase population stability, but this may come at a cost of reduced equilibrium densities.

  4. Roaming behaviour and home range estimation of domestic dogs in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in northern Australia using four different methods.

    PubMed

    Dürr, Salome; Ward, Michael P

    2014-11-15

    Disease transmission parameters are the core of epidemic models, but are difficult to estimate, especially in the absence of outbreak data. Investigation of the roaming behaviour, home range (HR) and utilization distribution (UD) can provide the foundation for such parameter estimation in free-ranging animals. The objectives of this study were to estimate HR and UD of 69 domestic dogs in six Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in northern Australia and to compare four different methods (the minimum convex polygon, MCP; the location-based kernel density estimation, LKDE; the biased random bridge, BRB; and Time Local Convex Hull, T-LoCoH) for investigation of UD and estimating HR sizes. Global positioning system (GPS) collars were attached to community dogs for a period of 1-3 days and positions (fixes) were recorded every minute. Median core HRs (50% isopleth) of the 69 dogs were estimated to range from 0.2 to 0.4 ha and the more extended HR (95% isopleth) to range from 2.5 to 5.3 ha, depending on the method used. The HR and UD shapes were found to be generally circular around the dog owner's house. However, some individuals were found to roam much more with a HR size of 40-104 ha and cover large areas of their community or occasionally beyond. These far roaming dogs are of particular interest for infectious disease transmission. Occasionally, dogs were taken between communities and out of communities for hunting, which enables the contact of dogs between communities and with wildlife (such as dingoes). The BRB and T-LoCoH are the only two methods applied here which integrate the consecutiveness of GPS locations into the analysis, a substantial advantage. The recently developed BRB method produced significantly larger HR estimates than the other two methods; however, the variability of HR sizes was lower compared to the other methods. Advantages of the BRB method include a more realistic analytical approach (kernel density estimation based on movements

  5. Spatial patterns of sub-tidal seagrasses and their tissue nutrients in the Torres Strait, northern Australia: Implications for management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, James K.; Carter, Alex B.; McKenzie, Len J.; Pitcher, C. Roland; Coles, Robert G.

    2008-09-01

    The distribution and nutritional profiles of sub-tidal seagrasses from the Torres Strait were surveyed and mapped across an area of 31,000 km 2. Benthic sediment composition, water depth, seagrass species type and nutrients were sampled at 168 points selected in a stratified representative pattern. Eleven species of seagrass were present at 56 (33.3%) of the sample points. Halophila spinulosa, Halophila ovalis, Cymodocea serrulata and Syringodium isoetifolium were the most common species and these were nutrient profiled. Sub-tidal seagrass distribution (and associated seagrass nutrient concentrations) was generally confined to northern-central and south-western regions of the survey area (

  6. Spatial clusters of suicide in Australia.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xin; Hu, Wenbiao; Page, Andrew; Tong, Shilu

    2012-07-23

    Understanding the spatial distribution of suicide can inform the planning, implementation and evaluation of suicide prevention activity. This study explored spatial clusters of suicide in Australia, and investigated likely socio-demographic determinants of these clusters. National suicide and population data at a statistical local area (SLA) level were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics for the period of 1999 to 2003. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated at the SLA level, and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were applied to investigate the geographical distribution of suicides and detect clusters of high risk in Australia. Male suicide incidence was relatively high in the northeast of Australia, and parts of the east coast, central and southeast inland, compared with the national average. Among the total male population and males aged 15 to 34, Mornington Shire had the whole or a part of primary high risk cluster for suicide, followed by the Bathurst-Melville area, one of the secondary clusters in the north coastal area of the Northern Territory. Other secondary clusters changed with the selection of cluster radius and age group. For males aged 35 to 54 years, only one cluster in the east of the country was identified. There was only one significant female suicide cluster near Melbourne while other SLAs had very few female suicide cases and were not identified as clusters. Male suicide clusters had a higher proportion of Indigenous population and lower median socio-economic index for area (SEIFA) than the national average, but their shapes changed with selection of maximum cluster radii setting. This study found high suicide risk clusters at the SLA level in Australia, which appeared to be associated with lower median socio-economic status and higher proportion of Indigenous population. Future suicide prevention programs should focus on these high risk areas.

  7. Testing Potential New Sites for Optical Telescopes in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hotan, C. E.; Tingay, S. J.; Glazebrook, K.

    2013-01-01

    In coming years, Australia may find the need to build new optical telescopes to continue local programmes, contribute to global survey projects, and form a local multi-wavelength connection for the new radio telescopes being built. In this study, we refine possible locations for a new optical telescope by studying remotely sensed meteorological infrared data to ascertain expected cloud coverage rates across Australia, and combine these data with a digital elevation model using a geographic information system. We find that the best sites within Australia for building optical telescopes are likely to be on the highest mountains in the Hamersley Range in northwest Western Australia, while the MacDonnell Ranges in the Northern Territory may also be appropriate. We believe that similar seeing values to Siding Spring should be obtainable and with significantly more observing time at the identified sites. We expect to find twice as many clear nights as at current telescope sites. These sites are thus prime locations for future on-site testing.

  8. New Leucettidae de Laubenfels, 1936 (Porifera, Calcarea) from Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Leocorny, Pedro; Alencar, Aline; Fromont, Jane; Klautau, Michelle

    2016-10-17

    This paper reports four new Leucettidae (Porifera, Calcarea) from Western Australia, with two representatives of Leucetta and two of Pericharax: L. foliata sp. nov., L. purpurea sp. nov., Pericharax crypta sp. nov., and P. vallii sp. nov. This is the first time tripods have been described within Pericharax. In addition, one species (L. foliata sp. nov.) has an external morphology not previously reported for Leucetta, and for the first time tetractines of the inhalant and exhalant canals have been distinguished. Leucettidae now comprises 28 species, eight of them occur in Western Australia, which means this Australian State has the highest species richness for this family in Australia. The WA coastline has been largely unexplored for Calcarea so it is likely that further collecting will yield additional species. Leucetta microraphis is the most widespread species of Leucettidae in Australia, occurring in all States except the Northern Territory and Tasmania. We highlight the importance of a revision of the Leucettidae using molecular and morphological characters to determine which morphological characters have a phylogenetic signal.

  9. Language Planning and Placenaming in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Flavia

    2007-01-01

    Before colonisation Australia was fully named by its Indigenous population, but that complex network of naming was largely overlooked as Europeans introduced their own names for features and settlements. Each of Australia's states and territories now has a nomenclature authority, whose activities are coordinated through the Committee for…

  10. N2O, NO, N2, and CO2 emissions from tropical savanna and grassland of Northern Australia: an incubation experiment with intact soil cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, C.; Reiser, K.; Dannenmann, M.; Hutley, L. B.; Jacobeit, J.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-06-01

    Strong seasonal variability of hygric and thermal soil conditions are a defining environmental feature in Northern Australia. However, how such changes affect the soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO) and dinitrogen (N2) is still not well explored. By incubating intact soil cores from four sites (3 savanna, 1 pasture) under controlled soil temperatures (ST) and soil moisture (SM) we investigated the release of the trace gas fluxes of N2O, NO and carbon dioxide (CO2). Furthermore, the release of N2 due to denitrification was measured using the helium gas flow soil core technique. Under dry pre-incubation conditions NO and N2O emission were very low (<7.0 ± 5.0 μg NO-N m-2 h-1; <0.0 ± 1.4 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1) or in case of N2O, even a net soil uptake was observed. Substantial NO (max: 306.5 μg N m-2 h-1) and relatively small N2O pulse emissions (max: 5.8 ± 5.0 μg N m-2 h-1) were recorded following soil wetting, but these pulses were short-lived, lasting only up to 3 days. The total atmospheric loss of nitrogen was dominated by N2 emissions (82.4-99.3% of total N lost), although NO emissions contributed almost 43.2% at 50% SM and 30 °C ST. N2O emissions were systematically higher for 3 of 12 sample locations, which indicates substantial spatial variability at site level, but on average soils acted as weak N2O sources or even sinks. Emissions were controlled by SM and ST for N2O and CO2, ST and pH for NO, and SM and pH for N2.

  11. A new species of microphallid (Trematoda: Digenea) infecting a novel host family, the Muraenidae, on the northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kudlai, Olena; Cribb, Thomas H; Cutmore, Scott C

    2016-11-01

    A new species of microphallid, Longiductotrema tethepae n. sp., is reported from a muraenid eel Gymnothorax pseudothyrsoideus (Bleeker) on the northern Great Barrier Reef. The new species is described based on adults from Gy. pseudothyrsoideus and metacercariae from a grapsid crab, Grapsus albolineatus Latreille in Milbert, collected from off Lizard Island, Queensland, Australia. The new species is assigned to Longiductotrema Deblock & Heard, 1969 based on morphological characters (presence of a cirrus-sac; a long metraterm, intensively ensheathed by gland-cells; an entirely postcaecal uterus; vitellarium composed of two lateral clusters each of about ten follicles, situated in the testicular and post-testicular areas). Longiductotrema tethepae n. sp. is the third species assigned to the genus, differing from its congeners in having a distinctly larger body dimensions, a smaller pharynx in relation to oral sucker, the anterior limits of the vitelline fields at the level of the testes (vs at the level of the ovary) and in its parasitism of a muraenid fish (vs birds). Additionally, the new species differs from L. floridense Deblock & Heard, 1969 in having a shorter metraterm and from L. scandolensis Deblock & Bartoli, 1988 in having a less elongate forebody in relation to body length, shorter caeca and prepharynx, and slightly larger eggs. Phylogenetic analyses, based on partial 28S rRNA gene sequences, showed that the present species is sister to all other microphallids for which sequence data are available. This is the fourth report of a microphallid from a marine eel, the first from the Muraenidae Rafinesque and the first from a marine fish in the Indo-west Pacific. A summary of all species of the Microphallidae parasitising fish is provided.

  12. Impact of the spatial resolution of satellite remote sensing sensors in the quantification of total suspended sediment concentration: A case study in turbid waters of Northern Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fearns, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The impact of anthropogenic activities on coastal waters is a cause of concern because such activities add to the total suspended sediment (TSS) budget of the coastal waters, which have negative impacts on the coastal ecosystem. Satellite remote sensing provides a powerful tool in monitoring TSS concentration at high spatiotemporal resolution, but coastal managers should be mindful that the satellite-derived TSS concentrations are dependent on the satellite sensor’s radiometric properties, atmospheric correction approaches, the spatial resolution and the limitations of specific TSS algorithms. In this study, we investigated the impact of different spatial resolutions of satellite sensor on the quantification of TSS concentration in coastal waters of northern Western Australia. We quantified the TSS product derived from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua, Landsat-8 Operational Land Image (OLI), and WorldView-2 (WV2) at native spatial resolutions of 250 m, 30 m and 2 m respectively and coarser spatial resolution (resampled up to 5 km) to quantify the impact of spatial resolution on the derived TSS product in different turbidity conditions. The results from the study show that in the waters of high turbidity and high spatial variability, the high spatial resolution WV2 sensor reported TSS concentration as high as 160 mg L-1 while the low spatial resolution MODIS-Aqua reported a maximum TSS concentration of 23.6 mg L-1. Degrading the spatial resolution of each satellite sensor for highly spatially variable turbid waters led to variability in the TSS concentrations of 114.46%, 304.68% and 38.2% for WV2, Landsat-8 OLI and MODIS-Aqua respectively. The implications of this work are particularly relevant in the situation of compliance monitoring where operations may be required to restrict TSS concentrations to a pre-defined limit. PMID:28380059

  13. Early Triassic stromatolites in a siliciclastic nearshore setting in northern Perth Basin, Western Australia: Geobiologic features and implications for post-extinction microbial proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Wang, Yongbiao; Kershaw, Stephen; Luo, Mao; Yang, Hao; Zhao, Laishi; Feng, Yuheng; Chen, Jianbo; Yang, Li; Zhang, Lei

    2014-10-01

    An Early Triassic stromatolite deposit in Gondwana is documented from the Smithian succession of the Lower Triassic Kockatea Shale Formation in the Northampton area, northern Geraldton, Western Australia. Abundant tube-like sheaths of filaments and tiny circular microspherule balls are well preserved in laminae of the Northampton stromatolites, which are characterized by finely laminated domes and digitate high-relief columns. These filament sheaths are superficially analogous to their counterparts of modern stromatolites, and thus are interpreted as putative fossilized filamentous cyanobacteria. Elemental mapping of EDS analysis shows very high contents of both Fe and Si elements as well as common presence of both S and Al elements along the laminae of the stromatolites, suggesting that the stromatolites may have been ferritized or silicified. Both ferritization and silicification may have played a crucial role in the exceptional preservation of the micro-structures in the Northampton stromatolites. The high content of Al along the laminae indicates that the stromatolites may have been influenced by terrigenous fine-grained clastics during their growth. The Northampton stromatolites show several growth modes, initiating on either pebbles/conglomerates or sandy seafloor and building laminar domes and digitate, high-relief columns during an initial transgression period. Steady increase in sea level facilitated the growth of stromatolites. The Early Triassic stromatolites ceased growth due to either rapid rise in sea level or increased clay influx probably sourced from increased weathering on land at that time, or both. The occurrence of the Northampton stromatolites in the siliciclastic succession, in comparison with published records of Early Triassic microbialites, reveals that post-extinction microbialites were widespread in the Smithian. Stromatolites show a broad geographic distribution from low-latitude to southern high-latitude regions of Gondwana and

  14. The role of the Ord Arid Intrusion in the historical and contemporary genetic division of long-tailed finch subspecies in northern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Rollins, Lee Ann; Svedin, Nina; Pryke, Sarah R; Griffith, Simon C

    2012-01-01

    The effect of separation by biogeographic features followed by secondary contact can blur taxonomic boundaries and produce complex genetic signatures. We analyzed population structure and gene flow across the range of the long-tailed finch (Poephila acuticauda) in northern Australia (1) to test the hypothesis that Ord Arid Intrusion acted as the causative barrier that led to divergence of P. acuticauda subspecies, (2) to determine whether genetic data support the presence of a gradual cline across the range or a sudden shift, both of which have been suggested based on morphological data, and (3) to estimate levels of contemporary gene flow within this species complex. We collected samples from 302 individuals from 10 localities. Analyses of 12 microsatellite loci and sequence data from 333 base pairs of the mitochondrial control region were used to estimate population structure and gene flow, using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), haplotype network analysis, frequency statistics, and clustering methods. Mitochondrial sequence data indicated the presence of three genetic groups (regions) across the range of P. acuticauda. Genetic diversity was highest in the east and lowest in the west. The Ord Arid Intrusion appears to have functioned as a biogeographic barrier in the past, according to mtDNA evidence presented here and evidence from previous studies. The absence of isolation by distance between adjacent regions and the lack of population genetic structure of mtDNA within regions indicates that genetic changes across the range of P. acuticauda subspecies are characterized by discrete breaks between regions. While microsatellite data indicate a complete absence of genetic structure across this species’ range, it appears unlikely that this results from high levels of gene flow. Mitochondrial data do not support the presence of contemporary gene flow across the range of this species. PMID:22833795

  15. Pockmark development in the Petrel Sub-basin, Timor Sea, Northern Australia: Seabed habitat mapping in support of CO2 storage assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, W. A.; Nichol, S. L.; Howard, F. J. F.; Picard, K.; Dulfer, H.; Radke, L. C.; Carroll, A. G.; Tran, M.; Siwabessy, P. J. W.

    2014-07-01

    The extent to which fluids may leak from sedimentary basins to the seabed is a critical issue for assessing the potential of a basin for carbon capture and storage. The Petrel Sub-basin, located beneath central and eastern Joseph Bonaparte Gulf in tropical northern Australia, was identified as potentially suitable for the geological storage of CO2 because of its geological characteristics and proximity to offshore gas and petroleum resources. In May 2012, a multidisciplinary marine survey (SOL5463) was undertaken to collect data in two targeted areas of the Petrel Sub-basin to facilitate an assessment of its CO2 storage potential. This paper focuses on Area 1 of that survey, a 471 km2 area of sediment-starved shelf (water depths of 78 to 102 m), characterised by low-gradient plains, low-lying ridges, palaeo-channels and shallow pockmarks. Three pockmark types are recognised: small shallow unit pockmarks 10-20 m in diameter (generally <1 m, rarely to 2 m deep), composite pockmarks of 150-300 m diameter formed from the co-location of several cross-cutting pockmarks forming a broad shallow depression (<1 m deep), and pockmark clusters comprised of shallow unit pockmarks co-located side by side (150-300 m width overall, <1 m deep). Pockmark distribution is non-random, focused within and adjacent to palaeo-channels, with pockmark clusters also located adjacent to ridges. Pockmark formation is constrained by AMS 14C dating of in situ mangrove deposits and shells to have begun after 15.5 cal ka BP when a rapid marine transgression of Bonaparte Shelf associated with meltwater pulse 1A drowned coastal mangrove environments. Pockmark development is likely an ongoing process driven by fluid seepage at the seabed, and sourced from CO2 produced in the shallow sub-surface (<2 m) sediment. No evidence for direct connection to deeper features was observed.

  16. 'Young clean and safe?' Young people's perceptions of risk from sexually transmitted infections in regional, rural and remote Australia.

    PubMed

    Senior, Kate; Helmer, Janet; Chenhall, Richard; Burbank, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines young people's perceived vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and their efforts to create a sense of personal safety within an environment in which risks may be high and where STIs are highly stigmatised. The paper reports on findings from research involving both Indigenous and non-Indigenous 16- to 25-year-olds from remote, rural and regional Australia, including communities in the Northern Territory, Western Australia and South Australia. The study used qualitative methods, including body mapping and scenario based interviewing, to explore how young people made decisions about potential sexual partners and how STIs were understood within the context of young people's everyday social worlds. The paper has important implications for the design and implementation of sexual-health education programmes by documenting the stigmatisation of young people with STIs and the protective mechanisms peer groups employ to create perceptions of personal safety.

  17. Assessing the impacts of climate change and dams on floodplain inundation and wetland connectivity in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Fazlul; Dutta, Dushmanta; Marvanek, Steve; Petheram, Cuan; Ticehurst, Catherine; Lerat, Julien; Kim, Shaun; Yang, Ang

    2015-03-01

    Floodplain wetlands and their hydrological connectivity with main river channels in the Australian wet-dry tropics are under increasing pressure from global climate change and water resource development, and there is a need for modelling tools to estimate the time dynamics of connectivity. This paper describes an integrated modelling framework combining conceptual rainfall-runoff modelling, river system modelling and hydrodynamic (HD) modelling to estimate hydrological connectivity between wetlands and rivers in the Flinders and Gilbert river catchments in northern Australia. Three historical flood events ranging from a mean annual flood to a 35-year return period flood were investigated using a two dimensional HD model (MIKE 21). Inflows from upstream catchments were estimated using a river network model. Local runoff within the HD modelling domain was simulated using the Sacramento rainfall-runoff model. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) derived 30 m DEM was used to reproduce floodplain topography, stream networks and wetlands in the HD model. The HD model was calibrated using stream gauge data and inundation maps derived from satellite (MODIS: MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) imagery. An algorithm was developed to combine the simulated water heights with the DEM to quantify inundation and flow connection between wetlands and rivers. The connectivity of 18 ecologically important wetlands on the Flinders floodplain and 7 on the Gilbert floodplain were quantified. The impacts of climate change and water resource development on connectivity to individual wetlands were assessed under a projected dry climate (2nd driest of 15 GCMs), wet climate (2nd wettest of 15 GCMs) and dam conditions. The results indicate that changes in rainfall under a wetter and drier future climate could have large impacts on area, duration and frequency of inundation and connectivity. Topographic relief, river bank elevation and flood magnitude were found to be the key

  18. Morphologies and depositional/erosional controls on evolution of Pliocene-Pleistocene carbonate platforms: Northern Carnarvon Basin, Northwest Shelf of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goktas, P.; Austin, J. A.; Fulthorpe, C. S.; Gallagher, S. J.

    2016-08-01

    The detailed morphologies, evolution and termination of latest Neogene tropical carbonate platforms in the Northern Carnarvon Basin (NCB), on the passive margin of the Northwest Shelf (NWS) of Australia, defined based upon mapping using 3D seismic images, reveal the history of local/regional oceanographic processes, fluctuations in relative sea-level and changing climate. Cool-water carbonate deposition, dominant during the early-middle Miocene, was followed by a siliciclastic influx, which prograded across the NWS beginning in the late-middle Miocene, during a period of long-term global sea-level fall. The resulting prograding clinoform sets, interpreted as delta lobes, created relict topographic highs following Pliocene termination of the siliciclastic influx. These highs constituted multiple favorable shallow-water environments for subsequent photozoan carbonate production. Resultant platform carbonate development, in addition to being a response to cessation of siliciclastic influx and the existence of suitable shallow-water substrate, was also influenced by development of the warm-water Leeuwin Current (LC), flowing southwestward along this margin. Four flat-topped platforms are mapped; each platform top is a sequence boundary defined by reflection onlap above and truncation below. Successive platforms migrated southwestward through time, along margin strike. All platforms exhibit predominantly progradational seismic geometries. Mapped tops are ≥10 km wide. Seismic evidence of karst on three of four platform tops, e.g., v-shaped troughs up to 50 m deep and ~1 km wide, and broader basins with areas up to 20 km2, suggests episodic subaerial exposure that may have contributed to platform demise. Platform 4, the most recent, is unique in having interpreted biohermal build-ups superimposed on the progradational platform base. The base of these interpreted patch reefs now lies at a water depth of ~153 m; therefore, we suggest that these reefs developed post

  19. Element concentrations in the flesh and osteoderms of estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) from the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Australia: biotic and geographic effects.

    PubMed

    Jeffree, R A; Markich, S J; Twining, J R

    2001-02-01

    The concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Ba, Sr, Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Co, Se, U, and Ti were determined in the flesh and osteoderms of estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) captured in three adjacent catchments of Kakadu National Park, within the Alligator Rivers Region of northern Australia. This study provides, for the first-time, baseline concentrations of elements in both flesh and osteoderms of wild crocodiles. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine the effects of total crocodile length, estimated age, gender, inferred reproductive status, physical condition, and catchment of capture on element concentrations in both tissues. The Mg concentration (log10) in the flesh and osteoderms of C. porosus significantly (p < or = 0.001) decreased with increasing length (1.7-5.0 m) and estimated age (5-40 years). Similarly, the Ti concentration (log10) in flesh significantly (p < or = 0.01) decreased with increasing length. In contrast, Zn and Se concentration (log10) in flesh significantly (p < or = 0.001) increased with increasing length and/or age, suggesting that these relationships are mediated by biological rather than environmental chemical factors. In flesh, Fe and Na concentrations (log10) significantly (p < or = 0.05) increased as the physical condition of C. porosus deteriorated. No significant (p > 0.05) effects of gender or inferred reproductive status on element concentrations in the flesh and osteoderms were found. The mean concentrations (log10) of Al, Ba, Cr, Ni, and Pb in flesh and Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, and U in the osteoderms were significantly (p < or = 0.01) different between catchments. The significant (p < or = 0.05) effects of catchment on the concentrations of various elements indicate that C. porosus reflects the chemistry of its environmental milieu and therefore has a certain degree of catchment fidelity, even though the catchments are adjacent to one another. Such catchment-specific signals may be useful in the

  20. Preliminary report on the northern Australian melioidosis environmental surveillance project.

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, T. J. J.; Foster, N. F.; Gal, D.; Powell, K.; Mayo, M.; Norton, R.; Currie, B. J.

    2004-01-01

    An environmental surveillance programme was developed to determine whether water supplies could be a source of Burkholderia pseudomallei as noted during previous melioidosis outbreak investigations. Water supplies to communities in the three northern Australian jurisdictions (Western Australia, Northern Territory and Queensland) were sampled periodically during 2001 and 2002. Water and soil samples were collected from communities known to have had recent culture-positive melioidosis cases and nearby communities where no cases had been diagnosed. Clinical isolates of B. pseudomallei obtained from northern Australian patients during 2001 and 2002 were compared with the environmental B. pseudomallei isolates by ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. B. pseudomallei was isolated from 11 distinct locations, all in the Northern Territory, seven of which were associated with culture-positive melioidosis cases (>1 case at three locations). Water was implicated as a possible environmental source of melioidosis in six locations. A variety of free-living amoebae including Acanthamoeba and Hartmannella spp. that are potential hosts to B. pseudomallei were recovered from environmental specimens. Culturable B. pseudomallei was not found to be widely dispersed in the environments sampled. PMID:15473143

  1. Forest resources within the Lake States ceded territories 1980 - 2013

    Treesearch

    Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith Moser; Mark H. Hansen; Dale D. Gormanson; Mark A. Hatfield; Paul A. Sowers; Michael J. Dockry; Marla R. Emery; Christopher W. Woodall; Brian F. Walters; Grant M. Domke; Jonathan Gilbert; Alexandra. Wrobel

    2015-01-01

    The Lake States ceded territories are the portions of northern Michigan, northeastern Minnesota, and northern Wisconsin that were ceded by tribes of the Ojibwe to the government of the United States of America in the treaties of 1836, 1837, 1842, and 1854. The tribes retain rights to hunt, fish, and gather in the 1837, 1842, and 1854 treaty areas. This report...

  2. Plectorhinchus caeruleonothus, a new species of sweetlips (Perciformes:
    Haemulidae) from northern Australia and the resurrection of P. unicolor (Macleay, 1883), species previously confused with P. schotaf (Forsskål, 1775).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey W; Wilmer, Jessica Worthington

    2015-07-14

    Two distinct haemulid fishes from Australia and the Indo-Australian Archipelago respectively have long been confused with Plectorhinchus schotaf (Forsskål, 1775). Plectorhinchus caeruleonothus sp. nov. is described from 17 specimens collected off western and far northern Australia, between the Monte Bello Islands, Western Australia and Torres Strait, Queensland. It has also been confirmed outside this range by photographs taken at Ningaloo Reef and Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia, and at Claremont Isles and Lizard Island, Queensland. The new species is unique among the genus in having a combination of dorsal-fin rays XII, 18-20, lateral-line scales 56-61, gill rakers 7-9 on the upper limb and 18-20 on the lower limb of the first arch, nostrils minute, and fresh colouration in adults including body uniformly grey, cheek, opercles and posterior margin of the opercular membrane uniformly blue-grey, and rim of orbit and upper edge of maxilla dusky yellow. In contrast to its closest congeners, the juveniles have a distinctive pattern of narrow creamish-white to pale grey stripes on a dark grey to chocolate brown background on the head and body, and oblique dark stripes progressing with growth to spots on the caudal fin. Plectorhinchus unicolor (Macleay, 1883) from Japan to northern Australia is resurrected from the synonomy of P. schotaf and redescribed on the basis of the holotype and 24 non-type specimens. Plectorhinchus unicolor is most similar to P. schotaf, but can be distinguished by fresh colouration, modal dorsal and pectoral-fin ray counts and DNA barcoding. Plectorhinchus schotaf appears to be restricted to the region from southeast Africa to the Arabian Sea, including the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Plectorhinchus griseus (Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1830) from Indian and Sri Lankan Seas has previously been treated as a junior synonym of P. schotaf, but in accordance with Smith (1962), is here confirmed as a valid species, readily distinguished from the

  3. Norfolk Island, Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-13

    Situated 1670 km northeast of Sydney, Norfolk Island is an Australian Territory. It was permanently settled in 1856 by Pitcairn Islanders who were descendants of Tahitians and HMS Bounty mutineers. In 1979 Norfolk was granted limited self-government: the island elects a government that runs most of the island's affairs. In March, a local council replaced the local government, and the island was given closer financial ties to Australia. The image was acquired November 12, 2009, covers an area of 9 x 11 km, and is located at 29 degrees south, 168 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19463

  4. Tissue banking in australia.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Lynette; McKelvie, Helen

    2003-01-01

    The legal structure for the regulation of tissue banking has existed for many years. In Australia, the donation of human tissue is regulated by legislation in each of the eight States and Territories. These substantially uniform Acts were passed in the late 1970's and early 1980's, based on model legislation and underpinned by the concept of consensual giving. However, it was not until the early 1990's that tissue banking came under the notice of regulatory authorities. Since then the Australian Government has moved quickly to oversee the tissue banking sector in Australia. Banked human tissue has been deemed to be a therapeutic good under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, and tissue banks are required to be licensed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and are audited for compliance with the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice- Human Blood and Tissues. In addition, tissue banks must comply with a myriad of other standards, guidelines and recommendations.

  5. Integrating biology into invasive species management is a key principle for eradication success: the case of yellow crazy ant Anoplolepis gracilipes in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, B D

    2015-04-01

    The lack of biological knowledge of many invasive species remains as one of the greatest impediments to their management. Here I detail targeted research into the biology of the yellow crazy ant Anoplolepis gracilipes within northern Australia and detail how such knowledge can be used to improve the management outcomes for this species. I quantified nest location and density in three habitats, worker activity over 24 h, infestation expansion rate, seasonal variation of worker abundance and the timing of production of sexuals. Nests were predominantly (up to 68%) located at the bases of large trees, indicating that search efforts should focus around tree bases. Nest density was one nest per 22, 7.1 and 6.3 m2 in the three habitats, respectively. These data form the baselines for quantifying treatment efficacy and set sampling densities for post-treatment assessments. Most (60%) nests were underground, predominantly (89%) occurring in an open area rather than underneath a rock or log. Some seasonality was evident for nests within leaf litter, with most (83%) occurring during the 'wet season' (October-March). Of the underground nests, most were shallow, with 44% being less than 10 cm deep, and 67% being less than 20 cm deep. Such nest location and density information serves many management purposes, for improving detection, mapping and post-treatment assessments, and also provided strong evidence that carbohydrate supply was a major driver of A. gracilipes populations. Just over half of the nests (56%) contained queens. Of the 62 underground nests containing queens, most queens (80%) were located at the deepest chamber. When queens were present, most often (38%) only one queen was present, the most being 16. Queen number per nest was the lowest in July and August just prior to the emergence of virgin queens in September, with queen numbers then remaining steadily high until April. Nothing is known for any ant species about how the queen number per nest/colony affects

  6. Predictors of suicides occurring within suicide clusters in Australia, 2004-2008.

    PubMed

    Derek Cheung, Yee Tak; Spittal, Matthew J; Williamson, Michelle Kate; Tung, Sui Jay; Pirkis, Jane

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have investigated the presence of suicide clusters, but few have sought to identify risk and protective factors of a suicide occurring within a cluster. We aimed to identify socio-demographic and contextual characteristics of suicide clusters from national and regional analyses of suicide clusters. We searched the National Coroners Information System for all suicides in Australia from 2004 to 2008. Scan statistics were initially used to identify those deaths occurring within a spatial-temporal suicide cluster during the period. We then used logistic regression and generalized estimation equations to estimate the odds of each suicide occurring within a cluster differed by sex, age, marital status, employment status, Indigenous status, method of suicide and location. We identified 258 suicides out of 10,176 suicides during the period that we classified as being within a suicide cluster. When the deceased was Indigenous, living outside a capital city, or living in the northern part of Australia (in particular, Northern Territory, Queensland and Western Australia) then there was an increased likelihood of their death occurring within a suicide cluster. These findings suggest that suicide clustering might be linked with geographical and Indigenous factors, which supported sociological explanations of suicide clustering. This finding is significant for justifying resource allocation for tackling suicide clustering in particular areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Canada: Native Land Rights and Northern Development. IWGIA Document 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Peter A.

    Presenting the critical elements for a new and meaningful relationship between the Inuit and the emerging industrial society of Northern Canada, this publication includes: (1) Canada as a Nation State and Northern Development; (2) Northern Development and Institutions in Decision-Making; (3) The Northwest Territories and Yukon Territory as…

  8. Total Solar Eclipse Australia - Nov. 13, 2012

    NASA Image and Video Library

    On Nov. 13, 2012, a narrow corridor in the southern hemisphere experienced a total solar eclipse. The corridor lay mostly over the ocean but also cut across the northern tip of Australia where both...

  9. Diversity and Progress in School Accountability Systems in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurr, David

    2007-01-01

    School education in Australia is a complex interplay between federal and state governments, and between government and non-government schools. This article explores the supervision of schools in Australia through school accountability systems. Utilising publicly available documents a systematic analysis of the state and territory systems for…

  10. Continuing Professional Development in Australia: Barriers and Support.

    PubMed

    Summers, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    Mandatory continuing professional development (CPD) requirements for nurses are common throughout the world, with CPD being required in Australia since 2010. Many barriers to CPD have been identified. In Australia, state and territory governments have implemented supports to help nurses overcome these barriers.

  11. Improving the Quality of Teaching in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinham, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Australia needs to more effectively attract, train, support, retain, recognize, and reward quality teachers throughout their careers. After a slow start and decades of debate, the pieces of the quality teaching puzzle are now coming together. Increased federal government intervention and financial support, along with state and territorial support…

  12. Politics of Teacher Education in NSW, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deer, Christine E.; And Others

    This paper examines political and government changes affecting higher education in Australia, particularly as they impact upon teacher education, and with specific emphasis upon practices in New South Wales (NSW). Structural features of the governance of education at the federal and state/territory levels are outlined, noting that teacher…

  13. Developing a National Geography Curriculum for Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maude, Alaric Mervyn

    2014-01-01

    Australia is in the process of implementing a national geography curriculum to replace the separate state and territory curriculums. The paper describes the process of curriculum development, and identifies the different groups that were involved. These included the board and staff of the national curriculum authority, geography teachers across…

  14. Tectonic events, sequence stratigraphy and prediction of petroleum play elements in the Cretaceous and Tertiary of the northern Carnarvon Basin, north west shelf, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Romine, K.K.; Durrant, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    The Carnarvon Basin is one of Australia`s most prolific oil and gas provinces. A recent Paleocene discovery has initiated a shift in exploration interest from traditional Jurassic/Triassic plays to the younger Cretaceous and Tertiary section. To improve play element prediction, a sequence stratigraphic study has been completed, utilizing newly acquired, regional high-resolution seismic data and 80 wells. The occurrence and distribution of the key play elements, reservoir, source and seal, is controlled by the interaction of tectonic subsidence, eustasy and paleogeography, with traps and migration pathways set up and modified by regional tectonic events. For example, a major rifting event commenced in the latest Kimmeridgian-Tithonian that resulted in structuring of older Jurassic sediments and initiation of seafloor spreading in the adjacent Cuvier-Gascoyne Abyssal Plain in the Valanginian. This event was accompanied by a dramatic fall in eustasy that initiated the deposition of high-quality reservoir sandstones of the Tithonian-Valanginian age Barrow Delta. The post-rift phase of thermal cooling and rapid subsidence resulted in transgression, accompanied by deposition of backstepping parasequences of the Mardie Greensand, a potential thief zone and reservoir, and culminated in maximum transgression and deposition of seal and source facies of the Muclerong Shale. The improved sequence stratigraphic framework established in this study provides a predictive tool for the development and assessment of new plays.

  15. Broad-scale suppression of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), associated with Bt cotton crops in Northern New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Baker, G H; Tann, C R

    2017-04-01

    The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is a major pest of many agricultural crops in several countries, including Australia. Transgenic cotton, expressing a single Bt toxin, was first used in the 1990s to control H. armigera and other lepidopteran pests. Landscape scale or greater pest suppression has been reported in some countries using this technology. However, a long-term, broad-scale pheromone trapping program for H. armigera in a mixed cropping region in eastern Australia caught more moths during the deployment of single Bt toxin cotton (Ingard®) (1996-2004) than in previous years. This response can be attributed, at least in part, to (1) a precautionary cap (30% of total cotton grown, by area) being applied to Ingard® to restrict the development of Bt resistance in the pest, and (2) during the Ingard® era, cotton production greatly increased (as did that of another host plant, sorghum) and H. armigera (in particular the 3rd and older generations) responded in concert with this increase in host plant availability. However, with the replacement of Ingard® with Bollgard II® cotton (containing two different Bt toxins) in 2005, and recovery of the cotton industry from prevailing drought, H. armigera failed to track increased host-plant supply and moth numbers decreased. Greater toxicity of the two gene product, introduction of no cap on Bt cotton proportion, and an increase in natural enemy abundance are suggested as the most likely mechanisms responsible for the suppression observed.

  16. Removal of Fecal Indicators, Pathogenic Bacteria, Adenovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in Waste Stabilization Ponds in Northern and Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Sheludchenko, Maxim; Padovan, Anna; Katouli, Mohammad; Stratton, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Maturation ponds are used in rural and regional areas in Australia to remove the microbial loads of sewage wastewater, however, they have not been studied intensively until present. Using a combination of culture-based methods and quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed microbial removal rates in maturation ponds at four waste stabilization ponds (WSP) with (n = 1) and without (n = 3) baffles in rural and remote communities in Australia. Concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., F+ RNA coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia (oo) cysts in maturation ponds were measured at the inlet and outlet. Only the baffled pond demonstrated a significant removal of most of the pathogens tested and therefore was subjected to further study by analyzing E. coli and enterococci concentrations at six points along the baffles over five sampling rounds. Using culture-based methods, we found a decrease in the number of E. coli and enterococci from the initial values of 100,000 CFU per 100 mL in the inlet samples to approximately 1000 CFU per 100 mL in the outlet samples for both bacterial groups. Giardia cysts removal was relatively higher than fecal indicators reduction possibly due to sedimentation. PMID:26729150

  17. Removal of Fecal Indicators, Pathogenic Bacteria, Adenovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in Waste Stabilization Ponds in Northern and Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Sheludchenko, Maxim; Padovan, Anna; Katouli, Mohammad; Stratton, Helen

    2016-01-02

    Maturation ponds are used in rural and regional areas in Australia to remove the microbial loads of sewage wastewater, however, they have not been studied intensively until present. Using a combination of culture-based methods and quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed microbial removal rates in maturation ponds at four waste stabilization ponds (WSP) with (n = 1) and without (n = 3) baffles in rural and remote communities in Australia. Concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., F+ RNA coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia (oo) cysts in maturation ponds were measured at the inlet and outlet. Only the baffled pond demonstrated a significant removal of most of the pathogens tested and therefore was subjected to further study by analyzing E. coli and enterococci concentrations at six points along the baffles over five sampling rounds. Using culture-based methods, we found a decrease in the number of E. coli and enterococci from the initial values of 100,000 CFU per 100 mL in the inlet samples to approximately 1000 CFU per 100 mL in the outlet samples for both bacterial groups. Giardia cysts removal was relatively higher than fecal indicators reduction possibly due to sedimentation.

  18. Vectors vs. humans in Australia--who is on top down under? An update on vector-borne disease and research on vectors in Australia.

    PubMed

    Russell, R C

    1998-06-01

    Australia has a diversity of vectors and vector-borne human diseases. Mosquito-borne arboviruses are of greatest concern, but there are issues with other vector and pathogen systems. Mosquitoes were responsible for more than 35,000 cases of Ross River virus during 1991-1997. Barmah Forest virus is increasing nationwide, and unidentified bunyaviruses suspected of causing illness have been isolated. Cases of Murray Valley encephalitis have occurred in 14 of the past 20 ye