Science.gov

Sample records for norwegian wood smoke

  1. Oxidative damage to DNA and repair induced by Norwegian wood smoke particles in human A549 and THP-1 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Loft, Steffen; Kocbach, Anette; Schwarze, Per E; Møller, Peter

    2009-03-31

    Genotoxic effects of traffic-generated particulate matter (PM) are well described, whereas little data are available on PM from combustion of biomass and wood, which contributes substantially to air pollution world wide. The aim of this study was to compare the genotoxicity of wood smoke particulate matter (WSPM), authentic traffic-generated particles, mineral PM and standard reference material (SRM2975) of diesel exhaust particles in human A549 lung epithelial and THP-1 monocytic cell lines. DNA damage was measured as strand breaks (SB) and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) sites by the comet assay, whereas cell cytotoxicity was determined as lactate dehydrogenase release. The exposure to WSPM generated SB and FPG sites in both cell lines at concentrations from 2.5 or 25 microg/ml, which were not cytotoxic. Compared to all other studied particles, WSPM generated greater responses in terms of both SB and FPG sites. Organic extracts of WSPM and SRM2975 elicited higher levels of SB than native and washed PM at 25 and 100 microg/ml, whereas assay saturation precluded reliable assessment of FPG sites. During a 6h post-exposure period, in which the medium with PM had been replaced by fresh medium, 60% of the DNA lesions generated by WSPM were removed. In conclusion, WSPM generated more DNA damage than traffic-generated PM per unit mass in human cell lines, possibly due to the high level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in WSPM. This suggests that exposure to WSPM might be more hazardous than PM collected from vehicle exhaust with respect to development of lung cancer. PMID:19041418

  2. Wood smoke in a controlled exposure experiment with human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Riddervold, I S; Bønløkke, J H; Mølhave, L; Massling, A; Jensen, B; Grønborg, T K; Bossi, R; Forchhammer, L; Kjærgaard, S K; Sigsgaard, T

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to wood smoke in the general population is increasing and concurrently, also our awareness. This article describes a wood-smoke generating system for studying human exposure to wood smoke and symptoms related to this exposure. Twenty nonsmoking atopic human participants with normal lung function and normal bronchial reactivity were randomly exposed for 3 h at three different exposure conditions; clean filtered air (control exposure) and wood smoke with a characteristic particulate matter (PM) concentration of 200 µg/m³ (low) and 400 µg/m³ (high) under controlled environmental conditions. The range for PM₂.₅ load observed for single experiments was 165-303 µg/m³ for the low exposure and 205-662 µg/m³ for the high exposure, whereas particle loads during clean air exposure most often were below the detection limit (< 20 µg/m³). Health effects were evaluated in relation to rated changes in symptoms and environmental perception using a computerized questionnaire and a potentiometer. Subjective symptoms were generally weak, but when combining the effect of each of the symptoms into categorical symptom indices, significant effects were found for "environmental perception" (p = 0.0007), "irritative body perceptions" (p = 0.0127), "psychological/neurological effects" (p = 0.0075) and "weak inflammatory responses" (p = 0.0003). Furthermore, significant effects (p = 0.0192) on self-reported general mucosa irritation were found. In conclusion, exposure to wood smoke affected symptom rating and caused irritated mucosas in humans. The knowledge gained in this study on subjective-rated symptoms may be important for understanding human response to wood-smoke exposure.

  3. Health effects of residential wood smoke particles: the importance of combustion conditions and physicochemical particle properties

    PubMed Central

    Kocbach Bølling, Anette; Pagels, Joakim; Yttri, Karl Espen; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Schwarze, Per E; Boman, Christoffer

    2009-01-01

    Background Residential wood combustion is now recognized as a major particle source in many developed countries, and the number of studies investigating the negative health effects associated with wood smoke exposure is currently increasing. The combustion appliances in use today provide highly variable combustion conditions resulting in large variations in the physicochemical characteristics of the emitted particles. These differences in physicochemical properties are likely to influence the biological effects induced by the wood smoke particles. Outline The focus of this review is to discuss the present knowledge on physicochemical properties of wood smoke particles from different combustion conditions in relation to wood smoke-induced health effects. In addition, the human wood smoke exposure in developed countries is explored in order to identify the particle characteristics that are relevant for experimental studies of wood smoke-induced health effects. Finally, recent experimental studies regarding wood smoke exposure are discussed with respect to the applied combustion conditions and particle properties. Conclusion Overall, the reviewed literature regarding the physicochemical properties of wood smoke particles provides a relatively clear picture of how these properties vary with the combustion conditions, whereas particle emissions from specific classes of combustion appliances are less well characterised. The major gaps in knowledge concern; (i) characterisation of the atmospheric transformations of wood smoke particles, (ii) characterisation of the physicochemical properties of wood smoke particles in ambient and indoor environments, and (iii) identification of the physicochemical properties that influence the biological effects of wood smoke particles. PMID:19891791

  4. Organic compounds in biomass smoke from residential wood combustion: Emissions characterization at a continental scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, Philip M.; Cass, Glen R.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    2002-11-01

    Wood smoke in the atmosphere often accounts for 20-30% of the ambient fine-particle concentrations. In communities where wood is burned for home heating, wood smoke can at times contribute the majority of the atmospheric fine-particle burden. Chemical mass balance receptor models that use organic compounds as tracers can be used to determine the contributions of different emission sources, including wood smoke, to atmospheric fine-particle samples. In order for organic chemical tracer techniques to be applied to communities across the United States, differences in wood smoke composition that arise from differences in the type of wood burned in various regions must be understood. A continental-scale accounting of particulate organic compound emissions from residential wood combustion has been constructed which helps to quantify the regional differences in wood smoke composition that exist between different parts of the United States. Data from a series of source tests conducted on 22 North American wood species have been used to assemble a national inventory of emissions for more than 250 individual organic compounds that are released from wood combustion in fireplaces and wood stoves in the United States. The emission rates of important wood smoke markers, such as levoglucosan, certain substituted syringols and guaiacols, and phytosterols vary greatly with wood type and combustor type. These differences at the level of individual wood type and combustion conditions translate into regional differences in the aggregate composition of ambient wood smoke. By weighting the source test results in proportion to the availability of firewood from specific tree species and the quantities of wood burned in each locale, it is possible to investigate systematic differences that exist between wood smokes from different regions of North America. The relative abundance of 10 major wood smoke components averaged over the emissions inventory in different regions of the United States

  5. Prenatal Exposure to Wood Fuel Smoke and Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Amna R.; Gold, Ellen B.; Yang, Xiaowei; Lee, Kiyoung; Brown, Kenneth H.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Maternal exposure to wood fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth due to hypoxia and or oxidative stress from smoke constituents such as carbon monoxide and particulate matter. Objectives We studied the risk of low birth weight (LBW) and reduced mean birth weight in relation to reported use of wood for cooking during the prenatal period, compared with natural gas (NG). Methods We studied a historical cohort of women who had a singleton live birth in the years 2000–2002, from a semirural area of Pakistan. Infant’s birth weight was obtained from records, and prenatal records had data for maternal body mass index and parity. Cooking habits, daytime sleep habits, and type of fuel used during the pregnancies in 2000–2002 were ascertained by a survey done in 2004–2005. We performed multiple linear and logistic regression modeling using propensity scores to adjust for confounding variables. Results Unadjusted mean (± SD) birth weight was 2.78 ± 0.45 kg in wood users, and 2.84 ± 0.43 kg (p < 0.06) in NG users. Infants born to wood users averaged 82 g lighter than infants born to NG users when weight was adjusted for confounders (p < 0.07). The rate of LBW (< 2,500 g) was 22.7% among wood users compared with 15.0% in NG users (p < 0.01), for an adjusted relative risk of 1.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.10–2.34). The population attributable risk for LBW explained by wood use was estimated to be 24%. Conclusion Cooking with wood fuel during pregnancy, a potentially modifiable exposure, was associated with LBW and marginally lower mean birth weight compared with using NG. PMID:18414641

  6. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crilley, Leigh; Bloss, William; Yin, Jianxin; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre; Green, David

    2014-05-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke in large urban centres such as London is becoming increasingly important with the changing nature of domestic heating partly due to the installation of biomass burning heaters to meet renewable energy targets imposed by the EU and also a rise in so-called recreational burning for aesthetic reasons (Fuller et al., 2013). Recent work in large urban centres (London, Paris and Berlin) has demonstrated an increase in the contribution of wood smoke to ambient particles during winter that can at times exceed traffic emissions. In Europe, biomass burning has been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits during winter (Fuller et al., 2013). In light of the changing nature of emissions in urban areas there is a need for on-going measurements to assess the impact of biomass burning in cities like London. Therefore we aimed to determine quantitatively the contribution of biomass burning in London and surrounding rural areas. We also aimed to determine whether local emissions or regional sources were the main source of biomass burning in London. Sources of wood smoke during winter in London were investigated at an urban background site (North Kensington) and two surrounding rural sites (Harwell and Detling) by analysing selected wood smoke chemical tracers. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated, indicating a similar source of these species at the three sites. Based on the conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at Detling, North Kensington and Harwell was 0.78, 0.87 and 1.0 µg m-3, respectively. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest source of OC and EC found to be secondary organic aerosols and traffic emissions, respectively. Peaks in levoglucosan concentrations at the sites were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, suggesting domestic heating as

  7. Biological effects of cigarette smoke, wood smoke, and the smoke from plastics: The use of electron spin resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, W.A. )

    1992-12-01

    This review compares and contrasts the chemistry of cigarette smoke, wood smoke, and the smoke from plastics and building materials that is inhaled by persons trapped in fires. Cigarette smoke produces cancer, emphysema, and other diseases after a delay of years. Acute exposure to smoke in a fire can produce a loss of lung function and death after a delay of days or weeks. Tobacco smoke and the smoke inhaled in a burning building have some similarities from a chemical viewpoint. For example, both contain high concentrations of CO and other combustion products. In addition, both contain high concentrations of free radicals, and our laboratory has studied these free radicals, largely by electron spin resonance (ESR) methods, for about 15 years. This article reviews what is known about the radicals present in these different types of smokes and soots and tars and summarizes the evidence that suggests these radicals could be involved in cigarette-induced pathology and smoke-inhalation deaths. The combustion of all organic materials produces radicals, but (with the exception of the smoke from perfluoropolymers) the radicals that are detected by ESR methods (and thus the radicals that would reach the lungs) are not those that arise in the combustion process. Rather they arise from chemical reactions that occur in the smoke itself. Thus, a knowledge of the chemistry of the smoke is necessary to understand the nature of the radicals formed. Even materials as similar as cigarettes and wood (cellulose) produce smoke that contains radicals with very different lifetimes and chemical characteristics, and mechanistic rationales for this are discussed. Cigarette tar contains a semiquinone radical that is infinitely stable and can be directly observed by ESR. Aqueous extracts of cigarette tar, which contain this radical, reduce oxygen to superoxide and thus produce both hydrogen peroxide and the hydroxyl radical.

  8. Subjective attractiveness and perceived trendiness in smoking and snus use: a study among young Norwegians.

    PubMed

    Wiium, N; Aarø, L E; Hetland, J

    2009-02-01

    In Norway, there has been a decline in smoking among adults and young people, but there has also been an increase in the use of snus, particularly among young males. Among females, snus use is less common. This study examines to what extent subjective attractiveness (SA) (the individual's personal opinion regarding how attractive a person who smokes/uses snus is) and perceived trendiness (PT) (the individual's impressions of how popular smoking/use of snus is) may contribute to explaining current trends in smoking and snus use among young people in Norway. Data were collected from a national representative sample of 2400 young people (age 16-20) by telephone interviews. Among males, regular smokers were also likely to be regular snus users and vice versa. SA and PT were significant predictors of their respective behaviours (smoking and snus use) and in some cases of the other behaviour. Smoking and snus use were perceived as unattractive, while snus use was perceived to be trendier than smoking. Males, more than females, perceived snus use to be attractive and trendy. This pattern is partly consistent with current changes in tobacco use in the Norwegian population. PMID:18842677

  9. Tobacco habits, lifestyle, and reactions to smoking restrictions among Norwegian military officers.

    PubMed

    Schei, E

    1992-12-01

    A 1989 cross-sectional study revealed that Norwegian army and air force officers smoked considerably less than civilian men. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use, on the other hand, was higher than among civilians and similar to that of conscripted soldiers. Reactions to new smoking restrictions were largely neutral, but smokers were more negative than non-smokers. A majority of the officers reported low compliance with smoking regulations. Smokers generally belonged to the oldest cohorts and had less education, higher alcohol consumption, less physical activity, and more unhealthy dietary habits than the other subjects, whereas snuff use was more common among the youngest and more healthy officers. This indicates that the health hazards of prolonged snuff use are underestimated, and that this habit may gain increased popularity if nothing is done to prevent it. Intervention strategies are suggested.

  10. Is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Caused by Wood Smoke a Different Phenotype or a Different Entity?

    PubMed

    Torres-Duque, Carlos A; García-Rodriguez, María Carmen; González-García, Mauricio

    2016-08-01

    Around 40% of the world's population continue using solid fuel, including wood, for cooking or heating their homes. Chronic exposure to wood smoke is a risk factor for developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In some regions of the world, this can be a more important cause of COPD than exposure to tobacco smoke from cigarettes. Significant differences between COPD associated with wood smoke (W-COPD) and that caused by smoking (S-COPD) have led some authors to suggest that W-COPD should be considered a new COPD phenotype. We present a review of the differences between W-COPD and S-COPD. On the premise that wood smoke and tobacco smoke are not the same and the physiopathological mechanisms they induce may differ, we have analyzed whether W-COPD can be considered as another COPD phenotype or a distinct nosological entity.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and phenolic substances in meat products smoked with different types of wood and smoking spices.

    PubMed

    Hitzel, Alexander; Pöhlmann, Margarete; Schwägele, Fredi; Speer, Karl; Jira, Wolfgang

    2013-08-15

    The contents of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (15+1 EU PAH) and phenolic substances (guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, syringol, eugenol, and trans-isoeugenol) were investigated in smouldering-smoked Frankfurters and mini-salamis. For the 51 smoking experiments wood chips of oak, poplar, hickory, spruce, fir, alder, beech, and beech with an apple-smoking spice mix, cherry-smoking spice mix, and a mix of juniper berries and bay leaves were tested. The use of poplar and hickory led to a decrease in the PAH contents in the range of 35-55% compared to the commonly used beech wood. Higher PAH contents by using softwood were not observed. The use of the rapidly growing poplar seems to be a reasonable approach for reducing the PAH contents in smoked meat products. Furthermore, the sum contents of the five phenolic substances in sausages smoked with poplar were higher, or only slightly lower, when compared to the use of beech.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoke particles from wood and duff burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yulin L.; Quanci, John F.; Borys, Randolf D.; Quanci, Martin J.

    Smoke particles from wood burning and duff burning were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. PAH composition in smoke particles from wood burning was found to resemble those from other environmental samples, such as air particles and sediments where parental PAH are the predominant species. A catalytic combustor retrofitted on the wood-burning stove reduced the PAH concentrations significantly. The reduction was more pronounced for parental PAH than their alkylated homologs. Probably, the molecular configuration affects the catalytic efficiency. Smoke particles from duff burning contained a strikingly different PAH composition, with phenanthrene, alkylated phenanthrenes, alkylated cycolopenta( def)phenanthrene and dodecahydrochrysene as the predominant species.

  13. Exposure to wood smoke particles produces an inflammation in healthy volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background. Human exposure to wood smoke particles (WSP) is of consequence in indoor air quality, exposures from wild fires, burning ofbiomass, and air pollution. This investigation tested the postulate that healthy volunteers exposed to WSP would demonstrate pulmonary and cardio...

  14. Systemic Effects of Wood Smoke in a Short-Term Experimental Exposure Study of Atopic Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Riddervold, Ingunn Skogstad; Grønborg, Therese Koops; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, David M.; Barregard, Lars; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether short-term systemic effects of wood smoke occurred in atopic subjects after experimental wood smoke exposures. Methods: A double-blind climate chamber study was conducted on 20 healthy atopic subjects with exposures to filtered air and wood smoke. Pneumoproteins, coagulation and adhesion factors, and cytokines were measured. Heart rate was monitored with pulse monitors. Data were analyzed with mixed models. Results: Few differences in the outcomes were observed. Plasma tissue factor remained elevated during filtered air exposure (P = 0.002). P-selectin declined independent of exposure (P = 0.0006). Interleukin-6 increased after filtered air (P = 0.03). Conclusions: The study confirmed previous observations among nonatopics of limited changes after a 3-hour wood smoke exposure. PMID:24451613

  15. 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate after experimental exposure to wood smoke in humans.

    PubMed

    Murgia, N; Barregard, L; Sallsten, G; Almstrand, A C; Montuschi, P; Ciabattoni, G; Olin, A C

    2016-01-01

    Wood smoke, a well-known indoor and outdoor air pollutant, may cause adverse health effects through oxidative stress. In this study 8-isoprostane, a biomarker of oxidative stress, was measured in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and urine before and after experimental exposure to wood smoke. The results were compared with measurements of other biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Thirteen subjects were exposed first to clean air and then, after 1 week, to wood smoke in an exposure chamber during 4-hour sessions. Exhaled breath condensate, exhaled nitric oxide, blood and urine were sampled before and at various intervals after exposure to wood smoke and clean air. Exhaled breath condensate was examined for 8-isoprostane and malondialdehyde (MDA), while exhaled air was examined for nitric oxide, serum for Clara cell protein (CC16) and urine for 8-isoprostane. 8-isoprostane in EBC did not increase after wood smoke exposure and its net change immediately after exposure was inversely correlated with net changes in MDA (r(s)= -0.57, p= 0.041) and serum CC16 (S-CC16) (r(p)= -0.64, p= 0.020) immediately after the exposure. No correlation was found between 8-isoprostane in urine and 8-isoprostane in EBC. In this study controlled wood smoke exposure in healthy subjects did not increase 8-isoprostane in EBC.

  16. Antioxidant airway responses following experimental exposure to wood smoke in man

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Biomass combustion contributes to the production of ambient particulate matter (PM) in rural environments as well as urban settings, but relatively little is known about the health effects of these emissions. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize airway responses in humans exposed to wood smoke PM under controlled conditions. Nineteen healthy volunteers were exposed to both wood smoke, at a particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration of 224 ± 22 μg/m3, and filtered air for three hours with intermittent exercise. The wood smoke was generated employing an experimental set-up with an adjustable wood pellet boiler system under incomplete combustion. Symptoms, lung function, and exhaled NO were measured over exposures, with bronchoscopy performed 24 h post-exposure for characterisation of airway inflammatory and antioxidant responses in airway lavages. Results Glutathione (GSH) concentrations were enhanced in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) after wood smoke exposure vs. air (p = 0.025), together with an increase in upper airway symptoms. Neither lung function, exhaled NO nor systemic nor airway inflammatory parameters in BAL and bronchial mucosal biopsies were significantly affected. Conclusions Exposure of healthy subjects to wood smoke, derived from an experimental wood pellet boiler operating under incomplete combustion conditions with PM emissions dominated by organic matter, caused an increase in mucosal symptoms and GSH in the alveolar respiratory tract lining fluids but no acute airway inflammatory responses. We contend that this response reflects a mobilisation of GSH to the air-lung interface, consistent with a protective adaptation to the investigated wood smoke exposure. PMID:20727160

  17. The fraction of breast cancer attributable to smoking: The Norwegian women and cancer study 1991–2012

    PubMed Central

    Gram, Inger T; Little, Melissa A; Lund, Eiliv; Braaten, Tonje

    2016-01-01

    Background: Results from several recent cohort studies on smoking and breast cancer incidence and mortality suggest that the burden of smoking on society is underestimated. We estimated the fraction of breast cancer attributable to smoking in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study, a nationally representative prospective cohort study. Methods: We followed 130 053 women, aged 34–70 years, who completed a baseline questionnaire between 1991 and 2007, through linkages to national registries through December 2012. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), while adjusting for confounders. Never smokers, excluding passive smokers, were used as the reference group in all main analyses. We estimated attributable fractions (AFs) % in smokers and in the population (PAFs) % with 95% CIs. Results: Altogether, 4293 women developed invasive breast cancer, confirmed by histology. Compared with never active, never passive smokers, ever (former and current) smokers had an overall risk of breast cancer that was 21% higher (HR=1.21; 95% CI=1.08–1.34). For ever smokers, the AF was 17.3% (95% CI =7.4–25.4) and for the population the PAF of breast cancer was 11.9% (95% CI=5.3–18.1). For passive smokers, the PAF of breast cancer was 3.2% (95% CI=1.0–5.4). When we applied PAF estimates for ever smoking on the 2907 new breast cancer cases among Norwegian women aged 35+ at diagnosis in 2012, this yielded 345 (95% CI=154–526) breast cancer cases that could have been avoided in the absence of active smoking that year. Conclusions: In smokers, one in six and in the population, one in nine breast cancer cases could have been avoided in the absence of active smoking. Our findings support the notion that the global cancer burden due to smoking is substantially underestimated. PMID:27280631

  18. Wood smoke as a source of particle-phase organic compounds in residential areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Md. Aynul; Baumbach, Guenter; Kuch, Bertram; Scheffknecht, Guenter

    The objective of this study was to investigate the organic composition of wood smoke emissions and ambient air samples in order to determine the wood smoke contribution to the ambient air pollution in the residential areas. From November 2005 to March 2006 particle-phase PM 10 samples were collected in the residential town Dettenhausen surrounded by forests near Stuttgart in southern Germany. Samples collected on pre-baked glass fibre filters were extracted using toluene with ultrasonic bath and analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 21 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) including 16 USEPA priority pollutants, different organic wood smoke tracers, primarily 21 species of syringol and guaiacol derivatives, levoglucosan and its isomers mannosan, galactosan and dehydroabietic acid were detected and quantified in this study. The concentrations of these compounds were compared with the fingerprints of emissions from hardwood and softwood combustion carried out in test facilities at Universitaet Stuttgart and field investigations at a wood stove during real operation in Dettenhausen. It was observed that the combustion derived PAH was detected in higher concentrations than other PAH in the ambient air PM 10 samples. Syringol and its derivatives were found in large amounts in hardwood burning but were not detected in softwood burning emissions. On the other hand, guaiacol and its derivatives were found in both softwood and hardwood burning emissions, but the concentrations were higher in the softwood smoke compared to hardwood smoke. So, these compounds can be used as typical tracer compounds for the different types of wood burning emissions. In ambient air samples both syringol and guaiacol derivatives were found which indicates the wood combustion contribution to the PM load in such residential areas. Levoglucosan was detected in high concentrations in all ambient PM 10 samples. A source apportionment modelling, Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF

  19. Evaluation of Firefighter Exposure to Wood Smoke during Training Exercises at Burn Houses.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Sujan; Shaw, Lorraine; Shaw, Don; Gallea, Michael; VandenEnden, Lori; House, Ron; Verma, Dave K; Britz-McKibbin, Philip; McCarry, Brian E

    2016-02-01

    Smoke from wood-fueled fires is one of the most common hazards encountered by firefighters worldwide. Wood smoke is complex in nature and contains numerous compounds, including methoxyphenols (MPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), some of which are carcinogenic. Chronic exposure to wood smoke can lead to adverse health outcomes, including respiratory infections, impaired lung function, cardiac infarctions, and cancers. At training exercises held in burn houses at four fire departments across Ontario, air samples, skin wipes, and urine specimens from a cohort of firefighters (n = 28) were collected prior to and after exposure. Wood was the primary fuel used in these training exercises. Air samples showed that MP concentrations were on average 5-fold greater than those of PAHs. Skin wipe samples acquired from multiple body sites of firefighters indicated whole-body smoke exposure. A suite of MPs (methyl-, ethyl-, and propylsyringol) and deconjugated PAH metabolites (hydroxynaphthalene, hydroxyfluorene, hydroxyphenanthrene, and their isomers) were found to be sensitive markers of smoke exposure in urine. Creatinine-normalized levels of these markers were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in 24 h postexposure urine despite large between-subject variations that were dependent on the specific operational roles of firefighters while using personal protective equipment. This work offers deeper insight into potential health risk from smoke exposure that is needed for translation of better mitigation policies, including improved equipment to reduce direct skin absorption and standardized hygiene practices implemented at different regional fire services.

  20. Preliminary correlation of organic molecular tracers in residential wood smoke with the source of fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Standley, Laurel J.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    Polar cyclic di- and triterpenoids were analyzed in the extracts of residential wood combustion aerosols collected in suburban sections of Eugene, Oakridge and Corvallis, Oregon. Additional samples collected included alder wood, smoke from two wood stoves burning only alder or pine as fuel, soot from a stove burning alder and a fireplace where oak was the predominant fuel. Due to the relatively cooler temperatures present under the smoldering conditions of residential wood combustion, as compared to the active burning of forest fires and slash burns, incomplete combustion resulted in the preservation of high levels of the natural products. There were three distinct signatures which could be used to trace relative input from coniferous, alder and oak combustion products, i.e. diterpenoids, lupane-derived triterpenoids and friedelin, respectively. Conifer combustion products dominated the suburban smoke aerosols.

  1. Controlled human wood smoke exposure: oxidative stress, inflammation and microvascular function

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to wood smoke is associated with respiratory symptoms, whereas knowledge on systemic effects is limited. We investigated effects on systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and microvascular function (MVF) after controlled wood smoke exposure. Methods In a randomised, double-blinded, cross-over study 20 non-smoking atopic subjects were exposed at rest to 14, 220, or 354 μg/m3 of particles from a well-burning modern wood stove for 3 h in a climate controlled chamber with 2 week intervals. We investigated the level of oxidatively damaged DNA, inflammatory markers and adhesion molecules before and 0, 6 and 20 h after exposure. Six h after exposure we measured MVF non-invasively by digital peripheral artery tonometry following arm ischemia. Results The MVF score was unaltered after inhalation of clean air (1.58 ± 0.07; mean ± SEM), low (1.51 ± 0.07) or high (1.61 ± 0.09) concentrations of wood smoke particles in atopic subjects, whereas unexposed non-atopic subjects had higher score (1.91 ± 0.09). The level of oxidatively damaged DNA, mRNA of ITGAL, CCL2, TNF, IL6, IL8, HMOX1, and OGG1 and surface marker molecules ICAM1, ITGAL and L-selectin in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were not affected by inhalation of wood smoke particles. Conclusions Exposure to wood smoke had no effect on markers of oxidative stress, DNA damage, cell adhesion, cytokines or MVF in atopic subjects. PMID:22452928

  2. Impacts of air cleaners on indoor air quality in residences impacted by wood smoke.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Amanda J; Gibson, Mark D; MacNeill, Morgan; Ward, Tony J; Wallace, Lance A; Kuchta, James; Seaboyer, Matt; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Guernsey, Judith Read; Stieb, David M

    2014-10-21

    Residential wood combustion is an important source of ambient air pollution, accounting for over 25% of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions in Canada. In addition to these ambient contributions, wood smoke pollutants can enter the indoor environment directly when loading or stoking stoves, resulting in a high potential for human exposure. A study of the effectiveness of air cleaners at reducing wood smoke-associated PM2.5 of indoor and outdoor origin was conducted in 31 homes during winter 2009-10. Day 1, the residents' wood burning appliance operated as usual with no air cleaner. Days 2 and 3, the wood burning appliance was not operational and the air cleaner was randomly chosen to operate in "filtration" or "placebo filtration" mode. When the air cleaner was operating, total indoor PM2.5 levels were significantly lower than on placebo filtration days (p = 0.0001) resulting in a median reduction of 52%. There was also a reduction in the median PM2.5 infiltration factor from 0.56 to 0.26 between these 2 days, suggesting the air cleaner was responsible for increased PM2.5 deposition on filtration days. Our findings suggest that the use of an air cleaner reduces exposure to indoor PM2.5 resulting from both indoor and ambient wood smoke sources. PMID:25247985

  3. Health-related quality of life in women exposed to wood smoke while cooking.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, A N; Umasankar, K; Gupta, D

    2014-08-01

    Using the abbreviated World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-Bref) questionnaire, we evaluated the effect of exposure to smoke from wood combustion while cooking on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in 85 women using wood and 85 women using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cooking fuel in India. Age, years of cooking and hours spent daily in the kitchen were similar between women in the two groups. WHOQOL-Bref transformed scores in psychological, social relationships and environment domains were significantly lower in women in using wood than in those using LPG, suggesting that HRQL was impaired across domains among these women.

  4. Urinary Levoglucosan as a Biomarker for Wood Smoke: Results of Human Exposure Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bergauff, Megan A.; Ward, Tony J.; Noonan, Curtis W.; Migliaccio, Christopher T.; Simpson, Christopher D.; Evanoski, Ashley R.; Palmer, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    Urinary levoglucosan was investigated as a potential biomarker for wood smoke exposure in two different controlled experimental settings. Nine subjects were exposed to smoke from a campfire in a controlled setting and four were exposed to smoke from an older model wood stove. All subjects were asked to provide urine samples before and after exposure, and to wear personal PM2.5 monitors during the exposure. Urinary levoglucosan measurements from both studies showed no consistent response to the smoke exposure. A third experiment was conducted to assess the contribution of dietary factors to urinary levoglucosan levels. Nine subjects were asked to consume caramel and provide urine samples before and after consumption. Urinary levoglucosan levels increased within 2 hours of caramel consumption and returned to pre-exposure levels within 24 hours. These studies suggest that diet is a major factor in determining urinary levoglucosan levels and recent dietary history needs to be taken into account for future work involving levoglucosan as a biomarker of wood smoke exposure. PMID:19707249

  5. Stimulation of pulmonary rapidly adapting receptors by inhaled wood smoke in rats.

    PubMed

    Lai, C J; Kou, Y R

    1998-04-15

    1. The stimulation of pulmonary rapidly adapting receptors (RARs) by wood smoke was investigated. Impulses from seventy RARs were recorded in fifty-nine anaesthetized, open-chest and artificially ventilated rats; responses to delivery of 6 ml of wood smoke into the lungs were studied in sixty-one receptors whereas responses to histamine (10 or 100 microg kg-1, i.v.) were studied in the other nine. 2. Delivery of wood smoke stimulated fifty-two of the sixty-one RARs studied. When stimulated, an intense burst of discharge was evoked within 1 or 2 s of smoke delivery. This increased activity quickly peaked in 1-3 s (Delta = 15.8 +/- 1.6 impulses s-1; n = 61; mean +/- s.e.m.), then declined and yet remained at a level higher than the baseline activity. The mean duration of the stimulation was 25.1 +/- 2.7 s. In contrast, smoke delivery did not affect tracheal pressure. 3. Peak responses of RARs to wood smoke were partially reduced by removal of smoke particulates and were largely attenuated by pretreatment with dimethylthiourea (DMTU, a hydroxyl radical scavenger), indomethacin (Indo, a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor), or both DMTU and Indo (DMTU + Indo). Conversely, the peak responses of RARs were not significantly affected by pretreatment with isoprenaline (a bronchodilator) or vehicle for these chemicals. Additionally, pretreatment with DMTU, Indo, or DMTU + Indo did not significantly alter the RAR sensitivity to mechanical stimulation (constant-pressure lung inflation; 20 cmH2O). 4. Of the nine RARs tested, six were stimulated by histamine and their sensitivity to this chemical irritant was not altered by pretreatment with DMTU + Indo. 5. The results suggest that both the particulates and gas phases are responsible for, and both the hydroxyl radical and cyclo-oxygenase products are involved in, the stimulation of RARs by wood smoke. Furthermore, changes in lung mechanics following smoke delivery are not the cause of this afferent stimulation. PMID:9508820

  6. Temporal variation and impact of wood smoke pollution on a residential area in southern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Md. Aynul; Baumbach, Guenter; Kuch, Bertram; Scheffknecht, Guenter

    2010-10-01

    This paper is a continuation of our previous publication (Bari, M.A., Baumbach, G., Kuch, B., Scheffknecht, G., 2009. Wood smoke as a source of particle-phase organic compounds in residential areas. Atmospheric Environment 43, 4722-4732) and describes a detailed characterisation of different particle-phase wood smoke tracer compounds in order to find out the impact of wood-fired heating on ambient PM 10 pollution in a residential area near Stuttgart in southern Germany. The results from previous flue gas measurements help distinguishing different tracer compounds in ambient PM 10 samples. In the residential area, significant amounts of hardwood markers (syringaldehyde, acetosyringone, propionylsyringol, sinapylaldehyde) and low concentrations of softwood markers (vanillin, acetovanillone, coniferyldehyde, dehydroabietic acid, retene) were found in the ambient air. The general wood combustion markers Levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were detected in high concentrations in all particle-phase PM 10 samples. To find out the size distribution of ambient particles, cascade impactor measurements were carried out. It was found that more than 70% of particulate matter was in the particle diameter of less than 1 μm. Using emission ratio of levoglucosan to PM 10, it can be demonstrated that during winter months 59% of ambient PM 10 pollution could be attributed to residential wood-fired heating.

  7. Activation of transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) in lung cells by wood smoke particulate material.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Darien; Deering-Rice, Cassandra E; Romero, Erin G; Hughen, Ronald W; Light, Alan R; Veranth, John M; Reilly, Christopher A

    2013-05-20

    Cigarette smoke, diesel exhaust, and other combustion-derived particles activate the calcium channel transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1), causing irritation and inflammation in the respiratory tract. It was hypothesized that wood smoke particulate and select chemical constituents thereof would also activate TRPA1 in lung cells, potentially explaining the adverse effects of wood and other forms of biomass smoke on the respiratory system. TRPA1 activation was assessed using calcium imaging assays in TRPA1-overexpressing HEK-293 cells, mouse primary trigeminal neurons, and human adenocarcinoma (A549) lung cells. Particles from pine and mesquite smoke were less potent agonists of TRPA1 than an equivalent mass concentration of an ethanol extract of diesel exhaust particles; pine particles were comparable in potency to cigarette smoke condensate, and mesquite particles were the least potent. The fine particulate (PM < 2.5 μm) of wood smoke were the most potent TRPA1 agonists and several chemical constituents of wood smoke particulate, 3,5-ditert-butylphenol, coniferaldehyde, formaldehyde, perinaphthenone, agathic acid, and isocupressic acid, were TRPA1 agonists. Pine particulate activated TRPA1 in mouse trigeminal neurons and A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, which was inhibited by the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. TRPA1 activation by wood smoke particles occurred through the electrophile/oxidant-sensing domain (i.e., C621/C641/C665/K710), based on the inhibition of cellular responses when the particles were pretreated with glutathione; a role for the menthol-binding site of TRPA1 (S873/T874) was demonstrated for 3,5-ditert-butylphenol. This study demonstrated that TRPA1 is a molecular sensor for wood smoke particulate and several chemical constituents thereof, in sensory neurons and A549 cells, suggesting that TRPA1 may mediate some of the adverse effects of wood smoke in humans.

  8. Particles from wood smoke and road traffic differently affect the innate immune system of the lung.

    PubMed

    Samuelsen, Mari; Cecilie Nygaard, Unni; Løvik, Martinus

    2009-09-01

    The effect of particles from road traffic and wood smoke on the innate immune response in the lung was studied in a lung challenge model with the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Female Balb/cA mice were instilled intratracheally with wood smoke particles, particles from road traffic collected during winter (studded tires used; St+), and during autumn (no studded tires; St-), or diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Simultaneously with, and 1 or 7 days after particle instillation, 10(5) bacteria were inoculated intratracheally. Bacterial numbers in the lungs and spleen 1 day after Listeria challenge were determined, as an indicator of cellular activation. In separate experiments, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected 4 h and 24 h after particle instillation. All particles tested reduced the numbers of bacteria in the lung 24 h after bacterial inoculation. When particles were given simultaneously with Listeria, the reduction was greatest for DEP, followed by St+ and St-, and least for wood smoke particles. Particle effects were no longer apparent after 7 days. Neutrophil numbers in BAL fluid were increased for all particle exposed groups. St+ and St- induced the highest levels of IL-1beta, MIP-2, MCP-1, and TNF-alpha, followed by DEP, which induced no TNF-alpha. In contrast, wood smoke particles only increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, indicating a cytotoxic effect of these particles. In conclusion, all particles tested activated the innate immune system as determined with Listeria. However, differences in kinetics of anti-Listeria activity and levels of proinflammatory mediators point to cellular activation by different mechanisms. PMID:19552530

  9. Allergy adjuvant effect of particles from wood smoke and road traffic.

    PubMed

    Samuelsen, Mari; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Løvik, Martinus

    2008-04-18

    There is growing evidence that in addition to augmenting the severity of asthma and allergic diseases, particulate air pollution also increases the incidence of allergy and asthma. We studied the adjuvant effect of particles from wood smoke and road traffic on the immune response to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). OVA with and without particles was injected into one hind footpad of Balb/cA mice. All particles together with OVA significantly increased the level of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) in serum, compared to groups given OVA or particles alone. Reference diesel exhaust particles (DEP) with OVA induced the highest levels of IgE, whereas no clear difference was observed between particles from road traffic and wood smoke. Road traffic particles collected in the autumn induced higher IgE values with OVA than corresponding particles collected during the winter season when studded tires are used, suggesting that studded tire-generated road pavement particles have less allergy adjuvant activity than exhaust particles. Compared to OVA or particles alone, all particles with OVA increased popliteal lymph node cell numbers, cell proliferation, ex vivo secretion of IL-4 and IL-10 after ConA stimulation, and the expression of several cell surface molecules (CD19, MHC class II, CD86 and CD23). Wood smoke particles with OVA induced somewhat higher cellular responses than road traffic particles, but less than DEP with OVA which seemed to be the most potent particle in inducing cellular as well as antibody responses. Thus, wood smoke particles had about the same capacity to enhance allergic sensitization as road traffic particles, but less than diesel exhaust particles. PMID:18289765

  10. Source apportionment of PM2.5 at multiple Northwest U.S. sites: Assessing regional winter wood smoke impacts from residential wood combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotchenruther, Robert A.

    2016-10-01

    Wood smoke from residential wood combustion is a significant source of elevated PM2.5 in many communities across the Northwest U.S. Accurate representation of residential wood combustion in source-oriented regional scale air quality models is challenging because of multiple uncertainties. As an alternative to source-oriented source apportionment, this work provides, through receptor-oriented source apportionment, an assessment of winter residential wood combustion impacts at multiple Northwest U.S. locations. Source apportionment was performed on chemically speciated PM2.5 from 19 monitoring sites using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model. Each site was modeled independently, but a common data preparation and modeling protocol was used so that results were as comparable as possible across sites. Model solutions had from 4 to 8 PMF factors, depending on the site. PMF factors at each site were associated with a source classification (e.g., primary wood smoke), a dominant chemical composition (e.g., ammonium nitrate), or were some mixture. 15 different sources or chemical compositions were identified as contributing to PM2.5 across the 19 sites. The 6 most common were; aged wood smoke and secondary organic carbon, motor vehicles, primary wood smoke, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, and fugitive dust. Wood smoke was identified at every site, with both aged and primary wood smoke identified at most sites. Wood smoke contributions to PM2.5 were averaged for the two winter months of December and January, the months when wood smoke in the Northwest U.S. is mainly from residential wood combustion. The total contribution of residential wood combustion, that from primary plus aged smoke, ranged from 11.4% to 92.7% of average December and January PM2.5 depending on the site, with the highest percent contributions occurring in smaller towns that have fewer expected sources of winter PM2.5. Receptor modeling at multiple sites, such as that conducted in this

  11. Quantification of Wood Smoke Markers in Fine Atmospheric PM in the New York City Airshed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, H. A.; Mazurek, M. A.; Li, M.

    2007-12-01

    Seasonal emissions from residential wood combustion, natural wildfires, agricultural burning and solid waste combustion are considered to be major sources of fine particles to the NYC metropolitan airshed. Wood smoke produced from the combustion of cellulosic material consists of polar organic compounds which are highly water-soluble. As alternative forms of energy production including biofuels for residential heating are developed and become more widely used, a key science question is how much of the carbonaceous PM2.5 currently is from wood smoke in urbanized areas and to what extent is this influencing atmospheric chemical properties. This project focuses on the quantitation of polar organic compounds extracted from fine particle samples (PM2.5) collected as part of the Speciation of Organics for Apportionment of PM-2.5 in the New York City Area (SOAP). The SOAP network operated from May 2002 to May 2003 at four sites: Queens, NYC (high density urban residential); Elizabeth, NJ (adjacent to the NJ Turnpike); Westport, CT (downwind NYC residential); and a regional background site in Chester, NJ (upwind NYC). A quantitative extraction and gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) chemical analysis procedure was developed and evaluated. Trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives were prepared prior to GC/MS analysis and 5-point calibrations and multiple replicates were evaluated to ensure method precision. Levoglucosan was used as the primary marker for cellulose combustion; however a suite of monosaccharides and disaccharides and dehydroabietic acid, a marker indicative of soft wood combustion, also were quantified. Levoglucosan was found during each season at all four sampling locations with ambient mass concentrations ranging from 2.36 ng/m3 to 189 ng/m3. These values represent an estimated low of 0.73 percent to a high of 69 percent of organic carbon in the fine PM from wood smoke. The lowest levoglucosan concentrations were present consistently at the Chester, NJ

  12. Alterations in the antibacterial properties of rabbit pulmonary macrophages exposed to wood smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Fick, R.B. Jr.; Paul, E.S.; Merrill, W.W.; Reynolds, H.Y.; Loke, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    We studied the local response of the bronchoalveolar cell population after acute exposure to smoke from pyrolysis of Douglas fir wood. Cell viability experiments and function of the pulmonary macrophages were assessed, including adherence to surfaces, bacterial phagocytosis, and the intracellular bactericidal process. The smoke-exposed group (n.23) when compared with control animals (n.15) produced a significantly greater total cell yield (p less than 0.01) on bronchoalveolar lavage. There was no increase in the percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. As carboxyhemoglobin levels increased, macrophage adherence to glass decreased (r . -0.79, p . 0.0001). Pulmonary macrophages from exposed animals were 33% less adherent at 120 min in vitro; however, these nonadherent smoke-exposed macrophages remained viable (55 to 78% viable by trypan blue dye exclusion). Both the phagocytic rate (361 14C cpm/unit time) and the maximal number of bacteria associated (at 60 min) with the exposed macrophages were significantly less than in the sham-exposed animals (uptake . 672 14C cpm/time, p less than 0.002 for each). The antibacterial properties of pulmonary macrophages are adversely affected by exposure to wood pyrolysis.

  13. Oxidative potential of smoke from burning wood and mixed biomass fuels.

    PubMed

    Kurmi, O P; Dunster, C; Ayres, J G; Kelly, F J

    2013-10-01

    More than half the world's population still rely on burning biomass fuels to heat and light their homes and cook food. Household air pollution, a common component of which is inhalable particulate matter (PM), emitted from biomass burning is associated with increased vulnerability to respiratory infection and an enhanced risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In the light of an emerging hypothesis linking chronic PM exposure during childhood and increased vulnerability to respiratory diseases in adulthood, in a chain of events involving oxidative stress, reduced immunity and subsequent infection, the aim of this study was to characterise the oxidative potential (OP) of PM collected during the burning of wood and mixed biomass, whilst cooking food in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Our assessments were based on the capacity of the particles to deplete the physiologically relevant antioxidants from a validated, synthetic respiratory tract lining fluid (RTLF). Incubation of mixed biomass and wood smoke particles suspensions with the synthetic RTLF for 4 h resulted in a mean loss of ascorbate of 64.76 ± 16.83% and 83.37 ± 14.12% at 50 μg/ml, respectively. Reduced glutathione was depleted by 49.29 ± 15.22% in mixed biomass and 65.33 ± 13.01% in wood smoke particles under the same conditions. Co-incubation with the transition metal chelator diethylenetriaminepentaacetate did not inhibit the rate of ascorbate oxidation, indicating a negligible contribution by redox-active metals in these samples. The capacity of biomass smoke particles to elicit oxidative stress certainly has the potential to contribute towards negative health impacts associated with traditional domestic fuels in the developing world. PMID:23926954

  14. Human urinary mutagenicity after wood smoke exposure during traditional temazcal use

    PubMed Central

    Long, Alexandra S.; Lemieux, Christine L.; Yousefi, Paul; Ruiz-Mercado, Ilse; Lam, Nicholas L.; Orellana, Carolina Romero; White, Paul A.; Smith, Kirk R.; Holland, Nina

    2014-01-01

    In Central America, the traditional temazcales or wood-fired steam baths, commonly used by many Native American populations, are often heated by wood fires with little ventilation, and this use results in high wood smoke exposure. Urinary mutagenicity has been previously employed as a non-invasive biomarker of human exposure to combustion emissions. This study examined the urinary mutagenicity in 19 indigenous Mayan families from the highlands of Guatemala who regularly use temazcales (N = 32), as well as control (unexposed) individuals from the same population (N = 9). Urine samples collected before and after temazcal exposure were enzymatically deconjugated and extracted using solid-phase extraction. The creatinine-adjusted mutagenic potency of urine extracts was assessed using the plate-incorporation version of the Salmonella mutagenicity assay with strain YG1041 in the presence of exogenous metabolic activation. The post-exposure mutagenic potency of urine extracts were, on average, 1.7-fold higher than pre-exposure samples (P < 0.005) and also significantly more mutagenic than the control samples (P < 0.05). Exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) was ~10 times higher following temazcal use (P < 0.0001), and both CO level and time spent in temazcal were positively associated with urinary mutagenic potency (i.e. P < 0.0001 and P = 0.01, respectively). Thus, the wood smoke exposure associated with temazcal use contributes to increased excretion of conjugated mutagenic metabolites. Moreover, urinary mutagenic potency is correlated with other metrics of exposure (i.e. exhaled CO, duration of exposure). Since urinary mutagenicity is a biomarker associated with genetic damage, temazcal use may therefore be expected to contribute to an increased risk of DNA damage and mutation, effects associated with the initiation of cancer. PMID:25084778

  15. Particles from wood smoke and traffic induce differential pro-inflammatory response patterns in co-cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Kocbach, Anette Herseth, Jan Inge; Lag, Marit; Refsnes, Magne; Schwarze, Per E.

    2008-10-15

    The inflammatory potential of particles from wood smoke and traffic has not been well elucidated. In this study, a contact co-culture of monocytes and pneumocytes was exposed to 10-40 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} of particles from wood smoke and traffic for 12, 40 and 64 h to determine their influence on pro-inflammatory cytokine release (TNF-{alpha}, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8) and viability. To investigate the role of organic constituents in cytokine release the response to particles, their organic extracts and the washed particles were compared. Antagonists were used to investigate source-dependent differences in intercellular signalling (TNF-{alpha}, IL-1). The cytotoxicity was low after exposure to particles from both sources. However, wood smoke, and to a lesser degree traffic-derived particles, induced a reduction in cell number, which was associated with the organic fraction. The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines was similar for both sources after 12 h, but traffic induced a greater release than wood smoke particles with increasing exposure time. The organic fraction accounted for the majority of the cytokine release induced by wood smoke, whereas the washed traffic particles induced a stronger response than the corresponding organic extract. TNF-{alpha} and IL-1 antagonists reduced the release of IL-8 induced by particles from both sources. In contrast, the IL-6 release was only reduced by the IL-1 antagonist during exposure to traffic-derived particles. In summary, particles from wood smoke and traffic induced differential pro-inflammatory response patterns with respect to cytokine release and cell number. Moreover, the influence of the organic particle fraction and intercellular signalling on the pro-inflammatory response seemed to be source-dependent.

  16. Infiltration of forest fire and residential wood smoke: an evaluation of air cleaner effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Barn, Prabjit; Larson, Timothy; Noullett, Melanie; Kennedy, Susan; Copes, Ray; Brauer, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Communities impacted by fine-particle air pollution (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm; PM(2.5)) from forest fires and residential wood burning require effective, evidence-based exposure-reduction strategies. Public health recommendations during smoke episodes typically include advising community members to remain indoors and the use of air cleaners, yet little information is available on the effectiveness of these measures. Our study attempted to address the following objectives: to measure indoor infiltration factor (F(inf)) of PM(2.5) from forest fires/wood smoke, to determine the effectiveness of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter air cleaners in reducing indoor PM(2.5), and to analyze the home determinants of F(inf) and air cleaner effectiveness (ACE). We collected indoor/outdoor 1-min PM(2.5) averages and 48-h outdoor PM(2.5) filter samples for 21 winter and 17 summer homes impacted by wood burning and forest fire smoke, respectively, during 2004-2005. A portable HEPA filter air cleaner was operated indoors with the filter removed for one of two sampling days. Particle F(inf) and ACE were calculated for each home using a recursive model. We found mean F(inf)+/-SD was 0.27+/-0.18 and 0.61+/-0.27 in winter (n=19) and summer (n=13), respectively, for days when HEPA filters were not used. Lower F(inf)+/-SD values of 0.10+/-0.08 and 0.19+/-0.20 were found on corresponding days when HEPA filters were in place. Mean+/-SD ACE ([F(inf) without filter-F(inf) with filter]/F(inf) without filter) in winter and summer were 55+/-38% and 65+/-35%, respectively. Number of windows and season predicted F(inf) (P<0.001). No significant predictors of ACE were identified. Our findings show that remaining indoors combined with use of air cleaner can effectively reduce PM(2.5) exposure during forest fires and residential wood burning. PMID:18059421

  17. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London: assessing local and regional influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crilley, L. R.; Bloss, W. J.; Yin, J.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Harrison, R. M.; Allan, J. D.; Young, D. E.; Flynn, M.; Williams, P.; Zotter, P.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Heal, M. R.; Barlow, J. F.; Halios, C. H.; Lee, J. D.; Szidat, S.; Mohr, C.

    2015-03-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke to air pollution in large cities such as London is becoming increasingly important due to the changing nature of domestic heating in urban areas. During winter, biomass burning emissions have been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits. The aim of this work was to quantify the contribution of biomass burning in London to concentrations of PM2.5 and determine whether local emissions or regional contributions were the main source of biomass smoke. To achieve this, a number of biomass burning chemical tracers were analysed at a site within central London and two sites in surrounding rural areas. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated across the three sites. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest contribution of EC from traffic emissions, while for OC the dominant fraction included contributions from secondary organic aerosols, primary biogenic and cooking sources. Source apportionment of the EC and OC was found to give reasonable estimation of the total carbon from non-fossil and fossil fuel sources based upon comparison with estimates derived from 14C analysis. Aethalometer-derived black carbon data were also apportioned into the contributions from biomass burning and traffic and showed trends similar to those observed for EC. Mean wood smoke mass at the sites was estimated to range from 0.78 to 1.0 μg m-3 during the campaign in January-February 2012. Measurements on a 160 m tower in London suggested a similar ratio of brown to black carbon (reflecting wood burning and traffic respectively) in regional and London air. Peaks in the levoglucosan and K+ concentrations were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, consistent with domestic heating as a major contributing local source in London. Overall, the source of biomass smoke in London was concluded to be a

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoke from different woods and their transfer during traditional smoking into chorizo sausages with collagen and tripe casings.

    PubMed

    García-Falcon, M S; Simal-Gándara, J

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), at least those with high molecular mass, are classified as probable human carcinogens by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The importance of the material used to generate smoke is indicated by the attention that the European Union is paying to list the wood that can be used to produce smoking flavour agents. The paper examines the dependence on the nature of the wood used for smoking on the formation of eight PAHs (selected as markers of PAHs) and transfer of these PAHs into traditional Spanish smoked chorizo sausages with collagen and tripe casings. The results showed that the kind of combustion performed on different materials seriously affected the PAH levels in the smoke generated. Ignition and firing of the material with a flame compared with heating produced more PAHs in the smoke. The levels of PAHs found in the meat and in the collagen and tripe casings of the smoked chorizo samples suggest that the collagen-based casings behave as a better barrier to PAHs.

  19. Urinary Levoglucosan as a Biomarker of Wood Smoke Exposure: Observations in a Mouse Model and in Children

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, Christopher T.; Bergauff, Megan A.; Palmer, Christopher P.; Jessop, Forrest; Noonan, Curtis W.; Ward, Tony J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Biomass smoke is an important source of particulate matter (PM), and much remains to be discovered with respect to the human health effects associated with this specific PM source. Exposure to biomass smoke can occur in one of two main categories: short-term exposures consist of periodic, seasonal exposures typified by communities near forest fires or intentional agricultural burning, and long-term exposures are chronic and typified by the use of biomass materials for cooking or heating. Levoglucosan (LG), a sugar anhydride released by combustion of cellulose-containing materials, is an attractive candidate as a biomarker of wood smoke exposure. Objectives In the present study, Balb/c mice and children were assessed for LG in urine to determine its feasibility as a biomarker. Methods We performed urinary detection of LG by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after intranasal instillations of LG or concentrated PM (mice) or biomass exposure (mice or humans). Results After instillation, we recovered most of the LG within the first 4 hr. Experiments using glucose instillation proved the specificity of our system, and instillation of concentrated PM from wood smoke, ambient air, and diesel exhaust supported a connection between wood smoke and LG. In addition, LG was detected in the urine of mice exposed to wood smoke. Finally, a pilot human study proved our ability to detect LG in urine of children. Conclusions These results demonstrate that LG in the lungs is detectable in the urine of both mice and humans and that it is a good candidate as a biomarker of exposure to biomass smoke. PMID:19165390

  20. Analysis of condensates from wood smoke: Components derived from polysaccharides and lignins

    SciTech Connect

    Edye, L.A.; Richards, G.N. )

    1991-06-01

    A feasibility study has been carried out of the analysis of total condensate (at {minus}50C) of smoke from smoldering combustion of wood. All of the phenol and furan components in the aqueous condensate were extracted into methylene chloride and the extract was analyzed by GC/MS. The same homologues of guaiacol and syringol derived from lignin were detected as have been described in earlier studies, but in addition, a series of furan derivatives were found. The latter are believed to arise from pyrolysis of polysaccharides. The carboxylic acids in the condensates were analyzed by titration and subsequent GC/MS. Acetic acid was the dominant volatile acid found, with a trace of propanoic, but no significant formic acid.

  1. Dependence of nephelometer scattering coefficients on relative humidity: fronts, nocturnal disturbance, and wood smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Griffing, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    The dependence of the nephelometer scattering coefficient of atmospheric air on the relative humidity at the RTP is discussed for four different meteorological examples. These examples feature (1) the passage of a low pressure system with thunderstorms, (2) the passage of a cold, dry front, (3) a nocturnal weather disturbance due to an unknown source, and (4) wood smoke aerosols from burning tree piles. Nephelometer scattering coefficient data were obtained by the use of two nephelometers. One nephelometer was operated at the ambient outside relative humidity and the other nephelometer at a different relative humidity. Using this operational mode of data acquisition, qualitative temporal information was deduced on the variations of aerosol size and number density as various meteorological parameters vary. The temporal trend of the visibility is also discussed for each example.

  2. Birth weight and exposure to kitchen wood smoke during pregnancy in rural Guatemala.

    PubMed Central

    Boy, Erick; Bruce, Nigel; Delgado, Hernán

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to establish whether domestic use of wood fuel is associated with reduced birth weight, independent of key maternal, social, and economic confounding factors. We studied 1,717 women and newborn children in rural and urban communities in rural Guatemala. We identified subjects through home births reported by traditional birth attendants in six rural districts (n = 572) and all public hospital births in Quetzaltenango city during the study period (n = 1,145). All were seen within 72 hr of delivery, and data were collected on the type of household fuel used, fire type, and socioeconomic and other confounding factors. Smoking among women in the study community was negligible. Children born to mothers habitually cooking on open fires (n = 861) had the lowest mean birth weight of 2,819 g [95% confidence interval (CI), 2,790-2,848]; those using a chimney stove (n = 490) had an intermediate mean of 2,863 g (95% CI, 2,824-2,902); and those using the cleanest fuels (electricity or gas, n = 365) had the highest mean of 2,948 g (95% CI, 2,898-2,998) (p< 0.0001). The percentage of low birth weights (< 500 g) in these three groups was 19.9% (open fire), 16.8% (chimney stove), and 16.0% (electricity/gas), (trend (p = 0.08). Confounding factors were strongly associated with fuel type, but after adjustment wood users still had a birth weight 63 g lower (p = 0.05; 95% CI, 0.4-126). This is the first report of an association between biofuel use and reduced birth weight in a human population. Although there is potential for residual confounding despite adjustment, the better-documented evidence on passive smoking and a feasible mechanism through carbon monoxide exposure suggest this association may be real. Because two-thirds of households in developing countries still rely on biofuels and women of childbearing age perform most cooking tasks, the attributable risk arising from this association, if confirmed, could be substantial. PMID:11781172

  3. Adverse effects of wood smoke PM2.5 exposure on macrophage functions

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, Christopher T.; Kobos, Emily; King, Quinton O.; Porter, Virginia; Jessop, Forrest; Ward, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between chronic biomass smoke exposure and increased respiratory infection. Pulmonary macrophages are instrumental in both the innate and the adaptive immune responses to respiratory infection. In the present study, in vitro systems were utilized where alveolar macrophages (AM) and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMdM) were exposed to concentrated wood smoke-derived particulate matter (WS-PM) and mice were exposed in vivo to either concentrated WS-PM or inhaled WS. In vivo studies demonstrated that WS-exposed mice inoculated with Streptococcus pneumoniae had a higher bacterial load 24 h post-exposure, and corresponding AM were found to have decreased lymphocyte activation activity. Additionally, while classic markers of inflammation (cellular infiltration, total protein, neutrophils) were not affected, there were changes in pulmonary macrophages populations, including significant decreases in macrophages expressing markers of activation in WS-exposed mice. The lymphocyte activation activity of WS-PM-exposed AM was significantly suppressed, but the phagocytic activity appeared unchanged. In an effort to determine a pathway for WS-induced suppression, RelB activation, assessed by nuclear translocation, was observed in AM exposed to either inhaled WS or instilled WS-PM. Finally, an analysis of WS-PM fractions determined the presence of 4–5 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and preliminary work suggests a potential role for these PAHs to alter macrophage functions. These studies show a decreased ability of WS-exposed pulmonary macrophages to effectively mount a defense against infection, the effect lasts at least a week post-exposure, and appears to be mediated via RelB activation. PMID:23363038

  4. Short-term chamber exposure to low doses of two kinds of wood smoke does not induce systemic inflammation, coagulation or oxidative stress in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Sallsten, Gerd; Almerud, Pernilla; Basu, Samar; Barregard, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. A proposed mechanism is that local airway inflammation leads to systemic inflammation, affecting coagulation and the long-term risk of atherosclerosis. One major source of air pollution is wood burning. Here we investigate whether exposure to two kinds of wood smoke, previously shown to cause airway effects, affects biomarkers of systemic inflammation, coagulation and lipid peroxidation. Methods: Thirteen healthy adults were exposed to filtered air followed by two sessions of wood smoke for three hours, one week apart. One session used smoke from the start-up phase of the wood-burning cycle, and the other smoke from the burn-out phase. Mean particle mass concentrations were 295 µg/m3 and 146 µg/m3, and number concentrations were 140 000/cm3 and 100 000/cm3, respectively. Biomarkers were analyzed in samples of blood and urine taken before and several times after exposure. Results after wood smoke exposure were adjusted for exposure to filtered air. Results: Markers of systemic inflammation and soluble adhesion molecules did not increase after wood smoke exposure. Effects on markers of coagulation were ambiguous, with minor decreases in fibrinogen and platelet counts and mixed results concerning the coagulation factors VII and VIII. Urinary F2-isoprostane, a consistent marker of in vivo lipid peroxidation, unexpectedly decreased after wood smoke exposure. Conclusions: The effects on biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and lipid peroxidation do not indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in healthy adults by short-term exposure to wood smoke at these moderate doses, previously shown to cause airway effects. PMID:23808634

  5. Assessment of vascular function in Mexican women exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from wood smoke.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Vera, Tania; Pruneda-Álvarez, Lucia G; Ochoa-Martínez, Ángeles C; Ramírez-GarcíaLuna, José L; Pierdant-Pérez, Mauricio; Gordillo-Moscoso, Antonio A; Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2015-09-01

    The use of solid fuels for cooking and heating is likely to be the largest source of indoor air pollution on a global scale; these fuels emit substantial amounts of toxic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when used in simple cooking stoves (such as open "three-stone" fires). Moreover, indoor air pollution from biomass fuels is considered an important risk factor for human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between exposure to PAHs from wood smoke and vascular dysfunction; in a group of Mexican women that use biomass combustion as their main energy source inside their homes. We used 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) as an exposure biomarker to PAHs and it was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography. The endothelium-dependent vasodilation was assessed through a vascular reactivity compression test performed with a pneumatic cuff under visualization of the brachial artery using high resolution ultrasonography (HRU). Assessment of the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) was used as an atherosclerosis biomarker (also assessed using HRU); and clinical parameters such as anthropometry, blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, among others were also evaluated. The mean concentration of urinary 1-OHP found in exposed women was 0.46±0.32μmol/mol Cr (range: 0.086-1.23μmol/mol Cr). Moreover, vascular dysfunction (diminished endothelium dependent vasodilation) was found in 45% of the women participating in the study. Association between vascular function and 1-OHP levels was found to be significant through a logistic regression analysis (p=0.034; r(2)=0.1329). Furthermore, no association between CIMT and clinical parameters, urinary 1-OHP levels or vascular dysfunction was found. Therefore, with the information obtained in this study, we advocate for the need to implement programs to reduce the risk of exposure to PAHs in communities that use biomass fuels as a main

  6. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody in patients with wood-smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) without rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sigari, Naseh; Moghimi, Nasrin; Shahraki, Farhad Saber; Mohammadi, Shilan; Roshani, Daem

    2015-01-01

    Citrullination, a post-translational modification of proteins, is increased in inflammatory processes and is known to occur in smokers. It can induce anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies, the most specific serologic marker for rheumatoid arthritis. Thus far, the incidence of autoimmunity in patients with wood-smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) resulting in anti-CCP production has not been examined. We hypothesise that anti-CCP antibody level in these patients should be higher than that in healthy subjects. A total of 112 non-rheumatoid arthritis patients, including 56 patients with wood-smoke-induced COPD and 56 patients with tobacco-induced COPD, and 56 healthy non-smoker controls were included. The serum anti-CCP antibody levels were measured and compared between the groups and against smoke exposure and clinical characteristics. The mean anti-CCP antibody levels in wood-smoke-induced COPD group were significantly higher than those in tobacco-induced COPD group (p = 0.03) and controls (p = 0.004). Furthermore, 8 (14.2 %) patients with wood-smoke-induced COPD, 4 (7.14 %) with tobacco-induced COPD and 2 (3.57 %) controls exceeded the conventional cut-off of anti-CCP antibody positivity. No relationship was found between the anti-CCP antibody level and age, gender, duration of disease, Pack-years of smoking, and duration of exposure to wood smoke. Moreover, correlations between anti-CCP antibodies and severity of airflow limitation, CAT scores, mMRC scores of dyspnoea, and GOLD staging of COPD severity were not significant. Wood-smoke-induced COPD could significantly increase the anti-CCP antibody level in non-rheumatoid arthritis patients when compared with that in patients with tobacco-induced COPD and healthy controls.

  7. Determination of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by HPLC-photoionization tandem mass spectrometry in wood smoke particles and soil samples.

    PubMed

    Avagyan, Rozanna; Nyström, Robin; Boman, Christoffer; Westerholm, Roger

    2015-06-01

    A simple and fast method for analysis of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using pressurized liquid extraction and high performance liquid chromatography utilizing photoionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed. Simultaneous separation and determination of nine hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and two hydroxy biphenyls could be performed in negative mode with a run time of 12 min, including equilibration in 5 min. The calibration curves were in two concentration ranges; 1-50 ng/mL and 0.01-50 μg/mL, with coefficients of correlation R (2) > 0.997. The limits of detection and method quantification limits were in the range of 9-56 pg and 5-38 ng/g, respectively. A two-level full factorial experimental design was used for screening of conditions with the highest impact on the extraction. The extraction procedure was automated and suitable for a large number of samples. The extraction recoveries ranged from 70 to 102 % and the matrix effects were between 92 and 104 %. The overall method was demonstrated on wood smoke particles and soil samples with good analytical performance, and five OH-PAHs were determined in the concentration range of 0.19-210 μg/g. As far as we know, hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in wood smoke and soil samples using photoionization mass spectrometry for the first time in this present study. Accordingly, this study shows that high performance liquid chromatography photoionization tandem mass spectrometry can be a good option for the determination of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in complex environmental samples. Graphical Abstract The method developed in this study was used to determine hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in wood smoke and soil.

  8. Prevalence of acute respiratory infections in women and children in Western Sierra Leone due to smoke from wood and charcoal stoves.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Eldred Tunde; Nakai, Satoshi

    2012-06-01

    Combustion of biomass fuels (wood and charcoal) for cooking releases smoke that contains health damaging pollutants. Women and children are the most affected. Exposure to biomass smoke is associated with acute respiratory infections (ARI). This study investigated the prevalence of ARI potentially caused by smoke from wood and charcoal stoves in Western Sierra Leone, as these two fuels are the predominant fuel types used for cooking. A cross sectional study was conducted for 520 women age 15-45 years; and 520 children under 5 years of age in homes that burn wood and charcoal. A questionnaire assessing demographic, household and exposure characteristics and ARI was administered to every woman who further gave information for the child. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was continuously monitored in fifteen homes. ARI prevalence revealed 32% and 24% for women, 64% and 44% for children in homes with wood and charcoal stoves, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders for each group, the odds ratio of having suffered from ARI was similar for women, but remained large for children in homes with wood stoves relative to charcoal stoves (OR = 1.14, 95%CI: 0.71-1.82) and (OR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.31-3.13), respectively. ARI prevalence was higher for children in homes with wood stoves compared with homes with charcoal stoves, but ARI prevalence for both types of fuels is higher compared with reported prevalence elsewhere. To achieve a reduction in ARI would require switching from wood and charcoal to cleaner fuels.

  9. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF SMOKE FROM CAMPFIRE BURNING OF PINE WOOD (PINUS ELLIOTTII). (R823990)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Although campfires are typically enjoyable events, people are exposed to high concentrations of gaseous and particulate pollutants. The combustion conditions of wood burned in campfires are different from those of indoor wood burning in stoves or fireplaces. T...

  10. Suspect screening of OH-PAHs and non-target screening of other organic compounds in wood smoke particles using HR-Orbitrap-MS.

    PubMed

    Avagyan, Rozanna; Åberg, Magnus; Westerholm, Roger

    2016-11-01

    Wood combustion has been shown to contribute significantly to emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, compounds with toxic and carcinogenic properties. However, only a small number of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been determined in particles from wood combustion, usually compounds with available reference standards. In this present study, suspect and non-target screening strategies were applied to characterize the wood smoke particles from four different wood types and two combustion conditions with respect to hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organic compounds. In the suspect screening, 32 peaks corresponding to 12 monohydroxylated masses were tentatively identified by elemental composition assignments and matching of isotopic pattern and fragments. More than one structure was suggested for most of the measured masses. Statistical analysis was performed on the non-target screening data in order to single out significant peaks having intensities that depend on the wood type and/or combustion condition. Significant peaks were found in both negative and positive ionization modes, with unique peaks for each wood type and combustion condition, as well as a combination of both factors. Furthermore, structural elucidation of some peaks was done by comparing the spectra in the samples with spectra found in the spectral databases. Six compounds were tentatively identified in positive ionization mode, and 19 in negative ionization mode. The results in this present study demonstrate that there are significant overall differences in the chemistry of wood smoke particles that depends on both the wood type and the combustion condition used. PMID:27544654

  11. Suspect screening of OH-PAHs and non-target screening of other organic compounds in wood smoke particles using HR-Orbitrap-MS.

    PubMed

    Avagyan, Rozanna; Åberg, Magnus; Westerholm, Roger

    2016-11-01

    Wood combustion has been shown to contribute significantly to emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, compounds with toxic and carcinogenic properties. However, only a small number of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been determined in particles from wood combustion, usually compounds with available reference standards. In this present study, suspect and non-target screening strategies were applied to characterize the wood smoke particles from four different wood types and two combustion conditions with respect to hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organic compounds. In the suspect screening, 32 peaks corresponding to 12 monohydroxylated masses were tentatively identified by elemental composition assignments and matching of isotopic pattern and fragments. More than one structure was suggested for most of the measured masses. Statistical analysis was performed on the non-target screening data in order to single out significant peaks having intensities that depend on the wood type and/or combustion condition. Significant peaks were found in both negative and positive ionization modes, with unique peaks for each wood type and combustion condition, as well as a combination of both factors. Furthermore, structural elucidation of some peaks was done by comparing the spectra in the samples with spectra found in the spectral databases. Six compounds were tentatively identified in positive ionization mode, and 19 in negative ionization mode. The results in this present study demonstrate that there are significant overall differences in the chemistry of wood smoke particles that depends on both the wood type and the combustion condition used.

  12. Wood smoke exposure induces a decrease in respiration parameters and in the activity of respiratory complexes I and IV in lung mitochondria from guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Granados-Castro, Luis Fernando; Rodríguez-Rangel, Daniela Sarai; Montaño, Martha; Ramos, Carlos; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2015-04-01

    Domestic exposure to biomass smoke represents the second cause of chronic obstructive lung disease. Previous studies have shown that exposure of guinea pigs to wood smoke is capable of generating oxidative stress in lung tissue, and this may involve a failure at a mitochondrial level, given its close relation with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in guinea pigs exposed to wood smoke, the lung mitochondrial functionality through O2 consumption measurement and the determination of the mitochondrial complexes enzymatic activity. We found that normal and maximum respiration decreased at 15 and 30 min of wood smoke exposure, recovering its normal values at 180 min. The same behavior was observed for the respiratory control rate (RCR) and the ADP/O value. Complex I activity decreased significantly after 30 min of exposure and it returned to baseline after 180 min. The greatest alteration was observed by the decrease of 85% on complex IV activity at 30 min of exposure, which returned to control values after 180 min of exposure. It is concluded that even when wood smoke exposure induces severe mitochondrial respiration alterations at the first 30 min, it seems that there is one or many ways by which mitochondria can reinstate its normal function after 180 min of exposure.

  13. Chimney Stove Intervention to Reduce Long-term Wood Smoke Exposure Lowers Blood Pressure among Guatemalan Women

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, John P.; Smith, Kirk R.; Díaz, Anaité; Mittleman, Murray A.; Schwartz, Joel

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objective RESPIRE, a randomized trial of an improved cookstove, was conducted in Guatemala to assess health effects of long-term reductions in wood smoke exposure. Given the evidence that ambient particles increase blood pressure, we hypothesized that the intervention would lower blood pressure. Methods Two study designs were used: a) between-group comparisons based on randomized stove assignment, and b) before-and-after comparisons within subjects before and after they received improved stoves. From 2003 to 2005, we measured personal fine particle (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm; PM2.5) exposures and systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) among women > 38 years of age from the chimney woodstove intervention group (49 subjects) and traditional open wood fire control group (71 subjects). Measures were repeated up to three occasions. Results Daily average PM2.5 exposures were 264 and 102 μg/m3 in the control and intervention groups, respectively. After adjusting for age, body mass index, an asset index, smoking, secondhand tobacco smoke, apparent temperature, season, day of week, time of day, and a random subject intercept, the improved stove intervention was associated with 3.7 mm Hg lower SBP [95% confidence interval (CI), −8.1 to 0.6] and 3.0 mm Hg lower DBP (95% CI, −5.7 to −0.4) compared with controls. In the second study design, among 55 control subjects measured both before and after receiving chimney stoves, similar associations were observed. Conclusion The between-group comparisons provide evidence, particularly for DBP, that the chimney stove reduces blood pressure, and the before-and-after comparisons are consistent with this evidence. PMID:17637912

  14. Aerial photo shows smoke-laden and burned woods at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Smoke rising from the smoldering brush on Kennedy Space Center illustrates the hazardous fire conditions that exist throughout Central Florida. The site is between Kennedy Parkway North and the Indian River.

  15. Prevalence of Acute Respiratory Infections in Women and Children in Western Sierra Leone due to Smoke from Wood and Charcoal Stoves

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Eldred Tunde; Nakai, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Combustion of biomass fuels (wood and charcoal) for cooking releases smoke that contains health damaging pollutants. Women and children are the most affected. Exposure to biomass smoke is associated with acute respiratory infections (ARI). This study investigated the prevalence of ARI potentially caused by smoke from wood and charcoal stoves in Western Sierra Leone, as these two fuels are the predominant fuel types used for cooking. A cross sectional study was conducted for 520 women age 15–45 years; and 520 children under 5 years of age in homes that burn wood and charcoal. A questionnaire assessing demographic, household and exposure characteristics and ARI was administered to every woman who further gave information for the child. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) was continuously monitored in fifteen homes. ARI prevalence revealed 32% and 24% for women, 64% and 44% for children in homes with wood and charcoal stoves, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders for each group, the odds ratio of having suffered from ARI was similar for women, but remained large for children in homes with wood stoves relative to charcoal stoves (OR = 1.14, 95%CI: 0.71–1.82) and (OR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.31–3.13), respectively. ARI prevalence was higher for children in homes with wood stoves compared with homes with charcoal stoves, but ARI prevalence for both types of fuels is higher compared with reported prevalence elsewhere. To achieve a reduction in ARI would require switching from wood and charcoal to cleaner fuels. PMID:22829802

  16. Low iron stores are related to higher blood concentrations of manganese, cobalt and cadmium in non-smoking, Norwegian women in the HUNT 2 study

    SciTech Connect

    Margrete Meltzer, Helle; Lise Brantsaeter, Anne; Borch-Iohnsen, Berit; Ellingsen, Dag G.; Alexander, Jan; Thomassen, Yngvar; Stigum, Hein; Ydersbond, Trond A.

    2010-07-15

    Low iron (Fe) stores may influence absorption or transport of divalent metals in blood. To obtain more knowledge about such associations, the divalent metal ions cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) and parameters of Fe metabolism (serum ferritin, haemoglobin (Hb) and transferrin) were investigated in 448 healthy, menstruating non-smoking women, age 20-55 years (mean 38 years), participating in the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. The study population was stratified for serum ferritin: 257 were iron-depleted (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L) and 84 had iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L and Hb<120 g/L). The low ferritin group had increased blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd but normal concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb. In multiple regression models, ferritin emerged as the main determinant of Mn, Co and Cd (p<0.001), while no significant associations with Cu, Zn and Pb were found. Adjusted r{sup 2} for the models were 0.28, 0.48 and 0.34, respectively. Strong positive associations between blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd were observed, also when controlled for their common association with ferritin. Apart from these associations, the models showed no significant interactions between the six divalent metals studied. Very mild anaemia (110{<=}Hb<120 g/L) did not seem to have any effect independent of low ferritin. Approximately 26% of the women with iron deficiency anaemia had high concentrations of all of Mn, Co and Cd as opposed to 2.3% of iron-replete subjects. The results confirm that low serum ferritin may have an impact on body kinetics of certain divalent metal ions, but not all. Only a fraction of women with low iron status exhibited an increased blood concentration of divalent metals, providing indication of complexities in the body's handling of these metals.

  17. Investigation of particle and vapor wall-loss effects on controlled wood-smoke smog-chamber experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Q.; May, A. A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Pierce, J. R.

    2015-06-01

    Smog chambers are extensively used to study processes that drive gas and particle evolution in the atmosphere. A limitation of these experiments is that particles and gas-phase species may be lost to chamber walls on shorter timescales than the timescales of the atmospheric processes being studied in the chamber experiments. These particle and vapor wall losses have been investigated in recent studies of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, but they have not been systematically investigated in experiments of primary emissions from combustion. The semi-volatile nature of combustion emissions (e.g. from wood smoke) may complicate the behavior of particle and vapor wall deposition in the chamber over the course of the experiments due to the competition between gas/particle and gas/wall partitioning. Losses of vapors to the walls may impact particle evaporation in these experiments, and potential precursors for SOA formation from combustion may be lost to the walls, causing underestimates of aerosol yields. Here, we conduct simulations to determine how particle and gas-phase wall losses contributed to the observed evolution of the aerosol during experiments in the third Fire Lab At Missoula Experiment (FLAME III). We use the TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics algorithm coupled with the organic volatility basis set (VBS) and wall-loss formulations to examine the predicted extent of particle and vapor wall losses. We limit the scope of our study to the dark periods in the chamber before photo-oxidation to simplify the aerosol system for this initial study. Our model simulations suggest that over one third of the initial particle-phase organic mass (36%) was lost during the experiments, and roughly half of this particle organic mass loss was from direct particle wall loss (56% of the loss) with the remainder from evaporation of the particles driven by vapor losses to the walls (44% of the loss). We perform a series of sensitivity tests to understand

  18. Investigation of particle and vapor wall-loss effects on controlled wood-smoke smog-chamber experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Q.; May, A. A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Pierce, J. R.

    2015-10-01

    Smog chambers are extensively used to study processes that drive gas and particle evolution in the atmosphere. A limitation of these experiments is that particles and gas-phase species may be lost to chamber walls on shorter timescales than the timescales of the atmospheric processes being studied in the chamber experiments. These particle and vapor wall losses have been investigated in recent studies of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, but they have not been systematically investigated in experiments of primary emissions from combustion. The semi-volatile nature of combustion emissions (e.g. from wood smoke) may complicate the behavior of particle and vapor wall deposition in the chamber over the course of the experiments due to the competition between gas/particle and gas/wall partitioning. Losses of vapors to the walls may impact particle evaporation in these experiments, and potential precursors for SOA formation from combustion may be lost to the walls, causing underestimations of aerosol yields. Here, we conduct simulations to determine how particle and gas-phase wall losses contributed to the observed evolution of the aerosol during experiments in the third Fire Lab At Missoula Experiment (FLAME III). We use the TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics algorithm coupled with the organic volatility basis set (VBS) and wall-loss formulations to examine the predicted extent of particle and vapor wall losses. We limit the scope of our study to the dark periods in the chamber before photo-oxidation to simplify the aerosol system for this initial study. Our model simulations suggest that over one-third of the initial particle-phase organic mass (41 %) was lost during the experiments, and over half of this particle-organic mass loss was from direct particle wall loss (65 % of the loss) with the remainder from evaporation of the particles driven by vapor losses to the walls (35 % of the loss). We perform a series of sensitivity tests to understand

  19. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. ... of the same problems as smokers do. E-cigarettes often look like cigarettes, but they work differently. ...

  20. Wood smoke exposure induces a pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Swiston, J R; Davidson, W; Attridge, S; Li, G T; Brauer, M; van Eeden, S F

    2008-07-01

    Epidemiological studies report an association between exposure to biomass smoke and cardiopulmonary morbidity. The mechanisms for this association are unclear. The aim of the present study was to characterise the acute pulmonary and systemic inflammatory effects of exposure to forest fire smoke. Seasonal forest firefighters (n = 52) were recruited before and/or after a day of fire-fighting. Exposure was assessed by questionnaires and measurement of carbon monoxide levels (used to estimate respirable particulate matter exposure). The pulmonary response was assessed by questionnaires, spirometry and sputum induction. Peripheral blood cell counts and inflammatory cytokines were measured to define the systemic response. Estimated respirable particulate matter exposure was high (peak levels >2 mg x m(-3)) during fire-fighting activities. Respiratory symptoms were reported by 65% of the firefighters. The percentage sputum granulocytes increased significantly from 6.5 to 10.9% following fire-fighting shifts, with concurrent increases in circulating white blood cells (5.55x10(9) to 7.06x10(9) cells x L(-1)) and band cells (0.11x10(9) to 0.16x10(9) cells x L(-1)). Serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 levels significantly increased following fire-fighting. There were no changes in band cells, IL-6, and IL-8 following strenuous physical exertion without fire-fighting. There was a significant association between changes in sputum macrophages containing phagocytosed particles and circulating band cells. In conclusion, acute exposure to air pollution from forest fire smoke elicits inflammation within the lungs, as well as a systemic inflammatory response.

  1. Temporal variations in particulate exposure to wood smoke in a residential school environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingham, Simon; Durand, Michael; Harrison, Justin; Cavanagh, Jo; Epton, Michael

    Much research has examined associations between particulate pollution and health. The majority of this research has focused on outdoor air. Yet it is known that people spend most of their time indoors. This research has examined concentrations of PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 1 inside and outside of a boarding school in Christchurch, New Zealand. Christchurch is a city with a known wintertime particulate pollution problem as a result of burning wood for domestic heating. Data were collected over the winter of 2004 (May-September) using TEOM and GRIMM dust analysers. Results show that there is a close relationship between the fine fraction (PM 2.5 and PM 1) of indoor and outdoor particles. However, the activities of the building occupants resulted in the resuspension of coarse particulate fractions resulting in weaker indoor-outdoor relationships for PM 10.

  2. Wood Smoke Enhances Cigarette Smoke–Induced Inflammation by Inducing the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Repressor in Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Awji, Elias G.; Chand, Hitendra; Bruse, Shannon; Smith, Kevin R.; Colby, Jennifer K.; Mebratu, Yohannes; Levy, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that cigarette smokers who are exposed to wood smoke (WS) are at an increased risk for chronic bronchitis and reduced lung function. The present study was undertaken to determine the mechanisms for WS-induced adverse effects. We studied the effect of WS exposure using four cohorts of mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed for 4 or 12 weeks to filtered air, to 10 mg/m3 WS for 2 h/d, to 250 mg/m3 cigarette smoke (CS) for 6 h/d, or to CS followed by WS (CW). Inflammation was absent in the filtered air and WS groups, but enhanced by twofold in the bronchoalveolar lavage of the CW compared with CS group as measured by neutrophil numbers and levels of the neutrophil chemoattractant, keratinocyte-derived chemokine. The levels of the anti-inflammatory lipoxin, lipoxin A4, were reduced by threefold along with cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES)-1 in airway epithelial cells and PGE2 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage of CW compared with CS mice. We replicated, in primary human airway epithelial cells, the changes observed in mice. Immunoprecipitations showed that WS blocked the interaction of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) with AHR nuclear transporter to reduce expression of COX-2 and mPGES-1 by increasing expression of AHR repressor (AHRR). Collectively, these studies show that exposure to low concentrations of WS enhanced CS-induced inflammation by inducing AHRR expression to suppress AHR, COX-2, and mPGES-1 expression, and levels of PGE2 and lipoxin A4. Therefore, AHRR is a potential therapeutic target for WS-associated exacerbations of CS-induced inflammation. PMID:25137396

  3. Studies on the occurrence and distribution of wood smoke marker compounds in foggy atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Sagebiel, J.C.; Seiber, J.N. )

    1993-05-01

    Fog water and interstitial air samples were collected simultaneously and analyzed for methoxylated phenols, which have been previously reported as incomplete combustion products from wood lignin. The purposes of this study were to ascertain if these methoxylated phenols could be detected in fog sampled in residential areas and to determine the distribution of the compounds between fog droplets and interstitial air. The fog water was collected with a Teflon filament fog collector and filtered through a 0.2-[mu]m filter before extraction and GC analysis. Vapor samples were collected using a dichotomous sampler to separate fog droplets from interstitial air; the organic vapors were collected on polyurethane foam. Guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, and syringol were the most commonly found among the 16 methoxylated phenols confirmed in fog samples. The distributions between air and water approximately followed Henry's law, suggesting that previously reported enrichments into fog water are related to analyte hydrophobicity, described by either the octanol/water partition coefficient or the water solubility.

  4. Characterization of primary and secondary organic aerosols in Melbourne airshed: The influence of biogenic emissions, wood smoke and bushfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Keywood, Melita; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    Detailed chemical characterisation was performed for wintertime and summertime PM10 samples collected in Melbourne, Australia. The samples were analysed for marker compounds of biomass burning and biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The chemical analysis showed that the site was significantly influenced by the emissions from wintertime domestic wood combustion and summertime bushfires. Monosaccharide anhydrides were major primary biomass burning marker compounds found in the samples with the average concentrations of 439, 191, 57 and 3630 ngm-3 for winter 2004, winter 2005, summer 2005 and summer 2006, respectively. The highest concentration was determined during the summer 2006 bushfire season with the concentration of 15,400 ngm-3. Biomass burning originating SOA compounds detected in the samples include substituted nitrophenols, mainly 4-nitrocatechol (Mr 155), methyl-nitrocatechols (Mr 169) and dimethyl-nitrocatechols (Mr 183) with the sum concentrations as high as 115 ngm-3 for the wintertime samples and 770 ngm-3 for the bushfire influenced samples. In addition to this, elevated levels of biogenic SOA marker compounds were determined in the summertime samples influence by bushfire smoke. These marker compounds can be categorised into carboxylic acid marker compounds and heteroatomic organic acids containing nitrogen and sulfur. Carboxylic acid marker compounds can be largely attributed to oxidation products originating from 1,8-cineole, α-pinene and β-pinene that are main constituents of eucalyptus VOC emissions. Among those, diaterpenylic acid, terpenylic acid and daterebic acid were found at elevated levels in the bushfire influenced samples. Heteroatomic monoterpene SOA marker compounds (Mr 295, C10H17NO7S) were detected during both winter and summer periods. Especially high levels of these compounds were determined in the severe bushfire samples from summer 2006. Based on the results obtained from the chemical analysis and a macro tracer method

  5. Body mass index, smoking, and risk of death between 40 and 70 years of age in a Norwegian cohort of 32,727 women and 33,475 men.

    PubMed

    Hjellvik, Vidar; Selmer, Randi; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian; Tverdal, Aage; Vollset, Stein Emil

    2013-01-01

    Overweight-obesity and smoking are two main preventable causes of premature death. Because the relationship between smoking and body mass index (BMI) complicates the interpretation of associations between BMI and death risks, direct estimates of risks associated with joint exposures are helpful. We have studied the relationships of BMI and smoking to middle age (40-69 years) death risk-overall and by causes-in a Norwegian cohort of 32,727 women and 33,475 men who were 35-49 years old when baseline measurements and lifestyle information were collected in 1974-1988. Individuals with a history of cancer, cardiovascular disease or diabetes at baseline were excluded. Mortality follow-up was through 2009. The relationship between BMI and middle age death risk was U-shaped. Overall middle age death risks were 11% in women and 21 % in men. The combination of obesity and heavy smoking resulted in fivefold increase in middle age death risks in both women and men: For women middle age death risk ranged from 6 % among never smokers in the 22.5-24.9 BMI group to 31% (adjusted 28%) in obese (BMI > 30 kg/m(2)) heavy smokers (≥20 cigarettes/day). The corresponding figures in men were 10% and 53% (adjusted 45%). Obese never smokers and light (1-9 cigarettes/day) smokers in the 22.5-24.9 BMI groups both experienced a twofold increase in middle age risks of death. For women, cancer (56%) was the most common cause of death followed by cardiovascular disease (22%). In men, cardiovascular disease was most common (41%) followed by cancer (34%). Cardiovascular disease deaths were more strongly related to BMI than were cancer deaths.

  6. Online molecular characterization of fine particulate matter in Port Angeles, WA: Evidence for a major impact from residential wood smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaston, Cassandra J.; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Whybrew, Lauren E.; Hadley, Odelle; McNair, Fran; Gao, Honglian; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Thornton, Joel A.

    2016-08-01

    We present on-line molecular composition measurements of wintertime particulate matter (PM) during 2014 using an iodide-adduct high-resolution, time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-CIMS) coupled to a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO). These measurements were part of an intensive effort to characterize PM in the region with a focus on ultrafine particle sources. The technique was used to detect and quantify different classes of wood burning tracers, including levoglucosan, methoxyphenols, and nitrocatechols, among other compounds in near real-time. During the campaign, particulate mass concentrations of compounds with the same molecular composition as levoglucosan ranged from 0.002 to 19 μg/m3 with a median mass concentration of 0.9 μg/m3. Wood burning markers, in general, showed a strong diurnal pattern peaking at night and in the early morning. This diurnal profile combined with cold, stagnant conditions, wind directions from predominantly residential areas, and observations of lower combustion efficiency at night support residential wood burning as a dominant source of wintertime PM in Port Angeles. This finding has implications for improving wintertime air quality in the region by encouraging the use of high efficiency wood-burning stoves or other cleaner home heating options throughout the relevant domain.

  7. Particulate air pollution and health effects for cardiovascular and respiratory causes in Temuco, Chile: a wood-smoke-polluted urban area.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza, Pedro A; Torreblanca, Monica A; Diaz-Robles, Luis A; Schiappacasse, L Nicolas; Silva, Maria P; Astete, Teresa D

    2009-12-01

    Temuco is one of the most highly wood-smoke-polluted cities in the world. Its population in 2004 was 340,000 inhabitants with 1587 annual deaths, of which 24% were due to cardiovascular and 11% to respiratory causes. For hospital admissions, cardiovascular diseases represented 6% and respiratory diseases 13%. Emergency room visits for acute respiratory infections represented 28%. The objective of the study presented here was to determine the relationship between air pollution from particulate matter less than or equal to 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10; mostly PM2.5, or particulate matter <2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter) and health effects measured as the daily number of deaths, hospital admissions, and emergency room visits for cardiovascular, respiratory, and acute respiratory infection (ARI) diseases. The Air Pollution Health Effects European Approach (APHEA2) protocol was followed, and a multivariate Poisson regression model was fitted, controlling for trend, seasonality, and confounders for Temuco during 1998-2006. The results show that PM10 had a significant association with daily mortality and morbidity, with the elderly (population >65 yr of age) being the group that presented the greatest risk. The relative risk for respiratory causes, with an increase of 100 microg/m3 of PM10, was 1.163 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.057-1.279 for mortality, 1.137 (CI 1.096-1.178) for hospital admissions, and 1.162 for ARI (CI 1.144-1.181). There is evidence in Temuco of positive relationships between ambient particulate levels and mortality, hospital admissions, and ARI for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. These results are consistent with those of comparable studies in other similar cities where wood smoke is the most important air pollution problem.

  8. Wood smoke particles from different combustion phases induce similar pro-inflammatory effects in a co-culture of monocyte and pneumocyte cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been linked to several adverse cardiopulmonary effects, probably via biological mechanisms involving inflammation. The pro-inflammatory potential of PM depends on the particles’ physical and chemical characteristics, which again depend on the emitting source. Wood combustion is a major source of ambient air pollution in Northern countries during the winter season. The overall aim of this study was therefore to investigate cellular responses to wood smoke particles (WSPs) collected from different phases of the combustion cycle, and from combustion at different temperatures. Results WSPs from different phases of the combustion cycle induced very similar effects on pro-inflammatory mediator release, cytotoxicity and cell number, whereas WSPs from medium-temperature combustion were more cytotoxic than WSPs from high-temperature incomplete combustion. Furthermore, comparisons of effects induced by native WSPs with the corresponding organic extracts and washed particles revealed that the organic fraction was the most important determinant for the WSP-induced effects. However, the responses induced by the organic fraction could generally not be linked to the content of the measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), suggesting that also other organic compounds were involved. Conclusion The toxicity of WSPs seems to a large extent to be determined by stove type and combustion conditions, rather than the phase of the combustion cycle. Notably, this toxicity seems to strongly depend on the organic fraction, and it is probably associated with organic components other than the commonly measured unsubstituted PAHs. PMID:23176191

  9. The occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives and the proinflammatory potential of fractionated extracts of diesel exhaust and wood smoke particles.

    PubMed

    Totlandsdal, Annike I; Øvrevik, Johan; Cochran, Richard E; Herseth, Jan-Inge; Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Låg, Marit; Schwarze, Per; Lilleaas, Edel; Holme, Jørn A; Kubátová, Alena

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to combustion emissions, including diesel engine exhaust and wood smoke particles (DEPs and WSPs), has been associated with inflammatory responses. To investigate the possible role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH-derivatives, the DEPs and WSPs methanol extracts were fractionated by solid phase extraction (SPE), and the fractions were analyzed for more than ∼120 compounds. The pro-inflammatory effects of the fractionated extracts were characterized by exposure of bronchial epithelial lung cells (BEAS-2B). Both native DEPs and WSPs caused a concentration-dependent increase in IL-6 and IL-8 release and cytotoxicity. This is consistent with the finding of a rather similar total content of PAHs and PAH-derivatives. Yet, the samples differed in specific components, suggesting that different species contribute to the toxicological response in these two types of particles. The majority of the IL-6 release and cytotoxicity was induced upon exposure to the most polar (methanol) SPE fraction of extracts from both samples. In these fractions hydroxy-PAHs, carboxy-PAHs were observed along with nitro-amino-PAHs in DEP. However, the biological effects induced by the polar fractions could not be attributed only to the occurrence of PAH-derivatives. The present findings indicate a need for further characterization of organic extracts, beyond an extensive analysis of commonly suspected PAH and PAH-derivatives. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, to view the supplemental file. PMID:24345236

  10. Assessment of climate vulnerability in the Norwegian built environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hygen, H. O.; Øyen, C. F.; Almâs, A. J.

    2010-09-01

    The main trends expected for the change of Norwegian climate for this century are increasing temperatures, precipitation and wind. This indicates a probable increase of climate related risks to the Norwegian built environment. Previous assessments of climate vulnerability of the built environment have been based on general terms and experiences. The report "Climate and vulnerability analysis for Norwegian built environment; Basis elucidation for the Official Norwegian Report (NOU) on climate adaptation (in Norwegian only)" has used previously defined indexes to quantify the future vulnerability and thus estimated the impact of future climate strain to the existing built environment. The method used to do this assessment has been to create national geolocated maps of relevant climate indexes. Climate indexes for this analysis are: * Wood decay, * Temperature and heating degree days, * Snow load and wet winter precipitation, * Precipitation, flood and extreme precipitation * Wind and wind-driven rain * Frost decay * Frost amount * Perma frost Most of these indexes have been established both for the normal period 1961 - 1990 and projected climate of 2071 - 2100. To compensate for uncertainties in the projection, a set of three projections has been used. These indexes have been combined with geolocated information for Norway's 3.9 million buildings, by imposing GIS digitalized building information to the geolocated maps. The result of this combination is a synopsis of the number of buildings in Norway vulnerable to the displayed present climate parameters and to the projected changes. Consequenses for the Norwegian buildings stock and actions to be taken by the government are also discussed.

  11. Wood and Wood Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Raymond A.

    Wood has been utilized by humans since antiquity. Trees provided a source of many products required by early humans such as food, medicine, fuel, and tools. For example, the bark of the willow tree, when chewed, was used as a painkiller in early Greece and was the precursor of the present-day aspirin. Wood served as the primary fuel in the United States until about the turn of the 19th century, and even today over one-half of the wood now harvested in the world is used for heating fuel.

  12. Norwegian Aerospace Activities: an Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnesen, T. (Editor); Rosenberg, G. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Excerpts from a Governmental Investigation concerning Norwegian participation in the European Space Organization (ESA) is presented. The implications and advantages of such a move and a suggestion for the reorganization of Norwegian Aerospace activity is given.

  13. Assessing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) using passive air sampling in the atmosphere of one of the most wood-smoke-polluted cities in Chile: The case study of Temuco.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Karla; Estellano, Victor H; Harner, Tom; Diaz-Robles, Luis; Cereceda-Balic, Francisco; Etcharren, Pablo; Pozo, Katerine; Vidal, Victor; Guerrero, Fabián; Vergara-Fernández, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    This study addresses human health concerns in the city of Temuco that are attributed to wood smoke and related pollutants associated with wood burning activities that are prevalent in Temuco. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in air across urban and rural sites over three seasons in Temuco using polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PUF-PAS). Concentrations of ΣPAHs (15 congeners) in air ranged from BDL to ∼70 ng m(-3) and were highest during the winter season, which is attributed to emissions from residential heating by wood combustion. The results for all three seasons showed that the PAH plume was widespread across all sites including rural sites on the outskirts of Temuco. Some interesting variations were observed between seasons in the composition of PAHs, which were attributed to differences in seasonal point sources. A comparison of the PAH composition in the passive samples with active samples (gas+particle phase) from the same site revealed similar congener profiles. Overall, the study demonstrated that the PUF disk passive air sampler provides a simple approach for measuring PAHs in air and for tracking effectiveness of pollution control measures in urban areas in order to improve public health.

  14. Assessing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) using passive air sampling in the atmosphere of one of the most wood-smoke-polluted cities in Chile: The case study of Temuco.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Karla; Estellano, Victor H; Harner, Tom; Diaz-Robles, Luis; Cereceda-Balic, Francisco; Etcharren, Pablo; Pozo, Katerine; Vidal, Victor; Guerrero, Fabián; Vergara-Fernández, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    This study addresses human health concerns in the city of Temuco that are attributed to wood smoke and related pollutants associated with wood burning activities that are prevalent in Temuco. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in air across urban and rural sites over three seasons in Temuco using polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PUF-PAS). Concentrations of ΣPAHs (15 congeners) in air ranged from BDL to ∼70 ng m(-3) and were highest during the winter season, which is attributed to emissions from residential heating by wood combustion. The results for all three seasons showed that the PAH plume was widespread across all sites including rural sites on the outskirts of Temuco. Some interesting variations were observed between seasons in the composition of PAHs, which were attributed to differences in seasonal point sources. A comparison of the PAH composition in the passive samples with active samples (gas+particle phase) from the same site revealed similar congener profiles. Overall, the study demonstrated that the PUF disk passive air sampler provides a simple approach for measuring PAHs in air and for tracking effectiveness of pollution control measures in urban areas in order to improve public health. PMID:26022137

  15. Norwegian petroleum guide

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    This is about the comprehensive guide to Norwegian oil and gas activities, very useful to anyone in the industry. Material includes political guidelines, control institutions, work possibilities and licenses, working environment law, employer and employee organizations, national insurance, taxes, communication, rescue operations and standby. Contents: Oil and the economy; Petroleum technology research; Responsibilities of different authorities; The Labour Inspection Directorate; The Health Directorate Offshore Office; The Coastal Directorate; Helicopter traffic; The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate; The Maritime Directorate; Det norske Veritas; The Norwegian Waterways and Electricity Board; The State Institute for Radiation Hygiene; The State Explosive Inspection; Work possibilities in the North Sea; Working environment legislation on the Continental Shelf; Collective bargaining agreements, labor conflicts and the right to organize; Taxation Rules; National health insurance and the petroleum activity; Occupational injuries on the Norwegian Continental Shelf; Company insurances; The private pension scheme; Other types of insuracne common among oil companies; The rescue service in Norway; Oganizations within the oil industry offshore and onshore; and Law of aliens admission to the Kindgom.

  16. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Slips & Relapses Slips Happen Tips for Slips Understanding Smoking Secondhand Smoke Quiz: How Bad is Secondhand Smoke? E- ... Slips & Relapses Slips Happen Tips for Slips Understanding Smoking Secondhand Smoke Quiz: How Bad is Secondhand Smoke? E- ...

  17. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the methods and results of the Norwegian Mastitis Control Program implemented in 1982. The program has formed an integral part of the Norwegian Cattle Health Services (NCHS) since 1995. The NCHS also have specific programs for milk fever, ketosis, reproduction and calf diseases. The goal of the program is to improve udder health by keeping the bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) low, to reduce the use of antibiotics, to keep the cost of mastitis low at herd level and improve the consumers' attitude to milk products. In 1996, a decision was made to reduce the use of antibiotics in all animal production enterprises in Norway by 25% within five years. Relevant data has been collected through the Norwegian Cattle Herd Recording System (NCHRS); including health records since 1975 and somatic cell count (SCC) data since 1980. These data have been integrated within the NCHRS. Since 2000, mastitis laboratory data have also been included in the NCHRS. Data on clinical disease, SCC and mastitis bacteriology have been presented to farmers and advisors in monthly health periodicals since 1996, and on the internet since 2005. In 1996, Norwegian recommendations on the treatment of mastitis were implemented. Optimal milking protocols and milking machine function have been emphasised and less emphasis has been placed on dry cow therapy. A selective dry cow therapy program (SDCTP) was implemented in 2006, and is still being implemented in new areas. Research demonstrates that the rate of clinical mastitis could be reduced by 15% after implementing SDCTP. The results so far show a 60% reduction in the clinical treatment of mastitis between 1994 and 2007, a reduction in BMSCC from 250,000 cells/ml to 114,000 cells/ml, and a total reduction in the mastitis cost from 0.23 NOK to 0.13 NOK per litre of milk delivered to the processors, corresponding to a fall from 9.2% to 1.7% of the milk price, respectively. This reduction is attributed to changes in attitude and

  18. [Smoking and smoking weaning].

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, F; Bucher, H

    1994-10-01

    Stop-smoking counselling is a challenging task in primary health care, its efficacy being often underestimated by the physician. Health care physicians are not very inclined to advise their smoking patients to stop smoking and give specific counselling. This is in contradiction with the expectations of more than two thirds of the smoking patients, who expect their physicians to help them. The present article discusses the therapeutical methods for stop-smoking counselling in primary health care. In particular, the article illustrates the importance for this support (including the possibilities for nicotin substitution in the weaning stage). PMID:7839325

  19. The Norwegian Naval Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, Bjørn Ragnvald

    2007-07-01

    Archival material has revealed milestones and new details in the history of the Norwegian Naval Observatories. We have identified several of the instrument types used at different epochs. Observational results have been extracted from handwritten sources and an extensive literature search. These allow determination of an approximate location of the first naval observatory building (1842) at Fredriksvern. No physical remains exist today. A second observatory was established in 1854 at the new main naval base at Horten. Its location is evident on military maps and photographs. We describe its development until the Naval Observatory buildings, including archives and instruments, were completely demolished during an allied air bomb raid on 23 February 1945. The first director, C.T.H. Geelmuyden, maintained scientific standards at the the Observatory between 1842 and 1870, and collaborated with university astronomers to investigate, develop, and employ time-transfer by telegraphy. Their purpose was accurate longitude determination between observatories in Norway and abroad. The Naval Observatory issued telegraphic time signals twice weekly to a national network of sites, and as such served as the first national time-service in Norway. Later the Naval Observatory focused on the particular needs of the Navy and developed into an internal navigational service.

  20. Wood stains

    MedlinePlus

    The harmful substances in wood stains are hydrocarbons, or substances that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Other harmful ingredients may include: Alcohol Alkanes Cyclo alkanes Glycol ether Corrosives, such as sodium ...

  1. Validation of an assay for the determination of levoglucosan and associated monosaccharide anhydrides for the quantification of wood smoke in atmospheric aerosol.

    PubMed

    Cordell, Rebecca L; White, Iain R; Monks, Paul S

    2014-09-01

    Biomass burning is becoming an increasing contributor to atmospheric particulate matter, and concern is increasing over the detrimental health effects of inhaling such particles. Levoglucosan and related monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs) can be used as tracers of the contribution of wood burning to total particulate matter. An improved gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to quantify atmospheric levels of MAs has been developed and, for the first-time, fully validated. The method uses an optimised, low-volume methanol extraction, derivitisation by trimethylsilylation and analysis with high-throughput gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recovery of approximately 90 % for levoglucosan, and 70 % for the isomers galactosan and mannosan, was achieved using spiked blank filters estimates. The method was extensively validated to ensure that the precision of the method over five experimental replicates on five repeat experimental occasions was within 15 % for low, mid and high concentrations and accuracy between 85 and 115 %. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 0.21 and 1.05 ng m(-3) for levoglucosan and galactosan/mannosan, respectively, where the assay satisfied precisions of ≤20 % and accuracies 80-120 %. The limit of detection (LOD) for all analytes was 0.105 ng m(-3). The stability of the MAs, once deposited on aerosol filters, was high over the short term (4 weeks) at room temperature and over longer periods (3 months) when stored at -20 °C. The method was applied to determine atmospheric levels of MAs at an urban background site in Leicester (UK) for a month. Mean concentrations of levoglucosan over the month of May were 21.4 ± 18.3 ng m(-3), 7.5 ± 6.1 ng m(-3) mannosan and 1.8 ± 1.3 ng m(-3) galactosan. PMID:24948096

  2. Tularaemia in Norwegian dogs.

    PubMed

    Nordstoga, Anne; Handeland, Kjell; Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Iversen, Lena; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Mattsson, Roland; Wik-Larssen, Kjersti; Afset, Jan Egil; Næverdal, Rune; Lund, Arve

    2014-10-10

    We describe tularaemia in a Norwegian dog caused by Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica. A Hamilton Hound and his owner developed tulaeremia after hunting an infected mountain hare (Lepus timidus). The dog showed signs of lethargy, anorexia and fever during a period two to four days after hunting and thereafter fully recovered. Its antibody titers increased 32-fold from one to three weeks post exposure. Thereafter, the titer declined and leveled off at moderate positive values up to one year after exposure (end of study). This is believed to be the first case report of clinical F. tularensis subspecies holarctica infection in a European dog. In 2011, enormous numbers of Norway lemmings (Lemmus lemmus) occurred in Finnmark, the northernmost county of Norway and many dogs caught and swallowed lemmings. Some of these dogs developed non-specific signs of disease and the owners consulted a veterinary surgeon, who suspected tularaemia. In order to investigate this hypothesis, serum samples from 33 dogs were examined for antibodies to F. tularensis. The dogs were allocated into three groups: Dogs from Finnmark that became sick (Group 1) or remained healthy following contact with lemmings (Group 2), and healthy control dogs from Oslo without known contact with lemmings (Group 3). All the serum samples were analyzed with a tube agglutination assay. Among dogs exposed to lemmings, 10/11 and 3/12 were antibody positive in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, whereas none of the control dogs (n=10) were positive for antibodies against F. tularensis. These results strongly indicate that the non-specific disease seen in the dogs in Finnmark was linked to F. tularensis infection acquired through contact with lemmings.

  3. A long-term perspective on Norwegian energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Schipper, L.; Howarth, R.; Wilson, D.

    1990-05-01

    Norway is the home country of the leader of Brundtland Commission, which recommended that nations reduce their energy use through increased energy efficiency. In order to better understand the potential for such a reduction in Norway, the Norwegian Oil and Energy Department, along with Oslo Lysvaerker, asked the International Energy Studies Group at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to analyze the changes in the level and structure of Norwegian energy demand that have developed since 1950. The long time horizon of our analysis allowed us to examine the evolution of the energy use of each major sector of the economy. The results of our analysis show that energy efficiency has not improved as much in Norway as in other countries since 1973. Two factors lie behind this finding. First, electricity and wood have been cheap and abundant in Norway, and oil, although priced for international markets, has not been perceived as a scarce fuel. Indeed, the burgeoning revenues from the oil sector provided Norwegians with access to more cars and more travel, larger and more comfortable homes, and other amenities so that energy use increased even after 1973 while the citizens of other nations were cutting back on energy use. The second, more subtle factor, is that the use of energy in Norway reached maturity only quite recently, as the ownership of the principal energy-using equipment of each sector began to approach saturation. The maturation of energy demand in Norway implies that the significant potential for energy resource conservation can now be exploited. If energy prices should rise significantly in Norway, we expect that the energy efficiency of the Norwegian economy could improve dramatically in the future. 39 refs., 37 figs.

  4. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  5. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  6. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  7. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  8. Furniture wood wastes: experimental property characterisation and burning tests.

    PubMed

    Tatàno, Fabio; Barbadoro, Luca; Mangani, Giovanna; Pretelli, Silvia; Tombari, Lucia; Mangani, Filippo

    2009-10-01

    Referring to the industrial wood waste category (as dominant in the provincial district of Pesaro-Urbino, Marche Region, Italy), this paper deals with the experimental characterisation and the carrying out of non-controlled burning tests (at lab- and pilot-scale) for selected "raw" and primarily "engineered" ("composite") wood wastes. The property characterisation has primarily revealed the following aspects: potential influence on moisture content of local weather conditions at outdoor wood waste storage sites; generally, higher ash contents in "engineered" wood wastes as compared with "raw" wood wastes; and relatively high energy content values of "engineered" wood wastes (ranging on the whole from 3675 to 5105 kcal kg(-1) for HHV, and from 3304 to 4634 kcal kg(-1) for LHV). The smoke qualitative analysis of non-controlled lab-scale burning tests has primarily revealed: the presence of specific organic compounds indicative of incomplete wood combustion; the presence exclusively in "engineered" wood burning tests of pyrroles and amines, as well as the additional presence (as compared with "raw" wood burning) of further phenolic and containing nitrogen compounds; and the potential environmental impact of incomplete industrial wood burning on the photochemical smog phenomenon. Finally, non-controlled pilot-scale burning tests have primarily given the following findings: emission presence of carbon monoxide indicative of incomplete wood combustion; higher nitrogen oxide emission values detected in "engineered" wood burning tests as compared with "raw" wood burning test; and considerable generation of the respirable PM(1) fraction during incomplete industrial wood burning.

  9. Mother`s 1993: Wood and coal stove advisory

    SciTech Connect

    Vivian, J.

    1993-12-01

    If you`re like me, you`ve been heating and cooking with wood long enough that you don`t want another lecture about the cozy charm of a wood fire, the money you can save over electric heat, why to clean your flue or how to stack a cord of wood. What you may want to know, however, is why you can`t get an efficient, new wood stove anymore without paying hundreds of dollars extra for a government-approved catalytic smoke combustor or {open_quotes}Hi-Tech{close_quotes} stove; how the wood smoke that we once considered benign can degrade our air quality, endangering health and property; and how the new government presence in home heating affects your use or sale of the {open_quotes}low-tech{close_quotes} Intrepid, Kodiak or Ashley airtight wood stove (or the faithful old coal-burner) that has warmed you for years.

  10. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    Secondhand smoke is a mixture of the smoke that comes from the burning end of a cigarette, cigar, ... about 70 can cause cancer. Health effects of secondhand smoke include Ear infections in children More frequent and ...

  11. Important Norwegian crude assays updated

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, R.A

    1990-03-12

    New assays on two important Norwegian North Sea crude oils, Statfjord and Gullfaks, are presented. Both are high-quality, low-sulfur crudes that will yield a full range of good-quality products. All assay data came from industry-standard test procedures. The Statfjord field is the largest in the North Sea. Production started in 1979. Statfjord is a typical North Sea crude, produced from three separate platforms and three separate loading buoys with interconnecting lines. Current production is about 700,000 b/d. Gullfaks is produced from a large field in Block 34/10 of the Norwegian sector of the North Sea production area. Gullfaks crude oil is more biodegraded than other crudes from the region. Biodegradation has removed most of the waxy normal paraffins, resulting in a heavier, more naphthenic and aromatic crude.

  12. Tobacco use among Norwegian adolescents: from cigarettes to snus

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Willy; von Soest, Tilmann

    2014-01-01

    Aims To: (i) investigate the development of smoking and snus use among Norwegian adolescents, and (ii) describe the users in each group. Design Two population-based surveys with identical procedures in 2002 (response rate 91.0%) and 2010 (response rate 84.3%). Setting Norway. Participants A total of 6217 respondents, aged 16–17 years. Measurements Data were collected on smoking and snus use, socio-demographic factors, school adjustment, social network, sport activities, alcohol and cannabis use and depression symptoms. Findings Prevalence of daily smoking fell from 23.6% in 2002 to 6.8% in 2010 (P < 0.001), while the prevalence of daily snus use increased from 4.3 to 11.9% (P < 0.001). Dual daily use of cigarettes and snus remained at 1%. The relative proportion of non-daily smokers using snus increased steeply. Both snus users and smokers reported more adverse socio-economic backgrounds, less favourable school adjustment and higher levels of alcohol intoxication and cannabis use than non-users of tobacco. However, snus users were better adjusted to school and used cannabis less often than smokers. Conclusions Adolescent smoking prevalence has fallen dramatically in Norway, accompanied by a smaller increase in snus use. Young snus users in Norway have many of the same risk factors as smokers, but to a lesser degree. PMID:24521070

  13. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    PubMed

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  14. Quitting Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  15. Homotolerance and Heteronormativity in Norwegian Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothing, Ase

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on classroom observations and discusses sexual education that addresses homosexuality. Tolerance of queer lifestyles as well as support for judicial equality between heterosexual and homosexual couples is generally perceived as being high in the Norwegian political context. Norwegian sexual politics is, however, based on a…

  16. Homotolerance and Heterosexuality as Norwegian Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothing, Ase; Svendsen, Stine Helena Bang

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, equality between homosexual and heterosexual relationships has increasingly been presented as a marker for Norwegian values. Norwegian schooling encourages tolerance toward homosexuals, and the state shows active interest in counteracting bullying against LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) youth by supporting research…

  17. Stereotypes of Norwegian social groups

    PubMed Central

    Bye, Hege H; Herrebrøden, Henrik; Hjetland, Gunnhild J; Røyset, Guro Ø; Westby, Linda L

    2014-01-01

    We present a pilot study and two main studies that address the nature of stereotypes of social groups in Norway within the framework of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM). The first study focused on stereotypes of a wide range of groups across categories such as gender, age, religious conviction, socioeconomic and health status. The second study focused on stereotypes of immigrant groups. Participants (n = 244 and n = 63, respectively) rated the groups on perceived warmth, competence, status, and competition. Results from both studies support the applicability of the SCM in Norway and provides a unique insight into stereotypes of Norwegian social groups. PMID:24975918

  18. Norwegian Offshore Stratigraphic Lexicon (NORLEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradstein, Felix M.; Hammer, Oyvind; Brunstad, Harald; Charnock, Mike; Hellem, Terje; Sigve Lervik, Kjell; Anthonissen, Erik

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Offshore Stratigraphic Lexicon (NORLEX) provides a relational stratigraphic database for the North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea and Svalbard. Both regional lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy are being substantially updated, following guidelines laid out in the International Stratigraphic Guide. The main body of information developed is available as a petroleum consortium (oracle-style) database, and the new lithostratigraphic definitions as a public domain (paper) document. NORLEX is presented as a browsing website via the internet at http://www.nhm.uio.no/norlex. Seismic cross-sections, core photographs, well logs, field outcrops, microfossil occurrences and other vital attributes are relationally cross-linked. In addition, there are menus for instantly finding updated formation and member tops or microfossil events in all wells, plus a map contouring routine for unit thicknesses and depths. Several new initiatives will expand data and user coverage: 1. Overhaul of Mesozoic stratigraphy, especially Triassic and Cretaceous, in the Barents Sea. 2. Coverage of East Greenland 3. Linkage to UK and Belgium and The Netherlands surface and subsurface stratigraphy 4. Creation of a Sequence Stratigraphic Framework for specific regions. 5. A national microfossil atlas to support zonations 6. Tight linkage to the basin datapacks in TimeScaleCreator Pro, as developed for Australia, New Zealand, Brasil, Gulf of Mexico, Canada and Russia. NORLEX may thus evolve to become STRATLEX, covering many basin regions.

  19. Personality types and risky health behaviors in Norwegian students.

    PubMed

    Vollrath, Margarete E; Torgersen, Svenn

    2008-06-01

    Typological research has received increasing interest in recent years, but is still regarded as substandard by personality psychologists. The current investigation shows how a typological approach can enhance our understanding of the influence of personality on risky health behaviors. We focused on Torgersen's eight personality types that represent unique configurations of high and low Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Constraint (Vollrath & Torgersen, 2000). Participants were 606 Norwegian university students. Measures assessed personality factors, smoking, abuse of drugs and alcohol, drunk driving, and risky sexual behaviors. Results replicated earlier research showing that types combining either high Extraversion and low Constraint (Hedonists, Impulsives) or high Neuroticism and low Constraint (Insecures) engage in more risky health behaviors. The discussion focuses on demonstrating that the study of types is a valuable supplement to the dimensional tradition in personality psychology.

  20. Asia Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Smoke from Asian Fires Traverses the Pacific     ... Russia and northeast China, and produced a large amount of smoke that rose to form a thick layer of tiny atmospheric particles, or ... northern portion of the Pacific Ocean, the thickness of the smoke passing over an area south of the Aleutian Islands was measured by the ...

  1. [Youth Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stare, Russell K., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter "Prevention Forum" focuses on smoking among adolescents. The articles are as follows: (1) "Where There's Smoke--Will Prevention Put Out the Fire?" (Joanne Burgess), an overview of the Surgeon General's report "Preventing Tobacco Use among Young People," including interviews with prevention and anti-smoking activists;…

  2. Experiences with the Norwegian nutrition policy.

    PubMed

    Kaernes, Unni

    2003-12-01

    Norwegian nutrition policy has received considerable attention. The distinguishing feature is its 'structural' orientation, i.e. towards production and market regulation, as opposed to individual, information-based strategies. This was possible first of all because of distinctive Norwegian political traditions, with a heavily regulated agricultural sector, combined with a welfare policy tradition emphasising influence on other sectors. While the institutionalisation of the Norwegian nutrition policy has been important for its political legitimacy and visibility, the paper discusses how this has also represented a challenge when problems and policy goals are to be altered. PMID:14637323

  3. Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferré, Bénédicte; Mienert, Jürgen; Winther, Svein; Hageberg, Anne; Rune Godoe, Olav; Partners, Noon

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON) is led by the University of Tromsø and collaborates with the Universities of Oslo and Bergen, UniResearch, Institute of Marine Research, Christian Michelsen Research and SINTEF. It is supported by the Research Council of Norway and oil and gas (O&G) industries like Statoil to develop science, technology and new educational programs. Main topics relate to ocean climate and environment as well as marine resources offshore Norway from the northern North Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. NOON's vision is to bring Norway to the international forefront in using cable based ocean observatory technology for marine science and management, by establishing an infrastructure that enables real-time and long term monitoring of processes and interactions between hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. This activity is in concert with the EU funded European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap and European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observation (EMSO) project to attract international leading research developments. NOON envisions developing towards a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). Beside, the research community in Norway already possesses a considerable marine infrastructure that can expand towards an international focus for real-time multidisciplinary observations in times of rapid climate change. PIC The presently established cable-based fjord observatory, followed by the establishment of a cable-based ocean observatory network towards the Arctic from an O&G installation, will provide invaluable knowledge and experience necessary to make a successful larger cable-based observatory network at the Norwegian and Arctic margin (figure 1). Access to large quantities of real-time observation from the deep sea, including high definition video, could be used to provide the public and future recruits to science a fascinating insight into an almost unexplored part of the Earth beyond the Arctic Circle

  4. Furniture wood wastes: Experimental property characterisation and burning tests

    SciTech Connect

    Tatano, Fabio Barbadoro, Luca; Mangani, Giovanna; Pretelli, Silvia; Tombari, Lucia; Mangani, Filippo

    2009-10-15

    Referring to the industrial wood waste category (as dominant in the provincial district of Pesaro-Urbino, Marche Region, Italy), this paper deals with the experimental characterisation and the carrying out of non-controlled burning tests (at lab- and pilot-scale) for selected 'raw' and primarily 'engineered' ('composite') wood wastes. The property characterisation has primarily revealed the following aspects: potential influence on moisture content of local weather conditions at outdoor wood waste storage sites; generally, higher ash contents in 'engineered' wood wastes as compared with 'raw' wood wastes; and relatively high energy content values of 'engineered' wood wastes (ranging on the whole from 3675 to 5105 kcal kg{sup -1} for HHV, and from 3304 to 4634 kcal kg{sup -1} for LHV). The smoke qualitative analysis of non-controlled lab-scale burning tests has primarily revealed: the presence of specific organic compounds indicative of incomplete wood combustion; the presence exclusively in 'engineered' wood burning tests of pyrroles and amines, as well as the additional presence (as compared with 'raw' wood burning) of further phenolic and containing nitrogen compounds; and the potential environmental impact of incomplete industrial wood burning on the photochemical smog phenomenon. Finally, non-controlled pilot-scale burning tests have primarily given the following findings: emission presence of carbon monoxide indicative of incomplete wood combustion; higher nitrogen oxide emission values detected in 'engineered' wood burning tests as compared with 'raw' wood burning test; and considerable generation of the respirable PM{sub 1} fraction during incomplete industrial wood burning.

  5. [Smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahide; Maekura, Ryoji

    2011-10-01

    Smoking has been determined as a cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in most patients. Smoking cessation should be stressed above everything else for COPD patients under all conditions. A smoking habit is determined not as a preference but as a dependency on tobacco; therefore, smoking cessation is difficult solely based on one's motivation. Smoking cessation therapy is employed with cessation aids. Now, we can use nicotine-containing gum, patches, and the nicotine-receptor partial agonist varenicline. First, nicotine from tobacco is replaced with a nicotin patch, or a nicotine-free condition is induced by varenicline. Subsequently, the drugs are gradually reduced. In Japan, smoking cessation therapy is covered by public health insurance as definite requirements. PMID:22073582

  6. Indoor pollution and burning practices in wood stove management.

    PubMed

    Piccardo, M T; Cipolla, M; Stella, A; Ceppi, M; Bruzzone, M; Izzotti, A; Valerio, F

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluates effects of good burning practice and correct installation and management of wood heaters on indoor air pollution in an Italian rural area. The same study attests the role of education in mitigating wood smoke pollution. In August 2007 and winters of 2007 and 2008, in a little mountain village of Liguria Apennines (Italy), indoor and outdoor benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) concentrations were measured in nine wood-heated houses. During the first sampling, several mistakes in heating plant installations and management were found in all houses. Indoor BTEX concentrations increased during use of wood burning. Low toluene/benzene ratios were in agreement with wood smoke as main indoor and outdoor pollution source. Other BTEX sources were identified as the indoor use ofsolvents andpaints and incense burning. Results obtained during 2007 were presented and discussed with homeowners. Following this preventive intervention, in the second winter sampling all indoor BTEX concentrations decreased, in spite of the colder outdoor air temperatures. Information provided to families has induced the adoption of effective good practices in stoves and fire management. These results highlight the importance ofeducation, supported by reliable data on air pollution, as an effective method to reduce wood smoke exposures.

  7. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  8. Norwegian lottery winners: Cautious realists.

    PubMed

    Eckblad, G F; von der Lippe, A L

    1994-12-01

    The study investigated 261 lottery winners of prizes of NKR 1 million (US $150,000) or more in the years 1987-91 in a postal survey. The modal Norwegian winners were middle-aged married men of modest education, living in small communities. Emotional reactions to winning were few, aside from moderate happiness and relief. Winners emphasized caution, emotional control and unconspicuous spending, e.g. paying debts and sharing with children. There was only a slight increase in economic spending. A wish for anonymity was frequent, together with fear of envy from others. Betting was modest both before and after winning. Experiences with winning were predominantly positive. Life quality was stable or had improved. An age trend was observed, accounting for more variance than any other variable. The older winners seemed to represent a puritan subculture of caution, modesty and emotional restraint. A slightly more impatient pattern of spending was characteristic of younger winners. The results support Kaplan's 1987 and others' findings that lottery winners are not gamblers, but self-controlled realists and that tenacious, negative cultural expectations to the contrary are myths, but perhaps also deterrents of uncontrolled behavior.

  9. 49 CFR 173.160 - Bombs, smoke, non-explosive (corrosive).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bombs, smoke, non-explosive (corrosive). 173.160... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.160 Bombs, smoke, non-explosive (corrosive). Bombs, smoke, non-explosive may... explosive components. They must be packaged in wooden (4C1, 4C2), plywood (4D) or reconstituted wood...

  10. 49 CFR 173.160 - Bombs, smoke, non-explosive (corrosive).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bombs, smoke, non-explosive (corrosive). 173.160... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.160 Bombs, smoke, non-explosive (corrosive). Bombs, smoke, non-explosive may... explosive components. They must be packaged in wooden (4C1, 4C2), plywood (4D) or reconstituted wood...

  11. 49 CFR 173.160 - Bombs, smoke, non-explosive (corrosive).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bombs, smoke, non-explosive (corrosive). 173.160... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.160 Bombs, smoke, non-explosive (corrosive). Bombs, smoke, non-explosive may... explosive components. They must be packaged in wooden (4C1, 4C2), plywood (4D) or reconstituted wood...

  12. Functionality of liquid smoke as an all-natural antimicrobial in food preservation.

    PubMed

    Lingbeck, Jody M; Cordero, Paola; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Johnson, Michael G; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G

    2014-06-01

    The smoking of foods, especially meats, has been used as a preservation technique for centuries. Today, smoking methods often involve the use of wood smoke condensates, commonly known as liquid smoke. Liquid smoke is produced by condensing wood smoke created by the pyrolysis of sawdust or wood chips followed by removal of the carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The main products of wood pyrolysis are phenols, carbonyls and organic acids which are responsible for the flavor, color and antimicrobial properties of liquid smoke. Several common food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus have shown sensitivity to liquid smoke in vitro and in food systems. Therefore liquid smoke has potential for use as an all-natural antimicrobial in commercial applications where smoke flavor is desired. This review will cover the application and effectiveness of liquid smoke and fractions of liquid smoke as an all-natural food preservative. This review will be valuable for the industrial and research communities in the food science and technology areas.

  13. Surgical smoke.

    PubMed

    Fan, Joe King-Man; Chan, Fion Siu-Yin; Chu, Kent-Man

    2009-10-01

    Surgical smoke is the gaseous by-product formed during surgical procedures. Most surgeons, operating theatre staff and administrators are unaware of its potential health risks. Surgical smoke is produced by various surgical instruments including those used in electrocautery, lasers, ultrasonic scalpels, high speed drills, burrs and saws. The potential risks include carbon monoxide toxicity to the patient undergoing a laparoscopic operation, pulmonary fibrosis induced by non-viable particles, and transmission of infectious diseases like human papilloma virus. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity are other concerns. Minimisation of the production of surgical smoke and modification of any evacuation systems are possible solutions. In general, a surgical mask can provide more than 90% protection to exposure to surgical smoke; however, in most circumstances it cannot provide air-tight protection to the user. An at least N95 grade or equivalent respirator offers the best protection against surgical smoke, but whether such protection is necessary is currently unknown. PMID:19892630

  14. Levels of chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Norwegian breast milk (2002-2006), and factors that may predict the level of contamination.

    PubMed

    Polder, A; Skaare, J U; Skjerve, E; Løken, K B; Eggesbø, M

    2009-08-01

    In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in 423 breast milk samples from women living in Norway. Various predictors for the contaminant levels were also investigated. The samples were collected in six counties, representing South, Central and North Norway in 2002-2006. Initial results showed significantly lower levels of OCPs in breast milk from ethnic Norwegians (N=377) compared to ethnic non-Norwegians (N=46). Median concentrations (range) of PCBs, p,p'-DDE, HCB, beta-HCH and oxychlordane in breast milk of the Norwegian women, all parities included, were 103 (34-450), 41 (5.4-492), 11 (3.6-24), 4.7 (0.9-37) and 2.8 (0.5-16) ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Results indicated that sum of 18 PCBs, p,p'-DDE and beta-HCH are good predictors for monitoring of PCB, DDT and HCH levels in Norwegian breast milk. Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that age was strongly associated with increasing OC levels (P<0.001), whereas parity was associated with decreasing OC levels (P<0.001). Smoking was associated with higher levels of PCBs, p,p'-DDE and beta-HCH. The models explained from 17 to 35% of the variance. Median levels of OCs in the present Norwegian primparaes seemed to be 29-62% lower than corresponding results found in a Norwegian study from 2000-2002.

  15. Breivik--the Norwegian terrorist case.

    PubMed

    Syse, Aslak

    2014-01-01

    On July 22, 2011, there were two murderous attacks in Norway. Both assaults - the bombing of governmental buildings in Oslo City center and the lethal shooting down of young members of the Labour Party on an island - were planned and accomplished by a lone perpetrator. These episodes give rise to several interesting questions. What happened really, and how could it happen? Was the perpetrator sane or insane? What was the ideological background for the attacks? It is unnecessary to discuss in any detail whether or not these acts should be categorized as terrorism. However, there is good reason to consider what these terror attacks imply for Norwegian society at large. What significance did the attacks have for Norwegian democracy, and did they have any impact on the 2013 parliamentary elections? What will be the future for the offender, both in the short term and in years to come? What will happen to the Norwegian insanity defense? These questions are addressed in this article.

  16. [Passive smoking].

    PubMed

    Grandjean, E; Weber, A; Fischer, T

    1979-03-01

    Passive smoking is the involuntary inspiration of smoky indoor air. Based on the information available today, it may be assumed that passive smoking normally is no health hazard as far as the classical smoker's diseases (lung cancer, myocardial infarct, etc.) are concerned. Nevertheless, it is probable that irritations caused by tobacco smoke have an unfavorable influence on the health of small children and that of already sick persons. The main problem of passive smoking is annoyance due to odor and irritations of eyes and respiratory organs. Our investigations in a climatic chamber with healthy subjects show that air pollution caused by tobacco smoke as indicated by 5 ppm CO leads to marked eye irritations--objectively as well as subjectively--in 15 to 20% of the subjects. This corresponds to smoking 10 cigarettes per hour in a small room with an air ventilation rate of four times per hour. If air pollution caused by tobacco smoke lies below the level of 2 ppm CO, irritations and annoyance for healthy persons are regarded as low and tolerable. This corresponds to about four cigarettes per hour under the same circumstances.

  17. Wood decay at sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, François; Coston-Guarini, Jennifer; Guarini, Jean-Marc; Fanfard, Sandrine

    2016-08-01

    The oceans and seas receive coarse woody debris since the Devonian, but the kinetics of wood degradation remains one of many unanswered questions about the fate of driftwood in the marine environment. A simple gravimetric experiment was carried out at a monitoring station located at the exit of a steep, forested Mediterranean watershed in the Eastern Pyrenees. The objective was to describe and quantify, with standardized logs (in shape, structure and constitution), natural degradation of wood in the sea. Results show that the mass decrease of wood logs over time can be described by a sigmoidal curve. The primary process of wood decay observed at the monitoring station was due to the arrival and installation of wood-boring species that consumed more than half of the total wood mass in six months. Surprisingly, in a region where there is little remaining wood marine infrastructure, "shipworms", i.e. xylophagous bivalves, are responsible for an important part of this wood decay. This suggests that these communities are maintained probably by a frequent supply of a large quantity of riparian wood entering the marine environment adjacent to the watershed. By exploring this direct link between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, our long term objective is to determine how these supplies of terrestrial organic carbon can sustain wood-based marine communities as it is observed in the Mediterranean Sea.

  18. Quitting Smoking

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... cases requires a person get help from a health care provider. So I don't want to make ... a medication for smoking cessation should see their health care provider, just to find out if there are ...

  19. Japan Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Smoke Plume from Industrial Fires in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan     View larger image ... northeastern Japan at 2:46 p.m. local time on March 11, 2011, and its subsequent tsunami, several oil refineries and industrial ...

  20. Quitting smoking.

    PubMed

    Tunstall, C D; Ginsberg, D; Hall, S M

    1985-01-01

    Four factors which influence smoking treatment outcome are identified: environmental variables, client characteristics, process variables, and specific treatment approaches. Important environmental factors are stress and social support. Of client characteristics, sex is the best predictor of treatment success. Men are more likely to quit and maintain abstinence than women. However, the majority of women alter their smoking habits during pregnancy. Low-income persons and ethnic minorities are underrepresented among subjects in treatment studies and have larger percentages of smokers in the population at large. Extraverted smokers are more likely to begin to smoke and have difficulty quitting. Also, the more anxious, poorly adjusted smoker has more trouble quitting than the less troubled smoker. The higher the client's sense of self-efficacy, the better the chance of that person entering treatment and doing well. Furthermore, smokers who take in lower levels of nicotine are more successful at quitting. Many process questions are suggested. Few have been approached empirically. The effectiveness of ex-smokers as therapists in smoking cessation programs has not been systematically investigated, even though the smoking history of therapists is a question frequently asked by clients. We suggest that the skill and empathy of group leaders is more important than smoking history. Smoking therapists should be aware of nonspecific treatment factors such as positive expectations, social reinforcement, and self-disclosure which may have a powerful influence on the efficacy of smoking treatment. Specific treatment approaches were classified into three categories: low-contact approaches, including educational, self-help, and minimal treatment approaches; psychological treatments; and pharmacological treatment. Education, self-help, and minimal treatment approaches are thought to be accretively effective when the large size of the audience is considered. Also, innovative

  1. Social Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Schane, Rebecca E.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Social smoking is increasingly prevalent and poses a challenge to traditional cessation practices. Tobacco companies conducted extensive research on social smokers long before health authorities did and marketed products to promote this smoking behavior. Purpose Research is described and mechanisms identified that are used to promote social smoking to help improve cessation strategies in this growing group. Evidence acquisition Searches from 2006 to 2008 of previously secret tobacco industry documents using keywords social smoker, light smoker, casual smoker, youth smoker, and occasional smoker, followed by snowball searching. Data analysis was conducted in 2008. Evidence synthesis Tobacco industry research identified characteristics of social smokers that include: (1) denial of personal nicotine addiction; (2) self-categorization as a nonsmoker; (3) propensity for decreased tobacco use in response to smoke-free laws; (4) variations in age, education, ethnicity, and socioeconomic backgrounds; and (5) a perceived immunity to personal health effects of tobacco but fear of consequences to others. Tobacco companies developed marketing strategies aimed at social smokers, including “non–habit forming” cigarettes. Conclusions Previously considered a transient behavior, social smoking is also a stable consumption pattern. Focused clinical questions to detect social smoking are needed and may include, “Have you smoked any cigarettes or used any tobacco products in the past month?” as opposed to “Are you a smoker?” Clinicians should recognize that social smokers might be motivated to quit after education on the dangers of secondhand smoke rather than on personal health risks or with pharmacotherapy. PMID:19589449

  2. Medicinal smoke reduces airborne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nene, Yeshwant Laxman

    2007-12-01

    This study represents a comprehensive analysis and scientific validation of our ancient knowledge about the effect of ethnopharmacological aspects of natural products' smoke for therapy and health care on airborne bacterial composition and dynamics, using the Biolog microplate panels and Microlog database. We have observed that 1h treatment of medicinal smoke emanated by burning wood and a mixture of odoriferous and medicinal herbs (havan sámagri=material used in oblation to fire all over India), on aerial bacterial population caused over 94% reduction of bacterial counts by 60 min and the ability of the smoke to purify or disinfect the air and to make the environment cleaner was maintained up to 24h in the closed room. Absence of pathogenic bacteria Corynebacterium urealyticum, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter aerogenes (Klebsiella mobilis), Kocuria rosea, Pseudomonas syringae pv. persicae, Staphylococcus lentus, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. tardicrescens in the open room even after 30 days is indicative of the bactericidal potential of the medicinal smoke treatment. We have demonstrated that using medicinal smoke it is possible to completely eliminate diverse plant and human pathogenic bacteria of the air within confined space. PMID:17913417

  3. The Literacy Achievement of Norwegian Minority Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvistendahl, Rita; Roe, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    The article presents the literacy achievement of Norwegian minority students, their reading habits, and their enjoyment of reading based on the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2000 study. Aspects of their family background and attitudes towards school are related to literacy achievement results. A comparison between Denmark,…

  4. Worldbankification of Norwegian Development Assistance to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    2007-01-01

    Norwegian official development assistance to education has been profoundly shaped by the political and ideological attitudes of successive national governments. Yet successive coalition governments of highly-contrastive kinds can alike be seen to have been strongly influenced by the policy content, language and underlying assumptions of World Bank…

  5. Norwegian Secondary School Teachers and ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikan, Gerd; Molster, Terje

    2011-01-01

    ICT is meant to be integrated in all subjects in Norwegian schools; nevertheless many teachers are reluctant to use ICT in their own teaching. This paper explores to what extent teachers use ICT in their classroom teaching and what teacher-level factors influence the use of ICT. It draws on an analysis of 10 focus-group interviews with 10 teachers…

  6. Successful School Leadership: The Norwegian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Jorunn; Eggen, Astrid; Fuglestad, Otto L.; Langfeldt, Gjert; Presthus, Anne-Marie; Skrovset, Siw; Stjernstrom, Else; Vedoy, Gunn

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify what counts as successful school leadership within a Norwegian context. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses multi-site case study methods as a methodological approach. In selecting cases the first strategy included schools appointed as "good practice schools" by the Ministry of Education and Research.…

  7. Field development projects advance in Norwegian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Vielvoye, R.

    1992-03-30

    This paper reports on the Norwegian Sea, lying between the Norwegian North Sea and the western flank of the Barents Sea, which is set to become Norway's second oil and gas producing province. Oil is scheduled to start to flow near the end of next year when AS Norske Shell places on production 428 million bbl Draugen field in Block 6407/9, about 60 miles off the coast of mid-Norway in the frontier sea area known as Haltenbanken. Two years later, in 1995, Norske Conoco AS will add to the 95,000 b/d from Draugen when it commissions the world's first concrete hull tension leg platform (TLP) in Heidrun field. The TLP is expected to produce 200,000 b/d of oil and move associated gas by pipeline to the Norwegian mainland to feed a worldscale methanol plant planned for construction at Tjeldbergodden. The Norwegian government also has been asked to approve a gas pipeline link between Haltenbanken and the gas export infrastructure in the North Sea.

  8. Norwegian Superintendents as Mediators of Change Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Jan Merok

    2014-01-01

    The underlying theoretical argument in this article views municipal school superintendents in the Nordic context as middle managers in organizational theory terminology. Empirical support for this discussion emerges from national data collected among Norwegian school superintendents in 2009. Findings show that the actual work and leadership…

  9. Being "Neutral"? English Pronunciation among Norwegian Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindal, Ulrikke; Piercy, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the pronunciation of English among Norwegian adolescents by applying sociolinguistic methods in a second language context. Results from an auditory analysis of seven phonological variables show a blended use of linguistic features from American English and British English, with some additional pronunciations, forming a…

  10. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-11-20

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  11. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    G. Wiltsee.

    1999-01-21

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories (wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  12. Cary Woods Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havens, Glenda

    1994-01-01

    Describes the school reading program at Cary Woods Elementary School (in Auburn, Alabama), one of several school reading programs designated by the International Reading Association as exemplary. (SR)

  13. Wood Dust Exposure and Risk of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, Parveen; Newcomer, Laura; Onstad, Lynn; Teschke, Kay; Camp, Janice; Morgan, Michael; Vaughan, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Despite the compelling association between wood dust and sinonasal cancer, there has been little systematic and rigorous study of the relationship between wood dust and lung cancer. We investigated whether a history of exposure to wood dust through occupational and hobby-related activities was associated with increased lung cancer risk. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study, with 440 cases, identified from 1993 to 1996 through the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Cancer Surveillance System for western Washington State, and 845 age-matched controls, identified by random-digit dialing. Using detailed work and personal histories, quantitative estimates of cumulative exposure to wood dust (thought to be primarily from softwood) were calculated for each participant. Using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age and smoking status, risk of lung cancer was examined in relation to employment in wood-related occupations, working with wood as a hobby, as well as cumulative wood dust exposure that took into account both occupational and hobby-related sources. Results While we observed an increased risk of lung cancer associated with working in a sawmill (OR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.1), we found no evidence of increased risks with other occupations, working with wood as a hobby or with estimated cumulative exposure to wood dust (OR = 0.9; 95% CI: 0.6, 1.3, for highest compared to lowest quartile of exposure). Contrary to our hypothesis, we observed modest non-significant decreased risks with exposure to wood dust, although no dose-response relationship was apparent. Conclusions This study provided somewhat reassuring evidence that softwood dust does not increase the risk of lung cancer, but future studies should closely evaluate exposure to hardwood dusts. Suggestive evidence for an inverse association may be attributable to the presence of endotoxin in the wood dust, but the lack of a dose-response relationship suggests a non

  14. Chemical and physical characterization of emissions from birch wood combustion in a wood stove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedberg, Emma; Kristensson, Adam; Ohlsson, Michael; Johansson, Christer; Johansson, Per-Åke; Swietlicki, Erik; Vesely, Vaclav; Wideqvist, Ulla; Westerholm, Roger

    wood smoke would be about 40% of B(a)P.

  15. How James Wood Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

  16. Smoke detection

    DOEpatents

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-10-27

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  17. Smoke detection

    DOEpatents

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2016-09-06

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  18. Smoking and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... 28, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 803 Smoking and HIV WHY IS SMOKING MORE DANGEROUS FOR ... It can also worsen liver problems like hepatitis. Smoking and Side Effects People with HIV who smoke ...

  19. Stop smoking support programs

    MedlinePlus

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... also provide ongoing support for staying away from tobacco. Be wary of programs that: Are short and ...

  20. Smoke generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. R. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A smoke generator is disclosed which is particularly suitable for mounting on the wing tips of an aircraft and for conducting airflow studies. The device includes a network of thermally insulated tubes for carrying a fluid which is used to produce smoke. The fluid, which need not be combustible, is heated above its vaporization temperature by electric current which is passed through the fluid conduit tubes, so that the tubes serve both as fluid conduits and resistance heating elements. Fluid supply and monitoring systems and electrical control systems are also disclosed.

  1. Smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Rennard, Stephen I; Daughton, David M

    2014-03-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. It is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the developed world. Smoking is a chronic relapsing disease. Optimal treatment includes nonpharmacologic support, together with pharmacotherapy. All clinicians should be comfortable with the use of nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, and varenicline. Second-line therapies can be used by those familiar with their use. Effective use of these medications requires their integration into an effective management plan, which is likely to be a long-term undertaking, involving several cycles of remission and relapse. PMID:24507844

  2. Smoke Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  3. Smoking and smoking cessation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Murin, Susan; Rafii, Rokhsara; Bilello, Kathryn

    2011-03-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is among the leading preventable causes of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Smoking prevalence among young women is the primary determinant of smoking prevalence during pregnancy. Smoking among women of childbearing age is associated with reduced fertility, increased complications of pregnancy, and a variety of adverse fetal outcomes. There is increasing evidence of lasting adverse effects on offspring. Guidelines for smoking cessation during pregnancy have been developed. This article reviews the epidemiology of smoking during pregnancy, the adverse effects of smoking on the mother, fetus, and offspring, and recommended approaches to smoking cessation for pregnant women. PMID:21277451

  4. On the origin of the Norwegian lemming.

    PubMed

    Lagerholm, Vendela K; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Ehrich, Dorothee; Abramson, Natalia I; Nadachowski, Adam; Kalthoff, Daniela C; Germonpré, Mietje; Angerbjörn, Anders; Stewart, John R; Dalén, Love

    2014-04-01

    The Pleistocene glacial cycles resulted in significant changes in species distributions, and it has been discussed whether this caused increased rates of population divergence and speciation. One species that is likely to have evolved during the Pleistocene is the Norwegian lemming (Lemmus lemmus). However, the origin of this species, both in terms of when and from what ancestral taxon it evolved, has been difficult to ascertain. Here, we use ancient DNA recovered from lemming remains from a series of Late Pleistocene and Holocene sites to explore the species' evolutionary history. The results revealed considerable genetic differentiation between glacial and contemporary samples. Moreover, the analyses provided strong support for a divergence time prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), therefore likely ruling out a postglacial colonization of Scandinavia. Consequently, it appears that the Norwegian lemming evolved from a small population that survived the LGM in an ice-free Scandinavian refugium.

  5. Tanker spills Norwegian crude oil off Shetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-11

    This paper reports that crude oil was spilling last week from the U.S. owned Braer tanker after the 89,000 dwt vessel ran aground on the south end of Scotland's Shetland Islands. Workers were trying to assess the extent of damage to the tanker, shoreline, and wildlife after the January 5 accident. Braer's cargo amounted to 607,000 bbl of Norwegian oil bound for Canada. Braer loaded its cargo and sailed January 3 from Den norske stats oljeselskap AS's Mongstad, Norway, terminal with crude from Gullfaks field in the Norwegian North Sea. The $11 million shipment was destined for Ultramar Canada Inc.'s 125,000 b/d refinery at St. Romuald, Que.

  6. The Norwegian Sounding Rocket and Balloon Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skatteboe, Rolf

    2001-08-01

    The status and recent developments of the Norwegian Sounding Rocket and Balloon Program are presented with focus on national activities and recent achievements. The main part of the Norwegian program is sounding rocket launches conducted by Andøya Rocket Range from the launch facilities on Andøya and at Svalbard. For the majority of the programs, the scientific goal is investigation of processes in the middle and upper atmosphere. The in situ measurements are supplemented by a large number of ground-based support instruments located at the ALOMAR Observatory. The ongoing and planned projects are described and the highlights of the latest completed projects are given. The scientific program for the period 2001-2003 will be reviewed. Several new programs have been started to improve the services available to the international science comunity. The Hotel Payload project and MiniDusty are important examples that will be introduced in the paper. Available space related infrastructure is summarized.

  7. Written Language Shift among Norwegian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özerk, Kamil; Todal, Jon

    2013-01-01

    In Norway there are two written Norwegian languages, Bokmâl and Nynorsk. Of these two written languages Bokmâl is being used by the majority of the people, and Bokmâl has the highest prestige in the society. This article is about the shift of written language from Nynorsk to Bokmâl among young people in a traditional Nynorsk district in the…

  8. Iceberg scouring on the Norwegian continental shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Lien, R.

    1983-05-01

    This paper is a condensed version of parts of a Dr. ing. thesis to be presented during 1983. The first part of the paper deals with the regional distribution of iceberg scouring on the Norwegian continental shelf, and some general aspects related to it. The second part deals with iceberg scouring as a local phenomenon and its relation to the sea floor topography, sediment distribution, and geological and geotechnical properties of the sediments.

  9. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... about exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in these places: At work The workplace is a major source of SHS ... the only way to prevent SHS exposure at work. Separating smokers from non-smokers, cleaning ... public places Everyone can be exposed to SHS in public ...

  10. Attitudes toward smoking and smoking rate: implications for smoking discouragement.

    PubMed

    Dawley, H H; Fleischer, B J; Dawley, L T

    1985-03-01

    Attitudes toward smoking were measured among nonsmokers and five levels of smokers (light to heavy). Of 13 attitude items, a relationship between attitudes and number of cigarettes smoked was found to exist in five, three of which dealt with smoking as a health risk. The results suggest that the more cigarettes a person smokes, the greater the likelihood of denial of the health hazards associated with smoking.

  11. A cytogenetic and haematological investigation of oil exposed workers in a Norwegian cable manufacturing company.

    PubMed Central

    Skyberg, K; Hansteen, I L; Jelmert, O; Rønneberg, A

    1989-01-01

    Cytogenetic and haematological parameters were studied in 31 oil exposed workers and 31 office workers matched for age and smoking, all men employed by a Norwegian cable manufacturing company. Information was obtained about tobacco and alcohol consumption, infections, allergies, chronic diseases, use of medicines, and exposure to radiography. A decrease in the absolute lymphocyte counts was observed in the most heavily exposed subgroup (p less than 0.05) but no other significant differences were found between exposed workers and referents. The influence of non-occupational variables on the cytogenetic parameters was studied by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis. The frequency of sister chromatid exchanges appeared to be influenced by smoking history (p less than 0.05) and season of sampling (p less than 0.01) and, if season was excluded, by age (p less than 0.05) and current smoking (p less than 0.05). The number of cells with chromosomal aberrations increased with age (p less than 0.05) and lymphocyte count (p less than 0.05), whereas the frequency of stable rearrangements was negatively correlated with current smoking (p less than 0.01). PMID:2590644

  12. First drilling in Norwegian sea off Norway yields encouraging results

    SciTech Connect

    Bergsager, E.

    1981-06-08

    Three exploratory wells drilled in the Norwegian Sea penetrated Jurassic sandstones with excellent reservoir qualities, rich source rock, and some evidence of hydrocarbons. Constituting the first wells drilled north of the 62nd parallel off Norway, they produced encouraging evidence of prospective structures. The Norwegian continental shelf north of the North Sea contains areas of thick sedimentary basins having an areal extent 8-9 times that of the Norwegian North Sea.

  13. Norne tests new Norwegian development technologies, philosophies

    SciTech Connect

    Adlam, J. )

    1994-08-01

    The world's largest ship-shaped floating production facility will mine hydrocarbons trapped below 1,246-ft, harsh Norwegian waters at the Norne field. An innovative development philosophy involving functional specifications and life-of-field bench marking will ensure costs and lead time to first oil are minimized. The Block 6608/10 Norne field is the largest discovery on the Norwegian continental shelf in more than a decade. The field extends for 6.2 miles, is 1.24 miles wide and sits 124 miles west of the mid-Norway coast in 1,246-ft waters. Well No. 6608/10-2 first penetrated the Norne reservoir in December 1991. Appraisal well 6608/10-3 was drilled in 1993 and proved the field's northerly extension. Based on results from those two wells, a development project began last year. To improve project economics and company performance, a clear objective was established to reduce investment costs by 25%--30% compared to the current established level in Norway. The Norne organization is working on a Plan for Development and Operation to be submitted to Norwegian authorities later this year so that final approval can be obtained in early 1995.

  14. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010–2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future. PMID:27649236

  15. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Norwegian Adults.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Beverages may be important contributors for energy intake and dietary quality. The purpose of the study was to investigate how beverage consumption varies between different meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper/evening meal, snacks) and between weekdays and weekend-days in Norwegian adults. A cross-sectional dietary survey was conducted among Norwegian adults (n = 1787) in 2010-2011. Two telephone-administered 24 h recalls were used for dietary data collection. Breakfast was the most important meal for milk and juice consumption, dinner for sugar-sweetened beverages and wine, and snacks for water, coffee, artificially sweetened beverages, and beer. Consumption of sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverages did not differ between weekdays and weekend-days among consumers. The average intake of wine and beer (men only) was higher on weekend-days. Higher age was positively associated with wine consumption and negatively associated with consumption of water, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened beverages. Higher education was associated with consumption of water, beer, and wine, whereas lower education was associated with sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Beverage consumption patterns among Norwegian adults vary between different meal types and in subgroups of the population. Alcohol consumption was higher on weekend-days. Knowledge regarding beverage consumption patterns in the population should be considered when revising dietary guidelines in the future. PMID:27649236

  16. Breivik--the Norwegian terrorist case.

    PubMed

    Syse, Aslak

    2014-01-01

    On July 22, 2011, there were two murderous attacks in Norway. Both assaults - the bombing of governmental buildings in Oslo City center and the lethal shooting down of young members of the Labour Party on an island - were planned and accomplished by a lone perpetrator. These episodes give rise to several interesting questions. What happened really, and how could it happen? Was the perpetrator sane or insane? What was the ideological background for the attacks? It is unnecessary to discuss in any detail whether or not these acts should be categorized as terrorism. However, there is good reason to consider what these terror attacks imply for Norwegian society at large. What significance did the attacks have for Norwegian democracy, and did they have any impact on the 2013 parliamentary elections? What will be the future for the offender, both in the short term and in years to come? What will happen to the Norwegian insanity defense? These questions are addressed in this article. PMID:24757013

  17. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; Trojanowski, R.; Wei, G.

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  18. Wood's Lamp Examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... dermatologists to assist in the diagnosis of various pigment and infectious disorders. The examination is performed in ... lamp. If a fungal or bacterial infection or pigment disorder is present, Wood's lamp examination can strengthen ...

  19. Impact Tests for Woods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    Although it is well known that the strength of wood depends greatly upon the time the wood is under the load, little consideration has been given to this fact in testing materials for airplanes. Here, results are given of impact tests on clear, straight grained spruce. Transverse tests were conducted for comparison. Both Izod and Charpy impact tests were conducted. Results are given primarily in tabular and graphical form.

  20. Smoke Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the photo, Fire Chief Jay Stout of Safety Harbor, Florida, is explaining to young Richard Davis the workings of the Honeywell smoke and fire detector which probably saved Richard's life and that of his teen-age brother. Alerted by the detector's warning, the pair were able to escape their burning home. The detector in the Davis home was one of 1,500 installed in Safety Harbor residences in a cooperative program conducted by the city and Honeywell Inc.

  1. Growing with wood waste

    SciTech Connect

    White, K.M.

    1995-05-01

    When officials at Regional Waste Services (Peabody, Mass.) were looking for an outlet for their used wood products in the late 1980s, they had no idea that the material would eventually turn into a whole new market for them. Simply tired of paying exorbitant disposal fees and seeking out obscure landfills willing to accept the waste, company officials decided to build and operate their own 1,000-tpd wood recycling facility. Encouraged by the immediate success of the facility, principals at Regional Waste Services, which at the time was the fifth largest independent waste hauling, transfer, and disposal firm in the US made a strategic business decision to sell their waste hauling business and to concentrate on the wood recycling operation full time. Their newly named company, Wood Recycling, Inc. (WRI, Peabody, Mass.), was officially established in July 1990. Today, nearly five years later, that decision appears to be paying off in a big way. WRI has successfully diverted thousands of tons of urban wood wastes from landfills. It also has turned that waste into an innovative line of recycled wood and paper fiber mulch lawn care products that are being marketed to consumers and commercial entities across the country.

  2. Numeracy Activities within VOX: The Norwegian Institute for Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvalo, Svein

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces Vox, Norwegian Institute for Adult Learning, an agency of the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research that focuses mainly on improving basic skills in the adult population in the areas of literacy, numeracy and the use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT). Vox is responsible for curriculum…

  3. Habitat of hydrocarbons on the Norwegian continental shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The text attempts to synthesize the details of specific Norwegian finds into a regional framework which not only will be an essential reference documentation for explorationists in the Norwegian sector, but also will provide valuable insights into the variety of habitats of oil and gas accumulations in a global context.

  4. Topicality and Complexity in the Acquisition of Norwegian Object Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderssen, Merete; Bentzen, Kristine; Rodina, Yulia

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the acquisition of object shift in Norwegian child language. We show that object shift is complex derivationally, distributionally, and referentially, and propose a new analysis in terms of IP-internal topicalization. The results of an elicited production study with 27 monolingual Norwegian-speaking children (ages…

  5. New Norwegian HSE standard for the offshore industry

    SciTech Connect

    Huse, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    NORSOK (The competitive standing of the Norwegian offshore sector) is the Norwegian industry initiative to add value, reduce cost and lead time and remove unnecessary activities in offshore field developments and operations. The NORSOK standards are developed by the Norwegian petroleum industry as a part of the NORSOK initiative and are jointly issued by the Norwegian Oil Industry Association and the Federation of Norwegian Engineering Industries. The purpose of the industry standard is to replace the individual oil company specifications for use in existing and future petroleum industry developments, subject to the individual company`s review and application. The NORSOK Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) standards covers: Technical Safety, Working Environment, Environmental Care, HSE during Construction. The standards are now being used in ongoing offshore development projects, and the experience with standards shows that the principle aim is being met. The development of standards continues, implementing experience gained.

  6. Smoking and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Smoking and infertility Can smoking affect my ability to have a ... smoke do not conceive as efficiently as nonsmokers. Infertility rates in both male and female smokers are ...

  7. Smoking and Youth

    MedlinePlus

    Smoking cigarettes has many health risks for everyone. However, the younger you are when you start smoking, the more problems it can cause. People who start smoking before the age of 21 have the hardest ...

  8. Cigar Smoking and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... there harmful chemicals in cigar smoke? Do cigars cause cancer and other diseases? What if I don’t ... to yourself and others, stop smoking. Do cigars cause cancer and other diseases? Yes. Cigar smoking causes cancer ...

  9. [Environmental and health impacts of wood combustion to produce heat and power].

    PubMed

    Valerio, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Toxic chemicals such as benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and ultra fine particles were found in the smoke produced by wood combustion. Emission factors confirm that, to produce the same energy amount, many more pollutants are emitted by wood than by natural gas. Biomass burning produces a relevant deterioration of air quality inside and outside houses, notably due to emissions of fine and ultra fine dust (PM10, PM2.5) according to reviewed studies. Important improvements in emission quality are obtained with the use of more efficient household heating systems, both in developed and in developing countries. Numerous studies have assessed the possible health effects produced by wood smoke, providing sufficient evidence that the indoor exposure to wood smoke, even in developed countries, can have adverse effects on human health. In 2010 IARC classified wood smoke as a possible human carcinogen. In Europe, electricity generation from biomass combustion is increasing (12% each year) thanks to incentives provided to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and use of fossil fuels.Today adequate studies to assess the environmental and health effects of emissions from power plants fuelled by solid biomasses are still needed. PMID:22418798

  10. Promoting coordination in Norwegian health care1

    PubMed Central

    Romøren, Tor Inge; Torjesen, Dag Olaf; Landmark, Brynjar

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The Norwegian health care system is well organized within its two main sectors—primary health and long-term care on the one hand, and hospitals and specialist services on the other. However, the relation between them lacks mediating structures. Policy practice Enhancing coordination between primary and secondary health care has been central in Norwegian health care policy in the last decade. In 2003 a committee was appointed to identify coordination problems and proposed a lot of practical and organisational recommendations. It relied on an approach challenging primary and secondary health care in shared geographical regions to take action. However, these proposals were not implemented. In 2008 a new Minister of Health and Care worked out plans under the key term “Coordination Reform”. These reform plans superseded and expanded the previous policy initiatives concerning cooperation, but represented also a shift in focus to a regulative and centralised strategy, including new health legislation, structural reforms and use of economic incentives that are now about to be implemented. Discussion The article analyses the perspectives and proposals of the previous and the recent reform initiatives in Norway and discusses them in relation to integrated care measures implemented in Denmark and Sweden. PMID:22128282

  11. Teachers at War: Norwegian Teachers during the German Occupation of Norway 1940-45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunseath, Tessa

    2002-01-01

    States Norwegian Nazi leader, Vidkun Quisling, attempted to control dissenting Norwegian teachers by developing a compulsory union. Reports Nazi beliefs centered on controlling teachers, curriculum, and textbooks as a key to success. Notes Norwegian teachers' refusal to comply with the union scheme stymied Norwegian Nazi leaders' plans for…

  12. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  13. Photodegradation of thermally modified wood.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, Kavyashree; Pandey, Krishna K

    2012-12-01

    Natural wood, being biological material, undergoes rapid degradation by ultraviolet (UV) radiations and other environmental factors under outdoor exposure. In order to protect wood from such degradation, the chemical structure of wood is altered by chemical modification or heat treatment. In the present study, heat treated specimens of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) were exposed to xenon light source in a weather-o-meter for different periods up to 300 h. Photostability of modified and unmodified wood was evaluated in terms of colour and chemical changes. Light coloured untreated wood became dark upon UV irradiation whereas, dark colour of heat treated wood lightened on UV exposure. CIE lightness parameter (L(*)) decreased for untreated wood whereas its value increased for heat treated wood upon irradiation. Other colour coordinates a(*) and b(*) increased with exposure duration for both untreated and heat treated wood. The overall colour change (ΔE(*)) increased for both untreated and heat treated wood. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies revealed severe lignin degradation of heat treated wood due to UV light exposure. Colour changes and FTIR measurements indicate that thermal modification of wood was ineffective in restricting light induced colour changes and photodegradation of wood polymers.

  14. Structure fires, smoke production, and smoke alarms.

    PubMed

    Peck, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury causes severe morbidity and death. In the United States, the majority of fatalities from fire and burns occur because of inhalation of smoke. Medical treatment is only supportive; there is no known antidote to the damaging effects of smoke toxicants on pulmonary tissue. Without question, minimization of the morbidity and mortality that are caused by smoke inhalation is best accomplished by prevention of the injury. Effective prevention programs depend on a thorough and detailed understanding of the mechanism of damage caused by smoke, as well as of the available options for efficacious prevention. This summary presents details of smoke production from structure fires, the effects of smoke on physiology, and the devices currently in use to prevent damage and death from smoke. PMID:21785363

  15. Avalanches in Wood Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, T.; Miksic, A.; Ovaska, M.; Alava, Mikko J.

    2015-07-01

    Wood is a multiscale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power laws. The stress-strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using digital image correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free.

  16. Avalanches in Wood Compression.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, T; Miksic, A; Ovaska, M; Alava, Mikko J

    2015-07-31

    Wood is a multiscale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power laws. The stress-strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using digital image correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free.

  17. Avalanches in Wood Compression.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, T; Miksic, A; Ovaska, M; Alava, Mikko J

    2015-07-31

    Wood is a multiscale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power laws. The stress-strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using digital image correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free. PMID:26274428

  18. Nanotechnologies for the restoration of alum-treated archaeological wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriulo, Fabrizio; Braovac, Susan; Kutzke, Hartmut; Giorgi, Rodorico; Baglioni, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The project Saving Oseberg is funded by the Norwegian State with the aim to preserve the Viking Age wooden objects from the Oseberg burial mound. They were excavated in 1904 near Tønsberg, Norway, and many have been treated in the past with alum salts (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O). Alum was widely used during the early 1900s as a treatment for archaeological wood to prevent shrinkage and impart strength. In the 1990s, conservators observed an alarming condition of the objects. Initial investigations showed that the alum treatment has initiated a slow but ongoing deterioration process, attacking the wood for over 100 years. Today, the artefacts are highly acidic and have significantly reduced mechanical strength. In the last decade, the use of non-aqueous alkaline nanoparticle dispersions has provided successful results for the protection of cellulose-based materials. Alum-treated archaeological wood samples from Oseberg, with a pH ≤ 2, have been treated with alkaline nanoparticle dispersions, and the effects of the treatment have been evaluated by thermal analysis (TG-DTG), infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray microtomography (micro-CT) analyses. In this contribution, the preliminary results will be presented.

  19. Cancer incidence among members of the Norwegian trade union of insulation workers.

    PubMed

    Ulvestad, Bente; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Mowe, Gunnar; Andersen, Aage

    2004-01-01

    Insulation work has been described as an occupation with high exposure to asbestos. A cohort of members of the Norwegian Trade Union of Insulation Workers (n = 1116), hired between 1930 and 1975, was established. During 2002, the cohort was linked to the Cancer Registry of Norway. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of pleural mesothelioma was 12.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.0-24.6). Two cases with peritoneal mesotheliomas were found (SIR, 14.8; 95% CI = 1.8-53.4). The SIR of lung cancer was 3.0 (95% CI = 2.3-3.8). Four cases of lung cancer were observed among cork workers without any exposure to asbestos, but to cork dust and tar smoke (SIR, 5.3; 95% CI = 1.5-13.6). Our study showed a high risk of mesothelioma and an elevated risk of lung cancer among members of the Trade Union of Insulation Workers.

  20. Wood energy-commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  1. False "highlighting" with Wood's lamp.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2014-01-01

    Wood's lamp evaluation is used to diagnose pigmentary disorders. For example, vitiligo typically demonstrates lesional enhancement under Wood's lamp evaluation. Numerous false positive enhancing lesions can be noted in the skin. We describe a 5-year-old Hispanic boy who had painted his face with highlighter, producing enhancing lesions under Wood's lamp. Physicians who use Wood's lamp should be aware that the appearance of markers and highlighter can mimic that of true clinical illnesses.

  2. Hydrate problems in pipelines: A study from Norwegian continental waters

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, D.; Larsen, R.; Lund, A.; Thomsen, A.K.

    1995-12-31

    This study was undertaken by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate and SINTEF to identify hydrate problems occurring in pipelines on the Norwegian continental shelf. A brief review of hydrate dissociation theory is given. Three major techniques for hydrate removal are discussed, as well as hazards related to hydrate plug removal. Questionnaire answers from 15 companies operating in Norwegian waters show three specific occurrences of hydrate plugs in the North Sea. Problems from other geographical areas are also discussed. Hydrate problems are reported for a wide variety of pipe lengths, diameters, profiles, insulations characteristics and fluids. Most problems occur during normal operation.

  3. Assessing a Norwegian translation of the Organizational Climate Measure.

    PubMed

    Bernstrøm, Vilde Hoff; Lone, Jon Anders; Bjørkli, Cato A; Ulleberg, Pål; Hoff, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the Norwegian translation of the Organizational Climate Measure developed by Patterson and colleagues. The Organizational Climate Measure is a global measure of organizational climate based on Quinn and Rohrbaugh's competing values model. The survey was administered to a Norwegian branch of an international service sector company (N = 555). The results revealed satisfactory internal reliability and interrater agreement for the 17 scales, and confirmatory factor analysis supported the original factor structure. The findings gave preliminary support for the Organizational Climate Measure as a reliable measure with a stable factor structure, and indicated that it is potentially useful in the Norwegian context.

  4. Smoking in Movies and Adolescent Smoking Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D.; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Florek, Ewa; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies from the U.S. suggest a causal relationship between exposure to images of smoking in movies and adolescent smoking onset. Purpose This study investigates whether adolescent smoking onset is predicted by the amount of exposure to smoking in movies across six European countries with various cultural and regulatory approaches to tobacco. Methods Longitudinal survey of 9987 adolescent never-smokers recruited in the years 2009–2010 (mean age 13.2 years) in 112 state-funded schools from Germany, Iceland, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom (UK), and followed-up in 2011. Exposure to movie smoking was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were performed in 2012 to assess the relationship between exposure at baseline and smoking status at follow-up. Results During the observation period (M=12 months), 17% of the sample initiated smoking. The estimated mean exposure to on-screen tobacco was 1560 occurrences. Overall, and after controlling for age; gender; family affluence; school performance; TVscreen time; personality characteristics; and smoking status of peers, parents, and siblings, exposure to each additional 1000 tobacco occurrences increased the adjusted relative risk for smoking onset by 13% (95% CI=8%, 17%, p<0.001). The crude relationship between movie smoking exposure and smoking initiation was significant in all countries; after covariate adjustment, the relationship remained significant in Germany, Iceland, The Netherlands, Poland, and UK. Conclusions Seeing smoking in movies is a predictor of smoking onset in various cultural contexts. The results confirm that limiting young people’s exposure to movie smoking might be an effective way to decrease adolescent smoking onset. PMID:23498098

  5. Norwegian scabies in a renal transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Sampathkumar, K; Mahaldar, A R; Ramakrishnan, M; Prabahar, S

    2010-04-01

    A variety of skin infections are encountered in postrenal transplant setting. Though bacterial and fungal infections are more common, surprises are in store for us sometimes. We describe a patient who underwent renal transplant two years ago, presenting with a painless, mildly pruritic expanding skin rash over abdomen. Histological examination of the skin biopsy showed that stratum corneum had multiple burrows containing larvae and eggs of Sarcoptes scabiei. The patient was treated with ivermectin 12 mg weekly once for 2 doses along with topical 5% permethrin and permethrin soap bath. There was remarkable improvement in the skin lesions with complete resolution in two weeks. Norwegian or crusted scabies is caused by massive infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. It can be rarely encountered in the post-transplant setting, which underscores the importance of early diagnosis and treatment before secondary bacterial infection sets in. PMID:20835323

  6. Dental health practices in Norwegian adults.

    PubMed

    Helöe, L A; Aarö, L E; Sögaard, A J

    1982-12-01

    A nationwide sample of 1511 Norwegian adults were interviewed in 1979-80 concerning health habits, including dental habits. While daily toothbrushing and regular treatment attendance appeared to have become the rule among young and middle aged individuals, use of dental floss and especially of fluoride tablets or rinses, still are the exception. Dental health habits were clustered around the variable treatment attendance with slightly different patterns for men and for women. Measures of sugar consumptions were only slightly correlated with background variables and dental health behavior. While the latter was socially dependent, consumption of sugar probably was attached to personal characteristics or situational factors. The correlations between dental health behavior and other health behavior practices were generally weak, and somewhat different for men and women. Two separate types of motives for preventive behavior were distinguished between: health motives and cosmetic motives.

  7. Smoking and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Smoking and Pregnancy Smoking can cause problems for a woman trying to become pregnant or who is already pregnant, and for her baby ... too early • Pregnancy occurs outside of the womb Smoking causes these health effects. Smoking could cause these ...

  8. Smoking and Eye Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Health Apr. 14, 2014 Avoiding smoking and second hand smoke — or quitting if you are a smoker — are ... influence your eyes’ health. And tobacco smoke, including second-hand smoke, is an irritant that worsens dry eye , a ...

  9. Food safety practices among Norwegian consumers.

    PubMed

    Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Lavik, Randi; Ueland, Øydis; Jacobsen, Eivind; Hagtvedt, Therese; Langsrud, Solveig

    2013-11-01

    An informed consumer can compensate for several potential food safety violations or contaminations that may occur earlier in the food production chain. However, a consumer can also destroy the work of others in the chain by poor food handling practices, e.g., by storing chilled ready-to-eat foods at abusive temperatures. To target risk-reducing strategies, consumer groups with high-risk behavior should be identified. The aim of this study was to identify demographic characteristics associated with high-risk food handling practices among Norwegian consumers. More than 2,000 randomly selected Norwegian consumers were surveyed, and the results were analyzed with a risk-based grading system, awarding demerit points for self-reported food safety violations. The violations were categorized into groups, and an ordinary multiple linear regression analysis was run on the summarized demerit score for each group and for the entire survey group as a whole. Young and elderly men were identified as the least informed consumer groups with the most unsafe practices regarding food safety. Single persons reported poorer practices than those in a relationship. People with higher education reported poorer practices than those with lower or no education, and those living in the capital of Norway (Oslo) reported following more unsafe food practices than people living elsewhere in Norway. Men reported poorer food safety practices than women in all categories with two exceptions: parboiling raw vegetables before consumption and knowledge of refrigerator temperature. These findings suggest that risk-reducing measures should target men, and a strategy is needed to change their behavior and attitudes.

  10. Food safety practices among Norwegian consumers.

    PubMed

    Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Lavik, Randi; Ueland, Øydis; Jacobsen, Eivind; Hagtvedt, Therese; Langsrud, Solveig

    2013-11-01

    An informed consumer can compensate for several potential food safety violations or contaminations that may occur earlier in the food production chain. However, a consumer can also destroy the work of others in the chain by poor food handling practices, e.g., by storing chilled ready-to-eat foods at abusive temperatures. To target risk-reducing strategies, consumer groups with high-risk behavior should be identified. The aim of this study was to identify demographic characteristics associated with high-risk food handling practices among Norwegian consumers. More than 2,000 randomly selected Norwegian consumers were surveyed, and the results were analyzed with a risk-based grading system, awarding demerit points for self-reported food safety violations. The violations were categorized into groups, and an ordinary multiple linear regression analysis was run on the summarized demerit score for each group and for the entire survey group as a whole. Young and elderly men were identified as the least informed consumer groups with the most unsafe practices regarding food safety. Single persons reported poorer practices than those in a relationship. People with higher education reported poorer practices than those with lower or no education, and those living in the capital of Norway (Oslo) reported following more unsafe food practices than people living elsewhere in Norway. Men reported poorer food safety practices than women in all categories with two exceptions: parboiling raw vegetables before consumption and knowledge of refrigerator temperature. These findings suggest that risk-reducing measures should target men, and a strategy is needed to change their behavior and attitudes. PMID:24215699

  11. Partial transparency of compressed wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Sugimori, Masatoshi

    2016-05-01

    We have developed novel wood composite with optical transparency at arbitrary region. Pores in wood cells have a great variation in size. These pores expand the light path in the sample, because the refractive indexes differ between constituents of cell and air in lumen. In this study, wood compressed to close to lumen had optical transparency. Because the condition of the compression of wood needs the plastic deformation, wood was impregnated phenolic resin. The optimal condition for high transmission is compression ratio above 0.7.

  12. Maternal Active and Passive Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Stephanie M.; Scher, Erica; Wallenstein, Sylvan; Savitz, David A.; Alsaker, Elin R.; Trogstad, Lill; Magnus, Per

    2014-01-01

    Background The inverse association between prenatal smoking and preeclampsia is puzzling, given the increased risks of prematurity and low birthweight associated with both smoking and preeclampsia. We analyzed the Norwegian Mother and Child Birth Cohort (MoBa) to determine whether the associations varied by timing of prenatal smoking. Methods We conducted an analysis of 74,439 singleton pregnancies with completed second- and third- trimester questionnaires. Active and passive smoke exposure by trimester were determined by maternal self-report, and covered the period of preconception through approximately 30 weeks’ gestation. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results Rates of active smoking declined dramatically during pregnancy: for trimester 1, 23%; trimester 2, 9%; and trimester 3, 8%. Active smoking in the third trimester was associated with reduced odds of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension, with the strongest association among continuous smokers (for preeclampsia, OR = 0.57 [95% CI = 0.46–0.70]). Women who quit smoking before the third trimester had approximately the same risk of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension as nonsmokers. There was some evidence of dose-response, with the heaviest smokers (more than eight cigarettes per day) having the lowest risks of preeclampsia (0.48 [0.32–0.73]) and gestational hypertension (0.51 [0.28–0.95]). There was little evidence of an association with passive smoking exposure. Conclusion The association between smoking and preeclampsia varies substantially according to the timing and intensity of exposure. A better understanding of the biologic pathways that underlie these associations may provide important clues to the etiology of preeclampsia and the development of effective clinical interventions. PMID:23429405

  13. Permian of Norwegian-Greenland sea margins: future exploration target

    SciTech Connect

    Surlyk, F.; Hurst, J.M.; Piasecki, S.; Rolle, F.; Stemmerik, L.; Thomsen, E.; Wrang, P.

    1984-09-01

    Oil and gas exploration in the northern North Sea and the southern Norwegian shelf has mainy been concentrated on Jurassic and younger reservoirs with Late Jurassic black shale source rocks. New onshore investigations in Jameson Land, central East Greenland, suggest that the Permian of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea margins contains relatively thick sequences of potential oil source rocks interbedded with carbonate reefs. The East Greenland, Upper Permian marine basin is exposed over a length of 400 km (250 mi) from Jameson Land in the south to Wollaston Forland in the north, parallel with the continental margin. The Upper Permian black shale is relatively thick, widely distributed, has a high organic carbon content, and a favorable kerogen type. Consequently, the possibilities for a Permian play in the northern part of the Norwegian shelf and along parts of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea margins are worth evaluating.

  14. World's largest TLP moves onto deepwater Norwegian location

    SciTech Connect

    Vielvoye, R.

    1992-05-04

    This paper reports that the world's largest and most sophisticated tension leg platform (TLP) was floated out to Snorre oil field in the Norwegian North Sea last month. The 78,000 ton unit built by Norwegian independent, Sega Petroleum AS, Oslo, was installed in the southern part of block 34/7 and should produce first oil in August, about a month ahead of schedule.

  15. The impact of wood stove technology upgrades on indoor residential air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Ryan W.; Leckie, Sara; Millar, Gail; Brauer, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) air pollution has been linked to adverse health impacts, and combustion sources including residential wood-burning may play an important role in some regions. Recent evidence suggests that indoor air quality may improve in homes where older, non-certified wood stoves are exchanged for lower emissions EPA-certified alternatives. As part of a wood stove exchange program in northern British Columbia, Canada, we sampled outdoor and indoor air at 15 homes during 6-day sampling sessions both before and after non-certified wood stoves were exchanged. During each sampling session two consecutive 3-day PM 2.5 samples were collected onto Teflon filters, which were weighed and analyzed for the wood smoke tracer levoglucosan. Residential PM 2.5 infiltration efficiencies ( Finf) were estimated from continuous light scattering measurements made with nephelometers, and estimates of Finf were used to calculate the outdoor- and indoor-generated contributions to indoor air. There was not a consistent relationship between stove technology and outdoor or indoor concentrations of PM 2.5 or levoglucosan. Mean Finf estimates were low and similar during pre- and post-exchange periods (0.32 ± 0.17 and 0.33 ± 0.17, respectively). Indoor sources contributed the majority (˜65%) of the indoor PM 2.5 concentrations, independent of stove technology, although low indoor-outdoor levoglucosan ratios (median ≤ 0.19) and low indoor PM 2.5-levoglucosan correlations ( r ≤ 0.19) suggested that wood smoke was not a major indoor PM 2.5 source in most of these homes. In summary, despite the potential for extensive wood stove exchange programs to reduce outdoor PM 2.5 concentrations in wood smoke-impacted communities, we did not find a consistent relationship between stove technology upgrades and indoor air quality improvements in homes where stoves were exchanged.

  16. Lump wood combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  17. Wood-burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Squires, W.

    1983-09-06

    A wood-burning stove includes side walls joined together in an airtight manner to form a firebox and a heat chamber thereabove. The firebox contains upstanding rails to support wood logs for combustion. Streams of heated air are discharged from a manifold that extends from rail-to-rail outwardly from one terminal end of each rail between opposite side walls of the stove. A plate is adjusted to control the flow of air into the manifold. An access door has openings in a spacer side wall for supplying air as desired to the firebox. The spacer walls of the door support a glass panel at an outwardly spaced location from a deflector to prevent deposits of creosote and other materials on the glass.

  18. Out of the woods.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J L

    1992-01-01

    Throughout Africa, Asia and Latin America women are pushed out of forests and from their maintenance by governments and private interests for cash crop development disregarding the role of women in conserving forests. In developing countries forests are a source of wood for fuel; 60-80% of women gather wood for family needs in America. Fruits, vegetables, and nuts gathered in woods enhance their diet. Indonesian women pick bananas, mangos, guavas, and avocados from trees around their homes; in Senegal shea-nut butter is made from a local tree fruit to be sold for cash. Women provide labor also in logging, wood processing, and tree nurseries. They make charcoal and grow seedlings for sale. In India 40% of forest income and 75% of forest products export earnings are derived from nonwood resources. Poor, rural women make items out of bamboo, rattan, and rope to sell: 48% of women in an Egyptian province make a living through such activities. In India 600,000 women harvest tendu leaves for use as wrappings for cigarettes. The expansion of commercial tree plantations replacing once communal natural forests has forced poor households to spend up to 4-% of their income on fuel that they used to find in forests. Tribal women in India know the medicinal uses of 300 forest species, and women in Sierra Leone could name 31 products they obtained or made from trees and bushes, while men named only 8 items. Only 1 forestry project appraised by the World Bank during 1984-97 named women as beneficiaries, and only 1 out of 33 rural development programs funded by the World Bank did. Women provide food, fuel, and water for their families in subsistence economies, they know sustainable methods of forestry, yet they are not included in development programs whose success or failure could hinge on more attention to women's contribution and on more equity.

  19. Wood burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Allaire, R.A.; Vandewoestine, R.V.

    1982-08-24

    Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove employing a combustion chamber and a flue in communication therewith for removal of exhaust from the chamber with a catalytic converter means being movably mounted in the flue whereby the impedance presented to the exhaust by the converter may be selectively varied so as to minimize the impedance presented by the converter means when additional fuel is added to the stove.

  20. Wood Composite Adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  1. Self-feeding wood burning heating unit

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, W.T.

    1982-10-26

    A wood burning heating unit capable of being stoked for continuous or extended burning, and of achieving effective combustion of volatiles contained in the smoke is provided. The stove body, a generally cylindrical casing, is supported so that its axis is substantially horizontal. A baffle divides the casing into a fire box or combustion chamber and an exhaust chamber which functions as a heat exchanger. The exhaust chamber is vented to the outside atmosphere by an exhaust conduit or flue pipe. A pair of elongate, fuel feed conduits extend downwardly and inwardly into the fire box or combustion chamber, so that respective, generally upstanding columns of logs can be formed in the fuel feeding conduits with the lower ends of the wood log columns contacting each other to define and limit the area of combustion in the fire box. Manifold means is provided for drawing combustion air from outside the stove body, passing the air through a heat exchange area in the manifold adjacent to the combustion zone for preheating the combustion air, and then supplying the heated air into proximity of the contact between the two columns of logs.

  2. Heat flow of the Norwegian continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial heat flow influences a large collection of geological processes. Its determination is a requirement to assess the economic potential of deep sedimentary basins. Published heat flow calculations from e.g. major oil provinces are however seldom. Robust heat flow determinations in drillholes require logging of undisturbed temperatures and intensive sampling of core material for petrophysical measurements. Temperature logging in exploration drillholes is traditionally conducted during drill breaks or shortly after drilling, resulting in temperatures severely disturbed by mud circulation and coring is restricted to selected intervals. Alternatively, test temperatures, information from electric logs and lithological descriptions of drill cuttings can be used to overcome these limitations. The present contribution introduces new heat flow determinations based on 63 exploration drillholes from the Norwegian North Sea, the Mid Norway Margin and the Barents Shelf. Our analyses are based on released DST temperatures, precise lithological descriptions of drill cuttings, previously measured rock matrix thermal conductivities and established porosity laws. Our results suggest median heat flow values of 64 mW/m2, 65 mW/m2 and 72 mW/m2 for the North Sea, the Mid Norway Margin (mainly the Trøndelag Platform) and the SW Barents Shelf respectively. The Barents Shelf shows significantly high heat flow, suggesting lateral transfer of heat from the mantle of the adjacent young ocean. In detail, heat flow increases by ~ 10 mW/m2 from the southern Norwegian North Sea towards the Mid Norway Margin. This result appears to be in very good agreement with seismic tomographic studies suggesting northward thinning of the underlying mantle lithosphere. Our results together with published marine heat flow data from the Mid Norway Margin suggest a gradual decrease in heat flow levels from both the North Sea and the Trøndelag Platform towards the centres of the deep Møre and V

  3. Heat Flow of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, C.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial heat flow determination is of prime interest for oil industry because it impacts directly maturation histories and economic potential of oil fields. Published systematic heat flow determinations from major oil provinces are however seldom. Robust heat flow determinations in drillholes require logging of undisturbed temperatures and intensive sampling of core material for petrophysical measurements. Temperature logging in exploration drillholes is traditionally conducted during drill breaks or shortly after drilling, resulting in temperatures severely disturbed by mud circulation and coring is restricted to selected intervals. Alternatively, test temperatures, information from electric logs and lithological descriptions of drill cuttings can be used to overcome these limitations. The present contribution introduces new heat flow determinations based on 63 exploration drillholes from the Norwegian North Sea, the Mid Norway Margin and the Barents Shelf. Our analyses are based on released DST temperatures, precise lithological descriptions of drill cuttings, previously measured rock matrix thermal conductivities and established porosity laws. For the sake of comparison, we carefully review previous heat flow studies carried out both onshore and offshore Norway. Our results suggest median heat flow values of 64 mW/m2, 65 mW/m2 and 72 mW/m2 for the North Sea, the Mid Norway Margin (mainly the Trøndelag Platform) and the SW Barents Shelf respectively. In detail, heat flow increases by ~ 10 mW/m2 from the southern Norwegian North Sea towards the Mid Norway Margin. This result appears to be in very good agreement with seismic tomographic studies suggesting northward thinning of the underlying mantle lithosphere. Our results together with published marine heat flow data from the Mid Norway Margin suggest a gradual decrease in heat flow levels from both the North Sea and the Trøndelag Platform towards the centres of the deep Møre and Vøring basins. This latter

  4. Chemical composition of particles from traditional burning of Pakistani wood species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Imran; Kistler, Magdalena; Mukhtar, Azam; Ramirez-Santa Cruz, Carlos; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    2015-11-01

    Total particulate matter (TPM) emitted during burning of three types of Pakistani wood (eucalyptus camaldulensis, local name Safeeda; acacia nilotica, local name Kikar, Babul; dalbergia sissoo, Shisham, Tali) in a traditional brick stove were collected and analyzed for anhydrosugars, sugar alcohols, trace metals, soluble ions and carbonaceous species. This is a first study reporting anhydrosugars in wood smoke particles emitted during traditional burning of common wood types in Pakistan. Carbonaceous species showed the highest contribution to the particulate matter. Although the total carbon (TC) contribution was similar for all burnings (64.8-70.2%), the EC/OC ratio varied significantly, from 0.2 to 0.3 for Accacia and Dalbergia to 0.7-0.8 for Eucalyptus and Wood-mix. Among inorganic constituents potassium chloride and silicon were found at levels higher than 1%. The levoglucosan concentrations ranged from 3.0 to 6.6% (average 5.6%) with the highest value for Accacia and lowest value for the wood-mix. The high levoglucosan/mannosan ratios of 20-28 were typical for hardwood. The ratio between levoglucosan and galactosan varied stronger and was found to be around 13-20 for Accacia, Eucalyptus and Wood mix, and 43 for Dalbergia. The determined levoglucosan concentrations allowed assessing the conversion factor for calculation of biomass smoke contribution to ambient particulate matter levels in Pakistan.

  5. Smoke-induced seed germination in California chaparral

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    The California chaparral community has a rich flora of species with different mechanisms for cuing germination to postfire conditions. Heat shock triggers germination of certain species but has no stimulatory effect on a great many other postfire species that are chemically stimulated by combustion products. Previous reports have shown that charred wood will induce germination, and here we report that smoke also induces germination in these same species. Smoke is highly effective, often inducing 100% germination in deeply dormant seed populations with 0% control germination. Smoke induces germination both directly and indirectly by aqueous or gaseous transfer from soil to seeds. Neither nitrate nor ammonium ions were effective in stimulating germination of smoke-stimulated species, nor were most of the quantitatively important gases generated by biomass smoke. Nitrogen dioxide, however, was very effective at inducing germination in Caulanthus heterophyllus (Brassicaceae), Emmenanthe penduliflora (Hydrophyllaceae), Phacelia grandiflora (Hydrophyllaceae), and Silene multinervia (Caryophyllaceae). Three species, Dendromecon rigida (Papaveraceae), Dicentra chrysantha, and Trichostema lanatum (Lamiaceae), failed to germinate unless smoke treatment was coupled with prior treatment of 1 yr soil storage. Smoke-stimulated germination was found in 25 chaparral species, representing 11 families, none of which were families known for heat-shock-stimulated germination. Seeds of smoke-stimulated species have many analogous characteristics that separate them from most heat-shock-stimulated seeds, including: (1) outer seed coats that are highly textured, (2) a poorly developed outer cuticle, (3) absence of a dense palisade tissue in the seed coat, and (4) a subdermal membrane that is semipermeable, allowing water passage but blocking entry of large (molecular mass > 500) solutes. Tentative evidence suggests that permeability characteristics of this subdermal layer are altered by

  6. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  7. Family roles and smoking.

    PubMed

    Waldron, I; Lye, D

    1989-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationships of cigarette smoking and smoking histories to marital and parental status. Data from a large, representative sample of U.S. adults in 1985 were analyzed separately for white men, white women, black men, and black women, with controls for age, education, and marital status included in the analyses. Divorced and separated adults were the most likely to be current smokers or ever to have adopted smoking; currently married adults and widowed adults were intermediate; and never married adults were the least likely to be current smokers or ever to have adopted smoking. (There were some exceptions to these patterns for never married and widowed blacks). The differences in smoking adoption had begun during adolescence, before the usual age of marriage, which suggests that the differences in smoking, adoption were not caused by marriage or divorce. Rather, it appears that personal characteristics or early experiences influenced both the likelihood of smoking adoption and the likelihood of marriage or divorce. Currently married adults were more likely to have quit smoking than never married, divorced and separated, or widowed adults. It may be that the social support provided by marriage increases smoking cessation. In contrast to the strong relationships between marital status and smoking, relationships between parental status and smoking were relatively weak and variable. Among white women, mothers of preschoolers were less likely to be smokers than women without children. The mothers of preschoolers were more likely to have quit smoking, possibly as a result of increased smoking cessation during pregnancy.

  8. The Norwegian system of compensation to patients.

    PubMed

    Jørstad, Rolf Gunnar

    2002-01-01

    In Norway we have come to the conclusion that a traditional compensation law based on negligence is not the right "tool" for handling difficult questions as to whether or not a patient shall get compensation if required after medical treatment or other forms of contact with the medical profession. The compensation scheme established in 1988 involving the public sector of the Norwegian health care system has received almost 18000 claims since Jan 1 1988, and has paid out more than 1.2 billion NOK (137 million US$) in compensation during these years. At the same time, the number of compensation claims brought before the courts has decreased. After 13 years of a provisional scheme dealing with patient injury compensation based on no-fault rules, we find that compensation claims indeed can be handled without focus on blame and negligence, and that this ensures both that the patients get equitable compensation and that unnecessary legal procedures are avoided. The system also has had a favourable impact on interaction within the health care sector and upon relationships between health care personnel and patients.

  9. The Norwegian immunisation register--SYSVAK.

    PubMed

    Trogstad, L; Ung, G; Hagerup-Jenssen, M; Cappelen, I; Haugen, I L; Feiring, B

    2012-04-19

    The Norwegian immunisation register, SYSVAK, is a national electronic immunisation register. It became nationwide in 1995. The major aim was to register all vaccinations in the Childhood Immunisation Programme to ensure that all children are offered adequate vaccination according to schedule in the programme, and to secure high vaccination coverage. Notification to SYSVAK is mandatory, based on personal identification numbers. This allows follow up of individual vaccination schedules and linkage of SYSVAK data to other national health registers for information on outcome diagnoses, such as the surveillance system for communicable diseases. Information from SYSVAK is used to determine vaccine coverage in a timely manner. Coverage can be broken down to regional/local levels and used for active surveillance of vaccination coverage and decisions about interventions. During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic, an adaptation of SYSVAK enabled daily surveillance of vaccination coverage on national and regional levels. Currently, data from SYSVAK are used, among others, in studies on adverse events related to pandemic vaccination. Future challenges include maximising usage of collected data in surveillance and research, and continued improvement of data quality. Immunisation registers are rich sources for high quality surveillance of vaccination coverage, effectiveness, vaccine failure and adverse events, and gold mines for research.

  10. Teenagers and Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The Coalition on Smoking OR Health was established to coordinate education programs to discourage young people from smoking. Projects that could be undertaken by parent associations are suggested. (MT)

  11. Smart smoke alarm

    SciTech Connect

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-04-28

    Methods and apparatus for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a smoke detector uses linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to determine whether observed conditions indicate that an alarm is warranted.

  12. Up in Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews research on adolescent smoking and nicotine addiction. Finds, for example, that smoking is linked to depression. Describes five stages of nicotine addiction. Offers tips for prevention. (Contains 12 references.) (PKP)

  13. Smoking and surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Tar, nicotine, and other chemicals from smoking can increase your risk of many health problems. These include heart and ... Talk to your doctor about medicines, such as nicotine replacement and prescription medicines. If you join smoking ...

  14. Smoking and Bone Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... direct relationship between tobacco use and decreased bone density. Analyzing the impact of cigarette smoking on bone ... hard to determine whether a decrease in bone density is due to smoking itself or to other ...

  15. Factors Affecting Smoking Tendency and Smoking Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Nissim Ben; Zion, Uri Ben

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure the relative effect of relevant explanatory variable on smoking tendency and smoking intensity. Design/methodology/approach: Using survey data collected by the Israeli Bureau of Statistics in 2003-2004, a probit procedure is estimated for analyzing factors that affect the probability of being a…

  16. Up in smoke: I. Smoke-derived germination cues for postfire annual,Nicotiana attenuata torr. Ex. Watson.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, I T; Staszak-Kozinski, L; Davidson, R

    1994-09-01

    Some postfire annuals with dormant seeds use heat or chemical cues from charred wood to synchronize their germination with the postfire environment. We report that wood smoke and polar extracts of wood smoke, but not the ash of burned wood, contain potent cue(s) that stimulate germination in the postfire annual plant,Nicotiana attenuata. We examined the responses of seeds from six populations of plants from southwest Utah to extracts of smoke and found the proportion of viable seeds that germinated in the presence of smoke cues to vary between populations but to be consistent between generations. With the most dormant genotypes, we examine three mechanisms by which smoke-derived chemical cues may stimulate germination (chemical scarification of the seed coat and nutritive- and signal-mediated stimulation of germination) and report that the response is consistent with the signal-mediated mechanism. The germination cue(s) found in smoke are produced by the burning of hay, hardwood branches, leaves, and, to a lesser degree, cellulose. Moreover, the cues are found in the common food condiment, "liquid smoke," and we find no significant differences between brands. With a bioassay-driven fractionation of liquid smoke, we identified 71 compounds in active fractions by GC-MS and AA spectrometry. However, when these compounds were tested in pure form or in combinations that mimicked the composition of active fractions over a range of concentrations, they failed to stimulate germination to the same degree that smoke fractions did. Moreover, enzymatic oxidation of some of these compounds also failed to stimulate germination. In addition, we tested 43 additional compounds also reported from smoke, 85 compounds that were structurally similar to those reported from smoke and 34 compounds reported to influence germination in other species. Of the 233 compounds tested, 16 proved to inhibit germination at the concentrations tested, and none reproduced the activity of wood smoke. By

  17. Wood burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Allaire, R.A.; Pardue, W.F.; Vandewoestine, R.V.

    1982-05-18

    Disclosed herein is an improved wood burning stove employing a combustion chamber and a flue for removing exhaust therefrom and also a catalytic converter means for oxidizing oxidizable species in the exhaust. A passageway is provided for bypassing the exhaust around the catalytic converter means, the passageway being controlled by a bypass damper for controlling access to the passageway for varying impedance otherwise presented to the exhaust by the converter, for example, during the addition of fuel to the stove. Such an arrangement minimizes back pressure caused by the converter means.

  18. Wood burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Halchek, J.

    1984-09-18

    A wood burning stove having improved air flow characteristics for effective combustion and purging of gaseous combustion by-products. A primary air inlet is provided below the loading door of the stove for feeding air to the firebox proper for combustion. A plurality of opposing supplementary air inlets are provided in opposite sides of the stove, at least two of the supplementary inlets being on the level of the primary air inlet, for introducing air into the firebox supplemental to the air flow through the primary inlet.

  19. Wood burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, R.F.; Byrd, W.W.

    1980-01-08

    This is a stove primarily for the burning of wood, but also capable of burning other combustible materials. The stove is characterized by a unique combustion chamber, together with a recirculating combustion chamber and baffle for more perfect combustion and characterized by a heat radiating chamber which may be closed so as to be used as an oven, and by a unique damper placement in combination with the exhaust flue pipe so adapted as to automatically activate in order to cool the flue pipe in the event it should exceed safe heat limits.

  20. Smoking and Pancreatic Disease.

    PubMed

    Edderkaoui, Mouad; Thrower, Edwin

    2013-11-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanisms through which it causes the diseases remain unknown. In the present manuscript we reviewed the latest knowledge gained on the effect of cigarette smoke and smoking compounds on cell signaling pathways mediating both diseases. We also reviewed the effect of smoking on the pancreatic cell microenvironment including inflammatory cells and stellate cells.

  1. Wood Substitutes; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

    This curriculum guide is for use by college instructors concerned with expanding traditional woodworking programs. It was developed in a National Defense Education Act summer institute and is based on an outline provided by members of a previous institute. The content concerns wood substitutes which are made to resemble wood and are often used…

  2. 75 FR 74768 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Norwegian Painters”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Norwegian Painters'' SUMMARY: Notice..., I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Norwegian Painters... objects are imported pursuant to loan agreements with the foreign owners or custodians. I also...

  3. Categorization of speech sounds by Norwegian/English bilinguals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dypvik, Audny T.; Slawinski, Elzbieta B.

    2005-04-01

    Bilinguals who learned English late in life (late bilinguals) as opposed to those who learned English early in life (early bilinguals) differ in their perception of phonemic distinctions. Age of acquisition of a second language as well as depth of immersion into English is influenced by perceptual differences of phonemic contrasts between monolinguals and bilinguals, with consequences for speech production. The phonemes /v/ and /w/ are from the same category in Norwegian, rendering them perceptually indistinguishable to the native Norwegian listener. In English, /v/ and /w/ occupy two categories. Psychoacoustic testing on this phonemic distinction in the current study will compare perceptual abilities of monolingual English and bilingual Norwegian/English listeners. Preliminary data indicates that Norwegian/English bilinguals demonstrate varying perceptual abilities for this phonemic distinction. A series of speech sounds have been generated by an articulatory synthesizer, the Tube Resonance Model, along a continuum between the postures of /v/ and /w/. They will be presented binaurally over headphones in an anechoic chamber at a sound pressure level of 75 dB. Differences in the perception of the categorical boundary between /v/ and /w/ among English monolinguals and Norwegian/English bilinguals will be further delineated.

  4. About You and Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houser, Norman W.; And Others

    This booklet acquaints the student with current scientific knowledge about smoking and its effects on health, with the economic aspects of smoking, with ways in which young people might help those who now have a smoking problem, and with significant health statistics. It begins, in chapter 1, with a discussion of the history of tobacco and its…

  5. Depression and Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Quit Smoking Benefits of Quitting Health Effects of Smoking Secondhand Smoke Withdrawal Ways to Quit QuitGuide Pregnancy & Motherhood Pregnancy & Motherhood Before Your Baby is Born From Birth to 2 Years Quitting for Two SmokefreeMom Healthy Kids Parenting & ... Weight Management Weight Management ...

  6. Parental Smoking Affects Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Research done by workers at Harvard Medical School suggests that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can impair breathing in children ages five through nine. Lung flow rates (breathing ability) decreased for children with smoking parents, and significantly if the children also smoke. (MA)

  7. Epidemiology of Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guba, Christianne J.; McDonald, James L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the latest statistics relative to tobacco consumption, the health consequences of cigarette use, and future U.S. smoking trends projected through the year 2000. Smoking statistics are presented by ethnicity, gender, educational status, and brand preferences. Also provided are factors contributing to smoking initiation. (GLR)

  8. Disincentives, Identities, and Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Nancy M.

    When smoking decisions are understood in terms of the beliefs and attitudes which determine them, prevention programs can focus on changing these beliefs and attitudes. A study was conducted to measure students' attitudes and beliefs on the short-term health effects of smoking, on the social consequences of smoking, and on specific identities…

  9. All about Quitting Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... with your health care provider about whether counseling, acupuncture, or hypnosis would be helpful. J Take a quit-smoking class or join a support group. E-cigarettes should not replace smoking or be used to help quit smoking. American Diabetes Association    1–800–DIABETES (342–2383)    www. diabetes. ...

  10. Wood-related occupations, wood dust exposure, and sinonasal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hayes, R B; Gerin, M; Raatgever, J W; de Bruyn, A

    1986-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the relations between type of woodworking and the extent of wood dust exposure to the risks for specific histologic types of sinonasal cancer. In cooperation with the major treatment centers in the Netherlands, 116 male patients newly diagnosed between 1978 and 1981 with primary malignancies of epithelial origin of this site were identified for study. Living controls were selected from the municipal registries, and deceased controls were selected from the national death registry. Interviews were completed for 91 (78%) cases and 195 (75%) controls. Job histories were coded by industry and occupation. An index of exposure was developed to classify the extent of occupational exposure to wood dust. When necessary, adjustment was made for age and usual cigarette use. The risk for nasal adenocarcinoma was elevated by industry for the wood and paper industry (odds ratio (OR) = 11.9) and by occupation for those employed in furniture and cabinet making (OR = 139.8), in factory joinery and carpentry work (OR = 16.3), and in association with high-level wood dust exposure (OR = 26.3). Other types of nasal cancer were not found to be associated with wood-related industries or occupations. A moderate excess in risk for squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.5) was associated with low-level wood dust exposure; however, no dose-response relation was evident. The association between wood dust and adenocarcinoma was strongest for those employed in wood dust-related occupations between 1930 and 1941. The risk of adenocarcinoma did not appear to decrease for at least 15 years after termination of exposure to wood dust. No cases of nasal adenocarcinoma were observed in men whose first exposure to wood dust occurred after 1941.

  11. Factors affecting elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from smoked meat foods and liquid smoke flavorings.

    PubMed

    Simko, Peter

    2005-07-01

    This review deals with effects of environmental and physicochemical factors affecting polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) elimination from smoked meat products and liquid smoke flavoring (LSF). In the introductory part, some essential information are aimed at principles of food smoking and PAH formation during smoke generation as a result of incomplete wood combustion. Also, an application of alternative technology for food aromatization using LSF is briefly mentioned. Similarly, latest European legislation, biological effects, and analytical aspects of PAHs are mentioned concisely. The main part is devoted to physicochemical factors affecting the PAH content in smoked meat products, such as light, additional cooking, and packaging, which are able to decrease considerably PAH content in some meat products. The most important effect on PAH concentration decrease in LSF has low-density polyethylene (LDPE) package due to sorption processes on a surface of the plastic with subsequent diffusion into the plastic bulk. A less effective material is polyethylene terephthalate (PET), when only a surface adsorption process comes into account. Moreover, this process is affected also by other compounds presented in liquid media able to compete for the adsorption center on the PET surface. PMID:15945119

  12. Low-level arsenic exposure in wood processing plants.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, M J; Landrigan, P J; Crowley, S

    1980-01-01

    In October 1978, seven construction workers building a pier in Monterey, California, developed symptoms consistent with arsenic intoxication and had elevated urinary levels of arsenic. The wood used for the pier had been pressure-treated with an arsenic preservative. To evaluate the potential acute medical hazards of preserving wood with arsenic, we evaluated employees at three California plants where arsenic preservatives are mixed and applied to wood. Histories, physical examinations, and urine specimens for arsenic analysis were collected from 44 workers exposed to arsenic and from 37 controls in three woodworking plants where arsenic is not used. A comparison of the groups failed to show any significant differences in history or physical examination. Adjustment for age, length of employment, and smoking histories did not alter the pattern. Urinary arsenic concentration was found to increase with increased exposure. These results do not imply absence of chronic or delayed toxicity, nor do they preclude the presence of a more subtle toxicity such as nerve conduction deficits. The data indicate existence of an arsenic exposure hazard in wood processing.U

  13. Characteristics of first-time fathers of advanced age: a Norwegian population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The modern phenomenon of delayed parenthood applies not only to women but also to men, but less is known about what characterises men who are expecting their first child at an advanced age. This study investigates the sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviour, health problems, social relationships and timing of pregnancy in older first-time fathers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of 14 832 men who were expecting their first child, based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) carried out by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Data were collected in 2005–2008 by means of a questionnaire in gestational week 17–18 of their partner’s pregnancy, and from the Norwegian Medical Birth Register. The distribution of background variables was investigated across the age span of 25 years and above. Men of advanced age (35–39 years) and very advanced age (40 years or more) were compared with men aged 25–34 years by means of bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The following factors were found to be associated with having the first child at an advanced or very advanced age: being unmarried or non-cohabitant, negative health behaviour (overweight, obesity, smoking, frequent alcohol intake), physical and mental health problems (lower back pain, cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, sleeping problems, previous depressive symptoms), few social contacts and dissatisfaction with partner relationship. There were mixed associations for socioeconomic status: several proxy measures of high socioeconomic status (e.g. income >65 000 €, self-employment) were associated with having the first child at an advanced or very advanced age, as were several other proxy measures of low socioeconomic status (e.g. unemployment, low level of education, immigrant background).The odds of the child being conceived after in vitro fertilisation were threefold in men aged 34–39 and fourfold from 40

  14. Food and Nutrient Intake among 12-Month-Old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi Infants

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Kolve, Cathrine Solheim; Kverndalen, Ingrid; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to describe food and nutrient intake among 12-month-old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants, with a focus on iron and vitamin D intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2013 through September 2014. Eighty-nine mothers/infants of Somali origin and 77 mothers/infants of Iraqi origin residing in Eastern Norway participated in the study. Data were collected using two 24-h multiple-pass recalls. Forty percent of the Norwegian-Somali infants and 47% of the Norwegian-Iraqi infants were breastfed at 12 months of age (p = 0.414). Median energy percentages (E%) from protein, fat and carbohydrates were within the recommended intake ranges, except the level of saturated fats (12–13 E%). Median intakes of almost all micronutrients were above the recommended daily intakes. Most of the infants consumed iron-enriched products (81%) and received vitamin D supplements (84%). The median intakes of iron and vitamin D were significantly higher among infants receiving iron-enriched products and vitamin D supplements compared to infants not receiving such products (p < 0.001). The findings indicate that the food and nutrient intake of this group of infants in general seems to be in accordance with Norwegian dietary recommendations. Foods rich in iron and vitamin D supplements were important sources of the infants’ intake of iron and vitamin D and should continue to be promoted. PMID:27690092

  15. People of the Prairies: A Norwegian and German-Russian Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabbert, Jon Charles, Ed.; Peterson, Fredrick E., Ed.

    The guide presents secondary level units designed to promote understanding of the two largest ethnic groups in North Dakota, the Norwegians and the German-Russians. The book is presented in five parts. Part I provides an historical overview of the Norwegian and German-Russian migration to North Dakota. Part II presents three Norwegian units on…

  16. Language Planning Confronted by Everyday Communication in the International University: The Norwegian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljosland, Ragnhild

    2014-01-01

    Having been the scene of language planning for more than a century in relation to the two competing written standards of Norwegian, Norwegian language planners are now facing a new challenge: how to deal with what has been termed "domain loss" where Norwegian is perceived as losing out to English in important sectors of society,…

  17. Centralized Decentralization or Decentralized Centralization? A Review of Newer Norwegian Research on Schools and Their Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvalsund, Rune

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, Norwegian research on the relationship between the school and the local community during the past 30 years is reviewed. The Norwegian context of schooling is briefly described, pointing out the rural-urban conflict. The review is organized into two phases: research in the expansive and contractive phases of the Norwegian welfare…

  18. Grammatical Gender in American Norwegian Heritage Language: Stability or Attrition?

    PubMed

    Lohndal, Terje; Westergaard, Marit

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates possible attrition/change in the gender system of Norwegian heritage language spoken in America. Based on data from 50 speakers in the Corpus of American Norwegian Speech (CANS), we show that the three-gender system is to some extent retained, although considerable overgeneralization of the masculine (the most frequent gender) is attested. This affects both feminine and neuter gender forms, while declension class markers such as the definite suffix remain unaffected. We argue that the gender category is vulnerable due to the lack of transparency of gender assignment in Norwegian. Furthermore, unlike incomplete acquisition, which may result in a somewhat different or reduced gender system, attrition is more likely to lead to general erosion, eventually leading to complete loss of gender.

  19. Grammatical Gender in American Norwegian Heritage Language: Stability or Attrition?

    PubMed Central

    Lohndal, Terje; Westergaard, Marit

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates possible attrition/change in the gender system of Norwegian heritage language spoken in America. Based on data from 50 speakers in the Corpus of American Norwegian Speech (CANS), we show that the three-gender system is to some extent retained, although considerable overgeneralization of the masculine (the most frequent gender) is attested. This affects both feminine and neuter gender forms, while declension class markers such as the definite suffix remain unaffected. We argue that the gender category is vulnerable due to the lack of transparency of gender assignment in Norwegian. Furthermore, unlike incomplete acquisition, which may result in a somewhat different or reduced gender system, attrition is more likely to lead to general erosion, eventually leading to complete loss of gender. PMID:27014151

  20. Skeletal Effects of Smoking.

    PubMed

    Cusano, Natalie E

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and disability. Smoking has long been identified as a risk factor for osteoporosis, with data showing that older smokers have decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk compared to nonsmokers, particularly at the hip. The increase in fracture risk in smokers is out of proportion to the effects on bone density, indicating deficits in bone quality. Advanced imaging techniques have demonstrated microarchitectural deterioration in smokers, particularly in the trabecular compartment. The mechanisms by which smoking affects skeletal health remain unclear, although multiple pathways have been proposed. Smoking cessation may at least partially reverse the adverse effects of smoking on the skeleton.

  1. Skeletal Effects of Smoking.

    PubMed

    Cusano, Natalie E

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and disability. Smoking has long been identified as a risk factor for osteoporosis, with data showing that older smokers have decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk compared to nonsmokers, particularly at the hip. The increase in fracture risk in smokers is out of proportion to the effects on bone density, indicating deficits in bone quality. Advanced imaging techniques have demonstrated microarchitectural deterioration in smokers, particularly in the trabecular compartment. The mechanisms by which smoking affects skeletal health remain unclear, although multiple pathways have been proposed. Smoking cessation may at least partially reverse the adverse effects of smoking on the skeleton. PMID:26205852

  2. Brain correlates of sentence translation in Finnish-Norwegian bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Minna H; Laine, Matti; Niemi, Jussi; Thomsen, Tormod; Vorobyev, Victor A; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2005-04-25

    We measured brain activation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while Finnish-Norwegian bilinguals silently translated sentences from Finnish into Norwegian and decided whether a later presented probe sentence was a correct translation of the original sentence. The control task included silent sentence reading and probe sentence decision within a single language, Finnish. The translation minus control task contrast activated the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area 47) and the left basal ganglia. The left inferior frontal activation appears to be related to active semantic retrieval and the basal ganglia activation to a general action control function that works by suppressing competing responses.

  3. Temporal Variation of Mycotoxin Producing Fungi in Norwegian Cereals

    PubMed Central

    Sundheim, Leif; Brodal, Guro; Hofgaard, Inger S.; Rafoss, Trond

    2013-01-01

    Spring barley is grown on about half of the Norwegian cereal area. The rest of the area is equally divided between wheat and oats. Most years the domestic production provides 70%–80% of the domestic market for bread wheat. Barley and oats are mainly grown for animal feed. During the years 2008–2012, severe epidemics of Fusarium head blight have led to increased mycotoxin contamination of cereals. During that period, precipitation was above normal during anthesis and grain maturation. The most important mycotoxin producers have been F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum and F. langsethiae. Increased deoxynivalenol contamination of Norwegian cereals during recent years is due to severe F. graminearum epidemics.

  4. Complexities of smoking education.

    PubMed

    Neeman, R L; Neeman, M

    1975-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a many-headed Hydra, which grows new smokers' heads as fast as they are lopped off. Efforts to change smokers' behavior usually reach a point of diminishing returns, as evidenced by experiences in smoking withdrawal clinics and in public anti-smoking education campaigns. Obviously, many smokers are refactory to anti-smoking education, a situation which has generated a great deal of pharmacological, neurochemical, psychological, and sociological research. The National Clearinghouse for Smoking and Health in the U.S.A. has used a "gradualist" or permissive approach in anti-smoking messages, aimed at less hazardous smoking "if you must smoke," rather than at complete cessation, and found this approach to be useful. U.S.A. school-children are exposed to anti-smoking education in lower grades than formerly, when it was offered in high school. Thus a population of as yet non-smoking children is being educated. Perhaps the adult non-smokers should be enlisted in an effort to create a social climate wherein smoking is not an acceptable behavior-an approach reflecting the concept of smoking as a social disease. Health education addressed to the receptive non-smoker would circumvent the refractory smoker. A theme with appeal to non-smokers is the protest against environmental pollution by smokers. It is possible that if a movement by non-smokers against smoking would gather momentum, it could turn the present accepting social climate into one rejecting smoking, thus striking at the regeneration of the Hydra: the incessant recruitment of smokers among ex-smokers and non-smokers. With recruitment below replacement level, the Hydra would in time wither away.

  5. Wood-burning stove and method for burning wood

    SciTech Connect

    Van Der Linden, R.E.

    1983-02-08

    A wood-burning stove utilizes a volatilization chamber inserted within the combustion chamber of the stove. The volatilization chamber contains a charge of wood which is heated to drive off combustible gases and vapors. The combustible gases and vapors are thereafter burned in the combustion chamber of the stove by being passed through a layer of solid fuel W hich includes a substantial amount of charcoal residue from previous volatilized wood. The heat generated by burning the volatile material is used to produce additional volatiles as well as to heat the stove.

  6. Wood-burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, A.W.; Jolicoeur, G.D.

    1981-05-19

    A wood stove is of all welded steel plate construction except for the door which is of heavy cast iron. When the door is closed, the only source of combustion air is through an adjustable air inlet on the face of the door. The door is hollow and serves to preheat the incoming air. The inner wall of the door divides the incoming air into lower and upper, primary and secondary, respectively, combustion air flows. The stove has an internal upper baffle running from rear to front which helps to promote air flow and combustion efficiency and to knock out entrained matter from the products of combustion. The flue connection is in the rear of the stove above the baffle and is stepped into the back of the stove to allow the stove to be fitted against a wall.

  7. Wood Bond Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A joint development program between Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection Technologies and The Weyerhaeuser Company resulted in an internal bond analyzer (IBA), a device which combines ultrasonics with acoustic emission testing techniques. It is actually a spinoff from a spinoff, stemming from a NASA Lewis invented acousto-ultrasonic technique that became a system for testing bond strength of composite materials. Hartford's parent company, Acoustic Emission Technology Corporation (AET) refined and commercialized the technology. The IBA builds on the original system and incorporates on-line process control systems. The IBA determines bond strength by measuring changes in pulsar ultrasonic waves injected into a board. Analysis of the wave determines the average internal bond strength for the panel. Results are displayed immediately. Using the system, a mill operator can adjust resin/wood proportion, reduce setup time and waste, produce internal bonds of a consistent quality and automatically mark deficient products.

  8. Coffee consumption and the risk of cancer in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Study.

    PubMed

    Lukic, Marko; Licaj, Idlir; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Braaten, Tonje

    2016-09-01

    An association between coffee consumption and cancer has long been investigated. Coffee consumption among Norwegian women is high, thus this is a favorable population in which to study the impact of coffee on cancer incidence. Information on coffee consumption was collected from 91,767 women at baseline in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study. These information were applied until follow-up information on coffee consumption, collected 6-8 years after baseline, became available. Multiple imputation was performed as a method for dealing with missing data. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for breast, colorectal, lung, and ovarian cancer, as well as cancer at any site. We observed a 17 % reduced risk of colorectal cancer (HR = 0.83, 95 % CI 0.70-0.98, p trend across categories of consumption = 0.10) and a 9 % reduced risk of cancer at any site (HR = 0.91, 95 % CI 0.86-0.97, p trend = 0.03) in women who drank more than 3 and up to 7 cups/day, compared to women who drank ≤1 cup/day. A significantly increased risk of lung cancer was observed with a heavy coffee consumption (>7 vs. ≤1 cup/day HR = 2.01, 95 % CI 1.47-2.75, p trend < 0.001). This was most likely caused by residual confounding due to smoking, as no statistically significant association was observed in never smokers (>5 vs. ≤1 cup/day HR = 1.42, 95 % CI 0.44-4.57, p trend = 0.30). No significant association was found between coffee consumption and the risk of breast or ovarian cancer. In this study, coffee consumption was associated with a modest reduced risk of cancer at any site. Residual confounding due to smoking may have contributed to the positive association between high coffee consumption and the risk of lung cancer. PMID:27010635

  9. Effects of cooking fuel smoke on respiratory symptoms and lung function in semi-rural women in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mbatchou Ngahane, Bertrand Hugo; Afane Ze, Emmanuel; Chebu, Cyrille; Mapoure, Njankouo Yacouba; Temfack, Elvis; Nganda, Malea; Luma, Namme Henry

    2015-01-01

    Background: Indoor air pollution is a major health problem in the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa more than 90% of people rely on biomass to meet their domestic energy demands. Pollution from biomass fuel ranks 10th among preventable risk factors contributing to the global burden of diseases. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the factors associated with reduced lung function in a population of women exposed to cooking fuel smoke. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a semi-rural area in Cameroon. We compared forced respiratory volume between women using wood (n = 145) and women using alternative sources of energy (n = 155) for cooking. Results: Chronic bronchitis was found in 7·6% of the wood smoke group and 0·6% in the alternative fuels group. We observed two cases of airflow obstruction in the wood smoke group. Factors associated with lung function impairment were chronic bronchitis, use of wood as cooking fuel, age, and height. Conclusion: Respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function are more pronounced among women using wood as cooking fuel. Improved stoves technology should be developed to reduce the effects of wood smoke on respiratory health. PMID:25384259

  10. Smoking and adolescent health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents' smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents' habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents' smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents' smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents' smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents' health and improve their quality of life. PMID:22232621

  11. Cigarette Smoking in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Meysamie, A; Ghaletaki, R; Zhand, N; Abbasi, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death worldwide. No systematic review is available on the situation of the smoking in Iran, so we decided to provide an overview of the studies in the field of smoking in Iranian populations. Methods: Published Persian-language papers of all types until 2009 indexed in the IranMedex (http://www.iranmedex.com) and Magiran (http://www.magiran.com). Reports of World Health Organization were also searched and optionally employed. The studies concerning passive smoking or presenting the statistically insignificant side effects were excluded. Databases were searched using various combinations of the following terms: cigarette, smoking, smoking cessation, prevalence, history, side effects, and lung cancer by independent reviewers. All the 83 articles concerning the prevalence or side effects of the smoking habit in any Iranian population were selected. The prevalence rate of daily cigarette smoking and the 95% confidence interval as well as smoking health risk associated odds ratio (OR) were retrieved from the articles or calculated. Results: The reported prevalence rates of the included studies, the summary of smoking-related side effects and the ORs (95%CI) of smoking associated risks and the available data on smoking cessation in Iran have been shown in the article. Conclusion: Because of lack of certain data, special studies on local pattern of tobacco use in different districts, about the relationship between tobacco use and other diseases, especially non communicable diseases, and besides extension of smoking cessation strategies, studies on efficacy of these methods seems to be essential in this field. PMID:23113130

  12. Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy, Child Behavior Problems, and Adolescent Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesler, Pamela C.; Kandel, Denise B.; Davies, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Used longitudinal sample of 187 mother-child dyads to examine the role of child behavior problems in explaining the effect of maternal prenatal smoking on adolescent daughters' smoking. Found that maternal prenatal smoking retained a unique effect on girls' current smoking with controls for current maternal smoking, child behavior problems, and…

  13. USANS study of wood structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvey, Christopher J.; Knott, Robert B.; Searson, Matthew; Conroy, Jann P.

    2006-11-01

    Wood performs a vascular and structural function in trees. In this study we used the double-crystal diffractometer BT5 at the NIST Center for Neutron Scattering (Gaithersburg, USA) to study the pore structure inside wood sections. The slit-smeared intensity of scattered neutrons was measured from wood sections in directions parallel, orthogonal and transverse to the tree's trunk axis over a scattering vector range 0.00004-0.002 Å -1. The interpretation of the data in terms of a reductionist model consisting of infinitely long cylinders (cell lumens) is discussed.

  14. Implicit language learning: Adults’ ability to segment words in Norwegian*

    PubMed Central

    KITTLESON, MEGAN M.; AGUILAR, JESSICA M.; TOKERUD, GRY LINE; PLANTE, ELENA; ASBJØRNSEN, ARVE E.

    2010-01-01

    Previous language learning research reveals that the statistical properties of the input offer sufficient information to allow listeners to segment words from fluent speech in an artificial language. The current pair of studies uses a natural language to test the ecological validity of these findings and to determine whether a listener’s language background influences this process. In Study 1, the “guessibility” of potential test words from the Norwegian language was presented to 22 listeners who were asked to differentiate between true words and nonwords. In Study 2, 22 adults who spoke one of 12 different primary languages learned to segment words from continuous speech in an implicit language learning paradigm. The task consisted of two sessions, approximately three weeks apart, each requiring participants to listen to 7.2 minutes of Norwegian sentences followed by a series of bisyllabic test items presented in isolation. The participants differentially accepted the Norwegian words and Norwegian-like nonwords in both test sessions, demonstrating the capability to segment true words from running speech. The results were consistent across three broadly-defined language groups, despite differences in participants’ language background. PMID:21512605

  15. Possible Concepts for Waterproofing of Norwegian TBM Railway Tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammyr, Øyvind; Nilsen, Bjørn; Thuro, Kurosch; Grøndal, Jørn

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare the durability, life expectancy and maintenance needs of traditional Norwegian waterproofing concepts to the generally more rigid waterproofing concepts seen in other European countries. The focus will be on solutions for future Norwegian tunnel boring machine railway tunnels. Experiences from operation of newer and older tunnels with different waterproofing concepts have been gathered and analyzed. In the light of functional requirements for Norwegian rail tunnels, some preliminary conclusions about suitable concepts are drawn. Norwegian concepts such as polyethylene panels and lightweight concrete segments with membrane are ruled out. European concepts involving double shell draining systems (inner shell of cast concrete with membrane) and single shell undrained systems (waterproof concrete segments) are generally evaluated as favorable. Sprayable membranes and waterproof/insulating shotcrete are welcomed innovations, but more research is needed to verify their reliability and cost effectiveness compared to the typical European concepts. Increasing traffic and reliance on public transport systems in Norway result in high demand for durable and cost effective solutions.

  16. Social Capital and Student Achievement in Norwegian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Lihong

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates student social capital in Norwegian secondary schools and its effects on student achievement. Using data from the national survey "Young in Norway 2002", it explores the concept and measurement of social capital in the school context by applying factor analysis. The paper also tests an analytical model that links student…

  17. Implementation of New Public Management in Norwegian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frolich, Nicoline

    2005-01-01

    This article analyses the implementation of market-type mechanisms in the management of universities. The question of which cultural biases have been used in the implementation of New Public Management (NPM) in Norwegian universities is discussed. Cultural theory, institutional theory, and public policy studies are applied to the analysis of a…

  18. Adapted Education: The Norwegian Pathway to Inclusive and Efficient Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasting, Rolf B.

    2013-01-01

    Since the UNESCO conference in 1994, inclusion has been a major denominator in the educational debates of most OECD countries, focusing on how to facilitate education and social interaction for the diversity of pupils. By international standards, the Norwegian education system is regarded as inclusive, but the ongoing debate and political pressure…

  19. Writing in the Content Areas: A Norwegian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzberg, Frøydis; Roe, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Since 2006, literacy skills have been mandated as an integral part of all subject areas at all levels (grades 1-13) in Norwegian schools. With the exception of reading, evaluation reports show that teaching in general seems to be little affected by this reform. During the last few years, however, there has been a noticeable growth in interest in…

  20. Actual Leisure Participation of Norwegian Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in…

  1. The Norwegian "Christianity, Religion and Philosophy" Subject "KRL" in Strasbourg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lied, Sidsel

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the judgement and dissent of the European Court of Human Rights in the "Case of Folgero and others v. Norway" regarding the subject "Christianity, Religion and Philosophy (KRL)" in Norwegian state schools. The verdict, reached with dissenting votes of 9-8, states that parents' freedom of ensuring their children an education…

  2. Forecasting the Norwegian Labour Market for Graduates Holding Higher Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naess, Terje

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the phenomenon of long-term unemployed graduates of Norwegian higher education institutions over the period 1973-1999. The phenomenon was unexpected. One explanation for it is that the market for graduates was and remains in disequilibrium because wages are not sufficiently flexible downward. Thus unemployment would be…

  3. Teaching Immigrants Norwegian Culture to Support Their Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Awal Mohammed; Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted with 48 adult immigrant students studying Norwegian under basic education program of the Ski Municipality Adult Education Unit between 2009-2011. Using the framework of Genc and Bada (2005), we tried to replicate their study in a new setting--Norway. The study investigated migrant students' perceptions learning Norwegian…

  4. Exploration of Norwegian Student Teachers' Relational Concerns during Internships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugan, Jan Arvid; Moen, Torill; Karlsdottir, Ragnheidur

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on and contributes to research on student teachers' relational concerns in teacher education, as four Grade 3 Norwegian student teachers were followed during their internship for two periods of two weeks each. The article presents and discusses data from interviews and student teachers' logs, while the aim of the study is to…

  5. Educating Voters: Political Education in Norwegian Upper-Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borhaug, Kjetil

    2008-01-01

    Research on political education in schools suggests that an emphasis on formal structure, constitutional principles, formal citizen rights, and debates on current issues is common. The Norwegian national curriculum on political education envisions a different political education emphasizing that students should be critical of political life and…

  6. The Broken Curve: Effects of the Norwegian Manifesto against Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    The first Norwegian Manifesto (Manifesto-I) Against Bullying was launched by the Prime Minister in autumn 2002 and lasted for 2 years. A background for Manifesto-I was that school bullying had increased almost linearly in Norway with over 60% more victims and bullies since 1995. During the manifest period, the percentage of victims and bullies…

  7. The Limitations of Multiculturalism in Norwegian Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovdelien, Olav

    2014-01-01

    In Norway, 9 out of 10 children between the ages of one and five participate in an educational formation programme which, despite around half of the kindergartens being privately owned, is regulated by a common law and relatively detailed regulations describing what the content of kindergartens should be. Norwegian kindergartens therefore…

  8. School Start Time, Sleepiness and Functioning in Norwegian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedaa, Oystein; Saxvig, Ingvild West; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Bjorvatn, Bjorn; Pallesen, Stale

    2012-01-01

    The study's aim was to investigate how school start time affects sleepiness and functioning in Norwegian 10th grade students (N = 106). The intervention school started at 0930 hours on Mondays and 0830 hours the rest of the week. A control school started at 0830 hours all schooldays. The students were assessed on a reaction time test as well as…

  9. The Norwegian Principal: The Impact of National and Local Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Jorunn

    This article provides a snapshot of educational administration and leadership in Norway. The article describes the Norwegian context and the country's educational system. It reports on a small study that was part of a cross-cultural exploration into the principalship, offering a discussion based on interviews of principals from four…

  10. The Prevalence and Nature of Intellectual Disability in Norwegian Prisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondenaa, E.; Rasmussen, K.; Palmstierna, T.; Nottestad, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The objective of the study was to calculate the prevalence of inmates with intellectual disabilities (ID), and identify historical, medical and criminological characteristics of a certain impact. Methods: A random sample of 143 inmates from a Norwegian prison cross sectional sample was studied. The Hayes Ability Screening Index (HASI)…

  11. Bibliographies: Swedes, Danes, Finns, Icelanders, and Norwegians in Minnesota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustavus Adolphus Coll., St. Peter, Minn.

    Produced for college students, five bibliographies list emigration and immigration sources related to the peopling of Minnesota by Scandanavian groups (Swedes, Danes, Finns, Icelanders, and Norwegians). Over 400 citations identify books, articles, conference papers, diaries, personal papers of families, and historical society papers from the late…

  12. Deepwater cementing in the Norwegian Sea: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Helgesen, J.T.; Harestad, K.; Sorgaard, E.

    1999-04-01

    During Norway`s 15th licensing round in 1996, five deepwater areas were opened for exploration drilling. All blocks are situated outside the continental shelf in the Norwegian Sea, west of mid-Norway. The seabed and location conditions were studied by the Norwegian Deepwater Project, a joint venture of the operator companies who were awarded blocks in these new unexplored areas. Results of the study revealed that the weather and sea conditions in these remote areas would be among the toughest in the world. Strong return currents from the Arctic Ocean bring undercooled water to these locations, lowering the seabed temperature to as low as {minus}2 C. Because all the blocks are situated outside the Norwegian continental shelf, the water depth is in the range of 2,600--5,000 ft (800--1,600 m). Typical deepwater conditions are present in most of the deepwater locations in the Norwegian Sea. The conditions that posed additional challenges to the drilling operation were poorly consolidated sediments, shallow water flow zones, hydrate destabilization and ooze sediments. The paper describes sediment consolidation, shallow water flow, hydrates, development of deepwater cement slurries, a field case, and future cementing operations in Norway.

  13. Science Choices in Norwegian Upper Secondary School: What Matters?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Maria Vetleseter

    2012-01-01

    There is international concern about young people's participation in science. This study investigated the relevant importance of various issues in 1628 Norwegian upper secondary students' choices of postcompulsory subject combinations: natural science and mathematics (henceforth Science) or languages, social science and economics (henceforth…

  14. Longitudinal Case-Studies of Developmental Dyslexia in Norwegian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nergard-Nilssen, Trude

    2006-01-01

    This study examined retrospectively the preschool cognitive and linguistic profiles and emergent literacy skills in four Norwegian dyslexic children. The aim was to identify prognostic indicators that were associated with the reading impairments observed in an earlier study of these children. In comparison to a control group of at-risk children…

  15. [Norwegian psychiatry and Nazism. A historical project of current interest].

    PubMed

    Lavik, N J

    1994-06-10

    In 1945 the Ministry of Justice appointed a committee to conduct a psychiatric examination of Norwegian Nazis. This was done after a proposal from the Norwegian Psychiatric Association on the initiative of Professor Langfeldt, who at that time was head of the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Oslo. An investigation based on a crosscheck between membership of the Nazi party and the Norwegian case register for psychoses for the period 1926-1940 showed 30% more psychoses among the Nazis than in the population as a whole. Other studies tended to support the view that there was a high prevalence of deviant personalities among the Nazis. A study of 340 "front combatants" (not representative of the whole group of 8,000) showed no increase in psychopathology. They had a higher level of intelligence and education than the mean of young Norwegian males. Many of them belonged to strong pro-Nazi families. The studies of pro-Nazi women, especially the very young who had been involved in sexual relationships with German soldiers, are not representative. The findings seem to indicate that many of them lacked family support and had social problems. The studies are discussed in a historical perspective, with some comments about their relevance today.

  16. Predicting Intentions to Perform Protective Sexual Behaviours among Norwegian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myklestad, Ingri; Rise, Jostein

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the socio-cognitive processes underlying intentions to use condoms and contraceptive pills, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour extended with prototypes in a group of young Norwegian adolescents. The data are derived from a questionnaire survey comprising all pupils in Grade Nine at three schools in Oslo (n = 196). Using…

  17. Challenges and Possibilities in Norwegian Classroom Drama Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebo, Aud Berggraf

    2009-01-01

    My specific teaching and research interest is drama in the classroom--drama as a teaching and learning medium to fulfil a curriculum demand for student-active, creative and aesthetic learning processes. In this article I will focus on the challenges and possibilities that exist in Norwegian classroom drama. The article is based on my latest…

  18. FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PURCELL, FRANK X.

    A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

  19. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  20. [Smoking prevalence in Kocaeli].

    PubMed

    Bariş, Serap Argun; Yildiz, Füsun; Başyiğit, Ilknur; Boyaci, Haşim

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire was performed in order to determine smoking prevalence in the target population just before the initiation of a social responsibility project which is aimed to increase the smoking cessation rates in Kocaeli. The sample selection was made based on population numbers in 12 town of Kocaeli city and smoking habits of population over the age of 18 were evaluated by a questionnaire survey by phone. There was 2721 person included in the study. The overall prevalence of active smokers was 32.3% (n= 902) and ex-smokers was 21.5% (n= 587). There was no statistical significance of smoking prevalence among towns except the lower smoking rates in Gebze (25.7%). The percentage of the current smokers was 42.5% in male population which was significantly higher than females (21.8%). The highest smoking prevalence was found between the ages of 35-44 (41.2%) while the lowest prevalence was observed in the subjects older than 55 years (19.8%). The mean age for smoking initiation was 19 years (17-20) and daily cigarette consumption was 17 sticks. Previous attempts for quitting smoking were found in 67.7% of current smokers. The mean number of smoking cessation attempts was 3 times and the mean duration of cessation was 5 months. The most common reason for smoking cessation was health issues. Eighty percent of cases harnessed their willpower to stop smoking while only 5% of them received medical treatment. It is suggested that determination of demographic features of the smokers might constitute a corner stone for smoking cessation projects.

  1. Goddard Summer Interns: Danielle Wood

    NASA Video Gallery

    Profile of Goddard intern Danielle Wood. Danielle is interning at Goddard in the Innovative Partnerships Program and at NASA Headquarters in the Office of the Chief Technologist in the summer of 20...

  2. Secondhand Smoke Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Expectations & Goals Healthier Lifestyle Healthier Lifestyle Physical Fitness Food & Nutrition Sleep, Stress & Relaxation Emotions & Relationships HealthyYouTXT Tools Home » Quit Smoking » Second Hand ...

  3. [Smoking cessation for COPD].

    PubMed

    Uruma, Reiko

    2016-05-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective intervention to prevent the annual decline in lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. All primary healthcare providers should routinely ask all patients whether tobacco use is active or not, and advise tobacco users to stop smoking. In Japan a treatment of nicotine addiction with varenicline or nicotine patch has been started under health insurance coverage since 2006. About half of the patients taking varenicline could stop smoking. Education on the health risks of smoking in schools for younger ages is essential for prevention of COPD. PMID:27254947

  4. Smoking cessation medications

    MedlinePlus

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... provider can prescribe medicines to help you quit tobacco use. These medicines do not contain nicotine. They ...

  5. The Effect of Household Smoking Bans on Household Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Amy; Mallya, Giridhar; Romer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Because household smoking levels and adoption of domestic smoking rules may be endogenously related, we estimated a nonrecursive regression model to determine the simultaneous relationship between home smoking restrictions and household smoking. Methods. We used data from a May–June 2012 survey of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, households with smokers (n = 456) to determine the simultaneous association between smoking levels in the home and the presence of home restrictions on smoking. Results. We found that home smoking rules predicted smoking in the home but smoking in the home had no effect on home smoking restrictions. Conclusions. Absent in-home randomized experiments, a quasi-experimental causal inference suggesting that home smoking rules result in lower home smoking levels may be plausible. PMID:24524533

  6. Smoking Bans May Keep Young Men from Heavy Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_161256.html Smoking Bans May Keep Young Men From Heavy Smoking Study found lower rates among ... bans may help reduce smoking among young American men, a new study finds. Researchers examined data from ...

  7. The Rhetoric of the Norwegian Constitution Day: A Topos Analysis of Young Norwegian Students' May 17 Speeches, 2011 and 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tønnesson, Johan Laurits; Sivesind, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    National Day, or Constitution Day, in Norway, May 17, is often referred to as Children's Day. On this day, thousands of young Norwegian students march in parades and participate in celebrations in schoolyards and similar meeting places. Some students are selected to give speeches, performed in front of family members, neighbors, classmates, and…

  8. Exemplary Educational Programs in Norwegian Prisons: A Case Study of Norwegian Educators' Attitudes and Humanitarian Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Michelle D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how Norwegian correctional educators' attitudes and working environments influenced successful inmate outcomes. Success for incarcerated students was defined by the ability to enroll in and do well in prison classes, develop life skills, and gain the knowledge and skills to become productive members of…

  9. Health Harms from Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    HEALTH HARMS FROM SECONDHAND SMOKE The scientific evidence on the health risks associated with exposure to secondhand smoke is ... implicated in heart attacks and stroke. 3 Health Harms From Secondhand Smoke / 2  U.S. Surgeon General (2006) – ...

  10. Incense smoke: clinical, structural and molecular effects on airway disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ta-Chang; Krishnaswamy, Guha; Chi, David S

    2008-01-01

    In Asian countries where the Buddhism and Taoism are mainstream religions, incense burning is a daily practice. A typical composition of stick incense consists of 21% (by weight) of herbal and wood powder, 35% of fragrance material, 11% of adhesive powder, and 33% of bamboo stick. Incense smoke (fumes) contains particulate matter (PM), gas products and many organic compounds. On average, incense burning produces particulates greater than 45 mg/g burned as compared to 10 mg/g burned for cigarettes. The gas products from burning incense include CO, CO2, NO2, SO2, and others. Incense burning also produces volatile organic compounds, such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes, as well as aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The air pollution in and around various temples has been documented to have harmful effects on health. When incense smoke pollutants are inhaled, they cause respiratory system dysfunction. Incense smoke is a risk factor for elevated cord blood IgE levels and has been indicated to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Incense smoke also has been associated with neoplasm and extracts of particulate matter from incense smoke are found to be mutagenic in the Ames Salmonella test with TA98 and activation. In order to prevent airway disease and other health problem, it is advisable that people should reduce the exposure time when they worship at the temple with heavy incense smokes, and ventilate their house when they burn incense at home. PMID:18439280

  11. Incense smoke: clinical, structural and molecular effects on airway disease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ta-Chang; Krishnaswamy, Guha; Chi, David S

    2008-01-01

    In Asian countries where the Buddhism and Taoism are mainstream religions, incense burning is a daily practice. A typical composition of stick incense consists of 21% (by weight) of herbal and wood powder, 35% of fragrance material, 11% of adhesive powder, and 33% of bamboo stick. Incense smoke (fumes) contains particulate matter (PM), gas products and many organic compounds. On average, incense burning produces particulates greater than 45 mg/g burned as compared to 10 mg/g burned for cigarettes. The gas products from burning incense include CO, CO2, NO2, SO2, and others. Incense burning also produces volatile organic compounds, such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes, as well as aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The air pollution in and around various temples has been documented to have harmful effects on health. When incense smoke pollutants are inhaled, they cause respiratory system dysfunction. Incense smoke is a risk factor for elevated cord blood IgE levels and has been indicated to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Incense smoke also has been associated with neoplasm and extracts of particulate matter from incense smoke are found to be mutagenic in the Ames Salmonella test with TA98 and activation. In order to prevent airway disease and other health problem, it is advisable that people should reduce the exposure time when they worship at the temple with heavy incense smokes, and ventilate their house when they burn incense at home. PMID:18439280

  12. The effect of smoke inhalation on pulmonary surfactant.

    PubMed

    Nieman, G F; Clark, W R; Wax, S D; Webb, S R

    1980-02-01

    This paper details efforts to define the primary pathophysiology of acute smoke inhalation without the variables of infection, burns, or fluid resuscitation. A standard dose of smoke (wood and kerosene) was delivered at 37 C to mongrel dogs. The parameters studied included blood gases, carboxyhemoglobin, pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics, respiratory mechanics, surface tension area curves as an indication of surfactant activity, and in vivo photomicroscopy. The FiO2 of the smoke was 17 volumes per cent; the carbon monoxide 17,000 ppm. Immediately following smoke exposure, dense, nonsegmental atelectasis developed. Hemodynamic changes were insignificant, but the PaO2 fell to 49 mmHg; the right to left shunt rose from 5 to 41%. Surfactant reduction was significant: enough to cause an increase in the minimum surface tension from 7 to 22 dynes/cm. This surfactant loss may explain the atelectasis seen and the marked instability of subpleural alveolar walls. The data collected are consistent and support the acute inactivation of surfactant as one of the primary pathophysiologic events in smoke inhalation. The clinical correlation is good; surfactant loss may explain why victims of smoke inhalation are so vulnerable to fluid administration if they have thermal burns as well effectiveness of medical devices. PMID:6892674

  13. Incense smoke: clinical, structural and molecular effects on airway disease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ta-Chang; Krishnaswamy, Guha; Chi, David S

    2008-04-25

    In Asian countries where the Buddhism and Taoism are mainstream religions, incense burning is a daily practice. A typical composition of stick incense consists of 21% (by weight) of herbal and wood powder, 35% of fragrance material, 11% of adhesive powder, and 33% of bamboo stick. Incense smoke (fumes) contains particulate matter (PM), gas products and many organic compounds. On average, incense burning produces particulates greater than 45 mg/g burned as compared to 10 mg/g burned for cigarettes. The gas products from burning incense include CO, CO2, NO2, SO2, and others. Incense burning also produces volatile organic compounds, such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes, as well as aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The air pollution in and around various temples has been documented to have harmful effects on health. When incense smoke pollutants are inhaled, they cause respiratory system dysfunction. Incense smoke is a risk factor for elevated cord blood IgE levels and has been indicated to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Incense smoke also has been associated with neoplasm and extracts of particulate matter from incense smoke are found to be mutagenic in the Ames Salmonella test with TA98 and activation. In order to prevent airway disease and other health problem, it is advisable that people should reduce the exposure time when they worship at the temple with heavy incense smokes, and ventilate their house when they burn incense at home.

  14. Occupation and smoking adjusted mortality due to asthma among Swedish men.

    PubMed

    Torén, K; Hörte, L G; Järvholm, B

    1991-05-01

    The study aims to survey the mortality from asthma in different occupations among Swedish men. The design was a register based cohort study where the smoking adjusted mortality due to asthma among Swedish men 1971-80 was investigated. For each occupation a smoking adjusted standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated based on a linkage between official mortality statistics 1971-80 and occupational information in the 1970 national census. The information about the smoking habits among different occupations was obtained from a smoking survey carried out in 1963. In the statistical analysis only occupations with more than 10 deaths were considered. A significantly increased mortality from asthma was found among farmers (smoking adjusted SMR 137, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 115-156), farm workers (smoking adjusted SMR 170, 95% CI 107-235), woodworking machine operators (smoking adjusted SMR 226, 95% CI 108-344), clerical workers (smoking adjusted SMR 161, 95% CI 102-220), packers and labellers (smoking adjusted SMR 144, 95% CI 100-188), and watchmen (smoking adjusted SMR 212, 95% CI 104-320). Exposure to organic dust, such as fresh wood dust and dusts in the farming environment, may cause increased mortality due to asthma.

  15. Occupation and smoking adjusted mortality due to asthma among Swedish men.

    PubMed Central

    Torén, K; Hörte, L G; Järvholm, B

    1991-01-01

    The study aims to survey the mortality from asthma in different occupations among Swedish men. The design was a register based cohort study where the smoking adjusted mortality due to asthma among Swedish men 1971-80 was investigated. For each occupation a smoking adjusted standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated based on a linkage between official mortality statistics 1971-80 and occupational information in the 1970 national census. The information about the smoking habits among different occupations was obtained from a smoking survey carried out in 1963. In the statistical analysis only occupations with more than 10 deaths were considered. A significantly increased mortality from asthma was found among farmers (smoking adjusted SMR 137, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 115-156), farm workers (smoking adjusted SMR 170, 95% CI 107-235), woodworking machine operators (smoking adjusted SMR 226, 95% CI 108-344), clerical workers (smoking adjusted SMR 161, 95% CI 102-220), packers and labellers (smoking adjusted SMR 144, 95% CI 100-188), and watchmen (smoking adjusted SMR 212, 95% CI 104-320). Exposure to organic dust, such as fresh wood dust and dusts in the farming environment, may cause increased mortality due to asthma. PMID:2039744

  16. Incidence of cancer among Norwegian boiler welders.

    PubMed Central

    Danielsen, T E; Langård, S; Andersen, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The cancer incidence among 2957 boiler welders was investigated. The subjects were registered electrical welders from 1942 to 1981. A subcohort of 606 stainless steel welders was studied separately. METHODS: The investigation was a historical prospective cohort study based on a national registry. The loss of follow up was 4.9%. RESULTS: There were 625 deaths (659 expected). There were 269 cancer cases (264 expected). An excess of lung cancer was found; 50 cases v 37.5 expected. There were three cases of pleural mesotheliomas v 1.1 expected. The subcohort of stainless steel welders had six cases of lung cancer v 5.8 expected, and one case of pleural mesothelioma v 0.2 expected. CONCLUSIONS: The welders in the study were assumed to represent a qualified work force. These welders had a small excess risk of lung cancer. The excess risk did not seem to be associated with stainless steel welding. Smoking and asbestos exposure were potential confounders. PMID:8664959

  17. Remaining teeth, oral dryness and dental health habits in middle-aged Norwegian rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Arneberg, P; Bjertness, E; Storhaug, K; Glennås, A; Bjerkhoel, F

    1992-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) upon dental health. A questionnaire was mailed to all seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients aged 44-56 yr in the files of the two main departments of rheumatology in South Eastern Norway. Data were obtained from 125 patients, constituting 91% of the target group. The number of remaining teeth in these patients was not related to disease duration or physical dysfunction, whereas a relationship to prolonged use of medication for pain relief was indicated. Factors known to affect tooth loss in the general population, such as smoking habits, dental attendance, interdental cleaning habits, previous dental disease, and place of residence were found to be important in RA patients as well. The RA patients from Oslo had a mean number of 25 remaining teeth, which is the same as reported for the general Oslo population at this age. Oral dryness was reported by more than 50% of the RA patients, but was not related to the number of teeth. The conclusion is that serious and long lasting rheumatoid arthritis had little influence on the number of remaining teeth in this middle-aged group of Norwegians. PMID:1424551

  18. Smoke Detectors and Legislation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Fire Prevention and Control Administration (DOC), Washington, DC.

    This manual, one of a series for use in public education, provides an in-depth review of the current status of state and local smoke detector legislation. First, for the community considering a smoke detector law or ordinance, six decision points are discussed: which residential occupancy sub-classes will be affected; what the time factors are for…

  19. Hypnotic Treatment of Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastien, Samuel A., IV; Kessler, Marc

    Prior studies of hypnotic treatment of smoking have reported abstinence rates of between 17 and 88 percent at six months, but few have investigated procedures or forms of suggestions. To compare the effectiveness of positive and negative hypnotic suggestions and self-hypnosis for cessation of smoking, 32 subjects were assigned to one of four…

  20. Environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1992-12-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material in indoor air which results from tobacco smoking. Early work on the chemistry of ETS and on estimates of the resulting human exposure relied heavily on studies of sidestream smoke, on the characterization of highly contaminated environments, and on the use of contained experimental atmospheres. It had also been common practice to equate ETS with mainstream smoke for purposes of risk assessments. More recent work has identified potentially important differences between the properties of ETS and those of mainstream smoke. Recent work has also included major surveys of commonly encountered smoking and nonsmoking environments for their indoor air concentrations of, particularly, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and/or respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP). Studies have also now been reported which address the general composition of the particulate and vapor phases of ETS and which measure concentrations of trace and miscellaneous constituents of tobacco smoke in indoor air. The data demonstrate that tobacco smoking clearly contributes to indoor air contamination but that the contribution is often less than was previously assumed for the more-commonly encountered environments. The data also identify difficulties in the use of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and RSP as surrogate measures of ETS as a whole. This paper summarizes recent observation concerning the measurement and concentrations of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  1. Environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material in indoor air which results from tobacco smoking. Early work on the chemistry of ETS and on estimates of the resulting human exposure relied heavily on studies of sidestream smoke, on the characterization of highly contaminated environments, and on the use of contained experimental atmospheres. It had also been common practice to equate ETS with mainstream smoke for purposes of risk assessments. More recent work has identified potentially important differences between the properties of ETS and those of mainstream smoke. Recent work has also included major surveys of commonly encountered smoking and nonsmoking environments for their indoor air concentrations of, particularly, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and/or respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP). Studies have also now been reported which address the general composition of the particulate and vapor phases of ETS and which measure concentrations of trace and miscellaneous constituents of tobacco smoke in indoor air. The data demonstrate that tobacco smoking clearly contributes to indoor air contamination but that the contribution is often less than was previously assumed for the more-commonly encountered environments. The data also identify difficulties in the use of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and RSP as surrogate measures of ETS as a whole. This paper summarizes recent observation concerning the measurement and concentrations of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  2. The Smoking Gun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrigan, Alice

    1994-01-01

    Examines the complex public debate over the risks of passive smoking that includes the issues of individual choice, personal space, community, social norms, and morality. Discusses the composition of ETS (gases and particulates that disperse into the air when a smoker smokes) and the efforts of tobacco lobbies. (LZ)

  3. [Smoking intervention program].

    PubMed

    Schmeiser-Rieder, A; Schoberberger, R; Gredler, B; Kunze, M

    1994-01-01

    For promoting health the "Fonds Gesundes Osterreich" worked out an "Intervention Programme Against Smoking". In cooperation with different institutions as "Osterreichische Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Volksgesundheit", "Ludwig-Boltzmann Institut für Gesundheitspsychologie der Frau" and "Institute of Social Medicine, University of Vienna" a report on smoking and health, an update on smoking in pregnancy and associated health hazards, report and overview of smoking cessation in Austria and state of the art of smoking cessation therapy were carried out. Based on these projects curricula for physicians, pharmacists, midwives and psychologists were prepared to involve more and more health professionals that smoking cessation treatment will become a generally accepted part of any preventive or therapeutic strategy to control tobacco associated diseases. The target group of the intervention programme is the dissonant smoker, who wants to stop smoking, informing him and providing professional help. Many techniques ranging from self help to sophisticated combined therapeutic approaches including pharmacological interventions are now available to deal with the nicotine addiction problem. For health policy and public health smoking cessation will be one approach within the framework of a comprehensive approach to control the most important modern epidemic, the health damages caused by tobacco consumption.

  4. Smoking and Health

    PubMed Central

    Steinfeld, Jesse L.

    1984-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking is the number one public health problem in the United States, physicians have failed to take the lead either in convincing youngsters not to begin smoking or in aiding adults to quit smoking. To be most effective and convincing in combating the smoking epidemic, practicing physicians must have the same basic fund of knowledge about the short- and long-term consequences of smoking as they do about other commonly encountered medical problems. By acting on such knowledge and adopting a definite set of attitudes and activities in their offices and with patients, physicians can make a significant contribution to their patients and to the entire community in which they practice. PMID:6523863

  5. Waterpipe smoking in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, H R; Zhang, Y; Newman, I M; Shell, D F

    2010-11-01

    A nonrandom sampIe of 2972 Kuwaitis answered a questionnaire about smoking behaviour and beliefs. More than one-third (35%) were nonsmokers, 45% smoked only the waterpipe, 12% only cigarettes and 8% both waterpipe and cigarettes. Compared with cigarette smokers, waterpipe smokers were more likely to be female and to be unskilled manual workers than professionals or students. Waterpipe smokers started the habit at an older age on average than cigarette smokers. Most waterpipe smokers smoked only 1 bowl per day, and smoked mostly at coffee houses. Factor analysis of beliefs about waterpipe smoking resulted in 4 groups of beliefs which explained 50% of the variance. The results are discussed in terms of public health policy and possible risk reduction strategies.

  6. [Smoking and alimentary diseases].

    PubMed

    Tsujii, Masahiko; Iijima, Hideki; Nishida, Tsutomu; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2013-03-01

    Tobacco smoking directly or hematogenously acts on digestive organ and induces benign and malignant alimentary diseases. Nicotine, nitrosamines, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons included in tobacco smoke are major causative agents of tobacco smoking-related alimentary diseases. These agents have harmful effects on digestive organ through compromised blood circulation, impaired neural regulation, and cell dysfunction. These malfunctions cause tissue destruction, such as chronic inflammation and ulcer formation. Besides forming DNA adducts, they also act on endogenous signal transduction, leading to gene mutation and abnormal cell death and growth. Interestingly, in inflammatory diseases, smoking improves symptoms of ulcerative colitis, while it worsens the condition of Crohn diseases. Smoking is also involved in lately increasing Barrette's esophagus. Future studies are needed. PMID:23631231

  7. Acoustic and adsorption properties of submerged wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilde, Calvin Patrick

    Wood is a common material for the manufacture of many products. Submerged wood, in particular, is used in niche markets, such as the creation of musical instruments. An initial study performed on submerged wood from Ootsa Lake, British Columbia, provided results that showed that the wood was not suitable for musical instruments. This thesis re-examined the submerged wood samples. After allowing the wood to age unabated in a laboratory setting, the wood was retested under the hypothesis that the physical acoustic characteristics would improve. It was shown, however, that the acoustic properties became less adequate after being left to sit. The adsorption properties of the submerged wood were examined to show that the submerged wood had a larger accessible area of wood than that of control wood samples. This implied a lower amount of crystalline area within the submerged wood. From the combined adsorption and acoustic data for the submerged wood, relationships between the moisture content and speed of sound were created and combined with previous research to create a proposed model to describe how the speed of sound varies with temperature, moisture content and the moisture content corresponding to complete hydration of sorption sites within the wood.

  8. [Women and smoking].

    PubMed

    Schmeiser-Rieder, A; Schoberberger, R; Kunze, M

    1995-01-01

    Of the 300,000 deaths attributable to smoking among women in developed countries in 1985, 21% were coded to lung cancer, for example, 41% to cardiovascular diseases, primarily coronary heart disease and stroke, and 18% to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Overall, female deaths rates from lung cancer in developed countries increased by almost 200% between 1957 and 1987. Smoking and tobacco consumption is a health risk for women at all ages. All women, regardless whether they are pregnant, performing oral contraception or estrogen replacement should not smoke; if they are not able to stop on their own, appropriate counselling and therapy should be provided according to the state of the art. Women who smoke typically go through the menopause 2 or 3 years earlier than non-smokers. Cigarette smoking to increase the risk of estrogen-deficiency diseases, as cardiovascular risk and postmenopausal osteoporosis. Many women want to give up smoking for a number of reasons, such as health, freedom from smoking dependence, financial worries and of course pregnancy. Women find it more difficult to quit than men because of lack of social support, more reliance on cigarette to cope with stress and anxiety and fear of weight gain. Although many women manage to refrain from smoking for a long, they may relapse in situations involving negative emotions, such as conflicts, stress, loss. Men however, tend to relapse in positive situations, such as social events. Smoking cessation programmes have to cover specifically women's need including basic health education, discussion of withdrawal symptoms, strategies to maintain non-smoking and prevent relapse, continuing group support, stress management, advice on weight management, nutrition, fitness and exercise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Heavy smoking and liver.

    PubMed

    El-Zayadi, Abdel-Rahman

    2006-10-14

    Smoking causes a variety of adverse effects on organs that have no direct contact with the smoke itself such as the liver. It induces three major adverse effects on the liver: direct or indirect toxic effects, immunological effects and oncogenic effects. Smoking yields chemical substances with cytotoxic potential which increase necro-inflammation and fibrosis. In addition, smoking increases the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF- alpha) that would be involved in liver cell injury. It contributes to the development of secondary polycythemia and in turn to increased red cell mass and turnover which might be a contributing factor to secondary iron overload disease promoting oxidative stress of hepatocytes. Increased red cell mass and turnover are associated with increased purine catabolism which promotes excessive production of uric acid. Smoking affects both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses by blocking lymphocyte proliferation and inducing apoptosis of lymphocytes. Smoking also increases serum and hepatic iron which induce oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation that lead to activation of stellate cells and development of fibrosis. Smoking yields chemicals with oncogenic potential that increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with viral hepatitis and are independent of viral infection as well. Tobacco smoking has been associated with suppression of p53 (tumour suppressor gene). In addition, smoking causes suppression of T-cell responses and is associated with decreased surveillance for tumour cells. Moreover, it has been reported that heavy smoking affects the sustained virological response to interferon (IFN) therapy in hepatitis C patients which can be improved by repeated phlebotomy. Smoker's syndrome is a clinico-pathological condition where patients complain of episodes of facial flushing, warmth of the palms and soles of feet, throbbing headache, fullness in the head, dizziness, lethargy, prickling

  10. Dioxin inhalation doses from wood combustion in indoor cookfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northcross, Amanda L.; Katharine Hammond, S.; Canuz, Eduardo; Smith, Kirk R.

    2012-03-01

    Approximately 3 billion people worldwide rely on solid biomass fuels for household cooking and space heating, and approximately 50-60% use wood, often indoors in poorly ventilated situations. Daily exposures to high concentrations of smoke from cookstoves inside kitchens create large smoke exposures for women cooks and their small children. The smoke from burning the wood fuel contains hundred of toxic compounds, including dioxins and furans some of the most toxic compounds known to science. Health effects from exposure to dioxins include reproductive and developmental problems, damage the immune system, interference with hormones and also cause cancer. This study measured concentrations of dioxins and furans in a typical Guatemalan village home during open cookfires. Measured concentrations averaged 0.32 ± 0.07 ng m-3 over 31 fires. A Monte Carlo simulation was conducted using parameter estimates based on 8 years of research experience in the study area. The estimated total daily intake of 17 particle phase dioxin and furans for women, a 5-year-old child and a 6-month-old infant were 1.2 (S.D. = 0.4), 1.7 (S.D. = 0.7) and 2.0 (S.D. = 0.5) respectively. The 46% of babies have and estimated total daily intake (TDI) which exceed the WHO TDI guideline for dioxins and furans, 3% of women and 26% of 5-year-old children based solely inhalation of particle phase dioxins in woodsmoke from an open cooking fire. These values maybe underestimates, as they did not include gas phase concentrations or ingestion of dioxins and furans through food, which is the largest route of exposure in the developed world.

  11. Refraction and absorption of microwaves in wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziherl, Saša; Bajc, Jurij; Čepič, Mojca

    2013-03-01

    A demonstration experiment for physics students showing the dependence of the refractive index and absorption coefficient of wood on the direction of microwaves is presented. Wood and microwaves enable study of anisotropic properties, which are typically found in crystals. Wood is used as the persuasive representative of uniaxial anisotropic materials due to its visible structure and its consequent anisotropic properties. Wood can be cut in a general direction and wooden plates a few centimetres thick with well-defined fibre orientation are easily prepared. Microwaves are used because wood is transparent for microwaves and their centimetre-scale wavelength is comparable to the wood structure.

  12. Characterisation of PM 10 emissions from woodstove combustion of common woods grown in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Cátia; Alves, Célia; Evtyugina, Margarita; Mirante, Fátima; Pio, Casimiro; Caseiro, Alexandre; Schmidl, Christoph; Bauer, Heidi; Carvalho, Fernando

    2010-11-01

    A series of source tests was performed to evaluate the chemical composition of particle emissions from the woodstove combustion of four prevalent Portuguese species of woods: Pinus pinaster (maritime pine), Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus), Quercus suber (cork oak) and Acacia longifolia (golden wattle). Analyses included water-soluble ions, metals, radionuclides, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), humic-like substances (HULIS), cellulose and approximately l80 organic compounds. Particle (PM 10) emission factors from eucalyptus and oak were higher than those from pine and acacia. The carbonaceous matter represented 44-63% of the particulate mass emitted during the combustion process, regardless of species burned. The major organic components of smoke particles, for all the wood species studied, with the exception of the golden wattle (0.07-1.9% w/w), were anhydrosugars (0.2-17% w/w). Conflicting with what was expected, only small amounts of cellulose were found in wood smoke. As for HULIS, average particle mass concentrations ranged from 1.5% to 3.0%. The golden wattle wood smoke presented much higher concentrations of ions and metal species than the emissions from the other wood types. The results of the analysis of radionuclides revealed that the 226Ra was the naturally occurring radionuclide more enriched in PM 10. The chromatographically resolved organics included n-alkanes, n-alkenes, PAH, oxygenated PAH, n-alkanals, ketones, n-alkanols, terpenoids, triterpenoids, phenolic compounds, phytosterols, alcohols, n-alkanoic acids, n-di-acids, unsaturated acids and alkyl ester acids.

  13. Association between wood cooking fuel and maternal hypertension at delivery in central East India

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Blair J.; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Coull, Brent A.; Quinn, Ashlinn; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Sabin, Lora; Hamer, Davidson H.; Singh, Neeru; MacLeod, William B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Smoke from burning of biomass fuels has been linked with adverse pregnancy outcomes and with hypertension among nonpregnant subjects; association with hypertension during pregnancy has not been well studied. We sought to evaluate whether use of wood cooking fuel increases the risk of maternal hypertension at delivery compared to gas which burns with less smoke. Methods Information on fuel use and blood pressure was available for analysis from a cross-sectional survey of 1369 pregnant women recruited at delivery in India. Results Compared to gas users, women using wood as fuel had on average lower mean arterial pressure (adjusted effect size −2.0 mmHg; 95% CI −3.77, −0.31) and diastolic blood pressure (adjusted effect size −1.96 mmHg; 95% CI −3.60, −0.30) at delivery. Risk of hypertension (systolic > 139 mmHg or diastolic > 89 mmHg) was 14.6% for women cooking with wood compared to 19.6% for those cooking with gas although this did not reach significance after adjustment, using propensity score techniques, for factors that make wood and gas users distinct (adjusted prevalence ratio 0.76; 95% CI 0.49, 1.17). Conclusions Combustion products from the burning of biomass fuels are similar to those released with tobacco smoking which has been linked with a reduced risk for preeclampsia. The direction of our findings suggests the possibility of a similar effect for biomass cook smoke. Whether clean cook cooking interventions being promoted by international advocacy organizations will impact hypertension in pregnancy warrants further analysis as hypertension remains a leading cause of maternal death worldwide and cooking with biomass fuels is widespread. PMID:26153626

  14. Measurement of emissions from air pollution sources. 3. C1-C29 organic compounds from fireplace combustion of wood.

    PubMed

    Schauer, J J; Kleeman, M J; Cass, G R; Simoneit, B R

    2001-05-01

    Organic compound emission rates for volatile organic compounds (VOC), gas-phase semivolatile organic compounds, and particle-phase organic compounds are measured from residential fireplace combustion of wood. Firewood from a conifer tree (pine) and from two deciduous trees (oak and eucalyptus) is burned to determine organic compound emissions profiles for each wood type including the distribution of the alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), phenol and substituted phenols, guaiacol and substituted guaiacol, syringol and substituted syringols, carbonyls, alkanoic acids, resin acids, and levoglucosan. Levoglucosan is the major constituent in the fine particulate emissions from all three wood types, contributing 18-30% of the fine particulate organic compound emissions. Guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol), and guaiacols with additional substituents at position 4 on the molecule, and resin acids are emitted in significant quantities from pine wood combustion. Syringol (2,6-dimethoxyphenol) and syringols with additional substituents at position 4 on the molecule are emitted in large amounts from oak and eucalyptus firewood combustion, but these compounds are not detected in the emissions from pine wood combustion. Syringol and most of the substituted syringols are found to be semivolatile compounds that are present in both the gas and particle phases, but two substituted syringols that have not been previously quantified in wood smoke emissions, propionylsyringol and butyrylsyringol, are found exclusively in the particle phase and can be used to help trace hardwood smoke particles in the atmosphere. Benzene, ethene, and acetylene are often used as tracers for motor vehicle exhaust in the urban atmosphere. The contribution of wood smoke to the ambient concentrations of benzene, ethene, and acetylene could lead to an overestimate of the contribution of motor vehicle tailpipe exhaust to atmospheric VOC concentrations. PMID:11355184

  15. The linguistic milieu of Norwegian children with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Arnesen, Knut; Enerstvedt, Regi T; Engen, Elizabeth A; Engen, Trygg; Høie, Grete; Vonen, Arnfinn M

    2008-01-01

    The article is based on a national survey in Norway of the linguistic situation of deaf children. Parents, teachers, and children were asked to make judgments on topics related to the children's language milieu at home and at school by means of detailed questions using two response methods: a language inventory and rating scales. The inventory is more detailed than those in other studies and required all three groups to consider not only the use of the two native languages, Norwegian and Norwegian Sign Language, but other forms combining sign and speech. The data revealed that languages used with the children included both native languages as well as various mixtures depending on context, situation, and the nature and purpose of the communication. The results are considered from the perspective of the amount and quality of language input and intake necessary for language acquisition and literacy. PMID:18619070

  16. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A Review
    Abstract
    This report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  17. Hospital outbreak traced to a case of Norwegian scabies.

    PubMed

    Bannatyne, R M; Patterson, T A; Wells, B A; MacMillan, S A; Cunningham, G A; Tellier, R

    1992-01-01

    A hospital outbreak, traced to a case of Norwegian scabies, resulted in 45 and 32 symptomatic cases in staff and patients, respectively. A total of 228 asymptomatic in-patient contacts and over 500 staff required prophylactic treatment with either 1% gamma benzene hexachloride lotion or 5% permethrin cream. Recurrences occurred in seven staff members and five patients. The outbreak was contained within four months.

  18. Norwegian production to grow, but exploration is in a slump

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-21

    Exploration and production in Norwegian waters are moving in opposite directions. Oil production will rise over the next 3 years as new projects come on stream. Two major gas projects will also help gas output to recover from a downturn expected in the early 1990s. But exploration is depressed, with only seven rigs involved in exploration and appraisal work. The article is divided into the following areas: Heidrun poser; Sleipner/troll; other development work; exploration successes.

  19. Passive Smoke Exposure as a Risk Factor for Oral Clefts-A Large International Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Kummet, Colleen M; Moreno, Lina M; Wilcox, Allen J; Romitti, Paul A; DeRoo, Lisa A; Munger, Ronald G; Lie, Rolv T; Wehby, George L

    2016-05-01

    Maternal cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for oral clefts. Evidence is less clear for passive (secondhand) smoke exposure. We combined individual-level data from 4 population-based studies (the Norway Facial Clefts Study, 1996-2001; the Utah Child and Family Health Study, 1995-2004; the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, 1999-2009; and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (United States), 1999-2007) to obtain 4,508 cleft cases and 9,626 controls. We categorized first-trimester passive and active smoke exposure. Multivariable logistic models adjusted for possible confounders (maternal alcohol consumption, use of folic acid supplements, age, body size, education, and employment, plus study fixed effects). Children whose mothers actively smoked had an increased risk of oral clefts (odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11, 1.46). Children of passively exposed nonsmoking mothers also had an increased risk (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.27). Cleft risk was further elevated among babies of smoking mothers who were exposed to passive smoke (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.35, 1.70). Using a large pooled data set, we found a modest association between first-trimester passive smoking and oral clefts that was consistent across populations, diverse study designs, and cleft subtypes. While this association may reflect subtle confounding or bias, we cannot rule out the possibility that passive smoke exposure during pregnancy is teratogenic. PMID:27045073

  20. Passive Smoke Exposure as a Risk Factor for Oral Clefts-A Large International Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Kummet, Colleen M; Moreno, Lina M; Wilcox, Allen J; Romitti, Paul A; DeRoo, Lisa A; Munger, Ronald G; Lie, Rolv T; Wehby, George L

    2016-05-01

    Maternal cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for oral clefts. Evidence is less clear for passive (secondhand) smoke exposure. We combined individual-level data from 4 population-based studies (the Norway Facial Clefts Study, 1996-2001; the Utah Child and Family Health Study, 1995-2004; the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, 1999-2009; and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (United States), 1999-2007) to obtain 4,508 cleft cases and 9,626 controls. We categorized first-trimester passive and active smoke exposure. Multivariable logistic models adjusted for possible confounders (maternal alcohol consumption, use of folic acid supplements, age, body size, education, and employment, plus study fixed effects). Children whose mothers actively smoked had an increased risk of oral clefts (odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11, 1.46). Children of passively exposed nonsmoking mothers also had an increased risk (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.27). Cleft risk was further elevated among babies of smoking mothers who were exposed to passive smoke (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.35, 1.70). Using a large pooled data set, we found a modest association between first-trimester passive smoking and oral clefts that was consistent across populations, diverse study designs, and cleft subtypes. While this association may reflect subtle confounding or bias, we cannot rule out the possibility that passive smoke exposure during pregnancy is teratogenic.

  1. Marketing wood waste for fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, P.C. )

    1995-01-01

    The value of waste wood to the buyer is the price at the plant gate with value reduced by any transportation costs and value increased by applicable tax credits. To assure the buyer of competitiveness fuels can be priced as a percentage of the competing fuel price. For example, wood can be priced at 80% of coal prices on a Btu basis. In addition to fuel price, there are several other benefits associated with the use of wood fuels. The fuel is renewable, locally supplied, and usually available from more than one source. It also may be stockpiled for several months. These advantages give the buyer better security than than purchasing fuel from a distant, impersonal source that is more likely to increase prices or withhold fuel for various reasons. 3 tabs.

  2. Wood heat for small plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wallin, J.C.

    1981-05-01

    It is reported that the Viking Pallet Co. of Osseo, Minn., recently converted its 10,000 sq. ft. pallet manufacturing plant to wood heat by installing a 1 1/4 million Btu G and S furnace. After a payback period of four years, the firm expects to save more than $4,000 a year on fuel costs. The former system of gas heat was only economical if the plant thermostat was kept at 50 degrees Fahrenheit. Wood heat enables the thermostat to be set at a more comfortable 60 degrees Fahrenheit and be equally economical. Another company, Pallets and Skates Co. has invested in wood stoves. Depending on weather conditions, savings of $800-1,200 a month can be made by heating the building with cant ends and trimmings.

  3. Joint probability of extreme waves and currents on Norwegian shelf--

    SciTech Connect

    Heideman, J.C. ); Hagen, O. )

    1989-07-01

    Simultaneous wave and current measurements on the Norwegian Shelf were used to estimate the appropriate current to associate with extreme waves in platform design. The primary data consisted of seven years of measurements at Tromsoflaket (71{degrees}30'N, 19{degrees}E, 230 m depth), including 38 storms with peak significant wave heights above 7 m. The maximum wave height and maximum current occurred simultaneously in only one of the 38 storms. The wave and current time-series data were used to calculate the time series of drag load on a simple structure and statistics of wave height and drag load were developed. The data showed that the in-line current that must be added to extreme waves in order to preserve the extreme loads approaches 25 cm/s asymptotically as storm severity increases. Sensitivity studies suggest that this limit is largely insensitive to reasonable variations in current profile, wave kinematics theory, structure geometry, tidal current removal, length of data base, or site location. These results show that the current specified by Norwegian regulatory authorities is conservative, and provide a basis for reducing the design hydrodynamic loads on drag-dominated offshore structures on the Norwegian shelf.

  4. Size and composition distribution of fine particulate matter emitted from wood burning, meat charbroiling, and cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Kleeman, M.J.; Schauer, J.J.; Cass, G.R.

    1999-10-15

    A dilution source sampling system is augmented to measure the size-distributed chemical composition of fine particle emissions from air pollution sources. Measurements are made using a laser optical particle counter (OPC), a differential mobility analyzer/condensation nucleus counter (DMA/CNC) combination, and a pair of microorifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDIs). The sources tested with this system include wood smoke (pine, oak, eucalyptus), meat charbroiling, and cigarettes. The particle mass distributions from all wood smoke sources have a single mode that peaks at approximately 0.1--0.2 {micro}m particle diameter. The smoke from meat charbroiling shows a major peak in the particle mass distribution at 0.1--0.2 {micro}m particle diameter, with some material present at larger particle sizes. Particle mass distributions from cigarettes peak between 0.3 and 0.4 {micro}m particle diameter. Chemical composition analysis reveals that particles emitted from the sources tested here are largely composed of organic compounds. Noticeable concentrations of elemental carbon are found in the particles emitted from wood burning. The size distributions of the trace species emissions from these sources also are presented, including data for Na, K, Ti, Fe, Br, Ru, Cl, Al, Zn, Ba, Sr, V, Mn, Sb, La, Ce, as well as sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ion when present in statistically significant amounts. These data are intended for use with air quality models that seek to predict the size distribution of the chemical composition of atmospheric fine particles.

  5. Smoking cessation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Sharon

    2014-06-01

    More than 400,000 deaths occur per year in the United States that are attributable to cigarette smoking; the risks to the general public are widely known. The risk to women, especially those who are pregnant, is less commonly known. During pregnancy, smoking increases the risk of low birth weight infants, placental problems (previa and/or abruption), chronic hypertensive disorders, and fetal death. It is proposed that much of this happens because of vasoconstriction with decreased uterine blood flow from nicotine, carbon monoxide toxicity, and increased cyanide production. Infants of smoking mothers have increased risks, such as sudden infant death syndrome.

  6. Adolescent elite athletes' cigarette smoking, use of snus, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose was to examine cigarette smoking, use of snus, alcohol, and performance-enhancing illicit drugs among adolescent elite athletes and controls, and possible gender and sport group differences. First-year students at 16 Norwegian Elite Sport High Schools (n = 677) and two randomly selected high schools (controls, n = 421) were invited to participate. Totally, 602 athletes (89%) and 354 (84%) controls completed the questionnaire. More controls than athletes were smoking, using snus, and drinking alcohol. Competing in team sports was associated with use of snus [odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 4.7] and a similar percentage of male and female handball (22.2% vs 18.8%) and soccer players (15.7% vs 15.0%) reported using snus. For controls, not participating in organized sport was a predictor for smoking (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 10.9). Female athletes were more prone to drink alcohol than males (46.3% vs 31.0%, P < 0.001). Only, 1.2% athletes and 2.8% controls reported use of performance-enhancing illicit drugs. In conclusion, use of legal drugs is less common among athletes, but this relationship depends on type of sport and competition level. The association between team sports and use of snus suggests that sport subcultures play a role.

  7. Wood stove effects on indoor air quality in Brazilian homes: carcinogens, suspended particulate matter, and nitrogen dioxide analysis.

    PubMed

    Hamada, G S; Kowalski, L P; Murata, Y; Matsushita, H; Matsuki, H

    1992-10-01

    The effects of wood burning stoves on indoor air quality was investigated in a rural community of southern Brazil, during the winter season of 1991. The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) were assessed in houses with wood stoves and the results compared with levels found in houses with gas stoves. Strikingly higher (p < 0.01) levels of PAHs, and much higher (p = 0.07) levels of SPM were found in the kitchens with wood stoves. In contrast, NO2 concentrations in the kitchen as well in personal exposure, were found to be slightly higher in houses with gas stoves. All these differences were minimally affected by smoking, outdoor air pollution or other emissions from indoor combustion products. These findings appear to support the hypothesis that domestic wood burning stoves are risk factors for some upper digestive and respiratory tract cancers in Brazil.

  8. The Smoke-Free Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report outlines the health threats of cigarette smoking on college campuses. It cites evidence that smoking among high school seniors and college freshmen has dropped only 1.5 percent since 1981, and notes the dangers of second-hand smoke. Six recommendations for becoming a smoke-free campus are listed. The experience of American industry and…

  9. Wood burning space heating stove

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, J.H.

    1981-08-04

    The design of a space heating wood burning stove, formed as a rectangular fire box, having a plurality of horizontal flue ducts leading to a flue manifold, adapted to generate substantial vertical convection currents of air, and further including vertical fins to enhance said convection currents, and further including a plurality of draft valves in substantial alignment with respective ones of said flue ducts for efficient burning of wood within said fire box is presented. Assembly of the fire box of the stove is completed under stressed conditions to prevent warping of the fire box panels from heating and cooling cycles.

  10. Wood Properties and Kinds; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

    Prepared by participants in the 1968 National Defense Education Act Institute on Wood Technology, this syllabus is one of a series of basic outlines designed to aid college level industrial arts instructors in improving and broadening the scope and content of their programs. This booklet is concerned largely with the physical composition and…

  11. Three Construction Projects with Wood Scraps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Elizabeth

    1977-01-01

    Wood, a natural material, appeals to children of all ages. Wood construction allows children the flexibility of moving parts of their work around until they are satisfied with the arrangement. Three projects are described. (Author/RK)

  12. Strange Creatures: An Additive Wood Sculpture Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wales, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project where students create strange creatures using scraps of wood. Discusses how the students use the wood and other materials. Explains that the students also write about the habitat characteristics of their creatures. Includes learning objectives. (CMK)

  13. The Kiln Drying of Wood for Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiemann, Harry D

    1919-01-01

    This report is descriptive of various methods used in the kiln drying of woods for airplanes and gives the results of physical tests on different types of woods after being dried by the various kiln-drying methods.

  14. Smoking Stinks! (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... empty wallet — cigarettes and tobacco products are very expensive! Let's find out more about cigarettes and tobacco. continue What Are Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco? Tobacco (say: tuh-BA-ko) ...

  15. Wingtip smoke generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Device produces nontoxic smoke of low particle density, assisting in investigation and study of aircraft wingtip vortexes in flight. It can be dimensioned according to available current and oil capacity.

  16. Smoking and Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Ion, Rachel; Bernal, Andrés López

    2015-08-01

    Premature birth is a significant global problem and the leading cause of newborn deaths. Tobacco smoking has been associated with premature birth for over 50 years. The mechanisms through which smoking exerts its effects on pregnancy outcomes remain unclear. In this review, we discuss rates of prematurity and smoking in pregnancy, the evidence of a causal relationship between tobacco and preterm birth, and proposed biochemical pathways through which the interaction is mediated. The suggested mechanisms include nicotine-induced vasoconstriction, carbon monoxide-induced fetal hypoxia, cadmium disruption of calcium signaling, altered steroid hormone production, disruption of prostaglandin synthesis, and changed responses to oxytocin. The relative importance of each of these pathways is yet to be ascertained. Further research is necessary to explore the mechanisms through which smoking exerts its effect on gestational length and the process of parturition. Moreover, the risks of nicotine replacement in pregnancy should be investigated further.

  17. Analyzing Cigarette Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Dan; Griffin, Dale; Ricker, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity in which students use their natural inquisitiveness about their personal environment to investigate the composition of cigarette smoke. Includes techniques for measuring tar and carbon monoxide content. (DDR)

  18. [Smoking among nursing students].

    PubMed

    Kolleck, Bernd

    2004-04-01

    Smoking as a major public-health concern is still a widespread habit among nurses and young students of nursing. The hypothesis however, that professional environment positively influences smoking habit, could not be supported: smoking is less influenced by vocational training and practice than by the social environment of the students. The results of the survey also show, that a great part of the smokers have a critical attitude towards their habit and would agree to counteractions. Nursing schools could play an important role therein. The conception of nursing as a responsible health profession would demand to take over a more active part in considering the consequences, in smoking prevention and in supporting cessation. PMID:15137673

  19. Smoked Tobacco Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... cigarettes primarily imported to the United States from India and other Southeast Asian countries. They are tobacco ... in the United States. However, research studies from India show that bidi smoking is associated with cancer ...

  20. Cigarette smoking contagion.

    PubMed

    Einstein, S; Epstein, A

    1980-01-01

    A ministudy was carried out with 50 male and female adults who are "regular" cigarette smokers to investigate the potential role(s) which contagion plays in smoking. Notwithstanding their reports that they were introduced to smoking by others 40% of the time, only 12% reported-remembered initiating someone else to smoking. The report of self-activated cigarette use is congruent with with most views about smoking, but not regarding drug use. As long as drug use intervention utilizes contagion as a concept, deviance as a classification and varieties of isolation as control techniques will be associated with drugs, users, and drug use. By definition, social substances have no source of contagion by others. The decision to use or abstain is viewed as being personal notwithstanding the reality that is related among other factors to a variety of market economies. PMID:7450935

  1. Raman spectroscopy for identification of wood species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, V. A.; Gurovich, A. M.; Kostrin, D. K.; Selivanov, L. M.; Simon, V. A.; Stuchenkov, A. B.; Paltcev, A. V.; Uhov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses the application of Raman spectroscopy for identification of wood species. Use of Raman spectroscopy allows increasing the certainty of determining the type of wood compared to the analysis of spectra of diffuse reflectance. Raman spectrums of different wood samples when irradiated by laser radiation are shown. Ways to improve the determination reliability of wood species due to the modernization of the identification technique are discussed. The stages of data processing, allowing carrying out correct further analysis are described.

  2. Evolution of 'smoke' induced seed germination in pyroendemic plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J. E.; Pausas, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Pyroendemics are plants in which seedling germination and successful seedling recruitment are restricted to immediate postfire environments. In many fire-prone ecosystems species cue their germination to immediate postfire conditions. Here we address how species have evolved one very specific mechanism, which is using the signal of combustion products from biomass. This is often termed ‘smoke’ stimulated germination although it was first discovered in studies of charred wood effects on germination of species strictly tied to postfire conditions (pyroendemics). Smoke stimulated germination has been reported from a huge diversity of plant species. The fact that the organic compound karrikin (a product of the degradation of cellulose) is a powerful germination cue in many species has led to the assumption that this compound is the only chemical responsible for smoke-stimulated germination. Here we show that smoke-stimulated germination is a complex trait with different compounds involved. We propose that convergent evolution is a more parsimonious model for smoke stimulated germination, suggesting that this trait evolved multiple times in response to a variety of organic and inorganic chemical triggers in smoke. The convergent model is congruent with the evolution of many other fire-related traits.

  3. Composition of carbonaceous smoke particles from prescribed burning of a Canadian boreal forest: 1. Organic aerosol characterization by gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurek, M.A.; Laterza, C.; Newman, L.; Daum, P.; Cofer, W.R. III; Levine, J.S.; Winstead, E.L.

    1995-06-01

    In this study we examine the molecular organic constituents (C8 to C40 lipid compounds) collected as smoke particles from a Canadian boreal forest prescribed burn. Of special interest are (1) the molecular identity of polar organic aerosols, and (2) the amount of polar organic matter relative to the total mass of aerosol particulate carbon. Organic extracts of smoke aerosol particles show complex distributions of the lipid compounds when analyzed by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The molecular constituents present as smoke aerosol are grouped into non-polar (hydrocarbons) and polar {minus}2 oxygen atoms) subtractions. The dominant chemical species found in the boreal forest smoke aerosol are unaltered resin compounds (C20 terpenes) which are abundant in unburned conifer wood, plus thermally altered wood lignins and other polar aromatic hydrocarbons. Our results show that smoke aerosols contain molecular tracers which are related to the biofuel consumed. These smoke tracers can be related structurally back to the consumed softwood and hardwood vegetation. In addition, combustion of boreal forest materials produces smoke aerosol particles that are both oxygen-rich and chemically complex, yielding a carbonaceous aerosol matrix that is enriched in polar substances. As a consequence, emissions of carbonaceous smoke particles from large-scale combustion of boreal forest land may have a disproportionate effect on regional atmospheric chemistry and on cloud microphysical processes.

  4. Highly Anisotropic, Highly Transparent Wood Composites.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mingwei; Song, Jianwei; Li, Tian; Gong, Amy; Wang, Yanbin; Dai, Jiaqi; Yao, Yonggang; Luo, Wei; Henderson, Doug; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-07-01

    For the first time, two types of highly anisotropic, highly transparent wood composites are demonstrated by taking advantage of the macro-structures in original wood. These wood composites are highly transparent with a total transmittance up to 90% but exhibit dramatically different optical and mechanical properties.

  5. Strengthen Wood Education through a Comprehensive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mative, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Wood education programs across the nation, at and below the secondary levels of education, have declined in enrollment in recent years. To many, wood education means only carpentry or woodworking. A systematic approach to the subject, as a part of a materials science course, can reverse the material's negative connotation and make wood education…

  6. Dioxins in cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, H.; Takizawa, Y.

    1989-05-01

    Dioxins in cigarettes, smoke, and ash were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in cigarette smoke was approximately 5.0 micrograms/m3 at the maximum level, whereas various congeners from tetra-octa-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (-CDD) were detected. Particullary, the total concentration of hepta-CDD congeners was the highest among these congeners. Mass fragmentograms of various PCDD congeners were similar to those in flue gas samples collected from a municipal waste incinerator. The PCDD congeners that were not present in the cigarettes were found in the smoke samples. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent value--an index for effects on humans--for total PCDDs in smoke was 1.81 ng/m3 using the toxic factor of the United States Environment Protection Agency. Daily intake of PCDDs by smoking 20 cigarettes was estimated to be approximately 4.3 pg.kg body weight/day. This value was close to that of the ADIs: 1-5 pg.kg body weight/day reported in several countries. A heretofore unrecognized health risk was represented by the presence of PCDDs in cigarette smoke.

  7. Fire-resistant wood composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, P. M.

    1979-01-01

    Hot pressed wood panels made with modified novolak resins have burnthrough time of 450 s as compared to 280 s for products using conventional novolak resins. Incorporation of inorganic filler reduces flame spread index of panels from more than 200 to 60 or 70.

  8. Let's Get the Wood Out!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, John W.

    1977-01-01

    The forestry program at the Foster Vocational Center, Framington, Maine, serving more than 90 percent forested Franklin County, trains students bused from their home schools for three periods daily in harvesting the raw materials for local wood-using industries. During the winter, one period weekly is in the classroom but most classes are held…

  9. Wood stove air flow regulating

    SciTech Connect

    Brefka, P.E.

    1983-10-04

    A wood stove has primary and secondary air regulator doors at the bottom and top, respectively, of the stove door each rotating about the axis of a tightening knob in the center of the door opposite a baffle plate that defines with the door inside an air channel open at the top and bottom.

  10. GELIFICATION OF WOOD DURING COALIFICATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatcher, Patrick G.; Romankiw, Lisa A.; Evans, John R.

    1985-01-01

    Coalified wood was examined by SEM and CPMAS**1**3C NMR to delineate chemical and physical alterations responsible for gelification. Early coalification selectively degrades cellulosic components, preserving lignin-like components that are eventually transformed to coal. Cellular morphology persists until the chemical composition becomes uniform, at which point the cells coalesce under compaction and gelify.

  11. Hydrogeology of Wood County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batten, W.G.

    1989-01-01

    The average rate of ground·water pumpage in Wood County in 1985 was 9.7 million gallons per day. Of this rate, about 6 million gallons per day is pumped from municipal-supply wells in seven communities.An additional 1.08 million gallons per day is pumped for agricultural irrigation.

  12. Cognitions about smoking and not smoking in adolescence.

    PubMed

    ter Doest, Laura; Dijkstra, Arie; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Vitale, Salvatore

    2009-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior identifies important proximal determinants of behavior, including attitude toward the behavior, perception of subjective norms exerted by significant others, and perception of perceived control over performance of the behavior. Because research in the planned behavior tradition has focused on desirable target behaviors, it is not clear how these determinants can best be conceptualized to account for adolescents' acquisition of health risk behaviors such as smoking. This cross-sectional study compared the explanatory power of planned behavior constructs assessed in relation to "smoking" and "not smoking" in a sample of 248 Dutch secondary students (aged 12 to 17 years; 56% girls). The results indicated that four variables--attitude toward smoking, perceived subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control over both smoking and not smoking--best explained the adolescents' smoking intentions and smoking behavior. Methodological and practical implications for smoking interventions are discussed.

  13. Postpartum smoking abstinence and smoke-free environments.

    PubMed

    Ashford, Kristin; Hahn, Ellen; Hall, Lynne; Peden, Ann R; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to describe factors that contribute to successful postpartum smoking abstinence among women who quit smoking during pregnancy. Research questions addressed the primary motivators and lifestyle characteristics of women who do not return to postpartum smoking. Participants were recruited from a feasibility study (N = 16) based on their ability to remain smoke free for at least 6 months following delivery. Individual interviews were analyzed using content analysis strategies. Women's narratives described the process of postpartum smoking abstinence. Four themes emerged: (a) child's health as the primary motivator, (b) demanding a smoke-free home or environment, (c) smoking perception changes from one of primarily comfort to one of disgust, and (d) viewing abstinence as a lifelong change. Clinical implications include educating families about the effects of smoke-free environments on the health of their children while redirecting smoking habits with healthy behaviors.

  14. Kinetic investigation of wood pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thurner, F.; Mann, U.; Beck, S. R.

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the kinetics of the primary reactions of wood pyrolysis. A new experimental method was developed which enabled us to measure the rate of gas, tar, and char production while taking into account the temperature variations during the wood heating up. The experimental method developed did not require any sophisticated instruments. It facilitated the collection of gas, tar and residue (unreacted wood and char) as well as accurate measurement of the temperature inside the wood sample. Expressions relating the kinetic parameters to the measured variables were derived. The pyrolysis kinetics was investigated in the range of 300 to 400/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure and under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction temperature and mass fractions of gas, tar, and residue were measured as a function of time. Assuming first-order reactions, the kinetic parameters were determined using differential method. The measured activation energies of wood pyrolysis to gas, tar, and char were 88.6, 112.7, and 106.5 kJ/mole, respectively. These kinetic data were then used to predict the yield of the various pyrolysis products. It was found that the best prediction was obtained when an integral-mean temperature obtained from the temperature-time curve was used as reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products were analyzed to investigate the influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the composition. The gas consisted mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C/sub 3//sup +/-compounds. The gas composition depended on reaction time as well as reactor temperature. The tar analysis indicated that the tar consisted of about seven compounds. Its major compound was believed to be levoglucosan. Elemental analysis for the char showed that the carbon content increased with increasing temperature.

  15. A Symbolic Interaction Approach to Cigarette Smoking: Smoking Frequency and the Desire to Quit Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Reitzes, Donald C.; DePadilla, Lara; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    This study applies a symbolic interaction perspective to the investigation of smoking frequency and a person’s desire to quit smoking cigarettes. Data derived from 485 Atlanta area adult smokers provide a diverse, community-based sample of married and single men and women, aged 18 to 70 years old with a range of income, education, and occupational experiences. Multiple regression was used to analyze the data in order to explore the influence of social demographic characteristics, social interaction, subjective assessments of health, self conceptions, and smoker identity on smoking frequency and quitting smoking. Findings include: (1) the relationship with a non-smoker and hiding smoking negatively impacted smoking frequency, while perceiving positive consequences from smoking has a positive effect on smoking frequency; and (2) perceiving positive consequences of smoking was negatively related to the desire to quit smoking, while a negative smoker identity has a positive influence on the desire to quit. Taken as a whole, the symbolic interaction-inspired variables exerted strong and independent effects on both smoking frequency and quitting smoking. Future smoking interventions should focus on meanings and perceived consequences of smoking in general, and on the smoker identity in the development of campaigns to encourage quitting cigarette smoking. PMID:23869112

  16. New wood stoves are tops for efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhart, R.

    1989-09-01

    This article describes the new efficient wood stoves and discusses problems in nomenclature with some prefabricated fireplaces that include baffles, catalytic combustors and other devices previously associated with the wood stove. Wood stoves are subject to strict US EPA emission control regulations and fireplaces are not. Officials at the EPA evaluate wood burners on a case-by-case basis to determine if they should be subject to the stove regulations. To date, there are over 100 EPA-approved wood stoves on the market.

  17. Biosynthesis and biodegradation of wood components

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, T.

    1985-01-01

    A textbook containing 22 chapters by various authors covers the structure of wood, the localization of polysaccharides and lignins in wood cell walls, metabolism and synthetic function of cambial tissue, cell organelles and their function in the biosynthesis of cell wall components, biosynthesis of plant cell wall polysaccharides, lignin, cutin, suberin and associated waxes, phenolic acids and monolignols, quinones, flavonoids, tannins, stilbenes and terpenoid wood extractives, the occurrence of extractives, the metabolism of phenolic acids, wood degradation by micro-organisms and fungi, and biodegradation of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and aromatic extractives of wood. An index is included.

  18. The CHICA smoking cessation system.

    PubMed

    Downs, Stephen M; Zhu, Vivienne; Anand, Vibha; Biondich, Paul G; Carroll, Aaron E

    2008-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Pediatricians are well positioned to help smoking parents quit. Parents who smoke may be particularly responsive to advice to quit, repeated smoking cessation messages can be effective, and parents visit the pediatrician 8-10 times for well care in the first two years of their child's life. Yet most pediatricians do not provide smoking cessation advice. We developed a parental smoking cessation module for an established pediatric primary care decision support system (CDSS) that runs as a front-end to the Regenstrief Medical Record System. The system collects data directly from parents and guides the physician through smoking cessation counseling, using stages of change. We present the CDSS and the smoking module as well as descriptive data from our smoking cessation system. We also describe a randomized controlled trial of the system that is now underway.

  19. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Background: On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Methods: Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Results: Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. Conclusion: The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments. PMID:22294782

  20. Do cognitive attributions for smoking predict subsequent smoking development?

    PubMed

    Guo, Qian; Unger, Jennifer B; Azen, Stanley P; MacKinnon, David P; Johnson, C Anderson

    2012-03-01

    To develop more effective anti-smoking programs, it is important to understand the factors that influence people to smoke. Guided by attribution theory, a longitudinal study was conducted to investigate how individuals' cognitive attributions for smoking were associated with subsequent smoking development and through which pathways. Middle and high school students in seven large cities in China (N=12,382; 48.5% boys and 51.5% girls) completed two annual surveys. Associations between cognitive attributions for smoking and subsequent smoking initiation and progression were tested with multilevel analysis, taking into account plausible moderation effects of gender and baseline smoking status. Mediation effects of susceptibility to smoking were investigated using statistical mediation analysis (MacKinnon, 2008). Six out of eight tested themes of cognitive attributions were associated with subsequent smoking development. Curiosity (β=0.11, p<0.001) and autonomy (β=0.08, p=0.019) were associated with smoking initiation among baseline non-smokers. Coping (β=0.07, p<0.001) and social image (β=0.10, p=<.0001) were associated with smoking progression among baseline lifetime smokers. Social image (β=0.05, p=0.043), engagement (β=0.07, p=0.003), and mental enhancement (β=0.15, p<0.001) were associated with smoking progression among baseline past 30-day smokers. More attributions were associated with smoking development among males than among females. Susceptibility to smoking partially mediated most of the associations, with the proportion of mediated effects ranging from 4.3% to 30.8%. This study identifies the roles that cognitive attributions for smoking play in subsequent smoking development. These attributions could be addressed in smoking prevention programs.

  1. Movie smoking, movie horror, and urge to smoke.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D; Maruska, Karin; Morgenstern, Matthis; Isensee, Barbara; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    It is known that exposure to smoking cues increases urge to smoke (UTS), but little is known about other media factors that might also increase UTS. We hypothesized that horror/ thriller movies might also increase UTS by increasing negative affect. We surveyed 536 movie patrons who were smokers aged 18 years or older. Subjects had exited 26 movies, of which 12 contained smoking and two were horrorfilms, one with and one without smoking. We used random effects regression to assess the association between exposure to movie smoking, movie horror, both and UTS, controlling for confounding factors. Median age was 26 years and 52% were female. Mean UTS was 5.9, 6.6, 6.6, and 8.7 for smokers exiting movies without smoking, with smoking, horror without smoking and horror with smoking respectively. Smoking in movies was associated with a significantly higher UTS (0.63 [95% CI 0.31-0.94]). Horror with smoking increased UTS by 2.8 points (95% C.I. 2.3, 3.5); the horror without smoking estimate was 0.88, but not statistically significant. This short report offers preliminary evidence that movie horror as one factor besides visual smoking cues that could increase UTS in a community setting.

  2. Movie Smoking, Movie Horror, and Urge to Smoke

    PubMed Central

    SARGENT, James D.; MARUSKA, Karin; MORGENSTERN, Matthis; ISENSEE, Barbara; HANEWINKEL, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    It is known that exposure to smoking cues increases urge to smoke (UTS), but little is known about other media factors that might also increase UTS. We hypothesized that horror/thriller movies might also increase UTS by increasing negative affect. We surveyed 536 movie patrons who were smokers aged 18 years or older. Subjects had exited 26 movies, of which 12 contained smoking and two were horror films, one with and one without smoking. We used random effects regression to assess the association between exposure to movie smoking, movie horror, both and UTS, controlling for confounding factors. Median age was 26 years and 52% were female. Mean UTS was 5.9, 6.6, 6.6, and 8.7 for smokers exiting movies without smoking, with smoking, horror without smoking and horror with smoking respectively. Smoking in movies was associated with a significantly higher UTS (0.63 [95% CI 0.31–0.94]). Horror with smoking increased UTS by 2.8 points (95% C.I. 2.3, 3.5); the horror without smoking estimate was 0.88, but not statistically significant. This short report offers preliminary evidence that movie horror as one factor besides visual smoking cues that could increase UTS in a community setting. PMID:20301876

  3. Movie smoking, movie horror, and urge to smoke.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D; Maruska, Karin; Morgenstern, Matthis; Isensee, Barbara; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    It is known that exposure to smoking cues increases urge to smoke (UTS), but little is known about other media factors that might also increase UTS. We hypothesized that horror/ thriller movies might also increase UTS by increasing negative affect. We surveyed 536 movie patrons who were smokers aged 18 years or older. Subjects had exited 26 movies, of which 12 contained smoking and two were horrorfilms, one with and one without smoking. We used random effects regression to assess the association between exposure to movie smoking, movie horror, both and UTS, controlling for confounding factors. Median age was 26 years and 52% were female. Mean UTS was 5.9, 6.6, 6.6, and 8.7 for smokers exiting movies without smoking, with smoking, horror without smoking and horror with smoking respectively. Smoking in movies was associated with a significantly higher UTS (0.63 [95% CI 0.31-0.94]). Horror with smoking increased UTS by 2.8 points (95% C.I. 2.3, 3.5); the horror without smoking estimate was 0.88, but not statistically significant. This short report offers preliminary evidence that movie horror as one factor besides visual smoking cues that could increase UTS in a community setting. PMID:20301876

  4. From Digital Divides to Digital Inequality -- The Emerging Digital Inequality in the Norwegian Unitarian School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumsvik, Rune J.

    2008-01-01

    This position paper highlights existing and emerging, prospective digital divides in Norwegian schools and asks whether we are now moving from traditional digital divides to digital inequality in our digitized society and schools. Despite very good technology density in Norwegian society and schools in general, there is the reason to pay attention…

  5. Infant Directed Speech in Natural Interaction--Norwegian Vowel Quantity and Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Kjellrun T.; Behne, Dawn M.

    2005-01-01

    An interactive face-to-face setting is used to study natural infant directed speech (IDS) compared to adult directed speech (ADS). With distinctive vowel quantity and vowel quality, Norwegian IDS was used in a natural quasi-experimental design. Six Norwegian mothers were recorded over a period of 6 months alone with their infants and in an adult…

  6. Work-Plan Heroes: Student Strategies in Lower-Secondary Norwegian Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalland, Cecilie P.; Klette, Kirsti

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how individualized teaching methods, such as the use of work plans, create new student strategies in Norwegian lower secondary classrooms. Work plans, which are frequently set up as instructional tools in Norwegian classrooms, outline different types of tasks and requirements that the students are supposed to do during a…

  7. Semantic Models of Host-Immigrant Relations in Norwegian Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garthus-Niegel, Kristian; Oppedal, Brit; Vike, Halvard

    2016-01-01

    Education has continuously been regarded as a vital tool in Norwegian policymakers' immigrant integration agendas. This study analyzes semantic structures substantiating the policy language of historical Norwegian immigrant education policies from their inception in 1973 until today (2013). The analysis is framed by Kronenfeld's linguistic…

  8. Cross-Validation of the Norwegian Teacher's Self-Efficacy Scale (NTSES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avanzi, Lorenzo; Miglioretti, Massimo; Velasco, Veronica; Balducci, Cristian; Vecchio, Luca; Fraccaroli, Franco; Skaalvik, Einar M.

    2013-01-01

    The study assesses the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Norwegian Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale--NTSES. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis was used to explore the measurement invariance of the scale across two countries. Analyses performed on Italian and Norwegian samples confirmed a six-factor structure of the scale…

  9. A Revised Version of the Norwegian Adaptation of the Test Anxiety Inventory in a Heterogeneous Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oktedalen, Tuva; Hagtvet, Knut A.

    2011-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis and Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes (MIMIC) modeling were employed to investigate psychometric properties of a revised adaptation of the Norwegian version of the Test Anxiety Inventory (RTAIN) in a sample of 456 students. The study supported the Norwegian version as a useful inventory for measuring the components…

  10. Norway. A Guide to the Admission and Academic Placement of Norwegian Students in North American Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjogren, Clifford F.; Kerr, Lornie G.

    As part of the Projects for International Education Research, information is provided on Norwegian education and recommendations for admissions and academic placement of Norwegian students studying in U.S. colleges and universities. The overview on Norwegian education includes information on the structure of the system, the 9-year basic school,…

  11. The Norwegian Educational System, the Linguistic Diversity in the Country and the Education of Different Minority Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özerk, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    Linguistic diversity has always been and still is one of the current issues in the Norwegian educational system. Norwegian is the official language of the country, but, there have been several distinct dialects and two official written Norwegian languages in the country since 1885. One of them is "Bokmål" and the other is…

  12. Monitoring adverse events in Norwegian hospitals from 2010 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Deilkås, Ellen Tveter; Bukholm, Geir; Lindstrøm, Jonas Christoffer; Haugen, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe how adverse event (AE) rates were monitored and estimated nationally across all Norwegian hospitals from 2010 to 2013, and how they developed during the monitoring period. Monitoring was based on medical record review with Global Trigger Tool (GTT). Setting All publicly and privately owned hospitals were mandated to review randomly selected medical records to monitor AE rates. The initiative was part of the Norwegian patient safety campaign, launched by the Norwegian Ministry of Health and Care Services. It started in January 2011 and lasted until December 2013. 2010 was the baseline for the review. One of the main aims of the campaign was to reduce patient harm. Method To standardise the medical record reviews in all hospitals, GTT was chosen as a standard method. GTT teams from all hospitals reviewed 40 851 medical records randomly selected from 2 249 957 discharges from 2010 to 2013. Data were plotted in time series for local measurement and national AE rates were estimated, plotted and monitored. Results AE rates were estimated and published nationally from 2010 to 2013. Estimated AE rates in severity categories E-I decreased significantly from 16.1% in 2011 to 13.0% in 2013 (−3.1% (95% CI −5.2% to −1.1%)). Conclusions Monitoring estimated AE rates emerges as a potential element in national systems for patient safety. Estimated AE rates in the category of least severity decreased significantly during the first 2 years of the monitoring. PMID:26719311

  13. Smoking: Making the risky decision

    SciTech Connect

    Viscusi, W.K.

    1993-01-01

    This book approaches the smoking debate from a new angle. The thrust of the study was to determine if smokers are cognizant of the risks connected with smoking, and if so, how these risk beliefs influence the decision to smoke. The study evaluates the government's anti-smoking policies and recommends changes to these policies. Viscusi does not address the actual health risks of smoking independent of risk perception and subsequent behavioral data; the US Surgeon General's smoking risk assessments are acknowledged at face vale.

  14. Effects of smoking on asthma.

    PubMed

    Jindal, S K

    2014-03-01

    Tobacco smoking has several adverse associations with asthma.The odds ratios for prevalence of asthma are high for both active smoking and ETS exposures. In-utero exposure of foetus from maternal smoking, as well as its tertiary exposure from maternal passive-smoking are also known to be responsible for development of asthma in childhood. Smoking adversely affects the health and treatment-outcomes of asthma. There are increased requirements of drugs for smoker and ETS exposed asthmatics. Smoking is also an important factor in the development of airway remodelling, fixed airway obstruction and an exaggerated lung function decline. PMID:25327058

  15. Racial resentment and smoking.

    PubMed

    Samson, Frank L

    2015-02-01

    Racial resentment (also known as symbolic racism) is among the most widely tested measures of contemporary prejudice in political science and social psychological research over the past thirty years. Proponents argue that racial resentment reflects anti-black emotion obtained through pre-adult socialization. In light of affect-based models of substance use, this paper examined the association between racial resentment and smoking in a national sample of non-Hispanic white, black, and Hispanic respondents. Data come from the 2012 American National Election Study, which contained two measures of smoking. The results of ordinal logistic regression models indicate a positive association between racial resentment and smoking among non-Hispanic whites (N = 2133) that is not present among blacks (N = 693) or Hispanics (N = 660). Models controlled for age, education, income, gender, political ideology, region, and mode of interview. Furthermore, analyses indicated that a measure of race-related affect, admiration and sympathy towards blacks, partially mediated the association between racial resentment and smoking. For non-Hispanic whites, racial resentment appears to constitute a risk factor for smoking. Future studies should further specify the conditions linking substance use to the race-related affective component of racial resentment.

  16. Racial resentment and smoking.

    PubMed

    Samson, Frank L

    2015-02-01

    Racial resentment (also known as symbolic racism) is among the most widely tested measures of contemporary prejudice in political science and social psychological research over the past thirty years. Proponents argue that racial resentment reflects anti-black emotion obtained through pre-adult socialization. In light of affect-based models of substance use, this paper examined the association between racial resentment and smoking in a national sample of non-Hispanic white, black, and Hispanic respondents. Data come from the 2012 American National Election Study, which contained two measures of smoking. The results of ordinal logistic regression models indicate a positive association between racial resentment and smoking among non-Hispanic whites (N = 2133) that is not present among blacks (N = 693) or Hispanics (N = 660). Models controlled for age, education, income, gender, political ideology, region, and mode of interview. Furthermore, analyses indicated that a measure of race-related affect, admiration and sympathy towards blacks, partially mediated the association between racial resentment and smoking. For non-Hispanic whites, racial resentment appears to constitute a risk factor for smoking. Future studies should further specify the conditions linking substance use to the race-related affective component of racial resentment. PMID:25562312

  17. Wood dust exposure and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hancock, David G; Langley, Mary E; Chia, Kwan Leung; Woodman, Richard J; Shanahan, E Michael

    2015-12-01

    Occupational lung cancers represent a major health burden due to their increasing prevalence and poor long-term outcomes. While wood dust is a confirmed human carcinogen, its association with lung cancer remains unclear due to inconsistent findings in the literature. We aimed to clarify this association using meta-analysis. We performed a search of 10 databases to identify studies published until June 2014. We assessed the lung cancer risk associated with wood dust exposure as the primary outcome and with wood dust-related occupations as a secondary outcome. Random-effects models were used to pool summary risk estimates. 85 publications were included in the meta-analysis. A significantly increased risk for developing lung cancer was observed among studies that directly assessed wood dust exposure (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.39, n=33) and that assessed wood dust-related occupations (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.23, n=59). In contrast, a reduced risk for lung cancer was observed among wood dust (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.99, n=5) and occupation (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.98, n=1) studies originating in Nordic countries, where softwood dust is the primary exposure. These results were independent of the presence of adjustment for smoking and exposure classification methods. Only minor differences in risk between the histological subtypes were identified. This meta-analysis provides strong evidence for an association between wood dust and lung cancer, which is critically influenced by the geographic region of the study. The reasons for this region-specific effect estimates remain to be clarified, but may suggest a differential effect for hardwood and softwood dusts.

  18. Norwegian remote sensing experiment in a marginal ice zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrelly, B.; Johannessen, J.A.; Svendsen, E.; Kloster, K.; Horjen, I.; Matzler, C.; Crawford, J.; Harrington, R.; Jones, L.; Swift, C.; Delnore, V.E.; Cavalieri, D.; Gloersen, P.; Hsiao, S.V.; Shemdin, O.H.; Thompson, T.W.; Ramseier, R.O.; Johannessen, O.M.; Campbell, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Norwegian Remote Sensing Experiment in the marginal ice zone north of Svalbard took place in fall 1979. Coordinated passive and active microwave measurements were obtained from shipborne, airborne, and satellite instruments together with in situ observations. The obtained spectra of emissivity (frequency range, 5 to 100 gigahertz) should improve identification of ice types and estimates of ice concentration. Mesoscale features along the ice edge were revealed by a 1.215-gigahertz synthetic aperture radar. Ice edge location by the Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer was shown to be accurate to within 10 kilometers.

  19. First oil pipeline to Norway crosses Norwegian trench

    SciTech Connect

    Johsrud, P.

    1988-05-02

    Norsk Hydro AS laid the first oil pipeline from North Sea fields to Norway last summer as part of the Oseberg transportation system. The line was hydrostatically tested last fall in preparation for start-up next year. After several appraisal wells and extensive evaluation work, the operator for the field, Norsk Hydro, presented a development plan which was approved by the Norwegian parliament in the spring of 1984. This article describes the development phases, the transportation system, and how the trench crossing was done.

  20. Seroprevalence of measles among Norwegian military conscripts in 2004.

    PubMed

    Vainio, K; Samdal, H H; Anestad, G; Skutlaberg, D H; Bransdal, K T; Mundal, R; Aaberge, I

    2007-03-01

    The study presented here was conducted in order to evaluate the impact of Norway's childhood immunization program against measles, which was implemented in 1969. In the study, the level of measles immunity was measured among 1,405 military conscripts belonging to the first childhood immunization cohorts that were offered two doses of the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine. The overall seroprevalence of measles antibodies in this cohort was 89.3%. Two commercially available antibody assays were used, and the discordance between the two assays was 10.5%. Similar levels of immunity to measles were detected in earlier studies of Norwegian conscripts belonging to different childhood immunization cohorts.

  1. Driving kids to smoke? Children's reported exposure to smoke in cars and early smoking initiation.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Scragg, Robert; Min, Sandar; Kira, Anette; Nosa, Vili; McCool, Judith; Bullen, Chris

    2011-11-01

    The health risks associated with second hand smoke (SHS) are well-known. However, little is known about exposure to SHS in cars and risk of smoking uptake. This paper investigates the association between pre-adolescents reported exposure to smoking in cars and prevalence of early stage smoking activity. Data from Keeping Kids Smokefree baseline surveys of students were used to investigate smoking status and reported exposure to smoking in cars. Log binomial regression analyses were used to investigate if reported exposure to SHS in cars was associated with smoking prevalence. 83% of 5676 students invited took part. After controlling for all variables reported exposure to smoking in cars and homes were significantly associated with increased risk of initiated smoking (RR 1.87, 95% CI 1.43-2.44, and RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.13-1.97, respectively). Exposure to smoking in cars was substantially and significantly associated with risk of current smoking (RR 3.21, 95% CI 1.45-7.08). Early smoking uptake is associated with students' reported exposure to smoking in cars which confirms the importance of protecting children from SHS. Smoking in cars is under parental control and therefore modifiable. Moreover, children's reports of SHlS exposure offer a simple way of identifying families who can be targeted for tobacco control interventions.

  2. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. Methods We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. Results To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Conclusions Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services. PMID:26345719

  3. Relations Among Caffeine Consumption, Smoking, Smoking Urge, and Subjective Smoking Reinforcement in Daily Life.

    PubMed

    Treloar, Hayley R; Piasecki, Thomas M; McCarthy, Danielle E; Baker, Timothy B

    2014-09-01

    Caffeine consumption and cigarette smoking tend to occur within the same individuals and at the same time. One potential explanation for this co-use is that caffeine consumption increases subjective smoking reinforcement. Electronic diaries were used to collect momentary reports of smoking, caffeine consumption, temptation/urge to smoke, and subjective smoking reinforcement in 74 prequit smokers. Momentary reports of caffeine consumption and smoking were associated, replicating previous findings. These results remained significant when contextual factors (time of day, weekday/weekend, presence of others, presence of others smoking, location, and past hour alcohol consumption) were covaried. Caffeine consumption was also associated with positive cigarette appraisals and reports of strong temptation/urge to smoke and urge reduction from the prior cigarette. Under the conditions of caffeine consumption versus at other times, smokers were significantly more likely to report their last cigarette as producing a rush/buzz, being pleasant, relaxing, and tasting good. The effects for temptation/urge to smoke and rush/buzz varied as a function of latency since smoking. Caffeine consumption increased reports of urge to smoke and rush/buzz only when smoking occurred more than 15 minutes prior to the diary entry. Findings suggest that caffeine consumption influences some aspects of smoking motivation or affects memorial processing of smoking reinforcement.

  4. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: An Occupational Hazard for Smoking and Non-Smoking Bar and Nightclub Employees

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Miranda R; Wipfli, Heather; Shahrir, Shahida; Avila-Tang, Erika; Samet, Jonathan M; Breysse, Patrick N; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Background In the absence of comprehensive smoking bans in public places, bars and nightclubs have the highest concentrations of secondhand tobacco smoke, posing a serious health risk for workers in these venues. Objective To assess exposure of bar and nightclub employees to secondhand smoke, including non-smoking and smoking employees. Methods Between 2007 and 2009, we recruited approximately 10 venues per city and up to 5 employees per venue in 24 cities in the Americas, Eastern Europe, Asia and Africa. Air nicotine concentrations were measured for 7 days in 238 venues. To evaluate personal exposure to secondhand smoke, hair nicotine concentrations were also measured for 625 non-smoking and 311 smoking employees (N=936). Results Median (interquartile range [IQR]) air nicotine concentrations were 3.5 (1.5, 8.5) µg/m3 and 0.2 (0.1, 0.7) µg/m3 in smoking and smoke-free venues, respectively. Median (IQR) hair nicotine concentrations were 6.0 (1.6, 16.0) ng/mg and 1.7 (0.5, 5.5) ng/mg in smoking and non-smoking employees, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, education, living with a smoker, hair treatment and region, a 2-fold increase in air nicotine concentrations was associated with a 30% (95% confidence interval 23%, 38%) increase in hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking employees and with a 10% (2%, 19%) increase in smoking employees. Conclusions Occupational exposure to secondhand smoke, assessed by air nicotine, resulted in elevated concentrations of hair nicotine among non-smoking and smoking bar and nightclub employees. The high levels of airborne nicotine found in bars and nightclubs and the contribution of this exposure to employee hair nicotine concentrations support the need for legislation measures that ensure complete protection from secondhand smoke in these venues. PMID:22273689

  5. Thirdhand Smoke Beliefs of Parents

    PubMed Central

    Drehmer, Jeremy E.; Ossip, Deborah J.; Nabi-Burza, Emara; Rigotti, Nancy A.; Hipple, Bethany; Woo, Heide; Chang, Yuchiao

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if the belief that thirdhand smoke is harmful to children is associated with smoking parents’ attitudes, home or car smoking policies, and quitting behaviors. METHODS: Data from a national randomized controlled trial, Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure, assessed thirdhand smoke beliefs of 1947 smoking parents in an exit survey after a pediatric office visit in 10 intervention and 10 control practices. Twelve-month follow-up data were collected from 1355 parents. Multivariable logistic regression determined whether belief that thirdhand smoke harms the health of children is independently associated with parental behaviors and attitudes 12 months later. A χ2 test assessed whether parents who disagreed that thirdhand smoke is harmful were more likely to make a quit attempt if they later believed that thirdhand smoke is harmful. RESULTS: Belief at the exit survey that thirdhand smoke is harmful was independently associated with having a strictly enforced smoke-free home policy (adjusted odds ratio: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.37–3.05) and car policy (adjusted odds ratio: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.04–2.74) at the 12-month follow-up. A significantly higher percentage (71% vs 50%) of parents who did not hold the thirdhand smoke harm belief at baseline made at least 1 quit attempt if they agreed that thirdhand smoke is harmful at the 12-month follow-up (P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Thirdhand smoke harm belief was associated with a strictly enforced smoke-free home and car and attempts to quit smoking. Sensitizing parents to thirdhand smoke risk could facilitate beneficial tobacco control outcomes. PMID:24590745

  6. Smoke alarm tests may not adequately indicate smoke alarm function.

    PubMed

    Peek-Asa, Corinne; Yang, Jingzhen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Smoke alarms are one of the most promoted prevention strategies to reduce residential fire deaths, and they can reduce residential fire deaths by half. Smoke alarm function can be measured by two tests: the smoke alarm button test and the chemical smoke test. Using results from a randomized trial of smoke alarms, we compared smoke alarm response to the button test and the smoke test. The smoke alarms found in the study homes at baseline were tested, as well as study alarms placed into homes as part of the randomized trial. Study alarms were tested at 12 and 42 months postinstallation. The proportion of alarms that passed the button test but not the smoke test ranged from 0.5 to 5.8% of alarms; this result was found most frequently among ionization alarms with zinc or alkaline batteries. These alarms would indicate to the owner (through the button test) that the smoke alarm was working, but the alarm would not actually respond in the case of a fire (as demonstrated by failing the smoke test). The proportion of alarms that passed the smoke test but not the button test ranged from 1.0 to 3.0%. These alarms would appear nonfunctional to the owner (because the button test failed), even though the alarm would operate in response to a fire (as demonstrated by passing the smoke test). The general public is not aware of the potential for inaccuracy in smoke alarm tests, and burn professionals can advocate for enhanced testing methods. The optimal test to determine smoke alarm function is the chemical smoke test. PMID:21747329

  7. Cardiovascular effects of smoking.

    PubMed

    Mancia, G; Groppelli, A; Casadei, R; Omboni, S; Mutti, E; Parati, G

    1990-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) increases with smoking and this factor interacts with hypercholesterolemia and hypertension in raising the incidence of this condition in a greater than linear fashion. This can be explained by the adverse effect of smoking on plasma fibrogen, platelet turnover and lipid profile. It may also be accounted for, however, by the acute bradycardia, increase in blood pressure and generalized vasoconstriction accompanying smoking, due to a nicotine-dependent activation of the sympathetic nervous system. These effects (which in heavy smokers can raise blood pressure permanently) are only partly offset by beta-blockers and can only be abolished by opposing the cardiac and vascular sympathetic influences by alpha and beta-blockade combined.

  8. [SMOKING CESSATION IN PREGNANCY].

    PubMed

    Grangé, Gilles; Berlin, Ivan

    2015-09-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is the leading preventable cause of perinatal morbidity. Half of smokers are weaned during pregnancy resulting in 15% of female smokers at time of delivery. Most often, women spontaneously withdraw at the announcement of pregnancy. Thus, the action of professionals has a modest effect. But this effect is real and should encourage us to take care for patients who smoke. They should feel free with guilty. The spouse must be included in this support to create an enabling environment. Every action has its effectiveness. Nicotine prescription should be reserved for cases where it reduces consumption and keep the medicalized link. It is possible to smoke with a nicotine patch in place; the substitution then reduces the cosumption of each cigarette.

  9. Afterburner for a wood stove

    SciTech Connect

    Dorach, E.H.; Dorsch, H.

    1984-08-21

    An afterburner for a wood stove for use as a retrofit assembly comprises a rectangular housing having openings in the upper and lower surfaces provided with cylindrical collars for cooperation with the flue duct and with the opening in the top of the wood stove respectively. The openings are positioned at the rear of the housing so as to provide a forward section spaced from the openings. A catalytic combuster mounted in a cylindrical support is movable from a position directly above the opening in the bottom surface into the front section by a manually operable handle extending through the front face of the housing. A baffle mounted on the support and arranged at a shallow angle to the horizontal overlies the major part of the combuster so as to direct gases into the front section of the housing for heat exchange contact with the walls thereof.

  10. Wood stove having catalytic converter

    SciTech Connect

    Willson, A.C.

    1982-12-14

    A wood burning stove is formed with double front and rear side walls of heat conductive metal spaced apart by heat conductive spacer fins and providing air passageways by which room air is heated by conduction from the walls which are heated by the burning of wood deposited on a firebox floor supported in heat conducting relationship with the inner side walls. A catalytic converter is disposed over the fire area in the upper portion of the stove, and is arranged to receive preheated fresh secondary air which mixes with hot, incompletely combusted compounds from the fire and, in the presence of the catalyst, induces a secondary combustion of the substances. This mixture is channeled into a heat extraction chamber where the secondary combustion is completed and the resultant heat is transferred to the metal body of the stove. An exhaust passageway is provided for releasing the products of complete combustion into the atmosphere.

  11. Blood parasites of wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Knisley, J.O., Jr.; Knipling, G.D.

    1971-01-01

    Examination of blood films from wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from several northeastern states revealed Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium and a typanosome. Haemoproteus occurred in all areas sampled and birds of the year from Massachusetts demonstrated the highest incidence during the last 2 weeks in August. Leucocytozoon was most prevalent in more northern areas. P. circumflexum and a trypanosome are reported for the first time from this host.

  12. Carbon Sequestration via Wood Burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, N.

    2007-12-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which forest dead wood or old trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It was estimated that the carbon sequestration potential of forest wood harvest and burial is 10GtC y-1 with an uncertainty range of 5-15 GtC y-1. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost was crudely estimated at $50/tC, significantly lower than the cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage, a carbon sequestration technique currently under most serious consideration. The low cost is largely because the CO2 capture is achieved at little cost by the natural process of photosynthesis. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe and can be stopped or reversed at any time. The relatively low cost may soon be competitive enough for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon trading market. In tropical regions with ongoing deforestation, wood burial instead of burning will immediately reduce that portion of the anthropogenic CO2 emission.

  13. [Smoking and reproduction. Part 1. Smoking and sexual health].

    PubMed

    Králíková, E; Himmerová, V

    2004-01-01

    The first of the three-part series deals with effects of smoking on sexual and reproductive health. The second part will be published the next month, and it will consider smoking and pregnancy. Part three will concern effects of smoking on some other aspects of reproductive health.

  14. Combination coal and wood stove

    SciTech Connect

    Gillis, G.A.; Lucier, R.

    1983-05-17

    The combination stove has a fire chamber that is partially cylindrical including a side loading door for loading wood or other combustible material such as coke or coal into the fire chamber. The front of the stove may be opened to enable viewing of the wood or coal burning in the stove by means of an arcuate sliding door that is operable to substantially totally close the chamber or open a section of the front thereof for viewing purposes. The sliding door is covered by a window construction including a tempered glass face. The stove is provided with an open base for supporting the chamber in a shroud covering the top and back of the chamber, preferably including blower means associated therewith. Particularly for wood combustion, the chamber is provided with a top draft extending longitudinally of the chamber and has supported therein a grate. For coal combustion, air input draft is coupled under the grate, preferably also including the capability of forced air draft using a portion of the forced air from the blower.

  15. FAA Smoke Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Domino, Stefan; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay; Gallegos, Carlos

    2006-10-27

    FAA Smoke Transport Code, a physics-based Computational Fluid Dynamics tool, which couples heat, mass, and momentum transfer, has been developed to provide information on smoke transport in cargo compartments with various geometries and flight conditions. The software package contains a graphical user interface for specification of geometry and boundary conditions, analysis module for solving the governing equations, and a post-processing tool. The current code was produced by making substantial improvements and additions to a code obtained from a university. The original code was able to compute steady, uniform, isothermal turbulent pressurization. In addition, a preprocessor and postprocessor were added to arrive at the current software package.

  16. Perception of Wood in River Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, A.

    2003-12-01

    In managing river channels, wood is often perceived as hazardous and has traditionally been removed. On the other hand, wood provides many benefits including food and habitat for fish and mechanisms for energy dissipation. Increasing recognition of the positive role of wood has encouraged the reintroduction of wood to restore rivers. However, it is not clear how widely this practice is accepted, and whether traditional views of wood hazards may influence the success of such restoration projects. This paper describes a large-scale effort to increase understanding of how wood is perceived in stream channels. This project, led by H. Piegay and K.J. Gregory, involves an international group of workers from 9 countries in contrasting parts of the world. A total of 1886 surveys were given to students 20-25 years of age to test the hypothesis that the perception of wood is related to one's socio-cultural environment. Students were asked to view a set of 20 standard photographs, 10 with wood and 10 without, and to answer a set of questions related to how hazardous the scenes are perceived. Results show clear differences in perception, with students from Texas, USA, viewing streams with wood to be more dangerous, less aesthetic, and to need more improvement than those without. These perceptions contrast with those from the Pacific northwest and some areas around the world, providing clues to the potential success and acceptance of reintroducing wood in stream restoration.

  17. [Cannabis smoking and lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; de Chazeron, I; Meurice, J-C

    2014-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in the world. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but it is mainly smoked mixed with tobacco. The combined smoking of cannabis and tobacco is a common-place phenomenon in our society. However, its use is responsible for severe pulmonary consequences. The specific impact of smoking cannabis is difficult to assess precisely and to distinguish from the effect of tobacco. Marijuana smoke contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carcinogens at higher concentration than tobacco smoke. Cellular, tissue, animal and human studies, and also epidemiological studies, show that marijuana smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Cannabis exposure doubles the risk of developing lung cancer. This should encourage clinicians to identify cannabis use and to offer patients support in quitting.

  18. Continuous Laminar-Smoke Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, L. M.

    1985-01-01

    Single smoke filament used to study flow in low-speed wind tunnels. Use of small-diameter single laminar smoke stream allows examination of flow structures at higher resolution, and continuous operation facilitates use.

  19. [Passive smoking. Effects on health].

    PubMed

    Trédaniel, J; Zalcman, G; Boffetta, P; Hirsch, A

    1993-05-15

    Passive smoking--also called involuntary or environmental smoking--is the exposure of non-smokers to the tobacco smoke released by smokers. The physico-chemical composition of tobacco smoke, and notably its contents in toxic and carcinogenic substances, is the same in the secondary stream between puffs as in the primary stream released by the smoker. The pathogenic effects of passive smoking are increasingly well known and accepted. A high incidence of respiratory tract infections and of chronic respiratory and asthmatic symptoms is observed in children. In adults, passive smoking seems to be one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Its repercussions on the respiratory tracts is difficult to evaluate, but there are marked by an increase of respiratory symptoms and perhaps of chronic obstructive lung diseases. Finally, it is now recognized that passive smoking is a major risk factor for primary lung cancer in non-smokers exposed to tobacco smoke. PMID:8235360

  20. Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Office on Smoking and Health, 2014 [accessed 2014 Mar 5]. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. ... Office on Smoking and Health, 2006 [accessed 2014 Mar 5]. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. ...

  1. Aerosols: The colour of smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellouin, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    Particles of smoke from natural and human-made fires absorb sunlight and contribute to global warming. Laboratory experiments suggest that smoke is often more absorbing than current numerical models of global climate assume.

  2. Analysis of the petroleum resources of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Flertoft, I.P.; Kvadsheim, E.; Kalheim, J.E.

    1995-08-01

    The 1995 analysis of the petroleum resources of Norway is based on a play analysis. The input to the 1995 analysis is updated and refined compared with the analysis of 1993. The analysis makes a major distinction between unconfirmed play models and plays confirmed by discoveries. The unconfirmed plays have a higher risk and a greater range of uncertainty in the resource estimates compared to the confirmed plays. The effect of the unconfirmed plays on the estimates within different exploration areas is discussed. The unconfirmed play models are an important aspect of the exploration in the new exploration areas north of 62{degrees}N. The total estimate for the Norwegian Shelf is well within the estimate given in the 1993 analysis, but there are some adjustments in the relative importance of the different exploration provinces. Much emphasis is placed on incorporating historical exploration data and statistics to calibrate the play models. This includes rate of success and field size distributions of the individual play models and exploration provinces. Major confirmed plays in the North Sea have a rate of success of about 30% and show a good fit to a log normal field size distribution. Based on the log normal distribution it is possible to give prognosis for the size distribution of the undiscovered accumulation. This has made it possible to work out an economic analysis of the profitability of future exploration on the Norwegian Continental Shelf.

  3. Structural evolution and petroleum potential of the Norwegian Barents Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, K.T.

    1995-08-01

    The tectonic history of the Norwegian Barents Sea has provided potential hydrocarbon traps in clastic reservoirs associated with rotated fault blocks, compressional anticlines and salt domes. Significant stratigraphic potential also resides in Paleozoic carbonates. Drilling in the Hammerfest Basin has yielded large gas discoveries in rotated fault blocks, but other trapping concepts remain relatively untested. The undrilled arm north of 74{degrees} 30 minutes N, currently being mapped by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate using exclusive seismic and geological data from shallow boreholes, represents a significant area for future exploration. Prospectivity is critically dependent on the scaling of traps following Neogene uplift of large areas of the Barents platform. The area is dominated by structural trends inherited from the Caledonian and older orogens. Carboniferous rifting established a system of half grabens and intervening highs, followed by late Permian faulting in the west which initiated regional subsidence continuing into the early Jurassic. Fault reactivation in early Triassic times triggered salt diapirism and provided structural control for the formation of Triassic shelf margins. During the late Jurassic-early Cretaceous western basins underwent tectonic subsidence, while the northeastern platform arm was subject to gentle compression. In the late Cretaceous salt was reactivated in the Nordkapp Basin and compressional structures developed west of the Loppa High. Further subsidence of the western basins was promoted by late Mesozoic and early Tertiary transtensional movements along the North Atlantic rift system. Subsequent regional compression in these basins, and basin inversion east of the Loppa High, are of post-Eocene age.

  4. Risk perception and safety in Norwegian offshore workers

    SciTech Connect

    Rundmo, T.

    1996-12-31

    The relationships between perception of risk, behavior and involvement in accidents are receiving increased attention in the offshore oil industry. How employees perceive the risk they are exposed to during the conduct of their work may contribute to an understanding of risk management and thereby to the safety of their working conditions. A self-completion questionnaire survey was carried out among employees on a representative sample of offshore oil installations in the Norwegian part of the North Sea in 1990. In 1994 a follow-up study was carried out. A total of 915 respondents replied to our questionnaire in 1990 and 1138 in 1994. The studies were financed by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. There were significantly fewer of the personnel who felt at risk in 1994 compared to 1990 and a greater percentage of the personnel were satisfied with the safety and contingency measures and experienced job stress to a greater extent in 1990 than they did in 1994. Emotional reactions caused by potentially-hazardous risk sources were dependent on the respondents perceived controllability of the risk sources. The study also showed that there were significant positive correlations between organizational factors, safety status, perceived risk, and accidents. However, safety cannot be improved by changing risk perception. It is the factors that cause variations in risk perception as well as behavior and safety which should be the focus of safety promotion.

  5. Heteronormative consensus in the Norwegian same-sex adoption debate?

    PubMed

    Anderssen, Norman; Hellesund, Tone

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the Norwegian newspaper debate (1998-2002) on the right of homosexual couples to adopt children. It identifies two patterns of meaning within which both anti-adoption and pro-adoption sides of the debate were located: 1) the nuclear family as reference point; and 2) a focus on innate qualities. Parallell to a continuous liberalization of sexualities in Norway we seem to witness a consensus on heteronormativity in Norway on both sides of the debate as the basic axiom in public discussions on homosexuality and adoption. In this article, we explore the nature of the heteronormative arguments and the reason for their appearance in this particular debate. The two patterns of meaning reproduce a perception of lesbians and gays as either a worthy or unworthy minority. These findings may be seen as reflecting fundamental positions regarding the Norwegian modernization project, where both sides of the debate see homosexuality as a central symbol. State feminism may also have played the role of reinforcing gender categories and thereby served as an important condition of possibility for contemporary heteronormativity.

  6. Perceptions of Norwegian physiotherapy students: cultural diversity in practice.

    PubMed

    Fougner, Marit; Horntvedt, And Tone

    2012-01-01

    At the Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo University College there is a growing recognition of the need for cultural competency training among students at the bachelor programmes. At the Mensendieck-physiotherapy bachelor programme the students are engaged in leading physical activity groups for Muslim women. This qualitative study describes ethnically Norwegian students experiencing cultural diversity in practice. Twenty-two female physiotherapy students participated in the interviews; 6 students were interviewed individually by telephone, and 16 students were interviewed in person in 8 pairs. The students' framework for dealing with diversity is based on preconceived notions about Muslim women and is reflected in two particular ways. One is how the values and norms of Norwegian "ideology of sameness" are pursued by the students. The other is how the students constructed images of the women as "the others." The interview responses indicate difficulties in uniting the reality of diversity and the "need" for integration. The curriculum requires additional attention on cultural competency for health care professionals in a multicultural society. PMID:21682583

  7. Hearing status among Norwegian train drivers and train conductors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a general perception that train drivers and conductors may be at increased risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss. Aims To study job-related hearing loss among train drivers and train conductors. Methods Audiograms from train drivers and train conductors were obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the major Norwegian railway company. The results were compared with audiograms from an internal control group of railway workers and an external reference group of people not occupationally exposed to noise. The monaural hearing threshold level at 4kHz, the mean binaural value at 3, 4 and 6kHz and the prevalence of audiometric notches (≥25 dB at 4kHz) were used for comparison. Results Audiograms were available for 1567 drivers, 1565 conductors, 4029 railway worker controls and 15 012 people not occupationally exposed to noise. No difference in hearing level or prevalence of audiometric notches was found between study groups after adjusting for age and gender. Conclusions Norwegian train drivers and conductors have normal hearing threshold levels comparable with those in non-exposed groups. PMID:24204021

  8. Carbon sequestration via wood burial.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ning

    2008-01-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink.It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 +/- 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized.Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market. PMID:18173850

  9. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ning

    2008-01-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market. PMID:18173850

  10. Carbon sequestration via wood burial.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ning

    2008-01-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink.It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 +/- 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized.Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  11. Short communication: Is consumption of a cheese rich in angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibiting peptides, such as the Norwegian cheese Gamalost, associated with reduced blood pressure?

    PubMed

    Nilsen, R; Pripp, A H; Høstmark, A T; Haug, A; Skeie, S

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibiting peptides derived from dairy products may decrease blood pressure. These peptides have been identified in many cheeses, and Gamalost, a traditional Norwegian cheese, is particularly rich in these peptides. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine whether frequency of Gamalost intake was associated with blood pressure in a Norwegian population sample. Blood pressure and other clinical measurements, including the factors of metabolic syndrome, were obtained from 168 participants (56% female, mean age = 51 yr) who completed a questionnaire about dietary habits and other health-related factors. Mean Gamalost intake was 2 servings per week. The prevalence of hypertension was 23.8% in the population, with mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures of 128 and 78 mmHg, respectively. Intake of Gamalost was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure. Each increase in frequency unit of Gamalost intake corresponded to a reduction in systolic blood pressure of 0.72 mmHg, after controlling for sex, age, education, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking status, and dairy food intake. Results from this study indicate that consumption of Gamalost (or other foods rich in ACE-inhibiting peptides) may reduce blood pressure.

  12. Smoking in Cancer Care (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep smoking increase their risk of having a second cancer. You have a higher risk of a second cancer if you keep smoking, whether you have ... or not smoking-related. The risk of a second cancer may last for up to 20 years, ...

  13. Smoking Cessation and Weight Gain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated determinants of weight gain after quitting smoking in two smoking treatment outcome studies. Results indicated abstinence resulted in weight gain, and postquitting weight gain was predicted by pretreatment tobacco use, a history of weight problems, and eating patterns. Relapse to smoking did not follow weight gain. (Author/BL)

  14. Smoking and Asthma (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth > For Teens > Smoking and Asthma Print A A A Text Size What's in ... the health problems it causes. If you have asthma, smoking is especially risky because of the damage ...

  15. Smoke Detector Resource Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portugill, Jestyn, Ed.; Powell, Pamela, Ed.

    This manual is one of a series developed for public education on smoke detectors. First, basic facts are given including guidelines for selection and purchasing, installation, maintenance, and what to do if the alarm goes off. Second, five case studies are presented which are examples of public education programs. (The script to one slide…

  16. Smoke Detector Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Pamela, Ed.; Portugill, Jestyn, Ed.

    This manual, one in a series developed for public education, provides information on smoke detector selection, installation, operation, and maintenance. For the prospective buyer, the importance of looking for the seal of a recognized national testing laboratory--such as Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. (UL)--indicating adequate laboratory testing…

  17. [Biomarkers of tobacco smoke].

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Andrzej; Wardas, Władysław; Zielińska-Danch, Wioleta; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela

    2005-01-01

    In order to estimate the exposure of passive and active smokers to tobacco smoke one can use the questionnaire method or laboratory examination of chemical compounds being widely accepted exposure biomarkers. Substances that make such biomarkers include some of the tobacco smoke components and its metabolites formed in the body. The study discusses two groups of biomarkers. First, includes substances that serve as exposure markers of carcinogenous properties (metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitrosamines, trans,transmuconic acid, S-phenylmercapturic acid). Second group includes substances which role is limited to the evaluation of exposure to tobacco smoke (nicotine, cotinine, anatabine, anabasine, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, thiocyanate, carboxyhemoglobin, carbon monoxide). Sensitivity and specificity of biomakers used were evaluated, their concentration ranges in physiological fluids in non-smokers, passive-, and active smokers. The simplicity of the examination method was evaluated. Articles published during last two decades indicate that the substance that have all features that make it the most appropriate biomarker is cotinine. It can be assessed in plasma and in urine of smokers and persons exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.

  18. Einstein Up in Smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisle, John

    2016-01-01

    Albert Einstein's biographers have not explained why he developed the abdominal aortic aneurysm that led to his death. Early conjectures proposed that it was caused by syphilis, without accurate evidence. The present article gives evidence to the contrary, and argues that the principal cause of Einstein's death was smoking.

  19. Determinants of Quitting Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabat, Geoffrey C.; Wynder, Ernst L.

    1987-01-01

    Factors associated with quitting smoking were analyzed. Quitters were those who had stopped for at least one year. Quit rates were higher for males, those in higher age groups of both sexes, those of higher educational and occupational levels, Jews, and whites. (Author.VM)

  20. Smoke Ring Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of smoke rings, tornados, and quantized vortex rings in superfluid helium has many features in common. These features can be described by the same mathematics we use when introducing Ampere's law in an introductory physics course. We discuss these common features. (Contains 7 figures.)

  1. Smoking and COPD

    MedlinePlus

    ... so it's hard to breathe. Things that make chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms worse are called triggers. Knowing what your triggers are and how to avoid them can help you feel better. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ...

  2. The Smoking Milkshake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jennifer; Luebbers, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This teaching idea is designed for students to learn about the ingredients in cigarettes and the potential short-term health consequences of these ingredients, as well as to learn about the general effects of smoking. Students will complete an activity to use this information in a hypothetical, but potentially, real-world situation.…

  3. Acne and smoking

    PubMed Central

    Capitanio, Bruno; Ottaviani, M; Bordignon, V; Amantea, A; Picardo, M

    2009-01-01

    Background. Post-adolescent acne is an inflammatory disorder, whose cause is unknown. Contrasting data are available on correlation between acne and smoking habit. Objectives. To verify the frequency of clinically non-inflammatory (atypical) post-adolescent acne (APAA) among women, a possible correlation with cigarette smoking, possible differences in sebum composition in a group of female smokers with acne compared to healthy smokers and non-smokers. Method and results. 1046 randomly selected women (25–50-years-old) participated at the study. In 60 selected female subjects we analyzed sebum composition for α-tocopherol, squalene and squalene monohydroperoxide. We found a high prevalence of APAA among women (74.6%), a strong correlation with smoking habit (p < 0.0001), as well as an increase in the grade of sebum peroxidation (p < 0.05) with a reduction in vitamin E (p = 0.02), in the subjects with acne compared to the controls. Conclusions. Clinical evidence and experimental data showed a straight correlation between smoking habit and post-pubertal acne in which the clinically non-inflammatory type—APAA—is the most frequent. In the more severe cases we could consider APAA as a new entity (smoker’s acne). PMID:20436880

  4. Smoking and poverty.

    PubMed

    Haustein, Knut-Olaf

    2006-06-01

    The problem of poverty leads to increased use of both legal and illegal drugs. Tobacco and alcohol are legal drugs that cause particular concern. Both drugs are widely abused in Germany by people attempting to escape their everyday problems. For decades it has been known that tobacco and alcohol use are more prevalent in lower socio-economic groups of society (those with low educational achievement, compared with people with further or higher education qualifications). Tobacco and alcohol use is particularly high among the unemployed, either temporarily or long-term, as well as people living alone. Children and women are more concerned about smoking than men. Female loneliness, often accompanied by the appearance of depressive reactions or of depression, increases the likelihood of cigarette smoking. Poor people spend up to 20% of their income on tobacco. In many industrialized countries, the age of onset of smoking is becoming younger and younger, increasing the risk of development of avoidable tobacco-related illnesses at an earlier age. This means that young smokers who develop chronic tobacco-related illnesses will require medical care over many years, increasing the cost of treating tobacco-related disease. Within the next few years, effective prevention programs against smoking must be developed, particularly for the lower socio-economic populations, in order to stop the cost of healthcare systems spiraling over the coming decades. PMID:16926658

  5. Smoke Detectors Save Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kominski, John

    This resource bulletin provides information which can be used in classrooms, at conferences, and at meetings with parents to increase public awareness and acceptance of a new New York City ordinance which requires the installation of smoke detectors in apartments. The booklet contains information on the following: (1) background information for…

  6. Smoking Cessation among Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotts, R. Craig; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer is a serious health problem among blacks, with a mortality rate of 119 per 100,000 black males, compared to 81 per 100,000 for white males. Smoking cessation efforts are most successful when tailored to the black community, using black community networks and broadcast media for black audiences. (SLD)

  7. Up in Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    An activity that introduces the concept of chaos to students is presented. Smoke rising from burning incense is used to represent changes in atmospheric flow. The lab, involving fluid dynamics, avoids mathematical models to highlight deterministic chaos within nature itself. Reproducible pages are provided. (KR)

  8. Smoke Ring Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2011-11-01

    The behavior of smoke rings, tornados, and quantized vortex rings in superfluid helium has many features in common. These features can be described by the same mathematics we use when introducing Ampère's law in an introductory physics course. We discuss these common features.

  9. Smoke emissions in an ecologically sound dryer for coconut

    SciTech Connect

    Lozada, E.P.; Timmins, W.H.; Metcalfe, E.

    1997-12-31

    There are about a million smoke kilns in the world that are being used to dry coconuts produced from over 7,000,000 hectares. Smoke emissions from these kilns are known to contain large quantities of greenhouse and acid rain gases. To minimize the generation of these gases, kilns with better combustion characteristics and heat utilization efficiencies must be used. A possible alternative is a direct-fired, free convection dryer known as the Los Banos (Lozada) Multicrop Dryer. Developed at the University of the Philippines Los Banos, the multicrop dryer consists of a simple burner, a heat distributor and a drying bin. The burner burns coconut shell, corn cob and wood pieces with extremely high efficiency, thus, minimizing fuel consumption and dramatically reducing the release of airborne pollutants. The resulting copra (dried coconut kernel) is practically smoke-free with low levels of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH`s). Tests have also shown that the gas emissions from the dryer, when compared to that of the traditional smoke kiln, have lower concentrations of CO{sub 2} (1% vs 6%), of CO (50 ppm vs 2000-3000 ppm), of NO{sub x} (5 ppm vs 400 ppm) and SO{sub x} (5 ppm vs 400 ppm).

  10. Afobazole protects rats exposed to peat smoke in utero.

    PubMed

    Gorbatova, D M; Litvinova, S A; Durnev, A D; Seredenin, S B

    2015-03-01

    Female outbred albino rats were daily subjected to forced inhalations of peat smoke (4 cores packed with a mixture of peat (70%) and wood pulp (30%); 0.46 g, pH at least 5.5, core burning time 6 min,; total exposure 44 min) per se and in combination with oral afobazole (anxiolytic) in doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg on days 1-20 of pregnancy. Some groups of females received oral afobazole (200 mg/kg) after delivery, due to which their newborn rats received the drug in doses of 1-10 mg/kg with maternal milk on days 1-20 of life. Exposure to peat smoke inhibited body weight gain in the progeny on days 5-60 of life. Afobazole treatment during the pre- and postnatal periods prevented this effect. Open field testing showed that exposure to peat smoke prolonged the motor activity in the progeny and impaired the loss of orientation and exploratory behavior during repeated testing. Oral afobazole (1 and 10 mg/kg) during the prenatal and/or postnatal period (with maternal milk) prevented the effects of peat smoke.

  11. Youth smoking, cigarette prices, and anti-smoking sentiment.

    PubMed

    Decicca, Philip; Kenkel, Donald; Mathios, Alan; Shin, Yoon-Jeong; Lim, Jae-Young

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, we develop a new direct measure of state anti-smoking sentiment and merge it with micro-data on youth smoking in 1992 and 2000. The empirical results from the cross-sectional models show two consistent patterns: after controlling for differences in state anti-smoking sentiment, the price of cigarettes has a weak and statistically, insignificant influence on smoking participation, and state anti-smoking sentiment appears to have a potentially important influence on youth smoking participation. The cross-sectional results are corroborated by results from the discrete time hazard models of smoking initiation that include state-fixed effects. However, there is evidence of price-responsiveness in the conditional cigarette demand by youth and young adult smokers.

  12. Grafting of wood pulp with thermoplastic sidechains to make wood/plastic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Meister, J.J.; Chen, Meng Jiu

    1995-12-01

    A method of grafting lignin-containing materials is now known which allows 1-phenylethylene or 4-methyl-2-oxy-3-oxopent-4-ene graft copolymers of wood to be quantitatively made. Graft copolymer is formed by conducting a free-radical polymerization with 1-phenylethene in nitrogen-saturated, organic or aqueous/organic solvent containing a lignin source, calcium chloride, and a hydroperoxide. Grafting changes solubility and surface properties of the wood. The lignin-containing materials grafted are unbleached wood pulps produced by chemical, thermal, and mechanical pulping. Grafting wood pulp produces a wood-reinforced, thermoplastic composite. When a particular plastic is to be blended with wood, we react the wood with the monomer used to make that plastic. This creates a hydrophobic surface of the plastic on the wood. This plastic coating can readily bond to the continuous plastic phase. The products of this grafting reaction are thermoplastic composites with dispersed, bound fibers distributed throughout the continuous phase.

  13. Ecological study of dietary and smoking links to lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Grant, W B

    2000-12-01

    The ecological approach is used to investigate dietary and smoking links to lymphoma. International mortality rate data for 1986 and 1994 by gender and age group are compared with national dietary supply values of various food components for up to 10 years prior to the mortality data as well as per capita cigarette consumption rates 5 and 15 years earlier. The non-fat portion of milk, 3-9 years prior to the 1986 mortality data and 4 years prior to the 1994 data, was found to have the highest association with lymphoma, with r as high as 0.89. The results imply that 70 percent of lymphoma mortality may be related to this dietary component. Cigarette smoking in 1980 was found to have a weaker association with 1994 lymphoma mortality rates, being most important for younger men and statistically insignificant for younger women. The non-fat milk result is consistent with both case-control studies and a Norwegian prospective study, and with the often-observed finding that abnormal calcium metabolism, hypercalciuria, and dysregulated calcitriol production are common in normocalcemic patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). It is hypothesized that excess dietary calcium from milk is a significant risk factor for lymphoma.

  14. Ecological study of dietary and smoking links to lymphoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, W. B.

    2000-01-01

    The ecological approach is used to investigate dietary and smoking links to lymphoma. International mortality rate data for 1986 and 1994 by gender and age group are compared with national dietary supply values of various food components for up to 10 years prior to the mortality data as well as per capita cigarette consumption rates 5 and 15 years earlier. The non-fat portion of milk, 3-9 years prior to the 1986 mortality data and 4 years prior to the 1994 data, was found to have the highest association with lymphoma, with r as high as 0.89. The results imply that 70 percent of lymphoma mortality may be related to this dietary component. Cigarette smoking in 1980 was found to have a weaker association with 1994 lymphoma mortality rates, being most important for younger men and statistically insignificant for younger women. The non-fat milk result is consistent with both case-control studies and a Norwegian prospective study, and with the often-observed finding that abnormal calcium metabolism, hypercalciuria, and dysregulated calcitriol production are common in normocalcemic patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). It is hypothesized that excess dietary calcium from milk is a significant risk factor for lymphoma.

  15. Characteristics of the Norwegian Coastal Current during Years with High Recruitment of Norwegian Spring Spawning Herring (Clupea harengus L.).

    PubMed

    Skagseth, Øystein; Slotte, Aril; Stenevik, Erling Kåre; Nash, Richard D M

    2015-01-01

    Norwegian Spring Spawning herring (NSSH) Clupea harengus L. spawn on coastal banks along the west coast of Norway. The larvae are generally transported northward in the Norwegian Coastal Current (NCC) with many individuals utilizing nursery grounds in the Barents Sea. The recruitment to this stock is highly variable with a few years having exceptionally good recruitment. The principal causes of recruitment variability of this herring population have been elusive. Here we undertake an event analysis using data between 1948 and 2010 to gain insight into the physical conditions in the NCC that coincide with years of high recruitment. In contrast to a typical year when northerly upwelling winds are prominent during spring, the years with high recruitment coincide with predominantly southwesterly winds and weak upwelling in spring and summer, which lead to an enhanced northward coastal current during the larval drift period. Also in most peak recruitment years, low-salinity anomalies are observed to propagate northward during the spring and summer. It is suggested that consistent southwesterly (downwelling) winds and propagating low-salinity anomalies, both leading to an enhanced northward transport of larvae, are important factors for elevated recruitment. At the same time, these conditions stabilize the coastal waters, possibly leading to enhanced production and improved feeding potential along the drift route to Barents Sea. Further studies on the drivers of early life history mortality can now be undertaken with a better understanding of the physical conditions that prevail during years when elevated recruitment occurs in this herring stock.

  16. Characteristics of the Norwegian Coastal Current during Years with High Recruitment of Norwegian Spring Spawning Herring (Clupea harengus L.).

    PubMed

    Skagseth, Øystein; Slotte, Aril; Stenevik, Erling Kåre; Nash, Richard D M

    2015-01-01

    Norwegian Spring Spawning herring (NSSH) Clupea harengus L. spawn on coastal banks along the west coast of Norway. The larvae are generally transported northward in the Norwegian Coastal Current (NCC) with many individuals utilizing nursery grounds in the Barents Sea. The recruitment to this stock is highly variable with a few years having exceptionally good recruitment. The principal causes of recruitment variability of this herring population have been elusive. Here we undertake an event analysis using data between 1948 and 2010 to gain insight into the physical conditions in the NCC that coincide with years of high recruitment. In contrast to a typical year when northerly upwelling winds are prominent during spring, the years with high recruitment coincide with predominantly southwesterly winds and weak upwelling in spring and summer, which lead to an enhanced northward coastal current during the larval drift period. Also in most peak recruitment years, low-salinity anomalies are observed to propagate northward during the spring and summer. It is suggested that consistent southwesterly (downwelling) winds and propagating low-salinity anomalies, both leading to an enhanced northward transport of larvae, are important factors for elevated recruitment. At the same time, these conditions stabilize the coastal waters, possibly leading to enhanced production and improved feeding potential along the drift route to Barents Sea. Further studies on the drivers of early life history mortality can now be undertaken with a better understanding of the physical conditions that prevail during years when elevated recruitment occurs in this herring stock. PMID:26636759

  17. Wood-rotting fungi of North America

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbertson, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The biology of wood-rotting fungi is reviewed. Discussions are presented in taxonomy, species diversity, North American distribution, developmental response to environmental factors, edibility and toxicity, medical uses, relationships of fungi with insects and birds, the role of fungi as mycorrhiza, pathological relationships with trees, role in wood decay, and ecology. Threats to the continuing existence of these fungi as a result of increased utilization of wood as fuel are also discussed. (ACR)

  18. Structural wood panels with improved fire resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawko, P. M. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Structural wood paneling or other molded wood compositions consisting of finely divided wood chips, flour, or strands are bound together and hot pressed with a modified novolac resin which is the cured product of a prepolymer made from an aralkyl ether or halide with a phenol and a hardening agent such as hexamethylene tetramine. The fire resistance of these articles is further improved by incorporating in the binder certain inorganic fillers, especially a mixture of ammonium oxalate and ammonium phosphate.

  19. Anisotropy of wood in the microwave region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziherl, Saša; Bajc, Jurij; Urankar, Bernarda; Čepič, Mojca

    2010-05-01

    Wood is transparent for microwaves and due to its anisotropic structure has anisotropic dielectric properties. A laboratory experiment that allows for the qualitative demonstration and quantitative measurements of linear dichroism and birefringence in the microwave region is presented. As the proposed experiments are based on the anisotropy (of wood), which is evident from the observable anisotropic structure of wood, they may serve as a demonstration for explaining the anisotropic properties in crystals in the optical region.

  20. Language use in an internet support group for smoking cessation: development of sense of community.

    PubMed

    Vambheim, Sara M; Wangberg, Silje C; Johnsen, Jan-Are K; Wynn, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    The use of the internet for health purposes is increasing, as is the number of sites and online communities aimed at helping people to stop smoking. Some of the effects of online communities may be mediated through a sense of community. By using the computer-program Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count with a Norwegian dictionary, we investigated whether there was a development of sense of community in a forum related to a Norwegian smoking cessation intervention, by examining the use of self-referencing vs. collective referencing words. Data from a 4-year period, including in total 5242 web pages, were included. There was a significant increase in the use of collective words over time and a significant decrease in the use of self-referencing words. The increase in the use of collective words suggests that there appears to be a development of a sense of community in the forum over time. More research is needed to study the importance of an online sense of community. PMID:22958060

  1. Texas College Students' Opinions of No-Smoking Policies, Secondhand Smoke, and Smoking in Public Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loukas, Alexandra; Garcia, Marcie R.; Gottlieb, Nell H.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined college student opinions of no-smoking policies, secondhand smoke, and smoking in public places. A convenience sample of 1,188 (66.4% female; 26.9% White, 64.1% Black, and 9.0% Hispanic) students attending 5 Texas colleges volunteered to complete a 60-item anonymous survey on tobacco attitudes and behaviors. Results of our…

  2. The Relations between Parents' Smoking, General Parenting, Parental Smoking Communication, and Adolescents' Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Vermulst, Ad A.; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether the associations between general parenting practices (i.e., support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and parental smoking on the one hand and older and younger siblings' smoking on the other were mediated by parental smoking communication (i.e., frequency and quality of parent-adolescent…

  3. Guides to pollution prevention: Wood preserving industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The guide provides an overview of the wood preserving industry and presents options for minimizing waste generation through source reduction and recycling. Treatment with both oilborne and waterborne preservatives is discussed in the guide. However, because in the United States, the majority of wood is treated with chromated copper arsenate, the guide focuses on waterborne preservatives. Process wastewater surface runoff water, and sludge are possible sources of contamination in the wood preserving industry, although in waterborne processes the majority of wastewater is reused. Process wastewater includes water from conditioning, kiln drying, treated wood washing, accumulations in doors or retort sumps, preservative formulation recovery, and rinsing.

  4. How Has the Availability of Snus Influenced Cigarette Smoking in Norway?

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Ingeborg; Lund, Karl Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Norway, low-nitrosamine smokeless tobacco (snus) is allowed to compete with cigarettes for market share. We aimed to study how the availability of snus influenced overall tobacco consumption, smoking initiation and smoking cessation. We discuss whether the Norwegian experience with snus can have any transfer value for e-cigarettes. Methods: We analysed consumption data from registered and unregistered supply sources of tobacco. We calculated quit-smoking ratios across snus use status in nine datasets comprising a total of 19,269 ever-smokers. Trends in snus use and smoking were derived from time-series of annual; cross-sectional; nationally representative surveys for the period 1985–2013. Results: The market share for snus increased from 4% in 1985 to 28% in 2012, but overall tobacco consumption decreased by 20.3% over this same period. Snus was the most common method for smoking cessation. Compared with smokers with no experience of using snus, the quit ratio for smoking was significantly higher for daily snus users in seven of the nine datasets analysed. Among young male adults, the prevalence of smoking (daily + occasional) was reduced from 50% in 1985 to 21% in 2013. Over the same period, use of snus increased from 9% to 33%. This negative correlation (r = −0.900, p < 0.001) was also observed among young females (r = −0.811, p < 0.001), but the trend shift in tobacco preferences occurred some years later. Conclusions: The experience with snus in Norway might indicate what will happen when alternative nicotine products––are allowed to compete with cigarettes in the nicotine market. PMID:25402565

  5. Metabolic effects of smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kindred K; Zopey, Mohan; Friedman, Theodore C

    2016-05-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, despite the vast and widely publicized knowledge about the negative health effects of tobacco smoking. Data show that smoking cessation is often accompanied by weight gain and an improvement in insulin sensitivity over time. However, paradoxically, post-cessation-related obesity might contribute to insulin resistance. Furthermore, post-cessation weight gain is reportedly the number one reason why smokers, especially women, fail to initiate smoking cessation or relapse after initiating smoking cessation. In this Review, we discuss the metabolic effects of stopping smoking and highlight future considerations for smoking cessation programs and therapies to be designed with an emphasis on reducing post-cessation weight gain.

  6. [Smoking and female reproductive health].

    PubMed

    Sajdak, Stefan; Witczak, Kamila; Sroka, Lukasz; Samulak, Dariusz

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological data shows that 9 millions of Poles are in smokers group, 43% of them are women. Smoking has significant negative impact on different fields of female sexual and reproductive life, like menstrual cycle, fertility, gynecological cancers and early menopause. Smoking during pregnancy is an important cause of ill health for both mother and foetus-it increases risk of placental complications, pregnancy induced hypertension, reduced fetal growth and perinatal death. Many of adverse effects of smoking is at least partially reversible after stopping smoking, so large public information campaigns can be useful for increasing women awareness of smoking hazards. Gynecologist, as a first contact specialist, has a responsibility to provide accurate information on the risks smoking poses both to the health of the smoker and to give clear, firm advice to stop smoking and offer suitable support.

  7. Metabolic effects of smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kindred K.; Zopey, Mohan; Friedman, Theodore C.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, despite the vast and widely publicized knowledge about the negative health effects of tobacco smoking. Data show that smoking cessation is often accompanied by weight gain and an improvement in insulin sensitivity over time. However, paradoxically, post-cessation-related obesity might contribute to insulin resistance. Furthermore, post-cessation weight gain is reportedly the number one reason why smokers, especially women, fail to initiate smoking cessation or relapse after initiating smoking cessation. In this Review, we discuss the metabolic effects of stopping smoking and highlight future considerations for smoking cessation programs and therapies to be designed with an emphasis on reducing post-cessation weight gain. PMID:26939981

  8. Metabolic effects of smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kindred K; Zopey, Mohan; Friedman, Theodore C

    2016-05-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, despite the vast and widely publicized knowledge about the negative health effects of tobacco smoking. Data show that smoking cessation is often accompanied by weight gain and an improvement in insulin sensitivity over time. However, paradoxically, post-cessation-related obesity might contribute to insulin resistance. Furthermore, post-cessation weight gain is reportedly the number one reason why smokers, especially women, fail to initiate smoking cessation or relapse after initiating smoking cessation. In this Review, we discuss the metabolic effects of stopping smoking and highlight future considerations for smoking cessation programs and therapies to be designed with an emphasis on reducing post-cessation weight gain. PMID:26939981

  9. Determination of hot and cool burning residential wood combustion source strengths using chemical mass balance modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, J.A.; Huntzicker, J.J.; Khalil, M.A.K. )

    1987-01-01

    This paper compares CMB results using separate hot and cool RWC source composition profiles, a composite of hot and cool composition profiles weighted according reported stove usage patterns, and the conventional EPA RWC source composition profile. These profiles are shown. Since the composition of hot and cool burn particles is dramatically different, hot and cool burn composition profiles can be used as separate sources in the same CMB model. Hot burning RWC particles are black, have a mild acrid smell and contain from 20 to 60% carbon (up to 80% of the carbon can be in the form of elemental carbon) and high levels of trace elements (5-25%K, 2-5% S and 2-4% Cl). In contrast, cool or smoldering burn smoke particles are tan, have a strong pleasant wood smoke smell, and contain 55-60% carbon which is mostly in the form of organic carbon with only a few percent of elemental carbon. The concentrations of trace elements in cool burning emissions are generally less than 0.1%. During hot burning the RWC smoke plume is practically invisible, while during cool burning the plume is very visible and has the typical blue-gray color associated with wood burning. For similar amounts of fuel burning in a stove, emission levels for cool burning are an average of 4.8 times higher than for hot burning.

  10. Developing Electronic Cooperation Tools: A Case From Norwegian Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Mydske, Per Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Background Many countries aim to create electronic cooperational tools in health care, but the progress is rather slow. Objective The study aimed to uncover how the authoritys’ financing policies influence the development of electronic cooperational tools within public health care. Methods An interpretative approach was used in this study. We performed 30 semistructured interviews with vendors, policy makers, and public authorities. Additionally, we conducted an extensive documentation study and participated in 18 workshops concerning information and communication technology (ICT) in Norwegian health care. Results We found that the interorganizational communication in sectors like health care, that have undergone an independent development of their internal information infrastructure would find it difficult to create electronic services that interconnect the organizations because such connections would affect all interconnected organizations within the heterogenic structure. The organizations would, to a large extent, depend on new functionality in existing information systems. Electronic patient records play a central role in all parts of the health care sector and therefore dependence is established to the information systems and theirs vendors. The Norwegian government authorities, which run more than 80% of the Norwegian health care, have not taken extraordinary steps to compensate for this dependency–the government's political philosophy is that each health care institution should pay for further electronic patient record development. However, cooperational tools are complex due to the number of players involved and the way they are intertwined with the overall workflow. The customers are not able to buy new functionalities on the drawing table, while the electronic patient record vendors are not willing to take the economic risk in developing cooperational tools. Thus, the market mechanisms in the domain are challenged. We also found that public projects

  11. Monoterpene emissions from Scots pine and Norwegian spruce

    SciTech Connect

    Janson, R.W. )

    1993-02-20

    Rates of monoterpene emissions from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norwegian spruce (Picea abies) have been measured at four sites in Sweden with a dynamic flow chamber technique. Forest floor emissions have been made in the pine forest with the static chamber technique. The compounds [Delta][sup 3]-carene and [alpha]-pinene were the predominant terpenes emitted from the crown and floor of the Scots pine forest. Alpha-pinene was the main terpene emitted from Norwegian spruce at the sites in southern and central Sweden, while [Delta][sup 3]-carene was predominant at the northern site. Emission rates, normalized to temperature, were seen to vary diurnally with a maximum at midday, and seasonally with maxima in early May and October, and a summer maximum in June-July. The possible dependence of the emission rate on needle growth rate and other plant-physiological processes is discussed. A higher emission rate and different relative composition of the emission was seen to occur when the vegetation was wet, as compared to dry vegetation. The emission from the pine forest floor was seen to have a composition different from that of the crown and a seasonality of the rate similar to that of the crown. The ground emission could not be explained by sources in the litter or ground vegetation alone, and it is suggested that the root system of the trees is also an emission source. The emission rate from the pine forest floor was of the order of 30% of the crown emission. The July rate of emission from the crown of Scots pine, normalized to 20[degrees]C and averaged over four sites in Sweden, was 0.8 [plus minus] 0.4 [mu]g (gdw (grams dry weight) h)[sup [minus]1], and for Norwegian spruce, 0.5 [plus minus] 0.7 [mu]g(gdw h)[sup [minus]1]. It would seem that previous regional and global estimates of hydrocarbon fluxes to the atmosphere have used emission factors which are too high for boreal coniferous forests. 52 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Wood and coal burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Barsness, G. H.; Kleine, R. A.

    1985-12-03

    A stove for burning wood, coal and other fuels comprised of flammable solids that among other things produce one or more flammable gases when heating or burning. The preferred form of the stove has three modes of operation-a rapid burning mode, a normal or medium burning mode and a banked mode. The user makes a preliminary decision as to whether the stove is to be operated in its normal mode or banked mode. Thereafter, controlled by temperature responsive means, the stove moves itself fully automatically back and forth from the rapid burning mode to whichever one of the other two modes of operation has been preselected by the user.

  13. Low emissions wood burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Hazard, G.M.

    1989-09-05

    This patent describes a wood burning stove. It comprises firebox means for forming a primary chamber for primary combustion of fuel received therein; catalytic cell means communicating with the primary chamber for forming a secondary chamber within the stove, the catalytic cell means having an inlet and an outlet; catalytic combustor means disposed in the secondary chamber for catalytically combusting primary combustion exhausts; exhaust path means for defining an exhaust path in the cell means extending from the inlet through combustor means to outlet; and heat shield means for exchanging thermal radiation with combustor means.

  14. Factors affecting smoking in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Beratis, S; Katrivanou, A; Gourzis, P

    2001-01-01

    There is an increased frequency of smoking among patients with schizophrenia. However, it is unknown whether the smoking behavior of the patients is similar in all schizophrenia subtypes, as well as which is the relationship between smoking initiation and disease onset. Four hundred six patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia were interviewed to determine the smoking status in relationship to gender and schizophrenic subtype, and to other factors that could affect or be affected by smoking. The frequency of smoking among patients (58%) was significantly greater than in subjects from the general population (42%) (P =.000005). Male patients smoked significantly more frequently (70%) than the corresponding control subjects (50%) (P =.000006), whereas the difference failed to reach significance between female patients (41%) and control subjects (32%). Among male patients, the number of smokers was significantly greater than in the controls in the paranoid (77%), undifferentiated (72%), and residual (78%) subtypes, whereas there was no significant difference in the disorganized (44%) and catatonic (22%) subtypes. The findings show that the frequency of smoking in schizophrenia patients increases with increasing positive symptoms and decreases with increasing negative symptoms. Male and female smoking patients consumed approximately 10 cigarettes per day more than the corresponding control subjects (P <.000001). In 86% of the patients, smoking initiation occurred before the disease onset. Among patients who smoked, smoking initiation and disease onset occurred at age 18.7 +/- 4.4 and 24.1 +/- 6.1 years, respectively (P <.000001). It appears that smoking in schizophrenia is influenced by gender and subtype. However, the nature of this association remains uncertain because in the vast majority of the patients smoking initiation occurs earlier than the disease onset.

  15. Multistage optical smoke detection approach for smoke alarm systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Truc Kim Thi; Kim, Jong-Myon

    2013-05-01

    We propose a novel multistage smoke detection algorithm based on inherent optical characteristics such as diffusion, color, and texture of smoke. Moving regions in a video frame are detected by an approximate median background subtraction method using the diffusion behavior of smoke. These moving regions are segmented by a fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering algorithm that uses the hue and saturation components of moving pixels in the hue-saturation-intensity color space. A decision rule is used to select candidate smoke regions from smoke-colored FCM clusters. An object tracking approach is employed in the candidate smoke region to detect candidate smoke objects in the video frame, and image texture parameters are extracted from these objects using a gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The thirteen GLCM features are selected to constitute the feature vector by applying principal components analysis, resulting in high-accuracy smoke detection. Finally, a back propagation neural network is utilized as a classifier to discriminate smoke and nonsmoke using the selected feature vector. Experimental results using a standard experimental dataset of video clips demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms state-of-the-art smoke detection approaches in terms of accuracy, making real-life implementation feasible.

  16. Smoke-free homes, smoking susceptibility and familial smoking among never-smoking high school students: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gregoire, Bruce; Azagba, Sunday; Asbridge, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that living in a smoke-free home has a positive effect on adolescents' perceived acceptance of smoking. However, the relationship between smoke-free homes and adolescent smoking behaviours remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the association between smoke-free homes and smoking susceptibility among high school students, and to determine whether these associations persist when analyses are stratified by familial smoking status. Methods: We conducted a random cross-sectional survey (2012/2013 Youth Smoking Survey) of primary, junior and high school students in Canada (n = 47 203). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between smoke-free homes and susceptibility to smoking among never-smoking high school students, with and without stratification by familial smoking. Results: Analyses showed that adolescents living in a smoke-free home had reduced odds of being susceptible to smoking (odds ratio [OR] 0.582, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.428-0.791) compared with their peers living in households where smoking was permitted. When adolescents had other family members who were smokers, having a smoke-free home was not significantly associated with reduced smoking susceptibility (OR 0.878, 95% CI 0.721-1.071). Interpretation: Our results suggest that smoke-free homes may influence future smoking initiation. Optimal success in preventing youth smoking uptake necessitates having a coherent antismoking message between the home smoking environment and familial smoking behaviour. PMID:27398377

  17. Strength of anisotropic wood and synthetic materials. [plywood, laminated wood plastics, glass fiber reinforced plastics, polymeric film, and natural wood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashkenazi, Y. K.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using general formulas for determining the strength of different anisotropic materials is considered, and theoretical formulas are applied and confirmed by results of tests on various nonmetallic materials. Data are cited on the strength of wood, plywood, laminated wood plastics, fiber glass-reinforced plastics and directed polymer films.

  18. Comprehensive smoke alarm coverage in lower economic status homes: alarm presence, functionality, and placement.

    PubMed

    Sidman, Elanor A; Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to estimate smoke alarm coverage and adherence with national guidelines in low- to mid-value owner-occupied residences, and to identify resident demographic, behavioral, and building characteristics and other fire and burn safety practices associated with smoke alarm utilization. Baseline visits were conducted with 779 households in King County, Washington, for a randomized trial of smoke alarm functionality. Presence, functionality, features, and location of pre-existing smoke alarms were ascertained by staff observation and testing. Household and building descriptors were collected using questionnaires. Households were classified by presence of smoke alarms, functional alarms, and functional and properly mounted alarms placed in hallways and on each floor but not in recommended avoidance locations. Smoke alarms were present in 89%, and functional units in 78%, of households. Only 6-38% met all assessed functionality and placement recommendations. Homes frequently lacked alarms in any bedrooms or on each floor. Building age, but not renovation status, was associated with all dimensions of smoke alarm coverage; post-1980 constructions were 1.7 times more likely to comply with placement recommendations than were pre-1941 homes (95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Respondent education and race/ethnicity, children <5 years, residency duration, number of floors, wood stoves and fireplaces, number of smoke alarms, recency of smoke alarm testing, carbon monoxide monitors, and fire ladders displayed varying relationships with alarm presence, functionality, and placement. Strategies for maintaining smoke alarms in functional condition and improving compliance with placement recommendations are necessary to achieve universal coverage, and will benefit the majority of households. PMID:21107891

  19. Norwegian words: A lexical database for clinicians and researchers.

    PubMed

    Lind, Marianne; Simonsen, Hanne Gram; Hansen, Pernille; Holm, Elisabeth; Mevik, Bjørn-Helge

    2015-04-01

    All words have properties linked to form, meaning and usage patterns which influence how easily they are accessed from the mental lexicon in language production, perception and comprehension. Examples of such properties are imageability, phonological and morphological complexity, word class, argument structure, frequency of use and age of acquisition. Due to linguistic and cultural variation the properties and the values associated with them differ across languages. Hence, for research as well as clinical purposes, language specific information on lexical properties is needed. To meet this need, an electronically searchable lexical database with more than 1600 Norwegian words coded for more than 12 different properties has been established. This article presents the content and structure of the database as well as the search options available in the interface. Finally, it briefly describes some of the ways in which the database can be used in research, clinical practice and teaching.

  20. Crusted (Norwegian) Scabies Following Systemic and Topical Corticosteroid Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Janković, Aleksandar; Jovanović, Dragan; Ljubenović, Milanka

    2010-01-01

    It is a case study of a 62-yr-old female with crusted (Norwegian) scabies, which appeared during her treatment with systemic and topical corticosteroid therapy, under the diagnosis of erythroderma. In the same time, the patient had been suffered from hypothyoidism, and her skin changes were misdiagnosed, because it was thought that they are associated with her endocrine disorder. Suddenly, beside the erythema, her skin became hyperkeratotic, with widespread scaling over the trunk and limbs, and crusted lesions appeared on her scalp and ears. The microscopic examination of the skin scales with potassium hydroxide demonstrated numerous scabies mites and eggs. Repeated topical treatments with lindan, benzoyl benzoat and 10% precipitated sulphur ointment led to the complete resolution of her skin condition. PMID:20052371

  1. Antecedent reactivation by surface and deep anaphora in Norwegian

    PubMed Central

    HESTVIK, ARILD; NORDBY, HELGE; KARLSEN, GEIR

    2005-01-01

    Anaphora are expressions in language that depend on other linguistic entities for their full meaning. They can furthermore be divided into two types according to the level of representation where they find their antecedents: Surface anaphora, which resolve their reference at the sentence representation level, and deep anaphora, which resolve their reference at the non-grammatical level of discourse representation. The linguistic theory of these two anaphor types, and recent findings about processing differences at these two levels, combine to predict that surface anaphora should show fast and immediate reactivation of their antecedents, whereas deep anaphora should have a slower time course of antecedent reaccess. These predictions were confirmed with two lexical decision task experiments with Norwegian stimuli. PMID:15842413

  2. Factors affecting indoor radon concentration in Norwegian homes

    SciTech Connect

    Strand, T.

    1995-12-31

    The indoor radon concentration may vary by more than an order of magnitude over a few days period, and often there is a significant difference in the radon level between summer and winter. The variation pattern gives important information about the source characteristics which is often needed when remedial measures are introduced. Short-term and long-term variations of the radon concentration in twenty typical Norwegian single family houses were studied in detail by continuous measurements and monthly passive measurements by nuclear track detectors. The radon measurements were correlated with meteorological data, building characteristics and information from the householders about ventilation habits. The main results of these studies will be presented in this paper.

  3. Tracing recovery from acidification in the western Norwegian Nausta watershed.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Godtfred A; Heegaard, Einar; Fjellheim, Arne; Raddum, Gunnar G

    2003-04-01

    A novel method, redundancy analysis (RDA), has been used to examine whether chemical recovery from acidification in the western Norwegian Nausta watershed produces detectable recovery within the community structure of the macro-zoobenthos. The RDA results have been compared with measures of recovery based on the changes detected using highly specialized and regionally defined biological acidity indices. We found that the beginning of biological recovery in the Nausta watershed was recognizable during the period 1989-1998. Recovery occurred in the upper reaches and in the tributaries. The multivariate approach proved to complement the acidity indices approach, and much biological information can be gained by their combined use. The RDA method is conservative, i.e. does not overestimate biological recovery, and it is not geographically constrained as are the acidity indices. We also found that seasonal climatic factors strongly influence the benthic community, and may confound the detection of the biological recovery process.

  4. [Osteoporosis. Knowledge and attitudes of the Norwegian population].

    PubMed

    Joakimsen, R M; Søgaard, A J; Tollan, A; Magnus, J H

    1996-06-30

    In March 1994, a random sample of 1,514 Norwegians aged 16-79 years were interviewed about their knowledge of osteoporosis and their attitudes towards prevention of this disease. About 85% answered correctly that osteoporosis can be prevented, but only 57% knew that it cannot be cured. Women had better knowledge of osteoporosis than men had. Two thirds of the women were positive to the use of long-term hormone replacement therapy to prevent osteoporosis. The majority of women aged 60 years or more preferred walking to other physical activities to prevent the disease. Although the data demonstrated fairly good general knowledge of osteoporosis in the population, the oldest women, those at the highest risk of developing the disease, knew less about osteoporosis than the younger women did.

  5. Sounds produced by Norwegian killer whales, Orcinus orca, during capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Parijs, Sofie M.; Leyssen, Teo; Similä, Tiu

    2004-07-01

    To date very little is still known about the acoustic behavior of Norwegian killer whales, in particular that of individual whales. In this study a unique opportunity was presented to document the sounds produced by five captured killer whales in the Vestfjord area, northern Norway. Individuals produced 14 discrete and 7 compound calls. Two call types were used both by individuals 16178 and 23365 suggesting that they may belong to the same pod. Comparisons with calls documented in Strager (1993) showed that none of the call types used by the captured individuals were present. The lack of these calls in the available literature suggests that call variability within individuals is likely to be large. This short note adds to our knowledge of the vocal repertoire of this population and demonstrates the need for further studies to provide behavioural context to these sounds.

  6. Actual leisure participation of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dolva, Anne-Stine; Kleiven, Jo; Kollstad, Marit

    2014-02-01

    This article reports the actual participation in leisure activities by a sample of Norwegian adolescents with Down syndrome aged 14. Representing a first generation to grow up in a relatively inclusive context, they live with their families, attend mainstream schools, and are part of common community life. Leisure information was obtained in individual, structured parent interviews, and added to existing longitudinal data from a project following the sample. Generally, the leisure activity may be viewed as varying along a continuum-reaching from formal, organized, and assisted activity participation outside home, to informal, self-organized, and independent participation at home. Formal leisure activities were either organized "for all" or "adapted for disabled." The adolescents' leisure appears as active and social. However, social participation largely involved parents and family, while socializing with other adolescents mainly took place within formal activities adapted for disabled. Clearly, formal and informal activities provide rather different opportunities for social encounters and assistance. PMID:24515503

  7. Bilateral juvenile renal dysplasia in a Norwegian Forest Cat.

    PubMed

    Aresu, Luca; Zanatta, Renato; Pregel, Paola; Caliari, Diego; Tursi, Massimiliano; Valenza, Federico; Tarducci, Alberto

    2009-04-01

    Renal dysplasia is defined as a condition of disorganised development of renal parenchyma due to abnormal differentiation. The case of a 5-month-old intact male Norwegian Forest Cat with a history of polyuria and polydipsia is reported. Ultrasonographic examination showed a slight enlargement of kidneys. Biochemical parameters, haematological examinations and clinical signs were compatible with chronic renal failure (CRF). Histological examination was correlated with a primary tubular disorganisation and modification of glomerular compartment. The clinical history together with the histological lesions is consistent with bilateral juvenile renal dysplasia in this cat. To our knowledge, feline renal dysplasia has been reported in fetal infections with panleukopenia virus; no reports indicate the idiopathic origin in feline dysplastic lesions.

  8. Longitudinal case-studies of developmental dyslexia in Norwegian.

    PubMed

    Nergård-Nilssen, Trude

    2006-11-01

    This study examined retrospectively the preschool cognitive and linguistic profiles and emergent literacy skills in four Norwegian dyslexic children. The aim was to identify prognostic indicators that were associated with the reading impairments observed in an earlier study of these children. In comparison to a control group of at-risk children who were normal readers at age 10, three of the four dyslexic children exhibited either stagnation or a decline in speech accuracy in the presence of a vocabulary growth spurt at age 2-3 years. Skills in phonological awareness seemed to vary inconsistently with both early speech development and emergent literacy across the four cases. Delayed development in emergent literacy turned out to be the most potent prognostic indicator of later reading disorders. The study was guided by lexical restructuring theories of dyslexia. PMID:17152341

  9. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F.; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS. PMID:27157689

  10. Ultrastructure of Frenkelia sp. from a Norwegian lemming in Finland.

    PubMed

    Laakkonen, J; Henttonen, H

    2000-04-01

    An apparently healthy Norwegian lemming (Lemmus lemmus) caught in northern Finland was observed to have a whitish body 0.5 to 1.0 mm in diameter in the external layer of the cerebral cortex. By light microscopy a highly lobulated cyst of Frenkelia sp. was observed. By transmission electron microscopy lemmus) collected in the cyst wall was seen consisting of a parasitophorous vacuolar membrane, an underlying electron-dense layer and a granular layer. The membrane was only slightly convoluted. The protrusions of the cyst wall appeared round but were often not distinctive. A very thin septum divided the interior of the cyst into compartments packed with bradyzoites and maturing zoites. The bradyzoites were elongate measuring 5-8 x 1.5-2 microm. This is the first electron microscopical study of Frenkelia sp. from L. lemmus. PMID:10813619

  11. FAA Smoke Transport Code

    2006-10-27

    FAA Smoke Transport Code, a physics-based Computational Fluid Dynamics tool, which couples heat, mass, and momentum transfer, has been developed to provide information on smoke transport in cargo compartments with various geometries and flight conditions. The software package contains a graphical user interface for specification of geometry and boundary conditions, analysis module for solving the governing equations, and a post-processing tool. The current code was produced by making substantial improvements and additions to a codemore » obtained from a university. The original code was able to compute steady, uniform, isothermal turbulent pressurization. In addition, a preprocessor and postprocessor were added to arrive at the current software package.« less

  12. Smoke Blankets Northern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Lightning strikes have sparked more than a thousand fires in northern California. This image was captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera on 27 June 2008. Cape Mendocino is at the center of the image and Mt. Shasta is near the upper right. Concentrated smoke is visible in several river valleys and the large smoke cloud extends over the Pacific Ocean for hundreds of kilometers.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  13. Oil and gas bearing in Norwegian Sea basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabanbark, A.

    2013-07-01

    The Norwegian passive continental margin is represented by an extensive gentle shelf and continental slope. On the continental slope, there are the isolated Vøring, Møre and Ras basins, the Halten Terrace is situated to the east of them at the shelf, then the Nordland submarine ridge and the Trondelag Platform at the seaboard. There are Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments in its sections. Two complex structures are clearly distinguished in the sedimentary section: the lower stage (up to the Upper Cretaceous), reflecting the rifting structure of the basins, broken by a system of dislocations to a series of horsts, grabens, and separated blocks; and the upper stage, poorly dislocated, like a mantle covering the lower stage, with erosion and sharp unconformity. The Halten Terrace is the principal oil and gas production basin. At present, there are more than 50 oil, gas, and condensate fields in it. The following particularities have been discovered: than the field lays in the deepwater, than the age of the hydrocarbon pay is younger. It is also interesting that all gas fields are situated in the Vøring and Møre basins and western part of the Halten Terrace; the oil and gas fields, mainly at the center of the Halten Terrace; but pure oil fields, in the north of the terrace. In conformity with discovering the particularities, it is possible to say that the prospects of oil and gas bearing in the Norwegian Sea are primarilyt related to the Halten Terrace and the Vøring and Møre basins, especially the territories situated at the boundary of the two basins, where it is possible to discover large hydrocarbon accumulations like the Ormen-Lange field, because the Paleocene-Upper Cretaceous productive turbidite thick at the boundary of these basins is on the continental slope, which is considered promising a priori.

  14. Local school policies increase physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Ellen; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Samdal, Oddrun

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The implementation of school policies to support the adoption of physical activity is one of the main strategies recommended to increase physical activity levels among this age group. However, documentation of the effect of such policies is so far limited. The purpose of this study was to explore policy-related practices to support physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools and their association with recess physical activity. Emphasis was given to examine the association between policies and physical activity, over and beyond, individual level interests and environmental factors and to examine cross-level interaction effects. This cross-sectional study was based on a nationally representative sample of Norwegian secondary schools and grade 8 students who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2005/06 study. The final sample comprised 68 schools and 1347 students. Data were collected through questionnaires. The results showed that schools with a written policy for physical activity and schools offering organized non-curricular physical activity several times a week had a higher proportion of students reporting daily participation in recess physical activity. Multilevel logistic regression analysis demonstrated a cross-level main effect of the policy index after controlling for sex, socio-economic status, individual-level interests and the physical environment. A significant contribution of adding the policy index to the prediction of recess physical activity above that provided by the individual-level interests and the physical environment was demonstrated. The results are encouraging and give scientific support to policy documents recommending the implementation of school policies to increase physical activity. PMID:19884244

  15. Respiratory morbidity of pattern and model makers exposed to wood, plastic, and metal products

    SciTech Connect

    Robins, T.G.; Haboubi, G.; Demers, R.Y.; Schork, M.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Pattern and model makers are skilled tradespersons who may be exposed to hardwoods, softwoods, phenol-formaldehyde resin-impregnated woods, epoxy and polyester/styrene resin systems, and welding and metal-casting fumes. The relationship of respiratory symptoms (wheezing, chronic bronchitis, dyspnea) and pulmonary function (FVC% predicted, FEV1% predicted, FEV1/FVC% predicted) with interview-derived cumulative exposure estimates to specific workplace agents and to all work with wood, plastic, or metal products was investigated in 751 pattern and model makers in southeast Michigan. In stratified analyses and age- and smoking-adjusted linear and logistic regression models, measures of cumulative wood exposures were associated with decrements in pulmonary function and dyspnea, but not with other symptoms. In similar analyses, measures of cumulative plastic exposures were associated with wheezing, chronic bronchitis, and dyspnea, but not with decrements in pulmonary function. Prior studies of exposure levels among pattern and model makers and of respiratory health effects of specific agents among other occupational groups support the plausibility of wood-related effects more strongly than that of plastic-related effects.

  16. Lawsuits and secondhand smoke

    PubMed Central

    Sweda, E

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This paper describes secondhand smoke (SHS) litigation over the past quarter century where non-smoking litigants have prevailed and attempts to decipher trends in the law that may impact the course of future cases. Methods: Since the early 1980s, the author has sought and examined legal cases in which SHS exposure is an important factor. Law library searches using the official reporter system (for example, Shimp v. New Jersey Bell Telephone Co., 368 A.2d 408) have more recently been combined with computerised online searches using LexisNexis and Westlaw. The author has learned of other cases through personal correspondence and from articles in newspapers. Over 420 cases involving exposure to SHS were identified. Each case was reviewed and summarised. Results: Since 1976, the year of the first reported SHS lawsuit, this type of litigation has increased both in number and in scope with increasing success. While it is common for initial cases to lose in a new area where the law eventually evolves, litigants and their lawyers who later bring similar cases can learn from those previous, unsuccessful cases. It is now apparent that the judicial branch has begun to recognise the need to protect the public—especially some of the most vulnerable members of our society—from the serious threat to their health that is exposure to SHS. Conclusions: Successful cases brought on behalf of individuals exposed to SHS produce an additional benefit for the public health by both paving the way for other non-smoking litigants to succeed in their cases and persuading business owners and others voluntarily to make their facilities 100% smoke-free. PMID:14985619

  17. IR absorption spectra of cellulose obtained from ozonated wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamleeva, N. A.; Autlov, S. A.; Kharlanov, A. N.; Bazarnova, N. G.; Lunin, V. V.

    2015-08-01

    The kinetic curves of ozone absorption by aspen wood were obtained. Processing of wood with peracetic acid gave cellulose samples. The yields of ozonated wood, water-soluble compounds, and cellulose were determined for the samples corresponding to different consumptions of ozone. The IR absorption spectra of wood and cellulose isolated from ozonated wood were analyzed. The supramolecular structure of cellulose can be changed by varying the conditions of wood ozonation.

  18. Environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Rodgman, A

    1992-12-01

    In 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a "draft" assessment of ETS and lung cancer in adults and respiratory disorders in children. Relying on weak and inconclusive epidemiological data, the supposed similarity between ETS and MS, the presence of "known or suspected carcinogens" in MS and by extrapolation in ETS, and the "biological plausibility" of an adverse relationship between ETS and health, the EPA recommended that ETS be classified as a "Group A (known human) carcinogen." Fundamental physical and quantitative chemical differences among ETS, MS, and SS and human exposure to each smoke were disregarded: The three are not equivalent nor is ETS exposure a quantitative variant of cigarette smoking. A substantial difference in retention percentage overlays the huge dosimetric difference between exposures. As a result, the "dosage" of ETS retained is miniscule relative to MS. Also, conclusions reached by the EPA and the use of tenuous relationships as bases for Group A classification are unwarranted because of failure to consider the data upon which the "tumorigenicity" of the ETS components was based, questions on the presence and/or levels of these components in MS, and data indicating that a 25- to 30-fold decrease of a high-level dose of MS or MS condensate diminished the effects observed in bioassays from pronounced to zero, i.e., a threshold was demonstrated. Finally, EPA overlooked the more than 100 tobacco smoke components known to inhibit the tumorigenic action of many of the listed "tumorigens."

  19. Pharmaceutical care in smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Marín Armero, Alicia; Calleja Hernandez, Miguel A; Perez-Vicente, Sabina; Martinez-Martinez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    As a determining factor in various diseases and the leading known cause of preventable mortality and morbidity, tobacco use is the number one public health problem in developed countries. Facing this health problem requires authorities and health professionals to promote, via specific programs, health campaigns that improve patients' access to smoking cessation services. Pharmaceutical care has a number of specific characteristics that enable the pharmacist, as a health professional, to play an active role in dealing with smoking and deliver positive smoking cessation interventions. The objectives of the study were to assess the efficacy of a smoking cessation campaign carried out at a pharmaceutical care center and to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on patients who decide to try to stop smoking. The methodology was an open, analytical, pre-post intervention, quasi-experimental clinical study performed with one patient cohort. The results of the study were that the promotional campaign for the smoking cessation program increased the number of patients from one to 22, and after 12 months into the study, 43.48% of the total number of patients achieved total smoking cessation. We can conclude that advertising of a smoking cessation program in a pharmacy increases the number of patients who use the pharmacy's smoking cessation services, and pharmaceutical care is an effective means of achieving smoking cessation. PMID:25678779

  20. Tobacco smoking, epilepsy, and seizures.

    PubMed

    Rong, Lingling; Frontera, Alfred T; Benbadis, Selim R

    2014-02-01

    Tobacco smoking is considered the greatest risk factor for death caused by noncommunicable diseases. In contrast to extensive research on the association between tobacco smoking and diseases such as heart attack, stroke, and cancers, studies on the association between tobacco smoking and seizures or epilepsy are insufficient. The exact roles tobacco smoking and nicotine use play in seizures or epilepsy have not been well reviewed. We reviewed available literature and found that 1) there are vast differences between tobacco smoke and nicotine based on their components and their effects on seizures or epilepsy; 2) the seizure risk in acute active tobacco smokers, women who smoke during pregnancy, electronic cigarette smokers, and the role of smoking in sudden unexplained/unexpected death in epilepsy remain unclear; 3) seizure risks are higher in acute secondhand smokers, chronic active smokers, and babies whose mothers smoke; 4) tobacco smoke protects against seizures in animal models whereas nicotine exerts mixed effects in animals; and 5) tobacco smoking agents can be noneffective, proconvulsant, or anticonvulsant. Finally, the opportunities for future research on this topic is discussed.

  1. Pharmaceutical care in smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Marín Armero, Alicia; Calleja Hernandez, Miguel A; Perez-Vicente, Sabina; Martinez-Martinez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    As a determining factor in various diseases and the leading known cause of preventable mortality and morbidity, tobacco use is the number one public health problem in developed countries. Facing this health problem requires authorities and health professionals to promote, via specific programs, health campaigns that improve patients’ access to smoking cessation services. Pharmaceutical care has a number of specific characteristics that enable the pharmacist, as a health professional, to play an active role in dealing with smoking and deliver positive smoking cessation interventions. The objectives of the study were to assess the efficacy of a smoking cessation campaign carried out at a pharmaceutical care center and to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on patients who decide to try to stop smoking. The methodology was an open, analytical, pre–post intervention, quasi-experimental clinical study performed with one patient cohort. The results of the study were that the promotional campaign for the smoking cessation program increased the number of patients from one to 22, and after 12 months into the study, 43.48% of the total number of patients achieved total smoking cessation. We can conclude that advertising of a smoking cessation program in a pharmacy increases the number of patients who use the pharmacy’s smoking cessation services, and pharmaceutical care is an effective means of achieving smoking cessation. PMID:25678779

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMSUMPTION ESTIMATION MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives data on the distribution and usage of firewood, obtained from a pool of household wood use surveys. ased on a series of regression models developed using the STEPWISE procedure in the SAS statistical package, two variables appear to be most predictive of wood use...

  3. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  4. Evaluation of Paulownia elongata wood polyethylene composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Paulownia wood flour (PWF), a byproduct of milling lumber, was employed as a bio-filler and blended with high density polyethylene (HDPE) via extrusion. Paulownia wood (PW) shavings were milled through a 1-mm screen then separated via shaking into various particle fractions using sieves (#30 - < #2...

  5. Wood mimetic hydrogel beads for enzyme immobilization.

    PubMed

    Park, Saerom; Kim, Sung Hee; Won, Keehoon; Choi, Joon Weon; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Hyung Joo; Yang, Yung-Hun; Lee, Sang Hyun

    2015-01-22

    Wood component-based composite hydrogels have potential applications in biomedical fields owing to their low cost, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. The controllable properties of wood mimetic composites containing three major wood components are useful for enzyme immobilization. Here, lipase from Candida rugosa was entrapped in wood mimetic beads containing cellulose, xylan, and lignin by dissolving wood components with lipase in [Emim][Ac], followed by reconstitution. Lipase entrapped in cellulose/xylan/lignin beads in a 5:3:2 ratio showed the highest activity; this ratio is very similar to that in natural wood. The lipase entrapped in various wood mimetic beads showed increased thermal and pH stability. The half-life times of lipase entrapped in cellulose/alkali lignin hydrogel were 31- and 82-times higher than those of free lipase during incubation under denaturing conditions of high temperature and low pH, respectively. Owing to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and controllable properties, wood mimetic hydrogel beads can be used to immobilize various enzymes for applications in the biomedical, bioelectronic, and biocatalytic fields.

  6. Ultraviolet protective eyewear for Wood's light use.

    PubMed

    Herro, Elise M; Cosan, Therese; Jacob, Sharon E

    2011-01-01

    When interpreting delayed patch test reads for children suspected of having contact dermatitis, we use the Wood's light to illuminate the highlighter outlines we made at the first read. Our pediatric patients wear single-use ultraviolet protective goggles to shield their retinas, because children have a propensity to attempt to look into the Wood's lamp.

  7. DEVELOPING A NO-VOC WOOD TOPCOAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports an evaluation of a new low-VOC (volatile organic compound) wood coating technology, its performance characteristics, and its application and emissions testing. The low-VOC wood coating selected for the project was a two-component, water-based epoxy coating. Poly...

  8. Aircraft woods: their properties, selection, and characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markwardt, L J

    1931-01-01

    Strength values of various woods for aircraft design for a 15 per cent moisture condition of material and a 3-second duration of stress are presented, and also a discussion of the various factors affecting the values. The toughness-test method of selecting wood is discussed, and a table of acceptance values for several species is given.

  9. A Better Way to Burn Wood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Rita

    1979-01-01

    Wood pyrolysis is a process that burns wood without air, producing gas and oil that are then burned for heat. Now being tested at Maryville College, Tennessee, the process is expected to cut fuel costs, solve a waste disposal problem, and produce charcoal for sale. (Author/MLF)

  10. SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.

    Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  11. CAMP LEJEUNE ENERGY FROM WOOD (CLEW) PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses EPA's Camp Lejeune Energy from Wood (CLEW) project, a demonstration project that converts wood energy to electric power, and provides waste utilization and pollution alleviation. The 1-MWe plant operates a reciprocating engine-generator set on synthetic gas f...

  12. INDEPENDENT POWER PLANT USING WOOD WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 1 MWe power plant using waste wood is to be installed at a U.S. Marine Corps base, which will supply all the wood for the plant from a landfill site. The core energy conversion technology is a down-draft gasifier supplying approximately 150 Btu/scf gas to both spark ignition an...

  13. Psychometric properties of a four-component Norwegian Organizational Justice Scale.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Olav Kjellevold; Myrseth, Helga; Eidhamar, Are; Hystad, Sigurd W

    2012-04-01

    Organizational justice has attracted attention as a predictor of employees' mental and physical health as well as commitment and work outcomes. The lack of a Norwegian translation of an organizational justice scale has precluded its use in Norway. Four dimensions of the organizational justice construct were examined in a Norwegian military context, including facet measures of distributional, interpersonal, and informational justice developed by Colquitt in 2001, in addition to procedural justice developed by Moorman in 1991. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a four-dimensional structure with good internal consistency. Follow-up analyses have suggested that the four dimensions were nested beneath a general, latent organizational justice factor. A positive relationship between organizational justice and self-sacrificial behavior was found, indicating satisfactory construct validity. The results demonstrate that the Norwegian Organizational Justice Scale is a reliable and construct-valid measure of organizational justice in a Norwegian setting.

  14. Bacteria in decomposing wood and their interactions with wood-decay fungi.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Sarah R; Boddy, Lynne; Weightman, Andrew J

    2016-11-01

    The fungal community within dead wood has received considerable study, but far less attention has been paid to bacteria in the same habitat. Bacteria have long been known to inhabit decomposing wood, but much remains underexplored about their identity and ecology. Bacteria within the dead wood environment must interact with wood-decay fungi, but again, very little is known about the form this takes; there are indications of both antagonistic and beneficial interactions within this fungal microbiome. Fungi are hypothesised to play an important role in shaping bacterial communities in wood, and conversely, bacteria may affect wood-decay fungi in a variety of ways. This minireview considers what is currently known about bacteria in wood and their interactions with fungi, and proposes possible associations based on examples from other habitats. It aims to identify key knowledge gaps and pressing questions for future research.

  15. Bacteria in decomposing wood and their interactions with wood-decay fungi.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Sarah R; Boddy, Lynne; Weightman, Andrew J

    2016-11-01

    The fungal community within dead wood has received considerable study, but far less attention has been paid to bacteria in the same habitat. Bacteria have long been known to inhabit decomposing wood, but much remains underexplored about their identity and ecology. Bacteria within the dead wood environment must interact with wood-decay fungi, but again, very little is known about the form this takes; there are indications of both antagonistic and beneficial interactions within this fungal microbiome. Fungi are hypothesised to play an important role in shaping bacterial communities in wood, and conversely, bacteria may affect wood-decay fungi in a variety of ways. This minireview considers what is currently known about bacteria in wood and their interactions with fungi, and proposes possible associations based on examples from other habitats. It aims to identify key knowledge gaps and pressing questions for future research. PMID:27559028

  16. Comparisons of Attitudes of Smoking and Nonsmoking Teachers toward Smoking Education in Schools and the Health Consequences of Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, C. Wayne; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A study of teachers in rural eastern Kentucky compared the attitudes of smokers and nonsmokers toward: (1) the impact of smoking on health; (2) adequacy of smoking education and school regulations; and (3) usefulness of sources of information about the risks of smoking. Teachers who smoked viewed smoking as less hazardous than did nonsmokers. (PP)

  17. Community-level adult daily smoking prevalence moderates the association between adolescents' cigarette smoking and perceived smoking by friends.

    PubMed

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents' smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents' smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13-18 years old) in 50 midsized Californian cities were obtained through telephone interviews. Community characteristics were obtained from 2010 GeoLytics data. Community adult daily smoking prevalence was ascertained from telephone interviews with 8,918 adults conducted in the same 50 cities. Multilevel analyses, controlling for individual and city characteristics, were used to predict adolescents' past 12-month smoking from perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and from community adult daily smoking prevalence. Results showed that perceived friends' smoking approval and behavior were associated positively with adolescents' smoking, as was the community-level prevalence of adult daily smoking. Furthermore, the association between perceived friends' smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking was moderated by the prevalence of adult daily smokers in the community. Specifically, the association was stronger in cities with higher prevalence of adult smokers. These results suggest that adult community norms that are more supportive of smoking may enhance the influence of friends' smoking behavior. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent or reduce youths' smoking should also focus on reducing smoking by adults.

  18. Extraction of hemicelluloses from fiberized spruce wood.

    PubMed

    Azhar, Shoaib; Henriksson, Gunnar; Theliander, Hans; Lindström, Mikael E

    2015-03-01

    A novel mechanical pre-treatment method was used to separate the wood chips into fiber bundles in order to extract high molecular weight wood polymers. The mechanical pre-treatment involved chip compression in a conical plug-screw followed by defibration in a fiberizer. The fiberized wood was treated with hot water at various combinations of time and temperature in order to analyze the extraction yield of hemicelluloses at different conditions. Nearly 6 mg/g wood of galactoglucomannan was obtained at 90 °C/120 min which was about three times more than what could be extracted from wood chips. The extracted carbohydrates had molecular weight ranging up to 60 kDa. About 10% of each of the extracted material had a molecular weight above 30 kDa. The extraction liquor could also be reused for consecutive extractions with successive increase in the extraction yield of hemicelluloses.

  19. Alaska Wood Biomass Energy Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Bolling

    2009-03-02

    The purpose of the Craig Wood Fired Boiler Project is to use waste wood from local sawmilling operations to provide heat to local public buildings, in an effort to reduce the cost of operating those buildings, and put to productive use a byproduct from the wood milling process that otherwise presents an expense to local mills. The scope of the project included the acquisition of a wood boiler and the delivery systems to feed wood fuel to it, the construction of a building to house the boiler and delivery systems, and connection of the boiler facility to three buildings that will benefit from heat generated by the boiler: the Craig Aquatic Center, the Craig Elementary School, and the Craig Middle School buildings.

  20. Feeding Ecology of Northeast Atlantic Mackerel, Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring and Blue Whiting in the Norwegian Sea.

    PubMed

    Bachiller, Eneko; Skaret, Georg; Nøttestad, Leif; Slotte, Aril

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian spring-spawning (NSS) herring (Clupea harengus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel (Scomber scombrus) are extremely abundant pelagic planktivores that feed in the Norwegian Sea (NS) during spring and summer. This study investigated the feeding ecology and diet composition of these commercially important fish stocks on the basis of biological data, including an extensive set of stomach samples in combination with hydrographical data, zooplankton samples and acoustic abundance data from 12 stock monitoring surveys carried out in 2005-2010. Mackerel were absent during the spring, but had generally high feeding overlap with herring in the summer, with a diet mainly based on calanoid copepods, especially Calanus finmarchicus, as well as a similar diet width. Stomach fullness in herring diminished from spring to summer and feeding incidence was lower than that of mackerel in summer. However, stomach fullness did not differ between the two species, indicating that herring maintain an equally efficient pattern of feeding as mackerel in summer, but on a diet that is less dominated by copepods and is more reliant on larger prey. Blue whiting tended to have a low dietary overlap with mackerel and herring, with larger prey such as euphausiids and amphipods dominating, and stomach fullness and feeding incidence increasing with length. For all the species, feeding incidence increased with decreasing temperature, and for mackerel so did stomach fullness, indicating that feeding activity is highest in areas associated with colder water masses. Significant annual effects on diet composition and feeding-related variables suggested that the three species are able to adapt to different food and environmental conditions. These annual effects are likely to have an important impact on the predation pressure on different plankton groups and the carrying capacity of individual systems, and emphasise the importance of regular