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Sample records for norwegian wood smoke

  1. Wood Smoke

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  2. Oxidative damage to DNA and repair induced by Norwegian wood smoke particles in human A549 and THP-1 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Loft, Steffen; Kocbach, Anette; Schwarze, Per E; Møller, Peter

    2009-03-31

    Genotoxic effects of traffic-generated particulate matter (PM) are well described, whereas little data are available on PM from combustion of biomass and wood, which contributes substantially to air pollution world wide. The aim of this study was to compare the genotoxicity of wood smoke particulate matter (WSPM), authentic traffic-generated particles, mineral PM and standard reference material (SRM2975) of diesel exhaust particles in human A549 lung epithelial and THP-1 monocytic cell lines. DNA damage was measured as strand breaks (SB) and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) sites by the comet assay, whereas cell cytotoxicity was determined as lactate dehydrogenase release. The exposure to WSPM generated SB and FPG sites in both cell lines at concentrations from 2.5 or 25 microg/ml, which were not cytotoxic. Compared to all other studied particles, WSPM generated greater responses in terms of both SB and FPG sites. Organic extracts of WSPM and SRM2975 elicited higher levels of SB than native and washed PM at 25 and 100 microg/ml, whereas assay saturation precluded reliable assessment of FPG sites. During a 6h post-exposure period, in which the medium with PM had been replaced by fresh medium, 60% of the DNA lesions generated by WSPM were removed. In conclusion, WSPM generated more DNA damage than traffic-generated PM per unit mass in human cell lines, possibly due to the high level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in WSPM. This suggests that exposure to WSPM might be more hazardous than PM collected from vehicle exhaust with respect to development of lung cancer.

  3. Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, W.E.; Koenig, J.Q.; Bardana, E.J. Jr.

    1989-09-01

    The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo(a)pyrene and formaldehyde--are possible human carcinogens. Fine particulate matter has been associated with decreased pulmonary function in children and with increased chronic lung disease in Nepal, where exposure to very high amounts of wood smoke occurs in residences. Wood smoke fumes, taken from both outdoor and indoor samples, have shown mutagenic activity in short-term bioassay tests. Because of the potential health effects of wood smoke, exposure to this source of air pollution should be minimal.29 references.

  4. Ambient wood smoke exposure and respiratory symptoms in Tasmania, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bennett, C M; Dharmage, S C; Matheson, M; Gras, J L; Markos, J; Mészáros, D; Hopper, J; Walters, E H; Abramson, M J

    2010-12-15

    Wood smoke exposure has been associated with adverse respiratory health outcomes, with much of the current research focused on wood smoke from domestic heating and cooking. This study examined the association between respiratory symptoms and outdoor wood smoke in Launceston, Tasmania, where ~30% of homes use wood burners for domestic heating. This ecological study examined data from participants of the 2004 Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study postal survey and compared the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in Launceston (n=601) with that in Hobart (n=1071), a larger Tasmanian city with much less wood smoke. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations of interest while adjusting for gender, atopy, history of allergic disease and current smoking status. There were no significant differences in symptom prevalence between Launceston and Hobart. Two subgroup analyses, which examined participants with pre-existing chronic respiratory disease, and those who reported actively using a wood burner in their home, also did not find significant differences. Any impact of wood smoke on non-specific respiratory symptoms might have been overshadowed by other important determinants of respiratory health, such as vehicle exhaust and tobacco smoking, or were too small to have been detected. However, the lack of detectable differences in symptom prevalence might also reflect the success of regulatory action by local governments to reduce wood smoke emissions in Launceston. The results of other epidemiological studies support an association between ambient wood smoke exposure and adverse respiratory health. Further investigations of wood smoke exposure in Australian settings are needed to investigate the lack of significant associations found in this study, especially studies of indoor air quality and health impacts in children and elderly populations.

  5. Wood smoke in a controlled exposure experiment with human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Riddervold, I S; Bønløkke, J H; Mølhave, L; Massling, A; Jensen, B; Grønborg, T K; Bossi, R; Forchhammer, L; Kjærgaard, S K; Sigsgaard, T

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to wood smoke in the general population is increasing and concurrently, also our awareness. This article describes a wood-smoke generating system for studying human exposure to wood smoke and symptoms related to this exposure. Twenty nonsmoking atopic human participants with normal lung function and normal bronchial reactivity were randomly exposed for 3 h at three different exposure conditions; clean filtered air (control exposure) and wood smoke with a characteristic particulate matter (PM) concentration of 200 µg/m³ (low) and 400 µg/m³ (high) under controlled environmental conditions. The range for PM₂.₅ load observed for single experiments was 165-303 µg/m³ for the low exposure and 205-662 µg/m³ for the high exposure, whereas particle loads during clean air exposure most often were below the detection limit (< 20 µg/m³). Health effects were evaluated in relation to rated changes in symptoms and environmental perception using a computerized questionnaire and a potentiometer. Subjective symptoms were generally weak, but when combining the effect of each of the symptoms into categorical symptom indices, significant effects were found for "environmental perception" (p = 0.0007), "irritative body perceptions" (p = 0.0127), "psychological/neurological effects" (p = 0.0075) and "weak inflammatory responses" (p = 0.0003). Furthermore, significant effects (p = 0.0192) on self-reported general mucosa irritation were found. In conclusion, exposure to wood smoke affected symptom rating and caused irritated mucosas in humans. The knowledge gained in this study on subjective-rated symptoms may be important for understanding human response to wood-smoke exposure.

  6. Health effects of residential wood smoke particles: the importance of combustion conditions and physicochemical particle properties

    PubMed Central

    Kocbach Bølling, Anette; Pagels, Joakim; Yttri, Karl Espen; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Schwarze, Per E; Boman, Christoffer

    2009-01-01

    Background Residential wood combustion is now recognized as a major particle source in many developed countries, and the number of studies investigating the negative health effects associated with wood smoke exposure is currently increasing. The combustion appliances in use today provide highly variable combustion conditions resulting in large variations in the physicochemical characteristics of the emitted particles. These differences in physicochemical properties are likely to influence the biological effects induced by the wood smoke particles. Outline The focus of this review is to discuss the present knowledge on physicochemical properties of wood smoke particles from different combustion conditions in relation to wood smoke-induced health effects. In addition, the human wood smoke exposure in developed countries is explored in order to identify the particle characteristics that are relevant for experimental studies of wood smoke-induced health effects. Finally, recent experimental studies regarding wood smoke exposure are discussed with respect to the applied combustion conditions and particle properties. Conclusion Overall, the reviewed literature regarding the physicochemical properties of wood smoke particles provides a relatively clear picture of how these properties vary with the combustion conditions, whereas particle emissions from specific classes of combustion appliances are less well characterised. The major gaps in knowledge concern; (i) characterisation of the atmospheric transformations of wood smoke particles, (ii) characterisation of the physicochemical properties of wood smoke particles in ambient and indoor environments, and (iii) identification of the physicochemical properties that influence the biological effects of wood smoke particles. PMID:19891791

  7. Wood smoke contribution to winter aerosol in Fresno, CA.

    PubMed

    Gorin, Courtney A; Collett, Jeffrey L; Herckes, Pierre

    2006-11-01

    In an effort to better quantify wintertime particulate matter (PM) and the contribution of wood smoke to air pollution events in Fresno, CA, a field campaign was conducted in winter 2003-2004. Coarse and fine daily PM samples were collected at five locations in Fresno, including residential, urban, and industrial areas. Measurements of collected samples included gravimetric mass determination, organic and elemental carbon analysis, and trace organic compound analysis by gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The wood smoke tracer levoglucosan was also measured in aqueous aerosol extracts using high-performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection. Sample preparation and analysis by this technique is much simpler and less expensive than derivatized levoglucosan analysis by GC/MS, permitting analysis of daily PM samples from all five of the measurement locations. Analyses revealed low spatial variability and similar temporal patterns of PM2.5 mass, organic carbon (OC), and levoglucosan. Daily mass concentrations appear to have been strongly influenced by meteorological conditions, including precipitation, wind, and fog events. Fine PM (PM2.5) concentrations are uncommonly low during the study period, reflecting frequent precipitation events. During the first portion of the study, levoglucosan had a strong relationship to the concentrations of PM2.5 and OC. In the later portion of the study, there was a significant reduction in levoglucosan relative to PM2.5 and OC. This may indicate a change in particle removal processes, perhaps because of fog events, which were more common in the latter period. Combined, the emissions from wood smoke, meat cooking, and motor vehicles appear to contribute approximately 65-80% to measured OC, with wood smoke, on average, accounting for approximately 41% of OC and approximately 18% of PM2.5 mass. Two residential sites exhibit somewhat higher contributions of wood smoke to OC than other

  8. Organic compounds in biomass smoke from residential wood combustion: Emissions characterization at a continental scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, Philip M.; Cass, Glen R.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    2002-11-01

    Wood smoke in the atmosphere often accounts for 20-30% of the ambient fine-particle concentrations. In communities where wood is burned for home heating, wood smoke can at times contribute the majority of the atmospheric fine-particle burden. Chemical mass balance receptor models that use organic compounds as tracers can be used to determine the contributions of different emission sources, including wood smoke, to atmospheric fine-particle samples. In order for organic chemical tracer techniques to be applied to communities across the United States, differences in wood smoke composition that arise from differences in the type of wood burned in various regions must be understood. A continental-scale accounting of particulate organic compound emissions from residential wood combustion has been constructed which helps to quantify the regional differences in wood smoke composition that exist between different parts of the United States. Data from a series of source tests conducted on 22 North American wood species have been used to assemble a national inventory of emissions for more than 250 individual organic compounds that are released from wood combustion in fireplaces and wood stoves in the United States. The emission rates of important wood smoke markers, such as levoglucosan, certain substituted syringols and guaiacols, and phytosterols vary greatly with wood type and combustor type. These differences at the level of individual wood type and combustion conditions translate into regional differences in the aggregate composition of ambient wood smoke. By weighting the source test results in proportion to the availability of firewood from specific tree species and the quantities of wood burned in each locale, it is possible to investigate systematic differences that exist between wood smokes from different regions of North America. The relative abundance of 10 major wood smoke components averaged over the emissions inventory in different regions of the United States

  9. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crilley, Leigh; Bloss, William; Yin, Jianxin; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre; Green, David

    2014-05-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke in large urban centres such as London is becoming increasingly important with the changing nature of domestic heating partly due to the installation of biomass burning heaters to meet renewable energy targets imposed by the EU and also a rise in so-called recreational burning for aesthetic reasons (Fuller et al., 2013). Recent work in large urban centres (London, Paris and Berlin) has demonstrated an increase in the contribution of wood smoke to ambient particles during winter that can at times exceed traffic emissions. In Europe, biomass burning has been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits during winter (Fuller et al., 2013). In light of the changing nature of emissions in urban areas there is a need for on-going measurements to assess the impact of biomass burning in cities like London. Therefore we aimed to determine quantitatively the contribution of biomass burning in London and surrounding rural areas. We also aimed to determine whether local emissions or regional sources were the main source of biomass burning in London. Sources of wood smoke during winter in London were investigated at an urban background site (North Kensington) and two surrounding rural sites (Harwell and Detling) by analysing selected wood smoke chemical tracers. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated, indicating a similar source of these species at the three sites. Based on the conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at Detling, North Kensington and Harwell was 0.78, 0.87 and 1.0 µg m-3, respectively. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest source of OC and EC found to be secondary organic aerosols and traffic emissions, respectively. Peaks in levoglucosan concentrations at the sites were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, suggesting domestic heating as

  10. Subjective attractiveness and perceived trendiness in smoking and snus use: a study among young Norwegians.

    PubMed

    Wiium, N; Aarø, L E; Hetland, J

    2009-02-01

    In Norway, there has been a decline in smoking among adults and young people, but there has also been an increase in the use of snus, particularly among young males. Among females, snus use is less common. This study examines to what extent subjective attractiveness (SA) (the individual's personal opinion regarding how attractive a person who smokes/uses snus is) and perceived trendiness (PT) (the individual's impressions of how popular smoking/use of snus is) may contribute to explaining current trends in smoking and snus use among young people in Norway. Data were collected from a national representative sample of 2400 young people (age 16-20) by telephone interviews. Among males, regular smokers were also likely to be regular snus users and vice versa. SA and PT were significant predictors of their respective behaviours (smoking and snus use) and in some cases of the other behaviour. Smoking and snus use were perceived as unattractive, while snus use was perceived to be trendier than smoking. Males, more than females, perceived snus use to be attractive and trendy. This pattern is partly consistent with current changes in tobacco use in the Norwegian population.

  11. Biological effects of cigarette smoke, wood smoke, and the smoke from plastics: The use of electron spin resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, W.A. )

    1992-12-01

    This review compares and contrasts the chemistry of cigarette smoke, wood smoke, and the smoke from plastics and building materials that is inhaled by persons trapped in fires. Cigarette smoke produces cancer, emphysema, and other diseases after a delay of years. Acute exposure to smoke in a fire can produce a loss of lung function and death after a delay of days or weeks. Tobacco smoke and the smoke inhaled in a burning building have some similarities from a chemical viewpoint. For example, both contain high concentrations of CO and other combustion products. In addition, both contain high concentrations of free radicals, and our laboratory has studied these free radicals, largely by electron spin resonance (ESR) methods, for about 15 years. This article reviews what is known about the radicals present in these different types of smokes and soots and tars and summarizes the evidence that suggests these radicals could be involved in cigarette-induced pathology and smoke-inhalation deaths. The combustion of all organic materials produces radicals, but (with the exception of the smoke from perfluoropolymers) the radicals that are detected by ESR methods (and thus the radicals that would reach the lungs) are not those that arise in the combustion process. Rather they arise from chemical reactions that occur in the smoke itself. Thus, a knowledge of the chemistry of the smoke is necessary to understand the nature of the radicals formed. Even materials as similar as cigarettes and wood (cellulose) produce smoke that contains radicals with very different lifetimes and chemical characteristics, and mechanistic rationales for this are discussed. Cigarette tar contains a semiquinone radical that is infinitely stable and can be directly observed by ESR. Aqueous extracts of cigarette tar, which contain this radical, reduce oxygen to superoxide and thus produce both hydrogen peroxide and the hydroxyl radical.

  12. Tomographic and functional findings in severe COPD: comparison between the wood smoke-related and smoking-related disease *

    PubMed Central

    González-García, Mauricio; Gomez, Dario Maldonado; Torres-Duque, Carlos A.; Barrero, Margarita; Villegas, Claudia Jaramillo; Pérez, Juan Manuel; Varon, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Wood smoke exposure is a risk factor for COPD. For a given degree of airway obstruction, the reduction in DLCO is smaller in individuals with wood smoke-related COPD than in those with smoking-related COPD, suggesting that there is less emphysema in the former. The objective of this study was to compare HRCT findings between women with wood smoke-related COPD and women with smoking-related COPD. METHODS: Twenty-two women with severe COPD (FEV1/FVC ratio < 70% and FEV1 < 50%) were divided into two groups: those with wood smoke-related COPD (n = 12) and those with smoking-related COPD (n = 10). The two groups were compared regarding emphysema scores and airway involvement (as determined by HRCT); and functional abnormalities-spirometry results, DLCO, alveolar volume (VA), the DLCO/VA ratio, lung volumes, and specific airway resistance (sRaw). RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of FEV1, sRaw, or lung hyperinflation. Decreases in DLCO and in the DLCO/VA ratio were greater in the smoking-related COPD group subjects, who also had higher emphysema scores, in comparison with the wood smoke-related COPD group subjects. In the wood smoke-related COPD group, HRCT scans showed no significant emphysema, the main findings being peribronchial thickening, bronchial dilation, and subsegmental atelectasis. CONCLUSIONS: Female patients with severe wood smoke-related COPD do not appear to develop emphysema, although they do show severe airway involvement. The reduction in DLCO and VA, with a normal DLCO/VA ratio, is probably due to severe bronchial obstruction and incomplete mixing of inspired gas during the determination of single-breath DLCO. PMID:23670499

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoke particles from wood and duff burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yulin L.; Quanci, John F.; Borys, Randolf D.; Quanci, Martin J.

    Smoke particles from wood burning and duff burning were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. PAH composition in smoke particles from wood burning was found to resemble those from other environmental samples, such as air particles and sediments where parental PAH are the predominant species. A catalytic combustor retrofitted on the wood-burning stove reduced the PAH concentrations significantly. The reduction was more pronounced for parental PAH than their alkylated homologs. Probably, the molecular configuration affects the catalytic efficiency. Smoke particles from duff burning contained a strikingly different PAH composition, with phenanthrene, alkylated phenanthrenes, alkylated cycolopenta( def)phenanthrene and dodecahydrochrysene as the predominant species.

  14. Social capital and cigarette smoking: New empirics featuring the Norwegian HUNT data.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Kamrul; Folland, Sherman; Kaarbøe, Oddvar M

    2017-08-01

    Using a rich Norwegian longitudinal data set, this study explores the effects of different social capital variables on the probability of cigarette smoking. There are four social capital variables available in two waves of our data set. Our results based on probit (and OLS) analyses (with municipality fixed-effects) show that the likelihood of smoking participation is negatively and significantly associated with social capital attributes, namely, community trust (-0.017), participation in organizational activities (-0.032), and cohabitation (-0.045). Significant negative associations were also observed in panel data, pooled OLS, and random effects models for community trust (-0.024; -0.010) and cohabitation (-0.040; -0.032). Fixed-effects models also showed significant negative effects for cohabitation (-0.018). Estimates of alternative instrumental variables (IV) based on recursive bivariate probit and IV-GMM models also confirmed negative and significant effects for three of its characteristics: cohabitation (-0.030; -0.046), community trust (-0.065; -0.075), and participation in organizational activities (-0.035; -0.046). The limitations of our conclusions are discussed, and the significance of our study for the field of social capital and health is described, along with suggested avenues for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Adolescent Smoking and Exposure to Tobacco Marketing Under a Tobacco Advertising Ban: Findings From 2 Norwegian National Samples

    PubMed Central

    Braverman, Marc T.; Aarø, Leif Edvard

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the extent to which adolescents in Norway have been exposed to tobacco marketing despite an existing ban, and whether exposure is related to their current smoking or expectations they will smoke in the future. Methods. Questionnaires were administered to nationally representative systematic samples of Norwegian youths aged 13 to 15 years in 1990 (n = 4282) and 1995 (n = 4065). Results. About half in each cohort reported exposure to marketing. Youths reporting exposure were significantly more likely to be current smokers and to expect to be smokers at 20 years of age, after control for important social influence predictors. Conclusions. Adolescents’ current smoking and future smoking expectations are linked to marketing exposure even in limited settings, suggesting the need for comprehensive controls to eliminate the function of marketing in promoting adolescent smoking. PMID:15226148

  16. Adolescent smoking and exposure to tobacco marketing under a tobacco advertising ban: findings from 2 Norwegian national samples.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Marc T; Aarø, Leif Edvard

    2004-07-01

    We examined the extent to which adolescents in Norway have been exposed to tobacco marketing despite an existing ban, and whether exposure is related to their current smoking or expectations they will smoke in the future. Questionnaires were administered to nationally representative systematic samples of Norwegian youths aged 13 to 15 years in 1990 (n = 4282) and 1995 (n = 4065). About half in each cohort reported exposure to marketing. Youths reporting exposure were significantly more likely to be current smokers and to expect to be smokers at 20 years of age, after control for important social influence predictors. Adolescents' current smoking and future smoking expectations are linked to marketing exposure even in limited settings, suggesting the need for comprehensive controls to eliminate the function of marketing in promoting adolescent smoking.

  17. Exposure to wood smoke particles produces an inflammation in healthy volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background. Human exposure to wood smoke particles (WSP) is of consequence in indoor air quality, exposures from wild fires, burning ofbiomass, and air pollution. This investigation tested the postulate that healthy volunteers exposed to WSP would demonstrate pulmonary and cardio...

  18. Exposure to wood smoke particles produces an inflammation in healthy volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background. Human exposure to wood smoke particles (WSP) is of consequence in indoor air quality, exposures from wild fires, burning ofbiomass, and air pollution. This investigation tested the postulate that healthy volunteers exposed to WSP would demonstrate pulmonary and cardio...

  19. Systemic Effects of Wood Smoke in a Short-Term Experimental Exposure Study of Atopic Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Riddervold, Ingunn Skogstad; Grønborg, Therese Koops; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, David M.; Barregard, Lars; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether short-term systemic effects of wood smoke occurred in atopic subjects after experimental wood smoke exposures. Methods: A double-blind climate chamber study was conducted on 20 healthy atopic subjects with exposures to filtered air and wood smoke. Pneumoproteins, coagulation and adhesion factors, and cytokines were measured. Heart rate was monitored with pulse monitors. Data were analyzed with mixed models. Results: Few differences in the outcomes were observed. Plasma tissue factor remained elevated during filtered air exposure (P = 0.002). P-selectin declined independent of exposure (P = 0.0006). Interleukin-6 increased after filtered air (P = 0.03). Conclusions: The study confirmed previous observations among nonatopics of limited changes after a 3-hour wood smoke exposure. PMID:24451613

  20. The genotoxic contribution of wood smoke to indoor respirable suspended particles

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, P.M. ); Rossman, T.G. ); Daisey, J.M. )

    1989-01-01

    The effect of wood burning stoves on the genotoxicity of indoor respirable organic matter was investigated for four homes during the winter and spring of 1986. Paired samples, one collected when the stove was not used and one when wood was burned, were extracted with dichloromethane and acetone. Aliquots of the dichloromethane extracts were analyzed with and without metabolic activation using the Microscreen bioassay. The Microscreen is a rapid, sensitive bioassay which measures a broad genotoxic endpoint, {lambda}-prophage induction. Per nanogram of organic material, wood smoke proved to be a major source of indirect (observed with metabolic activation) but not direct genotoxins in homes. The increase in indirect genotoxicity for extracts from aerosol containing wood smoke is probably due to higher concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the wood smoke aerosol as well as other unidentified classes. The direct genotoxicity observed for extracts of aerosol not containing wood smoke decreased with metabolic activation. This direct genotoxicity may be related to cooking activities in the homes. The trends in genotoxicity observed per nanogram of organic material are more pronounced when expressed per m{sup 3} of air due to the higher percentage of extractable material in aerosol containing wood smoke.

  1. Respiratory Tract Deposition of Inhaled Wood Smoke Particles in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Muala, Ala; Nicklasson, Hanna; Boman, Christoffer; Swietlicki, Erik; Nyström, Robin; Pettersson, Esbjörn; Bosson, Jenny A; Rissler, Jenny; Blomberg, Anders; Sandström, Thomas; Löndahl, Jakob

    2015-08-01

    Respiratory tract deposition of air pollution particles is a key to their adverse health effects. This study was aimed to determine the size-resolved deposition fraction (DF) of sooty wood smoke particles in the lungs of healthy subjects. The type of wood smoke investigated is typical for household air pollution from solid fuels, which is among the largest environmental health problems globally. Twelve healthy volunteers inhaled diluted wood smoke from incomplete soot-rich combustion in a common wood stove. The DF of smoke particles (10-500 nm) was measured during three 15-min exposures in each subject during spontaneous breathing. Lung function was measured using standard spirometry. The total DFs by particle number concentration were 0.34±0.08. This can be compared with DFs of 0.21-0.23 in healthy subjects during previous experiments with wood pellet combustion. For particle mass, the total DFs found in this study were 0.22±0.06. DF and breathing frequency were negatively correlated as expected from model calculations (p<0.01). The DF of the investigated sooty wood smoke particles was higher than for previously investigated particles generated during more efficient combustion of biomass. Together with toxicological studies, which have indicated that incomplete biomass combustion particles rich in soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are especially harmful, these data highlight the health risks of inadequate wood combustion.

  2. 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate after experimental exposure to wood smoke in humans.

    PubMed

    Murgia, N; Barregard, L; Sallsten, G; Almstrand, A C; Montuschi, P; Ciabattoni, G; Olin, A C

    2016-01-01

    Wood smoke, a well-known indoor and outdoor air pollutant, may cause adverse health effects through oxidative stress. In this study 8-isoprostane, a biomarker of oxidative stress, was measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and urine before and after experimental exposure to wood smoke. The results were compared with measurements of other biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Thirteen subjects were exposed first to clean air and then, after 1 week, to wood smoke in an exposure chamber during 4-hour sessions. Exhaled breath condensate, exhaled nitric oxide, blood and urine were sampled before and at various intervals after exposure to wood smoke and clean air. Exhaled breath condensate was examined for 8-isoprostane and malondialdehyde (MDA), while exhaled air was examined for nitric oxide, serum for Clara cell protein (CC16) and urine for 8-isoprostane. 8-isoprostane in EBC did not increase after wood smoke exposure and its net change immediately after exposure was inversely correlated with net changes in MDA (r(s)= -0.57, p= 0.041) and serum CC16 (S-CC16) (r(p)= -0.64, p= 0.020) immediately after the exposure. No correlation was found between 8-isoprostane in urine and 8-isoprostane in EBC. In this study controlled wood smoke exposure in healthy subjects did not increase 8-isoprostane in EBC.

  3. Grandmother's smoking when pregnant with the mother and asthma in the grandchild: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Maria C; Håberg, Siri E; Karlstad, Øystein; Nafstad, Per; London, Stephanie J; Nystad, Wenche

    2015-03-01

    A trans-generational influence of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure on asthma development has been proposed but the evidence remains sparse. We examined the grandmother's smoking when pregnant with the mother in relation to asthma outcomes in the grandchild (current asthma at 36 months (N=53 169, cases=3013), current asthma at 7 years (N=25 394, cases=1265) and dispensed asthma medications at 7 years in the Norwegian Prescription Database (N=45 607, cases=1787)) within the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). We calculated adjusted RR (adj. RR) and 95% CIs using log binomial regression. A total of 23.5% of mothers reported that their mother smoked when pregnant with them. The grandmother's smoking when pregnant with the mother was positively associated with asthma at 36 months (adj. RR 1.15 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.24)), asthma at 7 years (adj. RR 1.21 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.37)) and dispensed asthma medications at 7 years (adj. RR 1.15 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.26)). This positive association did not differ significantly by the mother's smoking status when pregnant with the child (p values for multiplicative interaction >0.1). The grandmother's smoking when pregnant with the mother increased the risk of asthma in the grandchild independent of the mother's smoking status. However, given limited information on the grandmother's socioeconomic status, asthma status and other factors, unmeasured confounding may be present. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase correlate with FEV(1) in patients with COPD associated with wood smoke exposure and tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Montaño, Martha; Cisneros, José; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Mercado, Daniel; Ramos, Carlos; Sansores, Raul H

    2010-08-01

    Tobacco smoking is the primary risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, recent epidemiological studies have established domestic exposure to wood smoke and other biomass fuels as additional important risk factors, characteristic in developing countries. Oxidative stress is one of the mechanisms concerned with pathogenesis of COPD. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the onset and progress of COPD associated with biomass and specifically that derived from wood smoke exposure remain unknown. We analyzed the relationship between forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV(1)) with plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in COPD patients associated with wood smoke (WSG; n = 30), tobacco smoking (TSG; n = 30), and healthy control subjects (HCG; n = 30). Differences between FEV(1) from WSG and TSG (58 +/- 22% and 51 +/- 24%, respectively) with HCG (100 +/- 6%) were observed (P < 0.01). Plasma MDA concentration was higher in both WSG and TSG (1.87 +/- 0.81 and 1.68 +/- 0.82 nmol/mL, respectively) compared with HCG (0.42 +/- 0.17 nmol/mL; P < 0.01). SOD activity showed a significant increase in both WSG and TSG (0.36 +/- 0.12 and 0.37 +/- 0.13 U/mL) compared with HCG (0.19 +/- 0.04 U/mL; P < 0.01). No differences were shown regarding GPx, GR, and GST activities between COPD and control groups. Inverse correlations were founded between MDA and SOD with FEV(1) in both COPD patients and control subjects (P < 0.001). These results indicate a role for oxidative stress in COPD associated with wood smoke similar to that observed with tobacco smoking in subjects who ceased at least 10 years previous to this study.

  5. Wood smoke as a source of particle-phase organic compounds in residential areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Md. Aynul; Baumbach, Guenter; Kuch, Bertram; Scheffknecht, Guenter

    The objective of this study was to investigate the organic composition of wood smoke emissions and ambient air samples in order to determine the wood smoke contribution to the ambient air pollution in the residential areas. From November 2005 to March 2006 particle-phase PM 10 samples were collected in the residential town Dettenhausen surrounded by forests near Stuttgart in southern Germany. Samples collected on pre-baked glass fibre filters were extracted using toluene with ultrasonic bath and analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 21 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) including 16 USEPA priority pollutants, different organic wood smoke tracers, primarily 21 species of syringol and guaiacol derivatives, levoglucosan and its isomers mannosan, galactosan and dehydroabietic acid were detected and quantified in this study. The concentrations of these compounds were compared with the fingerprints of emissions from hardwood and softwood combustion carried out in test facilities at Universitaet Stuttgart and field investigations at a wood stove during real operation in Dettenhausen. It was observed that the combustion derived PAH was detected in higher concentrations than other PAH in the ambient air PM 10 samples. Syringol and its derivatives were found in large amounts in hardwood burning but were not detected in softwood burning emissions. On the other hand, guaiacol and its derivatives were found in both softwood and hardwood burning emissions, but the concentrations were higher in the softwood smoke compared to hardwood smoke. So, these compounds can be used as typical tracer compounds for the different types of wood burning emissions. In ambient air samples both syringol and guaiacol derivatives were found which indicates the wood combustion contribution to the PM load in such residential areas. Levoglucosan was detected in high concentrations in all ambient PM 10 samples. A source apportionment modelling, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF

  6. Evaluation of Firefighter Exposure to Wood Smoke during Training Exercises at Burn Houses.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Sujan; Shaw, Lorraine; Shaw, Don; Gallea, Michael; VandenEnden, Lori; House, Ron; Verma, Dave K; Britz-McKibbin, Philip; McCarry, Brian E

    2016-02-02

    Smoke from wood-fueled fires is one of the most common hazards encountered by firefighters worldwide. Wood smoke is complex in nature and contains numerous compounds, including methoxyphenols (MPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are carcinogenic. Chronic exposure to wood smoke can lead to adverse health outcomes, including respiratory infections, impaired lung function, cardiac infarctions, and cancers. At training exercises held in burn houses at four fire departments across Ontario, air samples, skin wipes, and urine specimens from a cohort of firefighters (n = 28) were collected prior to and after exposure. Wood was the primary fuel used in these training exercises. Air samples showed that MP concentrations were on average 5-fold greater than those of PAHs. Skin wipe samples acquired from multiple body sites of firefighters indicated whole-body smoke exposure. A suite of MPs (methyl-, ethyl-, and propylsyringol) and deconjugated PAH metabolites (hydroxynaphthalene, hydroxyfluorene, hydroxyphenanthrene, and their isomers) were found to be sensitive markers of smoke exposure in urine. Creatinine-normalized levels of these markers were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in 24 h postexposure urine despite large between-subject variations that were dependent on the specific operational roles of firefighters while using personal protective equipment. This work offers deeper insight into potential health risk from smoke exposure that is needed for translation of better mitigation policies, including improved equipment to reduce direct skin absorption and standardized hygiene practices implemented at different regional fire services.

  7. Household wood and charcoal smoke increases risk of otitis media in childhood in Maputo.

    PubMed

    da Costa, João Leopoldo; Navarro, Albert; Neves, José Branco; Martin, Miguel

    2004-06-01

    This study examined the association of otitis media in children <6 years old and the exposure to wood and charcoal smoke, as well as to other risk factors, in Maputo. Case-control study. In all 750 children matched by sex and age were enrolled in a hospital-community study. Cases were gathered from among children visiting the Central Hospital of Maputo with otitis media and controls were recruited in the same village as the cases. Conditional logistic regression was performed to evaluate, simultaneously, the effect of each risk factor. Cases were more likely to have been exposed to tobacco smoke (OR = 1.51), to wood (OR = 1.85) and charcoal (OR = 1.50) household smoke, to short term breastfeeding (OR = 1.47), and to live in overcrowded conditions (OR = 1.49). Multivariate analysis stratified by age groups (younger and older than 2 years) showed that cases were more likely to be exposed to wood and charcoal smoke than controls, regardless of age. Among children aged >2 years, Eustachian tube dysfunction was evident (OR = 3.06) particularly in those living in less overcrowded conditions. Findings of this study are consistent with earlier studies that have reported an association between parental smoking, short duration of breastfeeding, and Eustachian tube dysfunction. The association with wood and charcoal smoke indicates that there is a need to educate people regarding the avoidance of exposing their children to this environmental hazard.

  8. Is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Caused by Wood Smoke a Different Phenotype or a Different Entity?

    PubMed

    Torres-Duque, Carlos A; García-Rodriguez, María Carmen; González-García, Mauricio

    2016-08-01

    Around 40% of the world's population continue using solid fuel, including wood, for cooking or heating their homes. Chronic exposure to wood smoke is a risk factor for developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In some regions of the world, this can be a more important cause of COPD than exposure to tobacco smoke from cigarettes. Significant differences between COPD associated with wood smoke (W-COPD) and that caused by smoking (S-COPD) have led some authors to suggest that W-COPD should be considered a new COPD phenotype. We present a review of the differences between W-COPD and S-COPD. On the premise that wood smoke and tobacco smoke are not the same and the physiopathological mechanisms they induce may differ, we have analyzed whether W-COPD can be considered as another COPD phenotype or a distinct nosological entity. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute exposure to wood smoke from incomplete combustion--indications of cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Muala, Ala; Rankin, Gregory; Sehlstedt, Maria; Unosson, Jon; Bosson, Jenny A; Behndig, Annelie; Pourazar, Jamshid; Nyström, Robin; Pettersson, Esbjörn; Bergvall, Christoffer; Westerholm, Roger; Jalava, Pasi I; Happo, Mikko S; Uski, Oskari; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Kelly, Frank J; Mudway, Ian S; Blomberg, Anders; Boman, Christoffer; Sandström, Thomas

    2015-10-29

    Smoke from combustion of biomass fuels is a major risk factor for respiratory disease, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether exposure to wood smoke from incomplete combustion would elicit airway inflammation in humans. Fourteen healthy subjects underwent controlled exposures on two separate occasions to filtered air and wood smoke from incomplete combustion with PM1 concentration at 314 μg/m(3) for 3 h in a chamber. Bronchoscopy with bronchial wash (BW), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and endobronchial mucosal biopsies was performed after 24 h. Differential cell counts and soluble components were analyzed, with biopsies stained for inflammatory markers using immunohistochemistry. In parallel experiments, the toxicity of the particulate matter (PM) generated during the chamber exposures was investigated in vitro using the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line. Significant reductions in macrophage, neutrophil and lymphocyte numbers were observed in BW (p < 0.01, <0.05, <0.05, respectively) following the wood smoke exposure, with a reduction in lymphocytes numbers in BAL fluid (<0.01. This unexpected cellular response was accompanied by decreased levels of sICAM-1, MPO and MMP-9 (p < 0.05, <0.05 and <0.01). In contrast, significant increases in submucosal and epithelial CD3+ cells, epithelial CD8+ cells and submucosal mast cells (p < 0.01, <0.05, <0.05 and <0.05, respectively), were observed after wood smoke exposure. The in vitro data demonstrated that wood smoke particles generated under these incomplete combustion conditions induced cell death and DNA damage, with only minor inflammatory responses. Short-term exposure to sooty PAH rich wood smoke did not induce an acute neutrophilic inflammation, a classic hallmark of air pollution exposure in humans. While minor proinflammatory lymphocytic and mast cells effects were observed in the bronchial biopsies, significant reductions in BW and BAL cells and

  10. Controlled human wood smoke exposure: oxidative stress, inflammation and microvascular function

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to wood smoke is associated with respiratory symptoms, whereas knowledge on systemic effects is limited. We investigated effects on systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and microvascular function (MVF) after controlled wood smoke exposure. Methods In a randomised, double-blinded, cross-over study 20 non-smoking atopic subjects were exposed at rest to 14, 220, or 354 μg/m3 of particles from a well-burning modern wood stove for 3 h in a climate controlled chamber with 2 week intervals. We investigated the level of oxidatively damaged DNA, inflammatory markers and adhesion molecules before and 0, 6 and 20 h after exposure. Six h after exposure we measured MVF non-invasively by digital peripheral artery tonometry following arm ischemia. Results The MVF score was unaltered after inhalation of clean air (1.58 ± 0.07; mean ± SEM), low (1.51 ± 0.07) or high (1.61 ± 0.09) concentrations of wood smoke particles in atopic subjects, whereas unexposed non-atopic subjects had higher score (1.91 ± 0.09). The level of oxidatively damaged DNA, mRNA of ITGAL, CCL2, TNF, IL6, IL8, HMOX1, and OGG1 and surface marker molecules ICAM1, ITGAL and L-selectin in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were not affected by inhalation of wood smoke particles. Conclusions Exposure to wood smoke had no effect on markers of oxidative stress, DNA damage, cell adhesion, cytokines or MVF in atopic subjects. PMID:22452928

  11. Physicochemical characterisation of combustion particles from vehicle exhaust and residential wood smoke

    PubMed Central

    Kocbach, Anette; Li, Yanjun; Yttri, Karl E; Cassee, Flemming R; Schwarze, Per E; Namork, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Background Exposure to ambient particulate matter has been associated with a number of adverse health effects. Particle characteristics such as size, surface area and chemistry seem to influence the negative effects of particles. In this study, combustion particles from vehicle exhaust and wood smoke, currently used in biological experiments, were analysed with respect to microstructure and chemistry. Methods Vehicle exhaust particles were collected in a road tunnel during two seasons, with and without use of studded tires, whereas wood smoke was collected from a stove with single-stage combustion. Additionally, a reference diesel sample (SRM 2975) was analysed. The samples were characterised using transmission electron microscopy techniques (TEM/HRTEM, EELS and SAED). Furthermore, the elemental and organic carbon fractions were quantified using thermal optical transmission analysis and the content of selected PAHs was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results Carbon aggregates, consisting of tens to thousands of spherical primary particles, were the only combustion particles identified in all samples using TEM. The tunnel samples also contained mineral particles originating from road abrasion. The geometric diameters of primary carbon particles from vehicle exhaust were found to be significantly smaller (24 ± 6 nm) than for wood smoke (31 ± 7 nm). Furthermore, HRTEM showed that primary particles from both sources exhibited a turbostratic microstructure, consisting of concentric carbon layers surrounding several nuclei in vehicle exhaust or a single nucleus in wood smoke. However, no differences were detected in the graphitic character of primary particles from the two sources using SAED and EELS. The total PAH content was higher for combustion particles from wood smoke as compared to vehicle exhaust, whereas no source difference was found for the ratio of organic to total carbon. Conclusion Combustion particles from vehicle exhaust and

  12. Exposure to wood smoke increases arterial stiffness and decreases heart rate variability in humans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Emissions from biomass combustion are a major source of indoor and outdoor air pollution, and are estimated to cause millions of premature deaths worldwide annually. Whilst adverse respiratory health effects of biomass exposure are well established, less is known about its effects on the cardiovascular system. In this study we assessed the effect of exposure to wood smoke on heart rate, blood pressure, central arterial stiffness and heart rate variability in otherwise healthy persons. Methods Fourteen healthy non-smoking subjects participated in a randomized, double-blind crossover study. Subjects were exposed to dilute wood smoke (mean particle concentration of 314±38 μg/m3) or filtered air for three hours during intermittent exercise. Heart rate, blood pressure, central arterial stiffness and heart rate variability were measured at baseline and for one hour post-exposure. Results Central arterial stiffness, measured as augmentation index, augmentation pressure and pulse wave velocity, was higher after wood smoke exposure as compared to filtered air (p < 0.01 for all), and heart rate was increased (p < 0.01) although there was no effect on blood pressure. Heart rate variability (SDNN, RMSSD and pNN50; p = 0.003, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 respectively) was decreased one hour following exposure to wood smoke compared to filtered air. Conclusions Acute exposure to wood smoke as a model of exposure to biomass combustion is associated with an immediate increase in central arterial stiffness and a simultaneous reduction in heart rate variability. As biomass is used for cooking and heating by a large fraction of the global population and is currently advocated as a sustainable alternative energy source, further studies are required to establish its likely impact on cardiovascular disease. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01488500 PMID:23742058

  13. Mutagenicity of wood smoke condensates in the Salmonella/microsome assay.

    PubMed

    Asita, A O; Matsui, M; Nohmi, T; Matsuoka, A; Hayashi, M; Ishidate, M; Sofuni, T; Koyano, M; Matsushita, H

    1991-09-01

    Smoke condensates of woods used for food preservation and aromatization in Nigeria were tested for mutagenic activity using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. The woods were: white mangrove (Avicennia nitida), red mangrove (Rhizophora racemosa), mahogany Khaya sp.), abura (Mitragyna ciliata), alstonia (Alstonia boonei) and black afara (Terminalia ivorensis). Cigarette tar was tested for comparison. The condensates induced dose-dependent increases in the number of His+ revertants mainly with S9 mix. With the exception of mahogany and cigarette smoke condensate, the smoke condensates induced more revertants/microgram condensate in TA100 than in TA98. The number of revertants/microgram condensate ranged between 0.04 and 0.9 for the wood smoke condensates and was 0.12 for the cigarette smoke in TA100. The range was between 0.1 and 0.30 for the wood smoke condensates and 0.18 revertants/microgram condensate for cigarette smoke condensate in TA98. Concentrations of 7 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the condensates were determined namely, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[b]chrysene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene and dibenzo[a,e]pyrene. The condensates contained varying concentrations of the individual PAHs and those with higher concentrations generally showed greater mutagenic activities. However, the order of mutagenic potency in the bacterial strains differed from the order of PAH concentrations, which were lower than the concentrations at which they are reported to induce mutations. When 6 of the PAHs were mixed in the concentrations in which they were found in the individual condensates, the mixtures did not induce mutation so that the contribution of the PAHs to the mutagenic activities of the condensates could not be determined.

  14. Midpolarity and nonpolar wood smoke particulate matter fractions deplete glutathione in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kubátová, Alena; Dronen, Laura C; Picklo, Matthew J; Hawthorne, Steven B

    2006-02-01

    Wood smoke particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of components falling in a spectrum of highly polar to nonpolar species. Wood smoke PM is a likely factor in pulmonary disease and induces oxidative damage. Most toxicity studies focus upon nonpolar species such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, the role of more polar PM constituents as toxicants is not clear. In this work, we evaluated the ability of multiple fractions of varying polarity to deplete glutathione (GSH) in RAW 264.7 macrophages and BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells. We utilized hot pressurized (subcritical) water to fractionate wood smoke PM into seven fractions of decreasing polarity. In contrast to polar fractions, midpolarity and nonpolar fractions exhibited greater GSH depletion (ED50 at PM concentrations of approximately 50 microg/mL). GSH depletion caused by nonpolar fractions (extracted at 250-300 degrees C) was associated with the presence of PAHs. In midpolarity fractions (extracted at 100-150 degrees C), oxy-PAHs, syringylguaiacyls, disyringyls, and lower molecular weight PAHs were found. Direct comparison of GSH depletion by individual oxy-PAHs and PAHs suggests that oxy-PAHs are contributors to oxidative stress caused by wood smoke PM. However, other unidentified PM constituents contribute to GSH depletion as well. The results indicate the toxicological importance of oxygenated organics found in midpolarity PM fractions.

  15. Urinary levoglucosan as a biomarker of wood smoke: results of human exposure studies.

    PubMed

    Bergauff, Megan A; Ward, Tony J; Noonan, Curtis W; Migliaccio, Christopher T; Simpson, Christopher D; Evanoski, Ashley R; Palmer, Christopher P

    2010-06-01

    Urinary levoglucosan was investigated as a potential biomarker of wood smoke exposure in two different controlled experimental settings. Nine subjects were exposed to smoke from a campfire in a controlled setting, and four were exposed to smoke from an older-model wood stove. All subjects were asked to provide urine samples before and after exposure, and to wear personal particulate matter with a diameter of < or =2.5 microm (PM(2.5)) monitors during exposure. Urinary levoglucosan measurements from both studies showed no consistent response to the smoke exposure. A third experiment was conducted to assess the contribution of dietary factors to urinary levoglucosan levels. Nine subjects were asked to consume caramel and provide urine samples before and after consumption. Urinary levoglucosan levels increased within 2 h of caramel consumption and returned to pre-exposure levels within 24 h. These studies suggest that diet is a major factor in determining urinary levoglucosan levels and that recent dietary history needs to be taken into account for future work involving levoglucosan as a biomarker of wood smoke exposure.

  16. Urinary Levoglucosan as a Biomarker for Wood Smoke: Results of Human Exposure Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bergauff, Megan A.; Ward, Tony J.; Noonan, Curtis W.; Migliaccio, Christopher T.; Simpson, Christopher D.; Evanoski, Ashley R.; Palmer, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    Urinary levoglucosan was investigated as a potential biomarker for wood smoke exposure in two different controlled experimental settings. Nine subjects were exposed to smoke from a campfire in a controlled setting and four were exposed to smoke from an older model wood stove. All subjects were asked to provide urine samples before and after exposure, and to wear personal PM2.5 monitors during the exposure. Urinary levoglucosan measurements from both studies showed no consistent response to the smoke exposure. A third experiment was conducted to assess the contribution of dietary factors to urinary levoglucosan levels. Nine subjects were asked to consume caramel and provide urine samples before and after consumption. Urinary levoglucosan levels increased within 2 hours of caramel consumption and returned to pre-exposure levels within 24 hours. These studies suggest that diet is a major factor in determining urinary levoglucosan levels and recent dietary history needs to be taken into account for future work involving levoglucosan as a biomarker of wood smoke exposure. PMID:19707249

  17. The association between use of snus and quit rates for smoking: results from seven Norwegian cross-sectional studies.

    PubMed

    Lund, Karl E; Scheffels, Janne; McNeill, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Swedish studies have shown that experience of using snus is associated with an increased probability of being a former smoker. We examined whether this result is also found in Norway.   Seven cross-sectional data sets collected during the period 2003-08. Norway. A total of 10, 441 ever (current or former) smokers. Quit ratios for smoking were compared for people with different histories of snus use. Motive for snus use was examined among combination users (snus and cigarettes). Smoking status was examined among snus users. Compared to smokers with no experience of using snus, the quit ratio for smoking was significantly higher for daily snus users in six of seven data sets, significantly higher for former snus users in two of five data sets and significantly lower for occasional snus users in six of seven data sets. Of combination users who used snus daily, 55.3% [confidence interval (CI) 44.7-65.9] reported that their motive for using snus was to quit smoking totally. This motive was reported significantly less often by combination users who used snus occasionally (35.7%, CI 27.3-44.2). Former smokers made up the largest proportion of daily snus users in six of seven data sets. In the remaining data set, that included only the age group 16-20 years, people who had never smoked made up the largest segment of snus users. Consistent with Swedish studies, Norwegian data shows that experience of using snus is associated with an increased probability of being a former smoker. In Scandinavia, snus may play a role in quitting smoking but other explanations, such as greater motivation to stop in snus users, cannot be ruled out. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. The association between use of snus and quit rates for smoking: results from seven Norwegian cross-sectional studies

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Karl E; Scheffels, Janne; McNeill, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Aim Swedish studies have shown that experience of using snus is associated with an increased probability of being a former smoker. We examined whether this result is also found in Norway. Design Seven cross-sectional data sets collected during the period 2003–08. Setting Norway. Participants A total of 10 441 ever (current or former) smokers Measurements Quit ratios for smoking were compared for people with different histories of snus use. Motive for snus use was examined among combination users (snus and cigarettes). Smoking status was examined among snus users. Findings Compared to smokers with no experience of using snus, the quit ratio for smoking was significantly higher for daily snus users in six of seven data sets, significantly higher for former snus users in two of five data sets and significantly lower for occasional snus users in six of seven data sets. Of combination users who used snus daily, 55.3% [confidence interval (CI) 44.7–65.9] reported that their motive for using snus was to quit smoking totally. This motive was reported significantly less often by combination users who used snus occasionally (35.7%, CI 27.3–44.2). Former smokers made up the largest proportion of daily snus users in six of seven data sets. In the remaining data set, that included only the age group 16–20 years, people who had never smoked made up the largest segment of snus users. Conclusions Consistent with Swedish studies, Norwegian data shows that experience of using snus is associated with an increased probability of being a former smoker. In Scandinavia, snus may play a role in quitting smoking but other explanations, such as greater motivation to stop in snus users, cannot be ruled out. PMID:20883459

  19. Stimulation of pulmonary rapidly adapting receptors by inhaled wood smoke in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lai, C J; Kou, Y R

    1998-01-01

    The stimulation of pulmonary rapidly adapting receptors (RARs) by wood smoke was investigated. Impulses from seventy RARs were recorded in fifty-nine anaesthetized, open-chest and artificially ventilated rats; responses to delivery of 6 ml of wood smoke into the lungs were studied in sixty-one receptors whereas responses to histamine (10 or 100 μg kg−1, i.v.) were studied in the other nine. Delivery of wood smoke stimulated fifty-two of the sixty-one RARs studied. When stimulated, an intense burst of discharge was evoked within 1 or 2 s of smoke delivery. This increased activity quickly peaked in 1-3 s (Δ= 15.8 ± 1.6 impulses s−1; n = 61; mean ± s.e.m.), then declined and yet remained at a level higher than the baseline activity. The mean duration of the stimulation was 25.1 ± 2.7 s. In contrast, smoke delivery did not affect tracheal pressure. Peak responses of RARs to wood smoke were partially reduced by removal of smoke particulates and were largely attenuated by pretreatment with dimethylthiourea (DMTU, a hydroxyl radical scavenger), indomethacin (Indo, a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor), or both DMTU and Indo (DMTU + Indo). Conversely, the peak responses of RARs were not significantly affected by pretreatment with isoprenaline (a bronchodilator) or vehicle for these chemicals. Additionally, pretreatment with DMTU, Indo, or DMTU + Indo did not significantly alter the RAR sensitivity to mechanical stimulation (constant-pressure lung inflation; 20 cmH2O). Of the nine RARs tested, six were stimulated by histamine and their sensitivity to this chemical irritant was not altered by pretreatment with DMTU + Indo. The results suggest that both the particulates and gas phases are responsible for, and both the hydroxyl radical and cyclo-oxygenase products are involved in, the stimulation of RARs by wood smoke. Furthermore, changes in lung mechanics following smoke delivery are not the cause of this afferent stimulation. PMID:9508820

  20. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease related to wood smoke

    PubMed Central

    González-García, Mauricio; Torres-Duque, Carlos A; Bustos, Adriana; Jaramillo, Claudia; Maldonado, Darío

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) related to wood smoke exposure is characterized by important inflammation of the central and peripheral airways without significant emphysema. The objective of this study is to describe the bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) level in women with COPD related to wood smoke exposure and to compare it with the BHR in women with COPD related to tobacco smoking. Materials and methods Two groups of women with stable COPD were studied: (1) wood smoke exposed (WS-COPD); and (2) tobacco smoke exposed (TS-COPD). A methacholine challenge test (MCT) was performed in all patients according to American Thoracic Society criteria. BHR levels were compared using the methacholine concentration, which caused a 20% fall in the FEV1 (PC20). Results Thirty-one patients, 19 with WS-COPD and 12 with TS-COPD, were included. There were no significant differences between the groups in baseline FVC, FEV1, IC, FEF25–75, and FEF25–75/FVC. All 31 patients had a positive MCT (PC20 < 16 mg/mL) and the fall in the FEV1 and IC was similar in both groups. The severity of BHR was significantly higher in the WS-COPD patients (PC20: 0.39 mg/mL) than in the TS-COPD patients (PC20: 1.24 mg/mL) (P = 0.028). The presence of cough, phlegm, and dyspnea during the test were similar in both groups. Conclusion We found moderate to severe BHR in women with WS-COPD, which was more severe than in the TS-COPD women with similar age and airflow obstruction. This paper suggests that the structural and inflammatory changes induced by the chronic exposure to wood smoke, described in other studies, can explain the differences with TS-COPD patients. Future studies may clarify our understanding of the impact of BHR on COPD physiopathology, phenotypes, and treatment strategies. PMID:22791990

  1. Temporal variation and impact of wood smoke pollution on a residential area in southern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Md. Aynul; Baumbach, Guenter; Kuch, Bertram; Scheffknecht, Guenter

    2010-10-01

    This paper is a continuation of our previous publication (Bari, M.A., Baumbach, G., Kuch, B., Scheffknecht, G., 2009. Wood smoke as a source of particle-phase organic compounds in residential areas. Atmospheric Environment 43, 4722-4732) and describes a detailed characterisation of different particle-phase wood smoke tracer compounds in order to find out the impact of wood-fired heating on ambient PM 10 pollution in a residential area near Stuttgart in southern Germany. The results from previous flue gas measurements help distinguishing different tracer compounds in ambient PM 10 samples. In the residential area, significant amounts of hardwood markers (syringaldehyde, acetosyringone, propionylsyringol, sinapylaldehyde) and low concentrations of softwood markers (vanillin, acetovanillone, coniferyldehyde, dehydroabietic acid, retene) were found in the ambient air. The general wood combustion markers Levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were detected in high concentrations in all particle-phase PM 10 samples. To find out the size distribution of ambient particles, cascade impactor measurements were carried out. It was found that more than 70% of particulate matter was in the particle diameter of less than 1 μm. Using emission ratio of levoglucosan to PM 10, it can be demonstrated that during winter months 59% of ambient PM 10 pollution could be attributed to residential wood-fired heating.

  2. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London: assessing local and regional influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crilley, L. R.; Bloss, W. J.; Yin, J.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Harrison, R. M.; Allan, J. D.; Young, D. E.; Flynn, M.; Williams, P.; Zotter, P.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Heal, M. R.; Barlow, J. F.; Halios, C. H.; Lee, J. D.; Szidat, S.; Mohr, C.

    2014-10-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke to air pollution in large cities such as London is becoming increasingly important due to the changing nature of domestic heating in urban areas. During winter, biomass burning emissions can exceed the contributions from traffic emissions, and have been identified as a major cause of exceedences of European air quality limits. The aim of this work was to quantify the contribution of biomass burning in London to concentrations of PM2.5 and determine whether local emissions or regional contributions were the main source of biomass smoke. To achieve this, a number of biomass burning chemical tracers were analysed at a site within central London and two sites in surrounding rural areas. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated across the three sites. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest contribution of EC from traffic emissions, while for OC the dominant fraction likely included contributions from secondary organic aerosols, primary biogenic and cooking sources. Source apportionment of the EC and OC using average source ratios from published data was found to give reasonable estimation of the total carbon from non-fossil and fossil fuel sources based upon comparison with estimates derived from 14C analysis. Black carbon (BC) data from 2 and 7 wavelength Aethalometers were also apportioned into the contributions from biomass burning and traffic, based upon the enhanced absorption of wood smoke at UV wavelengths compared to BC. While the source apportionment of BC using this approach found similar trends to that observed for EC, higher percentage contributions of wood burning to BC were estimated. Based on a wood smoke mass conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at the sites was found to range from 0.78-1.0 μg m-3 during the campaign in January-February 2012. Measurements on a 160 m

  3. Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) in Lung Cells by Wood Smoke Particulate Material

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Darien; Deering-Rice, Cassandra E.; Romero, Erin G.; Hughen, Ronald W.; Light, Alan R.; Veranth, John M.; Reilly, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoke, diesel exhaust, and other combustion-derived particles activate the calcium channel transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1), causing irritation and inflammation in the respiratory tract. It was hypothesized that wood smoke particulate and select chemical constituents thereof would also activate TRPA1 in lung cells, potentially explaining the adverse effects of wood and other forms of biomass smoke on the respiratory system. TRPA1 activation was assessed using calcium imaging assays in TRPA1-overexpressing HEK-293 cells, mouse primary trigeminal neurons, and human adenocarcinoma (A549) lung cells. Particles from pine and mesquite smoke were less potent agonists of TRPA1 than an equivalent mass concentration of an ethanol extract of diesel exhaust particles; pine particles were comparable in potency to cigarette smoke condensate, and mesquite particles were the least potent. The fine particulate (PM<2.5 μm) of wood smoke were the most potent TRPA1 agonists and several chemical constituents of wood smoke particulate: 3,5-ditert-butylphenol, coniferaldehyde, formaldehyde, perinaphthenone, agathic acid, and isocupressic acid were TRPA1 agonists. Pine particulate activated TRPA1 in mouse trigeminal neurons and A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, which was inhibited by the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. TRPA1 activation by wood smoke particles occurred through the electrophile/oxidant-sensing domain (i.e., C621/C641/C665/K710), based on the inhibition of cellular responses when the particles were pre-treated with glutathione; a role for the menthol-binding site of TRPA1 (S873/T874) was demonstrated for 3,5-ditert-butylphenol. This study demonstrated that TRPA1 is a molecular sensor for wood smoke particulate and several chemical constituents thereof, in sensory neurons and A549 cells, suggesting that TRPA1 may mediate some of the adverse effects of wood smoke in humans. PMID:23541125

  4. Smoking and risk of ovarian cancer by histological subtypes: an analysis among 300 000 Norwegian women

    PubMed Central

    Licaj, Idlir; Jacobsen, Bjarne Koster; Selmer, Randi Marie; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger Torhild

    2017-01-01

    Background: We prospectively investigated the association between different measures of smoking exposure and the risk of serous, mucinous, and endometrioid ovarian cancers (OC) in a cohort of more than 300 000 Norwegian women. Methods: We followed 300 398 women aged 19–67 years at enrolment until 31 December 2013 for OC incidence through linkage to national registries. We used Cox proportional hazards models with attained age as the underlying time scale to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for relevant confounders. Results: During more than 5.9 million person-years and a median follow-up time of 19 years, 2336 primary invasive (1647, 71%) and borderline (689, 29%) OC were identified (53% serous, 19% mucinous). Compared with never smokers, current smokers who had smoked for ⩾10 years had a higher risk of mucinous OC (HR10–19 years vs never=1.73, 95% CI 1.24–2.42; HR⩾20 vs never=2.26, 95% CI 1.77–2.89, Ptrend <0.001). When stratified by invasiveness, current smokers had a higher risk of invasive mucinous OC (HR=1.78, 95% CI 1.20–2.64) and borderline mucinous OC (HR=2.26 95% CI, 1.71–2.97) (Pheterogeneity=0.34) than never smokers. Smoking was not associated with serous or endometrioid OC. Conclusions: Using a very large cohort of women, the current analysis provides an important replication for a similar risk of invasive and borderline mucinous OC related to smoking. PMID:27959888

  5. Asthma randomized trial of indoor wood smoke (ARTIS): Rationale and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Curtis W.; Ward, Tony J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Particulate matter (PM) exposures have been linked with poor respiratory health outcomes, especially among susceptible populations such as asthmatic children. Smoke from biomass combustion for residential home heating is an important source of PM in many rural or peri-urban areas in the United States. Aim To assess the efficacy of residential interventions that reduce indoor PM exposure from wood stoves and to quantify the corresponding improvements in quality of life and health outcomes for asthmatic children. Design The Asthma Randomized Trial of Indoor wood Smoke (ARTIS) study is an in-home intervention study of susceptible children exposed to biomass combustion smoke. Children, ages 7 to 17, with persistent asthma and living in homes that heat with wood stoves were recruited for this three arm randomized placebo-controlled trial. Two household-level intervention strategies, wood stove replacement and air filters, were compared to a sham air filter placebo. Improvement in quality of life of asthmatic children was the primary outcomes. Secondary asthma-related health outcomes included peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1), biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate, and frequency of asthma symptoms, medication usage, and healthcare utilization. Exposure outcomes included indoor and outdoor PM2.5 mass, particle counts of several size fractions, and carbon monoxide. Discussion To our knowledge, this was the first randomized trial in the US to utilize interventions targeting residential wood stoves to assess the impact on indoor PM and health outcomes in a susceptible population. Trial registration ClincialTrials.gov NCT00807183. PMID:22735495

  6. Wood smoke-associated lung disease: a clinical, functional, radiological and pathological description.

    PubMed

    Moran-Mendoza, O; Pérez-Padilla, J R; Salazar-Flores, M; Vazquez-Alfaro, F

    2008-09-01

    Approximately half of the world's population, and up to 90% of households in rural areas of developing countries, depend on biomass for cooking and heating. The National Institute of Respiratory Diseases, México City. To describe wood smoke-associated lung disease (WSLD). Description of the clinical, functional and radiological manifestations of patients with WSLD, and a comparison of pathological findings of patients who died of WSLD and smokers who died of chronic bronchitis. All patients with WSLD were non-smoking women with chronic bronchitis, in whom asthma, bronchiectasis, tuberculosis, congestive heart failure, extreme obesity and alfa-1 antitrypsin deficiency had been excluded. All patients used wood for cooking and had been exposed to wood smoke for a median of 45 years. Dyspnoea, airway obstruction, air trapping, increased airway resistance, pathological evidence of anthracosis, chronic bronchitis, centrilobular emphysema and pulmonary hypertension were present in most patients with WSLD. Bronchial squamous metaplasia was a common finding. There were no significant differences in the histopathological findings between patients with WSLD and smokers. Diffuse interstitial fibrosis was absent in all patients. Patients with WSLD have obstructive lung disease, chronic bronchitis, emphysema and pulmonary hypertension comparable to smokers.

  7. Source apportionment of PM2.5 at multiple Northwest U.S. sites: Assessing regional winter wood smoke impacts from residential wood combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotchenruther, Robert A.

    2016-10-01

    Wood smoke from residential wood combustion is a significant source of elevated PM2.5 in many communities across the Northwest U.S. Accurate representation of residential wood combustion in source-oriented regional scale air quality models is challenging because of multiple uncertainties. As an alternative to source-oriented source apportionment, this work provides, through receptor-oriented source apportionment, an assessment of winter residential wood combustion impacts at multiple Northwest U.S. locations. Source apportionment was performed on chemically speciated PM2.5 from 19 monitoring sites using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model. Each site was modeled independently, but a common data preparation and modeling protocol was used so that results were as comparable as possible across sites. Model solutions had from 4 to 8 PMF factors, depending on the site. PMF factors at each site were associated with a source classification (e.g., primary wood smoke), a dominant chemical composition (e.g., ammonium nitrate), or were some mixture. 15 different sources or chemical compositions were identified as contributing to PM2.5 across the 19 sites. The 6 most common were; aged wood smoke and secondary organic carbon, motor vehicles, primary wood smoke, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, and fugitive dust. Wood smoke was identified at every site, with both aged and primary wood smoke identified at most sites. Wood smoke contributions to PM2.5 were averaged for the two winter months of December and January, the months when wood smoke in the Northwest U.S. is mainly from residential wood combustion. The total contribution of residential wood combustion, that from primary plus aged smoke, ranged from 11.4% to 92.7% of average December and January PM2.5 depending on the site, with the highest percent contributions occurring in smaller towns that have fewer expected sources of winter PM2.5. Receptor modeling at multiple sites, such as that conducted in this

  8. Quantification of Wood Smoke Markers in Fine Atmospheric PM in the New York City Airshed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, H. A.; Mazurek, M. A.; Li, M.

    2007-12-01

    Seasonal emissions from residential wood combustion, natural wildfires, agricultural burning and solid waste combustion are considered to be major sources of fine particles to the NYC metropolitan airshed. Wood smoke produced from the combustion of cellulosic material consists of polar organic compounds which are highly water-soluble. As alternative forms of energy production including biofuels for residential heating are developed and become more widely used, a key science question is how much of the carbonaceous PM2.5 currently is from wood smoke in urbanized areas and to what extent is this influencing atmospheric chemical properties. This project focuses on the quantitation of polar organic compounds extracted from fine particle samples (PM2.5) collected as part of the Speciation of Organics for Apportionment of PM-2.5 in the New York City Area (SOAP). The SOAP network operated from May 2002 to May 2003 at four sites: Queens, NYC (high density urban residential); Elizabeth, NJ (adjacent to the NJ Turnpike); Westport, CT (downwind NYC residential); and a regional background site in Chester, NJ (upwind NYC). A quantitative extraction and gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) chemical analysis procedure was developed and evaluated. Trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives were prepared prior to GC/MS analysis and 5-point calibrations and multiple replicates were evaluated to ensure method precision. Levoglucosan was used as the primary marker for cellulose combustion; however a suite of monosaccharides and disaccharides and dehydroabietic acid, a marker indicative of soft wood combustion, also were quantified. Levoglucosan was found during each season at all four sampling locations with ambient mass concentrations ranging from 2.36 ng/m3 to 189 ng/m3. These values represent an estimated low of 0.73 percent to a high of 69 percent of organic carbon in the fine PM from wood smoke. The lowest levoglucosan concentrations were present consistently at the Chester, NJ

  9. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation after wood smoke exposure in a reconstructed Viking Age house.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Annie; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Christensen, Jannie Marie; Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Sigsgaard, Torben; Glasius, Marianne; Loft, Steffen; Møller, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to particles from combustion of wood is associated with respiratory symptoms, whereas there is limited knowledge about systemic effects. We investigated effects on systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage in humans who lived in a reconstructed Viking Age house, with indoor combustion of wood for heating and cooking. The subjects were exposed to high indoor concentrations of PM2.5 (700-3,600 µg/m(3)), CO (10.7-15.3 ppm) and NO2 (140-154 µg/m(3)) during a 1-week stay. Nevertheless, there were unaltered levels of genotoxicity, determined as DNA strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase and oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 sensitive sites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. There were also unaltered expression levels of OGG1, HMOX1, CCL2, IL8, and TNF levels in leukocytes. In serum, there were unaltered levels of C-reactive protein, IL6, IL8, TNF, lactate dehydrogenase, cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoproteins. The wood smoke exposure was associated with decreased serum levels of sICAM-1, and a tendency to decreased sVCAM-1 levels. There was a minor increase in the levels of circulating monocytes expressing CD31, whereas there were unaltered expression levels of CD11b, CD49d, and CD62L on monocytes after the stay in the house. In conclusion, even a high inhalation exposure to wood smoke was associated with limited systemic effects on markers of oxidative stress, DNA damage, inflammation, and monocyte activation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Human urinary mutagenicity after wood smoke exposure during traditional temazcal use

    PubMed Central

    Long, Alexandra S.; Lemieux, Christine L.; Yousefi, Paul; Ruiz-Mercado, Ilse; Lam, Nicholas L.; Orellana, Carolina Romero; White, Paul A.; Smith, Kirk R.; Holland, Nina

    2014-01-01

    In Central America, the traditional temazcales or wood-fired steam baths, commonly used by many Native American populations, are often heated by wood fires with little ventilation, and this use results in high wood smoke exposure. Urinary mutagenicity has been previously employed as a non-invasive biomarker of human exposure to combustion emissions. This study examined the urinary mutagenicity in 19 indigenous Mayan families from the highlands of Guatemala who regularly use temazcales (N = 32), as well as control (unexposed) individuals from the same population (N = 9). Urine samples collected before and after temazcal exposure were enzymatically deconjugated and extracted using solid-phase extraction. The creatinine-adjusted mutagenic potency of urine extracts was assessed using the plate-incorporation version of the Salmonella mutagenicity assay with strain YG1041 in the presence of exogenous metabolic activation. The post-exposure mutagenic potency of urine extracts were, on average, 1.7-fold higher than pre-exposure samples (P < 0.005) and also significantly more mutagenic than the control samples (P < 0.05). Exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) was ~10 times higher following temazcal use (P < 0.0001), and both CO level and time spent in temazcal were positively associated with urinary mutagenic potency (i.e. P < 0.0001 and P = 0.01, respectively). Thus, the wood smoke exposure associated with temazcal use contributes to increased excretion of conjugated mutagenic metabolites. Moreover, urinary mutagenic potency is correlated with other metrics of exposure (i.e. exhaled CO, duration of exposure). Since urinary mutagenicity is a biomarker associated with genetic damage, temazcal use may therefore be expected to contribute to an increased risk of DNA damage and mutation, effects associated with the initiation of cancer. PMID:25084778

  11. Human urinary mutagenicity after wood smoke exposure during traditional temazcal use.

    PubMed

    Long, Alexandra S; Lemieux, Christine L; Yousefi, Paul; Ruiz-Mercado, Ilse; Lam, Nicholas L; Orellana, Carolina Romero; White, Paul A; Smith, Kirk R; Holland, Nina

    2014-09-01

    In Central America, the traditional temazcales or wood-fired steam baths, commonly used by many Native American populations, are often heated by wood fires with little ventilation, and this use results in high wood smoke exposure. Urinary mutagenicity has been previously employed as a non-invasive biomarker of human exposure to combustion emissions. This study examined the urinary mutagenicity in 19 indigenous Mayan families from the highlands of Guatemala who regularly use temazcales (N = 32), as well as control (unexposed) individuals from the same population (N = 9). Urine samples collected before and after temazcal exposure were enzymatically deconjugated and extracted using solid-phase extraction. The creatinine-adjusted mutagenic potency of urine extracts was assessed using the plate-incorporation version of the Salmonella mutagenicity assay with strain YG1041 in the presence of exogenous metabolic activation. The post-exposure mutagenic potency of urine extracts were, on average, 1.7-fold higher than pre-exposure samples (P < 0.005) and also significantly more mutagenic than the control samples (P < 0.05). Exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) was ~10 times higher following temazcal use (P < 0.0001), and both CO level and time spent in temazcal were positively associated with urinary mutagenic potency (i.e. P < 0.0001 and P = 0.01, respectively). Thus, the wood smoke exposure associated with temazcal use contributes to increased excretion of conjugated mutagenic metabolites. Moreover, urinary mutagenic potency is correlated with other metrics of exposure (i.e. exhaled CO, duration of exposure). Since urinary mutagenicity is a biomarker associated with genetic damage, temazcal use may therefore be expected to contribute to an increased risk of DNA damage and mutation, effects associated with the initiation of cancer. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoke used to smoke cheese produced by the combustion of rock rose (Cistus monspeliensis) and tree heather (Erica arborea) wood.

    PubMed

    Conde, Francisco J; Ayala, Juan H; Afonso, Ana M; González, Venerando

    2005-01-12

    In this work, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their methyl derivatives concentrations have been determined in smoke from the rock rose and tree heather wood combustion. The combustion is done in two types of smokers, kiln and drum, commonly used in the Canary Islands (Spain) to smoke cheese. The low control of the operational conditions justify the great variability of the PAHs concentration in the emissions, with values between 251.8 and 2547 microg/m3N. In general, the lowest concentrations correspond to the tree heather wood combustion in the drum, while the highest concentrations are usually reached in the rock rose wood combustion in the kiln. However, the relative contributions of each PAH to the total concentration are independently similar to the type of smoker and wood used. In the combustion conditions, the equilibrium is not reached during the PAHs distribution process between the gas and aerosol phases. Therefore, while naphthalene and their 1- and 2-methyl derivatives remain in the gas phase, phenanthrene and PAHs with higher molecular weight remain mainly in the aerosol phase. In this phase, the PAHs concentration represents 39.9% of the total PAHs produced by burning rock rose wood and 29.1% of the total PAHs when tree heather wood is used. To establish the carcinogenic potential in both phases, the percentages of some PAHs were calculated. These values are significantly higher in the aerosol phase and, at the same time, higher when rock rose wood is used.

  13. Grandmother’s smoking when pregnant with the mother and asthma in the grandchild: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Magnus, Maria C; Håberg, Siri E; Karlstad, Øystein; Nafstad, Per; London, Stephanie J; Nystad, Wenche

    2016-01-01

    Background A trans-generational influence of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure on asthma development has been proposed but the evidence remains sparse. Methods We examined the grandmother’s smoking when pregnant with the mother in relation to asthma outcomes in the grandchild [current asthma at 36 months (N=53,169,cases=3,013), current asthma at 7 years (N=25,394,cases=1,265) and dispensed asthma medications at 7 years in the Norwegian Prescription Database (N=45,607,cases=1,787)] within the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study(MoBa). We calculated adjusted relative risks (adj. RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using log binomial regression. Results A total of 23.5% of mothers reported that their mother smoked when pregnant with them. The grandmother’s smoking when pregnant with the mother was positively associated with asthma at 36 months [adj.RR 1.15 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.24)], asthma at 7 years [adj.RR 1.21 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.37)] and dispensed asthma medications at 7 years [adj.RR 1.15 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.26)]. This positive association did not differ significantly by the mother’s smoking status when pregnant with the child (P-values for multiplicative interaction >0.1). Conclusion The grandmother’s smoking when pregnant with the mother increased the risk of asthma in the grandchild independent of the mother’s smoking status. However, given limited information on the grandmother’s socio-economic status, asthma status and other factors, unmeasured confounding may be present. PMID:25572596

  14. Case report: a case of wood-smoke-related pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Janet V; Koff, Jonathan; Gotway, Michael B; Nishimura, Stephen; Balmes, John R

    2006-05-01

    Biomass serves as a major fuel source for >50% of the world's population. The global burden of disease attributed to indoor air pollution from biomass combustion accounts for approximately 3% of worldwide disability-adjusted life-years lost. This is due to pneumonia in children and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer in women. A 53-year-old man from Mexico was referred to the pulmonary clinic for evaluation of chronic productive cough and pulmonary nodules. In his youth, he worked at a charcoal plant in Mexico, where he burned wood and was exposed to massive amounts of smoke. His evaluation revealed thickened bronchovascular bundles with nodules on thoracic computed tomography, dark black plaques in large airways on bronchoscopy, and carbon-laden macrophages and fibrotic scars on lung biopsy. The patient was diagnosed with "hut lung," a term that refers to the noninfectious, nonmalignant respiratory manifestations of chronic, high-level exposures to biomass smoke. This is the first reported case of hut lung associated with charcoal production. This case highlights that histopathologic abnormalities of the lung parenchyma may be present in patients with only mild symptoms and that clinical progression is likely a function of both the duration and intensity of exposure. As residents of lesser developed countries continue to be exposed to high levels of biomass smoke at work or at home and continue to immigrate to developed countries, it is important that health care providers in developed countries be aware of biomass-smoke-related pulmonary disease.

  15. Particles from wood smoke and traffic induce differential pro-inflammatory response patterns in co-cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Kocbach, Anette Herseth, Jan Inge; Lag, Marit; Refsnes, Magne; Schwarze, Per E.

    2008-10-15

    The inflammatory potential of particles from wood smoke and traffic has not been well elucidated. In this study, a contact co-culture of monocytes and pneumocytes was exposed to 10-40 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} of particles from wood smoke and traffic for 12, 40 and 64 h to determine their influence on pro-inflammatory cytokine release (TNF-{alpha}, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8) and viability. To investigate the role of organic constituents in cytokine release the response to particles, their organic extracts and the washed particles were compared. Antagonists were used to investigate source-dependent differences in intercellular signalling (TNF-{alpha}, IL-1). The cytotoxicity was low after exposure to particles from both sources. However, wood smoke, and to a lesser degree traffic-derived particles, induced a reduction in cell number, which was associated with the organic fraction. The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines was similar for both sources after 12 h, but traffic induced a greater release than wood smoke particles with increasing exposure time. The organic fraction accounted for the majority of the cytokine release induced by wood smoke, whereas the washed traffic particles induced a stronger response than the corresponding organic extract. TNF-{alpha} and IL-1 antagonists reduced the release of IL-8 induced by particles from both sources. In contrast, the IL-6 release was only reduced by the IL-1 antagonist during exposure to traffic-derived particles. In summary, particles from wood smoke and traffic induced differential pro-inflammatory response patterns with respect to cytokine release and cell number. Moreover, the influence of the organic particle fraction and intercellular signalling on the pro-inflammatory response seemed to be source-dependent.

  16. Histomorphological changes in lung of rats following exposure to wood smoke.

    PubMed

    Lal, K; Dutta, K K; Vachhrajani, K D; Gupta, G S; Srivastava, A K

    1993-09-01

    Rats were exposed to repeated, intermittent exposure to smoke generated from combustion of 1g wood/15 min, total period for 75 min daily under dynamic exposure conditions, over a period of 15, 30 and 45 days. First 15 days exposure caused mild bronchiolitis, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of bronchiolar epithelial lining cells, some necrosed lining cells desquamated into lumens, congestion of parenchymatous blood vessels, oedema, hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles, peribronchiolar and perivascular infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells, and mild emphysema. These lesions progressed further during 30 and 45 days of exposure, though emphysematous changes remain constant. By 30 days and 45 days, hyperplastic and hypertrophic changes of bronchioles become quite marked, with mononuclear cells infiltration and alveolar septa thickening. Hematological studies show marginal alterations in hemoglobin levels, ESR, PCV and TLCS during 15 days, where as significant changes in eosinophil were observed during 30 and 45 days, and ESR during 45 days only. The results indicate progressive pathomorphological pulmonary lesions with subsequent exposure to wood smoke in controlled conditions.

  17. Infiltration of forest fire and residential wood smoke: an evaluation of air cleaner effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Barn, Prabjit; Larson, Timothy; Noullett, Melanie; Kennedy, Susan; Copes, Ray; Brauer, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Communities impacted by fine-particle air pollution (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm; PM(2.5)) from forest fires and residential wood burning require effective, evidence-based exposure-reduction strategies. Public health recommendations during smoke episodes typically include advising community members to remain indoors and the use of air cleaners, yet little information is available on the effectiveness of these measures. Our study attempted to address the following objectives: to measure indoor infiltration factor (F(inf)) of PM(2.5) from forest fires/wood smoke, to determine the effectiveness of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter air cleaners in reducing indoor PM(2.5), and to analyze the home determinants of F(inf) and air cleaner effectiveness (ACE). We collected indoor/outdoor 1-min PM(2.5) averages and 48-h outdoor PM(2.5) filter samples for 21 winter and 17 summer homes impacted by wood burning and forest fire smoke, respectively, during 2004-2005. A portable HEPA filter air cleaner was operated indoors with the filter removed for one of two sampling days. Particle F(inf) and ACE were calculated for each home using a recursive model. We found mean F(inf)+/-SD was 0.27+/-0.18 and 0.61+/-0.27 in winter (n=19) and summer (n=13), respectively, for days when HEPA filters were not used. Lower F(inf)+/-SD values of 0.10+/-0.08 and 0.19+/-0.20 were found on corresponding days when HEPA filters were in place. Mean+/-SD ACE ([F(inf) without filter-F(inf) with filter]/F(inf) without filter) in winter and summer were 55+/-38% and 65+/-35%, respectively. Number of windows and season predicted F(inf) (P<0.001). No significant predictors of ACE were identified. Our findings show that remaining indoors combined with use of air cleaner can effectively reduce PM(2.5) exposure during forest fires and residential wood burning.

  18. Lung Function in Rural Guatemalan Women Before and After a Chimney Stove Intervention to Reduce Wood Smoke Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Michael; Diaz, Esperanza; Pope, Daniel; Eisen, Ellen A.; Mann, Jennifer; Smith, Kirk R.; Smith-Sivertsen, Tone; Bruce, Nigel G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: COPD is the third most frequent cause of death globally, with much of this burden attributable to household biomass smoke exposure in developing countries. As biomass smoke exposure is also associated with cardiovascular disease, lower respiratory infection, lung cancer, and cataracts, it presents an important target for public health intervention. METHODS: Lung function in Guatemalan women exposed to wood smoke from open fires was measured throughout the Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects (RESPIRE) stove intervention trial and continued during the Chronic Respiratory Effects of Early Childhood Exposure to Respirable Particulate Matter (CRECER) cohort study. In RESPIRE, early stove households received a chimney woodstove at the beginning of the 18-month trial, and delayed stove households received a stove at trial completion. Personal exposure to wood smoke was assessed with exhaled breath carbon monoxide (CO) and personal CO tubes. Change in lung function between intervention groups and as a function of wood smoke exposure was assessed using random effects models. RESULTS: Of 306 women participating in both studies, acceptable spirometry was collected in 129 early stove and 136 delayed stove households (n = 265), with a mean follow-up of 5.6 years. Despite reduced wood smoke exposures in early stove households, there were no significant differences in any of the measured spirometric variables during the study period (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, and annual change) after adjustment for confounding. CONCLUSIONS: In these young Guatemalan women, there was no association between lung function and early randomization to a chimney stove or personal wood smoke exposure. Future stove intervention trials should incorporate cleaner stoves, longer follow-up, or potentially susceptible groups to identify meaningful differences in lung function. PMID:26065915

  19. In utero exposure to maternal smoking and women's risk of fetal loss in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort (MoBa).

    PubMed

    Cupul-Uicab, L A; Baird, D D; Skjaerven, R; Saha-Chaudhuri, P; Haug, K; Longnecker, M P

    2011-02-01

    Whether in utero exposure to tobacco smoke increases a woman's risk of fetal loss later in life is unknown, though data on childhood exposure suggest an association may exist. This study evaluated the association between in utero exposure to tobacco smoke and fetal loss in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), which enrolled ∼40% of the pregnant women in Norway from 1999 to 2008. Information on exposure to tobacco smoke in utero, the woman's own smoking behavior during pregnancy and other factors was obtained by a questionnaire completed at ∼17 weeks of gestation. Subsequent late miscarriage (fetal death <20 weeks) and stillbirth (fetal death ≥ 20 weeks) were ascertained from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry. This analysis included 76 357 pregnancies (MoBa data set version 4.301) delivered by the end of 2008; 59 late miscarriages and 270 stillbirths occurred. Cox proportional hazards models were fit for each outcome and for all fetal deaths combined. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of late miscarriage was 1.23 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.72-2.12] in women with exposure to maternal tobacco smoke in utero when compared with non-exposed women. The corresponding adjusted HR for stillbirths was 1.11 (95% CI, 0.85-1.44) and for all fetal deaths combined, it was 1.12 (95% CI, 0.89-1.43). The relatively wide CI around the HR for miscarriage reflected the limited power to detect an association, due to enrollment around 17 weeks of gestation. However, for in utero exposure to tobacco smoke and risk of stillbirth later in life, where the study power was adequate, our data provided little support for an association.

  20. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London: assessing local and regional influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crilley, L. R.; Bloss, W. J.; Yin, J.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Harrison, R. M.; Allan, J. D.; Young, D. E.; Flynn, M.; Williams, P.; Zotter, P.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Heal, M. R.; Barlow, J. F.; Halios, C. H.; Lee, J. D.; Szidat, S.; Mohr, C.

    2015-03-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke to air pollution in large cities such as London is becoming increasingly important due to the changing nature of domestic heating in urban areas. During winter, biomass burning emissions have been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits. The aim of this work was to quantify the contribution of biomass burning in London to concentrations of PM2.5 and determine whether local emissions or regional contributions were the main source of biomass smoke. To achieve this, a number of biomass burning chemical tracers were analysed at a site within central London and two sites in surrounding rural areas. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated across the three sites. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest contribution of EC from traffic emissions, while for OC the dominant fraction included contributions from secondary organic aerosols, primary biogenic and cooking sources. Source apportionment of the EC and OC was found to give reasonable estimation of the total carbon from non-fossil and fossil fuel sources based upon comparison with estimates derived from 14C analysis. Aethalometer-derived black carbon data were also apportioned into the contributions from biomass burning and traffic and showed trends similar to those observed for EC. Mean wood smoke mass at the sites was estimated to range from 0.78 to 1.0 μg m-3 during the campaign in January-February 2012. Measurements on a 160 m tower in London suggested a similar ratio of brown to black carbon (reflecting wood burning and traffic respectively) in regional and London air. Peaks in the levoglucosan and K+ concentrations were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, consistent with domestic heating as a major contributing local source in London. Overall, the source of biomass smoke in London was concluded to be a

  1. Upregulation of Gelatinases and Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition in Small Airway Remodeling Associated with Chronic Exposure to Wood Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yimin; Li, Shaoxing; Zou, Weifeng; Hu, Guoping; Zhou, Yumin; Peng, Gongyong; He, Fang; Li, Bing; Ran, Pixin

    2014-01-01

    Background Peribronchiolar fibrosis is an important feature of small airway remodeling (SAR) in cigarette smoke-induced COPD. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of gelatinases (MMP9, MMP2) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in SAR related to wood smoke (WS) exposure in a rat model. Methods Forty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the WS group, the cigarette smoke (CS) group and the clean air control group. After 4 to 7 months of smoke exposure, lung tissues were examined with morphometric measurements, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Serum MMP9 and TIMP1 concentrations were detected by ELISA. In vitro, primary rat tracheal epithelial cells were stimulated with wood smoke condensate for 7 days. Results The COPD-like pathological alterations in rats exposed chronically to WS were similar to those exposed to CS; the area of collagen deposition was significantly increased in the small airway walls of those exposed to WS or CS for 7 months. The expression of gelatinases in rats induced by WS or CS exposure was markedly increased in whole lung tissue, and immunohistochemistry showed that MMP9, MMP2 and TIMP1 were primarily expressed in the airway epithelium. The serum levels of MMP9 and TIMP1 were significantly higher in rats secondary to WS or CS exposure. Few cells that double immunostained for E-cadherin and vimentin were observed in the airway subepithelium of rats exposed to WS for 7 months (only 3 of these 8 rats). In vitro, the expression of MMP9 and MMP2 proteins was upregulated in primary rat tracheal epithelial cells following exposure to wood smoke condensate for 7 days by Western blotting; positive immunofluorescent staining for vimentin and type I collagen was also observed. Conclusions These findings suggest that the upregulation of gelatinases and EMT might play a role in SAR in COPD associated with chronic exposure to wood smoke. PMID:24802298

  2. Urinary levoglucosan as a biomarker of wood smoke exposure: observations in a mouse model and in children.

    PubMed

    Migliaccio, Christopher T; Bergauff, Megan A; Palmer, Christopher P; Jessop, Forrest; Noonan, Curtis W; Ward, Tony J

    2009-01-01

    Biomass smoke is an important source of particulate matter (PM), and much remains to be discovered with respect to the human health effects associated with this specific PM source. Exposure to biomass smoke can occur in one of two main categories: short-term exposures consist of periodic, seasonal exposures typified by communities near forest fires or intentional agricultural burning, and long-term exposures are chronic and typified by the use of biomass materials for cooking or heating. Levoglucosan (LG), a sugar anhydride released by combustion of cellulose-containing materials, is an attractive candidate as a biomarker of wood smoke exposure. In the present study, Balb/c mice and children were assessed for LG in urine to determine its feasibility as a biomarker. We performed urinary detection of LG by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after intranasal instillations of LG or concentrated PM (mice) or biomass exposure (mice or humans). After instillation, we recovered most of the LG within the first 4 hr. Experiments using glucose instillation proved the specificity of our system, and instillation of concentrated PM from wood smoke, ambient air, and diesel exhaust supported a connection between wood smoke and LG. In addition, LG was detected in the urine of mice exposed to wood smoke. Finally, a pilot human study proved our ability to detect LG in urine of children. These results demonstrate that LG in the lungs is detectable in the urine of both mice and humans and that it is a good candidate as a biomarker of exposure to biomass smoke.

  3. Urinary Levoglucosan as a Biomarker of Wood Smoke Exposure: Observations in a Mouse Model and in Children

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, Christopher T.; Bergauff, Megan A.; Palmer, Christopher P.; Jessop, Forrest; Noonan, Curtis W.; Ward, Tony J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Biomass smoke is an important source of particulate matter (PM), and much remains to be discovered with respect to the human health effects associated with this specific PM source. Exposure to biomass smoke can occur in one of two main categories: short-term exposures consist of periodic, seasonal exposures typified by communities near forest fires or intentional agricultural burning, and long-term exposures are chronic and typified by the use of biomass materials for cooking or heating. Levoglucosan (LG), a sugar anhydride released by combustion of cellulose-containing materials, is an attractive candidate as a biomarker of wood smoke exposure. Objectives In the present study, Balb/c mice and children were assessed for LG in urine to determine its feasibility as a biomarker. Methods We performed urinary detection of LG by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after intranasal instillations of LG or concentrated PM (mice) or biomass exposure (mice or humans). Results After instillation, we recovered most of the LG within the first 4 hr. Experiments using glucose instillation proved the specificity of our system, and instillation of concentrated PM from wood smoke, ambient air, and diesel exhaust supported a connection between wood smoke and LG. In addition, LG was detected in the urine of mice exposed to wood smoke. Finally, a pilot human study proved our ability to detect LG in urine of children. Conclusions These results demonstrate that LG in the lungs is detectable in the urine of both mice and humans and that it is a good candidate as a biomarker of exposure to biomass smoke. PMID:19165390

  4. Wood smoke enhances cigarette smoke-induced inflammation by inducing the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Awji, Elias G; Chand, Hitendra; Bruse, Shannon; Smith, Kevin R; Colby, Jennifer K; Mebratu, Yohannes; Levy, Bruce D; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2015-03-01

    Our previous studies showed that cigarette smokers who are exposed to wood smoke (WS) are at an increased risk for chronic bronchitis and reduced lung function. The present study was undertaken to determine the mechanisms for WS-induced adverse effects. We studied the effect of WS exposure using four cohorts of mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed for 4 or 12 weeks to filtered air, to 10 mg/m(3) WS for 2 h/d, to 250 mg/m(3) cigarette smoke (CS) for 6 h/d, or to CS followed by WS (CW). Inflammation was absent in the filtered air and WS groups, but enhanced by twofold in the bronchoalveolar lavage of the CW compared with CS group as measured by neutrophil numbers and levels of the neutrophil chemoattractant, keratinocyte-derived chemokine. The levels of the anti-inflammatory lipoxin, lipoxin A4, were reduced by threefold along with cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES)-1 in airway epithelial cells and PGE2 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage of CW compared with CS mice. We replicated, in primary human airway epithelial cells, the changes observed in mice. Immunoprecipitations showed that WS blocked the interaction of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) with AHR nuclear transporter to reduce expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 by increasing expression of AHR repressor (AHRR). Collectively, these studies show that exposure to low concentrations of WS enhanced CS-induced inflammation by inducing AHRR expression to suppress AHR, COX-2, and mPGES-1 expression, and levels of PGE2 and lipoxin A4. Therefore, AHRR is a potential therapeutic target for WS-associated exacerbations of CS-induced inflammation.

  5. Dependence of nephelometer scattering coefficients on relative humidity: fronts, nocturnal disturbance, and wood smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Griffing, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    The dependence of the nephelometer scattering coefficient of atmospheric air on the relative humidity at the RTP is discussed for four different meteorological examples. These examples feature (1) the passage of a low pressure system with thunderstorms, (2) the passage of a cold, dry front, (3) a nocturnal weather disturbance due to an unknown source, and (4) wood smoke aerosols from burning tree piles. Nephelometer scattering coefficient data were obtained by the use of two nephelometers. One nephelometer was operated at the ambient outside relative humidity and the other nephelometer at a different relative humidity. Using this operational mode of data acquisition, qualitative temporal information was deduced on the variations of aerosol size and number density as various meteorological parameters vary. The temporal trend of the visibility is also discussed for each example.

  6. Analysis of condensates from wood smoke: Components derived from polysaccharides and lignins

    SciTech Connect

    Edye, L.A.; Richards, G.N. )

    1991-06-01

    A feasibility study has been carried out of the analysis of total condensate (at {minus}50C) of smoke from smoldering combustion of wood. All of the phenol and furan components in the aqueous condensate were extracted into methylene chloride and the extract was analyzed by GC/MS. The same homologues of guaiacol and syringol derived from lignin were detected as have been described in earlier studies, but in addition, a series of furan derivatives were found. The latter are believed to arise from pyrolysis of polysaccharides. The carboxylic acids in the condensates were analyzed by titration and subsequent GC/MS. Acetic acid was the dominant volatile acid found, with a trace of propanoic, but no significant formic acid.

  7. Intervention to Lower Household Wood Smoke Exposure in Guatemala Reduces ST-Segment Depression on Electrocardiograms

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kirk R.; Stone, Peter; Díaz, Anaité; Arana, Byron; Schwartz, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Background: A large body of evidence suggests that fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a cause of cardiovascular disease, but little is known in particular about the cardiovascular effects of indoor air pollution from household use of solid fuels in developing countries. RESPIRE (Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects) was a randomized trial of a chimney woodstove that reduces wood smoke exposure. Objectives: We tested the hypotheses that the stove intervention, compared with open fire use, would reduce ST-segment depression and increase heart rate variability (HRV). Methods: We used two complementary study designs: a) between-groups comparisons based on randomized stove assignment, and b) before-and-after comparisons within control subjects who used open fires during the trial and received chimney stoves after the trial. Electrocardiogram sessions that lasted 20 hr were repeated up to three times among 49 intervention and 70 control women 38–84 years of age, and 55 control subjects were also assessed after receiving stoves. HRV and ST-segment values were assessed for each 30-min period. ST-segment depression was defined as an average value below –1.00 mm. Personal fine PM [aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5)] exposures were measured for 24 hr before each electrocardiogram. Results: PM2.5 exposure means were 266 and 102 μg/m3 during the trial period in the control and intervention groups, respectively. During the trial, the stove intervention was associated with an odds ratio of 0.26 (95% confidence interval, 0.08–0.90) for ST-segment depression. We found similar associations with the before-and-after comparison. The intervention was not significantly associated with HRV. Conclusions: The stove intervention was associated with reduced occurrence of nonspecific ST-segment depression, suggesting that household wood smoke exposures affect ventricular repolarization and potentially cardiovascular health. PMID

  8. Single-Particle Composition Measured in an Alpine Valley: Wood Smoke, EC and BC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liepmann, C.; Gross, D. S.; Benzaid, S.; Christensen, J.; Turetsky, E.; Musicant, D.; Sandradewi, J.; Prevot, A.; Baltensperger, U.

    2007-12-01

    Particulate pollution is an issue of concern in today's society. Current regulations focus on the mass of particulate matter (PM) per volume of air, and not the source or chemical composition of the PM. Here we will present results from the AEROWOOD campaign in Roveredo, Switzerland where we investigated the PM composition measured using a single-particle mass spectrometer (TSI 3800 ATOFMS) to identify the sources of ambient particles. The goal was to differentiate wood smoke particles from diesel emissions. Roveredo is located in a deep alpine valley with strong wintertime thermal inversions, trapping the emissions. Local homes are predominantly heated by wood fires, and the village is located along a motorway that crosses the Swiss alps, providing two distinct particle sources. The particles sampled with the ATOFMS have been analyzed in a variety of ways with a focus on the temporal trends of the different particle types identified. Of particular interest is the distinction made between elemental carbon (EC) and black carbon (BC). During AEROWOOD, EC was measured chemically using real- time thermo/optical methods. BC was recorded directly by absorption, using an aethalometer. Regression models have been constructed to predict the EC and BC values using the single-particle mass spectra, providing chemical insight into the differences in these quantities. Additionally, comparing the timeline plots of EC, BC and the particle types found from the ATOFMS data should provide an idea as to the sources of EC and BC in this location.

  9. Toxicity of wood smoke particles in human A549 lung epithelial cells: the role of PAHs, soot and zinc.

    PubMed

    Dilger, Marco; Orasche, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf; Paur, Hanns-Rudolf; Diabaté, Silvia; Weiss, Carsten

    2016-12-01

    Indoor air pollution is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Specifically, the health impact of emissions from domestic burning of biomass and coal is most relevant and is estimated to contribute to over 4 million premature deaths per year worldwide. Wood is the main fuel source for biomass combustion and the shift towards renewable energy sources will further increase emissions from wood combustion even in developed countries. However, little is known about the constituents of wood smoke and biological mechanisms that are responsible for adverse health effects. We exposed A549 lung epithelial cells to collected wood smoke particles and found an increase in cellular reactive oxygen species as well as a response to bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, cell vitality and regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 were not affected. Using a candidate approach, we could recapitulate WSP toxicity by the combined actions of its constituents soot, metals and PAHs. The soot fraction and metals were found to be the most important factors for ROS formation, whereas the PAH response can be mimicked by the model PAH benzo[a]pyrene. Strikingly, PAHs adsorbed to WSPs were even more potent in activating target gene expression than B[a]P individually applied in suspension. As PAHs initiate multiple adverse outcome pathways and are prominent carcinogens, their role as key pollutants in wood smoke and its health effects warrants further investigation. The presented results suggest that each of the investigated constituents soot, metals and PAHs are major contributors to WSP toxicity. Mitigation strategies to prevent adverse health effects of wood combustion should therefore not only aim at reducing the emitted soot and PAHs but also the metal content, through the use of more efficient combustion appliances, and particle precipitation techniques, respectively.

  10. Birth weight and exposure to kitchen wood smoke during pregnancy in rural Guatemala.

    PubMed Central

    Boy, Erick; Bruce, Nigel; Delgado, Hernán

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to establish whether domestic use of wood fuel is associated with reduced birth weight, independent of key maternal, social, and economic confounding factors. We studied 1,717 women and newborn children in rural and urban communities in rural Guatemala. We identified subjects through home births reported by traditional birth attendants in six rural districts (n = 572) and all public hospital births in Quetzaltenango city during the study period (n = 1,145). All were seen within 72 hr of delivery, and data were collected on the type of household fuel used, fire type, and socioeconomic and other confounding factors. Smoking among women in the study community was negligible. Children born to mothers habitually cooking on open fires (n = 861) had the lowest mean birth weight of 2,819 g [95% confidence interval (CI), 2,790-2,848]; those using a chimney stove (n = 490) had an intermediate mean of 2,863 g (95% CI, 2,824-2,902); and those using the cleanest fuels (electricity or gas, n = 365) had the highest mean of 2,948 g (95% CI, 2,898-2,998) (p< 0.0001). The percentage of low birth weights (< 500 g) in these three groups was 19.9% (open fire), 16.8% (chimney stove), and 16.0% (electricity/gas), (trend (p = 0.08). Confounding factors were strongly associated with fuel type, but after adjustment wood users still had a birth weight 63 g lower (p = 0.05; 95% CI, 0.4-126). This is the first report of an association between biofuel use and reduced birth weight in a human population. Although there is potential for residual confounding despite adjustment, the better-documented evidence on passive smoking and a feasible mechanism through carbon monoxide exposure suggest this association may be real. Because two-thirds of households in developing countries still rely on biofuels and women of childbearing age perform most cooking tasks, the attributable risk arising from this association, if confirmed, could be substantial. PMID:11781172

  11. Birth weight and exposure to kitchen wood smoke during pregnancy in rural Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Boy, Erick; Bruce, Nigel; Delgado, Hernán

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to establish whether domestic use of wood fuel is associated with reduced birth weight, independent of key maternal, social, and economic confounding factors. We studied 1,717 women and newborn children in rural and urban communities in rural Guatemala. We identified subjects through home births reported by traditional birth attendants in six rural districts (n = 572) and all public hospital births in Quetzaltenango city during the study period (n = 1,145). All were seen within 72 hr of delivery, and data were collected on the type of household fuel used, fire type, and socioeconomic and other confounding factors. Smoking among women in the study community was negligible. Children born to mothers habitually cooking on open fires (n = 861) had the lowest mean birth weight of 2,819 g [95% confidence interval (CI), 2,790-2,848]; those using a chimney stove (n = 490) had an intermediate mean of 2,863 g (95% CI, 2,824-2,902); and those using the cleanest fuels (electricity or gas, n = 365) had the highest mean of 2,948 g (95% CI, 2,898-2,998) (p< 0.0001). The percentage of low birth weights (< 500 g) in these three groups was 19.9% (open fire), 16.8% (chimney stove), and 16.0% (electricity/gas), (trend (p = 0.08). Confounding factors were strongly associated with fuel type, but after adjustment wood users still had a birth weight 63 g lower (p = 0.05; 95% CI, 0.4-126). This is the first report of an association between biofuel use and reduced birth weight in a human population. Although there is potential for residual confounding despite adjustment, the better-documented evidence on passive smoking and a feasible mechanism through carbon monoxide exposure suggest this association may be real. Because two-thirds of households in developing countries still rely on biofuels and women of childbearing age perform most cooking tasks, the attributable risk arising from this association, if confirmed, could be substantial.

  12. Short-term chamber exposure to low doses of two kinds of wood smoke does not induce systemic inflammation, coagulation or oxidative stress in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Sallsten, Gerd; Almerud, Pernilla; Basu, Samar; Barregard, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. A proposed mechanism is that local airway inflammation leads to systemic inflammation, affecting coagulation and the long-term risk of atherosclerosis. One major source of air pollution is wood burning. Here we investigate whether exposure to two kinds of wood smoke, previously shown to cause airway effects, affects biomarkers of systemic inflammation, coagulation and lipid peroxidation. Methods: Thirteen healthy adults were exposed to filtered air followed by two sessions of wood smoke for three hours, one week apart. One session used smoke from the start-up phase of the wood-burning cycle, and the other smoke from the burn-out phase. Mean particle mass concentrations were 295 µg/m3 and 146 µg/m3, and number concentrations were 140 000/cm3 and 100 000/cm3, respectively. Biomarkers were analyzed in samples of blood and urine taken before and several times after exposure. Results after wood smoke exposure were adjusted for exposure to filtered air. Results: Markers of systemic inflammation and soluble adhesion molecules did not increase after wood smoke exposure. Effects on markers of coagulation were ambiguous, with minor decreases in fibrinogen and platelet counts and mixed results concerning the coagulation factors VII and VIII. Urinary F2-isoprostane, a consistent marker of in vivo lipid peroxidation, unexpectedly decreased after wood smoke exposure. Conclusions: The effects on biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and lipid peroxidation do not indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in healthy adults by short-term exposure to wood smoke at these moderate doses, previously shown to cause airway effects. PMID:23808634

  13. Adverse effects of wood smoke PM2.5 exposure on macrophage functions

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, Christopher T.; Kobos, Emily; King, Quinton O.; Porter, Virginia; Jessop, Forrest; Ward, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between chronic biomass smoke exposure and increased respiratory infection. Pulmonary macrophages are instrumental in both the innate and the adaptive immune responses to respiratory infection. In the present study, in vitro systems were utilized where alveolar macrophages (AM) and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMdM) were exposed to concentrated wood smoke-derived particulate matter (WS-PM) and mice were exposed in vivo to either concentrated WS-PM or inhaled WS. In vivo studies demonstrated that WS-exposed mice inoculated with Streptococcus pneumoniae had a higher bacterial load 24 h post-exposure, and corresponding AM were found to have decreased lymphocyte activation activity. Additionally, while classic markers of inflammation (cellular infiltration, total protein, neutrophils) were not affected, there were changes in pulmonary macrophages populations, including significant decreases in macrophages expressing markers of activation in WS-exposed mice. The lymphocyte activation activity of WS-PM-exposed AM was significantly suppressed, but the phagocytic activity appeared unchanged. In an effort to determine a pathway for WS-induced suppression, RelB activation, assessed by nuclear translocation, was observed in AM exposed to either inhaled WS or instilled WS-PM. Finally, an analysis of WS-PM fractions determined the presence of 4–5 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and preliminary work suggests a potential role for these PAHs to alter macrophage functions. These studies show a decreased ability of WS-exposed pulmonary macrophages to effectively mount a defense against infection, the effect lasts at least a week post-exposure, and appears to be mediated via RelB activation. PMID:23363038

  14. Oxidative stress and lung injury induced by short-term exposure to wood smoke in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Carlos; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Becerril, C; Cisneros, J; González-Ávila, G; Rivera-Rosales, R; Sommer, B; Medina-Campos, O N; Montaño, M

    2013-11-01

    Oxidative stress and lung injury induced by short-term exposure to wood smoke were evaluated in guinea pigs through cell profile, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), conventional histology and immunohistochemistry (4-hydroxynonenal, 3-nitrotyrosine, Mn-superoxide dismutase, heme oxygenase-1); malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal concentration, Mn-superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities in plasma, lung and BAL. Total cells increased in BAL, and the percentage of macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes augmented (72-96 h). Histopathological examination of lung tissues showed mild thickening of membranous bronchiole walls, infiltration of foamy macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in bronchial, bronchiolar and intraalveolar spaces. Goblet cell hyperplasia was also observed in bronchial and bronchiolar epithelia. Plasma malondialdehyde concentration was increased at all times, while 4-hydroxynonenal was increased only in plasma and BAL after 24 h. Plasma glutathione reductase activity increased at 24 and 72 h, BAL glutathione peroxidase activity decreased at 72 and 96 h, whereas catalase activity increased in plasma at 72 h, and decreased in BAL at 24 h. Immunostaining intensity to 4-hydroxynonenal, 3-nitrotyrosine, Mn-superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase-1 was enhanced mainly in macrophages, bronchial/bronchiolar epithelial cells and type II pneumocytes after 72-96 h of wood smoke exposure. Overall, short-term exposure to wood smoke induces alterations in oxidative/antioxidant state in lung and airway injury, similar to those observed in humans with domestic exposure.

  15. Wood

    Treesearch

    David W. Green; Robert H. White; Antoni TenWolde; William Simpson; Joseph Murphy; Robert J. Ross; Roland Hernandez; Stan T. Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood is a naturally formed organic material consisting essentially of elongated tubular elements called cells arranged in a parallel manner for the most part. These cells vary in dimensions and wall thickness with position in the tree, age, conditions of growth, and kind of tree. The walls of the cells are formed principally of chain molecules of cellulose, polymerized...

  16. Wood Smoke Particle Sequesters Cell Iron to Impact a Biological Effect.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Andrew J; Soukup, Joleen M; Dailey, Lisa A; Tong, Haiyan; Kesic, Matthew J; Budinger, G R Scott; Mutlu, Gökhan M

    2015-11-16

    The biological effect of an inorganic particle (i.e., silica) can be associated with a disruption in cell iron homeostasis. Organic compounds included in particles originating from combustion processes can also complex sources of host cell iron to disrupt metal homeostasis. We tested the postulate that (1) wood smoke particle (WSP) sequesters host cell iron resulting in a disruption of metal homeostasis, (2) this loss of essential metal results in both an oxidative stress and biological effect in respiratory epithelial cells, and (3) humic-like substances (HULIS), a component of WSP, have a capacity to appropriate cell iron and initiate a biological effect. BEAS-2B cells exposed to WSP resulted in diminished concentrations of mitochondrial (57)Fe, whereas preincubation with ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) prevented significant mitochondrial iron loss after such exposure. Cellular oxidant generation was increased after WSP exposure, but this signal was diminished by coincubation with FAC. Similarly, exposure of BEAS-2B cells to 100 μg/mL WSP activated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, elevated NF-E2-related factor 2/antioxidant responsive element (Nrf2 ARE) expression, and provoked interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 release, but all these changes were diminished by coincubation with FAC. The biological response to WSP was reproduced by exposure to 100 μg/mL humic acid, a polyphenol comparable to HULIS included in the WSP that complexes iron. We conclude that (1) the biological response following exposure to WSP is associated with sequestration of cell iron by the particle, (2) increasing available iron in the cell diminished the biological effects after particle exposure, and (3) HULIS included in WSP can sequester the metal initiating the cell response.

  17. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody in patients with wood-smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) without rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sigari, Naseh; Moghimi, Nasrin; Shahraki, Farhad Saber; Mohammadi, Shilan; Roshani, Daem

    2015-01-01

    Citrullination, a post-translational modification of proteins, is increased in inflammatory processes and is known to occur in smokers. It can induce anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies, the most specific serologic marker for rheumatoid arthritis. Thus far, the incidence of autoimmunity in patients with wood-smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) resulting in anti-CCP production has not been examined. We hypothesise that anti-CCP antibody level in these patients should be higher than that in healthy subjects. A total of 112 non-rheumatoid arthritis patients, including 56 patients with wood-smoke-induced COPD and 56 patients with tobacco-induced COPD, and 56 healthy non-smoker controls were included. The serum anti-CCP antibody levels were measured and compared between the groups and against smoke exposure and clinical characteristics. The mean anti-CCP antibody levels in wood-smoke-induced COPD group were significantly higher than those in tobacco-induced COPD group (p = 0.03) and controls (p = 0.004). Furthermore, 8 (14.2 %) patients with wood-smoke-induced COPD, 4 (7.14 %) with tobacco-induced COPD and 2 (3.57 %) controls exceeded the conventional cut-off of anti-CCP antibody positivity. No relationship was found between the anti-CCP antibody level and age, gender, duration of disease, Pack-years of smoking, and duration of exposure to wood smoke. Moreover, correlations between anti-CCP antibodies and severity of airflow limitation, CAT scores, mMRC scores of dyspnoea, and GOLD staging of COPD severity were not significant. Wood-smoke-induced COPD could significantly increase the anti-CCP antibody level in non-rheumatoid arthritis patients when compared with that in patients with tobacco-induced COPD and healthy controls.

  18. Prevalence of acute respiratory infections in women and children in Western Sierra Leone due to smoke from wood and charcoal stoves.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Eldred Tunde; Nakai, Satoshi

    2012-06-01

    Combustion of biomass fuels (wood and charcoal) for cooking releases smoke that contains health damaging pollutants. Women and children are the most affected. Exposure to biomass smoke is associated with acute respiratory infections (ARI). This study investigated the prevalence of ARI potentially caused by smoke from wood and charcoal stoves in Western Sierra Leone, as these two fuels are the predominant fuel types used for cooking. A cross sectional study was conducted for 520 women age 15-45 years; and 520 children under 5 years of age in homes that burn wood and charcoal. A questionnaire assessing demographic, household and exposure characteristics and ARI was administered to every woman who further gave information for the child. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was continuously monitored in fifteen homes. ARI prevalence revealed 32% and 24% for women, 64% and 44% for children in homes with wood and charcoal stoves, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders for each group, the odds ratio of having suffered from ARI was similar for women, but remained large for children in homes with wood stoves relative to charcoal stoves (OR = 1.14, 95%CI: 0.71-1.82) and (OR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.31-3.13), respectively. ARI prevalence was higher for children in homes with wood stoves compared with homes with charcoal stoves, but ARI prevalence for both types of fuels is higher compared with reported prevalence elsewhere. To achieve a reduction in ARI would require switching from wood and charcoal to cleaner fuels.

  19. Determination of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by HPLC-photoionization tandem mass spectrometry in wood smoke particles and soil samples.

    PubMed

    Avagyan, Rozanna; Nyström, Robin; Boman, Christoffer; Westerholm, Roger

    2015-06-01

    A simple and fast method for analysis of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using pressurized liquid extraction and high performance liquid chromatography utilizing photoionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed. Simultaneous separation and determination of nine hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and two hydroxy biphenyls could be performed in negative mode with a run time of 12 min, including equilibration in 5 min. The calibration curves were in two concentration ranges; 1-50 ng/mL and 0.01-50 μg/mL, with coefficients of correlation R (2) > 0.997. The limits of detection and method quantification limits were in the range of 9-56 pg and 5-38 ng/g, respectively. A two-level full factorial experimental design was used for screening of conditions with the highest impact on the extraction. The extraction procedure was automated and suitable for a large number of samples. The extraction recoveries ranged from 70 to 102 % and the matrix effects were between 92 and 104 %. The overall method was demonstrated on wood smoke particles and soil samples with good analytical performance, and five OH-PAHs were determined in the concentration range of 0.19-210 μg/g. As far as we know, hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in wood smoke and soil samples using photoionization mass spectrometry for the first time in this present study. Accordingly, this study shows that high performance liquid chromatography photoionization tandem mass spectrometry can be a good option for the determination of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in complex environmental samples. Graphical Abstract The method developed in this study was used to determine hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in wood smoke and soil.

  20. Assessment of Oxidative Stress in Lungs from Sheep After Inhalation of Wood Smoke

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    hypoxia. Plasma and expired breath samples were collected pre-smoke, and 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 and 48 h after smoke exposure. Sheep were euthanatized 48... h after smoke exposure and lung and airway sections were evaluated histologically for injury and biochemically for indices of oxidative stress. Plasma...thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were 66 and 69% higher than controls after moderate and severe smoke exposure at 48 h , whereas total

  1. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF SMOKE FROM CAMPFIRE BURNING OF PINE WOOD (PINUS ELLIOTTII). (R823990)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Although campfires are typically enjoyable events, people are exposed to high concentrations of gaseous and particulate pollutants. The combustion conditions of wood burned in campfires are different from those of indoor wood burning in stoves or fireplaces. T...

  2. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF SMOKE FROM CAMPFIRE BURNING OF PINE WOOD (PINUS ELLIOTTII). (R823990)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Although campfires are typically enjoyable events, people are exposed to high concentrations of gaseous and particulate pollutants. The combustion conditions of wood burned in campfires are different from those of indoor wood burning in stoves or fireplaces. T...

  3. Assessment of vascular function in Mexican women exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from wood smoke.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Vera, Tania; Pruneda-Álvarez, Lucia G; Ochoa-Martínez, Ángeles C; Ramírez-GarcíaLuna, José L; Pierdant-Pérez, Mauricio; Gordillo-Moscoso, Antonio A; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2015-09-01

    The use of solid fuels for cooking and heating is likely to be the largest source of indoor air pollution on a global scale; these fuels emit substantial amounts of toxic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when used in simple cooking stoves (such as open "three-stone" fires). Moreover, indoor air pollution from biomass fuels is considered an important risk factor for human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between exposure to PAHs from wood smoke and vascular dysfunction; in a group of Mexican women that use biomass combustion as their main energy source inside their homes. We used 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) as an exposure biomarker to PAHs and it was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography. The endothelium-dependent vasodilation was assessed through a vascular reactivity compression test performed with a pneumatic cuff under visualization of the brachial artery using high resolution ultrasonography (HRU). Assessment of the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) was used as an atherosclerosis biomarker (also assessed using HRU); and clinical parameters such as anthropometry, blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, among others were also evaluated. The mean concentration of urinary 1-OHP found in exposed women was 0.46±0.32μmol/mol Cr (range: 0.086-1.23μmol/mol Cr). Moreover, vascular dysfunction (diminished endothelium dependent vasodilation) was found in 45% of the women participating in the study. Association between vascular function and 1-OHP levels was found to be significant through a logistic regression analysis (p=0.034; r(2)=0.1329). Furthermore, no association between CIMT and clinical parameters, urinary 1-OHP levels or vascular dysfunction was found. Therefore, with the information obtained in this study, we advocate for the need to implement programs to reduce the risk of exposure to PAHs in communities that use biomass fuels as a main

  4. A case report of cor pulmonale in a woman without exposure to tobacco smoke: an example of the risks of indoor wood burning.

    PubMed

    Opotowsky, Alexander R; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Mamlin, Joseph J

    2008-01-29

    We present the case of a 67-year-old woman with chronic cor pulmonale. She never smoked tobacco and had no other risk factors for pulmonary disease. In developed nations, chronic obstructive lung disease and cor pulmonale are overwhelmingly associated with tobacco use. However, indoor air pollution, most commonly due to burning of solid biomass fuel such as wood, can cause similar clinical syndromes. At our teaching hospital, there is an epidemic of chronic cor pulmonale among nonsmoking women. We attribute this sex predilection to women's greater exposure to wood smoke. Physicians must be cognizant of its risks and counsel patients on prevention strategies such as improved ventilation.

  5. Wood smoke exposure induces a decrease in respiration parameters and in the activity of respiratory complexes I and IV in lung mitochondria from guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Granados-Castro, Luis Fernando; Rodríguez-Rangel, Daniela Sarai; Montaño, Martha; Ramos, Carlos; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2015-04-01

    Domestic exposure to biomass smoke represents the second cause of chronic obstructive lung disease. Previous studies have shown that exposure of guinea pigs to wood smoke is capable of generating oxidative stress in lung tissue, and this may involve a failure at a mitochondrial level, given its close relation with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in guinea pigs exposed to wood smoke, the lung mitochondrial functionality through O2 consumption measurement and the determination of the mitochondrial complexes enzymatic activity. We found that normal and maximum respiration decreased at 15 and 30 min of wood smoke exposure, recovering its normal values at 180 min. The same behavior was observed for the respiratory control rate (RCR) and the ADP/O value. Complex I activity decreased significantly after 30 min of exposure and it returned to baseline after 180 min. The greatest alteration was observed by the decrease of 85% on complex IV activity at 30 min of exposure, which returned to control values after 180 min of exposure. It is concluded that even when wood smoke exposure induces severe mitochondrial respiration alterations at the first 30 min, it seems that there is one or many ways by which mitochondria can reinstate its normal function after 180 min of exposure. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Correlation of smoke development in room tests with cone calorimeter data for wood products

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Dietenberger; Ondrej. Grexa

    2000-01-01

    A direct proportionality has been found between the smoke extinction area (SEA) for smoke of room linings and the SEA as measured in the cone calorimeter (ISO5660). The room test scenario (ISO9705) considered was the propane ignition burner at the corner with a 100/300 kW program and the specimen lined on the walls only. The mixing of smoke from propane and lining...

  7. Chimney Stove Intervention to Reduce Long-term Wood Smoke Exposure Lowers Blood Pressure among Guatemalan Women

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, John P.; Smith, Kirk R.; Díaz, Anaité; Mittleman, Murray A.; Schwartz, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objective RESPIRE, a randomized trial of an improved cookstove, was conducted in Guatemala to assess health effects of long-term reductions in wood smoke exposure. Given the evidence that ambient particles increase blood pressure, we hypothesized that the intervention would lower blood pressure. Methods Two study designs were used: a) between-group comparisons based on randomized stove assignment, and b) before-and-after comparisons within subjects before and after they received improved stoves. From 2003 to 2005, we measured personal fine particle (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm; PM2.5) exposures and systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) among women > 38 years of age from the chimney woodstove intervention group (49 subjects) and traditional open wood fire control group (71 subjects). Measures were repeated up to three occasions. Results Daily average PM2.5 exposures were 264 and 102 μg/m3 in the control and intervention groups, respectively. After adjusting for age, body mass index, an asset index, smoking, secondhand tobacco smoke, apparent temperature, season, day of week, time of day, and a random subject intercept, the improved stove intervention was associated with 3.7 mm Hg lower SBP [95% confidence interval (CI), −8.1 to 0.6] and 3.0 mm Hg lower DBP (95% CI, −5.7 to −0.4) compared with controls. In the second study design, among 55 control subjects measured both before and after receiving chimney stoves, similar associations were observed. Conclusion The between-group comparisons provide evidence, particularly for DBP, that the chimney stove reduces blood pressure, and the before-and-after comparisons are consistent with this evidence. PMID:17637912

  8. Effect of smoke, charred wood, and nitrogenous compounds on seed germination of ten species from woodland in central-western Spain.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fernández, M A; Rodríguez-Echeverría, S

    2003-01-01

    The effect of smoke, charred wood, and nitrogenous compounds on germination was tested on 10 species of the Cistaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, and Asteraceae, from fire-prone, shrubby woodlands in central-western Spain. Dry seeds were exposed to smoke, by watering with distilled water-charred wood suspensions, or NaNO2, KNO3, NH4Cl, and NH4NO3. Smoke enhanced germination in 9 of 10 of the species. In species of Poaceae, germination was stimulated by 20 min of smoke exposure. In Asteraceae and Fabaceae species, 10 min of smoke exposure was the most effective treatment for enhancing germination. Three species--Cistus ladanifer, Cistus crispus, and Cistus monspeliensis--had a positive response to 20 min of smoke exposure; germination of Cistus salviifolius L. was also enhanced after 10 min. The effect of charred wood was variable, with no consistent germination pattern within the families. Trifolium angustifolium and Retama sphaerocarpa showed no stimulation of germination under most of the charred wood concentrations. Similarly, germination of Senecio jacobea under the charred wood treatment did not surpass that of the control. NaNO2 promoted seed germination in Dactylis glomerata (10 mM), Cistus ladanifer (1, 10, and 25 mM), and Cistus crispus (1 and 10 mM). KNO3 enhanced germination in Dactylis glomerata (1 and 25 mM), Dittrichia viscosa (10 and 25 mM), C. ladanifer (1, 10, and 25 mM), Cistus crispus (1 and 25 mM), and C. salviifolius aud C. monspeliensis (25 mM). NH4Cl induced germination of Dactylis glomerata and Dittrichia viscosa (1 mM), and Cistus species germinated best in 25 mM of this salt. NH4NO3 induced germination only in Cistus species. Holcus lanatus had the highest level of germination regardless of treatment.

  9. Aerial photo shows smoke-laden and burned woods at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Smoke rising from the smoldering brush on Kennedy Space Center illustrates the hazardous fire conditions that exist throughout Central Florida. The site is between Kennedy Parkway North and the Indian River.

  10. Aerial photo shows smoke-laden and burned woods at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Smoke rising from the smoldering brush on Kennedy Space Center illustrates the hazardous fire conditions that exist throughout Central Florida. The site is between Kennedy Parkway North and the Indian River.

  11. Prevalence of Acute Respiratory Infections in Women and Children in Western Sierra Leone due to Smoke from Wood and Charcoal Stoves

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Eldred Tunde; Nakai, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Combustion of biomass fuels (wood and charcoal) for cooking releases smoke that contains health damaging pollutants. Women and children are the most affected. Exposure to biomass smoke is associated with acute respiratory infections (ARI). This study investigated the prevalence of ARI potentially caused by smoke from wood and charcoal stoves in Western Sierra Leone, as these two fuels are the predominant fuel types used for cooking. A cross sectional study was conducted for 520 women age 15–45 years; and 520 children under 5 years of age in homes that burn wood and charcoal. A questionnaire assessing demographic, household and exposure characteristics and ARI was administered to every woman who further gave information for the child. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was continuously monitored in fifteen homes. ARI prevalence revealed 32% and 24% for women, 64% and 44% for children in homes with wood and charcoal stoves, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders for each group, the odds ratio of having suffered from ARI was similar for women, but remained large for children in homes with wood stoves relative to charcoal stoves (OR = 1.14, 95%CI: 0.71–1.82) and (OR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.31–3.13), respectively. ARI prevalence was higher for children in homes with wood stoves compared with homes with charcoal stoves, but ARI prevalence for both types of fuels is higher compared with reported prevalence elsewhere. To achieve a reduction in ARI would require switching from wood and charcoal to cleaner fuels. PMID:22829802

  12. Low iron stores are related to higher blood concentrations of manganese, cobalt and cadmium in non-smoking, Norwegian women in the HUNT 2 study

    SciTech Connect

    Margrete Meltzer, Helle; Lise Brantsaeter, Anne; Borch-Iohnsen, Berit; Ellingsen, Dag G.; Alexander, Jan; Thomassen, Yngvar; Stigum, Hein; Ydersbond, Trond A.

    2010-07-15

    Low iron (Fe) stores may influence absorption or transport of divalent metals in blood. To obtain more knowledge about such associations, the divalent metal ions cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) and parameters of Fe metabolism (serum ferritin, haemoglobin (Hb) and transferrin) were investigated in 448 healthy, menstruating non-smoking women, age 20-55 years (mean 38 years), participating in the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. The study population was stratified for serum ferritin: 257 were iron-depleted (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L) and 84 had iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L and Hb<120 g/L). The low ferritin group had increased blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd but normal concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb. In multiple regression models, ferritin emerged as the main determinant of Mn, Co and Cd (p<0.001), while no significant associations with Cu, Zn and Pb were found. Adjusted r{sup 2} for the models were 0.28, 0.48 and 0.34, respectively. Strong positive associations between blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd were observed, also when controlled for their common association with ferritin. Apart from these associations, the models showed no significant interactions between the six divalent metals studied. Very mild anaemia (110{<=}Hb<120 g/L) did not seem to have any effect independent of low ferritin. Approximately 26% of the women with iron deficiency anaemia had high concentrations of all of Mn, Co and Cd as opposed to 2.3% of iron-replete subjects. The results confirm that low serum ferritin may have an impact on body kinetics of certain divalent metal ions, but not all. Only a fraction of women with low iron status exhibited an increased blood concentration of divalent metals, providing indication of complexities in the body's handling of these metals.

  13. Low iron stores are related to higher blood concentrations of manganese, cobalt and cadmium in non-smoking, Norwegian women in the HUNT 2 study.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Borch-Iohnsen, Berit; Ellingsen, Dag G; Alexander, Jan; Thomassen, Yngvar; Stigum, Hein; Ydersbond, Trond A

    2010-07-01

    Low iron (Fe) stores may influence absorption or transport of divalent metals in blood. To obtain more knowledge about such associations, the divalent metal ions cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) and parameters of Fe metabolism (serum ferritin, haemoglobin (Hb) and transferrin) were investigated in 448 healthy, menstruating non-smoking women, age 20-55 years (mean 38 years), participating in the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. The study population was stratified for serum ferritin: 257 were iron-depleted (serum ferritin < 12 microg/L) and 84 had iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin < 12 microg/L and Hb < 120 g/L). The low ferritin group had increased blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd but normal concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb. In multiple regression models, ferritin emerged as the main determinant of Mn, Co and Cd (p < 0.001), while no significant associations with Cu, Zn and Pb were found. Adjusted r(2) for the models were 0.28, 0.48 and 0.34, respectively. Strong positive associations between blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd were observed, also when controlled for their common association with ferritin. Apart from these associations, the models showed no significant interactions between the six divalent metals studied. Very mild anaemia (110 < or = Hb < 120 g/L) did not seem to have any effect independent of low ferritin. Approximately 26% of the women with iron deficiency anaemia had high concentrations of all of Mn, Co and Cd as opposed to 2.3% of iron-replete subjects. The results confirm that low serum ferritin may have an impact on body kinetics of certain divalent metal ions, but not all. Only a fraction of women with low iron status exhibited an increased blood concentration of divalent metals, providing indication of complexities in the body's handling of these metals. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of Reduced Maternal Exposures to Wood Smoke from an Introduced Chimney Stove on Newborn Birth Weight in Rural Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Nigel; Eskenazi, Brenda; Diaz, Anaite; Pope, Daniel; Smith, Kirk R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A growing body of evidence indicates a relationship between household indoor air pollution from cooking fires and adverse neonatal outcomes, such as low birth weight (LBW), in resource-poor countries. Objective: We examined the effect of reduced wood smoke exposure in pregnancy on LBW of Guatemalan infants in RESPIRE (Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects). Methods: Pregnant women (n = 266) either received a chimney stove (intervention) or continued to cook over an open fire (control). Between October 2002 and December 2004 we weighed 174 eligible infants (69 to mothers who used a chimney stove and 105 to mothers who used an open fire during pregnancy) within 48 hr of birth. Multivariate linear regression and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were used to estimate differences in birth weight and LBW (< 2,500 g) associated with chimney-stove versus open-fire use during pregnancy. Results: Pregnant women using chimney stoves had a 39% reduction in mean exposure to carbon monoxide compared with those using open fires. LBW prevalence was high at 22.4%. On average, infants born to mothers who used a stove weighed 89 g more [95% confidence interval (CI), –27 to 204 g] than infants whose mothers used open fires after adjusting for maternal height, diastolic blood pressure, gravidity, and season of birth. The adjusted OR for LBW was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.33–1.66) among infants of stove users compared with open-fire users. Average birth weight was 296 g higher (95% CI, 109–482 g) in infants born during the cold season (after harvest) than in other infants; this unanticipated finding may reflect the role of maternal nutrition on birth weight in an impoverished region. Conclusions: A chimney stove reduced wood smoke exposures and was associated with reduced LBW occurrence. Although not statistically significant, the estimated effect was consistent with previous studies. PMID:21652290

  15. Triggering of ST-elevation myocardial infarction by ambient wood smoke and other particulate and gaseous pollutants.

    PubMed

    Evans, Kristin A; Hopke, Philip K; Utell, Mark J; Kane, Cathleen; Thurston, Sally W; Ling, Frederick S; Chalupa, David; Rich, David Q

    2017-03-01

    We previously observed increased odds of ST-elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMIs) associated with increased ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the previous hour. However, data are lacking on the effects of specific PM sources. Using data from 362 patients, a case-crossover design, and conditional logistic regression, we estimated the relative odds of STEMI associated with increased Delta-C (wood smoke), black carbon (BC; traffic), PM2.5, and gaseous pollutants in the previous 1-72 h. We did not observe increased odds of STEMIs associated with increased Delta-C or BC. We did observe increased odds associated with each 7.1 μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 (OR (95% CI): 1.17 (0.99, 1.39)) and each 19.9 p.p.b. increase in ozone (O3; 1.27 (1.00, 1.63)) in the previous hour, and each 0.22 p.p.m. increase in 48-h carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations (1.32 (1.00, 1.73]). Larger relative odds were associated with PM2.5 in May-October, and O3 and CO in November-April. Increased PM2.5, O3, and CO, but not wood smoke or BC, were associated with increased odds of STEMI, and effects may differ by season. Studies using spatially adjusted pollution estimates are needed, as well as studies further examining O3 and CO effects on the risk of STEMI.

  16. Suspect screening of OH-PAHs and non-target screening of other organic compounds in wood smoke particles using HR-Orbitrap-MS.

    PubMed

    Avagyan, Rozanna; Åberg, Magnus; Westerholm, Roger

    2016-11-01

    Wood combustion has been shown to contribute significantly to emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, compounds with toxic and carcinogenic properties. However, only a small number of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been determined in particles from wood combustion, usually compounds with available reference standards. In this present study, suspect and non-target screening strategies were applied to characterize the wood smoke particles from four different wood types and two combustion conditions with respect to hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organic compounds. In the suspect screening, 32 peaks corresponding to 12 monohydroxylated masses were tentatively identified by elemental composition assignments and matching of isotopic pattern and fragments. More than one structure was suggested for most of the measured masses. Statistical analysis was performed on the non-target screening data in order to single out significant peaks having intensities that depend on the wood type and/or combustion condition. Significant peaks were found in both negative and positive ionization modes, with unique peaks for each wood type and combustion condition, as well as a combination of both factors. Furthermore, structural elucidation of some peaks was done by comparing the spectra in the samples with spectra found in the spectral databases. Six compounds were tentatively identified in positive ionization mode, and 19 in negative ionization mode. The results in this present study demonstrate that there are significant overall differences in the chemistry of wood smoke particles that depends on both the wood type and the combustion condition used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Associations between ambient wood smoke and other particulate pollutants and biomarkers of systemic inflammation, coagulation and thrombosis in cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    Croft, Daniel P; Cameron, Scott J; Morrell, Craig N; Lowenstein, Charles J; Ling, Frederick; Zareba, Wojciech; Hopke, Philip K; Utell, Mark J; Thurston, Sally W; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Evans, Kristin A; Chalupa, David; Rich, David Q

    2017-04-01

    Increased particulate air pollution has been associated with both an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and adverse changes in cardiac biomarkers. Up to 30% of ambient wintertime fine particles (PM2.5) in Rochester, NY are from wood burning. Our study examined associations between ambient levels of a marker of wood smoke (Delta-C) and other particulate air pollutants and biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and thrombosis. We measured blood concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, fibrinogen, P-selectin, platelet factor 4 (PF-4), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) of 135 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization during the winters of 2011-2013. We coupled these data with hourly ambient concentrations of Delta-C, black carbon (BC; marker of traffic pollution), and ultrafine (10-100nm; UFP), accumulation mode (100-500nm; AMP), and fine particles (<2.5µm; PM2.5). Using linear regression models, we estimated the change in each biomarker associated with increased pollutant concentrations at intervals between 1 and 96h preceding blood collection. Each 0.13µg/m(3) increase in Delta-C concentration in the prior 12h was associated with a 0.91% increase in fibrinogen levels (95% CI=0.23%, 1.59%), but unexpectedly in the prior 48h, each 0.17µg/m(3) increase in Delta-C concentration was associated with a 2.75% decrease in MPO levels (95% CI=-5.13%,-0.37%). We did not see associations between Delta-C concentrations and any other biomarkers. Interquartile range (IQR) increases in PM2.5, BC, UFP, and AMP concentrations were generally associated with increased CRP and fibrinogen, but not PF4, D-dimer, vWF, or P-selectin. In a population of cardiac patients, we noted adverse changes in fibrinogen associated with increased concentrations of a marker of wood smoke. Increases in PM2.5, BC, AMP, and UFP concentrations in the previous 96h were also associated with adverse changes in markers of systemic inflammation and coagulation, but

  18. Associations between ambient wood smoke and other particulate pollutants and biomarkers of systemic inflammation, coagulation and thrombosis in cardiac patients

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Scott J.; Morrell, Craig N.; Lowenstein, Charles J.; Ling, Frederick; Zareba, Wojciech; Hopke, Philip K.; Utell, Mark J.; Thurston, Sally W.; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Evans, Kristin A.; Chalupa, David; Rich, David Q.

    2017-01-01

    Background Increased particulate air pollution has been associated with both an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and adverse changes in cardiac biomarkers. Up to 30% of ambient wintertime fine particles (PM2.5) in Rochester, NY are from wood burning. Our study examined associations between ambient levels of a marker of wood smoke (Delta-C) and other particulate air pollutants and biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and thrombosis. Methods We measured blood concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), d-dimer, fibrinogen, P-selectin, platelet factor 4 (PF-4), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) of 135 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization during the winters of 2011–2013. We coupled these data with hourly ambient concentrations of Delta-C, black carbon (BC; marker of traffic pollution), and ultrafine (10–100 nm; UFP), accumulation mode (100–500 nm; AMP), and fine particles (< 2.5 μm; PM2.5). Using linear regression models, we estimated the change in each biomarker associated with increased pollutant concentrations at intervals between 1 and 96 h preceding blood collection. Results Each 0.13 μg/m3 increase in Delta-C concentration in the prior 12 h was associated with a 0.91% increase in fibrinogen levels (95% CI=0.23%, 1.59%), but unexpectedly in the prior 48 h, each 0.17 μg/m3 increase in Delta-C concentration was associated with a 2.75% decrease in MPO levels (95% CI=−5.13%,−0.37%). We did not see associations between Delta-C concentrations and any other biomarkers. Interquartile range (IQR) increases in PM2.5, BC, UFP, and AMP concentrations were generally associated with increased CRP and fibrinogen, but not PF4, d-dimer, vWF, or P-selectin. Conclusions In a population of cardiac patients, we noted adverse changes in fibrinogen associated with increased concentrations of a marker of wood smoke. Increases in PM2.5, BC, AMP, and UFP concentrations in the previous 96 h were also associated with adverse changes in

  19. Investigation of particle and vapor wall-loss effects on controlled wood-smoke smog-chamber experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Q.; May, A. A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Pierce, J. R.

    2015-06-01

    Smog chambers are extensively used to study processes that drive gas and particle evolution in the atmosphere. A limitation of these experiments is that particles and gas-phase species may be lost to chamber walls on shorter timescales than the timescales of the atmospheric processes being studied in the chamber experiments. These particle and vapor wall losses have been investigated in recent studies of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, but they have not been systematically investigated in experiments of primary emissions from combustion. The semi-volatile nature of combustion emissions (e.g. from wood smoke) may complicate the behavior of particle and vapor wall deposition in the chamber over the course of the experiments due to the competition between gas/particle and gas/wall partitioning. Losses of vapors to the walls may impact particle evaporation in these experiments, and potential precursors for SOA formation from combustion may be lost to the walls, causing underestimates of aerosol yields. Here, we conduct simulations to determine how particle and gas-phase wall losses contributed to the observed evolution of the aerosol during experiments in the third Fire Lab At Missoula Experiment (FLAME III). We use the TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics algorithm coupled with the organic volatility basis set (VBS) and wall-loss formulations to examine the predicted extent of particle and vapor wall losses. We limit the scope of our study to the dark periods in the chamber before photo-oxidation to simplify the aerosol system for this initial study. Our model simulations suggest that over one third of the initial particle-phase organic mass (36%) was lost during the experiments, and roughly half of this particle organic mass loss was from direct particle wall loss (56% of the loss) with the remainder from evaporation of the particles driven by vapor losses to the walls (44% of the loss). We perform a series of sensitivity tests to understand

  20. Investigation of particle and vapor wall-loss effects on controlled wood-smoke smog-chamber experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Q.; May, A. A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Pierce, J. R.

    2015-10-01

    Smog chambers are extensively used to study processes that drive gas and particle evolution in the atmosphere. A limitation of these experiments is that particles and gas-phase species may be lost to chamber walls on shorter timescales than the timescales of the atmospheric processes being studied in the chamber experiments. These particle and vapor wall losses have been investigated in recent studies of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, but they have not been systematically investigated in experiments of primary emissions from combustion. The semi-volatile nature of combustion emissions (e.g. from wood smoke) may complicate the behavior of particle and vapor wall deposition in the chamber over the course of the experiments due to the competition between gas/particle and gas/wall partitioning. Losses of vapors to the walls may impact particle evaporation in these experiments, and potential precursors for SOA formation from combustion may be lost to the walls, causing underestimations of aerosol yields. Here, we conduct simulations to determine how particle and gas-phase wall losses contributed to the observed evolution of the aerosol during experiments in the third Fire Lab At Missoula Experiment (FLAME III). We use the TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics algorithm coupled with the organic volatility basis set (VBS) and wall-loss formulations to examine the predicted extent of particle and vapor wall losses. We limit the scope of our study to the dark periods in the chamber before photo-oxidation to simplify the aerosol system for this initial study. Our model simulations suggest that over one-third of the initial particle-phase organic mass (41 %) was lost during the experiments, and over half of this particle-organic mass loss was from direct particle wall loss (65 % of the loss) with the remainder from evaporation of the particles driven by vapor losses to the walls (35 % of the loss). We perform a series of sensitivity tests to understand

  1. Acute neurogenic airway plasma exudation and edema induced by inhaled wood smoke in guinea pigs: role of tachykinins and hydroxyl radical.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y S; Kou, Y R

    2000-04-07

    We studied the mechanisms underlying the wood smoke-induced acute airway injury in 120 anaesthetized guinea pigs. Five minutes after airway exposure, various doses of wood smoke produced a dose-dependent increase in Evans blue dye contents at all airway levels measured. Additionally, inhaled wood smoke produced submucosal edema of the trachea and bronchus, and peribronchial edema. These acute airway responses were nearly abolished by pretreatment with CP-96,345 alone [a tachykinin NK(1) receptor antagonist; (2S, 3S)-cis-2-(diphenylmethyl)-N-((2-methoxyphenyl)-methyl)-1-azabicyc lo( 2.2.2.)-octan-3-amine] or with a combination of CP-96,345 and dimethylthiourea (a hydroxyl radical scavenger), and were attenuated by pretreatment with dimethylthiourea alone, yet were not affected by pretreatment with SR-48,968 [a tachykinin NK(2) receptor antagonist; (S)-N-methyl-N(4-(4-acetylamino-4-phenylpiperidino)-2-(3, 4-dichlorophenyl)-butyl)benzamide], with a combination of CP-96,344 and SR-48,965 (inactive enantiomers), with MK-886 [a leukotriene biosynthesis inhibitor; L-663, 536(3-(1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-3-t-butyl-thio-5-isopropylindol-2-yl)-2, 2-dimethylpropanoic acid], with indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor), or with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor). The activity of airway neutral endopeptidase (an enzyme for tachykinin degradation) was not influenced by wood smoke at 5-min post-exposure. We conclude that both endogenous tachykinins and hydroxyl radical play an important role in producing smoke-induced acute airway plasma exudation and airway edema in guinea pigs. The contribution of tachykinins to these neurogenic responses is mediated via the activation of tachykinin NK(1) receptors and partly via a hydroxyl radical mechanism, and is not associated with inactivation of neutral endopeptidase.

  2. Wood smoke exposure induces a pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Swiston, J R; Davidson, W; Attridge, S; Li, G T; Brauer, M; van Eeden, S F

    2008-07-01

    Epidemiological studies report an association between exposure to biomass smoke and cardiopulmonary morbidity. The mechanisms for this association are unclear. The aim of the present study was to characterise the acute pulmonary and systemic inflammatory effects of exposure to forest fire smoke. Seasonal forest firefighters (n = 52) were recruited before and/or after a day of fire-fighting. Exposure was assessed by questionnaires and measurement of carbon monoxide levels (used to estimate respirable particulate matter exposure). The pulmonary response was assessed by questionnaires, spirometry and sputum induction. Peripheral blood cell counts and inflammatory cytokines were measured to define the systemic response. Estimated respirable particulate matter exposure was high (peak levels >2 mg x m(-3)) during fire-fighting activities. Respiratory symptoms were reported by 65% of the firefighters. The percentage sputum granulocytes increased significantly from 6.5 to 10.9% following fire-fighting shifts, with concurrent increases in circulating white blood cells (5.55x10(9) to 7.06x10(9) cells x L(-1)) and band cells (0.11x10(9) to 0.16x10(9) cells x L(-1)). Serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels significantly increased following fire-fighting. There were no changes in band cells, IL-6, and IL-8 following strenuous physical exertion without fire-fighting. There was a significant association between changes in sputum macrophages containing phagocytosed particles and circulating band cells. In conclusion, acute exposure to air pollution from forest fire smoke elicits inflammation within the lungs, as well as a systemic inflammatory response.

  3. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. ... of the same problems as smokers do. E-cigarettes often look like cigarettes, but they work differently. ...

  4. Wood Smoke Enhances Cigarette Smoke–Induced Inflammation by Inducing the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Repressor in Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Awji, Elias G.; Chand, Hitendra; Bruse, Shannon; Smith, Kevin R.; Colby, Jennifer K.; Mebratu, Yohannes; Levy, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that cigarette smokers who are exposed to wood smoke (WS) are at an increased risk for chronic bronchitis and reduced lung function. The present study was undertaken to determine the mechanisms for WS-induced adverse effects. We studied the effect of WS exposure using four cohorts of mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed for 4 or 12 weeks to filtered air, to 10 mg/m3 WS for 2 h/d, to 250 mg/m3 cigarette smoke (CS) for 6 h/d, or to CS followed by WS (CW). Inflammation was absent in the filtered air and WS groups, but enhanced by twofold in the bronchoalveolar lavage of the CW compared with CS group as measured by neutrophil numbers and levels of the neutrophil chemoattractant, keratinocyte-derived chemokine. The levels of the anti-inflammatory lipoxin, lipoxin A4, were reduced by threefold along with cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES)-1 in airway epithelial cells and PGE2 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage of CW compared with CS mice. We replicated, in primary human airway epithelial cells, the changes observed in mice. Immunoprecipitations showed that WS blocked the interaction of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) with AHR nuclear transporter to reduce expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 by increasing expression of AHR repressor (AHRR). Collectively, these studies show that exposure to low concentrations of WS enhanced CS-induced inflammation by inducing AHRR expression to suppress AHR, COX-2, and mPGES-1 expression, and levels of PGE2 and lipoxin A4. Therefore, AHRR is a potential therapeutic target for WS-associated exacerbations of CS-induced inflammation. PMID:25137396

  5. Studies on the occurrence and distribution of wood smoke marker compounds in foggy atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Sagebiel, J.C.; Seiber, J.N. )

    1993-05-01

    Fog water and interstitial air samples were collected simultaneously and analyzed for methoxylated phenols, which have been previously reported as incomplete combustion products from wood lignin. The purposes of this study were to ascertain if these methoxylated phenols could be detected in fog sampled in residential areas and to determine the distribution of the compounds between fog droplets and interstitial air. The fog water was collected with a Teflon filament fog collector and filtered through a 0.2-[mu]m filter before extraction and GC analysis. Vapor samples were collected using a dichotomous sampler to separate fog droplets from interstitial air; the organic vapors were collected on polyurethane foam. Guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, and syringol were the most commonly found among the 16 methoxylated phenols confirmed in fog samples. The distributions between air and water approximately followed Henry's law, suggesting that previously reported enrichments into fog water are related to analyte hydrophobicity, described by either the octanol/water partition coefficient or the water solubility.

  6. Studies on the Occurrence and Distribution of Wood Smoke Marker Compounds in Foggy Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagebiel, John Christopher

    Fog water and interstitial air samples were collected simultaneously and analyzed for methoxylated phenols, which have been previously reported as incomplete combustion products from wood lignin. The purpose of the study was to ascertain if methoxylated phenols could be detected in fog sampled in residential areas, and how these compounds distributed between the fog droplets and the interstitial air. The fog water was collected with a Teflon ^circler filament fog collector and filtered through a 0.2 μm filter before extraction and GC analysis. Vapor samples were collected using a dichotomous sampler to separate the fog droplets from the interstitial air; the organic vapors were collected on polyurethane foam. Guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, and syringol were the most commonly found of sixteen confirmed methoxylated phenols in fog samples. In order to assess air/water distribution, accurate measures of Henry's law constant (H) are need; measurements of H by headspace gas chromatography and gas-stripping are presented. Field measured air/water distributions approximately followed H, suggesting that previously reported enrichment factors (EF = H/field distribution) into fog water are related to analyte hydrophobicity, described either by the octanol -water partition coefficient (K_{rm ow}) or water solubility (S). A theoretical model is presented that assumes that there is a third phase in the fog-air system that acts like a separate organic phase and partitions chemicals into it. Making no further assumptions as to the nature of this unknown phase, the enrichment can be described as either EF = 1 + AK _{rm ow} or EF = 1 + Z/S, where A and Z are derived from the plots of EF vs. K _{rm ow} and EF vs. S, respectively.

  7. Body mass index, smoking, and risk of death between 40 and 70 years of age in a Norwegian cohort of 32,727 women and 33,475 men.

    PubMed

    Hjellvik, Vidar; Selmer, Randi; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian; Tverdal, Aage; Vollset, Stein Emil

    2013-01-01

    Overweight-obesity and smoking are two main preventable causes of premature death. Because the relationship between smoking and body mass index (BMI) complicates the interpretation of associations between BMI and death risks, direct estimates of risks associated with joint exposures are helpful. We have studied the relationships of BMI and smoking to middle age (40-69 years) death risk-overall and by causes-in a Norwegian cohort of 32,727 women and 33,475 men who were 35-49 years old when baseline measurements and lifestyle information were collected in 1974-1988. Individuals with a history of cancer, cardiovascular disease or diabetes at baseline were excluded. Mortality follow-up was through 2009. The relationship between BMI and middle age death risk was U-shaped. Overall middle age death risks were 11% in women and 21 % in men. The combination of obesity and heavy smoking resulted in fivefold increase in middle age death risks in both women and men: For women middle age death risk ranged from 6 % among never smokers in the 22.5-24.9 BMI group to 31% (adjusted 28%) in obese (BMI > 30 kg/m(2)) heavy smokers (≥20 cigarettes/day). The corresponding figures in men were 10% and 53% (adjusted 45%). Obese never smokers and light (1-9 cigarettes/day) smokers in the 22.5-24.9 BMI groups both experienced a twofold increase in middle age risks of death. For women, cancer (56%) was the most common cause of death followed by cardiovascular disease (22%). In men, cardiovascular disease was most common (41%) followed by cancer (34%). Cardiovascular disease deaths were more strongly related to BMI than were cancer deaths.

  8. Characterization of primary and secondary organic aerosols in Melbourne airshed: The influence of biogenic emissions, wood smoke and bushfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Keywood, Melita; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    Detailed chemical characterisation was performed for wintertime and summertime PM10 samples collected in Melbourne, Australia. The samples were analysed for marker compounds of biomass burning and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The chemical analysis showed that the site was significantly influenced by the emissions from wintertime domestic wood combustion and summertime bushfires. Monosaccharide anhydrides were major primary biomass burning marker compounds found in the samples with the average concentrations of 439, 191, 57 and 3630 ngm-3 for winter 2004, winter 2005, summer 2005 and summer 2006, respectively. The highest concentration was determined during the summer 2006 bushfire season with the concentration of 15,400 ngm-3. Biomass burning originating SOA compounds detected in the samples include substituted nitrophenols, mainly 4-nitrocatechol (Mr 155), methyl-nitrocatechols (Mr 169) and dimethyl-nitrocatechols (Mr 183) with the sum concentrations as high as 115 ngm-3 for the wintertime samples and 770 ngm-3 for the bushfire influenced samples. In addition to this, elevated levels of biogenic SOA marker compounds were determined in the summertime samples influence by bushfire smoke. These marker compounds can be categorised into carboxylic acid marker compounds and heteroatomic organic acids containing nitrogen and sulfur. Carboxylic acid marker compounds can be largely attributed to oxidation products originating from 1,8-cineole, α-pinene and β-pinene that are main constituents of eucalyptus VOC emissions. Among those, diaterpenylic acid, terpenylic acid and daterebic acid were found at elevated levels in the bushfire influenced samples. Heteroatomic monoterpene SOA marker compounds (Mr 295, C10H17NO7S) were detected during both winter and summer periods. Especially high levels of these compounds were determined in the severe bushfire samples from summer 2006. Based on the results obtained from the chemical analysis and a macro tracer method

  9. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in rats after intratracheal instillation or oral exposure to ambient air and wood smoke particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Loft, Steffen; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Autrup, Herman; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Wallin, Håkan; Møller, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Wood combustion is a significant source of ambient particulate matter (PM) in many regions of the world. Exposure occurs through inhalation or ingestion after deposition of wood smoke particulate matter (WSPM) on crops and food. We investigated effects of ambient PM and WSPM by intragastric or intratracheal exposure in terms of oxidative stress, inflammation, genotoxicity, and DNA repair after 24 h in liver and lung tissue of rats. Rats were exposed to WSPM from high or low oxygen combustion and ambient PM collected in areas with and without many operating wood stoves or carbon black (CB) at the dose of 0.64 mg/kg body weight. The levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine, and 1-N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine (εdG) were significantly increased with 23% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.1-45%), 54% (95% CI:18-90%), and 73% (95% CI: 31-134%) in the liver of rats exposed orally to CB, respectively. Rats orally exposed to PM from the wood stove area and low oxygen combustion WSPM (LOWS) had 35% (95% CI: 0.1-71%) and 45% (95% CI: 10-82%) increased levels of εdG in the liver, respectively. No significant differences were observed for bulky DNA adducts. Increased gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines, heme oxygenase-1, and oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 was observed in the liver following intragastric exposure and in the lung following instillation in particular of LOWS. Exposure to LOWS also increased the proportion of neutrophils in BAL fluid. These results indicate that WSPM and CB exert the strongest effect in terms of oxidative stress-induced response, inflammation, and genotoxicity in the organ closest to the port of entry.

  10. Wood : adhesives

    Treesearch

    A.H. Conner

    2001-01-01

    This chapter on wood adhesives includes: 1) Classification of wood adhesives 2) Thermosetting wood adhesives 3) Thermoplastic adhesives, 4) Wood adhesives based on natural sources 5) Nonconventional bonding of wood 6) Wood bonding.

  11. Online molecular characterization of fine particulate matter in Port Angeles, WA: Evidence for a major impact from residential wood smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaston, Cassandra J.; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Whybrew, Lauren E.; Hadley, Odelle; McNair, Fran; Gao, Honglian; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Thornton, Joel A.

    2016-08-01

    We present on-line molecular composition measurements of wintertime particulate matter (PM) during 2014 using an iodide-adduct high-resolution, time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-CIMS) coupled to a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO). These measurements were part of an intensive effort to characterize PM in the region with a focus on ultrafine particle sources. The technique was used to detect and quantify different classes of wood burning tracers, including levoglucosan, methoxyphenols, and nitrocatechols, among other compounds in near real-time. During the campaign, particulate mass concentrations of compounds with the same molecular composition as levoglucosan ranged from 0.002 to 19 μg/m3 with a median mass concentration of 0.9 μg/m3. Wood burning markers, in general, showed a strong diurnal pattern peaking at night and in the early morning. This diurnal profile combined with cold, stagnant conditions, wind directions from predominantly residential areas, and observations of lower combustion efficiency at night support residential wood burning as a dominant source of wintertime PM in Port Angeles. This finding has implications for improving wintertime air quality in the region by encouraging the use of high efficiency wood-burning stoves or other cleaner home heating options throughout the relevant domain.

  12. Perceptions of the relative harmfulness of snus among Norwegian general practitioners and their effect on the tendency to recommend snus in smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Lund, Ingeborg; Scheffels, Janne

    2012-02-01

    Research suggests that health risks associated with the use of Swedish moist snuff (snus) are considerably smaller than health risks associated with cigarette smoking. However, erroneous ideas of approximately equal harm from snus and cigarettes are common in the general population. General practitioners (GPs) have a crucial role in giving information about health and risk to patients, and the objective of this study was to measure their perceptions of the relative harmfulness of cigarettes and snus and how these perceptions related to their tendency to recommend snus as a smoking cessation aid. Approximately 900 GPs completed a questionnaire in 2008 (response rate about 45%). Perceived relative risk was measured by the question: "In terms of health risks, how do you think daily use of snus compares to daily use of cigarettes?" Answer categories ranged from "snus is much more harmful" to "snus is much less harmful." Only 36% of the GPs believed that snus was much less harmful than cigarettes. More than 15% believed that snus was equally or more harmful than cigarettes. GPs who rated snus as much less harmful more often recommended snus as an aid in smoking cessation. Almost two thirds of the GPs had beliefs about the relative risk of snus and cigarettes that were at odds with scientific consensus. The associated limitations in disseminated information about snus as a possible quitting aid can be understood as an unexploited intervention potential.

  13. Wood smoke particles from different combustion phases induce similar pro-inflammatory effects in a co-culture of monocyte and pneumocyte cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Totlandsdal, Annike Irene; Sallsten, Gerd; Braun, Artur; Westerholm, Roger; Bergvall, Christoffer; Boman, Johan; Dahlman, Hans Jørgen; Sehlstedt, Maria; Cassee, Flemming; Sandstrom, Thomas; Schwarze, Per E; Herseth, Jan Inge

    2012-11-23

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been linked to several adverse cardiopulmonary effects, probably via biological mechanisms involving inflammation. The pro-inflammatory potential of PM depends on the particles' physical and chemical characteristics, which again depend on the emitting source. Wood combustion is a major source of ambient air pollution in Northern countries during the winter season. The overall aim of this study was therefore to investigate cellular responses to wood smoke particles (WSPs) collected from different phases of the combustion cycle, and from combustion at different temperatures. WSPs from different phases of the combustion cycle induced very similar effects on pro-inflammatory mediator release, cytotoxicity and cell number, whereas WSPs from medium-temperature combustion were more cytotoxic than WSPs from high-temperature incomplete combustion. Furthermore, comparisons of effects induced by native WSPs with the corresponding organic extracts and washed particles revealed that the organic fraction was the most important determinant for the WSP-induced effects. However, the responses induced by the organic fraction could generally not be linked to the content of the measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), suggesting that also other organic compounds were involved. The toxicity of WSPs seems to a large extent to be determined by stove type and combustion conditions, rather than the phase of the combustion cycle. Notably, this toxicity seems to strongly depend on the organic fraction, and it is probably associated with organic components other than the commonly measured unsubstituted PAHs.

  14. Wood smoke particles from different combustion phases induce similar pro-inflammatory effects in a co-culture of monocyte and pneumocyte cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been linked to several adverse cardiopulmonary effects, probably via biological mechanisms involving inflammation. The pro-inflammatory potential of PM depends on the particles’ physical and chemical characteristics, which again depend on the emitting source. Wood combustion is a major source of ambient air pollution in Northern countries during the winter season. The overall aim of this study was therefore to investigate cellular responses to wood smoke particles (WSPs) collected from different phases of the combustion cycle, and from combustion at different temperatures. Results WSPs from different phases of the combustion cycle induced very similar effects on pro-inflammatory mediator release, cytotoxicity and cell number, whereas WSPs from medium-temperature combustion were more cytotoxic than WSPs from high-temperature incomplete combustion. Furthermore, comparisons of effects induced by native WSPs with the corresponding organic extracts and washed particles revealed that the organic fraction was the most important determinant for the WSP-induced effects. However, the responses induced by the organic fraction could generally not be linked to the content of the measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), suggesting that also other organic compounds were involved. Conclusion The toxicity of WSPs seems to a large extent to be determined by stove type and combustion conditions, rather than the phase of the combustion cycle. Notably, this toxicity seems to strongly depend on the organic fraction, and it is probably associated with organic components other than the commonly measured unsubstituted PAHs. PMID:23176191

  15. Assessment of climate vulnerability in the Norwegian built environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hygen, H. O.; Øyen, C. F.; Almås, A. J.

    2011-05-01

    The main trends expected for the change of Norwegian climate for this century are increasing temperatures, precipitation and wind. This indicates a probable increase of climate-related risks to the Norwegian built environment. Through co-operation between the Norwegian Meteorological Institute and SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, building and climate information have been combined to estimate changes in strain to the built environment due to climate change. The results show that the risk of wood decay will increase for the whole country. Almost two million buildings will be subject to an increase in risk of wood decay from medium to high level. Similar analyses have been performed for other climate indices, demonstrating a clear increase in potential damages due to water and humidity, while frost damage probably will decrease.

  16. Lobotomy in Norwegian psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Tranøy, Joar; Blomberg, Wenche

    2005-03-01

    Lobotomy is still a hidden chapter in the history of Norwegian psychiatry. The main reasons, which are discussed here, may have been the role of Ørnulv Ødegård at Gaustad Hospital in Oslo and the links between health authorities and the power élite in Norwegian psychiatry.

  17. [Smoking and art. History of smoking in Norway in paintings].

    PubMed

    Larsen, I F

    1997-12-10

    The habit of smoking was well-known in Norway in the first half of the sixteenth century. Tobacco-smoking is seen in Norwegian paintings. In the nineteenth century, long and artistic pipes were used by men relaxing after a pleasant dinner. In self portraits of Christian Krohg and Edvard Munch we see them smoking pipes and cigarettes surrounded by smoke. In an exhibition of portraits of Norwegian Authors, ten out of seventy authors were portrayed with a pipe, a cigar or a cigarette. There are various interpretations of the use of smoking in art. A simple explanation is that this was an accepted part of life at that time. The authors may have believed that they concentrated better when they smoked and elegance may have been of importance for many of them. The symbolic significance of cigarette-smoking has been of great value in the marketing of tobacco-products.

  18. Cytotoxic and genotoxic responses of human lung cells to combustion smoke particles of Miscanthus straw, softwood and beech wood chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Ali Talib; Maschowski, Christoph; Garra, Patxi; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Petithory, Tatiana; Trouvé, Gwenaëlle; Dieterlen, Alain; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker; Khanaqa, Polla; Nazarenko, Irina; Gminski, Richard; Gieré, Reto

    2017-08-01

    Inhalation of particulate matter (PM) from residential biomass combustion is epidemiologically associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. This study investigates PM0.4-1 emissions from combustion of commercial Miscanthus straw (MS), softwood chips (SWC) and beech wood chips (BWC) in a domestic-scale boiler (40 kW). The PM0.4-1 emitted during combustion of the MS, SWC and BWC were characterized by ICP-MS/OES, XRD, SEM, TEM, and DLS. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human alveolar epithelial A549 and human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were assessed by the WST-1 assay and the DNA-Alkaline Unwinding Assay (DAUA). PM0.4-1 uptake/translocation in cells was investigated with a new method developed using a confocal reflection microscope. SWC and BWC had a inherently higher residual water content than MS. The PM0.4-1 emitted during combustion of SWC and BWC exhibited higher levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), a greater variety of mineral species and a higher heavy metal content than PM0.4-1 from MS combustion. Exposure to PM0.4-1 from combustion of SWC and BWC induced cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in human alveolar and bronchial cells, whereby the strongest effect was observed for BWC and was comparable to that caused by diesel PM (SRM 2 975), In contrast, PM0.4-1 from MS combustion did not induce cellular responses in the studied lung cells. A high PAH content in PM emissions seems to be a reliable chemical marker of both combustion efficiency and particle toxicity. Residual biomass water content strongly affects particulate emissions and their toxic potential. Therefore, to minimize the harmful effects of fine PM on health, improvement of combustion efficiency (aiming to reduce the presence of incomplete combustion products bound to PM) and application of fly ash capture technology, as well as use of novel biomass fuels like Miscanthus straw is recommended.

  19. Norwegian Aerospace Activities: an Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnesen, T. (Editor); Rosenberg, G. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Excerpts from a Governmental Investigation concerning Norwegian participation in the European Space Organization (ESA) is presented. The implications and advantages of such a move and a suggestion for the reorganization of Norwegian Aerospace activity is given.

  20. Wood and Wood Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Raymond A.

    Wood has been utilized by humans since antiquity. Trees provided a source of many products required by early humans such as food, medicine, fuel, and tools. For example, the bark of the willow tree, when chewed, was used as a painkiller in early Greece and was the precursor of the present-day aspirin. Wood served as the primary fuel in the United States until about the turn of the 19th century, and even today over one-half of the wood now harvested in the world is used for heating fuel.

  1. Wood flour

    Treesearch

    Craig M. Clemons; Daniel F. Caufield

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood flour” is somewhat ambiguous. Reineke states that the term wood flour “is applied somewhat loosely to wood reduced to finely divided particles approximating those of cereal flours in size, appearance, and texture”. Though its definition is imprecise, the term wood flour is in common use. Practically speaking, wood flour usually refers to wood particles...

  2. Wood flour

    Treesearch

    Craig M. Clemons

    2010-01-01

    The term “wood flour” is somewhat ambiguous. Reineke states that the term wood flour “is applied somewhat loosely to wood reduced to finely divided particles approximating those of cereal flours in size, appearance, and texture.” Though its definition is imprecise, the term wood flour is in common use. Practically speaking, wood flour usually refers to wood particles...

  3. Norwegian petroleum guide

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    This is about the comprehensive guide to Norwegian oil and gas activities, very useful to anyone in the industry. Material includes political guidelines, control institutions, work possibilities and licenses, working environment law, employer and employee organizations, national insurance, taxes, communication, rescue operations and standby. Contents: Oil and the economy; Petroleum technology research; Responsibilities of different authorities; The Labour Inspection Directorate; The Health Directorate Offshore Office; The Coastal Directorate; Helicopter traffic; The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate; The Maritime Directorate; Det norske Veritas; The Norwegian Waterways and Electricity Board; The State Institute for Radiation Hygiene; The State Explosive Inspection; Work possibilities in the North Sea; Working environment legislation on the Continental Shelf; Collective bargaining agreements, labor conflicts and the right to organize; Taxation Rules; National health insurance and the petroleum activity; Occupational injuries on the Norwegian Continental Shelf; Company insurances; The private pension scheme; Other types of insuracne common among oil companies; The rescue service in Norway; Oganizations within the oil industry offshore and onshore; and Law of aliens admission to the Kindgom.

  4. Comparison of wood smoke PM2.5 obtained from the combustion of FIR and beech pellets on inflammation and DNA damage in A549 and THP-1 human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Corsini, Emanuela; Budello, Silvia; Marabini, Laura; Galbiati, Valentina; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Barbieri, Pierluigi; Cozzutto, Sergio; Marinovich, Marina; Pitea, Demetrio; Galli, Corrado L

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect on the induction of interleukin-8 of particulate matter (PM) from fir and beech pellets burnt in domestic appliances on two human cells lines, namely the lung epithelial cell line A549 and the promyelocytic cell line THP-1. The effects of PM2.5 obtained from combustion of beech and fir pellets were compared to reference diesel exhaust particulates (DEP). In parallel, wood smoke PM-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress were also investigated in A549 cells. Cells were treated for different times (3-72 h) with increasing concentrations of PM2.5 obtained from sequential combustions of fir and beech pellets or reference DEP. Cell viability was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase leakage, and the release of interleukin-8 or CXCL8 (IL-8) was measured to evaluate the pro-inflammatory effect. Oxidative stress was evaluated by the 5(6)-carboxy-2',7'dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay and DNA damage by the alkaline comet assay and micronucleus frequency by flow cytometry. Both A549 and THP-1 cells responded in a dose- and time-related manner to wood smoke PM2.5 with IL-8 release, particles obtained from late combustions being the most active. THP-1 cells were more sensitive than A549 cells. On a mass base, similar effects were observed for both fir and beech PM2.5. However, the combustion of beech pellets generated approximately three times more PM2.5 than fir pellets. Regarding the mechanism of PM2.5 uptake, in both THP-1 and A549 cells, cytochalasin D prevented PM2.5-induced IL-8 mRNA expression and cytokine release, indicating a key role for actin polymerization in particles uptake and that the production of IL-8 correlated with particle phagocytosis. As signal transduction pathway involvement, in both THP-1 and A549 cells, PM2.5-induced IL-8 release could be completely blocked by the selective inhibitor SB203580, indicating a role of p38 MAPK activation. PM2.5 from both fir and beech pellets also induced

  5. Lung Function in Rural Guatemalan Women Before and After a Chimney Stove Intervention to Reduce Wood Smoke Exposure: Results From the Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects and Chronic Respiratory Effects of Early Childhood Exposure to Respirable Particulate Matter Study.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Michael; Diaz, Esperanza; Pope, Daniel; Eisen, Ellen A; Mann, Jennifer; Smith, Kirk R; Smith-Sivertsen, Tone; Bruce, Nigel G; Balmes, John R

    2015-11-01

    COPD is the third most frequent cause of death globally, with much of this burden attributable to household biomass smoke exposure in developing countries. As biomass smoke exposure is also associated with cardiovascular disease, lower respiratory infection, lung cancer, and cataracts, it presents an important target for public health intervention. Lung function in Guatemalan women exposed to wood smoke from open fires was measured throughout the Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects (RESPIRE) stove intervention trial and continued during the Chronic Respiratory Effects of Early Childhood Exposure to Respirable Particulate Matter (CRECER) cohort study. In RESPIRE, early stove households received a chimney woodstove at the beginning of the 18-month trial, and delayed stove households received a stove at trial completion. Personal exposure to wood smoke was assessed with exhaled breath carbon monoxide (CO) and personal CO tubes. Change in lung function between intervention groups and as a function of wood smoke exposure was assessed using random effects models. Of 306 women participating in both studies, acceptable spirometry was collected in 129 early stove and 136 delayed stove households (n = 265), with a mean follow-up of 5.6 years. Despite reduced wood smoke exposures in early stove households, there were no significant differences in any of the measured spirometric variables during the study period (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, and annual change) after adjustment for confounding. In these young Guatemalan women, there was no association between lung function and early randomization to a chimney stove or personal wood smoke exposure. Future stove intervention trials should incorporate cleaner stoves, longer follow-up, or potentially susceptible groups to identify meaningful differences in lung function.

  6. Assessing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) using passive air sampling in the atmosphere of one of the most wood-smoke-polluted cities in Chile: The case study of Temuco.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Karla; Estellano, Victor H; Harner, Tom; Diaz-Robles, Luis; Cereceda-Balic, Francisco; Etcharren, Pablo; Pozo, Katerine; Vidal, Victor; Guerrero, Fabián; Vergara-Fernández, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    This study addresses human health concerns in the city of Temuco that are attributed to wood smoke and related pollutants associated with wood burning activities that are prevalent in Temuco. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in air across urban and rural sites over three seasons in Temuco using polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PUF-PAS). Concentrations of ΣPAHs (15 congeners) in air ranged from BDL to ∼70 ng m(-3) and were highest during the winter season, which is attributed to emissions from residential heating by wood combustion. The results for all three seasons showed that the PAH plume was widespread across all sites including rural sites on the outskirts of Temuco. Some interesting variations were observed between seasons in the composition of PAHs, which were attributed to differences in seasonal point sources. A comparison of the PAH composition in the passive samples with active samples (gas+particle phase) from the same site revealed similar congener profiles. Overall, the study demonstrated that the PUF disk passive air sampler provides a simple approach for measuring PAHs in air and for tracking effectiveness of pollution control measures in urban areas in order to improve public health.

  7. Wood burning furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Lillo, A.D.

    1986-03-25

    An improved furnace for burning wood is described which is resistant to creosote deposits from smoke. It consists of: an upright frame; a fire box carried by the frame and having a door for the insertion of the wood; a heat exchanger carried on the fire box and having an interior chamber with a top and bottom; means connecting the fire box and the heat exchanger and directing smoke from the fire box into the exchanger chamber; a chimney stack fixed to and extending upwardly from the exchanger to discharge smoke, the stack also extending substantially downwardly within the exchanger chamber to receive smoke from adjacent the bottom of the chamber to thereby retain hot smoke adjacent the top of the exchanger for an increased time interval to allow additional heat transfer from the smoke to the exchanger; an insulative housing carried on the frame to define an air plenum within the housing and about the fire box and exchanger to permit air in the plenum to be heated by contact with the fire box and the exchanger; and an air inlet for cold air to enter the plenum and an air outlet by which heated air may leave the plenum.

  8. Wood preservation

    Treesearch

    Stan T. Lebow

    2010-01-01

    Many commonly used wood species can deteriorate if exposed to conditions that support growth of wood-degrading organisms (see Chap. 14). Wood products can be protected from the attack of decay fungi, harmful insects, or marine borers by applying chemical preservatives. Preservative treatments greatly increase the life of wood structures, thus reducing replacement costs...

  9. Norwegian Cyber Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    networks and services.141 d. The Norwegian Centre for Information Security (NorSIS) NorSIS is a resource center created through an initiative by the...provider of services and act as a center of expertise in subjects and methods. It also serves as the international contact point and the forensic...The Advanced Research Project Agency BGP Border Gateway Protocol Poisoning Botnet Collection of Internet Connected Programs CI Critical

  10. History of Norwegian psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Kringlen, Einar

    2012-03-01

    Psychiatry as a professional and scientific enterprise developed in Norway in the middle of the 19th century. During the last part of this century, four state asylums were erected, followed by several county asylums during the first part of the 20th century. From the 1870 s, institutions for private care were established, usually in the vicinity of the asylums. During the middle of the 19th century, psychiatry in Norway was influenced by "moral treatment", but during the end of the century somatic ideas prevailed. After the Second World War, Norwegian psychiatry was influenced by Dutch and British social psychiatry, followed by American psychoanalytic-oriented psychiatry during the 1960-70s. Since the 1980s, the climate changed, with more emphasis on classification and drug therapy. The new American DSM-III also influenced Norwegian psychiatry, and cognitive-behavioral therapies became more prevalent. Norwegian psychiatric research has during the last few decades been characterized by epidemiological studies, clinical follow-ups and twin research.

  11. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and

  12. Norwegian mastitis control programme.

    PubMed

    Osterås, O; Sølverød, L

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and

  13. On source identification and alteration of single diesel and wood smoke soot particles in the atmosphere; an X-ray microspectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Vernooij, M G C; Mohr, M; Tzvetkov, G; Zelenay, V; Huthwelker, T; Kaegi, R; Gehrig, R; Grobéty, B

    2009-07-15

    Diesel and wood combustion are major sources of carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere. It is very hard to distinguish between the two sources by looking at soot particle morphology, but clear differences in the chemical structure of single particles are revealed by C(1s) NEXAFS (near edge X-ray absorption fine structure) microspectroscopy. Soot from diesel combustion has a dominant spectral signature at approximately 285 eV from aromatic pi-bonds, whereas soot from wood combustion has the strongest signature at approximately 287 eV from phenolic carbon bonds. To investigate if it is possible to use these signatures for source apportionment purposes, we collected atmospheric samples with either diesel or wood combustion as a dominant particle source. No spectra obtained from the atmospheric particles completely matched the emission spectra. Especially particles from the wood dominated location underwent large modifications; the phenolic spectral signature at approximately 287 eV is greatly suppressed and surpassed by the peak attributed to the aromatic carbon groups at approximately 285 eV. Comparison with spectra from diesel soot samples experimentally aged with ozone show that very fast modification of the carbon structure of soot particles occurs as soon as they enter the atmosphere. Source attribution of single soot particles with microspectroscopy is thus hardly possible, but NEXAFS remains a powerful tool to study aging effects.

  14. Wood preservation

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    2003-01-01

    When wood is exposed to various environmental conditions, many degradation reactions (biological, ultraviolet, mechanical, moisture, and chemical) can occur. To protect wood from biological degradation, chemical preservatives are applied by nonpressure or pressure treatment. Penetration and retention of a chemical depend upon the wood species and the amount of...

  15. Rearing of Swedish, Norwegian, and Norwegian Sami children.

    PubMed

    Larsson, E; Ogaard, B; Lindsten, R

    1993-12-01

    A total of 362 3-yr-old Swedish, Norwegian, and Norwegian Sami (Lapp) children were examined, and their parents were asked about their children's present and previous sucking habits and how long they had been breast-fed and bottle-fed. They were also asked what the children's age was when porridge or puréed food or food with a soft chewing resistance was introduced, and when more ordinary foods such as well-diced meat and potatoes were introduced. The study revealed that breast-feeding has increased greatly both in prevalence and in duration in Sweden during the last decades. Despite this, Swedish children were breast-fed for a significantly shorter time than Norwegian children. The longest breast-feeding times were noted for Sami children. Swedish children were bottle-fed two to three times longer than Norwegian children. Sucking habits were correlated to breast-feeding only for Sami children.

  16. Norwegian Armed Forces: Disconnected with the Norwegian Security Policy?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    current and future organizational structure within the Norwegian Armed Forces aligned with Norwegian Security Policy? The intent here is to point out...Firstly, this SRP will look at the security challenges Norway traditionally has faced, and is facing today as well as in the future . Secondly, it will...in the near future 48 new fighter aircraft, are the correct means. It can probably be argued that other means like Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), as

  17. Lung function in Pakistani wood workers.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan A

    2006-06-01

    The lung function impairment is the most common respiratory problem in industrial plants and their vicinity. Therefore, the purpose was to study the affects of wood dust and its duration of exposure on lung function. This was a matched cross-sectional study of Spirometry in 46 non-smoking wood workers with age range 20 - 60 years, who worked without the benefit of wood dust control ventilation or respiratory protective devices. Pulmonary function test was performed by using an electronic Spirometer. Significant reduction was observed in the mean values of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1), and Maximum Voluntary Ventilation (MVV) in wood workers relative to their matched controls. This impairment was increased with the duration of exposure to wood industries. It is concluded that lung function in wood workers is impaired and stratification of results shows a dose-response effect of years of wood dust exposure on lung function.

  18. Wood composites

    Treesearch

    Lars Berglund; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    A composite can be defined as two or more elements held together by a matrix. By this definition, what we call “solid wood” is a composite. Solid wood is a three-dimensional composite composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin (with smaller amounts of inorganics and extractives), held together by a lignin matrix. The advantages of developing wood composites are (...

  19. Contributions of wood smoke and vehicle emissions to ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds and particulate matter during the Yakima wintertime nitrate study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanderSchelden, Graham; Foy, Benjamin; Herring, Courtney; Kaspari, Susan; VanReken, Tim; Jobson, Bertram

    2017-02-01

    A multiple linear regression (MLR) chemical mass balance model was applied to data collected during an air quality field experiment in Yakima, WA, during January 2013 to determine the relative contribution of residential wood combustion (RWC) and vehicle emissions to ambient pollutant levels. Acetonitrile was used as a chemical tracer for wood burning and nitrogen oxides (NOx) as a chemical tracer for mobile sources. RWC was found to be a substantial source of gas phase air toxics in wintertime. The MLR model found RWC primarily responsible for emissions of formaldehyde (73%), acetaldehyde (69%), and black carbon (55%) and mobile sources primarily responsible for emissions of carbon monoxide (CO; 83%), toluene (81%), C2-alkylbenzenes (81%), and benzene (64%). When compared with the Environmental Protection Agency's 2011 winter emission inventory, the MLR results suggest that the contribution of RWC to CO emissions was underestimated in the inventory by a factor of 2. Emission ratios to NOx from the MLR model agreed to within 25% with wintertime emission ratios predicted from the Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator (MOVES) 2010b emission model for Yakima County for all pollutants modeled except for CO, C2-alkylbenzenes, and black carbon. The MLR model results suggest that MOVES was overpredicting mobile source emissions of CO relative to NOx by a factor of 1.33 and black carbon relative to NOx by about a factor of 3.

  20. Wood preservation

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    1999-01-01

    When left untreated in many outdoor applications, wood becomes subject to degradation by a variety of natural causes. Although some trees possess naturally occurring resistance to decay (Ch. 3, Decay Resistance), many are in short supply or are not grown in ready proximity to markets. Because most commonly used wood species, such as Southern Pine, ponderosa pine, and...

  1. The Norwegian Naval Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, Bjørn Ragnvald

    2007-07-01

    Archival material has revealed milestones and new details in the history of the Norwegian Naval Observatories. We have identified several of the instrument types used at different epochs. Observational results have been extracted from handwritten sources and an extensive literature search. These allow determination of an approximate location of the first naval observatory building (1842) at Fredriksvern. No physical remains exist today. A second observatory was established in 1854 at the new main naval base at Horten. Its location is evident on military maps and photographs. We describe its development until the Naval Observatory buildings, including archives and instruments, were completely demolished during an allied air bomb raid on 23 February 1945. The first director, C.T.H. Geelmuyden, maintained scientific standards at the the Observatory between 1842 and 1870, and collaborated with university astronomers to investigate, develop, and employ time-transfer by telegraphy. Their purpose was accurate longitude determination between observatories in Norway and abroad. The Naval Observatory issued telegraphic time signals twice weekly to a national network of sites, and as such served as the first national time-service in Norway. Later the Naval Observatory focused on the particular needs of the Navy and developed into an internal navigational service.

  2. Non-malignant respiratory diseases and occupational exposure to wood dust. Part I. Fresh wood and mixed wood industry.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Gitte; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schlunssen, Vivi

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews associations in literature between exposure to wood dust from fresh wood and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Criteria for inclusion are epidemiological studies in English language journals with an internal or external control group describing relationships between wood dust exposure and respiratory diseases or symptoms. The papers took into account smoking, and when dealing with lung function took age into consideration. A total of 25 papers concerning exposure to fresh wood and mixed wood formed the basis of this review. The results support an association between fresh wood dust exposure and asthma, asthma symptoms, coughing, bronchitis, and acute and chronic impairment of lung function. In addition, an association between fresh wood dust exposure and rhino-conjunctivitis was seen across studies. Apart from plicatic acid in western red cedar wood, no causal agent was consistently disclosed. Type 1 allergy is not suspected of being a major cause of wood dust induced asthma. Concurrent exposure to microorganisms and terpenes probably add to the inherent risk of wood dust exposure in the fresh wood industry.

  3. Tularaemia in Norwegian dogs.

    PubMed

    Nordstoga, Anne; Handeland, Kjell; Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Iversen, Lena; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Mattsson, Roland; Wik-Larssen, Kjersti; Afset, Jan Egil; Næverdal, Rune; Lund, Arve

    2014-10-10

    We describe tularaemia in a Norwegian dog caused by Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica. A Hamilton Hound and his owner developed tulaeremia after hunting an infected mountain hare (Lepus timidus). The dog showed signs of lethargy, anorexia and fever during a period two to four days after hunting and thereafter fully recovered. Its antibody titers increased 32-fold from one to three weeks post exposure. Thereafter, the titer declined and leveled off at moderate positive values up to one year after exposure (end of study). This is believed to be the first case report of clinical F. tularensis subspecies holarctica infection in a European dog. In 2011, enormous numbers of Norway lemmings (Lemmus lemmus) occurred in Finnmark, the northernmost county of Norway and many dogs caught and swallowed lemmings. Some of these dogs developed non-specific signs of disease and the owners consulted a veterinary surgeon, who suspected tularaemia. In order to investigate this hypothesis, serum samples from 33 dogs were examined for antibodies to F. tularensis. The dogs were allocated into three groups: Dogs from Finnmark that became sick (Group 1) or remained healthy following contact with lemmings (Group 2), and healthy control dogs from Oslo without known contact with lemmings (Group 3). All the serum samples were analyzed with a tube agglutination assay. Among dogs exposed to lemmings, 10/11 and 3/12 were antibody positive in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, whereas none of the control dogs (n=10) were positive for antibodies against F. tularensis. These results strongly indicate that the non-specific disease seen in the dogs in Finnmark was linked to F. tularensis infection acquired through contact with lemmings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Wood stains

    MedlinePlus

    The harmful substances in wood stains are hydrocarbons, or substances that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Other harmful ingredients may include: Alcohol Alkanes Cyclo alkanes Glycol ether Corrosives, such as sodium ...

  5. Wood preservation

    Treesearch

    Kevin Archer; Stan Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood preservation can be interpreted to mean protection from fire, chemical degradation, mechanical wear, weathering, as well as biological attack. In this chapter, the term preservation is applied more restrictively to protection from biological hazards.

  6. Quit Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quit Smoking Print This Topic En español Quit Smoking Browse Sections The Basics Overview Secondhand Smoke How ... to be active with your family and friends. Smoking hurts almost every part of the body. Smoking ...

  7. [Job satisfaction among Norwegian doctors].

    PubMed

    Nylenna, Magne; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw

    2010-05-20

    Doctors' job satisfaction has been discussed internationally in recent years based on reports of increasing professional dissatisfaction. We have studied Norwegian doctors' job satisfaction and their general satisfaction with life. A survey was conducted among a representative sample of practicing Norwegian doctors in 2008. The validated 10-item Job Satisfaction Scale was used to assess job satisfaction. 1,072 (65 %) doctors responded. They reported a mean job satisfaction of 5.3 on a scale from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). Job satisfaction increased with increasing age. Private practice specialists reported the highest level of job satisfaction (5.8), and general practitioners reported higher job satisfaction (5.5) than hospital doctors (5.1). Among specialty groups, community doctors scored highest (5.6) and doctors in surgical disciplines lowest (5.0). While long working hours was negatively correlated with job satisfaction, the perception of being professionally updated and having part-time affiliation(s) in addition to a regular job were positively correlated with job satisfaction. 52.9 % of doctors reported a very high general satisfaction. Norwegian doctors have a high level of job satisfaction. Satisfaction with life in general is also high and at least in line with that in the Norwegian population.

  8. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material.

    Treesearch

    Forest Products Laboratory

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  9. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Ross; Forest Products Laboratory. USDA Forest Service.

    2010-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  10. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  11. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  12. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  13. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  14. Environmental impact of residential wood heating in Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Alfheim, I.; Ramdahl, T.

    1984-01-01

    The aims of the Scandinavian research programs dealing with pollution from wood heating are: To characterize the emissions from the most commonly used stoves burning typical Scandinavian wood. In this work the emphasis has been on the characterization of organic compounds in the emissions and especially on the identification of compounds which may have mutagenic effects; To identify compounds which are specific for wood combustion emission and thus can be used as marker compounds in ambient air studies; To assess the contribution of specific pollutants, i.e., polycyclic aromatic compounds and mutagens, from wood heating to ambient air; To study the influence of wood heating on indoor air quality; and To support the development of stoves with less polluting emissions. This paper presents a brief overview of the work done and the results obtained so far within the Norwegian project and in a joint Nordic project.

  15. Validation of an assay for the determination of levoglucosan and associated monosaccharide anhydrides for the quantification of wood smoke in atmospheric aerosol.

    PubMed

    Cordell, Rebecca L; White, Iain R; Monks, Paul S

    2014-09-01

    Biomass burning is becoming an increasing contributor to atmospheric particulate matter, and concern is increasing over the detrimental health effects of inhaling such particles. Levoglucosan and related monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs) can be used as tracers of the contribution of wood burning to total particulate matter. An improved gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to quantify atmospheric levels of MAs has been developed and, for the first-time, fully validated. The method uses an optimised, low-volume methanol extraction, derivitisation by trimethylsilylation and analysis with high-throughput gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recovery of approximately 90 % for levoglucosan, and 70 % for the isomers galactosan and mannosan, was achieved using spiked blank filters estimates. The method was extensively validated to ensure that the precision of the method over five experimental replicates on five repeat experimental occasions was within 15 % for low, mid and high concentrations and accuracy between 85 and 115 %. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 0.21 and 1.05 ng m(-3) for levoglucosan and galactosan/mannosan, respectively, where the assay satisfied precisions of ≤20 % and accuracies 80-120 %. The limit of detection (LOD) for all analytes was 0.105 ng m(-3). The stability of the MAs, once deposited on aerosol filters, was high over the short term (4 weeks) at room temperature and over longer periods (3 months) when stored at -20 °C. The method was applied to determine atmospheric levels of MAs at an urban background site in Leicester (UK) for a month. Mean concentrations of levoglucosan over the month of May were 21.4 ± 18.3 ng m(-3), 7.5 ± 6.1 ng m(-3) mannosan and 1.8 ± 1.3 ng m(-3) galactosan.

  16. [Smoking and smoking weaning].

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, F; Bucher, H

    1994-10-01

    Stop-smoking counselling is a challenging task in primary health care, its efficacy being often underestimated by the physician. Health care physicians are not very inclined to advise their smoking patients to stop smoking and give specific counselling. This is in contradiction with the expectations of more than two thirds of the smoking patients, who expect their physicians to help them. The present article discusses the therapeutical methods for stop-smoking counselling in primary health care. In particular, the article illustrates the importance for this support (including the possibilities for nicotin substitution in the weaning stage).

  17. Furniture wood wastes: experimental property characterisation and burning tests.

    PubMed

    Tatàno, Fabio; Barbadoro, Luca; Mangani, Giovanna; Pretelli, Silvia; Tombari, Lucia; Mangani, Filippo

    2009-10-01

    Referring to the industrial wood waste category (as dominant in the provincial district of Pesaro-Urbino, Marche Region, Italy), this paper deals with the experimental characterisation and the carrying out of non-controlled burning tests (at lab- and pilot-scale) for selected "raw" and primarily "engineered" ("composite") wood wastes. The property characterisation has primarily revealed the following aspects: potential influence on moisture content of local weather conditions at outdoor wood waste storage sites; generally, higher ash contents in "engineered" wood wastes as compared with "raw" wood wastes; and relatively high energy content values of "engineered" wood wastes (ranging on the whole from 3675 to 5105 kcal kg(-1) for HHV, and from 3304 to 4634 kcal kg(-1) for LHV). The smoke qualitative analysis of non-controlled lab-scale burning tests has primarily revealed: the presence of specific organic compounds indicative of incomplete wood combustion; the presence exclusively in "engineered" wood burning tests of pyrroles and amines, as well as the additional presence (as compared with "raw" wood burning) of further phenolic and containing nitrogen compounds; and the potential environmental impact of incomplete industrial wood burning on the photochemical smog phenomenon. Finally, non-controlled pilot-scale burning tests have primarily given the following findings: emission presence of carbon monoxide indicative of incomplete wood combustion; higher nitrogen oxide emission values detected in "engineered" wood burning tests as compared with "raw" wood burning test; and considerable generation of the respirable PM(1) fraction during incomplete industrial wood burning.

  18. Non-malignant respiratory diseases and occupational exposure to wood dust. Part II. Dry wood industry.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Gitte; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schlunssen, Vivi

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on associations between dry wood dust exposure and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Criteria for inclusion are epidemiological studies in English language journals with an internal or external control group describing relationships between dry wood dust exposure and respiratory diseases or symptoms. Papers took into consideration smoking and when dealing with lung function age. A total of 37 papers forms the basis of this review. The results support an association between dry wood dust exposure and asthma, asthma symptoms, coughing, bronchitis, and acute and chronic impairment of lung function. In addition, an association between wood dust exposure and rhino-conjunctivitis is seen across the studies. Apart from plicatic acid in western red cedar wood, no causal agent has consistently been disclosed. Type 1 allergy is not suspected to be a major cause of wood dust induced asthma.

  19. Wood as an adherend

    Treesearch

    Bryan H. River; Charles B. Vick; Robert H. Gillespie

    1991-01-01

    Wood is a porous, permeable, hygroscopic, orthotropic, biological composite material of extreme chemical diversity and physical intricacy. Table 1.1 provides an overview of the may variables, including wood variables, that bear on the bonding and performance of wood in wood joints and wood-based materials. Of particular note is the fact that wood properties vary...

  20. Characterization of Norwegian women eating wholegrain bread.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Toril; Braaten, Tonje; Olsen, Anja; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri

    2015-10-01

    To investigate dietary and non-dietary characteristics of wholegrain bread eaters in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study. Cross-sectional study using an FFQ. Women were divided into two groups according to wholegrain bread consumption. Adult women (n 69 471). Median daily consumption of standardized slices of wholegrain bread was 2·5 in the low intake group and 4·5 in the high intake group. The OR for high wholegrain bread consumption was 0·28, 2·19 and 4·63 for the first, third and fourth quartile of energy intake, respectively, compared with the second quartile. Living outside Oslo or in East Norway and having a high level of physical activity were associated with high wholegrain bread consumption. BMI and smoking were inversely associated with wholegrain bread consumption. Intake of many food items was positively associated with wholegrain bread consumption (P trend <0·01). After adjustment for energy intake, consumption of most food items was inversely associated with wholegrain bread consumption (P trend <0·001). The mean intakes of thiamin and Fe were higher in those with high wholegrain bread consumption, even after taking energy intake into account. Energy intake was strongly positively associated with wholegrain bread consumption. Geographical differences in wholegrain bread consumption were observed. Our study suggests that women with high wholegrain bread consumption do not generally have a healthier diet than those who eat less wholegrain bread, but that they tend to be healthier in regard to other lifestyle factors.

  1. [What messages did the Norwegian tobacco industry communicate to consumers in its advertising?].

    PubMed

    Lund, Karl Erik

    2002-01-30

    A Norwegian official report, NOU 2000: 16, Tort liability for the Norwegian tobacco industry, concludes that Norwegian law and judicial practice allows lawsuits against the tobacco industry for damages. A crucial claim in such suits would be that the industry withheld information on health risks and addiction and instead used advertising messages that undermined the information campaigns initiated after the reports on smoking and health from the U.S. Surgeon-General and the Norwegian Board of Health in 1964. This article reports a study of differences in tobacco advertising in Norway before and after 1964. A total of 1,945 photographs of advertisements in two popular weekly family magazines over the 1955 to 1975 period were stored in a database along with information on date of publication, size, copy and message, presumed target group, and characteristics of persons and situations shown. Up until 1964, advertisement space per year in these magazines totalled 100 dm2 (11 sq. feet). The amount of advertising space then increased up until 1973, to 2,033 dm2 (219 sq. feet). The share featuring women went up from 33 in the 1955-64 period to 62% in 1965-75, when 51% of advertisements showed women smoking while 31% showed men smoking. Pre-1964 advertisements primarily contained information to smokers on price, type of tobacco, packaging and country of origin; after 1964 the advertisements developed a more universal appeal associating smoking with various social situations marked by style, well-being and comfort. The tobacco was said to be pure, fresh, mild and natural, and the filter was claimed to have protective properties. It is probable that the cognitive dissonance created by more health information on smoking after 1964, i.e. the necessary motivation to quit, was reduced as a result of strategic changes in the amount and content of advertising.

  2. Important Norwegian crude assays updated

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, R.A

    1990-03-12

    New assays on two important Norwegian North Sea crude oils, Statfjord and Gullfaks, are presented. Both are high-quality, low-sulfur crudes that will yield a full range of good-quality products. All assay data came from industry-standard test procedures. The Statfjord field is the largest in the North Sea. Production started in 1979. Statfjord is a typical North Sea crude, produced from three separate platforms and three separate loading buoys with interconnecting lines. Current production is about 700,000 b/d. Gullfaks is produced from a large field in Block 34/10 of the Norwegian sector of the North Sea production area. Gullfaks crude oil is more biodegraded than other crudes from the region. Biodegradation has removed most of the waxy normal paraffins, resulting in a heavier, more naphthenic and aromatic crude.

  3. [Obstetric analgesia in Norwegian hospitals].

    PubMed

    Barratt-Due, Andreas; Hagen, Inger; Dahl, Vegard

    2005-09-22

    Experience from our hospital has shown a significant increase in the use of epidural analgesia during labour. We wanted to see if this was a general trend in Norway, and wanted to find out for what kind of labour analgesia was offered in the different labour wards. A questionnaire concerning obstetric analgesia and anaesthetic methods for caesarean section was sent to chief anaesthetists and head midwives in Norwegian hospitals. The information was compared to an identical questionnaire from 1996. In addition, data concerning obstetric analgesia was collected from the Norwegian Medical Birth Register. 77% of the anaesthetic departments and 88% of the labour wards responded to the questionnaire. The use of epidural analgesia was on an average 20.6% (range 0-40.5%), which is twice as much as in 1996. 75% answered that the parturients' wish for epidural analgesia was reason enough to give an epidural. 84% of caesarean sections were performed in regional anaesthesia and 16% were done in general anaesthesia. This represents a significant reduction in the use of general anaesthesia. 85% of the labour wards offered acupuncture, which is a tremendous increase compared to 1996. Systemic opioids are still widely used, and pethidine is still the most frequently used opioid. Pethidine's negative side effect profile has been widely focused on during the past decade. The hospital's information on the various analgesic methods available for labour analgesi, is clearly improved since 1996. Obstetric analgesia in Norwegian hospitals has improved substantially since the last survey.

  4. Tobacco use among Norwegian adolescents: from cigarettes to snus.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Willy; von Soest, Tilmann

    2014-07-01

    To: (i) investigate the development of smoking and snus use among Norwegian adolescents, and (ii) describe the users in each group. Two population-based surveys with identical procedures in 2002 (response rate 91.0%) and 2010 (response rate 84.3%). Norway. A total of 6217 respondents, aged 16-17 years. Data were collected on smoking and snus use, socio-demographic factors, school adjustment, social network, sport activities, alcohol and cannabis use and depression symptoms. Prevalence of daily smoking fell from 23.6% in 2002 to 6.8% in 2010 (P < 0.001), while the prevalence of daily snus use increased from 4.3 to 11.9% (P < 0.001). Dual daily use of cigarettes and snus remained at 1%. The relative proportion of non-daily smokers using snus increased steeply. Both snus users and smokers reported more adverse socio-economic backgrounds, less favourable school adjustment and higher levels of alcohol intoxication and cannabis use than non-users of tobacco. However, snus users were better adjusted to school and used cannabis less often than smokers. Adolescent smoking prevalence has fallen dramatically in Norway, accompanied by a smaller increase in snus use. Young snus users in Norway have many of the same risk factors as smokers, but to a lesser degree. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Tobacco use among Norwegian adolescents: from cigarettes to snus

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Willy; von Soest, Tilmann

    2014-01-01

    Aims To: (i) investigate the development of smoking and snus use among Norwegian adolescents, and (ii) describe the users in each group. Design Two population-based surveys with identical procedures in 2002 (response rate 91.0%) and 2010 (response rate 84.3%). Setting Norway. Participants A total of 6217 respondents, aged 16–17 years. Measurements Data were collected on smoking and snus use, socio-demographic factors, school adjustment, social network, sport activities, alcohol and cannabis use and depression symptoms. Findings Prevalence of daily smoking fell from 23.6% in 2002 to 6.8% in 2010 (P < 0.001), while the prevalence of daily snus use increased from 4.3 to 11.9% (P < 0.001). Dual daily use of cigarettes and snus remained at 1%. The relative proportion of non-daily smokers using snus increased steeply. Both snus users and smokers reported more adverse socio-economic backgrounds, less favourable school adjustment and higher levels of alcohol intoxication and cannabis use than non-users of tobacco. However, snus users were better adjusted to school and used cannabis less often than smokers. Conclusions Adolescent smoking prevalence has fallen dramatically in Norway, accompanied by a smaller increase in snus use. Young snus users in Norway have many of the same risk factors as smokers, but to a lesser degree. PMID:24521070

  6. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    PubMed

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  7. Tobacco images and texts in Norwegian magazines and newspapers.

    PubMed

    Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Gram, Inger Torhild; Skattebo, Sigrid; Kolstrup, Nils

    2007-01-01

    Print media may influence smoking behaviour through tobacco advertisements and editorial use of tobacco pictures and texts. In Norway tobacco advertising has been banned for many years. The authors studied the coverage of tobacco promotion and tobacco and health in some general Norwegian magazines and newspapers. The findings were related to the publications' policy as stated by their editors. During three months in 1998-99 all pictures of tobacco and smoking situations were registered, plus the coverage on health aspects of tobacco in all consecutive issues of 7 newspapers and 19 magazines. The editors were asked about their attitudes regarding indirect tobacco advertisement and editorial use of people smoking. All editors for men's magazines and the majority of newspaper editors had no restrictions on displaying both indirect tobacco advertisements and images of people smoking. In total, 610 texts or pictures on tobacco were found in the 624 issues of magazines and newspapers. Only 26 items were indirect tobacco advertisements. Items promoting smoking were more common than coverage of tobacco and health (71% vs 29%), and occurred most frequently in men's magazines (2.1 per issue) and least frequently in local newspapers (0.3 per issue). The proportion of tobacco and health coverage compared with the total tobacco coverage was significantly lower in men's than in family magazines and local newspapers. Editors should be encouraged to increase the coverage of tobacco and health in print media. This may be an important factor in helping their readers to give up or not to take up smoking.

  8. Homotolerance and Heteronormativity in Norwegian Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothing, Ase

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on classroom observations and discusses sexual education that addresses homosexuality. Tolerance of queer lifestyles as well as support for judicial equality between heterosexual and homosexual couples is generally perceived as being high in the Norwegian political context. Norwegian sexual politics is, however, based on a…

  9. Homotolerance and Heterosexuality as Norwegian Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothing, Ase; Svendsen, Stine Helena Bang

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, equality between homosexual and heterosexual relationships has increasingly been presented as a marker for Norwegian values. Norwegian schooling encourages tolerance toward homosexuals, and the state shows active interest in counteracting bullying against LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) youth by supporting research…

  10. Homotolerance and Heteronormativity in Norwegian Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothing, Ase

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on classroom observations and discusses sexual education that addresses homosexuality. Tolerance of queer lifestyles as well as support for judicial equality between heterosexual and homosexual couples is generally perceived as being high in the Norwegian political context. Norwegian sexual politics is, however, based on a…

  11. Homotolerance and Heterosexuality as Norwegian Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothing, Ase; Svendsen, Stine Helena Bang

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, equality between homosexual and heterosexual relationships has increasingly been presented as a marker for Norwegian values. Norwegian schooling encourages tolerance toward homosexuals, and the state shows active interest in counteracting bullying against LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) youth by supporting research…

  12. Wood fuel preparation

    Treesearch

    L. H. Reineke

    1965-01-01

    This report gives information on the preparation of wood fuel from wood residues and other wood raw materials. Types of wood fuel discussed are cordwood, stovewood, slabwood, kindling, chips, hogged fuel, sawdust and shavings, bark, charcoal, alcohol, and briquets. Related information is given on types of machinery for preparing wood fuel and on possible markets for...

  13. Finishes for Wood Decks

    Treesearch

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Wood decks have become an important part of residential construction. Wood decks can add versatile living space to a home and, with minimal maintenance, provide decades of use. However, wood decks are exposed to high levels of stress from severe weather conditions that shrink and swell the wood. Without proper maintenance, wood decks can develop problems such as checks...

  14. Norwegian scabies mimicking rupioid psoriasis*

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Juliana Bastos; de Sousa, Virna Lygia Lobo Rocha; da Trindade Neto, Pedro Bezerra; Paulo Filho, Thomás de Aquino; Cabral, Virgínia Célia Dias Florêncio; Pinheiro, Patrícia Moura Rossiter

    2012-01-01

    Norwegian scabies is a highly contagious skin infestation caused by an ectoparasite, Scarcoptes scabiei var. Hominis, which mainly affects immunosuppressed individuals. Clinically, it may simulate various dermatoses such as psoriasis, Darier's disease, seborrheic dermatitis, among others. This is a case report of a 33-year-old woman, immunocompetent, diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder (cancer phobia), who had erythematous, well-defined plaques, covered with rupioid crusts, on her neck, axillary folds, breast, periumbilical region, groin area, besides upper back and elbows, mimicking an extremely rare variant of psoriasis, denominated rupioid psoriasis. PMID:23197214

  15. Stereotypes of Norwegian social groups.

    PubMed

    Bye, Hege H; Herrebrøden, Henrik; Hjetland, Gunnhild J; Røyset, Guro Ø; Westby, Linda L

    2014-10-01

    We present a pilot study and two main studies that address the nature of stereotypes of social groups in Norway within the framework of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM). The first study focused on stereotypes of a wide range of groups across categories such as gender, age, religious conviction, socioeconomic and health status. The second study focused on stereotypes of immigrant groups. Participants (n = 244 and n = 63, respectively) rated the groups on perceived warmth, competence, status, and competition. Results from both studies support the applicability of the SCM in Norway and provides a unique insight into stereotypes of Norwegian social groups.

  16. Stereotypes of Norwegian social groups

    PubMed Central

    Bye, Hege H; Herrebrøden, Henrik; Hjetland, Gunnhild J; Røyset, Guro Ø; Westby, Linda L

    2014-01-01

    We present a pilot study and two main studies that address the nature of stereotypes of social groups in Norway within the framework of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM). The first study focused on stereotypes of a wide range of groups across categories such as gender, age, religious conviction, socioeconomic and health status. The second study focused on stereotypes of immigrant groups. Participants (n = 244 and n = 63, respectively) rated the groups on perceived warmth, competence, status, and competition. Results from both studies support the applicability of the SCM in Norway and provides a unique insight into stereotypes of Norwegian social groups. PMID:24975918

  17. Willingness of nonindustrial private forest owners in Norway to supply logging residues for wood energy

    Treesearch

    Hanne K. Sjolie; Dennis Becker; Daniel Habesland; Birger Solberg; Berit Hauger Lindstad; Stephanie Snyder; Mike. Kilgore

    2016-01-01

    Norway has set ambitious targets for increasing bioenergy production. Forest residue extraction levels are currently very low, but residues have the potential to be an important component of the wood energy supply chain. A representative sample of Norwegian nonindustrial private forest owners having at least 8 ha (20 acres) of productive forest land was surveyed about...

  18. Norwegian midwives' perceptions of empowerment.

    PubMed

    Lukasse, Mirjam; Pajalic, Zada

    2016-03-01

    Midwives are educated to care for women during pregnancy, birth and the postnatal period. For midwives to be able to fulfill their professional role they need to be empowered to do so. To investigate Norwegian midwives' perception of empowerment in practice. A cross-sectional study. In September 2014, a random sample of 1500 midwives was sent a questionnaire, which included the Perception of Empowerment in Midwifery Practice Scale (PEMS). Of 1458 eligible midwives, 595 (41%) completed the PEMS. Exploratory factor analyses and comparative analyses were done. Exploratory factor analyses identified three factors (subscales): Supportive management, Autonomous professional role, and Equipped for practice. Midwives working in a hospital setting scored significantly lower on the factors Supportive management and Autonomous professional role compared to midwives not working in a hospital setting (p < 0.001). Midwives with extra/special responsibilities scored higher than those without (p < 0.001) on the same two factors. Midwives working at units with <2500 births scored significantly higher on all three factors compared to midwives working at units with ≥2500 births (p < 0.001). The PEMS showed that Norwegian midwives' perception of empowerment at work differed according to midwives' education, role at work, duration of work experience, working situation and environment. This study supports the psychometric qualities of the PEMS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Norwegian Offshore Stratigraphic Lexicon (NORLEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradstein, Felix M.; Hammer, Oyvind; Brunstad, Harald; Charnock, Mike; Hellem, Terje; Sigve Lervik, Kjell; Anthonissen, Erik

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Offshore Stratigraphic Lexicon (NORLEX) provides a relational stratigraphic database for the North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea and Svalbard. Both regional lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy are being substantially updated, following guidelines laid out in the International Stratigraphic Guide. The main body of information developed is available as a petroleum consortium (oracle-style) database, and the new lithostratigraphic definitions as a public domain (paper) document. NORLEX is presented as a browsing website via the internet at http://www.nhm.uio.no/norlex. Seismic cross-sections, core photographs, well logs, field outcrops, microfossil occurrences and other vital attributes are relationally cross-linked. In addition, there are menus for instantly finding updated formation and member tops or microfossil events in all wells, plus a map contouring routine for unit thicknesses and depths. Several new initiatives will expand data and user coverage: 1. Overhaul of Mesozoic stratigraphy, especially Triassic and Cretaceous, in the Barents Sea. 2. Coverage of East Greenland 3. Linkage to UK and Belgium and The Netherlands surface and subsurface stratigraphy 4. Creation of a Sequence Stratigraphic Framework for specific regions. 5. A national microfossil atlas to support zonations 6. Tight linkage to the basin datapacks in TimeScaleCreator Pro, as developed for Australia, New Zealand, Brasil, Gulf of Mexico, Canada and Russia. NORLEX may thus evolve to become STRATLEX, covering many basin regions.

  20. Moral distress among Norwegian doctors.

    PubMed

    Førde, R; Aasland, O G

    2008-07-01

    Medicine is full of value conflicts. Limited resources and legal regulations may place doctors in difficult ethical dilemmas and cause moral distress. Research on moral distress has so far been mainly studied in nurses. To describe whether Norwegian doctors experience stress related to ethical dilemmas and lack of resources, and to explore whether the doctors feel that they have good strategies for the resolution of ethical dilemmas. Postal survey of a representative sample of 1497 Norwegian doctors in 2004, presenting statements about different ethical dilemmas, values and goals at their workplace. The response rate was 67%. 57% admitted that it is difficult to criticize a colleague for professional misconduct and 51% for ethical misconduct. 51% described sometimes having to act against own conscience as distressing. 66% of the doctors experienced distress related to long waiting lists for treatment and to impaired patient care due to time constraints. 55% reported that time spent on administration and documentation is distressing. Female doctors experienced more stress that their male colleagues. 44% reported that their workplace lacked strategies for dealing with ethical dilemmas. Lack of resources creates moral dilemmas for physicians. Moral distress varies with specialty and gender. Lack of strategies to solve ethical dilemmas and low tolerance for conflict and critique from colleagues may obstruct important and necessary ethical dialogues and lead to suboptimal solutions of difficult ethical problems.

  1. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  2. The effect of coffee consumption on serum total cholesterol in the Sami and Norwegian populations.

    PubMed

    Nystad, Tove; Melhus, Marita; Brustad, Magritt; Lund, Eiliv

    2010-11-01

    To assess coffee consumption in the Sami and Norwegian populations and to investigate the impact of unfiltered boiled coffee consumption on serum cholesterol concentrations. A cross-sectional study. Information was collected by self-administrated questionnaires and total serum cholesterol was analysed. Participants were divided into three ethnic groups: Sami I (Sami used as home language in the last three generations), Sami II (at least one Sami identity marker) and Norwegian. In an area with Sami, Kven/Finnish and Norwegian populations, the SAMINOR study, 2003-2004. A total of 5647 men and 6347 women aged 36-79 years. More than 90 % of the study populations were coffee drinkers. Only 22 % were unfiltered coffee consumers. Sami I had the highest proportion of participants who consumed nine or more cups of unfiltered coffee per day, although the number of participants was limited. Total coffee consumption was associated with increased total cholesterol for men (P < 0·01) and women (P < 0·0001). For those who drank only unfiltered coffee, a significant association was found only in Norwegian men, adjusted for physical activity in leisure time, BMI and smoking habits (P < 0·001). From the lowest (less than five cups) to the highest (nine or more cups) unfiltered coffee consumption category, the mean total cholesterol levels increased by 0·29 mmol/l in Norwegian men. Unfiltered coffee consumption was lower in the present study compared to previous reports. In general, total coffee consumption was positively associated with total cholesterol levels. However, for unfiltered coffee consumption, an association was found only in Norwegian men.

  3. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    Secondhand smoke is a mixture of the smoke that comes from the burning end of a cigarette, cigar, ... about 70 can cause cancer. Health effects of secondhand smoke include Ear infections in children More frequent and ...

  4. Temporal and Spatial Variations of Bacterial and Faunal Communities Associated with Deep-Sea Wood Falls.

    PubMed

    Pop Ristova, Petra; Bienhold, Christina; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Rossel, Pamela E; Boetius, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Sinking of large organic food falls i.e. kelp, wood and whale carcasses to the oligotrophic deep-sea floor promotes the establishment of locally highly productive and diverse ecosystems, often with specifically adapted benthic communities. However, the fragmented spatial distribution and small area poses challenges for the dispersal of their microbial and faunal communities. Our study focused on the temporal dynamics and spatial distributions of sunken wood bacterial communities, which were deployed in the vicinity of different cold seeps in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Norwegian deep-seas. By combining fingerprinting of bacterial communities by ARISA and 454 sequencing with in situ and ex situ biogeochemical measurements, we show that sunken wood logs have a locally confined long-term impact (> 3y) on the sediment geochemistry and community structure. We confirm previous hypotheses of different successional stages in wood degradation including a sulphophilic one, attracting chemosynthetic fauna from nearby seep systems. Wood experiments deployed at similar water depths (1100-1700 m), but in hydrographically different oceanic regions harbored different wood-boring bivalves, opportunistic faunal communities, and chemosynthetic species. Similarly, bacterial communities on sunken wood logs were more similar within one geographic region than between different seas. Diverse sulphate-reducing bacteria of the Deltaproteobacteria, the sulphide-oxidizing bacteria Sulfurovum as well as members of the Acidimicrobiia and Bacteroidia dominated the wood falls in the Eastern Mediterranean, while Alphaproteobacteria and Flavobacteriia colonized the Norwegian Sea wood logs. Fauna and bacterial wood-associated communities changed between 1 to 3 years of immersion, with sulphate-reducers and sulphide-oxidizers increasing in proportion, and putative cellulose degraders decreasing with time. Only 6% of all bacterial genera, comprising the core community, were found at any time on

  5. Factors Associated With Increased Risk of Clubfoot: A Norwegian National Cohort Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dodwell, Emily; Risoe, Petter; Wright, James

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies investigating the causes of clubfoot have shown conflicting results, potentially because of retrospective study designs or incomplete assessment of causative factors. The study aim was to examine risk factors for clubfoot in a large prospective Norwegian cohort. Exposures prior and during pregnancy were identified through the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. This was linked to the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry, which provided clubfoot diagnosis through ICD-10 code Q66.0. Logistic regression analysis investigated associations between potential risk factors and development of clubfoot. A total of 121 clubfoot cases were identified; 1.1 per 1000 births. Parental diagnosis of clubfoot [odds ratio (OR): 31.5; 95% confidence interval (CI):9.61-103.3] and cigarette smoking, both in the three months prior to pregnancy (OR:1.82; 95%CI:1.05-3.18) and the first trimester (OR:2.67; 95% CI:1.28-5.55) were associated with clubfoot. Infants with clubfoot had greater solvent exposure (OR:1.66; 95% CI:1.00-2.76). Oligohydramnios, parental age, parental education, parity, maternal anxiety or depression, alcohol use, season of birth did not have statistically significant associations. In addition to parental diagnosis of clubfoot, results confirm the previously reported association between clubfoot and smoking, and counter previous evidence supporting season of birth, parental education, and other risk factors. Further studies are needed to investigate solvent exposure as a risk factor for clubfoot. Exposure to smoke and solvents can be controlled; this study highlights the importance of public health initiatives to limit these exposures both during pregnancy and in those considering conceiving in the future.

  6. Sexual diversity in urban Norwegians.

    PubMed

    Traeen, Bente; Stigum, Hein; Søorensen, Dagfinn

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe homosexual and heterosexual experiences in terms of sexual fantasies, sexual attraction, sexual conduct, and falling in love in an urban Norwegian population. In 1997, a random sample of 5,000 persons (18-49 years) was drawn from the population register in Oslo to participate in a sexual behavior survey. Data collection was carried out by means of postal questionnaires and 45% responded. The results indicated that exclusive homosexuality was rare in the population. One exception was the prevalence of homosexual fantasies in women. Compared to respondents who had had exclusively heterosexual contact, respondents reporting bisexual contacts had a significantly higher number of lifetime sex partners, higher frequency of anal and oral sex and masturbation, and lower age at orgasm and masturbation debut. What significantly separated the groups of exclusive heterosexuals, bisexuals, and exclusive homosexuals were attitudes towards various expressions of sexuality and number of lifetime sex partners.

  7. Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferré, Bénédicte; Mienert, Jürgen; Winther, Svein; Hageberg, Anne; Rune Godoe, Olav; Partners, Noon

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON) is led by the University of Tromsø and collaborates with the Universities of Oslo and Bergen, UniResearch, Institute of Marine Research, Christian Michelsen Research and SINTEF. It is supported by the Research Council of Norway and oil and gas (O&G) industries like Statoil to develop science, technology and new educational programs. Main topics relate to ocean climate and environment as well as marine resources offshore Norway from the northern North Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. NOON's vision is to bring Norway to the international forefront in using cable based ocean observatory technology for marine science and management, by establishing an infrastructure that enables real-time and long term monitoring of processes and interactions between hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. This activity is in concert with the EU funded European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap and European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observation (EMSO) project to attract international leading research developments. NOON envisions developing towards a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). Beside, the research community in Norway already possesses a considerable marine infrastructure that can expand towards an international focus for real-time multidisciplinary observations in times of rapid climate change. PIC The presently established cable-based fjord observatory, followed by the establishment of a cable-based ocean observatory network towards the Arctic from an O&G installation, will provide invaluable knowledge and experience necessary to make a successful larger cable-based observatory network at the Norwegian and Arctic margin (figure 1). Access to large quantities of real-time observation from the deep sea, including high definition video, could be used to provide the public and future recruits to science a fascinating insight into an almost unexplored part of the Earth beyond the Arctic Circle

  8. [Medical research at Norwegian universities].

    PubMed

    Røttingen, J A; Thorsby, P; Seem, C; Gautvik, K M

    1998-06-10

    This study shows that Norwegian medical research suffers from lack of both public funds and recruitment, as well as being affected by the following major factors. Norway uses less of its GNP on R&D than other Western countries and less than the OECD average. Medical research in particular receives less financial support than in any of the other Nordic countries. Norwegian medical researchers publish less material and are cited less often than their colleagues in comparable countries. More than half of the medically trained scientific staff in Norway's four medical faculties will retire during the next decade and today there are many vacant positions in academic medicine because there are not enough competent applicants to fill them. The percentage of M.D.s among professors and lecturers has fallen, and a continued decline in preclinical and laboratory medicine and in public health is predicted. This percentage has also decreased among Ph.D. students, while the age at which medical doctors dissertate has increased and is higher than for other Ph.D.s. The number of medical students doing research has fallen in recent years, and the number of doctoral theses has not increased as much in medicine as in other fields. There are significant differences between the salaries paid in medical science and those paid in clinical medicine. Lack of resources and low salaries keep doctors from pursuing a career in academic medicine. In conclusion, if Norway is to be visible in the field of international medical science, this negative trend must be reversed and medical research and academic medicine revitalised.

  9. Finishing of wood

    Treesearch

    R. Sam Williams

    1999-01-01

    The primary function of any wood finish (paint, varnish, and stain, for example) is to protect the wood surface, help maintain a certain appearance, and provide a cleanable surface. Although wood can be used both outdoors and indoors without finishing, unfinished wood surfaces exposed to the weather change color, are roughened by photodegradation and surface checking,...

  10. Quitting Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  11. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Secondhand Smoke KidsHealth > For Teens > Secondhand Smoke Print A A ... español El humo secundario del cigarrillo What Is Secondhand Smoke? Everyone knows that smoking is a bad idea. ...

  12. [Medical Service of the Norwegian Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B; Morovikova, T V; Soldatov, E A

    2014-09-01

    The article is a brief description of the current state of the Norwegian Armed Forces medical service and is based on the study of the open access foreign sources. At the beginning, the general information about Norway, the Norwegian Armed Forces, and their medical service is presented: Then some particular features are described with more detail, namely, the organization of the inpatient and outpatient treatment, medical supply, scientific research, combat medicine, medical staff education and training, medical service personnel income.

  13. Furniture wood wastes: Experimental property characterisation and burning tests

    SciTech Connect

    Tatano, Fabio Barbadoro, Luca; Mangani, Giovanna; Pretelli, Silvia; Tombari, Lucia; Mangani, Filippo

    2009-10-15

    Referring to the industrial wood waste category (as dominant in the provincial district of Pesaro-Urbino, Marche Region, Italy), this paper deals with the experimental characterisation and the carrying out of non-controlled burning tests (at lab- and pilot-scale) for selected 'raw' and primarily 'engineered' ('composite') wood wastes. The property characterisation has primarily revealed the following aspects: potential influence on moisture content of local weather conditions at outdoor wood waste storage sites; generally, higher ash contents in 'engineered' wood wastes as compared with 'raw' wood wastes; and relatively high energy content values of 'engineered' wood wastes (ranging on the whole from 3675 to 5105 kcal kg{sup -1} for HHV, and from 3304 to 4634 kcal kg{sup -1} for LHV). The smoke qualitative analysis of non-controlled lab-scale burning tests has primarily revealed: the presence of specific organic compounds indicative of incomplete wood combustion; the presence exclusively in 'engineered' wood burning tests of pyrroles and amines, as well as the additional presence (as compared with 'raw' wood burning) of further phenolic and containing nitrogen compounds; and the potential environmental impact of incomplete industrial wood burning on the photochemical smog phenomenon. Finally, non-controlled pilot-scale burning tests have primarily given the following findings: emission presence of carbon monoxide indicative of incomplete wood combustion; higher nitrogen oxide emission values detected in 'engineered' wood burning tests as compared with 'raw' wood burning test; and considerable generation of the respirable PM{sub 1} fraction during incomplete industrial wood burning.

  14. Fire and smoke retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  15. [Obstetric analgesia in Norwegian hospitals].

    PubMed

    Dahl, V; Hagen, I E; Raeder, J C

    1998-04-30

    We report the results of a questionnaire sent to anaesthetists and midwives on the use of obstetric analgesia and anaesthesia in Norwegian hospitals in 1996. 95% of the 49 hospitals involved responded to the questionnaire, representing a total of 56,884 births. The use of epidural analgesia in labour varied from 0 to 25% in the different hospitals with a mean value of 15%. Epidural analgesia was much more widely used in university and regional hospitals than in local hospitals (p < 0.001). Five of the local hospitals did not offer epidural analgesia during labour at all. The combination of low-dose local anaesthetic and an opioid (either sufentanil or fentanyl) had not been introduced in nine of the hospitals (20%). The optimal use of epidural analgesia to relieve labour pain was judged to be more frequent by the anaesthetists than by the midwives (19% versus 11%, p < 0.01). In response to what factors limited the frequency of epidural analgesia, the anaesthetists specified factors related to the attitude of the midwife, and the midwives specified factors related to the anaesthetist. Only five of the hospitals provided written information on the various analgesic methods that could be employed during labour. The majority of midwives considered the analgesic methods employed on their maternity ward to be good or excellent. The frequency of Caesarean section was 12%; spinal anaesthesia was used in 55%, epidural anaesthesia in 17%, and general anaesthesia in 28% of the cases.

  16. Smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Scott P; Stoller, James K

    2003-12-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and smoking cessation is the most effective means of stopping the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Worldwide, approximately a billion people smoke cigarettes and 80% reside in low-income and middle-income countries. Though in the United States there has been a substantial decline in cigarette smoking since 1964, when the Surgeon General's report first reviewed smoking, smoking remains widespread in the United States today (about 23% of the population in 2001). Nicotine is addictive, but there are now effective drugs and behavioral interventions to assist people to overcome the addiction. Available evidence shows that smoking cessation can be helped with counseling, nicotine replacement, and bupropion. Less-studied interventions, including hypnosis, acupuncture, aversive therapy, exercise, lobeline, anxiolytics, mecamylamine, opioid agonists, and silver acetate, have assisted some people in smoking cessation, but none of those interventions has strong research evidence of efficacy. To promote smoking cessation, physicians should discuss with their smoking patients "relevance, risk, rewards, roadblocks, and repetition," and with patients who are willing to attempt to quit, physicians should use the 5-step system of "ask, advise, assess, assist, and arrange." An ideal smoking cessation program is individualized, accounting for the reasons the person smokes, the environment in which smoking occurs, available resources to quit, and individual preferences about how to quit. The clinician should bear in mind that quitting smoking can be very difficult, so it is important to be patient and persistent in developing, implementing, and adjusting each patient's smoking-cessation program. One of the most effective behavioral interventions is advice from a health care professional; it seems not to matter whether the advice is from a doctor, respiratory therapist, nurse, or other

  17. Comparative effects of pyrolytic products of fiber reinforced plastic and wood shavings on the respiratory variables in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pravin; Deb, Utsab; Gautam, Anshoo; Vijayaraghavan, R; Ratna, Debdatta; Chakraborty, B C

    2010-08-01

    Comparative inhalation toxicity studies of pyrolytic products (smoke) from synthetic polymer, fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) and teak wood shavings were carried out in male Swiss albino mice. The breathing pattern and the respiratory variables were monitored using a computer program that recognizes the modifications of the respiratory pattern. Exposure to the smoke from both the polymers caused a concentration dependent decrease in normal breathing and an increase in sensory irritation measure. The acute lethal concentration 50 values for a 15 min static inhalation exposure to the smoke from FRP and teak wood shavings were found to be > 200.00 and 62.99 g/m(3), respectively. Hence the inhalation toxicity of smoke from FRP sample on a mass basis is approximately one-third that of the smoke from teak wood. The concentration of smoke causing 50% respiratory depression of the exposed animals were found to be 6.877 and 0.106 g/m(3) for FRP and teak wood samples, respectively. Thus the sensory irritancy of the smoke from FRP sample is approximately 65 times lesser than the smoke from teak wood. The higher sensory irritancy potential of wood smoke as compared to FRP smoke may be caused by a greater number of submicron particles (size range of 2 micron and less) and greater percentage of gases present in wood smoke as compared to FRP smoke. Thus in case of accidental fires, synthetic polymers like FRP may be a safer choice for structural parts and interiors than the natural wood.

  18. Asia Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Smoke from Asian Fires Traverses the Pacific     View Larger Image ... moved eastwards over the northern portion of the Pacific Ocean, the thickness of the smoke passing over an area south of the Aleutian ...

  19. Smoking Cessation

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014 [accessed 2017 ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010 [accessed 2017 ...

  20. Indoor pollution and burning practices in wood stove management.

    PubMed

    Piccardo, M T; Cipolla, M; Stella, A; Ceppi, M; Bruzzone, M; Izzotti, A; Valerio, F

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluates effects of good burning practice and correct installation and management of wood heaters on indoor air pollution in an Italian rural area. The same study attests the role of education in mitigating wood smoke pollution. In August 2007 and winters of 2007 and 2008, in a little mountain village of Liguria Apennines (Italy), indoor and outdoor benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) concentrations were measured in nine wood-heated houses. During the first sampling, several mistakes in heating plant installations and management were found in all houses. Indoor BTEX concentrations increased during use of wood burning. Low toluene/benzene ratios were in agreement with wood smoke as main indoor and outdoor pollution source. Other BTEX sources were identified as the indoor use ofsolvents andpaints and incense burning. Results obtained during 2007 were presented and discussed with homeowners. Following this preventive intervention, in the second winter sampling all indoor BTEX concentrations decreased, in spite of the colder outdoor air temperatures. Information provided to families has induced the adoption of effective good practices in stoves and fire management. These results highlight the importance ofeducation, supported by reliable data on air pollution, as an effective method to reduce wood smoke exposures.

  1. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Search How We Work Our Focus Areas About RWJF Search Menu How We Work Grants and Grant ... more For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funds a wide array of programs which ...

  2. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Search How We Work Our Focus Areas About RWJF Search Menu How We Work Grants and Grant ... message For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation funds a wide array of programs which ...

  3. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  4. Flatfishes of Norwegian coasts and fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Ole Thomas; Eliassen, Jens-Eric; Høines, Åge

    1998-09-01

    Bottom trawl surveys in North Norwegian fjords and coastal areas, on a South Norwegian coastal bank, and along the Russian Kola coast, are used to describe distribution, species composition, individual growth, population structure, and exploitation of plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa), long rough dab ( Hippoglossoides platessoides), witch ( Glyptocephalus cynoglossus), lemon sole ( Microstomus kitt), dab ( Limanda limanda), megrim ( Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis), halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus) and Greenland halibut ( Reinhardtius hippoglossoides). Based on distribution and abundance, individual species have been grouped as northern, southern or intermediate, as shallow or deep, and as associated with fjords or with coastal banks. The four most abundant flatfishes in Norwegian coastal zones, plaice, long rough dab, witch, and lemon sole, were equally or more abundant in the north compared to the south. Specimens of these species were generally larger in the north and mean length at age tended to be lower. Possible nursery areas were indicated for plaice and lemon sole.

  5. Breivik--the Norwegian terrorist case.

    PubMed

    Syse, Aslak

    2014-01-01

    On July 22, 2011, there were two murderous attacks in Norway. Both assaults - the bombing of governmental buildings in Oslo City center and the lethal shooting down of young members of the Labour Party on an island - were planned and accomplished by a lone perpetrator. These episodes give rise to several interesting questions. What happened really, and how could it happen? Was the perpetrator sane or insane? What was the ideological background for the attacks? It is unnecessary to discuss in any detail whether or not these acts should be categorized as terrorism. However, there is good reason to consider what these terror attacks imply for Norwegian society at large. What significance did the attacks have for Norwegian democracy, and did they have any impact on the 2013 parliamentary elections? What will be the future for the offender, both in the short term and in years to come? What will happen to the Norwegian insanity defense? These questions are addressed in this article.

  6. Iron Stain on Wood

    Treesearch

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  7. Wood Formation in Trees

    Treesearch

    Melanie Mauriat; Gregoire Le Provost; Phillippe Rozenberg; Sylvain Delzon; Nathalie Breda; Bruno Clair; Catherine Coutand; Jean-Christoph Domec; Thierry Fourcaud; Jacqueline Grima-Pettenati; Raul Herrera; Jean-Charles Leple; Nicolas Richet; Jean-Francois Trontin; Christophe Plomion

    2014-01-01

    Among the ecosystem services provided by forests, wood provisioning takes a central position. Wood and derived products have played a critical role in the evolution of human kind and demand for raw material is increasing in a foreseeable future. Wood is used for energy production, construction and a wide variety of products for which different properties are required....

  8. Wood and society

    Treesearch

    Christopher D. Risbrudt

    2005-01-01

    Forests, and the wood they produce, have played an important role in human activity since before recorded history. Indeed, one of the first major innovations of humankind was utilizing fire, fueled by wood, for cooking and heating. It is very likely that early hominids used wood fires for cooking as long as 1.5 million years ago (Clark and Harris 1985). Clear evidence...

  9. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Treesearch

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Roger M. Rowell

    2010-01-01

    The wood industry can expand into new sustainable markets with the formation of a new class of composites with the marriage of the wood industry and the plastics industry. The wood component, usually a flour or fiber, is combined with a thermoplastic to form an extrudable, injectable or thermoformable composite that can be used in many non-structural applications....

  10. Wood preservative testing

    Treesearch

    Rebecca Ibach; Stan T. Lebow

    2012-01-01

    Most wood species used in commercial and residential construction have little natural biological durability and will suffer from biodeterioration when exposed to moisture. Historically, this problem has been overcome by treating wood for outdoor use with toxic wood preservatives. As societal acceptance of chemical use changes, there is continual pressure to develop and...

  11. Wood adhesion and adhesives

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart

    2005-01-01

    An appreciation of rheology, material science, organic chemistry, polymer science, and mechanics leads to better understanding of the factors controlling the performance of the bonded assemblies. Given the complexity of wood as a substrate, it is hard to understand why some wood adhesives work better than other wood adhesives, especially when under the more severe...

  12. Chemical modification of wood

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    The properties of any resource are, in general, a result of the chemistry of the components of that resource. In the case of wood, the cell wall polymers (cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin) are the components that, if modified, would change the properties of the resource. If the properties of the wood are modified, the performance of the modified wood would be...

  13. Adhesive interactions with wood

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    While the chemistry for the polymerization of wood adhesives has been studied systematically and extensively, the critical aspects of the interaction of adhesives with wood are less clearly understood. General theories of bond formation need to be modified to take into account the porosity of wood and the ability of chemicals to be absorbed into the cell wall....

  14. Biodeterioration of wood

    Treesearch

    Carol A. Clausen

    2010-01-01

    Under proper conditions, wood will give centuries of service. However, under conditions that permit the development of wood-degrading organisms, protection must be provided during processing, merchandising, and use. The organisms that can degrade wood are principally fungi, insects, bacteria, and marine borers.

  15. Biodeterioration of wood

    Treesearch

    Terry L. Highley

    1999-01-01

    Under proper conditions, wood will give centuries of service. However, if conditions exist that permit the development of wood-degrading organisms, protection must be provided during processing, merchandising, and use. The principal organisms that can degrade wood are fungi, insects, bacteria, and marine borers. Molds, most sapwood stains, and decay are caused by fungi...

  16. Energy from wood

    Treesearch

    J.I. Zerbe

    2004-01-01

    In most developing countries wood and charcoal are the predominant fuels for preparation of food to maintain the quality of life that encompasses the majority of citizens. In many developing countries wood fuels are also important for small and medium size industries. Moreover, energy from wood continues to be important in industrial countries. In the USA biomass...

  17. Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR) Phase 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-23

    PAGE 1 REPORT NUMBER F08606-76-C-0001 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO 4. TITLE (end Subtitle) rsir Report" Norwegian Seismic Array (N<$SSAR) Phase 3 # 7...34 CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBERf») Ftf86^6-76-C-##l, 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT, TASK AREA • JORK UNIT NUMBERS NORSAR Phase 3 23 Ju IS...0001 Nils Mar&s (02) 71 69 15 Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR) Phase 3 $800 000 1 January 1976 - 30 June 1976 The views and conclusions

  18. Economics of wood dust

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, J.A.

    1980-11-01

    This article reviews the economic effects of wood dust. The most important use of wood today is a fuel, and wood chips and shavings are sources of feedstock for boilers. Other uses include wood chips in the manufacture of particleboard, wood dust as bedding in riding stables and race tracks, as mulch for florists, and as an absorbent in the meat packing industry. The installation of dust collection systems is strongly urged as the consequences of inadequate collection include rapid machine wear, poor environmental conditions for workers, general interference with work, and its combustibility makes it a constant fire hazard.

  19. Smoking and Tobacco Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking & Tobacco Use Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Smoking & Tobacco Use HIV and Smoking Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable ... Provider Smoking Cessation Resources . /* ** // ** */ The Benefits of Quitting Smoking Quitting smoking has major and immediate health benefits ...

  20. Stop smoking support programs

    MedlinePlus

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

  1. Norwegian Sami differs significantly from other Norwegians according to their HLA profile.

    PubMed

    Harbo, H F; Riccio, M E; Lorentzen, A R; Utsi, E; Myhr, K-M; Mellgren, S I; Flåm, S T; Thorsby, E; Sanchez-Mazas, A; Lie, B A

    2010-03-01

    This study reports extensive genomic data for both human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II loci in Norwegian Sami, a native population living in the northwest of Europe. The Sami have a distinct culture and their own languages, which belong to the Uralic linguistic family. Norwegian Sami (n = 200) were typed at the DNA level for the HLA-A, -C, -B, -DRB1 and -DQB1 loci, and compared with a non-Sami Norwegian population (n = 576). The two populations exhibited some common genetic features but also differed significantly at all HLA loci. The most significantly deviating allele frequencies were an increase of HLA-A*03, -B*27, -DRB1*08 and -DQB1*04 and a decrease of HLA-A*01, C*01, -DRB1*04 and -DQB1*02 among Sami compared with non-Sami Norwegians. The Sami showed no deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The hypothesis of selective neutrality was rejected at all loci except for the A- and C- loci for the Sami. HLA haplotype frequencies also differed between the two populations. The most common extended HLA haplotypes were A*02-B*27-C*01-DR*08-DQB1*04 in the Sami and A*01-B*08-C*07-DR*03-DQB1*02 in the other Norwegians. Genetic distance analyses indicated that the Norwegian Sami were highly differentiated from other Europeans and were most closely related to Finns whose language also belongs to the Uralic linguistic family. In conclusion, the Norwegian Sami and the non-Sami Norwegians were significantly different at all HLA loci. Our results can be explained by the fact that the two populations have different origins and that the Sami population has remained smaller and more isolated than its neighbors.

  2. Being "Neutral"? English Pronunciation among Norwegian Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindal, Ulrikke; Piercy, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the pronunciation of English among Norwegian adolescents by applying sociolinguistic methods in a second language context. Results from an auditory analysis of seven phonological variables show a blended use of linguistic features from American English and British English, with some additional pronunciations, forming a…

  3. A New Deal for Norwegian Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AAmodt, Per O.

    1990-01-01

    In the late 1980s, Norwegian higher education has been characterized by increasing political interest, focus on universities and long-term research-oriented education, a growing student population, and a market orientation. Growing unemployment is also a factor. Despite opposition to Norway's joining the European Economic Community, integration at…

  4. Field development projects advance in Norwegian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Vielvoye, R.

    1992-03-30

    This paper reports on the Norwegian Sea, lying between the Norwegian North Sea and the western flank of the Barents Sea, which is set to become Norway's second oil and gas producing province. Oil is scheduled to start to flow near the end of next year when AS Norske Shell places on production 428 million bbl Draugen field in Block 6407/9, about 60 miles off the coast of mid-Norway in the frontier sea area known as Haltenbanken. Two years later, in 1995, Norske Conoco AS will add to the 95,000 b/d from Draugen when it commissions the world's first concrete hull tension leg platform (TLP) in Heidrun field. The TLP is expected to produce 200,000 b/d of oil and move associated gas by pipeline to the Norwegian mainland to feed a worldscale methanol plant planned for construction at Tjeldbergodden. The Norwegian government also has been asked to approve a gas pipeline link between Haltenbanken and the gas export infrastructure in the North Sea.

  5. Broad-spectrum antibiotics in Norwegian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Holen, Øyunn; Alberg, Torunn; Blix, Hege Salvesen; Smith, Ingrid; Neteland, Marion Iren; Eriksen, Hanne Merete

    2017-03-01

    BACKGROUND One of the objectives in the action plan to reduce antimicrobial resistance in the health services in Norway is to reduce the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in Norwegian hospitals. This study describes the use of certain broad-spectrum antibiotics mentioned in the action plan in Norwegian hospitals, and assesses prescribing practices in relation to the Norwegian guidelines for antibiotic use in hospitals.MATERIAL AND METHOD Data were analysed from a nationwide non-identifiable point prevalence survey in May 2016 where all systemic use of antibiotics was recorded.RESULTS Broad-spectrum antibiotics accounted for 33 % of all antibiotics prescribed. Altogether 84 % of all broad-spectrum antibiotics were prescribed as treatment, 8 % were for prophylactic use, and 8 % were classified as other/unknown. Lower respiratory tract infections were the most frequent indication for treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, involving 30 % of all broad-spectrum treatment.INTERPRETATION This point prevalence survey in Norwegian hospitals in spring 2016 indicates a possibility for reducing the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections and for prophylactic use. Reduction of healthcare-associated infections may also contribute.

  6. Norwegian Superintendents as Mediators of Change Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Jan Merok

    2014-01-01

    The underlying theoretical argument in this article views municipal school superintendents in the Nordic context as middle managers in organizational theory terminology. Empirical support for this discussion emerges from national data collected among Norwegian school superintendents in 2009. Findings show that the actual work and leadership…

  7. Norwegian Superintendents as Mediators of Change Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Jan Merok

    2014-01-01

    The underlying theoretical argument in this article views municipal school superintendents in the Nordic context as middle managers in organizational theory terminology. Empirical support for this discussion emerges from national data collected among Norwegian school superintendents in 2009. Findings show that the actual work and leadership…

  8. Norwegian Secondary School Teachers and ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikan, Gerd; Molster, Terje

    2011-01-01

    ICT is meant to be integrated in all subjects in Norwegian schools; nevertheless many teachers are reluctant to use ICT in their own teaching. This paper explores to what extent teachers use ICT in their classroom teaching and what teacher-level factors influence the use of ICT. It draws on an analysis of 10 focus-group interviews with 10 teachers…

  9. The strength of Norwegian glued laminated beams

    Treesearch

    Kjell Solli; Erik Aasheim; Robert H. Falk

    1992-01-01

    This paper focuses on the characterization and the performance of glued laminated (glulam) timber beams manufactured from machine stress graded Norwegian spruce in comparison to developing CEN standards. Material property testing indicated that the supplied laminating timber can be represented by two CEN strength classes, C37-14E and C30-12E, with about 50% yield in...

  10. Norwegian crusted scabies: an unusual case presentation.

    PubMed

    Maghrabi, Michael M; Lum, Shireen; Joba, Ameha T; Meier, Molly J; Holmbeck, Ryan J; Kennedy, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Scabies is a contagious condition that is transmitted through direct contact with an infected person and has been frequently associated with institutional and healthcare-facility outbreaks. The subtype Norwegian crusted scabies can masquerade as other dermatologic diseases owing to the heavy plaque formation. Successful treatment has been documented in published reports, including oral ivermectin and topical permethrin. Few case studies documenting the treatment of Norwegian crusted scabies have reported the use of surgical debridement as an aid to topical and/or oral treatment when severe plaque formation has been noted. A nursing home patient was admitted to the hospital for severe plaque formation of both feet. A superficial biopsy was negative for both fungus and scabies because of the severity of the plaque formation on both feet. The patient underwent a surgical, diagnostic biopsy of both feet, leading to the diagnosis of Norwegian crusted scabies. A second surgical debridement was then performed to remove the extensive plaque formation and aid the oral ivermectin and topical permethrin treatment. The patient subsequently made a full recovery and was discharged back to the nursing home. At 2 and 6 months after treatment, the patient remained free of scabies infestation, and the surgical wound had healed uneventfully. The present case presentation has demonstrated that surgical debridement can be complementary to the standard topical and oral medications in the treatment of those with Norwegian crusted scabies infestation.

  11. Functionality of liquid smoke as an all-natural antimicrobial in food preservation.

    PubMed

    Lingbeck, Jody M; Cordero, Paola; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Johnson, Michael G; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G

    2014-06-01

    The smoking of foods, especially meats, has been used as a preservation technique for centuries. Today, smoking methods often involve the use of wood smoke condensates, commonly known as liquid smoke. Liquid smoke is produced by condensing wood smoke created by the pyrolysis of sawdust or wood chips followed by removal of the carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The main products of wood pyrolysis are phenols, carbonyls and organic acids which are responsible for the flavor, color and antimicrobial properties of liquid smoke. Several common food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus have shown sensitivity to liquid smoke in vitro and in food systems. Therefore liquid smoke has potential for use as an all-natural antimicrobial in commercial applications where smoke flavor is desired. This review will cover the application and effectiveness of liquid smoke and fractions of liquid smoke as an all-natural food preservative. This review will be valuable for the industrial and research communities in the food science and technology areas.

  12. Effect of smoke generation sources and smoke curing duration on the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in different suites of fish.

    PubMed

    Essumang, D K; Dodoo, D K; Adjei, J K

    2013-08-01

    The research studied the impact of smoke generation sources on PAH contamination in four different smoke-cured fish (mackerel, sardine, tuna and Cigar minnows). The smoke sources used included acacia, sugarcane bagasse and mangrove. PAHs in the smoke-cured fish were analysed using Varian GC/MS (3800-GC) system. The mean total PAH concentrations in the smoked fish (n=108) ranged from 250.59-1376.09 μg/kg in tuna, cigar minnows, sardine and mackerel smoke-cured with sugarcane bagasse, mangrove and acacia for between 2 and 8h. The mean BaP levels for most fish cured with smoke from acacia and mangrove for between 2 and 8h were all above the European Commission set limit of 5.0 μg/kg. Positive correlations (at P=0.01, 2-tailed) were observed between PAH levels in smoked fish and lignin contents of wood type used for the smoke generation, the fat content and the smoke-curing duration. Risk assessment conducted using benzo[a]pyrene carcinogenic and mutagenic toxicity equivalency factors (TEF and MEF respectively) showed high risk associated with consuming fish smoke-cured with hard woods (acacia and mangroves). Sugarcane bagasse was found to be relatively the best and safest smoke-generating source for smoke-curing of fish among the three wood types when using the traditional kiln. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahide; Maekura, Ryoji

    2011-10-01

    Smoking has been determined as a cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in most patients. Smoking cessation should be stressed above everything else for COPD patients under all conditions. A smoking habit is determined not as a preference but as a dependency on tobacco; therefore, smoking cessation is difficult solely based on one's motivation. Smoking cessation therapy is employed with cessation aids. Now, we can use nicotine-containing gum, patches, and the nicotine-receptor partial agonist varenicline. First, nicotine from tobacco is replaced with a nicotin patch, or a nicotine-free condition is induced by varenicline. Subsequently, the drugs are gradually reduced. In Japan, smoking cessation therapy is covered by public health insurance as definite requirements.

  14. Wood decay at sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, François; Coston-Guarini, Jennifer; Guarini, Jean-Marc; Fanfard, Sandrine

    2016-08-01

    The oceans and seas receive coarse woody debris since the Devonian, but the kinetics of wood degradation remains one of many unanswered questions about the fate of driftwood in the marine environment. A simple gravimetric experiment was carried out at a monitoring station located at the exit of a steep, forested Mediterranean watershed in the Eastern Pyrenees. The objective was to describe and quantify, with standardized logs (in shape, structure and constitution), natural degradation of wood in the sea. Results show that the mass decrease of wood logs over time can be described by a sigmoidal curve. The primary process of wood decay observed at the monitoring station was due to the arrival and installation of wood-boring species that consumed more than half of the total wood mass in six months. Surprisingly, in a region where there is little remaining wood marine infrastructure, "shipworms", i.e. xylophagous bivalves, are responsible for an important part of this wood decay. This suggests that these communities are maintained probably by a frequent supply of a large quantity of riparian wood entering the marine environment adjacent to the watershed. By exploring this direct link between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, our long term objective is to determine how these supplies of terrestrial organic carbon can sustain wood-based marine communities as it is observed in the Mediterranean Sea.

  15. Many Roles of Wood Adhesives

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart

    2014-01-01

    Although wood bonding is one of the oldest applications of adhesives, going back to early recorded history (1), some aspects of wood bonds are still not fully understood. Most books in the general area of adhesives and adhesion do not cover wood bonding. However, a clearer understanding of wood bonding and wood adhesives can lead to improved products. This is important...

  16. Structure and function of wood

    Treesearch

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Regis B. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Despite the many human uses to which various woods are suited, at a fundamental level wood is a complex biological structure, itself a composite of many chemistries and cell types acting together to serve the needs of the plant. Although humans have striven to understand wood in the context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the key and basic fact that wood...

  17. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of general and central obesity among the Sami and Norwegian populations: the SAMINOR study.

    PubMed

    Nystad, Tove; Melhus, Marita; Brustad, Magritt; Lund, Eiliv

    2010-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence of general (body mass index) and central (waist circumference and waist/hip ratio) obesity in an area with a mixed Sami and Norwegian population. A cross-sectional population-based study carried out in 2003- 2004, the SAMINOR study. The attendance rate was 60.6%. A total of 7,301 men and 7,841 women, aged 36-79, were included in the analyses. Height, weight, waist and hip circumference were measured, body mass index (BMI) calculated and information concerning lifestyle was collected by questionnaire. The prevalence of general obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m(2)) in participants who had Sami as their home language for three generations (Sami I) and Norwegian participants was 38.7% and 24.3% for women respectively; and for men 26.9% and 23.4% respectively. More than 40% of the women had central obesity (waist circumference > or = 88 cm), and the highest prevalence was found in Sami I women (45%). The highest prevalence of central obesity (waist circumference > or = 102 cm) was found in Norwegian men (24.2%). The ethnic differences persisted after adjustment for age, education, physical activity in leisure time, and smoking habits. The prevalence of obesity was high in this population and central obesity was most pronounced in women, particularly in Sami women. Sami men were less obese than Norwegian men. Further studies are necessary to examine a possible explanation for these findings, especially to elaborate on the impact of diet.

  18. Lignification and tension wood.

    PubMed

    Pilate, Gilles; Chabbert, Brigitte; Cathala, Bernard; Yoshinaga, Arata; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Laurans, Françoise; Lapierre, Catherine; Ruel, Katia

    2004-01-01

    Hardwood trees are able to reorient their axes owing to tension wood differentiation. Tension wood is characterised by important ultrastructural modifications, such as the occurrence in a number of species, of an extra secondary wall layer, named gelatinous layer or G-layer, mainly constituted of cellulose microfibrils oriented nearly parallel to the fibre axis. This G-layer appears directly involved in the definition of tension wood mechanical properties. This review gathers the data available in the literature about lignification during tension wood formation. Potential roles for lignin in tension wood formation are inferred from biochemical, anatomical and mechanical studies, from the hypotheses proposed to describe tension wood function and from data coming from new research areas such as functional genomics.

  19. Wood Dust Exposure and Risk of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, Parveen; Newcomer, Laura; Onstad, Lynn; Teschke, Kay; Camp, Janice; Morgan, Michael; Vaughan, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Despite the compelling association between wood dust and sinonasal cancer, there has been little systematic and rigorous study of the relationship between wood dust and lung cancer. We investigated whether a history of exposure to wood dust through occupational and hobby-related activities was associated with increased lung cancer risk. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study, with 440 cases, identified from 1993 to 1996 through the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Cancer Surveillance System for western Washington State, and 845 age-matched controls, identified by random-digit dialing. Using detailed work and personal histories, quantitative estimates of cumulative exposure to wood dust (thought to be primarily from softwood) were calculated for each participant. Using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age and smoking status, risk of lung cancer was examined in relation to employment in wood-related occupations, working with wood as a hobby, as well as cumulative wood dust exposure that took into account both occupational and hobby-related sources. Results While we observed an increased risk of lung cancer associated with working in a sawmill (OR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.1), we found no evidence of increased risks with other occupations, working with wood as a hobby or with estimated cumulative exposure to wood dust (OR = 0.9; 95% CI: 0.6, 1.3, for highest compared to lowest quartile of exposure). Contrary to our hypothesis, we observed modest non-significant decreased risks with exposure to wood dust, although no dose-response relationship was apparent. Conclusions This study provided somewhat reassuring evidence that softwood dust does not increase the risk of lung cancer, but future studies should closely evaluate exposure to hardwood dusts. Suggestive evidence for an inverse association may be attributable to the presence of endotoxin in the wood dust, but the lack of a dose-response relationship suggests a non

  20. Chapter 9: Wood Energy

    Treesearch

    Francisco X. Aguilar; Karen Abt; Branko Glavonjic; Eugene Lopatin; Warren  Mabee

    2016-01-01

    The availabilty of information on wood energy continues to improve, particularly for commoditized woodfuels.  Wood energy consumption and production vary in the UNECE region because demand is strngly affected by weather and the prices of competing energy sources.  There has been an increase in wood energy in the power-and-heat sector in the EU28 and North American...

  1. Cary Woods Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havens, Glenda

    1994-01-01

    Describes the school reading program at Cary Woods Elementary School (in Auburn, Alabama), one of several school reading programs designated by the International Reading Association as exemplary. (SR)

  2. Wood formation in Angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Déjardin, Annabelle; Laurans, Françoise; Arnaud, Dominique; Breton, Christian; Pilate, Gilles; Leplé, Jean-Charles

    2010-04-01

    Wood formation is a complex biological process, involving five major developmental steps, including (1) cell division from a secondary meristem called the vascular cambium, (2) cell expansion (cell elongation and radial enlargement), (3) secondary cell wall deposition, (4) programmed cell death, and (5) heartwood formation. Thanks to the development of genomic studies in woody species, as well as genetic engineering, recent progress has been made in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying wood formation. In this review, we will focus on two different aspects, the lignification process and the control of microfibril angle in the cell wall of wood fibres, as they are both key features of wood material properties.

  3. Cary Woods Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havens, Glenda

    1994-01-01

    Describes the school reading program at Cary Woods Elementary School (in Auburn, Alabama), one of several school reading programs designated by the International Reading Association as exemplary. (SR)

  4. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Smoking and Asthma How Can I Quit Smoking? Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend Permissions Guidelines Note: Clicking these links will take you to a site outside of KidsHealth's control. About TeensHealth Nemours.org Reading BrightStart! Contact Us ...

  5. [Youth Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stare, Russell K., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter "Prevention Forum" focuses on smoking among adolescents. The articles are as follows: (1) "Where There's Smoke--Will Prevention Put Out the Fire?" (Joanne Burgess), an overview of the Surgeon General's report "Preventing Tobacco Use among Young People," including interviews with prevention…

  6. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Income 8 Secondhand smoke exposure is higher among people with low incomes. During 2011–2012, more than 2 out of every 5 (43.2%) nonsmokers who lived below the poverty level were exposed to secondhand smoke. Occupation 10 ...

  7. [Youth Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stare, Russell K., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter "Prevention Forum" focuses on smoking among adolescents. The articles are as follows: (1) "Where There's Smoke--Will Prevention Put Out the Fire?" (Joanne Burgess), an overview of the Surgeon General's report "Preventing Tobacco Use among Young People," including interviews with prevention…

  8. Chemical and physical characterization of emissions from birch wood combustion in a wood stove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedberg, Emma; Kristensson, Adam; Ohlsson, Michael; Johansson, Christer; Johansson, Per-Åke; Swietlicki, Erik; Vesely, Vaclav; Wideqvist, Ulla; Westerholm, Roger

    wood smoke would be about 40% of B(a)P.

  9. The Norwegian Sounding Rocket and Balloon Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skatteboe, Rolf

    2001-08-01

    The status and recent developments of the Norwegian Sounding Rocket and Balloon Program are presented with focus on national activities and recent achievements. The main part of the Norwegian program is sounding rocket launches conducted by Andøya Rocket Range from the launch facilities on Andøya and at Svalbard. For the majority of the programs, the scientific goal is investigation of processes in the middle and upper atmosphere. The in situ measurements are supplemented by a large number of ground-based support instruments located at the ALOMAR Observatory. The ongoing and planned projects are described and the highlights of the latest completed projects are given. The scientific program for the period 2001-2003 will be reviewed. Several new programs have been started to improve the services available to the international science comunity. The Hotel Payload project and MiniDusty are important examples that will be introduced in the paper. Available space related infrastructure is summarized.

  10. [HTLV examination of Norwegian blood donors].

    PubMed

    Samdal, H H; Skaug, K; Stigum, H; Hervig, T; Kjeldsen-Kragh, J; Skar, A G

    1999-01-20

    Approximately one third of the Norwegian blood donor population has been tested for infection with human T-lymphotropic virus type I and II (HTLV-I/II). This study was initiated to provide an indication as to whether or not the Norwegian transfusion service should screen the entire donor population for HTLV I/II. No HTLV-I infections were found among the blood donors. One new donor was confirmed HTLV-II positive. This individual had previously used drugs intravenously. HTLV-I/II infection can be regarded as a marker for risk behaviour, and testing can be of significance in the quality assurance of the transfusion service. We recommend that the entire blood donor population be tested for HTLV-I/II infections, and thereafter only new donors. The benefit of this scheme should be evaluated in the future.

  11. Tanker spills Norwegian crude oil off Shetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-11

    This paper reports that crude oil was spilling last week from the U.S. owned Braer tanker after the 89,000 dwt vessel ran aground on the south end of Scotland's Shetland Islands. Workers were trying to assess the extent of damage to the tanker, shoreline, and wildlife after the January 5 accident. Braer's cargo amounted to 607,000 bbl of Norwegian oil bound for Canada. Braer loaded its cargo and sailed January 3 from Den norske stats oljeselskap AS's Mongstad, Norway, terminal with crude from Gullfaks field in the Norwegian North Sea. The $11 million shipment was destined for Ultramar Canada Inc.'s 125,000 b/d refinery at St. Romuald, Que.

  12. On the origin of the Norwegian lemming.

    PubMed

    Lagerholm, Vendela K; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Ehrich, Dorothee; Abramson, Natalia I; Nadachowski, Adam; Kalthoff, Daniela C; Germonpré, Mietje; Angerbjörn, Anders; Stewart, John R; Dalén, Love

    2014-04-01

    The Pleistocene glacial cycles resulted in significant changes in species distributions, and it has been discussed whether this caused increased rates of population divergence and speciation. One species that is likely to have evolved during the Pleistocene is the Norwegian lemming (Lemmus lemmus). However, the origin of this species, both in terms of when and from what ancestral taxon it evolved, has been difficult to ascertain. Here, we use ancient DNA recovered from lemming remains from a series of Late Pleistocene and Holocene sites to explore the species' evolutionary history. The results revealed considerable genetic differentiation between glacial and contemporary samples. Moreover, the analyses provided strong support for a divergence time prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), therefore likely ruling out a postglacial colonization of Scandinavia. Consequently, it appears that the Norwegian lemming evolved from a small population that survived the LGM in an ice-free Scandinavian refugium.

  13. [Crusted scabies (Norwegian scabies) a case report].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Tamayo, Nora; Flores-Villa, Rebeca; Blanco-Aguilar, Jaime; Dueñas-Arau, Maria de los Angeles; Peña-Flores, María del Pilar Cristal; Rubio-Calva, Carolina; Santos-Marcial, Edgar

    2006-01-01

    Different types of scabies have been described based on their clinical outcome, one of which is the Crusted (Norwegian) type. This is an extreme manifestation of scabies that can be observed mainly among immunosupressed patients. A case ofa 42 year-old homosexual man is described. The patient was diagnosed with HIV, presenting pruritic lesions with a 4 month evolution in trunk and extremities. Lesions included xerosis, decapitated papules, badges with erythema, residual hyperchromic stains, multiple abrasions and ungueal pigmentation in both feet. At the beginning it was treated as apsorasiform dermatitis with steroids and antipruritics without success. Through a biopsy the suspected diagnosis of Crusted (Norwegian) scabies was confirmed. The patient was treated with a dose of oral ivermectin and topical benzyl benzoate and showed remission after two days.

  14. The relationship between snus use and smoking cognitions.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Elisabeth; Rise, Jostein; Lund, Karl Erik

    2012-12-01

    We examined whether use of snus influenced cognitions in terms of smoking expectancies and smoking prototype perceptions in a direction that could promote smoking initiation, thus highlighting potential causal mechanisms between the use of snus and smoking behavior. A telephone-based longitudinal survey among Norwegian adolescents was conducted with two points of measurement during a 1-year period in 2006-2007. The respondents were divided into four groups: Group 1: snus initiators during the period (N = 54), Group 2: regular snus users (N = 160), Group 3: non-users of snus and cigarettes (N = 376), and Group 4: regular smokers (N = 306). Wilcoxon tests were applied to determine any changes in smoking cognitions from 2006 to 2007. The group of snus initiators (Group 1) reported a significantly higher level of expectancies of smoking to promote negative affect reduction at follow-up, while all other cognitions remained stable. The group of smokers (Group 4) reported on average positive smoking cognitions, and significant changes were observed during the period. However, among regular snus users (Group 2) and non-users (Group 3), there were no significant changes in any of the smoking cognitions. The uptake of snus might influence expectancies of cigarettes to reduce negative affect in a direction facilitating smoking initiation, but the use of snus does not appear to influence the majority of cognitions known to promote smoking initiation among adolescents.

  15. The relationship between snus use and smoking cognitions

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Elisabeth; Rise, Jostein; Lund, Karl Erik

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether use of snus influenced cognitions in terms of smoking expectancies and smoking prototype perceptions in a direction that could promote smoking initiation, thus highlighting potential causal mechanisms between the use of snus and smoking behavior. A telephone-based longitudinal survey among Norwegian adolescents was conducted with two points of measurement during a 1-year period in 2006–2007. The respondents were divided into four groups: Group 1: snus initiators during the period (N = 54), Group 2: regular snus users (N = 160), Group 3: non-users of snus and cigarettes (N = 376), and Group 4: regular smokers (N = 306). Wilcoxon tests were applied to determine any changes in smoking cognitions from 2006 to 2007. The group of snus initiators (Group 1) reported a significantly higher level of expectancies of smoking to promote negative affect reduction at follow-up, while all other cognitions remained stable. The group of smokers (Group 4) reported on average positive smoking cognitions, and significant changes were observed during the period. However, among regular snus users (Group 2) and non-users (Group 3), there were no significant changes in any of the smoking cognitions. The uptake of snus might influence expectancies of cigarettes to reduce negative affect in a direction facilitating smoking initiation, but the use of snus does not appear to influence the majority of cognitions known to promote smoking initiation among adolescents. PMID:23204990

  16. Iceberg scouring on the Norwegian continental shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Lien, R.

    1983-05-01

    This paper is a condensed version of parts of a Dr. ing. thesis to be presented during 1983. The first part of the paper deals with the regional distribution of iceberg scouring on the Norwegian continental shelf, and some general aspects related to it. The second part deals with iceberg scouring as a local phenomenon and its relation to the sea floor topography, sediment distribution, and geological and geotechnical properties of the sediments.

  17. Norwegian heat pump status and policy review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stene, J.; Eggen, G.; Aarlien, R.; Evenmo, K.

    1994-02-01

    This report is the Norwegian National Position Paper on heat pumps prepared for the IEA Heat Pump Centre's 1994 analysis, 'International Heat Pump Status and Policy Review'. The main objectives of this analysis is to provide an authoritative assessment of: the achievements of policy measures regarding heat pumps, the current and expected penetration of heat pumps in all market segments, and the technological status of various heat pumping technologies.

  18. Written Language Shift among Norwegian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özerk, Kamil; Todal, Jon

    2013-01-01

    In Norway there are two written Norwegian languages, Bokmâl and Nynorsk. Of these two written languages Bokmâl is being used by the majority of the people, and Bokmâl has the highest prestige in the society. This article is about the shift of written language from Nynorsk to Bokmâl among young people in a traditional Nynorsk district in the…

  19. First drilling in Norwegian sea off Norway yields encouraging results

    SciTech Connect

    Bergsager, E.

    1981-06-08

    Three exploratory wells drilled in the Norwegian Sea penetrated Jurassic sandstones with excellent reservoir qualities, rich source rock, and some evidence of hydrocarbons. Constituting the first wells drilled north of the 62nd parallel off Norway, they produced encouraging evidence of prospective structures. The Norwegian continental shelf north of the North Sea contains areas of thick sedimentary basins having an areal extent 8-9 times that of the Norwegian North Sea.

  20. Wildfire smoke exposure and human health: Significant gaps in research for a growing public health issue.

    PubMed

    Black, Carolyn; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Bassein, Jed A; Miller, Lisa A

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the effect of wildfire smoke exposure on human health represents a unique interdisciplinary challenge to the scientific community. Population health studies indicate that wildfire smoke is a risk to human health and increases the healthcare burden of smoke-impacted areas. However, wildfire smoke composition is complex and dynamic, making characterization and modeling difficult. Furthermore, current efforts to study the effect of wildfire smoke are limited by availability of air quality measures and inconsistent air quality reporting among researchers. To help address these issues, we conducted a substantive review of wildfire smoke effects on population health, wildfire smoke exposure in occupational health, and experimental wood smoke exposure. Our goal was to evaluate the current literature on wildfire smoke and highlight important gaps in research. In particular we emphasize long-term health effects of wildfire smoke, recovery following wildfire smoke exposure, and health consequences of exposure in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Norne tests new Norwegian development technologies, philosophies

    SciTech Connect

    Adlam, J. )

    1994-08-01

    The world's largest ship-shaped floating production facility will mine hydrocarbons trapped below 1,246-ft, harsh Norwegian waters at the Norne field. An innovative development philosophy involving functional specifications and life-of-field bench marking will ensure costs and lead time to first oil are minimized. The Block 6608/10 Norne field is the largest discovery on the Norwegian continental shelf in more than a decade. The field extends for 6.2 miles, is 1.24 miles wide and sits 124 miles west of the mid-Norway coast in 1,246-ft waters. Well No. 6608/10-2 first penetrated the Norne reservoir in December 1991. Appraisal well 6608/10-3 was drilled in 1993 and proved the field's northerly extension. Based on results from those two wells, a development project began last year. To improve project economics and company performance, a clear objective was established to reduce investment costs by 25%--30% compared to the current established level in Norway. The Norne organization is working on a Plan for Development and Operation to be submitted to Norwegian authorities later this year so that final approval can be obtained in early 1995.

  2. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010–2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future. PMID:27649236

  3. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-09-13

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010-2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future.

  4. [Norwegian scabies, a rare diagnosis in Tunisia].

    PubMed

    Mebazaa, Amel; Bedday, Bouraoui; Trabelsi, Sabiha; Denguezli, Mohamed; Ben Said, Moncef; Belajouza, Colandane; Nouira, Rafiaa

    2006-10-01

    Norwegian scabies is a particular form of scabies, rarely reported in Tunisia. It habitually occurs in immunocompromised hosts, with prolonged immunosuppressive therapy, congenital immune disease, HIV-1 infection or neoplasm. We report an observation of norwegian scabies, occuring in a woman with prolounged systemic corticosteroid therapy. A 65-year-old woman, with a long history of obstructive bronchoneumopathy and bronchiectasis, treated with systemic corticosteroids for 5 years, was referred with a mild pruriginous and scaly erythroderma. This dermatosis developed within 5 months, with fever and impairing of health. Skin parasitological exams showed a massive infestation by sarcoptes. Histologic findings revealed multiple sarcoptes scabiei and eggs in the stratum corneum. The patient was treated with benzyl benzoate during 48 hours. She died rapidly with acute respiratory distress. basing on this observation of norwegian scabies occuring in an old immunocompromised woman, we put the accent on this particular form of scabies, often misappreciated, and incite to practice skin and nail parasitological exams in case of mild pruriginous, chronic scaly erythroderma. developing in immunocompromised patients.

  5. Residential Wood Combustion Study. Task 5. Emissions testing of wood stoves. Volumes 3 and 4 (Appendices)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    This report contains the appendices for the results of 19 emission tests on four wood stoves and two retrofit emission control devices (reported in PB84-170638). The objectives of the study were to further identify the effect of wood moisture on stove emissions, to evaluate several inexpensive (simplified) test procedures for assessing particulate emissions, and to define a level of particulate emissions which can be expected from state-of-the-art improved combustion stoves. This study included evaluating previous test data reported in the literature. A single standard operating procedure was used throughout the test program, the objective of which was to maintain a constant heat output rate, as monitored by combustion chamber temperature and stove surface temperature. A heat output rate corresponding to a relatively moderate to low burn rate (less than 2.5 kg wood/hour) was chosen. A single wood type (Douglas fir) was used throughout the study; wood size was maintained at a consistent level. Throughout the entire test program measurements were made for particulate, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and hydrocarbon content of the emissions; the gaseous constituents were monitored continuously. Measurements were made for creosote deposition, opacity, and smoke spot density.

  6. Heat sterilization of wood

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang

    2010-01-01

    Two important questions should be considered in heat sterilizing solid wood materials: First, what temperature–time regime is required to kill a particular pest? Second, how much time is required to heat the center of any wood configuration to the kill temperature? The entomology research on the first question has facilitated the development of international standards...

  7. Wood supply and demand

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  8. Chemical modification of wood

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell

    2007-01-01

    After millions of years of evolution, wood was designed to perform in a wet environment, and nature is programmed to recycle it, in a timely way, back to the basic building blocks of carbon dioxide and water through biological, thermal, aqueous, photochemical, chemical, and mechanical degradation. The properties of wood are, for the most part, a result of the chemistry...

  9. How James Wood Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

  10. Structure of wood

    Treesearch

    Regis B. Miller

    1999-01-01

    The fibrous nature of wood strongly influences how it is used. Wood is primarily composed of hollow, elongate, spindle-shaped cells that are arranged parallel to each other along the trunk of a tree. When lumber and other products are cut from the tree, the characteristics of these fibrous cells and their arrangement affect such properties as strength and shrinkage as...

  11. How James Wood Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

  12. Multifactorial antimicrobial wood protectants

    Treesearch

    Robert D. Coleman; Carol A. Clausen

    2008-01-01

    It is unlikely that a single antimicrobial compound, whether synthetic or natural, will provide the ‘magic bullet’ for eliminating multiple biological agents affecting wood products. Development of synergistic combinations of selected compounds, especially those derived from natural sources, is recognized as a promising approach to improved wood protection. Recent...

  13. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Treesearch

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Rodney E. Jacobson; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood-plastic composites” refers to any number of composites that contain wood (of any form) and either thermoset or thermoplastic polymers. Thermosets or thermoset polymers are plastics that, once cured, cannot be remelted by heating. These include cured resins, such as epoxies and phenolics, plastics with which the forest products industry is most familiar (...

  14. Wood : mechanical fasteners

    Treesearch

    Douglas R. Rammer

    2001-01-01

    The strength and stability of any structure depends heavily on the fasteners that hold its parts together. One prime advantage of wood as a structural material is the ease with which wood structural parts can be joined together using a wide variety of fasteners: nails, staples, screws, lag screws, bolts, and various types of metal connectors. For the utmost rigidity,...

  15. Patient safety culture in Norwegian nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Bondevik, Gunnar Tschudi; Hofoss, Dag; Husebø, Bettina Sandgathe; Deilkås, Ellen Catharina Tveter

    2017-06-20

    Patient safety culture concerns leader and staff interaction, attitudes, routines, awareness and practices that impinge on the risk of patient-adverse events. Due to their complex multiple diseases, nursing home patients are at particularly high risk of adverse events. Studies have found an association between patient safety culture and the risk of adverse events. This study aimed to investigate safety attitudes among healthcare providers in Norwegian nursing homes, using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire - Ambulatory Version (SAQ-AV). We studied whether variations in safety attitudes were related to professional background, age, work experience and mother tongue. In February 2016, 463 healthcare providers working in five nursing homes in Tønsberg, Norway, were invited to answer the SAQ-AV, translated and adapted to the Norwegian nursing home setting. Previous validation of the Norwegian SAQ-AV for nursing homes identified five patient safety factors: teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, working conditions and stress recognition. SPSS v.22 was used for statistical analysis, which included estimations of mean values, standard deviations and multiple linear regressions. P-values <0.05 were considered to be significant. Out of the 463 employees invited, 288 (62.2%) answered the questionnaire. Response rates varied between 56.9% and 72.2% across the five nursing homes. In multiple linear regression analysis, we found that increasing age and job position among the healthcare providers were associated with significantly increased mean scores for the patient safety factors teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction and working conditions. Not being a Norwegian native speaker was associated with a significantly higher mean score for job satisfaction and a significantly lower mean score for stress recognition. Neither professional background nor work experience were significantly associated with mean scores for any patient safety factor. Patient

  16. The role of education for current, former and never-smoking among non-western immigrants in Norway. Does the pattern fit the model of the cigarette epidemic?

    PubMed Central

    Vedøy, Tord Finne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The aim was (1) to investigate the association between education and smoking status (current, former and never-smoking) among non-western immigrants in Norway and (2) examine if these associations fit the pattern predicted by the model of the cigarette epidemic. Design. Data came from the Oslo Health Study and the Oslo Immigrant Health study (2000–2002). The first included all Oslo citizens from seven selected birth cohorts. The second included all Oslo citizens born in Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, Vietnam and Sri Lanka. 14,768 respondents answered questions on smoking, education and relevant background variables (over-all response rate 43.3%). Two gender specific multinomial logistic regression models with smoking status [current, former or never-smoker (reference)] as dependent variable were computed and predicted probabilities of smoking status among groups with different levels of education were calculated. Results. Smoking prevalence among men ranged from 19% among Sri Lankans to 56% among Turks. Compared to the smoking prevalence among Norwegian men (27%), smoking was widespread among Iranians (42%) and Vietnamese (36%). Higher education was associated with lower probability of current smoking among all male immigrant groups except Sri Lankans. Never having smoked was positively associated with education among Pakistani and Norwegian men. Among women, < 5% smoked among Pakistanis, Vietnamese and Sri Lankans. Smoking prevalence among Turkish (28%) and Iranian (23%) women were comparable to Norwegian women (30%). The probability of smoking among Turkish and Iranian women with secondary education was higher than for other levels of education. The probability of being a never-smoker was high among Turkish and Iranian women with primary education. Conclusions. High smoking prevalence among Turkish and Iranian men highlights the importance of addressing smoking behaviour in subgroups of the general population. Smoking was almost non-existent among

  17. Temporal and Spatial Variations of Bacterial and Faunal Communities Associated with Deep-Sea Wood Falls

    PubMed Central

    Bienhold, Christina; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Rossel, Pamela E.; Boetius, Antje

    2017-01-01

    Sinking of large organic food falls i.e. kelp, wood and whale carcasses to the oligotrophic deep-sea floor promotes the establishment of locally highly productive and diverse ecosystems, often with specifically adapted benthic communities. However, the fragmented spatial distribution and small area poses challenges for the dispersal of their microbial and faunal communities. Our study focused on the temporal dynamics and spatial distributions of sunken wood bacterial communities, which were deployed in the vicinity of different cold seeps in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Norwegian deep-seas. By combining fingerprinting of bacterial communities by ARISA and 454 sequencing with in situ and ex situ biogeochemical measurements, we show that sunken wood logs have a locally confined long-term impact (> 3y) on the sediment geochemistry and community structure. We confirm previous hypotheses of different successional stages in wood degradation including a sulphophilic one, attracting chemosynthetic fauna from nearby seep systems. Wood experiments deployed at similar water depths (1100–1700 m), but in hydrographically different oceanic regions harbored different wood-boring bivalves, opportunistic faunal communities, and chemosynthetic species. Similarly, bacterial communities on sunken wood logs were more similar within one geographic region than between different seas. Diverse sulphate-reducing bacteria of the Deltaproteobacteria, the sulphide-oxidizing bacteria Sulfurovum as well as members of the Acidimicrobiia and Bacteroidia dominated the wood falls in the Eastern Mediterranean, while Alphaproteobacteria and Flavobacteriia colonized the Norwegian Sea wood logs. Fauna and bacterial wood-associated communities changed between 1 to 3 years of immersion, with sulphate-reducers and sulphide-oxidizers increasing in proportion, and putative cellulose degraders decreasing with time. Only 6% of all bacterial genera, comprising the core community, were found at any time

  18. Social Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Schane, Rebecca E.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Social smoking is increasingly prevalent and poses a challenge to traditional cessation practices. Tobacco companies conducted extensive research on social smokers long before health authorities did and marketed products to promote this smoking behavior. Purpose Research is described and mechanisms identified that are used to promote social smoking to help improve cessation strategies in this growing group. Evidence acquisition Searches from 2006 to 2008 of previously secret tobacco industry documents using keywords social smoker, light smoker, casual smoker, youth smoker, and occasional smoker, followed by snowball searching. Data analysis was conducted in 2008. Evidence synthesis Tobacco industry research identified characteristics of social smokers that include: (1) denial of personal nicotine addiction; (2) self-categorization as a nonsmoker; (3) propensity for decreased tobacco use in response to smoke-free laws; (4) variations in age, education, ethnicity, and socioeconomic backgrounds; and (5) a perceived immunity to personal health effects of tobacco but fear of consequences to others. Tobacco companies developed marketing strategies aimed at social smokers, including “non–habit forming” cigarettes. Conclusions Previously considered a transient behavior, social smoking is also a stable consumption pattern. Focused clinical questions to detect social smoking are needed and may include, “Have you smoked any cigarettes or used any tobacco products in the past month?” as opposed to “Are you a smoker?” Clinicians should recognize that social smokers might be motivated to quit after education on the dangers of secondhand smoke rather than on personal health risks or with pharmacotherapy. PMID:19589449

  19. Wood adhesives : vital for producing most wood products

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    A main route for the efficient utilization of wood resources is to reduce wood to small pieces and then bond them together (Frihart and Hunt 2010). Although humankind has been bonding wood since early Egyptian civilizations, the quality and quantity of bonded wood products has increased dramatically over the past 100 years with the development of new adhesives and...

  20. Fungicidal value of wood tar from pyrolysis of treated wood.

    PubMed

    Mazela, Bartłomiej

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the paper was to estimate the fungicidal value of wood tar extracted as a product of pyrolysis of wood previously treated with either creosote oil or CCB-type salt preservative. The effectiveness of wood treated with one of these two wood tar residuals was compared to the effectiveness of wood treated with virgin creosote oil (type WEI-B) and an untreated control. Wood was impregnated with alcohol solutions of the two extracted preservatives or virgin creosote oil and then subjected to the Coniophora puteana, Poria placenta and Coriolus versicolor fungi. The fungicidal values of the investigated preservatives were determined with the use of the short agar-block method and the aging test according to the standard EN 84. It was found that wood tar extracted by pyrolysis of old creosote-treated wood and then used to treat wood may have potential as a preservative for wood protection or as a component of preservatives.

  1. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; Trojanowski, R.; Wei, G.

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  2. Cold smoking of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets with smoke condensate--an alternative processing technology for the production of smoked salmon.

    PubMed

    Birkeland, S; Skåra, T

    2008-08-01

    Two different protocols for the production of cold smoked salmon were investigated. All fillets were dry salted (18 h, 4 degrees C) before being allotted to a smoke condensate/liquid smoke protocol (SCP), which included drenching (1 min) in smoke condensate [1:3 (v/v) smoke:water] and drying (150 min, 28.4 +/- 2.2 degrees C) or a wood chips protocol (WCP) that included drying and smoking in a regular smoking chamber (23 degrees C, 480 min) using wood chips for smoke production. Quality assessments were performed on the smoked fillets at day 0 and after 7, 14, and 31 d of storage (3.4 +/- 0.7 degrees C). Application of the SCP resulted in a significantly higher (P<0.01) processing yield (89.6% +/- 0.7%) as compared to the WCP (88.6% +/- 0.5%). On day 0, the SCP fillets were significantly (P<0.01) less light (L*) and yellow (b*) and had a lower chroma (C*) and hue (h*) compared to the fillets processed with WCP. From 7 d until the end of storage time, small differences in color were observed. After 31 d of storage, the SCP fillets had a significantly higher (P<0.05) intensity of oily texture and lower intensity of salty and smoke taste. Texture profile analysis (TPA) showed few significant differences between the processing protocols, although the WCP fillets were significantly harder than the SCP fillets when recording the force at 60% compression of the fillet height. The use of smoke condensate and drenching technology is a way of producing cold smoked salmon with quality characteristics quite similar to those found in commercial "traditional" products, although processors who want to use this technology have to optimize the drying step and the smoke condensate formulation to their specifications.

  3. Chapter 6: Wood energy and competing wood product markers

    Treesearch

    Kenneth E. Skog; Robert C. Abt; Karen Abt

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effect of expanding wood energy markets is important to all wood-dependent industries and to policymakers debating the implementation of public programs to support the expansion of wood energy generation. A key factor in determining the feasibility of wood energy projects (e.g. wood boiler or pellet plant) is the long-term (i.e. 20-30year) supply...

  4. Structure and Function of Wood

    Treesearch

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2012-01-01

    Wood is a complex biological structure, a composite of many cell types and chemistries acting together to serve the needs of living plant. Attempting to understand wood inthe context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the basic fact that wood evolved over the course of millions of years to serve three main functions in plants-conduction of water from the...

  5. Public participation GIS for improving wood burning emissions from residential heating and urban environmental management.

    PubMed

    López-Aparicio, Susana; Vogt, Matthias; Schneider, Philipp; Kahila-Tani, Maarit; Broberg, Anna

    2017-04-15

    A crowdsourcing study supported by a public participation GIS tool was designed and carried out in two Norwegian regions. The aim was to improve the knowledge about emissions from wood burning for residential heating in urban areas based on the collection of citizens' localized insights. We focus on three main issues: 1) type of dwelling and residential heating source; 2) wood consumption and type of wood appliances; and 3) citizens' perception of the urban environment. Our study shows the importance of wood burning for residential heating, and of the resulted particle emissions, in Norwegian urban areas. Citizens' localized insights on environmental perception highlight the areas in the city that require particular attention as part of clean air strategies. Information about environmental perception is combined with existing environmental data showing certain correlation. The results support the urban environmental management based on co-benefit approaches, achieving several outcomes from a single policy measure. Measures to reduce urban air pollution will have a positive impact on the citizens' environmental perception, and therefore on their quality of life, in addition to reducing the negative consequences of air pollution on human health. The characterization of residential heating by fuelwood is still a challenging activity. Our study shows the potential of a crowdsourcing method as means for bottom-up approaches designed to increase our knowledge on human activities at urban scale that result on emissions.

  6. Exemplary Educational Programs in Norwegian Prisons: A Case Study of Norwegian Educators' Attitudes and Humanitarian Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Michelle D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how Norwegian correctional educators' attitudes and working environments influenced successful inmate outcomes. Success for incarcerated students was defined by the ability to enroll in and do well in prison classes, develop life skills, and gain the knowledge and skills to become productive members of…

  7. Exemplary Educational Programs in Norwegian Prisons: A Case Study of Norwegian Educators' Attitudes and Humanitarian Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Michelle D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how Norwegian correctional educators' attitudes and working environments influenced successful inmate outcomes. Success for incarcerated students was defined by the ability to enroll in and do well in prison classes, develop life skills, and gain the knowledge and skills to become productive members of…

  8. Habitat of hydrocarbons on the Norwegian continental shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The text attempts to synthesize the details of specific Norwegian finds into a regional framework which not only will be an essential reference documentation for explorationists in the Norwegian sector, but also will provide valuable insights into the variety of habitats of oil and gas accumulations in a global context.

  9. English in Norwegian Academia: A Step Towards Diglossia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljosland, Ragnhild

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the role of English in relation to Norwegian in the higher education and research sector in Norway. English has gained influence in this sector at the expense of Norwegian, something which is described as a "domain loss." Two main questions are asked: (1) Can domain loss be explained as a consequence of the linguistic…

  10. Norwegian space activities 1958-2003. A historical overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Røberg, Ole Anders; Collett, John Peter

    2004-10-01

    Contents: The early years of Norwegian geophysical and cosmic science. The first steps towards a national space research policy in Norway. A national space policy emerging between science and technology. A national programme for industralisation of space technology. Norway's long road to ESA membership. Norwegian space activities since joining ESA.

  11. Norwegian scabies - rare case of atypical manifestation*

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, Karina Corrêa; Alves, Júlia Barazetti; Tomé, Lísias de Araújo; de Moraes, Carlos Floriano; Gaspar, Arianne Ditzel; Franck, Karin Fernanda; Hussein, Mohamad Ali; da Cruz, Lucas Raiser; Ebrahim, Leonardo Duque; Sidney, Luis Felipe de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Human scabies affects all social classes and different races around the world. It is highly contagious, but the exact figures on its prevalence are unknown. A 19-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room reporting fever (38°C) and multiple lesions throughout the body, except face, soles, and palms. Lesions were non-pruritic, which hampered the initial diagnostic suspicion. Skin biopsy was performed, and the final diagnosis was crusted scabies (Norwegian). It was concluded that human scabies is a significant epidemic disease, due to its different clinical manifestations, and because it is extremely contagious. PMID:28099611

  12. Vertical Movements On The Norwegian Atlantic Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendriks, B. W. H.; Andriessen, P. A. M.

    In order to better constrain the pattern and timing of the post-Caledonian vertical movements in northern Scandinavia, the apatite fission track dataset of Hendriks and Andriessen (2002, in press) has recently been expanded with additional AFT data and a whole new set of (U-Th)/He data. Hendriks and Andriessen (2002) found an increase of AFT ages from the Norwegian Atlantic margin (mostly Cretaceous AFT ages) to the continental interior (Devonian AFT ages). Further north, along the Barents Sea margin, AFT ages were much less variable (Triassic - Carboniferous). Because of the unique low -temperature sensitivity of the (U-Th)/He technique, with ages referrering to temperatures of ~50 to ~70°C, we can now track thermal histories in northern Scandinavia into the Paleocene. The reconstuct ed denudation history in many ways is different from that of Southern Norway (Rohrman, 1995). There, rapid Triassic - Jurassic and slow Cretaceous - Paleogene exhumation were followed by domal style postrift uplift on a regional scale in the Neogene. In contrast, Mesozoic - Cenozoic exhumation of northern Scandinavia was strongly assymetric, with the most and latest denudation on the Norwegian Atlantic margin. Also, large Neogene vertical movements here are restricted to the area of the strong negative gravity anomaly in Nordland. Away from this area, the latest phase of exhumation is a late Cretaceous- Paleogene event. This is especially clear from the (U -Th)/He ages, varying between 111 +/- 16 Ma (for the same sample the AFT age is 220 +/- 25 Ma, mean track length 12.9 µm) and 57 +/- 2 Ma (AFT age 254 +/- 21 Ma, mean track length 13.9 µm) on a vertical profile in the area of maximum elevation in the Northern Scandes (~ Northern Caledonides). Jurassic - early Cretaceous denudation (applying a geotherm of ~ 30°C/km, which has been calculated directly from the vertical profile) is about 1 +/- 0.5 km. Along the Norwegian Atlantic margin (onshore), there is considerable variation in

  13. [Handbook for rotation candidates--Norwegian experiences].

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, A P; Aabakken, L

    1993-01-01

    Clinical handbooks and procedure descriptions have been suggested as a way to improve the practical part of the medical education in Norway, but experience with books of this type is scarce, and the applicability of the model has been questioned. This paper reports a questionnaire survey among Norwegian medical students who have had hands-on experience with such a book throughout their student practice. The book apparently has been used, and no serious criticism has been put forward. It is an obvious sine qua non that such a book is used with proper care, and that the cooperation with senior doctors on duty is maintained.

  14. Norwegian scabies - rare case of atypical manifestation.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Karina Corrêa; Alves, Júlia Barazetti; Tomé, Lísias de Araújo; Moraes, Carlos Floriano de; Gaspar, Arianne Ditzel; Franck, Karin Fernanda; Hussein, Mohamad Ali; Cruz, Lucas Raiser da; Ebrahim, Leonardo Duque; Sidney, Luis Felipe de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Human scabies affects all social classes and different races around the world. It is highly contagious, but the exact figures on its prevalence are unknown. A 19-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room reporting fever (38°C) and multiple lesions throughout the body, except face, soles, and palms. Lesions were non-pruritic, which hampered the initial diagnostic suspicion. Skin biopsy was performed, and the final diagnosis was crusted scabies (Norwegian). It was concluded that human scabies is a significant epidemic disease, due to its different clinical manifestations, and because it is extremely contagious.

  15. The Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR). Phase 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    NORSAR Phase 3 N-2007 Kieller- Norway ii CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE AFTAC/HQ/TGX h1no 1ORA Patrick AFB 13. NUMBER OF PAGES FL...Project Manager Frode Ringdal (02) 71 69 15 Title of Work The Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR) Phase 3 Amount of Contract $4.762.383 Contract Period Covered...one in the center. This gives an array of aperture about 4.45 km. For high-frequency phases ( 3 Hz and above) the outer ring does not contribute to

  16. Velcro mechanics in wood

    Treesearch

    David Kretschmann

    2003-12-01

    The remarkable deformability of wood in a moist environment resembles that of ductile metals. A combination of traditional mechanical tests and cutting-edge diffraction experiments reveal the molecular mechanism that determines such behaviour.

  17. Maximizing wood Failure

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1965-01-01

    The durability of plywood bonds in exterior exposure is commonly measured indirectly by failing wetted specimens in shear; a high percentage of wood failure is accepted in the industry as evidence that the gluebond will be durable.

  18. Profile: Susan Wood.

    PubMed

    Wilan, Ken

    2007-05-01

    When US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) official Susan Wood resigned over foot-dragging on Plan B, she found herself at the center of a maelstrom concerning political interference in agency decision-making.

  19. Impact Tests for Woods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    Although it is well known that the strength of wood depends greatly upon the time the wood is under the load, little consideration has been given to this fact in testing materials for airplanes. Here, results are given of impact tests on clear, straight grained spruce. Transverse tests were conducted for comparison. Both Izod and Charpy impact tests were conducted. Results are given primarily in tabular and graphical form.

  20. Transportation fuels from wood

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.; Stevens, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    The various methods of producing transportation fuels from wood are evaluated in this paper. These methods include direct liquefaction schemes such as hydrolysis/fermentation, pyrolysis, and thermochemical liquefaction. Indirect liquefaction techniques involve gasification followed by liquid fuels synthesis such as methanol synthesis or the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The cost of transportation fuels produced by the various methods are compared. In addition, three ongoing programs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory dealing with liquid fuels from wood are described.

  1. Mechanical properties of wood

    Treesearch

    David Kretschmann

    2010-01-01

    The mechanical properties presented in this chapter were obtained from tests of pieces of wood termed “clear” and “straight grained” because they did not contain characteristics such as knots, cross grain, checks, and splits. These test pieces did have anatomical characteristics such as growth rings that occurred in consistent patterns within each piece. Clear wood...

  2. Smoke detection

    DOEpatents

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-10-27

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  3. Smoke detection

    SciTech Connect

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2016-09-06

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  4. Growing with wood waste

    SciTech Connect

    White, K.M.

    1995-05-01

    When officials at Regional Waste Services (Peabody, Mass.) were looking for an outlet for their used wood products in the late 1980s, they had no idea that the material would eventually turn into a whole new market for them. Simply tired of paying exorbitant disposal fees and seeking out obscure landfills willing to accept the waste, company officials decided to build and operate their own 1,000-tpd wood recycling facility. Encouraged by the immediate success of the facility, principals at Regional Waste Services, which at the time was the fifth largest independent waste hauling, transfer, and disposal firm in the US made a strategic business decision to sell their waste hauling business and to concentrate on the wood recycling operation full time. Their newly named company, Wood Recycling, Inc. (WRI, Peabody, Mass.), was officially established in July 1990. Today, nearly five years later, that decision appears to be paying off in a big way. WRI has successfully diverted thousands of tons of urban wood wastes from landfills. It also has turned that waste into an innovative line of recycled wood and paper fiber mulch lawn care products that are being marketed to consumers and commercial entities across the country.

  5. Assessing the impact of a wood stove replacement program on air quality and children's health.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Curtis W; Ward, Tony J; Navidi, William; Sheppard, Lianne; Bergauff, Megan; Palmer, Chris

    2011-12-01

    Many rural mountain valley communities experience elevated ambient levels of fine particulate matter (PM*) in the winter, because of contributions from residential wood-burning appliances and sustained temperature inversion periods during the cold season. A wood stove change-out program was implemented in a community heavily affected by wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 (PM < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of this intervention program on ambient and indoor PM2.5 concentrations and to identify possible corresponding changes in the frequency of childhood respiratory symptoms and infections and illness-related school absences. Over 1100 old wood stoves were replaced with new EPA-certified wood stoves or other heating sources. Ambient PM2.5 concentrations were 30% lower in the winter after the changeout program, compared with baseline winters, which brought the community's ambient air within the PM2.5 standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The installation of a new wood stove resulted in an overall reduction in indoor PM2.5 concentrations in a small sample of wood-burning homes, but the effects were highly variable across homes. Community-level reductions in wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 concentration were associated with decreased reports of childhood wheeze and of other childhood respiratory health conditions. The association was not limited to children living in homes with wood stoves nor does it appear to be limited to susceptible children (e.g., children with asthma). Community-level reductions in wood-smoke-derived PM2.5 concentration were also associated with lower illness-related school absences among older children, but this finding was not consistent across all age-groups. This community-level intervention provided a unique opportunity to prospectively observe exposure and outcome changes resulting from a targeted air pollution reduction strategy.

  6. Smoke Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  7. Smoke generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. R. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A smoke generator is disclosed which is particularly suitable for mounting on the wing tips of an aircraft and for conducting airflow studies. The device includes a network of thermally insulated tubes for carrying a fluid which is used to produce smoke. The fluid, which need not be combustible, is heated above its vaporization temperature by electric current which is passed through the fluid conduit tubes, so that the tubes serve both as fluid conduits and resistance heating elements. Fluid supply and monitoring systems and electrical control systems are also disclosed.

  8. Teachers at War: Norwegian Teachers during the German Occupation of Norway 1940-45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunseath, Tessa

    2002-01-01

    States Norwegian Nazi leader, Vidkun Quisling, attempted to control dissenting Norwegian teachers by developing a compulsory union. Reports Nazi beliefs centered on controlling teachers, curriculum, and textbooks as a key to success. Notes Norwegian teachers' refusal to comply with the union scheme stymied Norwegian Nazi leaders' plans for…

  9. Teachers at War: Norwegian Teachers during the German Occupation of Norway 1940-45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunseath, Tessa

    2002-01-01

    States Norwegian Nazi leader, Vidkun Quisling, attempted to control dissenting Norwegian teachers by developing a compulsory union. Reports Nazi beliefs centered on controlling teachers, curriculum, and textbooks as a key to success. Notes Norwegian teachers' refusal to comply with the union scheme stymied Norwegian Nazi leaders' plans for…

  10. Promoting coordination in Norwegian health care1

    PubMed Central

    Romøren, Tor Inge; Torjesen, Dag Olaf; Landmark, Brynjar

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The Norwegian health care system is well organized within its two main sectors—primary health and long-term care on the one hand, and hospitals and specialist services on the other. However, the relation between them lacks mediating structures. Policy practice Enhancing coordination between primary and secondary health care has been central in Norwegian health care policy in the last decade. In 2003 a committee was appointed to identify coordination problems and proposed a lot of practical and organisational recommendations. It relied on an approach challenging primary and secondary health care in shared geographical regions to take action. However, these proposals were not implemented. In 2008 a new Minister of Health and Care worked out plans under the key term “Coordination Reform”. These reform plans superseded and expanded the previous policy initiatives concerning cooperation, but represented also a shift in focus to a regulative and centralised strategy, including new health legislation, structural reforms and use of economic incentives that are now about to be implemented. Discussion The article analyses the perspectives and proposals of the previous and the recent reform initiatives in Norway and discusses them in relation to integrated care measures implemented in Denmark and Sweden. PMID:22128282

  11. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... about exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in these places: At work The workplace is a major source of SHS ... the only way to prevent SHS exposure at work. Separating smokers from non-smokers, cleaning ... public places Everyone can be exposed to SHS in public ...

  12. Lung cancer and air pollution: a 27 year follow up of 16 209 Norwegian men

    PubMed Central

    Nafstad, P; Haheim, L; Oftedal, B; Gram, F; Holme, I; Hjermann, I; Leren, P

    2003-01-01

    Background: The well documented urban/rural difference in lung cancer incidence and the detection of known carcinogens in the atmosphere have produced the hypothesis that long term air pollution may have an effect on lung cancer. The association between incidence of lung cancer and long term air pollution exposure was investigated in a cohort of Oslo men followed from 1972/73 to 1998. Methods: Data from a follow up study on cardiovascular risk factors among 16 209 40 to 49 year old Oslo men in 1972/73 were linked to data from the Norwegian cancer register, the Norwegian death register, and estimates of average yearly air pollution levels at the participants' home address in 1974 to 1998. Survival analyses, including Cox proportional hazards regression, were used to estimate associations between exposure and the incidence of lung cancer. Results: During the follow up period, 418 men developed lung cancer. Controlling for age, smoking habits, and length of education, the adjusted risk ratio for developing lung cancer was 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.15) for a 10 µg/m3 increase in average home address nitrogen oxide (NOx) exposure between 1974 and 1978. Corresponding figures for a 10 µg/m3 increase in sulphur dioxide (SO2) were 1.01 (0.94 to 1.08). Conclusions: Urban air pollution may increase the risk of developing lung cancer. PMID:14645978

  13. Perfluoroalkyl substances during pregnancy and validated preeclampsia among nulliparous women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Starling, Anne P; Engel, Stephanie M; Richardson, David B; Baird, Donna D; Haug, Line S; Stuebe, Alison M; Klungsøyr, Kari; Harmon, Quaker; Becher, Georg; Thomsen, Cathrine; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Eggesbø, Merete; Hoppin, Jane A; Travlos, Gregory S; Wilson, Ralph E; Trogstad, Lill I; Magnus, Per; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2014-04-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent and ubiquitous environmental contaminants, and human exposure to these substances may be related to preeclampsia, a common pregnancy complication. Previous studies have found serum concentrations of PFAS to be positively associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia in a population with high levels of exposure to perfluorooctanoate. Whether this association exists among pregnant women with background levels of PFAS exposure is unknown. Using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, we carried out a study of nulliparous pregnant women enrolled in 2003-2007 (466 cases, 510 noncases) to estimate associations between PFAS concentrations and an independently validated diagnosis of preeclampsia. We measured levels of 9 PFAS in maternal plasma extracted midpregnancy; statistical analyses were restricted to 7 PFAS that were quantifiable in more than 50% of samples. In proportional hazards models adjusted for maternal age, prepregnancy body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), educational level, and smoking status, we observed no strongly positive associations between PFAS levels and preeclampsia. We found an inverse association between preeclampsia and the highest quartile of perfluoroundecanoic acid concentration relative to the lowest quartile (hazard ratio = 0.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.38, 0.81). Overall, our findings do not support an increased risk of preeclampsia among nulliparous Norwegian women with background levels of PFAS exposure.

  14. Perfluoroalkyl Substances During Pregnancy and Validated Preeclampsia Among Nulliparous Women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Starling, Anne P.; Engel, Stephanie M.; Richardson, David B.; Baird, Donna D.; Haug, Line S.; Stuebe, Alison M.; Klungsøyr, Kari; Harmon, Quaker; Becher, Georg; Thomsen, Cathrine; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Eggesbø, Merete; Hoppin, Jane A.; Travlos, Gregory S.; Wilson, Ralph E.; Trogstad, Lill I.; Magnus, Per; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent and ubiquitous environmental contaminants, and human exposure to these substances may be related to preeclampsia, a common pregnancy complication. Previous studies have found serum concentrations of PFAS to be positively associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia in a population with high levels of exposure to perfluorooctanoate. Whether this association exists among pregnant women with background levels of PFAS exposure is unknown. Using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, we carried out a study of nulliparous pregnant women enrolled in 2003–2007 (466 cases, 510 noncases) to estimate associations between PFAS concentrations and an independently validated diagnosis of preeclampsia. We measured levels of 9 PFAS in maternal plasma extracted midpregnancy; statistical analyses were restricted to 7 PFAS that were quantifiable in more than 50% of samples. In proportional hazards models adjusted for maternal age, prepregnancy body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2), educational level, and smoking status, we observed no strongly positive associations between PFAS levels and preeclampsia. We found an inverse association between preeclampsia and the highest quartile of perfluoroundecanoic acid concentration relative to the lowest quartile (hazard ratio = 0.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.38, 0.81). Overall, our findings do not support an increased risk of preeclampsia among nulliparous Norwegian women with background levels of PFAS exposure. PMID:24557813

  15. Nanotechnologies for the restoration of alum-treated archaeological wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriulo, Fabrizio; Braovac, Susan; Kutzke, Hartmut; Giorgi, Rodorico; Baglioni, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The project Saving Oseberg is funded by the Norwegian State with the aim to preserve the Viking Age wooden objects from the Oseberg burial mound. They were excavated in 1904 near Tønsberg, Norway, and many have been treated in the past with alum salts (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O). Alum was widely used during the early 1900s as a treatment for archaeological wood to prevent shrinkage and impart strength. In the 1990s, conservators observed an alarming condition of the objects. Initial investigations showed that the alum treatment has initiated a slow but ongoing deterioration process, attacking the wood for over 100 years. Today, the artefacts are highly acidic and have significantly reduced mechanical strength. In the last decade, the use of non-aqueous alkaline nanoparticle dispersions has provided successful results for the protection of cellulose-based materials. Alum-treated archaeological wood samples from Oseberg, with a pH ≤ 2, have been treated with alkaline nanoparticle dispersions, and the effects of the treatment have been evaluated by thermal analysis (TG-DTG), infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) analyses. In this contribution, the preliminary results will be presented.

  16. Assessing a Norwegian translation of the Organizational Climate Measure.

    PubMed

    Bernstrøm, Vilde Hoff; Lone, Jon Anders; Bjørkli, Cato A; Ulleberg, Pål; Hoff, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the Norwegian translation of the Organizational Climate Measure developed by Patterson and colleagues. The Organizational Climate Measure is a global measure of organizational climate based on Quinn and Rohrbaugh's competing values model. The survey was administered to a Norwegian branch of an international service sector company (N = 555). The results revealed satisfactory internal reliability and interrater agreement for the 17 scales, and confirmatory factor analysis supported the original factor structure. The findings gave preliminary support for the Organizational Climate Measure as a reliable measure with a stable factor structure, and indicated that it is potentially useful in the Norwegian context.

  17. Hydrate problems in pipelines: A study from Norwegian continental waters

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, D.; Larsen, R.; Lund, A.; Thomsen, A.K.

    1995-12-31

    This study was undertaken by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate and SINTEF to identify hydrate problems occurring in pipelines on the Norwegian continental shelf. A brief review of hydrate dissociation theory is given. Three major techniques for hydrate removal are discussed, as well as hazards related to hydrate plug removal. Questionnaire answers from 15 companies operating in Norwegian waters show three specific occurrences of hydrate plugs in the North Sea. Problems from other geographical areas are also discussed. Hydrate problems are reported for a wide variety of pipe lengths, diameters, profiles, insulations characteristics and fluids. Most problems occur during normal operation.

  18. Seismic Reflection Imaging of the Boundary between Norwegian Atlantic Current and Norwegian Sea Deep Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, P.; Holbrook, W. S.; Pearse, S.; Paramo, P.

    2003-12-01

    Water-column reflections acquired on a seismic survey in the Norwegian Sea and corroborated by an XBT survey suggest that traditional multi-channel seismic methods can distinguish boundaries between major water masses. The study area traverses the boundary between the Norwegian Atlantic Current (NwAC) and the adjacent, and underlying, Norwegian Sea Deep Water (NSDW). Stacked seismic reflection profiles clearly delineate an upper acoustically transparent surface layer separated from a lower transparent water mass by a highly reflective boundary layer. We interpret the upper water mass to be the NwAC and the lower water mass to be NSDW. Depth to the bottom of the upper layer and thickness of the boundary layer correspond to the published depth of the NwAC and thickness of a layer of rapidly varying temperature separating it from the NSDW. Reflections seen in the seismic data result from abrupt, but subtle, changes in sound speed caused by change in temperature on the order of 0.1° C in the boundary layer. These results suggest that the boundaries between major water masses can be seismically imaged if they contain fine-scale thermohaline structure.

  19. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  20. Wood for sound.

    PubMed

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  1. [Environmental and health impacts of wood combustion to produce heat and power].

    PubMed

    Valerio, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Toxic chemicals such as benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and ultra fine particles were found in the smoke produced by wood combustion. Emission factors confirm that, to produce the same energy amount, many more pollutants are emitted by wood than by natural gas. Biomass burning produces a relevant deterioration of air quality inside and outside houses, notably due to emissions of fine and ultra fine dust (PM10, PM2.5) according to reviewed studies. Important improvements in emission quality are obtained with the use of more efficient household heating systems, both in developed and in developing countries. Numerous studies have assessed the possible health effects produced by wood smoke, providing sufficient evidence that the indoor exposure to wood smoke, even in developed countries, can have adverse effects on human health. In 2010 IARC classified wood smoke as a possible human carcinogen. In Europe, electricity generation from biomass combustion is increasing (12% each year) thanks to incentives provided to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and use of fossil fuels.Today adequate studies to assess the environmental and health effects of emissions from power plants fuelled by solid biomasses are still needed.

  2. Norwegian scabies in a renal transplant patient

    PubMed Central

    Sampathkumar, K.; Mahaldar, A. R.; Ramakrishnan, M.; Prabahar, S.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of skin infections are encountered in postrenal transplant setting. Though bacterial and fungal infections are more common, surprises are in store for us sometimes. We describe a patient who underwent renal transplant two years ago, presenting with a painless, mildly pruritic expanding skin rash over abdomen. Histological examination of the skin biopsy showed that stratum corneum had multiple burrows containing larvae and eggs of Sarcoptes scabiei. The patient was treated with ivermectin 12 mg weekly once for 2 doses along with topical 5% permethrin and permethrin soap bath. There was remarkable improvement in the skin lesions with complete resolution in two weeks. Norwegian or crusted scabies is caused by massive infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. It can be rarely encountered in the post-transplant setting, which underscores the importance of early diagnosis and treatment before secondary bacterial infection sets in. PMID:20835323

  3. Neonatal Norwegian scabies: three cooperating causes.

    PubMed

    Gualdi, Giulio; Bigi, Laura; Galdo, Giovanna; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2009-08-24

    Norwegian or crusted scabies is seldom reported in infancy, usually in immune deficient patients. We report a case of an infant affected by atopic dermatitis since birth. The patient was ineffectively treated with topical and systemic steroids for several weeks for the insurgence of cutaneous xerosis and erithema. Clinical inspection and optical microscopic examination of skin scraped scales leaded to the diagnosis of crusted scabies. The physiological inability to scrapping reaction, the immunological profile deriving from atopy and finally iatrogenic immunodepression cooperating to conduce to crusted scabies. In our case iatrogenic immunosuppression, atopic dermatitis and the absence of skin scraping reaction because of the very young age might have contributed to the unusual presentation of scabies. This case suggests considering possible alternative diagnosis of scabies in the failure of the treatment for atopic eczema.

  4. Wood energy-commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  5. Wood energy-commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  6. North of Wood Street Monitoring

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Located at the far northern end of the upper harbor is the North of Wood Street study area. This area extends for about a quarter of a mile north of the Wood Street Bridge between New Bedford and Acushnet, Massachusetts.

  7. Food safety practices among Norwegian consumers.

    PubMed

    Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Lavik, Randi; Ueland, Øydis; Jacobsen, Eivind; Hagtvedt, Therese; Langsrud, Solveig

    2013-11-01

    An informed consumer can compensate for several potential food safety violations or contaminations that may occur earlier in the food production chain. However, a consumer can also destroy the work of others in the chain by poor food handling practices, e.g., by storing chilled ready-to-eat foods at abusive temperatures. To target risk-reducing strategies, consumer groups with high-risk behavior should be identified. The aim of this study was to identify demographic characteristics associated with high-risk food handling practices among Norwegian consumers. More than 2,000 randomly selected Norwegian consumers were surveyed, and the results were analyzed with a risk-based grading system, awarding demerit points for self-reported food safety violations. The violations were categorized into groups, and an ordinary multiple linear regression analysis was run on the summarized demerit score for each group and for the entire survey group as a whole. Young and elderly men were identified as the least informed consumer groups with the most unsafe practices regarding food safety. Single persons reported poorer practices than those in a relationship. People with higher education reported poorer practices than those with lower or no education, and those living in the capital of Norway (Oslo) reported following more unsafe food practices than people living elsewhere in Norway. Men reported poorer food safety practices than women in all categories with two exceptions: parboiling raw vegetables before consumption and knowledge of refrigerator temperature. These findings suggest that risk-reducing measures should target men, and a strategy is needed to change their behavior and attitudes.

  8. Avalanches in Wood Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, T.; Miksic, A.; Ovaska, M.; Alava, Mikko J.

    2015-07-01

    Wood is a multiscale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power laws. The stress-strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using digital image correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free.

  9. Avalanches in Wood Compression.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, T; Miksic, A; Ovaska, M; Alava, Mikko J

    2015-07-31

    Wood is a multiscale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power laws. The stress-strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using digital image correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free.

  10. Smoke Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the photo, Fire Chief Jay Stout of Safety Harbor, Florida, is explaining to young Richard Davis the workings of the Honeywell smoke and fire detector which probably saved Richard's life and that of his teen-age brother. Alerted by the detector's warning, the pair were able to escape their burning home. The detector in the Davis home was one of 1,500 installed in Safety Harbor residences in a cooperative program conducted by the city and Honeywell Inc.

  11. Distribution of apoB/apoA-1 ratio and blood lipids in Sami, Kven and Norwegian populations: the SAMINOR study.

    PubMed

    Nystod, Tove; Utsi, Egil; Selmer, Randi; Brox, Jan; Melhus, Marita; Lund, Eiliv

    2008-02-01

    To assess the distribution of blood lipids, lipoprotein and apoB/apoA-1 ratio in a multi-ethnic population of Sami, Kvens and Norwegians in Norway. Study design. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 2003-2004 in an area with a mixed Sami, Kvens/Finns and Norwegian population, the SAMINOR study. A self-administrated questionnaire was distributed and total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, apoB and apoA-1 counts were analysed in 6461 women and 5772 men between the ages of 36 and 79. In 36-64 age group, Sami men and women had the highest apoB/apoA-1 ratio of the ethnic groups. The ethnic differences remained after adjustment for waist hip ratio, cigarette smoking, systolic and diastolic pressures, alcohol consumption, physical activity during leisure time and family history of myocardial infarction (MI). There were no significant ethnic differences in apoB/apoA-1 ratio in the older age group. Total cholesterol was significantly lower among Sami men and women, aged 65-79 years, than among the Norwegian. The opposite occurred in the 36-49 age group, with higher levels in the Sami population. We found no ethnic differences in HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Middle-aged Sami women and men have increased levels of apoB/apoA-1 ratio and total cholesterol compared with Norwegians.

  12. Bacterial associations with decaying wood : a review

    Treesearch

    C. A. Clausen

    1996-01-01

    Wood-inhabiting bacteria are associated with wood decay and may have an indirect influence on the decay process. Bacteria are able to affect wood permeability, attack wood structure, or work synergistically with other bacteria and soft-rot fungi to predispose wood to fungal attack. Bacteria that can inhabit chemically treated wood are recognized. The natural ability of...

  13. The Asian Wood Pellet Markets

    Treesearch

    Joseph A. Roos; Allen Brackley

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the three major wood pellet markets in Asia: China, Japan, and South Korea. In contrast to the United States, where most wood pellets are used for residential heating with pellet stoves, a majority of the wood pellets in Asia are used for co-firing at coal-fired power plants. Our analysis indicated that Japan is the largest importer of wood pellets...

  14. Structure and function of wood

    Treesearch

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2010-01-01

    Wood is a complex biological structure, a composite of many chemistries and cell types acting together to serve the needs of a living plant. Attempting to understand wood in the context of wood technology, we have often overlooked the key and basic fact that wood evolved over the course of millions of years to serve three main functions in plants― conduction of water...

  15. Permian of Norwegian-Greenland sea margins: future exploration target

    SciTech Connect

    Surlyk, F.; Hurst, J.M.; Piasecki, S.; Rolle, F.; Stemmerik, L.; Thomsen, E.; Wrang, P.

    1984-09-01

    Oil and gas exploration in the northern North Sea and the southern Norwegian shelf has mainy been concentrated on Jurassic and younger reservoirs with Late Jurassic black shale source rocks. New onshore investigations in Jameson Land, central East Greenland, suggest that the Permian of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea margins contains relatively thick sequences of potential oil source rocks interbedded with carbonate reefs. The East Greenland, Upper Permian marine basin is exposed over a length of 400 km (250 mi) from Jameson Land in the south to Wollaston Forland in the north, parallel with the continental margin. The Upper Permian black shale is relatively thick, widely distributed, has a high organic carbon content, and a favorable kerogen type. Consequently, the possibilities for a Permian play in the northern part of the Norwegian shelf and along parts of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea margins are worth evaluating.

  16. Meat and masculinity in the Norwegian Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    Kildal, Charlotte Lilleby; Syse, Karen Lykke

    2017-05-01

    In 2013, the Norwegian Armed Forces decided to introduce a meat reduction scheme in its military mess halls, for both health reasons and environmental concerns. This article explores Norwegian soldiers' reactions to the introduction of Meat free Monday, and their attitudes towards reducing meat consumption. As of yet, Meat free Monday has not been implemented due to both structural and contextual challenges. We explore both the process and potential of the Norwegian military's Meat free Monday initiative to promote sustainable and climate friendly diets. We found significant barriers preventing the military from implementing Meat free Monday. The main reason behind the resistance to reduce meat consumption among Norwegian soldiers was meat's associations with protein, masculinity and comfort. Our results underline the importance of acknowledging the social and cultural role of food. The study is qualitative and uses focus group interviews as its main methodology.

  17. Phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons in chimney emissions from traditional and modern residential wood burning.

    PubMed

    Kjällstrand, J; Petersson, G

    2001-04-01

    The emissions from a traditional tiled stove consisted mainly of lignin-related methoxyphenols with antioxidant properties, and 1,6-anhydroglucose from cellulose degradation. A wood stove of presently introduced energy-efficient design for residential heating and hot-water supply was shown to emit small amounts of methoxyphenols and anhydrosugars from primary wood pyrolysis. Secondary harmful components like benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons constituted a major portion of the organic emissions. It is concluded that differences in smoke composition are essential to consider in recommendations and rules for proper choices of wood burning devices.

  18. Compression debarking of wood chips.

    Treesearch

    Rodger A. Arola; John R. Erickson

    1973-01-01

    Presents results from 2 years testing of a single-pass compression process for debarking wood chips of several species. The most significant variable was season of cut. Depending on species, approximately 70% of the bark was removed from wood cut in the growing season while approximately 45% was removed from wood cut in the dormant season.

  19. Ovalbumin as a Wood Adhesive

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart; Holly Satori; Zhu Rongxian; Michael J. Birkeland

    2014-01-01

    Use of proteins to bond wood dominated industrial production until the middle of the 20th century (1). The ensuing creation of the plywood and glulam beam industries allowed for more efficient use of wood resources than is possible with solid wood products. Many protein sources have been used as adhesives, including plant (soybean) and animal (blood, fish scales,...

  20. Strength loss in decayed wood

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Patricia K. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    Wood is a durable engineering material when used in an appropriate manner, but it is susceptible to biological decay when a log, sawn product, or final product is not stored, handled, or designed properly. Even before the biological decay of wood becomes visually apparent, the decay can cause the wood to become structurally unsound. The progression of decay to that...

  1. World's largest TLP moves onto deepwater Norwegian location

    SciTech Connect

    Vielvoye, R.

    1992-05-04

    This paper reports that the world's largest and most sophisticated tension leg platform (TLP) was floated out to Snorre oil field in the Norwegian North Sea last month. The 78,000 ton unit built by Norwegian independent, Sega Petroleum AS, Oslo, was installed in the southern part of block 34/7 and should produce first oil in August, about a month ahead of schedule.

  2. Wood dust exposure in wood industry and forestry.

    PubMed

    Puntarić, Dinko; Kos, Ankica; Smit, Zdenko; Zecić, Zeljko; Sega, Kresimir; Beljo-Lucić, Ruzica; Horvat, Dubravko; Bosnir, Jasna

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine occupational exposure in Croatian wood processing industry and forest workers to harmful effects of wood dust on the risk of nose, nasal cavity and lung carcinoma. Mass concentrations of respirable particles and total wood dust were measured at two wood processing plants, three woodwork shops, and one lumbering site, where 225 total wood dust samples and 221 respirable particle samples were collected. Wood dust mass concentration was determined by the gravimetric method. Mass concentrations exceeding total wood dust maximal allowed concentration (MAC, 3 mg/m3) were measured for beechwood and oakwood dust in 38% (79/206) of study samples from wood processing facilities (plants and woodwork shops). Mass concentrations of respirable particles exceeding MAC (1 mg/m3) were recorded in 24% (48/202) of samples from wood processing facilities (mean 2.38 +/- 2.08 mg/m3 in plants and 3.6 +/- 2.22 mg/m3 in woodwork shops). Thus, 13% (27/206) of work sites in wood processing facilities failed to meet health criteria according to European guidelines. Launching of measures to reduce wood dust emission to the work area is recommended.

  3. Biomass smoke exposures: health outcomes measures and study design.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Curtis W; Balmes, John R

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiological studies of biomass smoke health effects have been conducted in a variety of settings and with a variety of study designs. The Health Effects Workgroup discussed several approaches for the investigation of health effects in communities exposed to wood smoke from nearby wildland fires, intentional agricultural burning, or residential biomass burning devices such as woodstoves or cookstoves. This presentation briefly reviews observational and intervention studies that have been conducted within these exposure settings. The review is followed by a summary of discussion points among the workgroup members with particular emphasis on study design and the use of biomarkers for assessing outcomes in biomass smoke-exposed populations.

  4. Cottonwood: An American Wood

    Treesearch

    Harvey E. Kennedy

    1985-01-01

    Two species of cottonwood trees in the United States are commercially important: eastern cottonwood and black cottonwood. Eastern cottonwood is the more important of these. Wood of both species is similar in appearance and properties, being light in weight and color with a fairly straight grain and uniform texture. It is not strong and decays rapidly in damp areas or...

  5. History of wood machining

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1967-01-01

    The history of wood machining is closely tied to advanced in metallurgy and power sources. It has been strongly and continuously shaped by prevailing economic forces and the rise and decline of other contemporary industries. This paper sketches a few of the highlights, with emphasis on developments in North America.

  6. Structural fire design : wood

    Treesearch

    E. L. Schaffer

    Analytical procedures to predict the fire endurance of structural wood members have been developed worldwide. This research is reviewed for capability to predict the results of tests in North America and what considerations are necessary to apply the information here. Critical research needs suggested include: (1) Investigation of load levels used in reported tests,...

  7. Identification of coniferous woods

    Treesearch

    B. Francis Kukachka

    1960-01-01

    The identification of coniferous woods is generally regarded as being more difficult than for the hardwood species. This is due to the fact that conifers are more elemental in their structure and, as a consequence, the number of diagnostic features that may he employed is proportionately smaller. Instructions are given here in the sequential use of primary diagnostic...

  8. Taper of wood poles

    Treesearch

    Billy Bohannan; Hermann Habermann; Joan E. Lengel

    1974-01-01

    Round wood pole use has changed without accompanying advancement in engineering design data. Previous pole design was based on the assumption that maximum stress occurred at the groundline but, with the larger poles that are now being used, maximum stress may occur along the pole length. For accurate engineering analysis the shape or taper of a pole must be known. Both...

  9. Harvesting wood for energy.

    Treesearch

    Rodger A. Arola; Edwin W. Miyata

    1981-01-01

    Illustrates the potential of harvesting wood for industrial energy, based on the results of five harvesting studies. Presents information on harvesting operations, equipment costs, and productivity. Discusses mechanized thinning of hardwoods, clearcutting of low-value stands and recovery of hardwood tops and limbs. Also includes basic information on the physical and...

  10. Chapter 3: Wood Decay

    Treesearch

    Dan Cullen

    2014-01-01

    A significant portion of global carbon is sequestered in forest systems. Specialized fungi have evolved to efficiently deconstruct woody plant cell walls. These important decay processes generate litter, soil bound humic substances, or carbon dioxide and water. This chapter reviews the enzymology and molecular genetics of wood decay fungi, most of which are members of...

  11. Chemistry of wood strength

    Treesearch

    Jerrold E. Winandy; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    This chapter presents a theoretical model to explain the relationship between the mechanical properties and the chemical components of wood. This model is then used to describe the effects of altered composition on those mechanical properties. Many of the theories presented are only partially proven and just beginning to be understood. These theories should be...

  12. Plasma treatment of wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volokitin, G. G.; Skripnikova, N. K.; Sinitsyn, V. A.; Volokitin, O. G.; Shekhovtsov, V. V.; Vaschenko, S. P.; Kuz'min, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma technology was developed to create protective-decorative coatings on the wood surfaces. Experimental investigation on applying the protective coating using the low-temperature plasma energy as well as studies of the distribution of temperature fields over the section of the treated workpiece have been carried out, and the calculated results have been compared with the experimental data.

  13. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  14. Smoking Programs for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Bernard H., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    The youth smoking problem is discussed and assistance is provided for teachers in developing smoking prevention and cessation programs. Four chapters serve as guides to understanding and working with the youth smoking problem. "Teenage Smoking in America" reviews trends in teenage smoking behavior and the factors that influence the initiation of…

  15. Partial transparency of compressed wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Sugimori, Masatoshi

    2016-05-01

    We have developed novel wood composite with optical transparency at arbitrary region. Pores in wood cells have a great variation in size. These pores expand the light path in the sample, because the refractive indexes differ between constituents of cell and air in lumen. In this study, wood compressed to close to lumen had optical transparency. Because the condition of the compression of wood needs the plastic deformation, wood was impregnated phenolic resin. The optimal condition for high transmission is compression ratio above 0.7.

  16. Stoichiometry of wood liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, H.G.

    1980-10-01

    The overall chemistry of Douglas Fir liquefaction as evidenced by Rust Engineering Company's Test Run 8 at Albany, Oregon has been examined. It is concluded that the true total yield of non-gaseous product (oil + water solubles + char) is higher than was measured - probably as high as 52 to 55% of dry wood feed. Wood decomposes to give water and carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide in the gas feed reacts with water to give carbon dioxide and hydrogen. However, there is a substantial net reaction of synthesis gas (CO + H/sub 2/) during the process. This indicates that the reaction CO + (wood product) = CO/sub 2/ + (reduced wood product) is important in formation of low oxygen product oil. Overall stoichiometry (approximate) is: 100 lbs wood + 0.5 Mol CO ..-->.. 1.1 Mol CO/sub 2/ + 0.5 Mol H/sub 2/O + 55 lbs non-vapor product. Consumption of synthesis gas in the process is (very approximately) 1300 SCF/bbl product. The product oil has a hydrogen/carbon atom ratio of 1.2 and is highly aromatic. This analysis of the reaction applies specifically to the particular mode of operation used at Albany; i.e., to the so-called PERC process with a very high recycle of product oil. However, it is shown that the total yield of non-gaseous products is quite insensitive to the average analysis of the product. Thus we would expect total yields in the 50s with alternate processes - such as the LBL water slurry process. What will be different and must be determined is the distribution among water insoluble oil, water solubles and char and the degree of reduction of oxygen content by reaction with carbon monoxide.

  17. Smoke emission factors from medium scale fires: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Dod, R.L.; Brown, N.J.; Mowrer, F.W.; Novakov, T.; Williamson, R.B.

    1988-04-01

    Smoke emmission factors, (i.e., the mass of smoke per mass of fuel burned), were measured in eleven separate experiments. The size distribution of the smoke particles was determined using a cascade impactor. The percentages of ''black'' carbon (also called ''graphitic'' or ''elemental'' carbon) and organic carbon have been determined for all the experiments as a function of particle aerodynamic diameter. Values in the range of .1 to .2% are reported for the smoke particle emission factors for Douglas fire whole wood and plywood burning under well ventilated conditions. Approximately 65% of the particles have aerodynamic diameters less than 1 ..mu..m. Douglas fir whole wood gave smoke emission factors in the range of 2 to 3.5% when burned under poorly ventilated conditions representative of a building fire that is limited by air entrainment. For this case the size distribution was much broader, with substantial quantities of particles up to 5 ..mu..m aerodynamic diameter. For all experiments, the black carbon content represented between 50 and 75% of the total mass of the smoke particles. The smoke emission factor for burning asphalt roofing shingles is reported as 12.1% with black carbon content greater than 70%. Over half of the mass consisted of particles of less than 1 ..mu..m aerodynamic diameter.

  18. Wood burning pollution in southern Chile: PM2.5 source apportionment using CMB and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Ana M; Barraza, Francisco; Jorquera, Héctor; Schauer, James J

    2017-06-01

    Temuco is a mid-size city representative of severe wood smoke pollution in southern Chile; i.e., ambient 24-h PM2.5 concentrations have exceeded 150 μg/m(3) in the winter season and the top concentration reached 372 μg/m(3) in 2010. Annual mean concentrations have decreased but are still above 30 μg/m(3). For the very first time, a molecular marker source apportionment of ambient organic carbon (OC) and PM2.5 was conducted in Temuco. Primary resolved sources for PM2.5 were wood smoke (37.5%), coal combustion (4.4%), diesel vehicles (3.3%), dust (2.2%) and vegetative detritus (0.7%). Secondary inorganic PM2.5 (sulfates, nitrates and ammonium) contributed 4.8% and unresolved organic aerosols (generated from volatile emissions from incomplete wood combustion), including secondary organic aerosols, contributed 47.1%. Adding the contributions of unresolved organic aerosols to those from primary wood smoke implies that wood burning is responsible for 84.6% of the ambient PM2.5 in Temuco. This predominance of wood smoke is ultimately due to widespread poverty and a lack of efficient household heating methods. The government has been implementing emission abatement policies but achieving compliance with ambient air quality standards for PM2.5 in southern Chile remains a challenge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Heat flow of the Norwegian continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial heat flow influences a large collection of geological processes. Its determination is a requirement to assess the economic potential of deep sedimentary basins. Published heat flow calculations from e.g. major oil provinces are however seldom. Robust heat flow determinations in drillholes require logging of undisturbed temperatures and intensive sampling of core material for petrophysical measurements. Temperature logging in exploration drillholes is traditionally conducted during drill breaks or shortly after drilling, resulting in temperatures severely disturbed by mud circulation and coring is restricted to selected intervals. Alternatively, test temperatures, information from electric logs and lithological descriptions of drill cuttings can be used to overcome these limitations. The present contribution introduces new heat flow determinations based on 63 exploration drillholes from the Norwegian North Sea, the Mid Norway Margin and the Barents Shelf. Our analyses are based on released DST temperatures, precise lithological descriptions of drill cuttings, previously measured rock matrix thermal conductivities and established porosity laws. Our results suggest median heat flow values of 64 mW/m2, 65 mW/m2 and 72 mW/m2 for the North Sea, the Mid Norway Margin (mainly the Trøndelag Platform) and the SW Barents Shelf respectively. The Barents Shelf shows significantly high heat flow, suggesting lateral transfer of heat from the mantle of the adjacent young ocean. In detail, heat flow increases by ~ 10 mW/m2 from the southern Norwegian North Sea towards the Mid Norway Margin. This result appears to be in very good agreement with seismic tomographic studies suggesting northward thinning of the underlying mantle lithosphere. Our results together with published marine heat flow data from the Mid Norway Margin suggest a gradual decrease in heat flow levels from both the North Sea and the Trøndelag Platform towards the centres of the deep Møre and V

  20. Carbon time series in the Norwegian sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gislefoss, Jorunn S.; Nydal, Reidar; Slagstad, Dag; Sonninen, Eloni; Holmén, Kim

    1998-02-01

    Depth profiles of carbon parameters were obtained monthly from 1991 to 1994 as the first time series from the weathership station M located in the Norwegian Sea at 66°N 2°E. CO 2 was extracted from acidified seawater by a flushing procedure, with nitrogen as the carrier gas. The pure CO 2 gas was measured using a manometric technique, and the gas was further used for 13C and 14C measurements. The precision of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was better than ±6‰. Satisfactory agreement was obtained with standard seawater from Scripps Institution of Oceanography. The partial pressure of CO 2 (pCO 2) was measured in the atmosphere and surface water, beginning in October 1991. The most visible seasonal variation in DIC, 13C and pCO 2 was due to the plankton bloom in the upper 50-100 m. Typical values for surface water in the winter were: 2.140±0.012 mmol kg -1 for DIC, 1.00±0.04‰ for δ 13C and 357±15 μatm for pCO 2, and the corresponding values in the summer were as low as 2.04 mmol kg -1, greater than 2.1‰, and as low as 270-300 μatm. The values for deep water are more constant during the year, with DIC values of about 2.17±0.01 mmol kg -1, and δ 13C values between 0.97 and 1.14‰. A simple one-dimensional biological model was applied in order to investigate possible short-term variability in DIC caused by the phytoplankton growth and depth variations of the wind-mixed layer. The simulated seasonal pattern was in reasonable agreement with the observed data, but there were significant temporal variations with shorter time interval than the monthly measurements. As a supplement to the measurements at station M, some representative profiles of DIC, δ 13C, Δ 14C, salinity and temperature from other locations in the Nordic Seas and the North Atlantic Ocean are also presented. The results are also compared with some data obtained ( Δ 14C) by the TTO expedition in 1981 and the GEOSECS expedition in 1972. The carbon profiles reflect the stable deep

  1. Heat Flow of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, C.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial heat flow determination is of prime interest for oil industry because it impacts directly maturation histories and economic potential of oil fields. Published systematic heat flow determinations from major oil provinces are however seldom. Robust heat flow determinations in drillholes require logging of undisturbed temperatures and intensive sampling of core material for petrophysical measurements. Temperature logging in exploration drillholes is traditionally conducted during drill breaks or shortly after drilling, resulting in temperatures severely disturbed by mud circulation and coring is restricted to selected intervals. Alternatively, test temperatures, information from electric logs and lithological descriptions of drill cuttings can be used to overcome these limitations. The present contribution introduces new heat flow determinations based on 63 exploration drillholes from the Norwegian North Sea, the Mid Norway Margin and the Barents Shelf. Our analyses are based on released DST temperatures, precise lithological descriptions of drill cuttings, previously measured rock matrix thermal conductivities and established porosity laws. For the sake of comparison, we carefully review previous heat flow studies carried out both onshore and offshore Norway. Our results suggest median heat flow values of 64 mW/m2, 65 mW/m2 and 72 mW/m2 for the North Sea, the Mid Norway Margin (mainly the Trøndelag Platform) and the SW Barents Shelf respectively. In detail, heat flow increases by ~ 10 mW/m2 from the southern Norwegian North Sea towards the Mid Norway Margin. This result appears to be in very good agreement with seismic tomographic studies suggesting northward thinning of the underlying mantle lithosphere. Our results together with published marine heat flow data from the Mid Norway Margin suggest a gradual decrease in heat flow levels from both the North Sea and the Trøndelag Platform towards the centres of the deep Møre and Vøring basins. This latter

  2. Smoking and surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Surgery - quitting smoking; Surgery - quitting tobacco; Wound healing - smoking ... Tar, nicotine, and other chemicals from smoking can increase your risk of many health problems. These include heart and blood vessel problems, such as: Blood clots and aneurysms in ...

  3. Smoking Stinks! (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Smoking Stinks! KidsHealth > For Kids > Smoking Stinks! Print A ... more about cigarettes and tobacco. continue What Are Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco? Tobacco (say: tuh-BA-ko) ...

  4. Smoking and Bone Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Smoking and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (85 ... late to adopt new habits for healthy bones. Smoking and Osteoporosis Cigarette smoking was first identified as ...

  5. Smoking Stinks! (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Smoking Stinks! KidsHealth > For Kids > Smoking Stinks! A A ... more about cigarettes and tobacco. continue What Are Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco? Tobacco (say: tuh-BA-ko) ...

  6. All about Quitting Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    Toolkit No. 7 All About Quitting Smoking Are you ready to quit smoking? You can find a way to do it. Once you’ ... bad for your health. But do you know all the benefits of quitting? When you quit smoking, ...

  7. Residential Wood Combustion Study. Task 5. Emissions testing of wood stoves. Volumes 1 and 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    This report presents the results of 19 emission tests on four wood stoves and two retrofit emission control devices. The testing was conducted during June-October 1981. The objectives of this study were to further identify the effect of wood moisture on stove emissions, to evaluate several inexpensive (simplified) test procedures for assessing particulate emissions, and to define a level of particulate emissions which can be expected from state-of-the-art improved combustion stoves. This study included evaluating previous test data reported in the literature. A single standard operating procedure was used throughout the test program, the objective of which was to maintain a constant heat output rate, as monitored by combustion chamber temperature and stove surface temperature. A heat output rate corresponding to a relatively moderate to low burn rate (less than 2.5 kg wood/hour) was chosen. A single wood type (Douglas fir) was used throughout the study, wood size was maintained at a consistent level. Throughout the entire test program measurements were made for particulates, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and hydrocarbon content of the emissions; the gaseous constituents were monitored continuously. Measurements were made for creosote deposition, opacity, and smoke spot density. Appendices for this report are contained in Report No. PB84-170646.

  8. Parental Smoking Exposure and Adolescent Smoking Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Stephen E.; Rende, Richard; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P.; Niaura, Raymond S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a multigenerational study of smoking risk, the objective was to investigate the intergenerational transmission of smoking by examining if exposure to parental smoking and nicotine dependence predicts prospective smoking trajectories among adolescent offspring. METHODS: Adolescents (n = 406) ages 12 to 17 and a parent completed baseline interviews (2001–2004), and adolescents completed up to 2 follow-up interviews 1 and 5 years later. Baseline interviews gathered detailed information on parental smoking history, including timing and duration, current smoking, and nicotine dependence. Adolescent smoking and nicotine dependence were assessed at each time point. Latent Class Growth Analysis identified prospective smoking trajectory classes from adolescence into young adulthood. Logistic regression was used to examine relationships between parental smoking and adolescent smoking trajectories. RESULTS: Four adolescent smoking trajectory classes were identified: early regular smokers (6%), early experimenters (23%), late experimenters (41%), and nonsmokers (30%). Adolescents with parents who were nicotine-dependent smokers at baseline were more likely to be early regular smokers (odds ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.05–1.33) and early experimenters (odds ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 1.04–1.25) with each additional year of previous exposure to parental smoking. Parents’ current non-nicotine–dependent and former smoking were not associated with adolescent smoking trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to parental nicotine dependence is a critical factor influencing intergenerational transmission of smoking. Adolescents with nicotine-dependent parents are susceptible to more intense smoking patterns and this risk increases with longer duration of exposure. Research is needed to optimize interventions to help nicotine-dependent parents quit smoking early in their children’s lifetime to reduce these risks. PMID:24819567

  9. Parental smoking exposure and adolescent smoking trajectories.

    PubMed

    Mays, Darren; Gilman, Stephen E; Rende, Richard; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Niaura, Raymond S

    2014-06-01

    In a multigenerational study of smoking risk, the objective was to investigate the intergenerational transmission of smoking by examining if exposure to parental smoking and nicotine dependence predicts prospective smoking trajectories among adolescent offspring. Adolescents (n = 406) ages 12 to 17 and a parent completed baseline interviews (2001-2004), and adolescents completed up to 2 follow-up interviews 1 and 5 years later. Baseline interviews gathered detailed information on parental smoking history, including timing and duration, current smoking, and nicotine dependence. Adolescent smoking and nicotine dependence were assessed at each time point. Latent Class Growth Analysis identified prospective smoking trajectory classes from adolescence into young adulthood. Logistic regression was used to examine relationships between parental smoking and adolescent smoking trajectories. Four adolescent smoking trajectory classes were identified: early regular smokers (6%), early experimenters (23%), late experimenters (41%), and nonsmokers (30%). Adolescents with parents who were nicotine-dependent smokers at baseline were more likely to be early regular smokers (odds ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.33) and early experimenters (odds ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.25) with each additional year of previous exposure to parental smoking. Parents' current non-nicotine-dependent and former smoking were not associated with adolescent smoking trajectories. Exposure to parental nicotine dependence is a critical factor influencing intergenerational transmission of smoking. Adolescents with nicotine-dependent parents are susceptible to more intense smoking patterns and this risk increases with longer duration of exposure. Research is needed to optimize interventions to help nicotine-dependent parents quit smoking early in their children's lifetime to reduce these risks. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Smoking cessation medications

    MedlinePlus

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Creating a plan to help you deal with smoking urges. Getting support from a doctor, counselor, or ...

  11. Depression and Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Who Quit Community Helping Someone Quit Stress & Mood Stress & Mood Smoking & Mood Stress Depression Anger Weight Management Weight Management Smoking and Weight Healthy Weight Loss Being Comfortable in ...

  12. Smoking in movies: impact on adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D

    2005-06-01

    This article examines the evidence that supports an association between seeing smoking depictions in movies and adolescent smoking. The portrayal of tobacco use is common in movies and often is modeled by stars, who, from a social influences standpoint, should be powerful behavior change agents. The results of studies that assess audience responses to tobacco portrayal in movies are remarkably consistent in showing a moderate to strong association between seeing movie smoking and more positive attitudes toward smoking and adolescent smoking initiation. The two published longitudinal studies show an independent link between exposure to movie smoking at baseline and initiation in the future, with estimates of the effect size being remarkably consistent with their cross-sectional counterparts. Pediatricians should support public health campaigns to pressure the movie industry to voluntarily reduce smoking in movies and encourage parents to adhere to the Motion Picture Ratings System to reduce adolescent exposure to this powerful social influence to smoke.

  13. The Norwegian immunisation register--SYSVAK.

    PubMed

    Trogstad, L; Ung, G; Hagerup-Jenssen, M; Cappelen, I; Haugen, I L; Feiring, B

    2012-04-19

    The Norwegian immunisation register, SYSVAK, is a national electronic immunisation register. It became nationwide in 1995. The major aim was to register all vaccinations in the Childhood Immunisation Programme to ensure that all children are offered adequate vaccination according to schedule in the programme, and to secure high vaccination coverage. Notification to SYSVAK is mandatory, based on personal identification numbers. This allows follow up of individual vaccination schedules and linkage of SYSVAK data to other national health registers for information on outcome diagnoses, such as the surveillance system for communicable diseases. Information from SYSVAK is used to determine vaccine coverage in a timely manner. Coverage can be broken down to regional/local levels and used for active surveillance of vaccination coverage and decisions about interventions. During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, an adaptation of SYSVAK enabled daily surveillance of vaccination coverage on national and regional levels. Currently, data from SYSVAK are used, among others, in studies on adverse events related to pandemic vaccination. Future challenges include maximising usage of collected data in surveillance and research, and continued improvement of data quality. Immunisation registers are rich sources for high quality surveillance of vaccination coverage, effectiveness, vaccine failure and adverse events, and gold mines for research.

  14. Cancer risk in Norwegian world class athletes.

    PubMed

    Robsahm, Trude Eid; Hestvik, Unn Elisabet; Veierød, Marit Bragelien; Fagerlie, Arne; Nystad, Wenche; Engebretsen, Lars; Tretli, Steinar

    2010-10-01

    Physical activity appears to be inversely related to cancer risk, although the evidence is convincing for colon cancer only. As physical activity levels are difficult to measure in the general population, we aimed to investigate how physical activity influences cancer risk using a cohort of Norwegian world class athletes. The cohort includes 3,428 athletes. Individual questionnaires gave information about physical activity and lifestyle variables until attained age. To elucidate the level of cancer risk, groups of athletes were compared to the general population (external comparisons) and to each other (internal comparisons). A slightly reduced risk of total cancer was observed in the cohort of athletes, but stronger effects were observed for subgroups. The risk reduction was most pronounced for lung cancer and for leukemia/lymphoma. In women, a threefold increased risk of thyroid cancer was observed. This cohort of athletes seems to have a reduced risk of cancer. The beneficial association, however, is weak and may be attributed to healthy lifestyle as well as to physical activity. Prolonged strenuous exercise may also increase the risk of thyroid cancer in women.

  15. Zooplankton Distribution in Four Western Norwegian Fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsky, G.; Flood, P. R.; Youngbluth, M.; Picheral, M.; Grisoni, J.-M.

    2000-01-01

    A multi-instrumental array constructed in the Laboratoire d'Ecologie du Plancton Marin in Villefranche sur mer, France, named the Underwater Video Profiler (UVP), was used to investigate the vertical distribution of zooplankton in four western Norwegian fjords in the summer 1996. Six distinct zoological groups were monitored. The fauna included: (a) small crustaceans (mainly copepods), (b) ctenophores (mainly lobates), (c) siphonophores (mainly physonects), (d) a scyphomedusa Periphylla periphylla, (e) chaetognaths and (f) appendicularians. The use of the non-disturbing video technique demonstrated that the distribution of large zooplankton is heterogeneous vertically and geographically. Furthermore, the abundance of non-migrating filter feeders in the deep basins of the fjords indicates that there is enough food (living and non-living particulate organic matter) to support their dietary needs. This adaptation may be considered as a strategy for survival in fjords. Specifically, living in dark, deep water reduces visual predation and population loss encountered in the upper layer due to advective processes.

  16. Familial cardiomyopathy in Norwegian Forest cats.

    PubMed

    März, Imke; Wilkie, Lois J; Harrington, Norelene; Payne, Jessie R; Muzzi, Ruthnea A L; Häggström, Jens; Smith, Ken; Luis Fuentes, Virginia

    2015-08-01

    Norwegian Forest cats (NFCs) are often listed as a breed predisposed to cardiomyopathy, but the characteristics of cardiomyopathy in this breed have not been described. The aim of this preliminary study was to report the features of NFC cardiomyopathy based on prospective echocardiographic screening of affected family groups; necropsy findings; and open-source breed screening databases. Prospective examination of 53 NFCs revealed no murmur or left ventricular (LV) outflow tract obstruction in any screened cat, though mild LV hypertrophy (defined as diastolic LV wall thickness ≥5.5mm) was present in 13/53 cats (25%). Gross pathology results and histopathological sections were analysed in eight NFCs, six of which had died of a cardiac cause. Myocyte hypertrophy, myofibre disarray and interstitial fibrosis typical of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were present in 7/8 cats, but endomyocardial fibrosis suggestive of restrictive cardiomyopathy was also present in the same cats. Pedigree data analysis from 871 NFCs was supportive of a familial cardiomyopathy in this breed.

  17. Olfactometric determination of the most potent odor-active compounds in salmon muscle (Salmo salar) smoked by using four smoke generation techniques.

    PubMed

    Varlet, Vincent; Serot, Thierry; Cardinal, Mireille; Knockaert, Camille; Prost, Carole

    2007-05-30

    The volatile compounds of salmon fillets smoked according to four smoked generation techniques (smoldering, thermostated plates, friction, and liquid smoke) were investigated. The main odor-active compounds were identified by gas chromatography coupled with olfactometry and mass spectrometry. Only the odorant volatile compounds detected by at least six judges (out of eight) were identified as potent odorants. Phenolic compounds and guaiacol derivatives were the most detected compounds in the olfactometric profile whatever the smoking process and could constitute the smoky odorant skeleton of these products. They were recovered in the aromatic extracts of salmon smoked by smoldering and by friction, which were characterized by 18 and 25 odor-active compounds, respectively. Furannic compounds were more detected in products smoked with thermostated plates characterized by 26 odorants compounds. Finally, the 27 odorants of products treated with liquid smoke were significantly different from the three others techniques applying wood pyrolysis because pyridine derivatives and lipid oxidation products were perceived in the aroma profile.

  18. Lignin-Retaining Transparent Wood.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Rojas, Ramiro; Yan, Min; Lawoko, Martin; Berglund, Lars

    2017-09-11

    Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light-transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt % of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Moreover, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structures. A green and industrially feasible method has now been developed to prepare transparent wood. Up to 80 wt % of lignin is preserved, leading to a stronger wood template compared to the delignified alternative. After polymer infiltration, a high-lignin-content transparent wood with transmittance of 83 %, haze of 75 %, thermal conductivity of 0.23 W mK(-1) , and work-tofracture of 1.2 MJ m(-3) (a magnitude higher than glass) was obtained. This transparent wood preparation method is efficient and applicable to various wood species. The transparent wood obtained shows potential for application in energy-saving buildings. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  19. Wood-burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Squires, W.

    1983-09-06

    A wood-burning stove includes side walls joined together in an airtight manner to form a firebox and a heat chamber thereabove. The firebox contains upstanding rails to support wood logs for combustion. Streams of heated air are discharged from a manifold that extends from rail-to-rail outwardly from one terminal end of each rail between opposite side walls of the stove. A plate is adjusted to control the flow of air into the manifold. An access door has openings in a spacer side wall for supplying air as desired to the firebox. The spacer walls of the door support a glass panel at an outwardly spaced location from a deflector to prevent deposits of creosote and other materials on the glass.

  20. Lump wood combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  1. Workplace smoking ban policy and smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beomsoo

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of the workplace smoking ban in South Korea, where the male smoking rate is high (57%), on smoking behavior and secondhand smoke exposure. A workplace smoking ban legislation implemented in April 2003 requires offices, meeting rooms, and lobbies located in larger than 3,000 square meter buildings (or 2,000 square meter multipurpose buildings) should be smoke free. A representative cross-sectional survey, the third wave (2005) of health supplements in the National Health Nutrition Survey of South Korea, was used to measure the impact of the 2003 workplace smoking ban implementation on smoking behavior. It contained 3,122 observations of adults 20 to 65 years old (excluding self-employed and non-working populations). A multivariate statistical model was used. The self-reported workplace smoking ban policy (full workplace ban, partial workplace ban, and no workplace ban) was used as the key measure. A full workplace smoking ban reduced the current smoking rate by 6.4 percentage points among all workers and also decreased the average daily consumption among smokers by 3.7 cigarettes relative to no smoking ban. Secondhand smoke showed a dramatic decrease of 86 percent (= -1.74/2.03)from the sample mean for full workplace ban. However, public anti-smoking campaign did not show any significant impact on smoking behavior. The full workplace ban policy is effective in South Korea. Male group showed bigger impact of smoking ban policy than female group. The public antismoking campaign did not show any effectiveness.

  2. Out of the woods.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J L

    1992-01-01

    Throughout Africa, Asia and Latin America women are pushed out of forests and from their maintenance by governments and private interests for cash crop development disregarding the role of women in conserving forests. In developing countries forests are a source of wood for fuel; 60-80% of women gather wood for family needs in America. Fruits, vegetables, and nuts gathered in woods enhance their diet. Indonesian women pick bananas, mangos, guavas, and avocados from trees around their homes; in Senegal shea-nut butter is made from a local tree fruit to be sold for cash. Women provide labor also in logging, wood processing, and tree nurseries. They make charcoal and grow seedlings for sale. In India 40% of forest income and 75% of forest products export earnings are derived from nonwood resources. Poor, rural women make items out of bamboo, rattan, and rope to sell: 48% of women in an Egyptian province make a living through such activities. In India 600,000 women harvest tendu leaves for use as wrappings for cigarettes. The expansion of commercial tree plantations replacing once communal natural forests has forced poor households to spend up to 4-% of their income on fuel that they used to find in forests. Tribal women in India know the medicinal uses of 300 forest species, and women in Sierra Leone could name 31 products they obtained or made from trees and bushes, while men named only 8 items. Only 1 forestry project appraised by the World Bank during 1984-97 named women as beneficiaries, and only 1 out of 33 rural development programs funded by the World Bank did. Women provide food, fuel, and water for their families in subsistence economies, they know sustainable methods of forestry, yet they are not included in development programs whose success or failure could hinge on more attention to women's contribution and on more equity.

  3. Mechanical properties of wood

    Treesearch

    David W. Green; Jerrold E. Winandy; David E. Kretschmann

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical properties presented in this chapter were obtained from tests of small pieces of wood termed “clear” and “straight grained” because they did not contain characteristics such as knots, cross grain, checks, and splits. These test pieces did have anatomical characteristics such as growth rings that occurred in consistent patterns within each piece. Clear...

  4. The use of levoglucosan to assess the environmental impact of residential wood-burning on air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Locker, H.B.

    1988-01-01

    Levoglucosan, a product of the incomplete combustion of cellulose, is present in relatively high concentrations in the particle matter generated from wood-burning stoves. This fact has been exploited to develop a source apportionment method whereby measurements of levoglucosan in ambient air may be used to estimate the contribution of residential wood-burning activities to the Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations. Analysis of the emissions from wood-burning stoves, both in controlled laboratory burns and from stoves as actually operated in the field, indicates that the percentage of levoglucosan on wood smoke particles is relatively insensitive to burn rate and operating conditions. For a representative group of stoves operated in the home under actual operating conditions, they found that typical wood smoke particles contain 4.6 ({plus minus} 1.7) percent w/w levoglucosan. The average PAH contribution to wood smoke particulate composition was also determined for the field operated stoves and results were used for source assessment of ambient PAH. This application to PAH estimates is complicated by the fact that PAH emissions are sensitive to stove operating conditions. Under controlled laboratory dilution tunnel conditions it was demonstrated that the PAH emission factor from wood-burning stoves increased with increasing burn rate. Application of their source assessment method to the winter-time ambient Hanover, NH airshed indicates that up to 60 ({plus minus} 21)% of the ambient TSP and 70 ({plus minus} 25)% of the PAH may be attributed to wood-burning activities. Given the current concern regarding the contribution of wood-burning to air quality, it should be noted that this analytical scheme provides a rapid and convenient method of determining the environmental impact of residential wood combustion.

  5. Wood Composite Adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  6. Categorization of speech sounds by Norwegian/English bilinguals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dypvik, Audny T.; Slawinski, Elzbieta B.

    2005-04-01

    Bilinguals who learned English late in life (late bilinguals) as opposed to those who learned English early in life (early bilinguals) differ in their perception of phonemic distinctions. Age of acquisition of a second language as well as depth of immersion into English is influenced by perceptual differences of phonemic contrasts between monolinguals and bilinguals, with consequences for speech production. The phonemes /v/ and /w/ are from the same category in Norwegian, rendering them perceptually indistinguishable to the native Norwegian listener. In English, /v/ and /w/ occupy two categories. Psychoacoustic testing on this phonemic distinction in the current study will compare perceptual abilities of monolingual English and bilingual Norwegian/English listeners. Preliminary data indicates that Norwegian/English bilinguals demonstrate varying perceptual abilities for this phonemic distinction. A series of speech sounds have been generated by an articulatory synthesizer, the Tube Resonance Model, along a continuum between the postures of /v/ and /w/. They will be presented binaurally over headphones in an anechoic chamber at a sound pressure level of 75 dB. Differences in the perception of the categorical boundary between /v/ and /w/ among English monolinguals and Norwegian/English bilinguals will be further delineated.

  7. Interaction of copper wood preservatives and adhesives

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart

    2003-01-01

    Compared to other substrates, wood is generally easy to bond. However, adhesion is diminished when the wood surface is covered by chemicals, whether natural oils and resins or added chemicals. Among the chemicals added to wood are fire retardants and wood preservatives. Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) has been widely used to protect wood against rot and termites, but...

  8. Self-feeding wood burning heating unit

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, W.T.

    1982-10-26

    A wood burning heating unit capable of being stoked for continuous or extended burning, and of achieving effective combustion of volatiles contained in the smoke is provided. The stove body, a generally cylindrical casing, is supported so that its axis is substantially horizontal. A baffle divides the casing into a fire box or combustion chamber and an exhaust chamber which functions as a heat exchanger. The exhaust chamber is vented to the outside atmosphere by an exhaust conduit or flue pipe. A pair of elongate, fuel feed conduits extend downwardly and inwardly into the fire box or combustion chamber, so that respective, generally upstanding columns of logs can be formed in the fuel feeding conduits with the lower ends of the wood log columns contacting each other to define and limit the area of combustion in the fire box. Manifold means is provided for drawing combustion air from outside the stove body, passing the air through a heat exchange area in the manifold adjacent to the combustion zone for preheating the combustion air, and then supplying the heated air into proximity of the contact between the two columns of logs.

  9. Characterization and evaluation of smoke tracers in PM: Results from the 2003 Montana wildfire season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Tony J.; Hamilton, Raymond F.; Dixon, Roy W.; Paulsen, Michael; Simpson, Christopher D.

    Throughout August and September 2003, Missoula, Montana was heavily impacted by smoke from wildland forest fires burning throughout western Montana. In an effort to study the organic compounds contributing to smoke particulate matter impacting downwind communities, three co-located PM 2.5 cyclones collected 24-h samples during significant smoke events in Missoula. Filter samples were then analyzed at two independent laboratories to quantify the concentrations of several chemical markers of wood smoke generated under natural combustion conditions, as well as to provide an intercomparison study of analytical methods (HPLC and GC/MS) used in the determination of levoglucosan concentrations. Concentrations of monosaccharide anhydrides, methoxyphenols and soluble potassium were measured from PM 2.5 samples collected during periods of smoke and baseline (non-impacted) conditions. From these analyses, the associations between the wood smoke markers and PM 2.5 mass were examined. Levoglucosan was found to be the most useful marker for wood smoke generated from natural forest fire events in the northern Rocky Mountains, whereas measurement of other species (mannosan, methoxyphenols) provided information on the type of vegetative material burned (e.g., hardwood versus softwood). The emission ratios of levoglucosan to PM 2.5 and organic carbon from the wildfire smoke was found to be 0.042 and 0.062, respectively. Results of the statistical analyses showed that the GC/MS and HPLC approaches to levoglucosan analysis were statistically equivalent.

  10. Biotechnology in the wood industry.

    PubMed

    Mai, C; Kües, U; Militz, H

    2004-02-01

    Wood is a natural, biodegradable and renewable raw material, used in construction and as a feedstock in the paper and wood product industries and in fuel production. Traditionally, biotechnology found little attention in the wood product industries, apart from in paper manufacture. Now, due to growing environmental concern and increasing scientific knowledge, legal restrictions to conventional processes have altered the situation. Biotechnological approaches in the area of wood protection aim at enhancing the treatability of wood with preservatives and replacing chemicals with biological control agents. The substitution of conventional chemical glues in the manufacturing of board materials is achieved through the application of fungal cultures and isolated fungal enzymes. Moreover, biotechnology plays an important role in the waste remediation of preservative-treated waste wood.

  11. Smoking in Movies and Adolescent Smoking Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D.; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Florek, Ewa; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies from the U.S. suggest a causal relationship between exposure to images of smoking in movies and adolescent smoking onset. Purpose This study investigates whether adolescent smoking onset is predicted by the amount of exposure to smoking in movies across six European countries with various cultural and regulatory approaches to tobacco. Methods Longitudinal survey of 9987 adolescent never-smokers recruited in the years 2009–2010 (mean age 13.2 years) in 112 state-funded schools from Germany, Iceland, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom (UK), and followed-up in 2011. Exposure to movie smoking was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were performed in 2012 to assess the relationship between exposure at baseline and smoking status at follow-up. Results During the observation period (M=12 months), 17% of the sample initiated smoking. The estimated mean exposure to on-screen tobacco was 1560 occurrences. Overall, and after controlling for age; gender; family affluence; school performance; TVscreen time; personality characteristics; and smoking status of peers, parents, and siblings, exposure to each additional 1000 tobacco occurrences increased the adjusted relative risk for smoking onset by 13% (95% CI=8%, 17%, p<0.001). The crude relationship between movie smoking exposure and smoking initiation was significant in all countries; after covariate adjustment, the relationship remained significant in Germany, Iceland, The Netherlands, Poland, and UK. Conclusions Seeing smoking in movies is a predictor of smoking onset in various cultural contexts. The results confirm that limiting young people’s exposure to movie smoking might be an effective way to decrease adolescent smoking onset. PMID:23498098

  12. Chapter 1: Wood and Society

    Treesearch

    Chrisopher D. Risbrudt

    2013-01-01

    Forests, and the wood they produce, have played an important role in human activity since before recorded history. Indeed, one of the first major innovations was utilizing fire, fueled by wood, for cooking and heating. It is very likely that early hominids used wood fires for cooking, as long as 1.5 million years ago (Clark and Harris 1985). Clear evidence of this use...

  13. Controlling mold on wood Pallets

    Treesearch

    Carol A. Clausen

    2012-01-01

    THE WOOD PALLET AND CONTAINER INDUSTRY CONSUMES 4.5 billion board feet (BBF) of hardwoods and 1.8 BBF of softwoods for the annual production of 400-500 million solid wood pallets. While alternative materials such as plastic, corrugated paperboard and metal have entered the market, solid wood remains the material of choice for a majority of pallets on the market (more...

  14. Chemical composition of particles from traditional burning of Pakistani wood species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Imran; Kistler, Magdalena; Mukhtar, Azam; Ramirez-Santa Cruz, Carlos; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    2015-11-01

    Total particulate matter (TPM) emitted during burning of three types of Pakistani wood (eucalyptus camaldulensis, local name Safeeda; acacia nilotica, local name Kikar, Babul; dalbergia sissoo, Shisham, Tali) in a traditional brick stove were collected and analyzed for anhydrosugars, sugar alcohols, trace metals, soluble ions and carbonaceous species. This is a first study reporting anhydrosugars in wood smoke particles emitted during traditional burning of common wood types in Pakistan. Carbonaceous species showed the highest contribution to the particulate matter. Although the total carbon (TC) contribution was similar for all burnings (64.8-70.2%), the EC/OC ratio varied significantly, from 0.2 to 0.3 for Accacia and Dalbergia to 0.7-0.8 for Eucalyptus and Wood-mix. Among inorganic constituents potassium chloride and silicon were found at levels higher than 1%. The levoglucosan concentrations ranged from 3.0 to 6.6% (average 5.6%) with the highest value for Accacia and lowest value for the wood-mix. The high levoglucosan/mannosan ratios of 20-28 were typical for hardwood. The ratio between levoglucosan and galactosan varied stronger and was found to be around 13-20 for Accacia, Eucalyptus and Wood mix, and 43 for Dalbergia. The determined levoglucosan concentrations allowed assessing the conversion factor for calculation of biomass smoke contribution to ambient particulate matter levels in Pakistan.

  15. Patterns of snus and cigarette use: a study of Norwegian men followed from age 16 to 19.

    PubMed

    Grøtvedt, Liv; Forsén, Lisa; Stavem, Knut; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel

    2013-11-01

    The use of moist snuff (snus) in young Norwegians is increasing, while smoking rates are declining. It is not clear whether snus facilitates smoking. To assess whether 16-year-old men who were never-smokers, but snus users in 2001, had an increased risk of smoking 3 years later. In a prospective school-based cohort study, 1440 men, who responded to questionnaires in 2001 and 2004, were included in the analyses. The participation rate was 89% in 2001 and 50% in 2004. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the OR of snus users, smokers and dual users of cigarettes and snus, compared with non-tobacco users at baseline, to be smokers at follow-up. Snus use at baseline was associated with increased odds of dual use at follow-up when the outcome was (1) current dual use versus no tobacco (OR 3.49, 95% CI 1.8 to 6.8) and when the outcome was (2) current dual use versus no smoking but including snus-only use (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.3). Baseline snus users who were dual users at follow-up seemed to prefer using snus daily and cigarettes occasionally. Use of snus only at baseline was not associated with increased odds of smoking only at follow-up, after adjusting for known risk factors. Young men who only used snus at baseline had an increased risk of being dual users at follow-up. Snus use may therefore facilitate smoking.

  16. Language Planning Confronted by Everyday Communication in the International University: The Norwegian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljosland, Ragnhild

    2014-01-01

    Having been the scene of language planning for more than a century in relation to the two competing written standards of Norwegian, Norwegian language planners are now facing a new challenge: how to deal with what has been termed "domain loss" where Norwegian is perceived as losing out to English in important sectors of society,…

  17. People of the Prairies: A Norwegian and German-Russian Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabbert, Jon Charles, Ed.; Peterson, Fredrick E., Ed.

    The guide presents secondary level units designed to promote understanding of the two largest ethnic groups in North Dakota, the Norwegians and the German-Russians. The book is presented in five parts. Part I provides an historical overview of the Norwegian and German-Russian migration to North Dakota. Part II presents three Norwegian units on…

  18. Language Planning Confronted by Everyday Communication in the International University: The Norwegian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljosland, Ragnhild

    2014-01-01

    Having been the scene of language planning for more than a century in relation to the two competing written standards of Norwegian, Norwegian language planners are now facing a new challenge: how to deal with what has been termed "domain loss" where Norwegian is perceived as losing out to English in important sectors of society,…

  19. People of the Prairies: A Norwegian and German-Russian Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabbert, Jon Charles, Ed.; Peterson, Fredrick E., Ed.

    The guide presents secondary level units designed to promote understanding of the two largest ethnic groups in North Dakota, the Norwegians and the German-Russians. The book is presented in five parts. Part I provides an historical overview of the Norwegian and German-Russian migration to North Dakota. Part II presents three Norwegian units on…

  20. Food and Nutrient Intake among 12-Month-Old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi Infants

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Kolve, Cathrine Solheim; Kverndalen, Ingrid; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to describe food and nutrient intake among 12-month-old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants, with a focus on iron and vitamin D intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2013 through September 2014. Eighty-nine mothers/infants of Somali origin and 77 mothers/infants of Iraqi origin residing in Eastern Norway participated in the study. Data were collected using two 24-h multiple-pass recalls. Forty percent of the Norwegian-Somali infants and 47% of the Norwegian-Iraqi infants were breastfed at 12 months of age (p = 0.414). Median energy percentages (E%) from protein, fat and carbohydrates were within the recommended intake ranges, except the level of saturated fats (12–13 E%). Median intakes of almost all micronutrients were above the recommended daily intakes. Most of the infants consumed iron-enriched products (81%) and received vitamin D supplements (84%). The median intakes of iron and vitamin D were significantly higher among infants receiving iron-enriched products and vitamin D supplements compared to infants not receiving such products (p < 0.001). The findings indicate that the food and nutrient intake of this group of infants in general seems to be in accordance with Norwegian dietary recommendations. Foods rich in iron and vitamin D supplements were important sources of the infants’ intake of iron and vitamin D and should continue to be promoted. PMID:27690092

  1. Grammatical Gender in American Norwegian Heritage Language: Stability or Attrition?

    PubMed Central

    Lohndal, Terje; Westergaard, Marit

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates possible attrition/change in the gender system of Norwegian heritage language spoken in America. Based on data from 50 speakers in the Corpus of American Norwegian Speech (CANS), we show that the three-gender system is to some extent retained, although considerable overgeneralization of the masculine (the most frequent gender) is attested. This affects both feminine and neuter gender forms, while declension class markers such as the definite suffix remain unaffected. We argue that the gender category is vulnerable due to the lack of transparency of gender assignment in Norwegian. Furthermore, unlike incomplete acquisition, which may result in a somewhat different or reduced gender system, attrition is more likely to lead to general erosion, eventually leading to complete loss of gender. PMID:27014151

  2. Grammatical Gender in American Norwegian Heritage Language: Stability or Attrition?

    PubMed

    Lohndal, Terje; Westergaard, Marit

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates possible attrition/change in the gender system of Norwegian heritage language spoken in America. Based on data from 50 speakers in the Corpus of American Norwegian Speech (CANS), we show that the three-gender system is to some extent retained, although considerable overgeneralization of the masculine (the most frequent gender) is attested. This affects both feminine and neuter gender forms, while declension class markers such as the definite suffix remain unaffected. We argue that the gender category is vulnerable due to the lack of transparency of gender assignment in Norwegian. Furthermore, unlike incomplete acquisition, which may result in a somewhat different or reduced gender system, attrition is more likely to lead to general erosion, eventually leading to complete loss of gender.

  3. Smoking and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Smoking and Pregnancy Smoking can cause problems for a woman trying to become pregnant or who is already pregnant, and for her baby ... too early • Pregnancy occurs outside of the womb Smoking causes these health effects. Smoking could cause these ...

  4. Smoking and The Simpsons.

    PubMed

    Eslick, Guy D; Eslick, Marielle G

    2009-06-01

    To determine the frequency of smoking on The Simpsons television show, and the relationship with the sex and age groups of characters shown smoking, and with positive, negative and neutral connotations associated with instances of smoking. Content analysis (performed from January to October 2008) of instances of smoking that appeared in the first 18 seasons of The Simpsons television show, which aired from 1989 to 2007. Frequency, impact (positive, negative, neutral) of instances of smoking; and frequency associated with age (child or adolescent versus adult characters), sex and types of characters on the show. There were 795 instances of smoking in the 400 episodes observed. Most (498; 63%) involved male characters. Only 8% of instances of smoking (63) involved child or adolescent characters. Just over a third of instances of smoking (275; 35%) reflected smoking in a negative way, compared with the majority, which reflected smoking in a neutral way (504; 63%) and the minority, which reflected smoking in a positive way (16; 2%). Child and adolescent characters were much more likely to be involved in instances of smoking reflected in a negative way compared with adult characters (odds ratio, 44.93; 95% CI, 16.15-172.18). There are a large number of instances of smoking in The Simpsons television show. Child and adolescent characters are much more likely to be portrayed in instances of smoking reflected in a negative way than adult characters. Viewing The Simpsons characters smoking may prompt children to consider smoking at an early age.

  5. Self-rated health among Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami adolescents: associated risk and protective correlates.

    PubMed

    Spein, Anna Rita; Pedersen, Cecilia Petrine; Silviken, Anne Cathrine; Melhus, Marita; Kvernmo, Siv Eli; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) and associated risk and protective correlates were investigated among two indigenous adolescent populations, Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami. Cross-sectional data were collected from "Well-being among Youth in Greenland" (WBYG) and "The Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study" (NAAHS), conducted during 2003-2005 and comprising 10th and 11th graders, 378 Inuit and 350 Sami. SRH was assessed by one single item, using a 4-point and 5-point scale for NAAHS and WBYG, respectively. Logistic regressions were performed separately for each indigenous group using a dichotomous measure with "very good" (NAAHS) and "very good/good" (WBYG) as reference categories. We simultaneously controlled for various socio-demographics, risk correlates (drinking, smoking, violence and suicidal behaviour) and protective correlates (physical activity, well-being in school, number of close friends and adolescent-parent relationship). A majority of both Inuit (62%) and Sami (89%) youth reported "good" or "very good" SRH. The proportion of "poor/fair/not so good" SRH was three times higher among Inuit than Sami (38% vs. 11%, p≤0.001). Significantly more Inuit females than males reported "poor/fair" SRH (44% vs. 29%, p≤0.05), while no gender differences occurred among Sami (12% vs. 9%, p≤0.08). In both indigenous groups, suicidal thoughts (risk) and physical activity (protective) were associated with poor and good SRH, respectively. In accordance with other studies of indigenous adolescents, suicidal thoughts were strongly associated with poorer SRH among Sami and Inuit. The Inuit-Sami differences in SRH could partly be due to higher "risk" and lower "protective" correlates among Inuit than Sami. The positive impact of physical activity on SRH needs to be targeted in future intervention programs.

  6. Self-rated health among Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami adolescents: associated risk and protective correlates

    PubMed Central

    Spein, Anna Rita; Pedersen, Cecilia Petrine; Silviken, Anne Cathrine; Melhus, Marita; Kvernmo, Siv Eli; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Self-rated health (SRH) and associated risk and protective correlates were investigated among two indigenous adolescent populations, Greenlandic Inuit and Norwegian Sami. Design Cross-sectional data were collected from “Well-being among Youth in Greenland” (WBYG) and “The Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study” (NAAHS), conducted during 2003–2005 and comprising 10th and 11th graders, 378 Inuit and 350 Sami. Methods SRH was assessed by one single item, using a 4-point and 5-point scale for NAAHS and WBYG, respectively. Logistic regressions were performed separately for each indigenous group using a dichotomous measure with “very good” (NAAHS) and “very good/good” (WBYG) as reference categories. We simultaneously controlled for various socio-demographics, risk correlates (drinking, smoking, violence and suicidal behaviour) and protective correlates (physical activity, well-being in school, number of close friends and adolescent–parent relationship). Results A majority of both Inuit (62%) and Sami (89%) youth reported “good” or “very good” SRH. The proportion of “poor/fair/not so good” SRH was three times higher among Inuit than Sami (38% vs. 11%, p≤0.001). Significantly more Inuit females than males reported “poor/fair” SRH (44% vs. 29%, p≤0.05), while no gender differences occurred among Sami (12% vs. 9%, p≤0.08). In both indigenous groups, suicidal thoughts (risk) and physical activity (protective) were associated with poor and good SRH, respectively. Conclusions In accordance with other studies of indigenous adolescents, suicidal thoughts were strongly associated with poorer SRH among Sami and Inuit. The Inuit–Sami differences in SRH could partly be due to higher “risk” and lower “protective” correlates among Inuit than Sami. The positive impact of physical activity on SRH needs to be targeted in future intervention programs. PMID:23396865

  7. Self-Reported Food Hypersensitivity: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Comorbidities in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    Braaten, Tonje; Obstfelder, Aud; Abelsen, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aims to investigate the prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity, (SFH), the characteristics of women with SFH, and whether SFH is associated with multiple health complaints among the participants of the Norwegian Women and Cancer study (NOWAC). Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 64,316 women aged 41–76 years. The women were randomly selected from the Norwegian Central Person Register. Information on SFH and all covariates except age and place of residence was collected by questionnaires in 2002–2005. Results The prevalence of SFH in our study sample was 6.8% (95% confidence interval: 6.7–7.0). Logistic regression analysis showed a negative association between SFH and age (odds ratio [OR] 0.97). The odds of SFH increased among women living in or near urban centers, women with more than 9 years of education, women who did not have full-time work, women who had experienced poor economic conditions in childhood, those living without a partner, and those who did not consume alcohol or smoke (OR varied from 1.10 to 1.70). Women with a low body mass index had higher odds of SFH (OR 1.37) than those with a moderate body mass index. SFH was positively associated with poor self-perceived health (OR 2.56). The odds of SFH increased with the number of concurrent health complaints, with an OR for 5–6 comorbidities of 4.93. Conclusion We found an association between SFH, poor health, and different socio demographic and lifestyle characteristics. Women with SFH had increased odds of reporting multiple health complaints. PMID:27992542

  8. Eucalypt smoke and wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleknia, Simin D.; Bell, Tina L.; Adams, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    -dependent VOC compositions. Before the appearance of smoke, the composition of VOCs remained consistent and correlated well with various naturally occurring isoprenoids, as observed in temperature profile studies. Sampling of eucalypt smoke suggested ions (m/z 75, 85, 87, 99, 111 and 125) correlated with protonated mass of oxygenated aldehydes, ketones, furans and substituted benzenes, and were due to pyrolysis of polycarbohydrates (cellulose and lignin) that are common in many types of wood.

  9. Quantifying arthropod contributions to wood decay

    Treesearch

    Michael Ulyshen; Terry Wagner

    2013-01-01

    Termites carry large amounts of soil into dead wood, and this behaviour complicates efforts to measure their contributions to wood decay. A novel method for isolating termite soil by burning the wood is described, and some preliminary results are presented.

  10. Wood formation and the concept of wood quality

    Treesearch

    Philip R. Larson

    1969-01-01

    Wood has been the principal product of trees from the first hunting club or digging tool of ancient man to the rich variety of industrial and decorative uses of modern civilization. The universal practical value and aesthetic appeal of wood may be traced to the seemingly infinite variation in its characteristics. These variations arise from the structure and...

  11. Corrosion of Fasteners in Wood Treated with Newer Wood Preservatives

    Treesearch

    Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    This document compiles recent research findings related to corrosion of metals in preservative treated wood into a single report on corrosion of metals in wood. The research was conducted as part of the Research, Technology and Education portion of the National Historic Covered Bridge Preservation (NHCBP) Program administered by the Federal Highway Administration. The...

  12. Wood Substitutes; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

    This curriculum guide is for use by college instructors concerned with expanding traditional woodworking programs. It was developed in a National Defense Education Act summer institute and is based on an outline provided by members of a previous institute. The content concerns wood substitutes which are made to resemble wood and are often used…

  13. Brain correlates of sentence translation in Finnish-Norwegian bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Minna H; Laine, Matti; Niemi, Jussi; Thomsen, Tormod; Vorobyev, Victor A; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2005-04-25

    We measured brain activation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while Finnish-Norwegian bilinguals silently translated sentences from Finnish into Norwegian and decided whether a later presented probe sentence was a correct translation of the original sentence. The control task included silent sentence reading and probe sentence decision within a single language, Finnish. The translation minus control task contrast activated the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area 47) and the left basal ganglia. The left inferior frontal activation appears to be related to active semantic retrieval and the basal ganglia activation to a general action control function that works by suppressing competing responses.

  14. Nanostructured Wood Hybrids for Fire-Retardancy Prepared by Clay Impregnation into the Cell Wall.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiliang; Medina, Lilian; Li, Yuanyuan; Carosio, Federico; Hajian, Alireza; Berglund, Lars A

    2017-09-14

    Eco-friendly materials need "green" fire-retardancy treatments, which offer opportunity for new wood nanotechnologies. Balsa wood (Ochroma pyramidale) was delignified to form a hierarchically structured and nanoporous scaffold mainly composed of cellulose nanofibrils. This nanocellulosic wood scaffold was impregnated with colloidal montmorillonite clay to form a nanostructured wood hybrid with high flame-retardancy. The nanoporous scaffold was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and gas adsorption. Flame-retardancy was evaluated by cone calorimetry, whereas thermal and thermo-oxidative stabilities were assessed by thermogravimetry. The location of well-distributed clay nanoplatelets inside the cell walls was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. This unique nanostructure dramatically increased the thermal stability because of thermal insulation, oxygen depletion, and catalytic charring effects. A coherent organic/inorganic charred residue was formed during combustion, leading to a strongly reduced heat release rate peak and reduced smoke generation.

  15. Low-level arsenic exposure in wood processing plants.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, M J; Landrigan, P J; Crowley, S

    1980-01-01

    In October 1978, seven construction workers building a pier in Monterey, California, developed symptoms consistent with arsenic intoxication and had elevated urinary levels of arsenic. The wood used for the pier had been pressure-treated with an arsenic preservative. To evaluate the potential acute medical hazards of preserving wood with arsenic, we evaluated employees at three California plants where arsenic preservatives are mixed and applied to wood. Histories, physical examinations, and urine specimens for arsenic analysis were collected from 44 workers exposed to arsenic and from 37 controls in three woodworking plants where arsenic is not used. A comparison of the groups failed to show any significant differences in history or physical examination. Adjustment for age, length of employment, and smoking histories did not alter the pattern. Urinary arsenic concentration was found to increase with increased exposure. These results do not imply absence of chronic or delayed toxicity, nor do they preclude the presence of a more subtle toxicity such as nerve conduction deficits. The data indicate existence of an arsenic exposure hazard in wood processing.U

  16. Composites from wood and plastics

    Treesearch

    Craig Clemons

    2010-01-01

    Composites made from thermoplastics and fillers or reinforcements derived from wood or other natural fibers are a dynamic research area encompassing a wide variety of composite materials. For example, as the use of biopolymers grows, wood and other natural fiber sources are being investigated as renewable sources of fillers and reinforcements to modify performance....

  17. Properties of seven Colombian woods

    Treesearch

    B. A. Bendtsen; M. Chudnoff

    1981-01-01

    Woods from abroad are an important raw material to the forest products industries in the United States. A major concern in effective utilization of this resource is the lack of technical information on many species. This report presents the results of an evaluation of the mechanical properties of small, clear specimens of seven Colombian woods. These results are...

  18. Wood shipments to Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Harold W. Wisdom; James E. Granskog; Keith A. Blatner

    1983-01-01

    Puerto Rico's importance as an offshore market for U.S. wood products is often overlooked. Because of Puerto Rico's unique Commonwealth status, trade flows between the United States and Puerto Rico are recorded separately and are not counted in the U.S. foreign trade statistics. In 1981, wood product shipments from the United States to Puerto Rico totaled...

  19. Aquatic wood -- an insect perspective

    Treesearch

    Peter S. Cranston; Brendan McKie

    2006-01-01

    Immersed wood provides refugia and substrate for a diverse array of macroinvertebrates, and food for a more restricted genuinely xylophagous fauna. Worldwide, xylophages are found across aquatic insect orders, including Coleoptera, Diptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Xylophages often are specialised, feeding on the wood surface or mining deep within. Many feed...

  20. Electric moisture meters for wood

    Treesearch

    William L. James

    1963-01-01

    Common methods of measuring the moisture content of wood are described briefly, and a short historical account of the development of electric moisture meters is given. Electrical properties of wood are discussed briefly, and the basic operation of the resistance type and the radio- frequency types of moisture meter is outlined. Data relating the electrical resistance...

  1. Measuring wood specific gravity, correctly

    Treesearch

    G. Bruce Williamson; Michael C. Wiemann

    2010-01-01

    The specific gravity (SG) of wood is a measure of the amount of structural material a tree species allocates to support and strength. In recent years, wood specific gravity, traditionally a forester’s variable, has become the domain of ecologists exploring the universality of plant functional traits and conservationists estimating global carbon stocks. While these...

  2. Assessing potential sustainable wood yield

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Powers

    2001-01-01

    Society is making unprecedented demands on world forests to produce and sustain many values. Chief among them is wood supply, and concerns are rising globally about the ability of forests to meet increasing needs. Assessing this is not easy. It requires a basic understanding of the principles governing forest productivity: how wood yield varies with tree and stand...

  3. Holistic approach to wood protection

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell

    2006-01-01

    When untreated wood is exposed to adverse outdoor conditions, nature has a series of chemistries to degrade it to its original building blocks of carbon dioxide and water. Fungi, termites, heat, moisture, ultraviolet (UV) energy, and chemicals take their toll on the performance properties of wood. We tend to study each of these degradation chemistries as individual...

  4. Public opinion and wood energy

    Treesearch

    Sarah Hitchner; John Schelhas; Teppo Hujala; J. Peter Brosius

    2014-01-01

    As wood-based bioenergy continues to develop around the world, it will utilize forestlands in new ways and will have different effects on a number of stakeholders, including forest landowners, local communities, extant industries, policymakers, investors, and others. As more stakeholders become involved in the wood energy web, and as the general public becomes more...

  5. The sustainable wood production initiative.

    Treesearch

    Robert. Deal

    2004-01-01

    To address concerns about sustainable forestry in the region, the Focused Science Delivery Program is sponsoring a three year Sustainable Wood Production Initiative. The Pacific Northwest is one of the world's major timber producing regions, and the ability of this region to produce wood on a sustained yield basis is widely recognized. Concerns relating to the...

  6. The case of General Wood.

    PubMed

    Ljunggren, B

    1982-04-01

    The first successful operation ever on a parasagittal meningioma was performed in 1910 by Harvey Cushing. The operation turned out to be critical event in his career as a neurosurgeon and made him confident about the possibilities of brain surgery. The patient was Leonard Wood, Major General and Chief of Staff of the United States Army, who was a military surgeon turned career officer. In the election campaign or the president to succeed Woodrow Wilson in 1920, Leonard Wood, the personification of competence, became the Republican favorite. General Wood was, however, eliminated from the presidential election campaign by complicated intrigues. From the next year on, General Wood experienced increasing warning signs of a recurrent tumor, which he unfortunately neglected. Not until 1927 did Wood again come under the care of Dr. Cushing, who had just returned from Britain, where in the course of a single month he had been awarded no less than seven distinctions from different medical societies. Deeply concerned at Wood's condition. Cushing decided to attempt extirpation of the recurrent tumor. General Wood died a few hours after the operation. No tragedy caused Cushing more distress than the death of General Wood, who 7 years earlier had been on the verge of being President of the United States.

  7. Ultrahigh Pressure Metamorphic Terrane Evolution; Norwegian Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodda, C. I.; Koons, P. O.; Terry, M.; Robinson, P.

    2007-12-01

    Rocks in Norway's Western Gneiss Region (WGR) experienced high pressure and ultrahigh pressure (UHPM) (4GPa., 800C) peak metamorphic conditions during the Scandian orogeny at 410Ma. Thermobarometric studies of exhumed ultramafic eclogite pods from the Nordfjord, Soroyane and Nordoyane areas place tight time constraints on subduction, UHP metamorphism and exhumation, with all but the final phase of exhumation occurring in ca. 12 million years. However, few structures apparently related to the descent phase of terrane evolution were observed during field studies. Rather, ubiquitous quartz-rod lineation and pervasive minor folding indicate top-to-the-west, relatively shallow unroofing of the subducted margin as indicated in a new bedrock map of a portion of the Norwegian coast. Many of the mapped units have been redescribed, with emphasis put on those features that are of interest to the geophysical community.. To address the ambiguous kinematics of UHPM evolution, numerical models are employed in this study to consider the trajectory of crustal materials during continental collision that concentrate on the delicate balance of forces driving and resisting the subduction of buoyant continental materials as a function of kinetically-controlled equilibration.. In the WGR, past stability of coesite and rarely, of diamond, is preserved in robust mafic eclogites as inclusions within zircon and garnet grains. However, the extent of UHPM equilibration of the volumetrically dominant quartzo-feldspathic gneisses and consequently the contribution of these lithologies to the overall subduction suystemare unclear. . As such, simple equilibrium- defined strength and density parameters are insufficient to define natural model behavior. (Meaning of this next sentence escapes me. How does the following sound?) Rather, numerical solutions involving end member and intermediate states between equilibrium and non-equilibrium assemblages are explored While UHP metamorphic reactions in the

  8. [Biological effect of wood dust].

    PubMed

    Maciejewska, A; Wojtczak, J; Bielichowska-Cybula, G; Domańska, A; Dutkiewicz, J; Mołocznik, A

    1993-01-01

    The biological effect of exposure to wood dust depends on its composition and the content of microorganisms which are an inherent element of the dust. The irritant and allergic effects of wood dust have been recognised for a long time. The allergic effect is caused by the wood dust of subtropical trees, e.g. western red cedar (Thuja plicata), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon), cocabolla (Dalbergia retusa) and others. Trees growing in the European climate such as: larch (Larix), walnut (Juglans regia), oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), pine (Pinus) cause a little less pronounced allergic effect. Occupational exposure to irritative or allergic wood dust may lead to bronchial asthma, rhinitis, alveolitis allergica, DDTS (Organic dust toxic syndrome), bronchitis, allergic dermatitis, conjunctivitis. An increased risk of adenocarcinoma of the sinonasal cavity is an important and serious problem associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. Adenocarcinoma constitutes about half of the total number of cancers induced by wood dust. An increased incidence of the squamous cell cancers can also be observed. The highest risk of cancer applies to workers of the furniture industry, particularly those dealing with machine wood processing, cabinet making and carpentry. The cancer of the upper respiratory tract develops after exposure to many kinds of wood dust. However, the wood dust of oak and beech seems to be most carcinogenic. It is assumed that exposure to wood dust can cause an increased incidence of other cancers, especially lung cancer and Hodgkin's disease. The adverse effects of microorganisms, mainly mould fungi and their metabolic products are manifested by alveolitis allergica and ODTS. These microorganisms can induce aspergillomycosis, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and allergic dermatitis.

  9. Acoustical classification of woods for string instruments.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Shigeru

    2007-07-01

    Two basic types of wood are used to make stringed musical instruments: woods for soundboards (top plates) and those for frame boards (back and side plates). A new way to classify the acoustical properties of woods and clearly separate these two groups is proposed in this paper. The transmission parameter (product of propagation speed and Q value of the longitudinal wave along the wood grain) and the antivibration parameter (wood density divided by the propagation speed along the wood grain) are introduced in the proposed classification scheme. Two regression lines, drawn for traditional woods, show the distinctly different functions required by soundboards and frame boards. These regression lines can serve as a reference to select the best substitute woods when traditional woods are not available. Moreover, some peculiarities of Japanese string instruments, which are made clear by comparing woods used for them with woods used for Western and Chinese instruments, are briefly discussed.

  10. School Start Time, Sleepiness and Functioning in Norwegian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedaa, Oystein; Saxvig, Ingvild West; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Pallesen, Stale

    2012-01-01

    The study's aim was to investigate how school start time affects sleepiness and functioning in Norwegian 10th grade students (N = 106). The intervention school started at 0930 hours on Mondays and 0830 hours the rest of the week. A control school started at 0830 hours all schooldays. The students were assessed on a reaction time test as well as…

  11. Adapted Education: The Norwegian Pathway to Inclusive and Efficient Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasting, Rolf B.

    2013-01-01

    Since the UNESCO conference in 1994, inclusion has been a major denominator in the educational debates of most OECD countries, focusing on how to facilitate education and social interaction for the diversity of pupils. By international standards, the Norwegian education system is regarded as inclusive, but the ongoing debate and political pressure…

  12. The Limitations of Multiculturalism in Norwegian Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovdelien, Olav

    2014-01-01

    In Norway, 9 out of 10 children between the ages of one and five participate in an educational formation programme which, despite around half of the kindergartens being privately owned, is regulated by a common law and relatively detailed regulations describing what the content of kindergartens should be. Norwegian kindergartens therefore…

  13. The Norwegian "Christianity, Religion and Philosophy" Subject "KRL" in Strasbourg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lied, Sidsel

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the judgement and dissent of the European Court of Human Rights in the "Case of Folgero and others v. Norway" regarding the subject "Christianity, Religion and Philosophy (KRL)" in Norwegian state schools. The verdict, reached with dissenting votes of 9-8, states that parents' freedom of ensuring their…

  14. The Broken Curve: Effects of the Norwegian Manifesto against Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    The first Norwegian Manifesto (Manifesto-I) Against Bullying was launched by the Prime Minister in autumn 2002 and lasted for 2 years. A background for Manifesto-I was that school bullying had increased almost linearly in Norway with over 60% more victims and bullies since 1995. During the manifest period, the percentage of victims and bullies…

  15. Predicting Intentions to Perform Protective Sexual Behaviours among Norwegian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myklestad, Ingri; Rise, Jostein

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the socio-cognitive processes underlying intentions to use condoms and contraceptive pills, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour extended with prototypes in a group of young Norwegian adolescents. The data are derived from a questionnaire survey comprising all pupils in Grade Nine at three schools in Oslo (n = 196). Using…

  16. Teaching Immigrants Norwegian Culture to Support Their Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Awal Mohammed; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted with 48 adult immigrant students studying Norwegian under basic education program of the Ski Municipality Adult Education Unit between 2009-2011. Using the framework of Genc and Bada (2005), we tried to replicate their study in a new setting--Norway. The study investigated migrant students' perceptions learning Norwegian…

  17. The Multi-Faceted Teacher Educator: A Norwegian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kari

    2011-01-01

    Within the broad theme of this special issue, the current article describes a turbulent Norwegian teacher education context in which two new teacher educators start work in a university. Like other nations, Norway is affected by international educational trends, some of which have a reductive impact on the teaching profession and on teacher…

  18. Challenges and Possibilities in Norwegian Classroom Drama Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebo, Aud Berggraf

    2009-01-01

    My specific teaching and research interest is drama in the classroom--drama as a teaching and learning medium to fulfil a curriculum demand for student-active, creative and aesthetic learning processes. In this article I will focus on the challenges and possibilities that exist in Norwegian classroom drama. The article is based on my latest…

  19. Developmental Dyslexia in Norwegian: Evidence from Single-Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nergard-Nilssen, Trude

    2006-01-01

    This study provides detailed descriptions of the reading impairments in four 10-year-old Norwegian children with dyslexia. In all four cases reading comprehension was well in advance of the children's slow and inaccurate word-recognition skills. Phonological decoding (as assessed by pseudohomophone and nonword reading) appeared relatively…

  20. Deepwater cementing in the Norwegian Sea: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Helgesen, J.T.; Harestad, K.; Sorgaard, E.

    1999-04-01

    During Norway`s 15th licensing round in 1996, five deepwater areas were opened for exploration drilling. All blocks are situated outside the continental shelf in the Norwegian Sea, west of mid-Norway. The seabed and location conditions were studied by the Norwegian Deepwater Project, a joint venture of the operator companies who were awarded blocks in these new unexplored areas. Results of the study revealed that the weather and sea conditions in these remote areas would be among the toughest in the world. Strong return currents from the Arctic Ocean bring undercooled water to these locations, lowering the seabed temperature to as low as {minus}2 C. Because all the blocks are situated outside the Norwegian continental shelf, the water depth is in the range of 2,600--5,000 ft (800--1,600 m). Typical deepwater conditions are present in most of the deepwater locations in the Norwegian Sea. The conditions that posed additional challenges to the drilling operation were poorly consolidated sediments, shallow water flow zones, hydrate destabilization and ooze sediments. The paper describes sediment consolidation, shallow water flow, hydrates, development of deepwater cement slurries, a field case, and future cementing operations in Norway.

  1. Implementation of New Public Management in Norwegian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frolich, Nicoline

    2005-01-01

    This article analyses the implementation of market-type mechanisms in the management of universities. The question of which cultural biases have been used in the implementation of New Public Management (NPM) in Norwegian universities is discussed. Cultural theory, institutional theory, and public policy studies are applied to the analysis of a…

  2. The Influence of Multilingualism on a Northern Norwegian Dialect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Tove

    The noun phrase of the Norwegian dialect of the multilingual village of Skibotn, in northern Norway, is analyzed. Attention is focused on the possible influence of two other languages, Finnish, an imported language, and Sami, the original language of the area, in the development of three different clusters of features characteristic of nominal…

  3. Highly variable Pliocene sea surface conditions in the Norwegian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachem, Paul E.; Risebrobakken, Bjørg; De Schepper, Stijn; McClymont, Erin L.

    2017-09-01

    The Pliocene was a time of global warmth with small sporadic glaciations, which transitioned towards the larger-scale Pleistocene glacial-interglacial variability. Here, we present high-resolution records of sea surface temperature (SST) and ice-rafted debris (IRD) in the Norwegian Sea from 5.32 to 3.14 Ma, providing evidence that the Pliocene surface conditions of the Norwegian Sea underwent a series of transitions in response to orbital forcing and gateway changes. Average SSTs are 2 °C above the regional Holocene mean, with notable variability on millennial to orbital timescales. Both gradual changes and threshold effects are proposed for the progression of regional climate towards the Late Pliocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Cooling from 4.5 to 4.3 Ma may be linked to the onset of poleward flow through the Bering Strait. This cooling was further intensified by a period of cool summers due to weak obliquity forcing. A 7 °C warming of the Norwegian Sea at 4.0 Ma suggests a major increase in northward heat transport from the North Atlantic, leading to an enhanced zonal SST gradient in the Nordic Seas, which may be linked to the expansion of sea ice in the Arctic and Nordic Seas. A warm Norwegian Sea and enhanced zonal temperature gradient between 4.0 and 3.6 Ma may have been a priming factor for increased glaciation around the Nordic Seas due to enhanced evaporation and precipitation at high northern latitudes.

  4. Educating Voters: Political Education in Norwegian Upper-Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borhaug, Kjetil

    2008-01-01

    Research on political education in schools suggests that an emphasis on formal structure, constitutional principles, formal citizen rights, and debates on current issues is common. The Norwegian national curriculum on political education envisions a different political education emphasizing that students should be critical of political life and…

  5. Actual Leisure Participation of Norwegian Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in…

  6. Adapted Education: The Norwegian Pathway to Inclusive and Efficient Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasting, Rolf B.

    2013-01-01

    Since the UNESCO conference in 1994, inclusion has been a major denominator in the educational debates of most OECD countries, focusing on how to facilitate education and social interaction for the diversity of pupils. By international standards, the Norwegian education system is regarded as inclusive, but the ongoing debate and political pressure…

  7. Science Choices in Norwegian Upper Secondary School: What Matters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Maria Vetleseter

    2012-01-01

    There is international concern about young people's participation in science. This study investigated the relevant importance of various issues in 1628 Norwegian upper secondary students' choices of postcompulsory subject combinations: natural science and mathematics (henceforth Science) or languages, social science and economics (henceforth…

  8. Predicting Intentions to Perform Protective Sexual Behaviours among Norwegian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myklestad, Ingri; Rise, Jostein

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the socio-cognitive processes underlying intentions to use condoms and contraceptive pills, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour extended with prototypes in a group of young Norwegian adolescents. The data are derived from a questionnaire survey comprising all pupils in Grade Nine at three schools in Oslo (n = 196). Using…

  9. Science Choices in Norwegian Upper Secondary School: What Matters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Maria Vetleseter

    2012-01-01

    There is international concern about young people's participation in science. This study investigated the relevant importance of various issues in 1628 Norwegian upper secondary students' choices of postcompulsory subject combinations: natural science and mathematics (henceforth Science) or languages, social science and economics (henceforth…

  10. Translation and "Myth": Norwegian Children's Literature in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudvin, Mette

    1994-01-01

    Argues that books from minor language communities/cultures are selected not only according to merit but also according to whether the literature in question conforms with the myths about these smaller nations in the dominant culture. Illustrates this point by examining translations of Norwegian children's literature into English, noting in…

  11. Norwegian "Friluftsliv" and Ideals of Becoming an "Educated Man"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurholt, Kirsti Pedersen

    2008-01-01

    Norwegian "friluftsliv" or outdoor life is often identified as a "simple way of life" and as exemplary of green life-philosophy and environmental practices. This paper argues that "friluftsliv" must be conceptualized as a complex social phenomenon and an example of long-standing Western discourse linking ideas of…

  12. Implicit language learning: Adults’ ability to segment words in Norwegian*

    PubMed Central

    KITTLESON, MEGAN M.; AGUILAR, JESSICA M.; TOKERUD, GRY LINE; PLANTE, ELENA; ASBJØRNSEN, ARVE E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous language learning research reveals that the statistical properties of the input offer sufficient information to allow listeners to segment words from fluent speech in an artificial language. The current pair of studies uses a natural language to test the ecological validity of these findings and to determine whether a listener’s language background influences this process. In Study 1, the “guessibility” of potential test words from the Norwegian language was presented to 22 listeners who were asked to differentiate between true words and nonwords. In Study 2, 22 adults who spoke one of 12 different primary languages learned to segment words from continuous speech in an implicit language learning paradigm. The task consisted of two sessions, approximately three weeks apart, each requiring participants to listen to 7.2 minutes of Norwegian sentences followed by a series of bisyllabic test items presented in isolation. The participants differentially accepted the Norwegian words and Norwegian-like nonwords in both test sessions, demonstrating the capability to segment true words from running speech. The results were consistent across three broadly-defined language groups, despite differences in participants’ language background. PMID:21512605

  13. The Prevalence and Nature of Intellectual Disability in Norwegian Prisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondenaa, E.; Rasmussen, K.; Palmstierna, T.; Nottestad, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The objective of the study was to calculate the prevalence of inmates with intellectual disabilities (ID), and identify historical, medical and criminological characteristics of a certain impact. Methods: A random sample of 143 inmates from a Norwegian prison cross sectional sample was studied. The Hayes Ability Screening Index (HASI)…

  14. The Broken Curve: Effects of the Norwegian Manifesto against Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    The first Norwegian Manifesto (Manifesto-I) Against Bullying was launched by the Prime Minister in autumn 2002 and lasted for 2 years. A background for Manifesto-I was that school bullying had increased almost linearly in Norway with over 60% more victims and bullies since 1995. During the manifest period, the percentage of victims and bullies…

  15. The Limitations of Multiculturalism in Norwegian Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovdelien, Olav

    2014-01-01

    In Norway, 9 out of 10 children between the ages of one and five participate in an educational formation programme which, despite around half of the kindergartens being privately owned, is regulated by a common law and relatively detailed regulations describing what the content of kindergartens should be. Norwegian kindergartens therefore…

  16. Forecasting the Norwegian Labour Market for Graduates Holding Higher Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naess, Terje

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the phenomenon of long-term unemployed graduates of Norwegian higher education institutions over the period 1973-1999. The phenomenon was unexpected. One explanation for it is that the market for graduates was and remains in disequilibrium because wages are not sufficiently flexible downward. Thus unemployment would be…

  17. Family Structure in Norwegian Families of Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundeby, Hege; Tossebro, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Background: The idea that raising a child with disabilities has a negative impact on the parents' relationship is still widely accepted despite contradictory research findings. This article addresses the impact of raising a child with disabilities on family structure in the present Norwegian context. Method: Family demographics were collected at…

  18. The Prevalence and Nature of Intellectual Disability in Norwegian Prisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondenaa, E.; Rasmussen, K.; Palmstierna, T.; Nottestad, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The objective of the study was to calculate the prevalence of inmates with intellectual disabilities (ID), and identify historical, medical and criminological characteristics of a certain impact. Methods: A random sample of 143 inmates from a Norwegian prison cross sectional sample was studied. The Hayes Ability Screening Index (HASI)…

  19. The Norwegian Principal: The Impact of National and Local Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Jorunn

    This article provides a snapshot of educational administration and leadership in Norway. The article describes the Norwegian context and the country's educational system. It reports on a small study that was part of a cross-cultural exploration into the principalship, offering a discussion based on interviews of principals from four…

  20. Possible Concepts for Waterproofing of Norwegian TBM Railway Tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammyr, Øyvind; Nilsen, Bjørn; Thuro, Kurosch; Grøndal, Jørn

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare the durability, life expectancy and maintenance needs of traditional Norwegian waterproofing concepts to the generally more rigid waterproofing concepts seen in other European countries. The focus will be on solutions for future Norwegian tunnel boring machine railway tunnels. Experiences from operation of newer and older tunnels with different waterproofing concepts have been gathered and analyzed. In the light of functional requirements for Norwegian rail tunnels, some preliminary conclusions about suitable concepts are drawn. Norwegian concepts such as polyethylene panels and lightweight concrete segments with membrane are ruled out. European concepts involving double shell draining systems (inner shell of cast concrete with membrane) and single shell undrained systems (waterproof concrete segments) are generally evaluated as favorable. Sprayable membranes and waterproof/insulating shotcrete are welcomed innovations, but more research is needed to verify their reliability and cost effectiveness compared to the typical European concepts. Increasing traffic and reliance on public transport systems in Norway result in high demand for durable and cost effective solutions.

  1. School Start Time, Sleepiness and Functioning in Norwegian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedaa, Oystein; Saxvig, Ingvild West; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Pallesen, Stale

    2012-01-01

    The study's aim was to investigate how school start time affects sleepiness and functioning in Norwegian 10th grade students (N = 106). The intervention school started at 0930 hours on Mondays and 0830 hours the rest of the week. A control school started at 0830 hours all schooldays. The students were assessed on a reaction time test as well as…

  2. Counterinsurgency and Its Implications for the Norwegian Special Operations Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    behalf of the Norwegian Government which was in exile in Great Britain . This insurgency is therefore somewhat different from most of the other...that recently has come into vogue again, much thanks to the recently published U.S. Multi-Service Concept for Irregular Warfare.31 This concept sees

  3. Projected wood energy impact on US forest wood resources

    SciTech Connect

    Skog, K.E.

    1993-12-31

    The USDA Forest Service has developed long-term projections of wood energy use as part of a 1993 assessment of demand for and supply of resources from forest and range lands in the United States. To assess the impact of wood energy demand on timber resources, a market equilibrium model based on linear programming was developed to project residential, industrial, commercial, and utility wood energy use from various wood energy sources: roundwood from various land sources, primary wood products mill residue, other wood residue, and black liquor. Baseline projections are driven by projected price of fossil fuels compared to price of wood fuels and the projected increase in total energy use in various end uses. Wood energy use is projected to increase from 2.67 quad in 1986 to 3.5 quad in 2030 and 3.7 quad in 2040. This is less than the DOE National Energy Strategy projection of 5.5 quad in 2030. Wood energy from forest sources (roundwood) is projected to increase from 3.1 billion (10{sup 9}) ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 4.4. billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 4.8 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (88, 124 and 136 million m{sup 3}, respectively). This rate of increase of roundwood use for fuel -- 0.8 percent per year -- is virtually the same as the projected increase rate for roundwood for pulpwood. Pulpwood roundwood is projected to increase from 4.2 billion ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 6.0 billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 6.4 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (119, 170 and 183 million m{sup 3}, respectively).

  4. Up in smoke: I. Smoke-derived germination cues for postfire annual,Nicotiana attenuata torr. Ex. Watson.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, I T; Staszak-Kozinski, L; Davidson, R

    1994-09-01

    Some postfire annuals with dormant seeds use heat or chemical cues from charred wood to synchronize their germination with the postfire environment. We report that wood smoke and polar extracts of wood smoke, but not the ash of burned wood, contain potent cue(s) that stimulate germination in the postfire annual plant,Nicotiana attenuata. We examined the responses of seeds from six populations of plants from southwest Utah to extracts of smoke and found the proportion of viable seeds that germinated in the presence of smoke cues to vary between populations but to be consistent between generations. With the most dormant genotypes, we examine three mechanisms by which smoke-derived chemical cues may stimulate germination (chemical scarification of the seed coat and nutritive- and signal-mediated stimulation of germination) and report that the response is consistent with the signal-mediated mechanism. The germination cue(s) found in smoke are produced by the burning of hay, hardwood branches, leaves, and, to a lesser degree, cellulose. Moreover, the cues are found in the common food condiment, "liquid smoke," and we find no significant differences between brands. With a bioassay-driven fractionation of liquid smoke, we identified 71 compounds in active fractions by GC-MS and AA spectrometry. However, when these compounds were tested in pure form or in combinations that mimicked the composition of active fractions over a range of concentrations, they failed to stimulate germination to the same degree that smoke fractions did. Moreover, enzymatic oxidation of some of these compounds also failed to stimulate germination. In addition, we tested 43 additional compounds also reported from smoke, 85 compounds that were structurally similar to those reported from smoke and 34 compounds reported to influence germination in other species. Of the 233 compounds tested, 16 proved to inhibit germination at the concentrations tested, and none reproduced the activity of wood smoke. By

  5. Smoking and women's health.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, V

    2000-07-01

    Each year more than 600000 women have deaths associated with cigarette smoking. In addition, cigarette smoking is associated with a wide array of morbidities (such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and adverse pregnancy outcomes). Two hundred million women smoke worldwide, and this number appears to be rising, particularly in developing countries. Obstetrician-gynecologists can play a role in reducing morbidity and mortality from cigarette smoking by educating women about the dangers, advising them not to smoke, and assisting those who do smoke to quit.

  6. Smoke-induced seed germination in California chaparral

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    The California chaparral community has a rich flora of species with different mechanisms for cuing germination to postfire conditions. Heat shock triggers germination of certain species but has no stimulatory effect on a great many other postfire species that are chemically stimulated by combustion products. Previous reports have shown that charred wood will induce germination, and here we report that smoke also induces germination in these same species. Smoke is highly effective, often inducing 100% germination in deeply dormant seed populations with 0% control germination. Smoke induces germination both directly and indirectly by aqueous or gaseous transfer from soil to seeds. Neither nitrate nor ammonium ions were effective in stimulating germination of smoke-stimulated species, nor were most of the quantitatively important gases generated by biomass smoke. Nitrogen dioxide, however, was very effective at inducing germination in Caulanthus heterophyllus (Brassicaceae), Emmenanthe penduliflora (Hydrophyllaceae), Phacelia grandiflora (Hydrophyllaceae), and Silene multinervia (Caryophyllaceae). Three species, Dendromecon rigida (Papaveraceae), Dicentra chrysantha, and Trichostema lanatum (Lamiaceae), failed to germinate unless smoke treatment was coupled with prior treatment of 1 yr soil storage. Smoke-stimulated germination was found in 25 chaparral species, representing 11 families, none of which were families known for heat-shock-stimulated germination. Seeds of smoke-stimulated species have many analogous characteristics that separate them from most heat-shock-stimulated seeds, including: (1) outer seed coats that are highly textured, (2) a poorly developed outer cuticle, (3) absence of a dense palisade tissue in the seed coat, and (4) a subdermal membrane that is semipermeable, allowing water passage but blocking entry of large (molecular mass > 500) solutes. Tentative evidence suggests that permeability characteristics of this subdermal layer are altered by

  7. Predictors of change on the smoking uptake continuum among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Nancy J; Castrucci, Brian C; Mowery, Paul D; Gerlach, Karen K; Emont, Seth; Orleans, C Tracy

    2002-06-01

    Understanding how advertising and other risk and demographic factors affect adolescent susceptibility to smoking would allow for the development of more effective youth-targeted tobacco prevention and cessation programs and policies. To examine the effect of various demographic and risk factors on different stages of smoking among adolescents. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Survey of Tobacco Price Sensitivity, Behavior, and Attitudes Among Teenagers and Young Adults. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Survey of Tobacco Price Sensitivity, Behavior, and Attitudes Among Teenagers and Young Adults included 17,287 adolescent respondents (aged, 13-19 years) in 1996. Stage of susceptibility and correlates of progression toward regular smoking. Of all never [corrected] smoking adolescents, 32% were susceptible smokers (have never smoked, but might) with younger adolescents almost 3 times more likely than older adolescents to be susceptible. Female subjects were 50% [corrected] more likely than male subjects to be susceptible. In addition to exposure to others' smoking, owning or willingness to own tobacco promotional items, having a favorite cigarette advertisement, skipping school, poor school performance, and lack of attendance in religious activities were associated with progression along the uptake continuum. Improved understanding of the tobacco use trajectories of adolescents and the risk factors associated with progression will help clinicians and tobacco control advocates create effective youth-targeted interventions and policies. Findings suggest that physicians and other health care providers should redouble their efforts to ask preadolescents and young adults about smoking or the likelihood of their smoking. Nonsmokers should also be advised about the addictive nature of tobacco products and the resulting loss of control that accompanies addiction.

  8. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  9. Wood power in North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Cleland, J.G.; Guessous, L.

    1993-12-31

    North Carolina (NC) is one of the most forested states, and supports a major wood products industry. The NC Department of Natural Resources sponsored a study by Research Triangle Institute to examine new, productive uses of the State`s wood resources, especially electric power generation by co-firing with coal. This paper summarizes our research of the main factors influencing wood power generation opportunities, i.e., (1) electricity demand; (2) initiative and experience of developers; (3) available fuel resources; (4) incentives for alternate fuels; and (5) power plant technology and economics. The results cover NC forests, short rotation woody crops, existing wood energy facilities, electrical power requirements, and environmental regulations/incentives. Quantitative assessments are based on the interests of government agencies, utilities, electric cooperatives, developers and independent power producers, forest products industries, and the general public. Several specific, new opportunities for wood-to-electricity in the State are identified and described. Comparisons are made with nationwide resources and wood energy operations. Preferred approaches in NC are co-generation in existing or modified boilers and in dedicated wood power plants in forest industry regions. Co-firing is mainly an option for supplementing unreliable primary fuel supplies to existing boilers.

  10. Wood Bond Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A joint development program between Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection Technologies and The Weyerhaeuser Company resulted in an internal bond analyzer (IBA), a device which combines ultrasonics with acoustic emission testing techniques. It is actually a spinoff from a spinoff, stemming from a NASA Lewis invented acousto-ultrasonic technique that became a system for testing bond strength of composite materials. Hartford's parent company, Acoustic Emission Technology Corporation (AET) refined and commercialized the technology. The IBA builds on the original system and incorporates on-line process control systems. The IBA determines bond strength by measuring changes in pulsar ultrasonic waves injected into a board. Analysis of the wave determines the average internal bond strength for the panel. Results are displayed immediately. Using the system, a mill operator can adjust resin/wood proportion, reduce setup time and waste, produce internal bonds of a consistent quality and automatically mark deficient products.

  11. The Rhetoric of the Norwegian Constitution Day: A Topos Analysis of Young Norwegian Students' May 17 Speeches, 2011 and 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tønnesson, Johan Laurits; Sivesind, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    National Day, or Constitution Day, in Norway, May 17, is often referred to as Children's Day. On this day, thousands of young Norwegian students march in parades and participate in celebrations in schoolyards and similar meeting places. Some students are selected to give speeches, performed in front of family members, neighbors, classmates, and…

  12. The Rhetoric of the Norwegian Constitution Day: A Topos Analysis of Young Norwegian Students' May 17 Speeches, 2011 and 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tønnesson, Johan Laurits; Sivesind, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    National Day, or Constitution Day, in Norway, May 17, is often referred to as Children's Day. On this day, thousands of young Norwegian students march in parades and participate in celebrations in schoolyards and similar meeting places. Some students are selected to give speeches, performed in front of family members, neighbors, classmates, and…

  13. Kids and Smoking (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Kids and Smoking KidsHealth > For Parents > Kids and Smoking A A ... them from these unhealthy habits. The Facts About Smoking and Tobacco One reason that smoking and chewing ...

  14. Fire resistance of exposed wood members

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White

    2004-01-01

    Fire resistance data on exposed wood beams and columns are plentiful, but few studies have been done on exposed wood members in tension and in decks. To provide data to verify the application of a new calculation procedure, a limited series of fire resistance tests were conducted on wood members loaded in tension and on exposed wood decks.

  15. The Carbon Impacts of Wood Products

    Treesearch

    Richard Bergman; Maureen Puettmann; Adam Taylor; Kenneth E. Skog

    2014-01-01

    Wood products have many environmental advantages over nonwood alternatives. Documenting and publicizing these merits helps the future competitiveness of wood when climate change impacts are being considered. The manufacture of wood products requires less fossil fuel than nonwood alternative building materials such as concrete, metals, or plastics. By nature, wood is...

  16. FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PURCELL, FRANK X.

    A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

  17. Physical properties and moisture relations of wood

    Treesearch

    William Simpson; Anton TenWolde

    1999-01-01

    The versatility of wood is demonstrated by a wide variety of products. This variety is a result of a spectrum of desirable physical characteristics or properties among the many species of wood. In many cases, more than one property of wood is important to the end product. For example, to select a wood species for a product, the value of appearance- type properties,...

  18. Treatments that enhance physical properties of wood

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell; Peggy Konkol

    1987-01-01

    This paper was prepared for anyone who wants to know more about enhancing wood’s physical properties, from the amateur wood carver to the president of a forest products company. The authors describe chemical and physical treatments of wood that enhance the strength, stiffness, water repellency, and stability of wood. Five types of treatments are described: 1. water-...

  19. Wood-based composites and panel products

    Treesearch

    John A. Youngquist

    1999-01-01

    Because wood properties vary among species, between trees of the same species, and between pieces from the same tree, solid wood cannot match reconstituted wood in the range of properties that can be controlled in processing. When processing variables are properly selected, the end result can sometimes surpass nature’s best effort. With solid wood, changes in...

  20. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood

    Treesearch

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2010-01-01

    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  1. FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PURCELL, FRANK X.

    A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

  2. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  3. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  4. Oxalate analysis methodology for decayed wood

    Treesearch

    Carol A. Clausen; William Kenealy; Patricia K. Lebow

    2008-01-01

    Oxalate from partially decayed southern pine wood was analyzed by HPLC or colorimetric assay. Oxalate extraction efficiency, assessed by comparing analysis of whole wood cubes with ground wood, showed that both wood geometries could be extracted with comparable efficiency. To differentiate soluble oxalate from total oxalate, three extraction methods were assessed,...

  5. The challenge of bonding treated wood

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    Wood products are quite durable if exposure to moisture is minimized; however, most uses of wood involve considerable exposure to moisture. To preserve the wood, chemicals are used to minimize moisture pickup, to prevent insect attack, and/or to resist microbial growth. The chemicals used as preservatives can interfere with adhesive bonds to wood. Given the many...

  6. Wood Condition Assessment Manual: Second Edition

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Ross; Robert H. White

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes information on condition assessment of in-service wood, including visual inspection of wood and timbers, use of ultrasound and probing/boring techniques for inspection, and assessment of wood and timbers that have been exposed to fire. The report also includes information on assigning allowable design values for in-service wood.

  7. Bioprocessing preservative-treated waste wood

    Treesearch

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang; Les. Ferge

    2000-01-01

    Disposal of preservative-treated waste wood is a growing problem worldwide. Bioprocessing the treated wood offers one approach to waste management under certain conditions. One goal is to use wood decay fungi to reduce the volume of waste with an easily managed system in a cost-effective manner. Wood decay fungi were obtained from culture collections in the Mycology...

  8. Second Hand Smoke: Danger

    MedlinePlus

    ... from exposure to secondhand smoke since 1964. Smokefree Laws Save Lives, But Many Not Protected In the ... plus the District of Columbia have passed comprehensive laws to protect nonsmokers by prohibiting smoking in indoor ...

  9. Smoking and asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000504.htm Smoking and asthma To use the sharing features on this page, ... enable JavaScript. Things that make your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger ...

  10. Smart smoke alarm

    DOEpatents

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-04-28

    Methods and apparatus for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a smoke detector uses linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to determine whether observed conditions indicate that an alarm is warranted.

  11. Smoking and Eye Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... that is most common in women after menopause. Smoking increases the risk of serious vision loss in people with other eye diseases. And when women smoke during pregnancy they are more likely to give birth prematurely, ...

  12. Up in Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews research on adolescent smoking and nicotine addiction. Finds, for example, that smoking is linked to depression. Describes five stages of nicotine addiction. Offers tips for prevention. (Contains 12 references.) (PKP)

  13. Up in Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews research on adolescent smoking and nicotine addiction. Finds, for example, that smoking is linked to depression. Describes five stages of nicotine addiction. Offers tips for prevention. (Contains 12 references.) (PKP)

  14. Teenagers and Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The Coalition on Smoking OR Health was established to coordinate education programs to discourage young people from smoking. Projects that could be undertaken by parent associations are suggested. (MT)

  15. Factors Affecting Smoking Tendency and Smoking Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Nissim Ben; Zion, Uri Ben

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure the relative effect of relevant explanatory variable on smoking tendency and smoking intensity. Design/methodology/approach: Using survey data collected by the Israeli Bureau of Statistics in 2003-2004, a probit procedure is estimated for analyzing factors that affect the probability of being a…

  16. USANS study of wood structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvey, Christopher J.; Knott, Robert B.; Searson, Matthew; Conroy, Jann P.

    2006-11-01

    Wood performs a vascular and structural function in trees. In this study we used the double-crystal diffractometer BT5 at the NIST Center for Neutron Scattering (Gaithersburg, USA) to study the pore structure inside wood sections. The slit-smeared intensity of scattered neutrons was measured from wood sections in directions parallel, orthogonal and transverse to the tree's trunk axis over a scattering vector range 0.00004-0.002 Å -1. The interpretation of the data in terms of a reductionist model consisting of infinitely long cylinders (cell lumens) is discussed.

  17. Dust exposure is associated with increased lung function loss among workers in the Norwegian silicon carbide industry.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Helle Laier; Bugge, Merete Drevvatne; Føreland, Solveig; Kjuus, Helge; Kongerud, Johny; Søyseth, Vidar

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between dust exposure and annual change in lung function among employees in Norwegian silicon carbide (SiC) plants using a quantitative job exposure matrix (JEM) regarding total dust. All employees, 20-55 years of age by inclusion (n=456), were examined annually for up to 5 years (1499 examinations). Spirometry was performed at each examination, and a questionnaire encompassing questions of respiratory symptoms, smoking status, job and smoking history, and present job held was completed. A JEM was constructed based on 1970 personal total dust exposure measurements collected during the study period. The association between lung function and total dust exposure was investigated using linear mixed models. The annual change in forced expiratory volume (FEV) in one second per squared height, FEV1/height(2), per mg/m(3) increase in dust exposure was -2.3 (95% CI -3.8 to -0.79) (mL/m(2))×year(-1). In an employee of average height (1.79 m) and exposure (1.4 mg/m(3)) the estimated contribution to the annual change in FEV1 associated with dust was 10.4 mL/year. The annual change in FEV1/height(2) in current, compared with non-smokers was -1.9 (-7.2 to 3.4) (mL/m(2))×year(-1). The estimated overall annual decline in FEV1 among current and non-smokers in the highest exposed group was -91.2 (-124.3 to -58.1) (mL/m(2))×year(-1) and -49.0 (-80.2 to -17.8) (mL/m(2))×year(-1), respectively. Dust exposure, expressed by a quantitative JEM, was found to be associated with an increased yearly decline in FEV1 in employees of Norwegian SiC plants.

  18. Smoking and Pancreatic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Edderkaoui, Mouad; Thrower, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanisms through which it causes the diseases remain unknown. In the present manuscript we reviewed the latest knowledge gained on the effect of cigarette smoke and smoking compounds on cell signaling pathways mediating both diseases. We also reviewed the effect of smoking on the pancreatic cell microenvironment including inflammatory cells and stellate cells. PMID:24660091

  19. Effects of cooking fuel smoke on respiratory symptoms and lung function in semi-rural women in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mbatchou Ngahane, Bertrand Hugo; Afane Ze, Emmanuel; Chebu, Cyrille; Mapoure, Njankouo Yacouba; Temfack, Elvis; Nganda, Malea; Luma, Namme Henry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Indoor air pollution is a major health problem in the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa more than 90% of people rely on biomass to meet their domestic energy demands. Pollution from biomass fuel ranks 10th among preventable risk factors contributing to the global burden of diseases. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the factors associated with reduced lung function in a population of women exposed to cooking fuel smoke. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a semi-rural area in Cameroon. We compared forced respiratory volume between women using wood (n = 145) and women using alternative sources of energy (n = 155) for cooking. Results: Chronic bronchitis was found in 7·6% of the wood smoke group and 0·6% in the alternative fuels group. We observed two cases of airflow obstruction in the wood smoke group. Factors associated with lung function impairment were chronic bronchitis, use of wood as cooking fuel, age, and height. Conclusion: Respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function are more pronounced among women using wood as cooking fuel. Improved stoves technology should be developed to reduce the effects of wood smoke on respiratory health. PMID:25384259

  20. In utero exposure to tobacco smoke and subsequent reduced fertility in females.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xibiao; Skjaerven, Rolv; Basso, Olga; Baird, Donna D; Eggesbo, Merete; Cupul Uicab, Lea Aurora; Haug, Kjell; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2010-11-01

    Animal studies have shown that in utero exposure to chemicals in tobacco smoke reduces female fertility, but epidemiological findings have been inconsistent. We examined the association between in utero exposure to tobacco smoke and female fertility among women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, enrolled from 1999 to 2007. Around the 17th week of pregnancy, participants reported how long they took to conceive (time to pregnancy), and whether their mother smoked while pregnant with the participant. This analysis included 48 319 planned pregnancies among women aged 15-44 years. We estimated fecundability odds ratios (FORs) using a discrete-time survival analysis, adjusting for age, education and adult tobacco smoking. The adjusted FOR for in utero exposure to tobacco smoke among all subjects was 0.96 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93, 0.98], among subjects reporting no adult tobacco smoking or passive exposure it was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.99) and among subjects reporting adult tobacco smoking or passive exposure it was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.99). We performed a probabilistic sensitivity analysis to estimate the effect of exposure and outcome misclassification on the results, and, as expected, the association became more pronounced after taking misclassification into account. This large cohort study supports a small-to-modest association between in utero exposure to tobacco smoke and reduced fertility.