Science.gov

Sample records for nose neoplasms

  1. Nose fracture

    MedlinePlus

    Fracture of the nose; Broken nose; Nasal fracture; Nasal bone fracture; Nasal septal fracture ... A fractured nose is the most common fracture of the face. It ... with other fractures of the face. Sometimes a blunt injury can ...

  2. Runny Nose

    MedlinePlus

    ... practice parameter update. Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. 2014;113:347. Stuffy nose. American Academy of Otolaryngology — Head and Neck Surgery. http://www.entnet.org/content/stuffy-nose. Accessed ...

  3. Your Nose

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can probably guess what happens next. You sneeze . Sneezes can send those unwelcome particles speeding out ... ON THIS TOPIC Movie: Nose What Makes Me Sneeze? When Sinuses Attack! Why Does My Nose Run? ...

  4. Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  5. Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic ...

  6. Your Nose

    MedlinePlus

    ... the space behind your nose) is the olfactory epithelium (say: ol-FAK-tuh-ree eh-puh-THEE- ... that has to do with smelling. The olfactory epithelium contains special receptors that are sensitive to odor ...

  7. Broken Nose

    MedlinePlus

    ... include contact sports, physical fights, falls and motor vehicle accidents that result in facial trauma. A broken ... such as football or hockey Physical altercations Motor vehicle accidents Falls A broken nose can even be ...

  8. Nose Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... requests or policy questions to our media and public relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . Improving Form And Function Of The Nose Each year thousands of people undergo surgery of the ... plan to avoid appearing in public for about a week due to swelling and ...

  9. Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  10. Electronic Nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Grace Industries, Inc.'s Electronic Nose is a vapor and gas detector, deriving from NASA's electronic circuitry, capable for sensing the presence of accelerants several days after a fire. The device is powered by rechargeable battery and no special training needed to operate. If an accelerant is present, device will emit a beeping sound and trigger a flashing light; the faster the beep rate, the more volatile the accelerant. Its sensitivity can also detect minute traces of accelerants. Unit saves investigators of fire causes time and expense by providing speedy detection of physical evidence for use in court. Device is also useful for detecting hazardous fumes, locating and detecting gas leaks in refineries and on oil drilling rigs.

  11. Nose Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... suffer. For example, the stuffy nose of the common cold can make it hard for you to breathe, sleep, or get comfortable. Many problems besides the common cold can affect the nose. They include Deviated septum - ...

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  13. General Information about Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  14. General Information about Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic ...

  15. Treatment Options for Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic ...

  17. Treatment Options for Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  18. The crooked nose.

    PubMed

    Shipchandler, Taha Z; Papel, Ira D

    2011-04-01

    Straightening a crooked nose is a challenge. Several techniques exist ranging from simple to technically complex. It is important to approach the nose systematically and to remember that perfection may be impossible to achieve. If straightening is not attainable, softening grafts or onlay grafts should be used to camouflage subtle irregularities.

  19. Nose Hill Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Vivian

    2008-01-01

    A Blackfoot woman, caught in the act of adultery, was condemned at this site to have her nose cut off as a penalty for her actions. People do not know her story. The tribe cast it on the ground. And so She, Nose Hill, was named. John Laurie Boulevard holds her mound in a circlet of asphalt, defining the map of her "terra incognita." She…

  20. Stuffy or runny nose - adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... stuffy or runny nose may be caused by: Common cold Flu Sinus infection The congestion typically goes away ... M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Allergy Common Cold Drug Reactions Nose Injuries and Disorders Sinusitis Browse ...

  1. Runny and stuffy nose (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... runny or stuffy nose can be due to colds, allergies, sinus infections or the flu. When there is an excess of mucus secretions the nose is runny. The additional secretions drain from the front of the nose, or down the back (post- ...

  2. Electronic Nose System Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has designed and built an electronic nose system -- ENose -- to take on the duty of staying alert for smells that could indicate hazardous conditions in a closed spacecraft environment. Its sensors (shown here) are tailored so they conduct electricity differently when an air stream carries a particular chemical across them. JPL has designed and built a 3-pound flight version. The active parts are 32 sensors, each with a different mix of polymers saturated with carbon. When certain chemicals latch onto a sensor, they change how the sensor conducts electricity. This signal tells how much of a compound is in the air. The electronic nose flown aboard STS-95 in 1998 was capable of successfully detecting 10 toxic compounds.

  3. Electronic Nose System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has designed and built an electronic nose system -- ENose -- to take on the duty of staying alert for smells that could indicate hazardous conditions in a closed spacecraft environment. Its sensors are tailored so they conduct electricity differently when an air stream carries a particular chemical across them. JPL has designed and built a 3-pound flight version (shown with palm-size control and data computer). The active parts are 32 sensors, each with a different mix of polymers saturated with carbon. When certain chemicals latch onto a sensor, they change how the sensor conducts electricity. This signal tells how much of a compound is in the air. The electronic nose flown aboard STS-95 in 1998 was capable of successfully detecting 10 toxic compounds.

  4. JPL Electronic Nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Margaret A.; Homer, Margie L.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Electronic Nose (ENose) is a full-time, continuously operating event monitor designed to detect air contamination from spills and leaks in the crew habitat in the International Space Station. It fills the long-standing gap between onboard alarms and complex analytical instruments. ENose provides rapid, early identification and quantification of atmospheric changes caused by chemical species to which it has been trained. ENose can also be used to monitor cleanup processes after a leak or a spill.

  5. Clown nose: a case of disfiguring nodular squamous cell carcinoma of the face.

    PubMed

    Colletti, Giacomo; Allevi, Fabiana; Moneghini, Laura; Palvarini, Marina

    2014-01-31

    'Clown nose' (CN) is the common medical term referring to a reddish-brown bulge involving the tip of the nose, reminding of a clown's fake red nose. Reports about these tumours are scarce. Most reports refer to metastatic skin manifestation of systemic malignancies: this condition has been rarely described as a primary skin neoplasm. We report a case of a 31-year-old patient with a giant cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the nose which evolved into a CN. After ruling out genetic or immune risk factors, the patient was treated with surgical excision of the lesion and local reconstruction with good aesthetic outcome and no recurrence over a 2-year follow-up.

  6. Nose: Applied Aspects in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Dammaningala Venkataramaiah; Shilpa, Kanathur; Nataraja, Holavanahally Veerabhadrappa; Divya, Kallapa Gorur

    2016-01-01

    Nose is the most prominent part of the mid-face and has important physiological, aesthetic and psychological functions. Skin diseases on the nose are commonly seen by dermatologists, otorhinolaryngologists, and plastic surgeons. Because of its exposed, highly visible localization, lesions on the skin of the nose are often noticed by patients themselves, typically very early in the course of the disease. Similarly, the dermatological lexicon is well known with descriptive terminologies, synonyms, acronyms, eponyms, toponyms, misnomers. We have tried to compile the anatomical applications of nose in cosmetology and dermatosurgery subspecialities with nasal eponyms and signs encountered in clinical dermatology that would be helpful for residents. PMID:27057038

  7. Lupus vulgaris of external nose.

    PubMed

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B Usha

    2008-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  8. Occupation and lymphoid neoplasms.

    PubMed Central

    La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E.; D'Avanzo, B.; Franceschi, S.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between occupation and exposure to a number of occupational agents and lymphoid neoplasms was investigated in a case-control study of 69 cases of Hodgkin's disease, 153 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 110 multiple myelomas and 396 controls admitted for acute diseases to a network of teaching and general hospitals in the greater Milan area. Among the cases, there was a significant excess of individuals ever occupied in agriculture and food processing: the multivariate relative risks (RR) were 2.1 (95% confidence interval, CI = 1.0-3.8) for Hodgkin's disease, 1.9 (95% CI = 1.2-3.0) for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and 2.0 (95% CI = 1.1-3.5) for multiple myeloma. Significant trends for duration of exposure to herbicides were observed for lymphomas, but the association was stronger for overall occupation in agriculture than with the specific question of herbicide use. History of occupation in the chemical industry was more frequent among Hodgkin's disease (RR = 4.3, 95% CI = 1.4-10.2), and a significant trend in risk was observed between duration of exposure to benzene and other solvents and multiple myeloma. No significant relation was found between any of the lymphoid neoplasms considered and rubber, dye, painting, printing, tanning leather, photography, pharmaceuticals, wood, coal/gas and nuclear industries. PMID:2789947

  9. Cutaneous lesions of the nose

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Skin diseases on the nose are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, otorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners and general plastic and dermatologic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the nose. This article is the second part of a review series dealing with cutaneous lesions on the head and face, which are frequently seen in daily practice by a dermatologic surgeon. In this review, we focus on those skin diseases on the nose where surgery or laser therapy is considered a possible treatment option or that can be surgically evaluated. PMID:20525327

  10. Why Does My Nose Run?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cold day, your nose tries its best to warm up the cold air you breathe before sending it ... inside your nostrils open wider (dilate), helping to warm up that air. But that extra blood flow leads ...

  11. Stuffy or runny nose - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... stuffy or runny nose may be caused by: Common cold Flu Sinus infection The congestion typically goes away ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 143. Read More Common cold Flu H1N1 influenza (Swine flu) Otitis Sinusitis Patient ...

  12. [Surgical anatomy of the nose].

    PubMed

    Nguyen, P S; Bardot, J; Duron, J B; Jallut, Y; Aiach, G

    2014-12-01

    Thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the nose is an essential prerequisite for preoperative analysis and the understanding of surgical techniques. Like a tent supported by its frame, the nose is an osteo-chondral structure covered by a peri-chondroperiosteal envelope, muscle and cutaneous covering tissues. For didactic reasons, we have chosen to treat this chapter in the form of comments from eight key configurations that the surgeon should acquire before performing rhinoplasty.

  13. Correction of the crooked nose.

    PubMed

    Potter, Jason K

    2012-02-01

    Correction of the deviated nose is one of the most difficult tasks in rhinoplasty surgery and should be approached in a systematic manner to ensure a satisfied patient and surgeon. Correction of the deviated nose is unique in that the patient's complaints frequently include aesthetic and functional characteristics. Equal importance should be given to the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative aspects of the patient's treatment to ensure a favorable outcome.

  14. Myeloproliferative neoplasm stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mead, Adam J; Mullally, Ann

    2017-03-23

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) arise in the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment as a result of the acquisition of somatic mutations in a single HSC that provides a selective advantage to mutant HSC over normal HSC and promotes myeloid differentiation to engender a myeloproliferative phenotype. This population of somatically mutated HSC, which initiates and sustains MPNs, is termed MPN stem cells. In >95% of cases, mutations that drive the development of an MPN phenotype occur in a mutually exclusive manner in 1 of 3 genes: JAK2, CALR, or MPL The thrombopoietin receptor, MPL, is the key cytokine receptor in MPN development, and these mutations all activate MPL-JAK-STAT signaling in MPN stem cells. Despite common biological features, MPNs display diverse disease phenotypes as a result of both constitutional and acquired factors that influence MPN stem cells, and likely also as a result of heterogeneity in the HSC in which MPN-initiating mutations arise. As the MPN clone expands, it exerts cell-extrinsic effects on components of the bone marrow niche that can favor the survival and expansion of MPN stem cells over normal HSC, further sustaining and driving malignant hematopoiesis. Although developed as targeted therapies for MPNs, current JAK2 inhibitors do not preferentially target MPN stem cells, and as a result, rarely induce molecular remissions in MPN patients. As the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the clonal dominance of MPN stem cells advances, this will help facilitate the development of therapies that preferentially target MPN stem cells over normal HSC.

  15. Genomics of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Zoi, Katerina; Cross, Nicholas C P

    2017-03-20

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a group of related clonal hematologic disorders characterized by excess accumulation of one or more myeloid cell lineages and a tendency to transform to acute myeloid leukemia. Deregulated JAK2 signaling has emerged as the central phenotypic driver of BCR -ABL1-negative MPNs and a unifying therapeutic target. In addition, MPNs show unexpected layers of genetic complexity, with multiple abnormalities associated with disease progression, interactions between inherited factors and phenotype driver mutations, and effects related to the order in which mutations are acquired. Although morphology and clinical laboratory analysis continue to play an important role in defining these conditions, genomic analysis is providing a platform for better disease definition, more accurate diagnosis, direction of therapy, and refined prognostication. There is an emerging consensus with regard to many prognostic factors, but there is a clear need to synthesize genomic findings into robust, clinically actionable and widely accepted scoring systems as well as the need to standardize the laboratory methodologies that are used.

  16. Myeloproliferative Neoplasms in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Inga

    2015-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are a group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by aberrant proliferation of one or more myeloid lineages often with increased immature cells in the peripheral blood. The three classical BCR-ABL-negative MPNs are: 1) polycythemia vera (PV), 2) essential thrombocythemia (ET), and 3) primary myelofibrosis (PMF), which are typically disorders of older adults and are exceedingly rare in children. The diagnostic criteria for MPNs remain largely defined by clinical, laboratory and histopathology assessments in adults, but they have been applied to the pediatric population. The discovery of the JAK2 V617F mutation, and more recently, MPL and CALR mutations, are major landmarks in the understanding of MPNs. Nevertheless, they rarely occur in children, posing a significant diagnostic challenge given the lack of an objective, clonal marker. Therefore, in pediatric patients, the diagnosis must rely heavily on clinical and laboratory factors, and exclusion of secondary disorders to make an accurate diagnosis of MPN. This review focuses on the clinical presentation, diagnostic work up, differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of the classical BCR-ABL-negative MPNs (PV, ET and PMF) in children and highlights key differences to the adult diseases. Particular attention will be given to pediatric PMF, as it is the only disorder of this group that is observed in infants and young children, and in many ways appears to be a unique entity compared to adult PMF. PMID:26609329

  17. Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPNs) Patient Registry

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-28

    Primary Myelofibrosis; Polycythemia Vera; Essential Thrombocythemia; Mastocytosis; Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic, Atypical, BCR-ABL Negative; Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Juvenile; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia-not Otherwise Specified; Myelodysplastic-Myeloproliferative Diseases; Neoplasms; Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic

  18. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colds Prevention Treatment Children Complications Special Features References Common Cold Understanding Colds Anatomy of the Nose The nose ... cm (3/8 inch) per minute. What a Common Cold Is A common cold is an illness caused ...

  19. Time to reconsider Spitzoid neoplasms?

    PubMed Central

    Urso, Carmelo

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background: Spitzoid neoplasms may pose significant diagnostic problems because in a fraction of them it is quite difficult or impossible to establish if they are benign or malignant lesions. An extraordinarily large number of studies have been made in attempts to solve this problem; regrettably, the histological criteria proposed and the various special sophisticated techniques employed have proven to be ineffective in making this distinction with confidence. Objectives: To explore the possible causes for this diagnostic failure and an attempt to identify the source of this problem. Method: A historical and technical analysis of the specialized literature is performed, critically evaluating the main points of this controversial topic. Results: The reasons for the diagnostic failure in Spitzoid neoplasms are not clear but could be the result of inappropriate conceptual representation. The analysis of available data and a rational review of old and new assumptions and concepts may suggest a different representation for Spitzoid neoplasms: Spitz nevus, atypical Spitz tumor and Spitzoid melanoma, rather than being three different tumors that are difficult or impossible to distinguish with assurance, could be viewed as one unique entity, Spitz tumor (ST). This tumor is a low-grade malignant neoplasm, in which the amount of intrinsic risk is variable, ranging from very low to high (ST1, ST2, ST3), and malignant potential could be estimated. Conclusions: The proposed alternative representation of Spitzoid neoplasms as a unique tumor may help in overcoming the difficulty in diagnosis of these tumors. PMID:27222771

  20. 21 CFR 868.6225 - Nose clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nose clip. 868.6225 Section 868.6225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6225 Nose clip. (a) Identification. A nose clip is a device...

  1. 21 CFR 868.6225 - Nose clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nose clip. 868.6225 Section 868.6225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6225 Nose clip. (a) Identification. A nose clip is a device...

  2. Staging of neoplasms. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    Glazer, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book is divided into ten chapters. The first, an overview of the importance of staging, is followed by separate chapters on computed tomographic (CT) evaluation of lymph node metastases; metastatic disease to the thorax; staging of laryngeal, hypopharyngeal, esophageal, non-small cell lung, and renal carcinoma; and pediatric abdominal malignancies. CT staging of lymphomas is dealt with in a separate chapter. The final chapter summarizes initial experiences with staging of neoplasms by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Other neoplasms, such as pelvic, pancreatic, and gastrointestinal, are not discussed in depth. The book concludes with ten case studies, most of which deal with pelvic and gastrointestinal malignancies.

  3. Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyay, Rajib

    Human beings have five senses, namely, vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste. The sensors for vision, hearing and touch have been developed for several years. The need for sensors capable of mimicking the senses of smell and taste have been felt only recently in food industry, environmental monitoring and several industrial applications. In the ever-widening horizon of frontier research in the field of electronics and advanced computing, emergence of electronic nose (E-Nose) and electronic tongue (E-Tongue) have been drawing attention of scientists and technologists for more than a decade. By intelligent integration of multitudes of technologies like chemometrics, microelectronics and advanced soft computing, human olfaction has been successfully mimicked by such new techniques called machine olfaction (Pearce et al. 2002). But the very essence of such research and development efforts has centered on development of customized electronic nose and electronic tongue solutions specific to individual applications. In fact, research trends as of date clearly points to the fact that a machine olfaction system as versatile, universal and broadband as human nose and human tongue may not be feasible in the decades to come. But application specific solutions may definitely be demonstrated and commercialized by modulation in sensor design and fine-tuning the soft computing solutions. This chapter deals with theory, developments of E-Nose and E-Tongue technology and their applications. Also a succinct account of future trends of R&D efforts in this field with an objective of establishing co-relation between machine olfaction and human perception has been included.

  4. Intramural hemorrhage simulating gastric neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Sheward, S E; Davis, M; Amparo, E G; Gogel, H K

    1988-01-01

    We report a case of benign gastric ulcer with secondary extensive intramural hemorrhage causing a radiographic appearance consistent with a large ulcerated gastric neoplasm. This is the second such case reported and the first studied with sonography and computed tomographic scan. A brief review of the literature on intramural gastric hematoma is presented.

  5. Drugs Approved for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  6. Nose tip refinement using interdomal suture in caucasian nose

    PubMed Central

    Pasinato, Rogério; Mocelin, Marcos; Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Refinement of the nose tip can be accomplished by a variety of techniques, but currently, the use of sutures in the nasal tip with conservative resection of the alar cartilage is the most frequently recommended approach. Objective: To classify the nasal tip and to demonstrate the interdomal suture applied to nasal tip refinement in the Caucasian nose, as well as to provide a simple and practical presentation of the surgical steps. Method: Development of surgical algorithm for nasal tip surgery: 1. Interdomal suture (double binding suture), 2. Interdomal suture with alar cartilage weakening (cross-hatching), 3. Interdomal suture with cephalic removal of the alar cartilage (McIndoe technique) based on the nasal tip type classification. This classification assesses the interdomal distance (angle of domal divergence and intercrural distance), domal arch width, cartilage consistency, and skin type. Interdomal suture is performed through endonasal rhinoplasty by basic technique without delivery (Converse-Diamond technique) under local anesthesia. Conclusion: This classification is simple and facilitates the approach of surgical treatment of the nasal tip through interdomal suture, systematizing and standardizing surgical maneuvers for better refinement of the Caucasian nose. PMID:25991963

  7. Enhancing Targeted Therapy for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Myeloproliferative Neoplasms PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gary W. Reuther CONTRACTING...2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 2012-2 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Enhancing Targeted Therapy for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms ...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Myeloproliferative neoplasms

  8. Second-Generation Electronic Nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie; Yen, Shiao-Pin; Ryan, Margaret; Shevade, Abhijit; Zhou, Hanying; Kisor, Adam; Jan, Darrell; Jewell, April; Taylor, Charles; Manfreda, Allison; Manatt, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    A report discusses the second generation of the JPL Electronic Nose (ENose), an array of 32 semi-specific chemical sensors used as an event monitor to identify and quantify contaminants released into breathing air by leaks or spills. It is designed to monitor the environment for changes in air quality, and is trained to identify and quantify selected chemical species at predetermined concentrations, ranging from sub-ppm to ppth. This system has improved reproducibility for making matched arrays, allowing use of data analysis software with minimal recalibration on sensor set replacement. The Second Generation (SG) ENose is a follow-up to the first JPL Electronic Nose that was tested on an earlier space shuttle mission (STS-95). Improvements have been made to the hardware, sensor materials, and data analysis software.

  9. Nose-only exposure system

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, William C.; Bass, Edward W.; Decker, Jr., John R.

    1988-01-01

    An exposure system for supplying a gaseous material, i.e. an aerosol, gas or a vapor, directly to the noses of experimental animals includes concentric vertical inner and outer manifolds. The outer manifold connects with the necks of a large number of bottles in which the animals are confined with their noses adjacent the bottle necks. Readily detachable small tubes communicate with the inner manifold and extend to the necks of the bottles. The upper end of the outer manifold and the lower end of the inner manifold are closed. Gaseous material is supplied to the upper end of the inner manifold, flows through the small tubes to points adjacent the noses of the individual animals, then is drawn out through the bottom of the outer manifold. The bottles are readily removable and the device can be disassembled, e.g., for cleaning, by removing the bottles, removing the small tubes, and lifting the inner manifold from the outer manifold. The bottles are supported by engagement of their necks with the outer manifold supplemented, if additional support is required, by individual wire cradles. The outer ends of the bottles are closed by plugs, through which pass metal tubes which receive the tails of the animals (usually rodents) and which serve to dissipate body heat. The entire device is mounted for rotation on turntable bearings.

  10. Spontaneous endomyometrial neoplasms in aging Chinese hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Brownstein, D.G.; Brooks, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    Twenty-one endomyometrial neoplasms among 93 nulliparous noninbred Chinese hamsters were evaluated. The median survival time of the 93 females was 1040 days. The median age of hamsters with endomyometrial neoplasms was 1200 days. Neoplasms were classified as carcinomas or malignant mixed muellerian tumors of the endometrium and benign or malignant myometrial neoplasms. There were 13 endometrial adenocarcinomas. Three tumors were mixed adenosquamous carcinomas, which occurred in significantly older Chinese hamsters than did adenocarcinomas. Three malignant mixed muellerian tumors consisted of 2 carcinosarcomas and 1 mixed mesodermal tumor. The 2 myometrial neoplasms were a lelomyoma and a lelomyosarcoma. The classification and relative frequency of these neoplasms were similar to endomyometrial neoplasms of women, which makes Chinese hamsters useful subjects for studies of spontaneous endomyometrial cancers.

  11. Cardiac effects of noncardiac neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Schoen, F.J.; Berger, B.M.; Guerina, N.G.

    1984-11-01

    Clinically significant cardiovascular abnormalities may occur as secondary manifestations of noncardiac neoplasms. The principal cardiac effects of noncardiac tumors include the direct results of metastases to the heart or lungs, the indirect effects of circulating tumor products (causing nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, myeloma-associated amyloidosis, pheochromocytoma-associated cardiac hypertrophy and myofibrillar degeneration, and carcinoid heart disease), and the undesired cardiotoxicities of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. 89 references.

  12. Classification of Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Presently, there is no universal 'working' classification system acceptable to all clinicians involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with salivary gland neoplasms. The most recent World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Head and Neck Tumours (Salivary Glands) (2005) for benign and malignant neoplasms represents the consensus of current knowledge and is considered the standard pathological classification based on which series should be reported. The TNM classification of salivary gland malignancies has stood the test of time, and using the stage groupings remains the current standard for reporting treated patients' outcomes. Many developments in molecular and genetic methods in the meantime have identified a number of new entities, and new findings for several of the well-established salivary malignancies need to be considered for inclusion in any new classification system. All clinicians involved in the diagnosis, assessment and treatment of patients with salivary gland neoplasms must understand and respect the need for the various classification systems, enabling them to work within a multidisciplinary clinical team environment.

  13. Revision rhinoplasty for the Asian nose.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2008-08-01

    Revision rhinoplasty of the Asian nose requires a combination of cultural sensitivity and unique surgical strategies to achieve a successful outcome. Cultural sensitivity means understanding some of the folkloric motivations to undergo rhinoplasty and divergent ethnic standards of beauty. Basic techniques for Asian rhinoplasty are reviewed as a prerequisite knowledge for revision rhinoplasty of the Asian nose, specifically a combination technique of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene for bridge augmentation and autogenous cartilage tip grafting. Revision Asian nose surgery oftentimes involves removal of a previously placed solid silicone implant, which remains the most popular option for augmentation rhinoplasty in Asia. Strategies for revision rhinoplasty in the Asian nose are then reviewed.

  14. Detection of hydrazine and monomethyl hydrazine using electronic noses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, R.; Young, R. C.; Buttner, W. J.; Ryan, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    Two electronic noses, the Cyranose electronic nose and the electronic nose developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, have been tested to determine their utility for detecting hydrazine and monomethyl hydrazine (MMH).

  15. CT of soft-tissue neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Weekes, R.G.; McLeod, R.A.; Reiman, H.M.; Pritchard, D.J.

    1985-02-01

    The computed tomographic scans (CT) of 84 patients with untreated soft-tissue neoplasms were studied, 75 with primary and nine with secondary lesions. Each scan was evaluated using several criteria: homogeneity and density, presence and type of calcification, presence of bony destruction, involvement of multiple muscle groups, definition of adjacent fat, border definition, and vessel or nerve involvement. CT demonstrated the lesion in all 84 patients and showed excellent anatomic detail in 64 of the 75 patients with primary neoplasms. The CT findings were characteristic enough to suggest the histology of the neoplasm in only 13 lesions (nine lipomas, three hemangiomas, one neurofibroma). No malignant neoplasm had CT characteristics specific enough to differentiate it from any other malignant tumor. However, malignant neoplasms could be differentiated from benign neoplasms in 88% of the cases.

  16. Electronic nose for space program applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Rebecca C.; Buttner, William J.; Linnell, Bruce R.; Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2003-01-01

    The ability to monitor air contaminants in the shuttle and the International Space Station is important to ensure the health and safety of astronauts, and equipment integrity. Three specific space applications have been identified that would benefit from a chemical monitor: (a) organic contaminants in space cabin air; (b) hypergolic propellant contaminants in the shuttle airlock; (c) pre-combustion signature vapors from electrical fires. NASA at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is assessing several commercial and developing electronic noses (E-noses) for these applications. A short series of tests identified those E-noses that exhibited sufficient sensitivity to the vapors of interest. Only two E-noses exhibited sufficient sensitivity for hypergolic fuels at the required levels, while several commercial E-noses showed sufficient sensitivity of common organic vapors. These E-noses were subjected to further tests to assess their ability to identify vapors. Development and testing of E-nose models using vendor supplied software packages correctly identified vapors with an accuracy of 70-90%. In-house software improvements increased the identification rates between 90 and 100%. Further software enhancements are under development. Details on the experimental setup, test protocols, and results on E-nose performance are presented in this paper along with special emphasis on specific software enhancements. c2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electronic nose for detecting strawberry fruit maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An electronic nose (e-nose) composed of eighteen different metal oxide gas sensors was used to characterize the volatile patterns of ‘Strawberry Festival’ and ‘Florida Radiance’ strawberry fruit at five developmental stages: white, half red, three-quarter red, full ripe, and overripe. Strawberry sam...

  18. Electronic nose for space program applications.

    PubMed

    Young, Rebecca C; Buttner, William J; Linnell, Bruce R; Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2003-08-01

    The ability to monitor air contaminants in the shuttle and the International Space Station is important to ensure the health and safety of astronauts, and equipment integrity. Three specific space applications have been identified that would benefit from a chemical monitor: (a) organic contaminants in space cabin air; (b) hypergolic propellant contaminants in the shuttle airlock; (c) pre-combustion signature vapors from electrical fires. NASA at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is assessing several commercial and developing electronic noses (E-noses) for these applications. A short series of tests identified those E-noses that exhibited sufficient sensitivity to the vapors of interest. Only two E-noses exhibited sufficient sensitivity for hypergolic fuels at the required levels, while several commercial E-noses showed sufficient sensitivity of common organic vapors. These E-noses were subjected to further tests to assess their ability to identify vapors. Development and testing of E-nose models using vendor supplied software packages correctly identified vapors with an accuracy of 70-90%. In-house software improvements increased the identification rates between 90 and 100%. Further software enhancements are under development. Details on the experimental setup, test protocols, and results on E-nose performance are presented in this paper along with special emphasis on specific software enhancements.

  19. 21 CFR 878.3680 - Nose prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nose prosthesis. 878.3680 Section 878.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3680 Nose prosthesis....

  20. 21 CFR 878.3680 - Nose prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nose prosthesis. 878.3680 Section 878.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3680 Nose prosthesis....

  1. 21 CFR 878.3680 - Nose prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nose prosthesis. 878.3680 Section 878.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3680 Nose prosthesis....

  2. 21 CFR 878.3680 - Nose prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nose prosthesis. 878.3680 Section 878.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3680 Nose prosthesis....

  3. 21 CFR 878.3680 - Nose prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nose prosthesis. 878.3680 Section 878.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3680 Nose prosthesis....

  4. Second Malignant Neoplasms Following Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanath

    2012-01-01

    More than half of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy as a part of their treatment. With the increasing number of long-term cancer survivors, there is a growing concern about the risk of radiation induced second malignant neoplasm [SMN]. This risk appears to be highest for survivors of childhood cancers. The exact mechanism and dose-response relationship for radiation induced malignancy is not well understood, however, there have been growing efforts to develop strategies for the prevention and mitigation of radiation induced cancers. This review article focuses on the incidence, etiology, and risk factors for SMN in various organs after radiotherapy. PMID:23249860

  5. The Spindle Cell Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-01-01

    Spindle cell neoplasms are defined as neoplasms that consist of spindle-shaped cells in the histopathology. Spindle cell neoplasms can affect the oral cavity. In the oral cavity, the origin of the spindle cell neoplasms may be traced to epithelial, mesenchymal and odontogenic components. This article aims to review the spindle cell neoplasms of the oral cavity with emphasis on histopathology. PMID:26351482

  6. Micro-Electronic Nose System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zee, Frank C.

    2011-12-01

    The ability to "smell" various gas vapors and complex odors is important for many applications such as environmental monitoring for detecting toxic gases as well as quality control in the processing of food, cosmetics, and other chemical products for commercial industries. Mimicking the architecture of the biological nose, a miniature electronic nose system was designed and developed consisting of an array of sensor devices, signal-processing circuits, and software pattern-recognition algorithms. The array of sensors used polymer/carbon-black composite thin-films, which would swell or expand reversibly and reproducibly and cause a resistance change upon exposure to a wide variety of gases. Two types of sensor devices were fabricated using silicon micromachining techniques to form "wells" that confined the polymer/carbon-black to a small and specific area. The first type of sensor device formed the "well" by etching into the silicon substrate using bulk micromachining. The second type built a high-aspect-ratio "well" on the surface of a silicon wafer using SU-8 photoresist. Two sizes of "wells" were fabricated: 500 x 600 mum² and 250 x 250 mum². Custom signal-processing circuits were implemented on a printed circuit board and as an application-specific integrated-circuit (ASIC) chip. The circuits were not only able to measure and amplify the small resistance changes, which corresponded to small ppm (parts-per-million) changes in gas concentrations, but were also adaptable to accommodate the various characteristics of the different thin-films. Since the thin-films were not specific to any one particular gas vapor, an array of sensors each containing a different thin-film was used to produce a distributed response pattern when exposed to a gas vapor. Pattern recognition, including a clustering algorithm and two artificial neural network algorithms, was used to classify the response pattern and identify the gas vapor or odor. Two gas experiments were performed, one

  7. Uterine adenosarcomas are mesenchymal neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Burke, Kathleen A; Ng, Charlotte KY; Papanastasiou, Anastasios D; Geyer, Felipe C; Macedo, Gabriel S; Martelotto, Luciano G; de Bruijn, Ino; De Filippo, Maria R; Schultheis, Anne M; Ioris, Rafael A; Levine, Douglas A; Soslow, Robert A; Rubin, Brian P; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Weigelt, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Uterine adenosarcomas (UA) are biphasic lesions composed of a malignant mesenchymal (i.e. stromal) component and an epithelial component. UAs are generally low-grade and have a favourable prognosis, but may display sarcomatous overgrowth (SO), which is associated with a worse outcome. We hypothesized that, akin to breast fibroepithelial lesions, UAs are mesenchymal neoplasms where clonal somatic genetic alterations are restricted to the mesenchymal component. To characterize the somatic genetic alterations in UAs and to test this hypothesis, we subjected 20 UAs to a combination of whole-exome (n=6), targeted capture (n=13) massively parallel sequencing (MPS) and/or RNA-sequencing (n=6). Only three genes, FGFR2, KMT2C and DICER1, were recurrently mutated, all in 2/19 cases; however, 26% (5/19) and 21% (4/19) of UAs harboured MDM2/CDK4/HMGA2 and TERT gene amplification, respectively, and two cases harboured fusion genes involving NCOA family members. Using a combination of laser capture microdissection and in situ techniques, we demonstrated that the somatic genetic alterations detected by MPS were restricted to the mesenchymal component. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA sequencing of microdissected samples revealed that epithelial and mesenchymal components of UAs were clonally unrelated. In conclusion, here we provide evidence that UAs are genetically heterogeneous lesions and mesenchymal neoplasms. PMID:26592504

  8. 9 CFR 311.11 - Neoplasms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Neoplasms. 311.11 Section 311.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.11 Neoplasms. (a)...

  9. Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Professional Plasma Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  10. Treatment Options for Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Professional Plasma Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms Go to Health Professional Version Key Points ...

  11. Bio-Benchmarking of Electronic Nose Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Berna, Amalia Z.; Anderson, Alisha R.; Trowell, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Electronic noses, E-Noses, are instruments designed to reproduce the performance of animal noses or antennae but generally they cannot match the discriminating power of the biological original and have, therefore, been of limited utility. The manner in which odorant space is sampled is a critical factor in the performance of all noses but so far it has been described in detail only for the fly antenna. Methodology Here we describe how a set of metal oxide (MOx) E-Nose sensors, which is the most commonly used type, samples odorant space and compare it with what is known about fly odorant receptors (ORs). Principal Findings Compared with a fly's odorant receptors, MOx sensors from an electronic nose are on average more narrowly tuned but much more highly correlated with each other. A set of insect ORs can therefore sample broader regions of odorant space independently and redundantly than an equivalent number of MOx sensors. The comparison also highlights some important questions about the molecular nature of fly ORs. Conclusions The comparative approach generates practical learnings that may be taken up by solid-state physicists or engineers in designing new solid-state electronic nose sensors. It also potentially deepens our understanding of the performance of the biological system. PMID:19641604

  12. [Benign neoplasms of female urethra].

    PubMed

    Usunova, I; Vladimirov, V

    2009-01-01

    In clinical practice neoplasms of female urethra are found usually in adult women. They can also be found in adolescent girls and as rare congenital abnormality. Those conditions are most frequently detected during gynecological or urological examination. Symptoms are few. Lesions are situated at the outer orifice of urethra at the broad basis. Authors have diagnosed and treated 331 patients between 26 and 87 years. Electro coagulation has been performed in 185 patients. Surgical excision has been performed in 41 patients. Excision with following electrocoagulation has been performed in 18 patients. Conservative treatment has been performed in 87 patients. Histological sample analysis has provided diagnosis of urethral polyp, caruncle and mucosal prolaps. Second electrocoagulation after surgical excision has been performed in 5 patients. Collaboration between urologists and gynecologists is essential for early diagnosis, prophylaxis and successful treatment of above mentioned diseases.

  13. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that is... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section...

  14. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that is... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section...

  15. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  16. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  17. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  18. How to Use Nose Drops Properly

    MedlinePlus

    ... Use nose drops only as long as directed Store medications out of reach of children Copyright 2013, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. All rights reserved. This material may not be reproduced, displayed, modified, or distributed ...

  19. Two Algorithms for Processing Electronic Nose Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Rebecca; Linnell, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Two algorithms for processing the digitized readings of electronic noses, and computer programs to implement the algorithms, have been devised in a continuing effort to increase the utility of electronic noses as means of identifying airborne compounds and measuring their concentrations. One algorithm identifies the two vapors in a two-vapor mixture and estimates the concentration of each vapor (in principle, this algorithm could be extended to more than two vapors). The other algorithm identifies a single vapor and estimates its concentration.

  20. Electronic Nose Feature Extraction Methods: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jia; Guo, Xiuzhen; Duan, Shukai; Jia, Pengfei; Wang, Lidan; Peng, Chao; Zhang, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    Many research groups in academia and industry are focusing on the performance improvement of electronic nose (E-nose) systems mainly involving three optimizations, which are sensitive material selection and sensor array optimization, enhanced feature extraction methods and pattern recognition method selection. For a specific application, the feature extraction method is a basic part of these three optimizations and a key point in E-nose system performance improvement. The aim of a feature extraction method is to extract robust information from the sensor response with less redundancy to ensure the effectiveness of the subsequent pattern recognition algorithm. Many kinds of feature extraction methods have been used in E-nose applications, such as extraction from the original response curves, curve fitting parameters, transform domains, phase space (PS) and dynamic moments (DM), parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), energy vector (EV), power density spectrum (PSD), window time slicing (WTS) and moving window time slicing (MWTS), moving window function capture (MWFC), etc. The object of this review is to provide a summary of the various feature extraction methods used in E-noses in recent years, as well as to give some suggestions and new inspiration to propose more effective feature extraction methods for the development of E-nose technology. PMID:26540056

  1. Male reproductive system neoplasms. Special listing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    This Special Listing of Current Cancer Research Projects is a publication of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute. Each Listing contains descriptions of ongoing projects in one selected cancer research area. The research areas include: Experimental prostate carcinogenesis and related biology; Epidemiology of prostatic neoplasms; Preclinical studies of prostatic cancers; Diagnosis and prognosis of prostatic cancer; Therapy of prostatic cancer; Experimental testicular carcinogenesis and related biology; Epidemiology of testicular cancer; Diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of testicular neoplasms; Penile and other reproductive system neoplasms.

  2. Molecular diagnostics of myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Langabeer, Stephen E; Andrikovics, Hajnalka; Asp, Julia; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Carillo, Serge; Haslam, Karl; Kjaer, Lasse; Lippert, Eric; Mansier, Olivier; Oppliger Leibundgut, Elisabeth; Percy, Melanie J; Porret, Naomi; Palmqvist, Lars; Schwarz, Jiri; McMullin, Mary F; Schnittger, Susanne; Pallisgaard, Niels; Hermouet, Sylvie

    2015-10-01

    Since the discovery of the JAK2 V617F mutation in the majority of the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis ten years ago, further MPN-specific mutational events, notably in JAK2 exon 12, MPL exon 10 and CALR exon 9 have been identified. These discoveries have been rapidly incorporated into evolving molecular diagnostic algorithms. Whilst many of these mutations appear to have prognostic implications, establishing MPN diagnosis is of immediate clinical importance with selection, implementation and the continual evaluation of the appropriate laboratory methodology to achieve this diagnosis similarly vital. The advantages and limitations of these approaches in identifying and quantitating the common MPN-associated mutations are considered herein with particular regard to their clinical utility. The evolution of molecular diagnostic applications and platforms has occurred in parallel with the discovery of MPN-associated mutations, and it therefore appears likely that emerging technologies such as next-generation sequencing and digital PCR will in the future play an increasing role in the molecular diagnosis of MPN.

  3. Computerized tomography in evaluation of hepatic neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, R.F.; Resende, C.; Tishler, J.M.A.; Aldrete, J.S.; Shin, M.S.; Rubin, E.; Rahn, N.H.

    1984-08-01

    The authors reviewed their experience with computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen in 212 patients with histologically documented liver neoplasms seen during a 30-month period. The CT findings in cavernous hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia were specific, and permitted accurate diagnosis of this lesion before biopsy. The CT appearance of all other lesions was variable. CT is useful in providing an accurate evaluation of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic extent of the neoplasm.

  4. Predicting odor pleasantness with an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Rafi; Medhanie, Abebe; Roth, Yehudah; Harel, David; Sobel, Noam

    2010-04-15

    A primary goal for artificial nose (eNose) technology is to report perceptual qualities of novel odors. Currently, however, eNoses primarily detect and discriminate between odorants they previously "learned". We tuned an eNose to human odor pleasantness estimates. We then used the eNose to predict the pleasantness of novel odorants, and tested these predictions in naïve subjects who had not participated in the tuning procedure. We found that our apparatus generated odorant pleasantness ratings with above 80% similarity to average human ratings, and with above 90% accuracy at discriminating between categorically pleasant or unpleasant odorants. Similar results were obtained in two cultures, native Israeli and native Ethiopian, without retuning of the apparatus. These findings suggest that unlike in vision and audition, in olfaction there is a systematic predictable link between stimulus structure and stimulus pleasantness. This goes in contrast to the popular notion that odorant pleasantness is completely subjective, and may provide a new method for odor screening and environmental monitoring, as well as a critical building block for digital transmission of smell.

  5. Predicting Odor Pleasantness with an Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Rafi; Medhanie, Abebe; Roth, Yehudah; Harel, David; Sobel, Noam

    2010-01-01

    A primary goal for artificial nose (eNose) technology is to report perceptual qualities of novel odors. Currently, however, eNoses primarily detect and discriminate between odorants they previously “learned”. We tuned an eNose to human odor pleasantness estimates. We then used the eNose to predict the pleasantness of novel odorants, and tested these predictions in naïve subjects who had not participated in the tuning procedure. We found that our apparatus generated odorant pleasantness ratings with above 80% similarity to average human ratings, and with above 90% accuracy at discriminating between categorically pleasant or unpleasant odorants. Similar results were obtained in two cultures, native Israeli and native Ethiopian, without retuning of the apparatus. These findings suggest that unlike in vision and audition, in olfaction there is a systematic predictable link between stimulus structure and stimulus pleasantness. This goes in contrast to the popular notion that odorant pleasantness is completely subjective, and may provide a new method for odor screening and environmental monitoring, as well as a critical building block for digital transmission of smell. PMID:20418961

  6. Calreticulin Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Lavi, Noa

    2014-01-01

    With the discovery of the JAK2V617F mutation in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph−) myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) in 2005, major advances have been made in the diagnosis of MPNs, in understanding of their pathogenesis involving the JAK/STAT pathway, and finally in the development of novel therapies targeting this pathway. Nevertheless, it remains unknown which mutations exist in approximately one-third of patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). At the end of 2013, two studies identified recurrent mutations in the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR) using whole-exome sequencing. These mutations were revealed in the majority of ET and PMF patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL but not in polycythemia vera patients. Somatic 52-bp deletions (type 1 mutations) and recurrent 5-bp insertions (type 2 mutations) in exon 9 of the CALR gene (the last exon encoding the C-terminal amino acids of the protein calreticulin) were detected and found always to generate frameshift mutations. All detected mutant calreticulin proteins shared a novel amino acid sequence at the C-terminal. Mutations in CALR are acquired early in the clonal history of the disease, and they cause activation of JAK/STAT signaling. The CALR mutations are the second most frequent mutations in Ph− MPN patients after the JAK2V617F mutation, and their detection has significantly improved the diagnostic approach for ET and PMF. The characteristics of the CALR mutations as well as their diagnostic, clinical, and pathogenesis implications are discussed in this review. PMID:25386351

  7. Handbook of Machine Olfaction: Electronic Nose Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Tim C.; Schiffman, Susan S.; Nagle, H. Troy; Gardner, Julian W.

    2003-02-01

    "Electronic noses" are instruments which mimic the sense of smell. Consisting of olfactory sensors and a suitable signal processing unit, they are able to detect and distinguish odors precisely and at low cost. This makes them very useful for a remarkable variety of applications in the food and pharmaceutical industry, in environmental control or clinical diagnostics and more. The scope covers biological and technical fundamentals and up-to-date research. Contributions by renowned international scientists as well as application-oriented news from successful "e-nose" manufacturers give a well-rounded account of the topic, and this coverage from R&D to applications makes this book a must-have read for e-nose researchers, designers and users alike.

  8. Progress of Biomimetic Artificial Nose and Tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Qingjun

    2009-05-01

    As two of the basic senses of human beings, olfaction and gustation play a very important role in daily life. These two types of chemical sensors are important for recognizing environmental conditions. Electronic nose and electronic tongue, which mimics animals' olfaction and gustation to detect odors and chemical components, have been carried out due to their potential commercial applications for biomedicine, food industry and environmental protection. In this report, the biomimetic artificial nose and tongue is presented. Firstly, the smell and taste sensors mimicking the mammalian olfaction and gustation was described, and then, some mimetic design of electronic nose and tongue for odorants and tastants detection are developed. Finally, olfactory and gustatory biosensors are presented as the developing trends of this field.

  9. Electronic Noses and Tongues in Wine Industry

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Méndez, María L.; De Saja, José A.; González-Antón, Rocio; García-Hernández, Celia; Medina-Plaza, Cristina; García-Cabezón, Cristina; Martín-Pedrosa, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The quality of wines is usually evaluated by a sensory panel formed of trained experts or traditional chemical analysis. Over the last few decades, electronic noses (e-noses) and electronic tongues have been developed to determine the quality of foods and beverages. They consist of arrays of sensors with cross-sensitivity, combined with pattern recognition software, which provide a fingerprint of the samples that can be used to discriminate or classify the samples. This holistic approach is inspired by the method used in mammals to recognize food through their senses. They have been widely applied to the analysis of wines, including quality control, aging control, or the detection of fraudulence, among others. In this paper, the current status of research and development in the field of e-noses and tongues applied to the analysis of wines is reviewed. Their potential applications in the wine industry are described. The review ends with a final comment about expected future developments. PMID:27826547

  10. NASA Orbiter Extended Nose Landing Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Steven R.; Jensen, Scott A.; Hansen, Christopher P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the design, development, test, and evaluation of a prototype Extended Nose Landing Gear (ENLG) for NASA's Space Shuttle orbiters. The ENLG is a proposed orbiter modification developed in-house at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) by a joint government/industry team. It increases the orbiter's nose landing gear (NLG) length, thereby changing the vehicle's angle of attack during rollout, which lowers the aerodynamic forces on the vehicle. This, in combination with a dynamic elevon change, will lower the loads on the orbiter's main landing gear (MLG). The extension is accomplished by adding a telescoping section to the current NLG strut that will be pneumatically extended during NLG deployment.

  11. 14 CFR 23.499 - Supplementary conditions for nose wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Structure Ground Loads § 23.499 Supplementary conditions for nose wheels. In determining the ground loads on nose wheels and affected supporting structures, and assuming that the shock absorbers and tires are...

  12. 14 CFR 23.499 - Supplementary conditions for nose wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Structure Ground Loads § 23.499 Supplementary conditions for nose wheels. In determining the ground loads on nose wheels and affected supporting structures, and assuming that the shock absorbers and tires are...

  13. 14 CFR 23.499 - Supplementary conditions for nose wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Structure Ground Loads § 23.499 Supplementary conditions for nose wheels. In determining the ground loads on nose wheels and affected supporting structures, and assuming that the shock absorbers and tires are...

  14. 14 CFR 23.499 - Supplementary conditions for nose wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Structure Ground Loads § 23.499 Supplementary conditions for nose wheels. In determining the ground loads on nose wheels and affected supporting structures, and assuming that the shock absorbers and tires are...

  15. 14 CFR 23.499 - Supplementary conditions for nose wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Structure Ground Loads § 23.499 Supplementary conditions for nose wheels. In determining the ground loads on nose wheels and affected supporting structures, and assuming that the shock absorbers and tires are...

  16. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1989-05-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. The clinical signs are usually the result of an overproduction of hormones that are normally biosynthesized by the neoplastic endocrine gland (orthoendocrine syndromes), as opposed to those that are the result of hormones that are not normally biosynthesized and secreted by those cells that have undergone neoplastic transformation (paraendocrine syndromes, also known as endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes or ectopic hormone syndromes). The biological effects produced by a neoplasm may be out of proportion to the actual size of the tumor. This report focuses on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas. Discussion will focus on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis. 2 tabs.

  17. Intraductal Oncocytic Papillary Neoplasms of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kallen, Michael E; Naini, Bita V

    2016-09-01

    Intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms (IOPNs) are cystic neoplasms with intraductal growth and complex papillae composed of oncocytic cells. IOPNs have been reported both in the pancreas and biliary tree, and are most likely closely related in these 2 locations. In the pancreas, these rare tumors are now considered 1 of the 4 histologic subtypes of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Significant differences in histology, immunophenotype, and molecular genetics have been reported between IOPNs and other IPMN subtypes. However, there are limited data regarding the clinical behavior and prognosis of IOPNs in comparison to other subtypes of IPMN. We review features of pancreatic IOPNs and discuss the differential diagnosis of other intraductal lesions in the pancreas.

  18. Conventional radiological strategy of common gastrointestinal neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi-Zhuo; Wu, Pei-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes the clinical characteristics and imaging features of common gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms in terms of conventional radiological imaging methods. Barium studies are readily available for displaying primary malignancies and are minimally or not at all invasive. A neoplasm may be manifested as various imaging findings, including mucosal disruption, soft mass, ulcer, submucosal invasion and lumen stenosis on barium studies. Benign tumors typically appear as smoothly marginated intramural masses. Malignant neoplasms most often appear as irregular infiltrative lesions on barium examination. Tumor extension to adjacent GI segments may be indistinct on barium images. Cross-sectional images such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may provide more accurate details of the adjacent organ invasion, omental or peritoneal spread. PMID:25628800

  19. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  20. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  1. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  2. Ion nose spectral structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferradas, C. P.; Zhang, J.-C.; Spence, H. E.; Kistler, L. M.; Larsen, B. A.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.

    2016-12-01

    We present a statistical study of nose-like structures observed in energetic hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions near the inner edge of the plasma sheet. Nose structures are spectral features named after the characteristic shapes of energy bands or gaps in the energy-time spectrograms of in situ measured ion fluxes. Using 22 months of observations from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron instrument onboard Van Allen Probe A, we determine the number of noses observed, and the minimum L shell reached and energy of each nose on each pass through the inner magnetosphere. We find that multiple noses occur more frequently in heavy ions than in H+ and are most often observed during quiet times. The heavy-ion noses penetrate to lower L shells than H+ noses, and there is an energy-magnetic local time (MLT) dependence in the nose locations and energies that is similar for all species. The observations are interpreted by using a steady state model of ion drift in the inner magnetosphere. The model is able to explain the energy and MLT dependence of the different types of nose structures. Different ion charge-exchange lifetimes are the main cause for the deeper penetration of heavy-ion noses. The species dependence and preferred geomagnetic conditions of multiple-nose events indicate that they must be on long drift paths, leading to strong charge-exchange effects. The results provide important insight into the spatial distribution, species dependence, and geomagnetic conditions under which nose structures occur.

  3. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class airman... by, or that may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  4. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class airman..., vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  5. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class airman... by, or that may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  6. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class airman... may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  7. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class airman..., vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  8. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class airman... may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  9. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class airman... by, or that may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  10. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class airman... by, or that may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  11. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class airman... may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  12. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class airman..., vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  13. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class airman... may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  14. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class airman... by, or that may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  15. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class airman..., vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  16. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class airman..., vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  17. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class airman... may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  18. The Gendered Nose and its Lack: "Medieval" Nose-Cutting and its Modern Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Time magazine's cover photograph in August 2010 of a noseless Afghan woman beside the emotive strap line, "What happens if we leave Afghanistan," fuelled debate about the "medieval" practices of the Taliban, whose local commander had instructed her husband to take her nose and ears. Press reports attributed the violence to the Pashtun tradition that a dishonored husband "lost his nose." This equation of nose-cutting with tradition begs questions not only about the Orientalist lens of the western press when viewing Afghanistan, but also about the assumption that the word "medieval" can function as a label for such practices. A study of medieval nose-cutting suggests that its identification as an "eastern" practice should be challenged. Rather clearer is its connection with patriarchal values of authority and honor: the victims of such punishment have not always been women, but this is nevertheless a gendered punishment of the powerless by the powerful.

  19. Your Nose, the Guardian of Your Lungs

    MedlinePlus

    ... congestion and a runny nose have a noticeable effect on quality of life, energy level, ability to breathe, ability to sleep, and ... saline nasal mist frequently during the flight, and drink lots of ... effects of other medications Diuretic blood pressure medications cause ...

  20. Sharpening ball-nose mill cutters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    Economical attachment allows faster, more precise grinding. Vibrationless and rigid relation between grinding wheel and cutter allows for extremely high finish and accurate grinding. Leveling device levels flutes with respect to toolholder rotation that generates ball-nose radius. Constant relief around entire profile of cutting edge produces longer tool life.

  1. Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma of the nose without paraproteinemia.

    PubMed

    Kunikata, Nagisa; Kikuchi, Katsuko; Hashimoto, Akira; Tagami, Hachiro

    2006-11-01

    We report a 65-year-old Japanese woman who presented with a nodule on the nose near the left eye. Histological examination of the totally resected lesion revealed the typical features of necrobiotic xanthogranuloma (NXG). However, her laboratory investigation revealed no paraproteinemia. We believe that the present case represents a cutaneous variant of NXG without accompaniment of paraproteinemia or any systemic involvement.

  2. Recently described neoplasms of the sinonasal tract.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A

    2016-03-01

    Surgical pathology of the sinonasal region (i.e., nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses) is notoriously difficult, due in part to the remarkable diversity of neoplasms that may be encountered in this area. In addition, a number of neoplasms have been only recently described in the sinonasal tract, further compounding the difficulty for pathologists who are not yet familiar with them. This manuscript will review the clinicopathologic features of some of the recently described sinonasal tumor types: NUT midline carcinoma, HPV-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic-like features, SMARCB1 (INI-1) deficient sinonasal carcinoma, biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma, and adamantinoma-like Ewing family tumor.

  3. Clinical experience in appendiceal neuroendocrine neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Ozcelik, Caglar K.; Bozdogan, Nazan; Dibekoglu, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study To analyse the incidence of appendiceal neuroendocrine neoplasms in appendectomy specimens and establish the epidemiological and histopathological features, treatment, and clinical course. Material and methods Between 2004 and 2013, 975 patients who underwent appendectomy in Ankara Oncology Education and Research Hospital were retrospectively analysed. Results Neuroendocrine neoplasm was detected in the nine of 975 (0.9%) patients. Neuroendocrine neoplasms were diagnosed in eight patients by appendectomy, which was performed because of the prediagnosis of acute appendicitis, and in one patient by the suspicious mass detection during surgical procedures that were done in the appendix for a different reason. Eight of the patients’ tumours were in the tip of the appendix, and one of the patients’ tumours was at the base of appendix. Tumour size in 77.8% of patients was equal or less than 1 cm, in 22.2% patients it was 1–2 cm. There was tumour invasion in the muscularis propria layer in four patients, in the serosa layer in three patients, and in the deep mesoappendix in two patients. Patients were followed for a median of 78 months. In the follow-up of patients who were operated because of colon cancer, metachronous colon tumour evolved. This patient died due to progressive disease. Other patients are still disease-free. Conclusions The diagnosis of neuroendocrine neoplasm is often incidentally done after appendectomy. Tumour size is important in determining the extent of disease and in the selection of the surgical method during operation. PMID:26793027

  4. [Viruses as agents inducing cutaneous neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Bravo Puccio, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    The oncogenic role of viruses in cutaneous neoplasms has been known by humankind for more than a century, when the origin of the common wart, or verruca vulgaris, was attributed to the human papilloma virus (HPV). Currently, virus-induced cutaneous neoplasms may be grouped into solid tumors and lymphoproliferative disorders. HPV, from which various serotypes are now known, each being linked to a specific neoplasm, the human herpes virus type 8 producing Kaposi sarcoma, and the Merkel cell polyomavirus, highlight among the first group. Regarding the lymphoproliferative disorders, we should mention the human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1), which is responsible for the T-cell lymphomas, in which the cutaneous manifestations are non-specific and have a wide spectrum, thus posing a challenge for differential diagnosis. The Epstein Barr virus, linked to nasal lymphomas of NK/T-cells and Hydroa-like cutaneous lymphomas, is also part of this group. In an era in which the genetic and molecular aspects of cancer research prevail, we may not leave behind the concept of neoplasms as a result an infection with a viral agent, which opens a wide array of new possibilities for cancer treatment based on antiviral drugs.

  5. Neoplasms identified in free-flying birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegfried, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Nine neoplasms were identified in carcasses of free-flying wild birds received at the National Wildlife Health Laboratory; gross and microscopic descriptions are reported herein. The prevalence of neoplasia in captive and free-flying birds is discussed, and lesions in the present cases are compared with those previously described in mammals and birds.

  6. SNP Array in Hematopoietic Neoplasms: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jinming; Shao, Haipeng

    2015-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis is essential for the diagnosis and prognosis of hematopoietic neoplasms in current clinical practice. Many hematopoietic malignancies are characterized by structural chromosomal abnormalities such as specific translocations, inversions, deletions and/or numerical abnormalities that can be identified by karyotype analysis or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays offer high-resolution identification of copy number variants (CNVs) and acquired copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (LOH)/uniparental disomy (UPD) that are usually not identifiable by conventional cytogenetic analysis and FISH studies. As a result, SNP arrays have been increasingly applied to hematopoietic neoplasms to search for clinically-significant genetic abnormalities. A large numbers of CNVs and UPDs have been identified in a variety of hematopoietic neoplasms. CNVs detected by SNP array in some hematopoietic neoplasms are of prognostic significance. A few specific genes in the affected regions have been implicated in the pathogenesis and may be the targets for specific therapeutic agents in the future. In this review, we summarize the current findings of application of SNP arrays in a variety of hematopoietic malignancies with an emphasis on the clinically significant genetic variants. PMID:27600067

  7. Centaur D-1A nose fairing jettison test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prati, W. M.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to verify the functional and structural capability of the Centaur D-1A nose fairing. A full-scale flight-type nose fairing was jettisoned at the Lewis Research Center Space Power Chamber at simulated altitude. Two complete jettisons of the nose fairing were performed, one without aft helper springs and one with aft helper springs. A ''static'' rotation test was also performed to verify capability of the helper springs and to allow clearance measurements between the nose fairing and spacecraft envelope mock-up at certain discrete nose fairing rotation angles. Nose fairing trajectories, structural deflections, clearances, and hinge forces during jettison are presented. Data from subsequent Centaur D-1A flights, relative to nose fairing jettisons, are compared with the experimental results.

  8. Cancer of the nose and paranasal sinuses in the metal industry: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Comba, P; Barbieri, P G; Battista, G; Belli, S; Ponterio, F; Zanetti, D; Axelson, O

    1992-03-01

    The association between nasal cancer and work in the metal industry was investigated in a case-control study located in the province of Brescia, north eastern Italy. Thirty five cases of malignant epithelial neoplasms of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses who were resident in the province of Brescia and diagnosed or treated by the ear, nose, and throat department and the radiotherapy unit (Centro Alte Energie) of the Brescia Hospital in the years 1980-9 were included in the study. Controls (102) were patients affected by benign and malignant neoplasms of the head and neck who were resident in the Brescia Province and matched the cases by age and sex. All the subjects were interviewed by telephone. Metal workers showed an increased risk of nasal cancer (odds ratio (OR) 3.1; 90% confidence interval (90% CI) 0.48-20); a higher risk was associated with work in foundries (OR 5.9; 90 CI 0.77-46). Work in wood, leather, and textile industries was also associated with increased risk of nasal cancer.

  9. Reconstruction of the burned nose and ear.

    PubMed

    Bernard, S L

    2000-01-01

    Patients who have survived thermal injuries to the face suffer from severe disfigurement. When the nose and ear are involved, the resulting deformities are immediately obvious to all who see the patient. This level of injury results in a self-imposed confinement; the patients never leave their homes. It is therefore important that we plastic surgeons know, understand, and use all options available to improve our patients' appearance and ultimately their mental and physical well being.

  10. Sex and the nose: human pheromonal responses

    PubMed Central

    Bhutta, Mr Mahmood F

    2007-01-01

    The chemosensory functions of the human nose are underappreciated. Traditional teaching is that the sense of smell detects volatile compounds, which may then allow the identification of substances that may be beneficial or harmful—such as good versus putrefied food. However, increasing evidence from research in other animals suggests that olfaction may serve another and more important purpose, that of mate selection in sexual reproduction; indeed, olfaction may be an essential impetus for evolution. PMID:17541097

  11. Electronic Noses for Environmental Monitoring Applications

    PubMed Central

    Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Rosso, Renato Del

    2014-01-01

    Electronic nose applications in environmental monitoring are nowadays of great interest, because of the instruments' proven capability of recognizing and discriminating between a variety of different gases and odors using just a small number of sensors. Such applications in the environmental field include analysis of parameters relating to environmental quality, process control, and verification of efficiency of odor control systems. This article reviews the findings of recent scientific studies in this field, with particular focus on the abovementioned applications. In general, these studies prove that electronic noses are mostly suitable for the different applications reported, especially if the instruments are specifically developed and fine-tuned. As a general rule, literature studies also discuss the critical aspects connected with the different possible uses, as well as research regarding the development of effective solutions. However, currently the main limit to the diffusion of electronic noses as environmental monitoring tools is their complexity and the lack of specific regulation for their standardization, as their use entails a large number of degrees of freedom, regarding for instance the training and the data processing procedures. PMID:25347583

  12. Breath alcohol, multisensor arrays, and electronic noses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsson, Nils; Winquist, Fredrik

    1997-01-01

    The concept behind a volatile compound mapper, or electronic nose, is to use the combination of multiple gas sensors and pattern recognition techniques to detect and quantify substances in gas mixtures. There are several different kinds of sensors which have been developed during recent years of which the base techniques are conducting polymers, piezo electrical crystals and solid state devices. In this work we have used a combination of gas sensitive field effect devices and semiconducting metal oxides. The most useful pattern recognition routine was found to be ANNs, which is a mathematical approximation of the human neural network. The aim of this work is to evaluate the possibility of using electronic noses in field instruments to detect drugs, arson residues, explosives etc. As a test application we have chosen breath alcohol measurements. There are several reasons for this. Breath samples are a quite complex mixture contains between 200 and 300 substances at trace levels. The alcohol level is low but still possible to handle. There are needs for replacing large and heavy mobile instruments with smaller devices. Current instrumentation is rather sensitive to interfering substances. The work so far has dealt with sampling, how to introduce ethanol and other substances in the breath, correlation measurements between the electronic nose and headspace GC, and how to evaluate the sensor signals.

  13. Aesthetic septorhinoplasty in the burned nose.

    PubMed

    Hafezi, Farhad; Karimi, Hamid; Nouhi, Amirhosein

    2005-03-01

    Patients who have survived thermal injuries to the face suffer severe disfigurement from the devastating deformities of full-thickness facial burns. The nose is the prominent central organ of the face, which has crucial effect on Aesthetic appearance. The plastic surgeon's role to deal with such cases is to undertake procedures to produce a more pleasant look although the target organ could be the non-burned areas of the face. It is a common belief that surgical intervention under the scarred or grafted nose is risky and may result in skin or covering graft necrosis. For this reason, plastic surgeons are cautious and hesitate to perform Aesthetic surgery on burn scarred tissue. We present 13 cases, 10 women and three men with complete or subtotal nasal burn. Classic Aesthetic Rhinoplasty operations were performed to create a better appearance and correct any internal or external deviations. These procedures are carried out under severely burned skins, or previously grafted and reconstructed noses. Cases were followed for about a one-year period. There was no necrosis in any part of skin after surgery. We believe that Aesthetic rhinoplasty can be done safely in these victims with pleasing outcome. The problems that we encountered in these cases were irregularities of burned alar margins, multiple operations and intractable nasal deviation in severe cases.

  14. Intraductal tubular neoplasms of the bile ducts.

    PubMed

    Katabi, Nora; Torres, Javiera; Klimstra, David S

    2012-11-01

    Although most tumors of the bile ducts are predominantly invasive, some have an exophytic pattern within the bile ducts; these intraductal papillary neoplasms usually have well-formed papillae at the microscopic level. In this study, however, we describe a novel type of intraductal neoplasm of the bile ducts with a predominantly tubular growth pattern and other distinctive features. Ten cases of biliary intraductal neoplasms with a predominantly tubular architecture were identified in the files of the Pathology Department at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center from 1983 to 2006. For each of these cases we studied the clinical presentation, histologic and immunohistochemical features (9 cases only), and the clinical follow-up of the patients. Three male and 7 female patients (38 to 78 y) presented with obstructive jaundice or abdominal pain. Eight of the patients underwent a partial hepatectomy; 2 underwent a laparoscopic bile duct excision, followed by a pancreatoduodenectomy in one of them. The tumors range in size from 0.6 to 8.0 cm. The intraductal portions of the tumors (8 intrahepatic, 1 extrahepatic hilar, 1 common bile duct) were densely cellular and composed of back-to-back tubular glands and solid sheets with minimal papillary architecture. The cells were cuboidal to columnar with mild to moderate cytologic atypia. Foci of necrosis were present in the intraductal component in 6 cases. An extraductal invasive carcinoma component was present in 7 cases, composing <25% of the tumor in 4 cases, and >75% in 1 case. It was observed by immunohistochemical analysis that the tumor cells expressed CK19, CA19-9, MUC1, and MUC6 in most cases and that SMAD4 expression was retained. MUC2, MUC5AC, HepPar1, synaptophysin, chromogranin, p53, and CA125 were negative in all cases and most were negative for CEA-M and B72.3. Four patients were free of tumor recurrence after 7 to 85 months (average, 27 mo). Four patients with an invasive carcinoma component suffered

  15. Fruit volatile analysis using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Vallone, Simona; Lloyd, Nathan W; Ebeler, Susan E; Zakharov, Florence

    2012-03-30

    Numerous and diverse physiological changes occur during fruit ripening, including the development of a specific volatile blend that characterizes fruit aroma. Maturity at harvest is one of the key factors influencing the flavor quality of fruits and vegetables. The validation of robust methods that rapidly assess fruit maturity and aroma quality would allow improved management of advanced breeding programs, production practices and postharvest handling. Over the last three decades, much research has been conducted to develop so-called electronic noses, which are devices able to rapidly detect odors and flavors. Currently there are several commercially available electronic noses able to perform volatile analysis, based on different technologies. The electronic nose used in our work (zNose, EST, Newbury Park, CA, USA), consists of ultra-fast gas chromatography coupled with a surface acoustic wave sensor (UFGC-SAW). This technology has already been tested for its ability to monitor quality of various commodities, including detection of deterioration in apple; ripeness and rot evaluation in mango; aroma profiling of thymus species; C(6) volatile compounds in grape berries; characterization of vegetable oil and detection of adulterants in virgin coconut oil. This system can perform the three major steps of aroma analysis: headspace sampling, separation of volatile compounds, and detection. In about one minute, the output, a chromatogram, is produced and, after a purging cycle, the instrument is ready for further analysis. The results obtained with the zNose can be compared to those of other gas-chromatographic systems by calculation of Kovats Indices (KI). Once the instrument has been tuned with an alkane standard solution, the retention times are automatically converted into KIs. However, slight changes in temperature and flow rate are expected to occur over time, causing retention times to drift. Also, depending on the polarity of the column stationary phase, the

  16. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Very little is known regarding the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in companion animals. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms. Most studies of thoracic neoplasia have focused on the pathology of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the lung with little attention given to diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Although the cited incidence rate for primary respiratory tract neoplasia is low, 8.5 cases per 100,000 dogs and 5.5 cases per 100,000 cats, intrathoracic masses often attract attention out of proportion to their actual importance since they are often readily visualized on routine thoracic radiographs.

  17. [Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: concepts and related issues].

    PubMed

    Lai, Maode

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) has been gradually increasing and most of NENs are located in gastroenteropancreatic system. With the application of target therapeutic drugs in recent years, the precise pathological diagnosis is required critically for effective clinical treatment: target therapy needs targeted pathological diagnosis. In this article, the definition of NENs, and the century-long evolution of diagnostic terms and grades are reviewed. The eight steps of pathological diagnosis of NENs for clinical needs are described. Four inconsistent concepts in NENs diagnosis are also discussed, that is immunohistochemical biomarkers of pathological diagnosis, subpopulation of neuroendocrine neoplasms with high proliferative activity, general adenocarcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation and molecular genetics characteristics. To correctly understand these issues would be of great value for diagnosis and treatment of NENs.

  18. Towards a Chemiresistive Sensor-Integrated Electronic Nose: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Shih-Wen; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2013-01-01

    Electronic noses have potential applications in daily life, but are restricted by their bulky size and high price. This review focuses on the use of chemiresistive gas sensors, metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensors and conductive polymer gas sensors in an electronic nose for system integration to reduce size and cost. The review covers the system design considerations and the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated technology for a chemiresistive gas sensor electronic nose, including the integrated sensor array, its readout interface, and pattern recognition hardware. In addition, the state-of-the-art technology integrated in the electronic nose is also presented, such as the sensing front-end chip, electronic nose signal processing chip, and the electronic nose system-on-chip. PMID:24152879

  19. Ion nose spectral structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

    DOE PAGES

    Ferradas, C. P.; Zhang, J. -C.; Spence, H. E.; ...

    2016-11-22

    Here, we present a statistical study of nose-like structures observed in energetic hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions near the inner edge of the plasma sheet. Nose structures are spectral features named after the characteristic shapes of energy bands or gaps in the energy-time spectrograms of in situ measured ion fluxes. Using 22 months of observations from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument onboard Van Allen Probe A, we determine the number of noses observed, and the minimum L-shell reached and energy of each nose on each pass through the inner magnetosphere. We find that multiple noses occur more frequentlymore » in heavy ions than in H+, and are most often observed during quiet times. The heavy-ion noses penetrate to lower L shells than H+ noses and there is an energy-magnetic local time (MLT) dependence in the nose locations and energies that is similar for all species. The observations are interpreted using a steady-state model of ion drift in the inner magnetosphere. The model is able to explain the energy and MLT dependence of the different types of nose structures. Different ion charge exchange lifetimes are the main cause for the deeper penetration of heavy-ion noses. The species dependence and preferred geomagnetic conditions of multiple-nose events indicate that they must be on long drift paths, leading to strong charge-exchange effects. The results provide important insight into the spatial distribution, species dependence, and geomagnetic conditions under which nose structures occur.« less

  20. Ion nose spectral structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Ferradas, C. P.; Zhang, J. -C.; Spence, H. E.; Kistler, L. M.; Larsen, Brian Arthur; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Skoug, Ruth M.; Funsten, Herbert O.

    2016-11-22

    Here, we present a statistical study of nose-like structures observed in energetic hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions near the inner edge of the plasma sheet. Nose structures are spectral features named after the characteristic shapes of energy bands or gaps in the energy-time spectrograms of in situ measured ion fluxes. Using 22 months of observations from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument onboard Van Allen Probe A, we determine the number of noses observed, and the minimum L-shell reached and energy of each nose on each pass through the inner magnetosphere. We find that multiple noses occur more frequently in heavy ions than in H+, and are most often observed during quiet times. The heavy-ion noses penetrate to lower L shells than H+ noses and there is an energy-magnetic local time (MLT) dependence in the nose locations and energies that is similar for all species. The observations are interpreted using a steady-state model of ion drift in the inner magnetosphere. The model is able to explain the energy and MLT dependence of the different types of nose structures. Different ion charge exchange lifetimes are the main cause for the deeper penetration of heavy-ion noses. The species dependence and preferred geomagnetic conditions of multiple-nose events indicate that they must be on long drift paths, leading to strong charge-exchange effects. The results provide important insight into the spatial distribution, species dependence, and geomagnetic conditions under which nose structures occur.

  1. Ulcerative lupus vulgaris over nose, leading to cosmetic deformity.

    PubMed

    Nair, Pragya A; Mehta, Malay J; Patel, Bhumi B

    2015-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV), is a chronic and progressive form of secondary cutaneous tuberculosis. In India, it is commonly seen over buttocks, thighs, and legs whereas involvement of nose is quite rare. Ulcerative variant particularly over nose causes destruction of cartilage, leading to irreversible deformities and contracture. High-index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and prevention of cosmetic deformity. A case of LV over nose in a young male with ulceration is reported who responded well to anti-tubercular therapy, but left with scarring of nose, which could have been prevented if adequate awareness regarding extra-pulmonary cases would have been practiced.

  2. The Gendered Nose and its Lack: “Medieval” Nose-Cutting and its Modern Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Time magazine’s cover photograph in August 2010 of a noseless Afghan woman beside the emotive strap line, “What happens if we leave Afghanistan,” fuelled debate about the “medieval” practices of the Taliban, whose local commander had instructed her husband to take her nose and ears. Press reports attributed the violence to the Pashtun tradition that a dishonored husband “lost his nose.” This equation of nose-cutting with tradition begs questions not only about the Orientalist lens of the western press when viewing Afghanistan, but also about the assumption that the word “medieval” can function as a label for such practices. A study of medieval nose-cutting suggests that its identification as an “eastern” practice should be challenged. Rather clearer is its connection with patriarchal values of authority and honor: the victims of such punishment have not always been women, but this is nevertheless a gendered punishment of the powerless by the powerful. PMID:24790391

  3. S-IB Nose Cone Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an interim vehicle in MSFC's 'building block' approach to the Saturn rocket development, the Saturn IB utilized Saturn I technology to further develop and refine the larger boosters and the Apollo spacecraft capabilities required for the manned lunar missions. The Saturn IB vehicle was a two-stage rocket and had a payload capability about 50 percent greater than the Saturn I vehicle. The first stage, S-IB stage, was a redesigned first stage of the Saturn I. This photograph is of the S-IB nose cone #3 during assembly in building 4752.

  4. Nose-Hoover dynamics in a shaker.

    PubMed

    Faou, Erwan

    2006-05-14

    We introduce a new class of systems based on the Nose-Hoover equations. We show that we can add time-dependent terms without destroying the measure and energy conservation properties of the initial system. These "shakers" are typically pseudoperiodic in time, i.e., depend on a collection of harmonic oscillators. We show by numerical examples that it strengthens the sampling properties of the initial system with respect to the Gibbs measure and helps the computation of averages in the canonical ensemble.

  5. Proliferating trichilemmal tumor of the nose*

    PubMed Central

    Rosmaninho, Aristóteles; Caetano, Mónica; Oliveira, Ana; de Almeida, Teresa Pinto; Selores, Manuela; Alves, Rosário

    2012-01-01

    Proliferating trichilemmal tumor is a rare tumor originating in the external root sheath, that is usually found in the scalp of middle-aged or elderly females. Its histologic appearance may not correlate with its clinical behavior. In addition, there are no guidelines available for the treatment of these tumors, making its management a challenge for physicians. We report the case of a 53 year-old woman with a proliferating trichilemmal tumor on her nose, which is a very uncommon location for these lesions. PMID:23197215

  6. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and Nose-Hoover dynamics.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Massimiliano; Monnai, Takaaki

    2011-05-12

    We show that systems driven by an external force and described by Nose-Hoover dynamics allow for a consistent nonequilibrium thermodynamics description when the thermostatted variable is initially assumed in a state of canonical equilibrium. By treating the "real" variables as the system and the thermostatted variable as the reservoir, we establish the first and second law of thermodynamics. As for Hamiltonian systems, the entropy production can be expressed as a relative entropy measuring the system-reservoir correlations established during the dynamics.

  7. [Nose surgical anatomy in six aesthetic subunits].

    PubMed

    Chaput, B; Lauwers, F; Lopez, R; Saboye, J; André, A; Grolleau, J-L; Chavoin, J-P

    2013-04-01

    The nose is a complex entity, combining aesthetic and functional roles. Descriptive anatomy is a fundamental science that it can be difficult to relate directly to our daily surgical activity. Reasoning in terms of aesthetic subunits to decide on his actions appeared to us so obvious. The aim of this paper is to resume the anatomical bases relevant to our daily practice in order to fully apprehend the restorative or cosmetic procedures. We discuss the limits of the systematization of these principles in nasal oncology.

  8. Cough reflex sensitization from esophagus and nose.

    PubMed

    Hennel, Michal; Brozmanova, Mariana; Kollarik, Marian

    2015-12-01

    The diseases of the esophagus and nose are among the major factors contributing to chronic cough although their role in different patient populations is debated. Studies in animal models and in humans show that afferent C-fiber activators applied on esophageal or nasal mucosa do not initiate cough, but enhance cough induced by inhaled irritants. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that activation of esophageal and nasal C-fibers contribute to cough reflex hypersensitivity observed in chronic cough patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and chronic rhinitis, respectively. The afferent nerves mediating cough sensitization from the esophagus are probably the neural crest-derived vagal jugular C-fibers. In addition to their responsiveness to high concentration of acid typical for gastroesophageal reflux (pH < 5), esophageal C-fibers also express receptors for activation by weakly acidic reflux such as receptors highly sensitive to acid and receptors for bile acids. The nature of sensory pathways from the nose and their activators relevant for cough sensitization are less understood. Increased cough reflex sensitivity was also reported in many patients with GERD or rhinitis who do not complain of cough indicating that additional endogenous or exogenous factors may be required to develop chronic coughing in these diseases.

  9. Electronic Nose: Evaluation of Kamina Prototype Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schattke, Nathan

    2001-01-01

    The Kamina, Sam and Cyranose electronic nose systems were evaluated and partially trained. Much work was performed on the Kamina as it has the ability to respond to low (less than 10 ppb) concentrations of hydrazine compounds. We were able to tell the difference between Hydrazine (Hz) and Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) in standard clean humid air. We were able to detect MMH in reduced pressure (1/3 atm) at about 250 ppb, however the training set was to far from the real situation to be useful now. Various engineering and usability aspects of both the noses was noted, especially the software. One serious physical engineering flaw was remedied in the Kamina system. A gas flow manifold was created for the Sam system. Different chips were evaluated for the Kamina system. It is still unclear if they can be exchanged without retraining the software.The Sam Detect commercial unit was evaluated for solvent detection and evaluation. It was able to successfully identify some solvents. The Cyranose, was observed and evaluated for two days. It has the ability to detect gasses in the 100 parts per million level but not the 10 parts per billion level. It is very sensitive to humidity changes; there is software to partially handle this.

  10. Cough reflex sensitization from esophagus and nose

    PubMed Central

    Hennel, Michal; Brozmanova, Mariana; Kollarik, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The diseases of the esophagus and nose are among the major factors contributing to chronic cough although their role in different patient populations is debated. Studies in animal models and in humans show that afferent C-fiber activators applied on esophageal or nasal mucosa do not initiate cough, but enhance cough induced by inhaled irritants. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that activation of esophageal and nasal C-fibers contribute to cough reflex hypersensitivity observed in chronic cough patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and chronic rhinitis, respectively. The afferent nerves mediating cough sensitization from the esophagus are probably the neural crest-derived vagal jugular C-fibers. In addition to their responsiveness to high concentration of acid typical for gastroesophageal reflux (pH<5), esophageal C-fibers also express receptors for activation by weakly acidic reflux such as receptors highly sensitive to acid and receptors for bile acids. The nature of sensory pathways from the nose and their activators relevant for cough sensitization are less understood. Increased cough reflex sensitivity was also reported in many patients with GERD or rhinitis who do not complain of cough indicating that additional endogenous or exogenous factors may be required to develop chronic coughing in these diseases. PMID:26498387

  11. The Electronic Nose Training Automation Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schattke, Nathan

    2002-01-01

    The electronic nose is a method of using several sensors in conjunction to identify an unknown gas. Statistical analysis has shown that a large number of training exposures need to be performed in order to get a model that can be depended on. The number of training exposures needed is on the order of 1000. Data acquisition from the noses are generally automatic and built in. The gas generation equipment consists of a Miller-Nelson (MN) flow/temperature/humidity controller and a Kin-Tek (KT) trace gas generator. This equipment has been controlled in the past by an old data acquisition and control system. The new system will use new control boards and an easy graphical user interface. The programming for this is in the LabVIEW G programming language. A language easy for the user to make modifications to. This paper details some of the issues in selecting the components and programming the connections. It is not a primer on LabVIEW programming, a separate CD is being delivered with website files to teach that.

  12. BRCC3 mutations in myeloid neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Dayong; Nagata, Yasunobu; Grossmann, Vera; Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Okuno, Yusuke; Nagae, Genta; Hosono, Naoko; Schnittger, Susanne; Sanada, Masashi; Przychodzen, Bartlomiej; Kon, Ayana; Polprasert, Chantana; Shen, Wenyi; Clemente, Michael J.; Phillips, James G.; Alpermann, Tamara; Yoshida, Kenichi; Nadarajah, Niroshan; Sekeres, Mikkael A.; Oakley, Kevin; Nguyen, Nhu; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Koeffler, H. Phillip; Klein, Hans-Ulrich; Dugas, Martin; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Miyano, Satoru; Haferlach, Claudia; Kern, Wolfgang; Haferlach, Torsten; Du, Yang; Ogawa, Seishi; Makishima, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies have provided insights into the molecular heterogeneity of various myeloid neoplasms, revealing previously unknown somatic genetic events. In our cohort of 1444 cases analyzed by next generation sequencing, somatic mutations in the gene BRCA1-BRCA2-containing complex 3 (BRCC3) were identified in 28 cases (1.9%). BRCC3 is a member of the JAMM/MPN+ family of zinc metalloproteases capable of cleaving Lys-63 linked polyubiquitin chains, and is implicated in DNA repair. The mutations were located throughout its coding region. The average variant allelic frequency of BRCC3 mutations was 30.1%, and by a serial sample analysis at two different time points a BRCC3 mutation was already identified in the initial stage of a myelodysplastic syndrome. BRCC3 mutations commonly occurred in nonsense (n=12), frameshift (n=4), and splice site (n=5) configurations. Due to the marginal male dominance (odds ratio; 2.00, 0.84–4.73) of BRCC3 mutations, the majority of mutations (n=23; 82%) were hemizygous. Phenotypically, BRCC3 mutations were frequently observed in myelodysplastic syndromes and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms and associated with -Y abnormality (odds ratio; 3.70, 1.25–11.0). Clinically, BRCC3 mutations were also related to higher age (P=0.01), although prognosis was not affected. Knockdown of Brcc3 gene expression in murine bone marrow lineage negative, Sca1 positive, c-kit positive cells resulted in 2-fold more colony formation and modest differentiation defect. Thus, BRCC3 likely plays a role as tumor-associated gene in myelodysplastic syndromes and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms. PMID:26001790

  13. Rectal neuroendocrine neoplasms: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (GI-NENs) are very rare, among which second most common type is the rectal NENs in China. Patients with rectal NENs may experience non-specific symptoms such as pain, perianal bulge, anemia, and bloody stools, and surgery is considered as the first treatment for rectal NENs. We report a case of rectal NENs in a 68-year-old male patient with bloody stools, who received surgery and postoperative pathology revealed an elevated well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. PMID:28138616

  14. Spectrum and Classification of Cystic Neoplasms of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Greer, Jonathan B; Ferrone, Cristina R

    2016-04-01

    As patients are living longer and axial imaging is more widespread, increasing numbers of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are found. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and mucinous cystic neoplasms are the most common. The revised Sendai guidelines provide a safe algorithm for expectant management of certain cystic neoplasms; however, studies are ongoing to identify further subgroups that can be treated nonoperatively. For those patients with high-risk clinical features or symptoms, surgical resection can be performed safely at high-volume pancreatic centers. Accurate diagnosis is critical for accurate decision making.

  15. F-18 HARV With Nose Strakes For Forebody Vortex Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    1996-01-01

    Nose of F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) modified with conformal, mechanically actuated nose strakes for enhanced rolling (ANSER). Forebody vortex control effected by use of actuated strakes and/or other flow-control devices. System provides means to evaluate design tradeoffs.

  16. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must be demonstrated that its use does not require exceptional pilot skill during takeoff and landing, in crosswinds...) Movement of the pilot's steering control must not interfere with the retraction or extension of the...

  17. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must be demonstrated that its use does not require exceptional pilot skill during takeoff and landing, in crosswinds...) Movement of the pilot's steering control must not interfere with the retraction or extension of the...

  18. The Meaning of Disfigurement in Wilhelm Hauff's "Dwarf Nose."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blamires, David

    2002-01-01

    Notes that Wilhelm Hauff's fairy tale "Dwarf Nose" tells of a boy who is turned into a squirrel for seven years, then regains human form as a dwarf with a long nose before finally achieving normal adult proportions. Discusses how the story includes details that suggest a sexual interpretation. (SG)

  19. An Evaluation of Electronic Nose for Space Program Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Rebecca C.; Linnell, Bruce R.; Buttner, William J.; Mersqhelte, Barry

    2003-01-01

    The ability to monitor air contaminants in the Shuttle and the International Space Station is important to ensure the health and safety of astronauts. Three specific space applications have been identified that would benefit from a chemical monitor: organic contaminants in crew cabins, propellant contaminants in the airlock, and pre-combustion fire detection. NASA has assessed several commercial and developing electronic noses (e-noses) for these applications. A preliminary series of tests identified those e-noses that exhibited sufficient sensitivity to the vapors of interest. These e-noses were further tested to assess their ability to identify vapors, and in-house software has been developed to enhance identification. This paper describes the tests, the classification ability of selected e-noses, and the software improvements made to meet the requirements for these space program applications.

  20. Clinical evaluation of the electronic nose in the diagnosis of ear, nose and throat infection: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Shykhon, M E; Morgan, D W; Dutta, R; Hines, E L; Gardner, J W

    2004-09-01

    The term electronic nose describes an electronic system that is able to mimic the human sense of smell. Electronic noses have been developed over the last 10 or more years to perform a variety of identification tasks in various industries. More recently electronic noses have attracted new interest in their application in the field of medical diagnosis. The aim of this study is to explore the use of an electronic nose to identify and classify pathogens associated with ear, nose and throat (ENT) infections. In this study 90 bacterial swab samples were collected from 90 patients with ENT infections. Some of these samples were analysed immediately with a commercial electronic nose (Cyranose C320). Similar numbers of swabs were also taken from the same site of infection and were sent for microbiology culture and sensitivity. The electronic nose diagnosis was compared with the microbiology diagnosis and it was found that the electronic nose diagnosis was correct in 88.2 per cent of the cases, which is an encouraging result.

  1. Malignant neoplasms of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Paxton V; Davidoff, Andrew M

    2006-05-01

    Head and neck masses represent a common clinical entity in children. In general, these masses are classified as developmental, inflammatory, or neoplastic. Having a working knowledge of lesions within this region and conducting a thorough history and physical examination generally enables the clinician to facilitate an appropriate workup and establish a diagnosis. The differential diagnosis is broad, and expeditiously distinguishing benign from malignant masses is critical for instituting a timely multidisciplinary approach to the management of malignant lesions. Neoplasms of the head and neck account for approximately 5% of all childhood malignancies. A diagnosis of malignancy may represent a primary tumor or metastatic foci to cervical nodes. In this review, we discuss the general approach to evaluating suspicious masses and adenopathy in the head and neck region and summarize the most common malignant neoplasms of the head and neck with regard to their incidence, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, staging, and management. Thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary gland tumors are discussed elsewhere in this issue of Seminars in Pediatric Surgery.

  2. Neoplasms in young dogs after perinatal irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, S.A.; Lee, A.C.; Angleton, G.M.; Saunders, W.J.; Miller, G.K.; Williams, J.S.; Brewster, R.D.; Long, R.I.

    1986-08-01

    For a study of the life-time effects of irradiation during development, 1,680 beagles were given single, whole-body exposures to /sup 60/Co gamma-radiation at one of three prenatal (preimplantation, embryonic, and fetal) or at one of three postnatal (neonatal, juvenile, and young adult) ages. Mean doses were 0, 0.16, or 0.83 Gy. For comparison with data on childhood cancer after prenatal irradiation, examination was made of tumors occurring in young dogs in this life-span experiment. Up to 4 years of age, 18 dogs had neoplasms diagnosed, 2 of these being in controls. Four dogs that were irradiated in the perinatal (late fetal or neonatal) period died of cancers prior to 2 years of age. This risk was of significant increase compared to the risks for other experimental groups and for the canine population in general. Overall, 71% (5 of 7) of all cancers and 56% (10 of 18) of all benign and malignant neoplasms seen in the first 4 years of life occurred in 29% (480 of 1680) of the dogs irradiated in the perinatal period. These data suggest an increased risk for neoplasia after perinatal irradiation in dogs.

  3. Drug delivery systems from nose to brain.

    PubMed

    Misra, Ambikanandan; Kher, Gitanjali

    2012-09-01

    The treatment of brain disorders is particularly challenging due to the presence of a variety of formidable obstacles to deliver drugs selectively and effectively to the brain. Blood-brain-barrier (BBB) constitutes the major obstacle to the uptake of drugs into the brain following systemic administration. Intranasal delivery offers a non-invasive and convenient method to bypass the BBB and delivery of therapeutics directly to the brain. The review discusses the potential of intranasal route to deliver drugs to the brain, the mechanisms and pathways of direct nose to brain drug transport, the various factors influencing transnasal drug absorption, the conventional and novel intranasal drug delivery systems, the various intranasal drug delivery techniques and devices, and examples of brain drug transport that have been feasible in treating various brain disorders. Moreover, products on the market, investigational drugs, and the author's perceptions about the prospect of intranasal delivery for treating brain disorders are also been discussed.

  4. Grinding arrangement for ball nose milling cutters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, C. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A grinding arrangement for spiral fluted ball nose end mills and like tools includes a tool holder for positioning the tool relative to a grinding wheel. The tool is mounted in a spindle within the tool holder for rotation about its centerline and the tool holder is pivotably mounted for angular movement about an axis which intersects that centerline. A follower arm of a cam follower secured to the spindle cooperates with a specially shaped cam to provide rotation of the tool during the angular movement of the tool holder during the grinding cycle, by an amount determined by the cam profile. In this way the surface of the cutting edge in contact with the grinding wheel is maintained at the same height on the grinding wheel throughout the angular movement of the tool holder during the grinding cycle.

  5. Miniature sensor suitable for electronic nose applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A.; Gehl, Anthony C.; Allman, Steve L.; Johansson, Alicia; Boisen, Anja

    2007-05-01

    A major research effort has been devoted over the years for the development of chemical sensors for the detection of chemical and explosive vapors. However, the deployment of such chemical sensors will require the use of multiple sensors (probably tens of sensors) in a sensor package to achieve selective detection. In order to keep the overall detector unit small, miniature sensors with sufficient sensitivity of detection will be needed. We report sensitive detection of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a stimulant for the nerve agents, using a miniature sensor unit based on piezoresistive microcantilevers. The sensor can detect parts-per-trillion concentrations of DMMP within 10s exposure times. The small size of the sensor makes it ideally suited for electronic nose applications.

  6. Aspergillosis of the nose and paranasal sinuses.

    PubMed Central

    Milroy, C M; Blanshard, J D; Lucas, S; Michaels, L

    1989-01-01

    Fulminant aspergillosis was diagnosed on nasal biopsy in a 49 year old man who had features of an aspergilloma. Further postmortem examination of this area was performed and the results were contrasted with the histological features of other Aspergillus infections. The nasal biopsy specimen and postmortem examination showed infiltrating Aspergillus hyphae with tissue necrosis and little inflammatory response. The hyphae were easily seen with routine stains. This contrasts with the findings in invasive aspergillosis where there is fibrosis and a granulomatous response to the Aspergillus hyphae. The hyphae are seen in giant cells using fungal stains. In the saprophytic infections aspergilloma and allergic Aspergillus sinusitis there is no tissue invasion or destruction. Aspergillus infections of the nose and paranasal sinuses often require biopsy for accurate diagnosis. As treatment varies pathologists need to be able to distinguish the different patterns of infection. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:2921352

  7. Investigating white-nose syndrome in bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blehert, David S.

    2009-01-01

    A devastating, emergent disease afflicting hibernating bats has pread from the northeast to the mid-Atlantic region of the United States at an alarming rate. Since the winter of 2006-2007, hundreds of thousands of insect-eating bats from at least nine states have died from this new disease, named White-Nose Syndrome (WNS). The disease is named for the white fungus often seen on the muzzles, ears, and wings of bats. This disease poses a threat to cave hibernating bats of the United States and potentially all temperate regions of the world. USGS scientists from the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) and the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT), in collaboration with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and others have linked a newly described, cold-loving fungus to WNS.

  8. Biomedical application of an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Mantini, A; Di Natale, C; Macagnano, A; Paolesse, R; Finazzi-Agrò, A; D'Amico, A

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of volatiles secreted outside the human body to get information on the health status of the individuals has been proposed several times in the past. This kind of analysis is complex both from the point of view of sample collection and data interpretation when, for instance, gas chromatography is utilized. In the recent years the advent of chemical sensors and chemical sensors systems (the so-called electronic noses) opened the way to the possibility of fast and simple analysis of odors in many fields, and, recently, among them, in medicine. In this paper some examples of these applications are illustrated. The results, although preliminary, encourage in pursuing these researches that can give rise to a better comprehension of the role of smell and odor in humans and, possibly in the near future, in novel diagnostic tools.

  9. Pathology and genetics of pancreatic neoplasms with acinar differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wood, Laura D; Klimstra, David S

    2014-11-01

    Pancreatic neoplasms with acinar differentiation, including acinar cell carcinoma, pancreatoblastoma, and carcinomas with mixed differentiation, are distinctive pancreatic neoplasms with a poor prognosis. These neoplasms are clinically, pathologically, and genetically unique when compared to other more common pancreatic neoplasms. Most occur in adults, although pancreatoblastomas usually affect children under 10 years old. All of these neoplasms exhibit characteristic histologic features including a solid or acinar growth pattern, dense neoplastic cellularity, uniform nuclei with prominent nucleoli, and granular eosinophilic cytoplasm. Exocrine enzymes are detectable by immunohistochemistry and, for carcinomas with mixed differentiation, neuroendocrine or ductal lineage markers are also expressed. The genetic alterations of this family of neoplasms largely differ from conventional ductal adenocarcinomas, with only rare mutations in TP53, KRAS, and p16, but no single gene or neoplastic pathway is consistently altered in acinar neoplasms. Instead, there is striking genomic instability, and a subset of cases has mutations in the APC/β-catenin pathway, mutations in SMAD4, RAF gene family fusions, or microsatellite instability. Therapeutically targetable mutations are often present. This review summarizes the clinical and pathologic features of acinar neoplasms and reviews the current molecular data on these uncommon tumors.

  10. Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies Developed for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Alphus D.; Baietto, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The purposes of this review are to present a comprehensive analysis of past and recent biomedical research findings and developments of electronic-nose sensor technologies, and to identify current and future potential e-nose applications that will continue to advance the effectiveness and efficiency of biomedical treatments and healthcare services for many years. An abundance of electronic-nose applications has been developed for a variety of healthcare sectors including diagnostics, immunology, pathology, patient recovery, pharmacology, physical therapy, physiology, preventative medicine, remote healthcare, and wound and graft healing. Specific biomedical e-nose applications range from uses in biochemical testing, blood-compatibility evaluations, disease diagnoses, and drug delivery to monitoring of metabolic levels, organ dysfunctions, and patient conditions through telemedicine. This paper summarizes the major electronic-nose technologies developed for healthcare and biomedical applications since the late 1980s when electronic aroma detection technologies were first recognized to be potentially useful in providing effective solutions to problems in the healthcare industry. PMID:22346620

  11. Assessment of compost maturity by using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    López, Rafael; Giráldez, Inmaculada; Palma, Alberto; Jesús Díaz, M

    2016-02-01

    The composting process produces and emits hundreds of different gases. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can provide information about progress of composting process. This paper is focused on the qualitative and quantitative relationships between compost age, as sign of compost maturity, electronic-nose (e-nose) patterns and composition of compost and composting gas at an industrial scale plant. Gas and compost samples were taken at different depths from composting windrows of different ages. Temperature, classical chemical parameters, O2, CO, combustible gases, VOCs and e-nose profiles were determined and related using principal component analysis (PCA). Factor analysis carried out to a data set including compost physical-chemical properties, pile pore gas composition and composting time led to few factors, each one grouping together standard composting parameters in an easy to understand way. PCA obtained from e-nose profiles allowed the classifying of piles, their aerobic-anaerobic condition, and a rough estimation of the composting time. That would allow for immediate and in-situ assessment of compost quality and maturity by using an on-line e-nose. The e-nose patterns required only 3-4 sensor signals to account for a great percentage (97-98%) of data variance. The achieved patterns both from compost (chemical analysis) and gas (e-nose analysis) samples are robust despite the high variability in feedstock characteristics (3 different materials), composting conditions and long composting time. GC-MS chromatograms supported the patterns.

  12. Effect of Mutation Order on Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Nangalia, Jyoti; Silber, Yvonne; Wedge, David C.; Grinfeld, Jacob; Baxter, E. Joanna; Massie, Charles E.; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Menon, Suraj; Godfrey, Anna L.; Dimitropoulou, Danai; Guglielmelli, Paola; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Besses, Carles; Döhner, Konstanze; Harrison, Claire N.; Vassiliou, George S.; Vannucchi, Alessandro; Campbell, Peter J.; Green, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cancers result from the accumulation of somatic mutations, and their properties are thought to reflect the sum of these mutations. However, little is known about the effect of the order in which mutations are acquired. METHODS We determined mutation order in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms by genotyping hematopoietic colonies or by means of next-generation sequencing. Stem cells and progenitor cells were isolated to study the effect of mutation order on mature and immature hematopoietic cells. RESULTS The age at which a patient presented with a myeloproliferative neoplasm, acquisition of JAK2 V617F homozygosity, and the balance of immature progenitors were all influenced by mutation order. As compared with patients in whom the TET2 mutation was acquired first (hereafter referred to as “TET2-first patients”), patients in whom the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) mutation was acquired first (“JAK2-first patients”) had a greater likelihood of presenting with polycythemia vera than with essential thrombocythemia, an increased risk of thrombosis, and an increased sensitivity of JAK2-mutant progenitors to ruxolitinib in vitro. Mutation order influenced the proliferative response to JAK2 V617F and the capacity of double-mutant hematopoietic cells and progenitor cells to generate colony-forming cells. Moreover, the hematopoietic stem-and-progenitor-cell compartment was dominated by TET2 single-mutant cells in TET2-first patients but by JAK2–TET2 double-mutant cells in JAK2-first patients. Prior mutation of TET2 altered the transcriptional consequences of JAK2 V617F in a cell-intrinsic manner and prevented JAK2 V617F from up-regulating genes associated with proliferation. CONCLUSIONS The order in which JAK2 and TET2 mutations were acquired influenced clinical features, the response to targeted therapy, the biology of stem and progenitor cells, and clonal evolution in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. (Funded by Leukemia and Lymphoma Research

  13. Malignant neoplasms of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: a series of 256 patients in Mexico City and Monterrey. Is air pollution the missing link?

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Delgado, R; Calderón-Garcidueñas, A; Meneses, A; Ruiz, L M; De La Garza, J; Acuna, H; Villarreal-Calderón, A; Raab-Traub, N; Devlin, R

    2000-04-01

    Air pollution is a serious health problem in major cities in Mexico. The concentrations of monitored criteria pollutants have been above the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards for the last decade. To determine whether the number of primary malignant nasal and paranasal neoplasms has increased, we surveyed 256 such cases admitted to a major adult oncology hospital located in metropolitan Mexico City (MMC) for the period from 1976-1997 and to a tertiary hospital in Monterrey, an industrial city, for the period from 1993-1998. The clinical histories and histopathologic material were reviewed, and a brief clinical summary was written for each case. In the MMC hospital the number of newly diagnosed nasal and paranasal neoplasms per year for the period from 1976-1986 averaged 5.1, whereas for the next 11 years it increased to 12.5. The maximal increase was observed in 1995-1997, with an average of 20.3 new cases per year (P = 0.0006). The predominant neoplasms in these series were non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, adenocarcinoma, Schneiderian carcinoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In the Monterrey hospital a 2-fold increase in the numbers of newly diagnosed nasal and paranasal neoplasms was recorded between 1993 and 1998. The predominant MMC neoplasm in this series, namely nasal T-cell/natural killer cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, is potentially Epstein-Barr virus related. Nasal and paranasal malignant neoplasms are generally rare. Environmental causative factors include exposure in industries such as nickel refining, leather, and wood furniture manufacturing. Although epidemiologic studies have not addressed the relationship between outdoor air pollution and sinonasal malignant neoplasms, there is strong evidence for the nasal and paranasal carcinogenic effect of occupational aerosol complex chemical mixtures. General practitioners and ear, nose, and throat physicians working in highly polluted cities should be aware of the clinical

  14. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of canine oral amelanotic melanocytic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Smedley, R C; Lamoureux, J; Sledge, D G; Kiupel, M

    2011-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of canine oral melanocytic neoplasms is often difficult because of variability in pigmentation and cellular pleomorphism. These neoplasms can resemble carcinomas, sarcomas, and round cell neoplasms, which differ in prognosis and treatment. A variety of immunohistochemical antibodies have been used for diagnosis of melanocytic neoplasms in humans and dogs; however, sensitivity and specificity of many markers have not been determined in amelanotic melanocytic neoplasms in dogs. The authors investigated a comprehensive panel of immunohistochemical markers in 49 canine oral amelanotic melanocytic neoplasms--namely, Melan-A, PNL2, HMB-45, microphthalmia transcription factor (MiTF), S-100, tyrosine hydroxylase, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2 (TRP-1 and TRP-2), and CD34. Ten well-differentiated cutaneous soft tissue spindle cell sarcomas were negative controls. Melan-A, PNL2, TRP-1, and TRP-2 were highly sensitive and 100% specific for the diagnosis of canine oral amelanotic melanocytic neoplasms. S-100 and MiTF showed high sensitivity but were less specific; that is, they also labeled a proportion of the soft tissue spindle cell sarcomas. HMB-45, tyrosinase, and tyrosine hydroxylase were 100% specific but had low sensitivities. CD34 did not label any of the melanocytic neoplasms but did label 80% of the soft tissue spindle cell sarcomas. A cost-effective and efficient immunodiagnostic cocktail containing antibodies against PNL2, Melan-A, TRP-1, and TRP-2 was created that had 100% specificity and 93.9% sensitivity in identifying canine oral amelanotic melanocytic neoplasms. The spindloid variant was the variant with the lowest sensitivity to the cocktail. The likelihood of correctly diagnosing canine oral amelanotic melanocytic neoplasms was dramatically higher when biopsy samples contained ample overlying and adjacent epithelium.

  15. Treatment of the scoliotic nose with extracorporeal septoplasty.

    PubMed

    Gubisch, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    A septal deformity with severe deviation of the septal L strut is seen in nearly every crooked or scoliotic nose. Unless the underlying septal deformity is properly diagnosed and treated, the nasal axis cannot be completely straightened. In addition, because standard septoplasty techniques often fail to adequately address severe L-strut deformities, extracorporeal septoplasty is often a prerequisite for straightening the crooked nose. This article presents a detailed explanation of the extracorporeal technique, as well as representative long-term clinical results showing the efficacy and durability of extracorporeal septoplasty. Extracorporeal septoplasty a safe and reliable method for straightening the severely deviated nose.

  16. F-18 HARV smoke flow visualization of actuated nose strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    During the final phase of tests with the HARV, Dryden technicians installed nose strakes, which were panels that fitted flush against the sides of the forward nose. When the HARV was at a high alpha, the aerodynamics of the nose caused a loss of directional stability. Extending one or both of the strakes results in strong side forces that, in turn, generated yaw control. This approach, along with the aircraft's Thrust Vectoring Control system, proved to be stability under flight conditions in which conventional surfaces, such as the vertical tails, were ineffective.

  17. Classification of Agarwood Oil Using an Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Hidayat, Wahyu; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md.; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Adom, Abdul Hamid

    2010-01-01

    Presently, the quality assurance of agarwood oil is performed by sensory panels which has significant drawbacks in terms of objectivity and repeatability. In this paper, it is shown how an electronic nose (e-nose) may be successfully utilised for the classification of agarwood oil. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), were used to classify different types of oil. The HCA produced a dendrogram showing the separation of e-nose data into three different groups of oils. The PCA scatter plot revealed a distinct separation between the three groups. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used for a better prediction of unknown samples. PMID:22399899

  18. Classification of agarwood oil using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Hidayat, Wahyu; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Adom, Abdul Hamid

    2010-01-01

    Presently, the quality assurance of agarwood oil is performed by sensory panels which has significant drawbacks in terms of objectivity and repeatability. In this paper, it is shown how an electronic nose (e-nose) may be successfully utilised for the classification of agarwood oil. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), were used to classify different types of oil. The HCA produced a dendrogram showing the separation of e-nose data into three different groups of oils. The PCA scatter plot revealed a distinct separation between the three groups. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used for a better prediction of unknown samples.

  19. Colonoscopy Atlas of Colon Polyps and Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shou-Jiang; Sones, James Q

    2016-03-01

    Optical colonoscopy is the gold standard for colon cancer screening and adenoma detection and is the only screening option that can potentially provide therapeutic interventions and adenoma removal during the same session. When other screening strategies generate positive results, currently colonoscopy is the next step for definitive diagnosis and potentially curative therapy. For gastrointestinal endoscopists, the ileocecum is the finishing line during colonoscopy, and it is identified by three endoscopic landmarks: terminal ileum, ileocecal valve, and the appendiceal orifice. Careful and systematic examination should be stressed during endoscopic training and practice. In this pictorial review, the authors demonstrate common colon polyps and neoplasms that can be found during colonoscopy. Our aim is to educate gastroenterologists, endoscopy staff other health care providers, and interested patients on certain colon pathologies and common endoscopic interventions.

  20. Zosteriform cutaneous leiomyoma: a rare cutaneous neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Arfan-ul-Bari

    2013-08-01

    Cutaneous leiomyomas are firm, round to oval, skin-coloured to brownish papules and nodules that may present as a solitary, few discrete or multiple clustered lesions. Different uncommon patterns of multiple leiomyoma distribution have been noted as bilateral, symmetrical, linear, zosteriform, or dermatomal-like arrangement. One such rare presentation was seen in a 23-year-old patient who presented with zosteriform skin coloured, occasionally painful cutaneous lesions over left shoulder region. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of cutaneous leiomyoma. He was symptomatically managed with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and topical capcicum cream. Case is reported here due to rare occurrence of this benign cutaneous neoplasm in an atypical pattern and on uncommon site.

  1. Cholesteryl esters in human malignant neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tosi, M R; Bottura, G; Lucchi, P; Reggiani, A; Trinchero, A; Tugnoli, V

    2003-01-01

    Cholesteryl esters (CholE) were detected in human malignant neoplasms by means of in vitro nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Spectroscopic analysis of the total lipid extracts obtained from cerebral tumors revealed appreciable amount of esterified cholesterol in high grade gliomas such as glioblastomas and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, characterized by prominent neovascularity. The finding that no CholE were detected in the healthy brain and in low grade and benign tumors supports a possible correlation between this class of lipids and histological vascular proliferation. Compared with high grade gliomas, renal cell carcinomas show higher levels of CholE, absent in the healthy renal parenchyma and in benign oncocytomas. In nefro-carcinomas, cytoplasmic lipid inclusions and prominent vascularization contribute to the increased levels of CholE present mainly as oleate. CholE are discussed as potential biochemical markers of cancer and as a target for new therapeutic strategies.

  2. Increased risk of lymphoid neoplasm in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm: a study of 1,915 patients

    PubMed Central

    Rumi, Elisa; Passamonti, Francesco; Elena, Chiara; Pietra, Daniela; Arcaini, Luca; Astori, Cesare; Zibellini, Silvia; Boveri, Emanuela; Pascutto, Cristiana; Lazzarino, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Within a cohort of 1,915 consecutive patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm followed for a median time of 5.2 years (range 0–33.3), we investigated the occurrence of lymphoid neoplasm with the aim of defining this risk and to investigate the role of genetic predisposing factors. We identified 22 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm who developed lymphoid neoplasm over their lifetime. We found that the risk of developing lymphoid neoplasm was 2.79-fold higher (95% CI, 1.80–4.33; P<0.001) than that of the general Italian population. A tag SNP surrogate for JAK2 GGCC haplotype was used to clarify a potential correlation between lymphoid-myeloid neoplasm occurrence and this genetic predisposing factor. As we did not find any difference in GGCC haplotype frequency between patients with both myeloid and lymphoid neoplasm and patients with myeloid neoplasm, JAK2 GGCC haplotype should not be considered a genetic predisposing factor. No difference in familial clustering was observed between the two groups. PMID:21109692

  3. Incidence of colorectal neoplasms among male pilots

    PubMed Central

    Moshkowitz, Menachem; Toledano, Ohad; Galazan, Lior; Hallak, Aharon; Arber, Nadir; Santo, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prevalence of colorectal neoplasms (adenomas, advanced adenomas and colorectal cancers) among Israeli military and commercial airline pilots. METHODS: Initial screening colonoscopy was performed on average-risk (no symptoms and no family history) airline pilots at the Integrated Cancer Prevention Center (ICPC) in the Tel-Aviv Medical Center. Visualized polyps were excised and sent for pathological examination. Advanced adenoma was defined as a lesion >10 mm in diameter, with high-grade dysplasia or villous histology. The results were compared with those of an age- and gender-matched random sample of healthy adults undergoing routine screening at the ICPC. RESULTS: There were 270 pilots (mean age 55.2 ± 7.4 years) and 1150 controls (mean age 55.7 ± 7.8 years). The prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was 15.9% among the pilots and 20.6% among the controls (P = 0.097, χ2 test). There were significantly more hyperplastic polyps among pilots (15.5% vs 9.4%, P = 0.004) and a trend towards fewer adenomas (14.8% vs 20.3% P = 0.06). The prevalence of advanced lesions among pilots and control groups was 5.9% and 4.7%, respectively (P = 0.49), and the prevalence of cancer was 0.7% and 0.69%, respectively (P = 0.93). CONCLUSION: There tends to be a lower colorectal adenoma, advanced adenoma and cancer prevalence but a higher hyperplastic polyp prevalence among pilots than the general population. PMID:25083084

  4. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose...; and ear, nose, and throat trocar. (b) Classification Class I (general controls). The device is exempt... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical...

  5. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source...

  6. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat drug... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...

  7. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source...

  8. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and...

  9. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and...

  10. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat drug... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...

  11. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose...; and ear, nose, and throat trocar. (b) Classification Class I (general controls). The device is exempt... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical...

  12. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  13. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  14. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  15. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  16. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  17. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  18. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  19. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  20. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  1. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  2. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  3. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  4. Histopathology confirms white-nose syndrome in bats in Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pikula, J.; Bandouchova, H.; Novotny, L.; Meteyer, C.U.; Zukal, J.; Irwin, N.R.; Zima, J.; Martinkova, N.

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome, associated with the fungal skin infection geomycosis, caused regional population collapse in bats in North America. Our results, based on histopathology, show the presence of white-nose syndrome in Europe. Dermatohistopathology on two bats (Myotis myotis) found dead in March 2010 with geomycosis in the Czech Republic had characteristics resembling Geomyces destructans infection in bats confirmed with white-nose syndrome in US hibernacula. In addition, a live M. myotis, biopsied for histopathology during hibernation in April 2011, had typical fungal infection with cupping erosion and invasion of muzzle skin diagnostic for white-nose syndrome and conidiospores identical to G. destructans that were genetically confirmed as G. destructans. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2012.

  5. Cryptococcosis in Gilbert's and long-nosed potoroo.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, R J; Vitali, S D; Eden, P A; Payne, K L; Warren, K S; Forshaw, D; Friend, J A; Horwitz, A M; Main, C; Krockenberger, M B; Malik, R

    2007-12-01

    Two cases of fatal cryptococcosis are described, one of Cryptococcus neoformans infection in a Gilbert's potoroo (Potorous gilbertii) and one of Cryptococcus gattii infection in a long-nosed potoroo (Potorous tridactylus). The diagnoses were confirmed by culture and specific immunohistochemistry, respectively. The long-nosed potoroo tested positive using the latex cryptococcal antigen test (LCAT), whereas the Gilbert's potoroo had a negative LCAT result despite having advanced disease of some duration. In both cases, the clinical presentation was a progressive neurologic disease associated with a central nervous system infection. Pulmonary infection was also observed in the long-nosed potoroo. Specific treatment with antifungal agents was unsuccessful in the long-nosed potoroo.

  6. Main Stair Newel Post, Handrail, and Baluster; Nosing Profile; Landing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Main Stair Newel Post, Handrail, and Baluster; Nosing Profile; Landing Profile; Stringer Profile; Rotunda Balustrade and Balcony Profile - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers - Battle Mountain Sanitarium, Administration Building, 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  7. Evaluating Soil Moisture Status Using an e-Nose

    PubMed Central

    Bieganowski, Andrzej; Jaromin-Glen, Katarzyna; Guz, Łukasz; Łagód, Grzegorz; Jozefaciuk, Grzegorz; Franus, Wojciech; Suchorab, Zbigniew; Sobczuk, Henryk

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of distinguishing different soil moisture levels by electronic nose (e-nose) was studied. Ten arable soils of various types were investigated. The measurements were performed for air-dry (AD) soils stored for one year, then moistened to field water capacity and finally dried within a period of 180 days. The volatile fingerprints changed during the course of drying. At the end of the drying cycle, the fingerprints were similar to those of the initial AD soils. Principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis showed that e-nose results can be used to distinguish soil moisture. It was also shown that different soils can give different e-nose signals at the same moistures. PMID:27338404

  8. Centuries of Climate May Have Shaped Your Nose

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164141.html Centuries of Climate May Have Shaped Your Nose Local temperatures, humidity ... or hate it, you can perhaps blame ancestral climates for how it looks today, new research suggests. " ...

  9. The air-conditioning capacity of the human nose.

    PubMed

    Naftali, Sara; Rosenfeld, Moshe; Wolf, Michael; Elad, David

    2005-04-01

    The nose is the front line defender of the respiratory system. Unsteady simulations in three-dimensional models have been developed to study transport patterns in the human nose and its overall air-conditioning capacity. The results suggested that the healthy nose can efficiently provide about 90% of the heat and the water fluxes required to condition the ambient inspired air to near alveolar conditions in a variety of environmental conditions and independent of variations in internal structural components. The anatomical replica of the human nose showed the best performance and was able to provide 92% of the heating and 96% of the moisture needed to condition the inspired air to alveolar conditions. A detailed analysis explored the relative contribution of endonasal structural components to the air-conditioning process. During a moderate breathing effort, about 11% reduction in the efficacy of nasal air-conditioning capacity was observed.

  10. A Compact and Low Cost Electronic Nose for Aroma Detection

    PubMed Central

    Macías, Miguel Macías; Agudo, J. Enrique; Manso, Antonio García; Orellana, Carlos Javier García; Velasco, Horacio Manuel González; Caballero, Ramón Gallardo

    2013-01-01

    This article explains the development of a prototype of a portable and a very low-cost electronic nose based on an mbed microcontroller. Mbeds are a series of ARM microcontroller development boards designed for fast, flexible and rapid prototyping. The electronic nose is comprised of an mbed, an LCD display, two small pumps, two electro-valves and a sensor chamber with four TGS Figaro gas sensors. The performance of the electronic nose has been tested by measuring the ethanol content of wine synthetic matrices and special attention has been paid to the reproducibility and repeatability of the measurements taken on different days. Results show that the electronic nose with a neural network classifier is able to discriminate wine samples with 10, 12 and 14% V/V alcohol content with a classification error of less than 1%. PMID:23698265

  11. An electronic nose for quantitative determination of gas concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, Grzegorz; Kalinowski, Paweł; Woźniak, Łukasz

    2016-11-01

    The practical application of human nose for fragrance recognition is severely limited by the fact that our sense of smell is subjective and gets tired easily. Consequently, there is considerable need for an instrument that can be a substitution of the human sense of smell. Electronic nose devices from the mid 1980s are used in growing number of applications. They comprise an array of several electrochemical gas sensors with partial specificity and a pattern recognition algorithms. Most of such systems, however, is only used for qualitative measurements. In this article usage of such system in quantitative determination of gas concentration is demonstrated. Electronic nose consist of a sensor array with eight commercially available Taguchi type gas sensor. Performance of three different pattern recognition algorithms is compared, namely artificial neural network, partial least squares regression and support vector machine regression. The electronic nose is used for ammonia and nitrogen dioxide concentration determination.

  12. Southeast Elevation, Attic Stair Nosing, Day Room Fireplace Details, Day ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast Elevation, Attic Stair Nosing, Day Room Fireplace Details, Day Room Mantel Shelf, Northeast Elevation - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers - Battle Mountain Sanitarium, Ward 4, 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  13. Comparison of aerodynamic noise from three nose-cylinder combinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guenther, R. A.; Reding, M. P.

    1970-01-01

    Results of experiments with three different cylinder and blunted nose combinations are discussed. Combinations include smooth cylinder with single 15 deg cone, smooth cylinder with double cone of 25 and 10 deg, and longitudinally corrugated cylinder with similar double cone.

  14. Topics in histopathology of sweat gland and sebaceous neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Ansai, Shin-Ichi

    2017-03-01

    This article reviews several topics regarding sweat gland and sebaceous neoplasms. First, the clinicopathological characteristics of poroid neoplasms are summarized. It was recently reported that one-fourth of poroid neoplasms are composite tumors and one-fourth are apocrine type lesions. Recent progress in the immunohistochemical diagnosis of sweat gland neoplasms is also reviewed. CD117 can help to distinguish sweat gland or sebaceous tumors from other non-Merkel cell epithelial tumors of the skin. For immunohistochemical differential diagnosis between sweat gland carcinoma (SGC) other than primary cutanesous apocrine carcinoma and skin metastasis of breast carcinoma (SMBC), a panel of antibodies may be useful, including p63 (SGC(+) , SMBC(-) ), CK5/6 (SGC(+) , SMBC(-) ), podoplanin (SGC(+) , SMBC(-) ) and mammaglobin (SGC(-) , SMBC(+) ). Comparison of antibodies used for immunohistochemical diagnosis of sebaceous carcinoma (SC) suggests that adipophilin has the highest sensitivity and specificity. Some authors have found that immunostaining for survivin, androgen receptor and ZEB2/SIP1 has prognostic value for ocular SC, but not extraocular SC. In situ SC is rare, especially extraocular SC, but there have been several recent reports that actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease are the source of invasive SC. Finally, based on recent reports, classification of sebaceous neoplasms into three categories is proposed, which are sebaceoma (a benign neoplasm with well-defined architecture and no atypia), borderline sebaceous neoplasm (low-grade SC; an intermediate tumor with well-defined architecture and nuclear atypia) and SC (a malignant tumor with invasive growth and evident nuclear atypia).

  15. Lupus vulgaris of external nose--a case report.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, J S; Naveen, K N; Prasad, K C; Santhosh, S G; Hegde, J S

    2013-02-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common morphological variant of cutaneous tuberculosis accounting for approximately 59% of cases of cutaneous tuberculosis in India. We present a case of lupus vulgaris of external nose diagnosed early and treated with CAT-3 RNTCP regimen for six months without any nasal deformity except for a small scar over the dorsum of the nose. Patient followed up for one year after completion of the prescribed regimen, there being no recurrence of the lesion.

  16. Evaluation of Three Electronic Noses for Detecting Incipient Wood Decay

    PubMed Central

    Baietto, Manuela; Wilson, Alphus D.; Bassi, Daniele; Ferrini, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Tree assessment methodologies, currently used to evaluate the structural stability of individual urban trees, usually involve a visual analysis followed by measurements of the internal soundness of wood using various instruments that are often invasive, expensive, or inadequate for use within the urban environment. Moreover, most conventional instruments do not provide an adequate evaluation of decay that occurs in the root system. The intent of this research was to evaluate the possibility of integrating conventional tools, currently used for assessments of decay in urban trees, with the electronic nose–a new innovative tool used in diverse fields and industries for various applications such as quality control in manufacturing, environmental monitoring, medical diagnoses, and perfumery. Electronic-nose (e-nose) technologies were tested for the capability of detecting differences in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by wood decay fungi and wood from healthy and decayed trees. Three e-noses, based on different types of operational technologies and analytical methods, were evaluated independently (not directly compared) to determine the feasibility of detecting incipient decays in artificially-inoculated wood. All three e-nose devices were capable of discriminating between healthy and artificially-inoculated, decayed wood with high levels of precision and confidence. The LibraNose quartz microbalance (QMB) e-nose generally provided higher levels of discrimination of sample unknowns, but not necessarily more accurate or effective detection than the AromaScan A32S conducting polymer and PEN3 metal-oxide (MOS) gas sensor e-noses for identifying and distinguishing woody samples containing different agents of wood decay. However, the conducting polymer e-nose had the greater advantage for identifying unknowns from diverse woody sample types due to the associated software capability of utilizing prior-developed, application-specific reference libraries with

  17. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster Frustum and Nose ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster Frustum and Nose Cap assembly undergoing preparations and close-out procedures in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The Nose Cap contains the Pilot and Drogue Chutes and the Frustum contains the three Main Parachutes, Altitude Switches and forward booster Separation Motors. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  18. Closeup view of the reinforced carboncarbon nose of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the reinforced carbon-carbon nose of the Orbiter Discovery from the service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. Note the clear protective shield around the nose cap, and the reflective insulation protecting the Crew Compartment bulkhead and orbiter structure in the void created by the removal of the Forward Reaction Control Module. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  19. Applications and Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Alphus D.; Baietto, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    Electronic-nose devices have received considerable attention in the field of sensor technology during the past twenty years, largely due to the discovery of numerous applications derived from research in diverse fields of applied sciences. Recent applications of electronic nose technologies have come through advances in sensor design, material improvements, software innovations and progress in microcircuitry design and systems integration. The invention of many new e-nose sensor types and arrays, based on different detection principles and mechanisms, is closely correlated with the expansion of new applications. Electronic noses have provided a plethora of benefits to a variety of commercial industries, including the agricultural, biomedical, cosmetics, environmental, food, manufacturing, military, pharmaceutical, regulatory, and various scientific research fields. Advances have improved product attributes, uniformity, and consistency as a result of increases in quality control capabilities afforded by electronic-nose monitoring of all phases of industrial manufacturing processes. This paper is a review of the major electronic-nose technologies, developed since this specialized field was born and became prominent in the mid 1980s, and a summarization of some of the more important and useful applications that have been of greatest benefit to man. PMID:22346690

  20. The spectacular human nose: an amplifier of individual quality?

    PubMed Central

    Mikalsen, Åse Kristine Rognmo; Yoccoz, Nigel Gilles; Laeng, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Amplifiers are signals that improve the perception of underlying differences in quality. They are cost free and advantageous to high quality individuals, but disadvantageous to low quality individuals, as poor quality is easier perceived because of the amplifier. For an amplifier to evolve, the average fitness benefit to the high quality individuals should be higher than the average cost for the low quality individuals. The human nose is, compared to the nose of most other primates, extraordinary large, fragile and easily broken—especially in male–male interactions. May it have evolved as an amplifier among high quality individuals, allowing easy assessment of individual quality and influencing the perception of attractiveness? We tested the latter by manipulating the position of the nose tip or, as a control, the mouth in facial pictures and had the pictures rated for attractiveness. Our results show that facial attractiveness failed to be influenced by mouth manipulations. Yet, facial attractiveness increased when the nose tip was artificially centered according to other facial features. Conversely, attractiveness decreased when the nose tip was displaced away from its central position. Our results suggest that our evaluation of attractiveness is clearly sensitive to the centering of the nose tip, possibly because it affects our perception of the face’s symmetry and/or averageness. However, whether such centering is related to individual quality remains unclear. PMID:24765588

  1. Role of Extracorporeal Septoplasty in Deviated Noses.

    PubMed

    Ghaisas, Virendra; Parab, Sapna Ramkrishna

    2015-09-01

    Severe gross septal deviations present big surgical challenges for operating surgeon. Septal deviations has direct effect on aesthetic and functional part of nose. Correcting septal deviations during rhinoplasty is basic procedure. Extreme deviations of septum especially on dorsal and caudal end of cartilaginous septum are difficult to treat. The classical septoplasty approach becomes unsuitable for such severe deviations. Gubisch has first reported in 1995 about extracorporeal septoplasty. To report the experience of Extracorporeal septoplasty and the complication rates with the technique. Retrospective study of 112 patients who underwent extracorporeal septoplasty in primary rhinoplasty from May 2009 to June 2014. Patient's pre and postoperatively evaluation was done by photographs, nasal endoscopy and subjective by symptoms evaluation satisfaction scale 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Nasal endoscopy revealed significant improvement in nasal airway and nasal valve and subjective evaluation satisfaction score was very encouraging. Complications like septal perforation, bleeding, aesthetic complications were minimal (9 %) On basis of results obtained, shows that this technique, increases patients nasal airway and aesthetic look of the patients. Irrespective of extreme nasal deviations.

  2. Electronic nose for detecting multiple targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Anirban; Parthasarathi, Ganga; Poddar, Rakesh; Zhao, Weiqiang; Luo, Cheng

    2006-05-01

    The discovery of high conductivity in doped polyacetylene in 1977 (garnering the 2000 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the three discovering scientists) has attracted considerable interest in the application of polymers as the semiconducting and conducting materials due to their promising potential to replace silicon and metals in building devices. Previous and current efforts in developing conducting polymer microsystems mainly focus on generating a device of a single function. When multiple micropatterns made of different conducting polymers are produced on the same substrate, many microsystems of multiple functions can be envisioned. For example, analogous to the mammalian olfactory system which includes over 1,000 receptor genes in detecting various odors (e.g., beer, soda etc.), a sensor consisting of multiple distinct conducting polymer sensing elements will be capable of detecting a number of analytes simultaneously. However, existing techniques present significant technical challenges of degradation, low throughput, low resolution, depth of field, and/or residual layer in producing conducting polymer microstructures. To circumvent these challenges, an intermediate-layer lithography method developed in our group is used to generate multiple micropatterns made of different, commonly used conducting polymers, Polypyrrole (PPy), Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy)thiophene (PEDOT) and Polyaniline (PANI). The generated multiple micropatterns are further used in an "electronic nose" to detect water vapor, glucose, toluene and acetone.

  3. Solid and papillary epithelial neoplasm of the pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.C.; Lichtenstein, J.E.; Fishman, E.K.; Oertel, J.E.; Dachman, A.H.; Siegelman, S.S.

    1985-02-01

    Solid and papillary epithelial neoplasm of the pancreas is an uncommon low grade malignant tumor histologically distinct from the usual ductal adenocarcinoma and amenable to cure by surgical excision. It tends to occur in black women in their second or third decade of life and has often been misclassified as nonfunctional islet cell tumor or as cystadenoma or cystadenocarcinoma. Twelve cases were reviewed. Sonography and CT of solid and pipillary epithelial neoplasms depict a well-demarcated mass that can be solid, mixed cystic and solid, or largely cystic. The radiologic appearance is dependent on the maintenance of the integrity of the neoplasm versus the extent of retrogressive changes that have occurred.

  4. Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Norman Oneil; al Qadhi, Hani; al Wahibi, Khalifa

    2015-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are neoplasms that are characterized by ductal dilation, intraductal papillary growth, and thick mucus secretion. This relatively recently defined pathology is evolving in terms of its etiopathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, management, and treatment guidelines. A PubMed database search was performed. All the relevant abstracts in English language were reviewed and the articles in which cases of IPMN could be identified were further scrutinized. Information of IPMN was derived, and duplication of information in several articles and those with areas of persisting uncertainties were excluded. The recent consensus guidelines were examined. The reported incidence of malignancy varies from 57% to 92% in the main duct-IPMN (MD-IPMN) and from 6% to 46% in the branch duct-IPMN (BD-IPMN). The features of high-risk malignant lesions that raise concern include obstructive jaundice in a patient with a cystic lesion in the pancreatic head, the findings on radiological imaging of a mass lesion of >30 mm, enhanced solid component, and the main pancreatic duct (MPD) of size ≥10 mm; while duct size 5-9 mm and cyst size <3 mm are considered as “worrisome features.” Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) are primary investigations in diagnosing and following up on these patients. The role of pancreatoscopy and the analysis of aspirated cystic fluid for cytology and DNA analysis is still to be established. In general, resection is recommended for most MD-IPMN, mixed variant, and symptomatic BD-IPMN. The 5-year survival of patients after surgical resection for noninvasive IPMN is reported to be at 77-100%, while for those with invasive carcinoma, it is significantly lower at 27-60%. The follow-up of these patients could vary from 6 months to 1 year and would depend on the risk stratification for invasive malignancy and the pathology of the resected specimen. The understanding of

  5. Intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Adsay, N V; Adair, C F; Heffess, C S; Klimstra, D S

    1996-08-01

    We describe the clinical and pathologic features of 11 intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms of the pancreas, a hitherto unrecognized tumor. The patients were six men and five women, and most of the tumors were in the head (head: body/tail = 8:3). The mean patient age was 62 (range, 39-78), and the average tumor size was 6 cm. Grossly the tumors exhibited mucin-filled cysts containing nodular papillary projections. Dilated ducts communicating with the main tumor were sometimes noted. Microscopically the cystic structures appeared to represent dilated ducts containing intraductal tumor. The tumors were characterized by variably complex, arborizing papillary structures. The papillae had thin, delicate fibrovascular cores with focal myxoid changes and were lined by stratified oncocytic cells. Goblet cells and intra-epithelial mucin-containing lumina were present, the latter resulting in a characteristic cribriform pattern. The exuberance of the epithelial proliferation varied from case to case and between different regions within individual tumors; solid sheets of cells were often identified. Although the degree of cytologic atypia was not generally severe, the complexity of the architecture justified a designation of intraductal oncocytic papillary carcinoma in 10 of the 11 cases. In nine cases the tumor was entirely intraductal; one case exhibited focal microinvasion and another showed widespread invasive carcinoma, the invasive elements appearing cytologically similar to the intraductal papillary components. The oncocytic cells stained positively with phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin and Novelli stains. Immunohistochemically, all cases stained positively for B72.3, and five cases showed focal, weak luminal membrane staining for carcinoembryonic antigen. Ultrastructurally many of the cells were packed with mitochondria, and mucin was also identified. Seven patients were alive and free of tumor from 1 month to 3 years (average, 1 year) after resection. Two

  6. Liver Resection in Children with Hepatic Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Judson G.; Altman, R. Peter; Arensman, Robert M.; Matlak, Michael E.; Leikin, Sanford L.

    1978-01-01

    In the past ten years, 28 patients with primary tumors of the liver have been treated. There were 11 benign tumors, including four hamartomas, three patients with focal nodular hyperplasia, and two each with congenital cysts and hemangioma. Hamartomas and masses of focal nodular hyperplasia should be excised when possible, but both are benign lesions; therefore life threatening excisions at the porta hepatis should be avoided. Cysts are often resectable, but when occupying all lobes of the liver, they can be successfully managed by marsupialization into the free peritoneal cavity. If resectable, hemangiomas should be removed; when occupying most of the liver as they often do, patients may be subject to platelet trapping or to cardiac failure. In some instances these lesions have been controlled by steroids, radiation therapy or hepatic artery ligation. Of 17 malignant tumors seen, 12 proved to be hepatoblastomas. Nine of the 12 patients underwent liver resection, of whom four are cured, (33%). There were three children with hepatocellular carcinomas and two with embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. One child from each of these groups is cured by surgical excision. At present the only known cures in children with primary malignant liver neoplasms have been achieved by operative removal. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:206216

  7. Guidelines for the management of myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chul Won; Bang, Soo-Mee; Jang, Seongsoo; Jung, Chul Won; Kim, Hee-Jin; Kim, Ho Young; Kim, Soo-Jeong; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Park, Jinny; Won, Jong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis are collectively known as ‘Philadelphia-negative classical myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs).’ The discovery of new genetic aberrations such as Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) have enhanced our understanding of the pathophysiology of MPNs. Currently, the JAK2 mutation is not only a standard criterion for diagnosis but is also a new target for drug development. The JAK1/2 inhibitor, ruxolitinib, was the first JAK inhibitor approved for patients with intermediate- to high-risk myelofibrosis and its effects in improving symptoms and survival benefits were demonstrated by randomized controlled trials. In 2011, the Korean Society of Hematology MPN Working Party devised diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for Korean MPN patients. Subsequently, other genetic mutations have been discovered and many kinds of new drugs are now under clinical investigation. In view of recent developments, we have revised the guidelines for the diagnosis and management of MPN based on published evidence and the experiences of the expert panel. Here we describe the epidemiology, new genetic mutations, and novel therapeutic options as well as diagnostic criteria and standard treatment strategies for MPN patients in Korea. PMID:26552452

  8. The Hematopoietic Niche in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt-Graeff, Annette H.; Nitschke, Roland; Zeiser, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Specialized microanatomical areas of the bone marrow provide the signals that are mandatory for the maintenance and regulation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitor cells. A complex microenvironment adjacent to the marrow vasculature (vascular niche) and close to the endosteum (endosteal niche) harbors multiple cell types including mesenchymal stromal cells and their derivatives such as CAR cells expressing high levels of chemokines C-X-C motif ligand 12 and early osteoblastic lineage cells, endothelial cells, and megakaryocytes. The characterization of the cellular and molecular networks operating in the HSC niche has opened new perspectives for the understanding of the bidirectional cross-talk between HSCs and stromal cell populations in normal and malignant conditions. A structural and functional remodeling of the niche may contribute to the development of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Malignant HSCs may alter the function and survival of MSCs that do not belong to the neoplastic clone. For example, a regression of nestin+ MSCs by apoptosis has been attributed to neuroglial damage in MPN. Nonneoplastic MSCs in turn can promote aggressiveness and drug resistance of malignant cells. In the future, strategies to counteract the pathological interaction between the niche and neoplastic HSCs may offer additional treatment strategies for MPN patients. PMID:26696752

  9. CALR mutation characterization in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Bilbao-Sieyro, Cristina; Florido, Yanira; Gómez-Casares, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Identification of somatic frameshift mutations in exon 9 of the calreticulin gene (CALR) in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) in December of 2013 has been a remarkable finding. It has provided a new molecular diagnostic marker, particularly in essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF), where is the second most common altered gene after JAK2V617F. There are two main types of CALR mutants, type 1 and type 2, and there is evidence about their distinct clinical/prognostic implications, for instances, it is believed that favorable outcome might be restricted to type-1 in PMF. By using reasoned approaches, very recent publications have supported classifying the alternative mutants in type-1-like or type-2-like. If further studies confirm these results, new considerations may be taken into account in the molecular diagnosis of MPNs. This implies that precise mutation characterization must be performed and caution should be taken in screening technique selection. In this Editorial we summarize the current information regarding all this issues. PMID:27384487

  10. Eponyms in cardiothoracic radiology: Part I. Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H; Saettele, Megan R; Saettele, Timothy; Patel, Vikas; Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Eponyms serve the purpose of honoring individuals who have made important observations and discoveries. As with other fields of medicine, eponyms are frequently encountered in radiology, particularly in chest radiology. However, inappropriate use of an eponym may lead to potentially dangerous miscommunication. Moreover, an eponym may honor the incorrect person or a person who falls into disrepute. Despite their limitations, eponyms are still widespread in medical literature. Furthermore, in some circumstances, more than one individual may have contributed to the description or discovery of a particular anatomical structure or disease, whereas in others, an eponym may have been incorrectly applied initially and propagated for years in medical literature. Nevertheless, radiologic eponyms are a means of honoring those who have made lasting contributions to the field of radiology, and familiarity with these eponyms is critical for proper reporting and accurate communication. In addition, the acquisition of some historical knowledge about those whose names are associated with various structures or pathologic conditions conveys a sense of humanity in the field of medicine. In this article, the first of a multipart series, the authors discuss a number of chest radiology eponyms as they relate to neoplasms, including relevant clinical and imaging features, as well biographic information of the respective eponym׳s namesake.

  11. Calreticulin Exon 9 Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Background Calreticulin (CALR) mutations were recently discovered in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). We studied the frequency and type of CALR mutations and their hematological characteristics. Methods A total of 168 MPN patients (36 polycythemia vera [PV], 114 essential thrombocythemia [ET], and 18 primary myelofibrosis [PMF] cases) were included in the study. CALR mutation was analyzed by the direct sequencing method. Results CALR mutations were detected in 21.9% of ET and 16.7% of PMF patients, which accounted for 58.5% and 33.3% of ET and PMF patients without Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) or myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogenes (MPL) mutations, respectively. A total of five types of mutation were detected, among which, L367fs*46 (53.6%) and K385fs*47 (35.7%) were found to be the most common. ET patients with CALR mutation had lower leukocyte counts and ages compared with JAK2-mutated ET patients. Conclusion Genotyping for CALR could be a useful diagnostic tool for JAK2-or MPL-negative ET or PMF patients. CALR mutation may be a distinct disease group, with different hematological characteristics than that of JAK2-positive patients. PMID:25553276

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Plasma Cell Neoplasms Including Multiple Myeloma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neoplasms for more information. High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant This treatment is a way of giving ... blood -forming cells destroyed by the cancer treatment. Stem cells (immature blood cells) are removed from the blood ...

  13. General Information about Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neoplasms for more information. High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant This treatment is a way of giving ... blood -forming cells destroyed by the cancer treatment. Stem cells (immature blood cells) are removed from the blood ...

  14. Primary malignant neoplasms associated with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Lishner, M.; Prokocimer, M.; Ron, E.; Shaklai, M.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and primary malignant neoplasms was evaluated using data from the Hematology Division in Beilinson Medical Center and the Israel Cancer Registry. The study population consisted of 81 patients diagnosed between 1962 and 1984. A total of 16 patients were found to have 21 malignant neoplasms in addition to their CLL. Excluding patients with nonmelanoma skin tumours, a 1.7 increased risk (statistically not significant) for developing second malignant neoplasms in CLL patients was detected. The only tumour which occurred significantly more than expected subsequent to CLL diagnosis was brain cancer. The coexistence of multiple cancers in the same patient was diagnosed in four of the patients. The results of this study further support the hypothesis that patients with CLL are prone to develop second neoplasms. PMID:3684832

  15. Radiation myelopathy of cervical spinal cord simulating intramedullary neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Fogelholm, R.; Haltia, M.; Andersson, L. C.

    1974-01-01

    Radiation myelopathy is a well-known complication of irradiation therapy of neoplasms in the vicinity of the spinal cord. Most earlier authors have stressed the association of a normal myelogram and normal CSF protein level with this condition. One case of radiation myelopathy with a myelogram simulating intramedullary neoplasm and with extremely high CSF protein concentration is presented. Six months after myelography necropsy revealed severe atrophy of the previously thickened lower cervical spinal cord. The pathogenetic mechanisms are discussed. Images PMID:4443812

  16. Plurihormonal Cosecretion by a Case of Adrenocortical Oncocytic Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Corrales, J. J.; Robles-Lázaro, C.; Sánchez-Marcos, A. I.; González-Sánchez, M. C.; Antúnez-Plaza, P.; Miralles, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms (oncocytomas) are extremely rare; only approximately 159 cases have been described so far. The majority are nonfunctional and benign. We describe an unusual case of a functional oncocytoma secreting an excess of glucocorticoids (cortisol) and androgens (androstenedione and DHEAS), a pattern of plurihormonal cosecretion previously not reported in men, presenting with endocrine manifestations of Cushing's syndrome. The neoplasm was considered to be of uncertain malignant potential (borderline) according to the Lin-Weiss-Bisceglia criteria. PMID:27413559

  17. Electronic nose based tea quality standardization.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Ritaban; Kashwan, K R; Bhuyan, M; Hines, E L; Gardner, J W

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we have used a metal oxide sensor (MOS) based electronic nose (EN) to analyze five tea samples with different qualities, namely, drier month, drier month again over-fired, well fermented normal fired in oven, well fermented overfired in oven, and under fermented normal fired in oven. The flavour of tea is determined mainly by its taste and smell, which is generated by hundreds of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Non-Volatile Organic Compounds present in tea. These VOCs are present in different ratios and determine the quality of the tea. For example Assamica (Sri Lanka and Assam Tea) and Assamica Sinesis (Darjeeling and Japanese Tea) are two different species of tea giving different flavour notes. Tea flavour is traditionally measured through the use of a combination of conventional analytical instrumentation and human or ganoleptic profiling panels. These methods are expensive in terms of time and labour and also inaccurate because of a lack of either sensitivity or quantitative information. In this paper an investigation has been made to determine the flavours of different tea samples using an EN and to explore the possibility of replacing existing analytical and profiling panel methods. The technique uses an array of 4 MOSs, each of, which has an electrical resistance that has partial sensitivity to the headspace of tea. The signals from the sensor array are then conditioned by suitable interface circuitry. The data were processed using Principal Components Analysis (PCA), Fuzzy C Means algorithm (FCM). We also explored the use of a Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method along with a Radial Basis Function network (RBF) and a Probabilistic Neural Network classifier. Using FCM and SOM feature extraction techniques along with RBF neural network we achieved 100% correct classification for the five different tea samples with different qualities. These results prove that our EN is capable of discriminating between the flavours of teas manufactured under

  18. Intraductal tubular neoplasms of the pancreas: an overview.

    PubMed

    Chelliah, Adeline; Kalimuthu, Sangeetha; Chetty, Runjan

    2016-10-01

    Intraductal lesions of the pancreas are an uncommon but increasingly recognized group of entities mainly because of advances in imaging technology. In the past, precise categorization and understanding of true pancreatic intraduct neoplasms were hampered not only by their relative rarity but also because of the plethora of terminology and criteria used in nomenclature and diagnosis. Although significant progress has been made in the characterization of some of these lesions, as exemplified by intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, understanding of the rare intraductal tubular adenoma (ITA) and intraduct tubular carcinoma (ITC) continues to evolve. By definition, these are a group of intraductal, radiologically detectable neoplasms that can progress to or be associated with invasive adenocarcinoma and, as such, are precursor lesions to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Their often shared clinical and radiological features make precise histological diagnosis essential for appropriate management and optimal outcome. We provide an overview of these neoplasms and highlight recent developments in the understanding of ITA and ITC which have led to ITA being considered a variant of gastric-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and ITC being encompassed within the intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm category. We also emphasize the distinguishing histological features to aid diagnosis of these rare lesions.

  19. CT characteristics of primary retroperitoneal neoplasms in children.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yufeng; Wang, Jichen; Peng, Yun; Zeng, Jinjin

    2010-09-01

    Primary retroperitoneal neoplasms are uncommon in children. Retroperitoneal neoplasms are either mesodermal, neurogenic, germ cell ectodermal or lymphatic in origin. In general, primary retroperitoneal neoplasms in children have different spectrum and prevalence compared to those in adults. Neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, benign teratoma and lymphoma are the common retroperitoneal neoplasms. In this review, the clinical and CT futures of common retroperitoneal neoplasms in children are described. Coarse, amorphous, and mottled calcification are very common in neuroblastoma. Paraganglioma tends to show marked and early enhancement and may present with clinical symptoms associated with the excess catecholamine. Sarcomas are often very large and have heterogeneous appearance. Imaging cannot be reliably used to identify the type of retroperitoneal sarcomas due to overlapped radiographic features. In children, lipoblastoma is the most common lipomatous tumor in the retroperitoneum. The percentage of visible fat in tumor varies depending on the cellular composition of the lesion. The CT characteristics of teratoma are quite variable, which may be cystic, solid, on a combination of both. Typically teratoma appears as a large complex mass containing fluid, fat, fat-fluid level, and calcifications. Lymphoma is often homogeneous on both enhanced and unenhanced CT scans. Necrosis and calcification are rare on CT. In conclusion, making a final histological diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumor base on CT features is not often possible; however, CT can help to develop a differential diagnosis and determine the size and extent of the retroperitoneal neoplasms.

  20. Overview of the clinical problem: facts and current issues of mucinous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Jeurnink, S M; Vleggaar, F P; Siersema, P D

    2008-11-01

    Pancreatic cystic lesions are uncommon and consist of pseudocysts, congenital cysts and cystic neoplasms including mucinous cystic neoplasms, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and serous cystic neoplasms. Mucinous cystic neoplasms are large septated cysts without connection to the ductal system, characterised by the presence of thick-walled ovarian-type stroma and mucin. They occur predominantly in women and often are malignant. Therefore, surgical resection is recommended. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are neoplasms with tall, columnar, mucin-containing epithelium involving the main pancreatic ducts or major side branches. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms occur in men and women in their 60s and 70s and may differentiate into malignant neoplasms. Therefore, surgical resection is mandatory. Serous cystic neoplasms appear as multiple cysts lined with cubic flat epithelium containing glycogen-rich cells with clear cytoplasm. They mainly occur in women in their 50s and are generally benign. Therefore, a conservative approach is recommended. As both mucinous cystic neoplasm and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms have a high malignant potential, it is important to differentiate between the various pancreatic cystic lesions. Several imaging techniques and tumour markers have been evaluated. Nonetheless, definitive guidelines to differentiate between serous cystic neoplasms, mucinous cystic neoplasms and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are still poorly defined. A number of management issues regarding these neoplasms are still under debate, for example which imaging technique to use, differentiation between malignant or benign lesions and the preferred treatment modality for each pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Further research may lead to a definitive guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of mucinous cystic neoplasms, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and serous cystic neoplasms.

  1. Intrahepatic Biliary Intraductal Oncocytic Papillary Neoplasm/Carcinoma: First Reported Case in Australia and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Chu, Christopher; Felbel, William; Chu, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Biliary (hepatic and extrahepatic) intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms/carcinoma are rare neoplasms. Classification of biliary intraductal papillary tumors can be confusing and reports in radiology literature are extremely limited. We describe the first reported case of biliary intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms/carcinoma in the liver in Australia. The intraductal nature of such neoplasms can be identified on magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography.

  2. Mismatch repair genes in renal cortical neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Baiyee, Daniel; Banner, Barbara

    2006-02-01

    Mutation of human mutL homolog 1 (MLH-1) and human mutS homolog 2 (MSH-2) has been linked with the pathogenesis of colorectal carcinoma in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome and other carcinomas. Mutations of these genes in renal cell carcinomas were recently described. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of MLH-1 and MSH-2 in renal cortical neoplasms of various histological types by immunohistochemistry. Thirty-eight (n = 38) resected renal tumors were obtained from the surgical pathology files of the UMass Memorial Healthcare, including clear cell carcinomas (CLEARs, n = 20), papillary carcinomas (PAPs, n = 8), chromophobe carcinomas (CHRs, n = 4), and oncocytomas (ONCs, n = 6). Positive immunostaining for MLH-1 and MSH-2 was graded by the number of positive tumor cell nuclei, as follows: 0, negative; 1, up to one third of positive nuclei; 2, one to two thirds positive; and 3, greater than two thirds positive. Loss of MLH-1 or MSH-2 was defined as a tumor with grade 0 or 1, compared with the normal tubules. Normal tubules and intercalated ducts contained cells positive for MLH-1 and MSH-2 in all cases. For both antibodies, positive staining in tumors ranged from grade 1 to 3 in the CLEAR and PAP but was only grade 2 to 3 in the CHR and ONC. Loss of MLH-1 and/or MSH-2 occurred in malignant tumors but not in ONC. Loss of MLH-1 was present in 8 (40%) of 20 CLEARs and 4 (50%) of 8 PAPs, compared with loss of MSH-2 in 4 (20%) of 20 CLEARs and 1 (25%) of 4 CHRs. Our results suggest that loss of mismatch repair genes is involved in the malignant transformation in some renal carcinomas, particularly those derived from the proximal tubules.

  3. Targeting glutamine metabolism in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Huichun; Ciano, Kristen; Dong, Katherine; Zucker, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    JAK2V617F mutation can be detected in the majority of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) patients. The JAK2 inhibitor Ruxolitinib is the first FDA-approved treatment for MPNs. However, its use is limited by various dose related toxicities. Here, we studied the metabolic state and glutamine metabolism of BaF3-hEPOR-JAK2V617F and BaF3-hEPOR-JAK2WT cells. We found that the JAK2V617F-mutant cells were associated with increased oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate than the JAK2WT cells and there was an increased glutamine metabolism in JAK2V617F-mutant cells compared to wild-type cells. Glutaminase (GLS), the key enzyme in gluta-mine metabolism, was upregulated in the JAK2V617F-mutant BaF3 cells compared to the JAK2WT BaF3 cells. In MPN patient peripheral blood CD34+ cells, GLS expression was increased in JAK2V617F-mutant progenitor cells compared to JAK2 wild-type progenitor cells from the same patients and GLS levels were increased at the time of disease progression compared to at earlier time points. Moreover, GLS inhibitor increased the growth inhibitory effect of Ruxolitinib in both JAK2V617F-mutant cell lines and peripheral blood CD34+ cells from MPN patients. Therefore, GLS inhibitor should be further explored to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of JAK2 inhibitor and allow the administration of lower doses of the drug to avoid its toxicity. PMID:26227854

  4. Genetic–pathologic characterization of myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yonggoo; Park, Joonhong; Jo, Irene; Lee, Gun Dong; Kim, Jiyeon; Kwon, Ahlm; Choi, Hayoung; Jang, Woori; Chae, Hyojin; Han, Kyungja; Eom, Ki-Seong; Cho, Byung-Sik; Lee, Sung-Eun; Yang, Jinyoung; Shin, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Hyunjung; Ko, Yoon Ho; Park, Haeil; Jin, Jong Youl; Lee, Seungok; Jekarl, Dong Wook; Yahng, Seung-Ah; Kim, Myungshin

    2016-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by the proliferation of one or more myeloid lineages. The current study demonstrates that three driver mutations were detected in 82.6% of 407 MPNs with a mutation distribution of JAK2 in 275 (67.6%), CALR in 55 (13.5%) and MPL in 6 (1.5%). The mutations were mutually exclusive in principle except in one patient with both CALR and MPL mutations. The driver mutation directed the pathologic features of MPNs, including lineage hyperplasia, laboratory findings and clinical presentation. JAK2-mutated MPN showed erythroid, granulocytic and/or megakaryocytic hyperplasia whereas CALR- and MPL-mutated MPNs displayed granulocytic and/or megakaryocytic hyperplasia. The lineage hyperplasia was closely associated with a higher mutant allele burden and peripheral cytosis. These findings corroborated that the lineage hyperplasia consisted of clonal proliferation of each hematopoietic lineage acquiring driver mutations. Our study has also demonstrated that bone marrow (BM) fibrosis was associated with disease progression. Patients with overt fibrosis (grade ⩾2) presented an increased mutant allele burden (P<0.001), an increase in chromosomal abnormalities (P<0.001) and a poor prognosis (P<0.001). Moreover, among patients with overt fibrosis, all patients with wild-type JAK2/CALR/MPL (triple-negative) showed genomic alterations by genome-wide microarray study and revealed the poorest overall survival, followed by JAK2-mutated MPNs. The genetic–pathologic characteristics provided the information for understanding disease pathogenesis and the progression of MPNs. The prognostic significance of the driver mutation and BM fibrosis suggests the necessity of a prospective therapeutic strategy to improve the clinical outcome. PMID:27444979

  5. Calreticulin (CALR) mutation in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs)

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wenyi

    2015-01-01

    As a heterogeneous group of disease, myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) have confused hematologists and hematopathologists with their protean clinical presentations and myriads of morphologies. A thought of classifying MPNs based on molecular alterations has gained popularity because there is increasing evidence that molecular or chromosomal alterations have a better correlation with clinical presentation, response to therapies, and prognosis than conventional morphological classification. This type of efforts has been facilitated by the advancement of molecular technologies. A significant number of gene mutations have been identified in MPNs with JAK2 and MPL being the major ones. However, a significant gap is present in that many cases of MPNs do not harbor any of these mutations. This gap is recently filled by the discovery of Calreticulin (CALR) mutation in MPNs without JAK2 or MPL mutation and since then, the clinical and molecular correlation in MPNs has become a hot research topic. There seems to be a fairly consistent correlation between CALR mutation and certain hematological parameters such as a high platelet count and a better prognosis in MPNs with CALR mutation. However, controversies are present regarding the risks of thrombosis, interactions of CALR with other gene mutation, the role of CALR in the pathogenesis, and the optimal treatment strategies. In addition, there are many questions remain to be answered, which all boiled down to the molecular mechanisms by which CALR causes or contributes to MPNs. Here, we summarized current published literatures on CALR mutations in MPNs with an emphasis on the clinical-molecular correlation. We also discussed the controversies and questions remain to be answered. PMID:27358884

  6. Emerging treatments for classical myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Harrison, Claire N

    2017-02-09

    There has been a major revolution in the management of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), and in particular those with myelofibrosis and extensive splenomegaly and symptomatic burden, after the introduction of the JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib. The drug also has been approved as second-line therapy for polycythemia vera (PV). However, the therapeutic armamentarium for MPN is still largely inadequate for coping with patients' major unmet needs, which include normalization of life span (myelofibrosis and some patients with PV), reduction of cardiovascular complications (mainly PV and essential thrombocythemia), prevention of hematological progression, and improved quality of life (all MPN). In fact, none of the available drugs has shown clear evidence of disease-modifying activity, even if some patients treated with interferon and ruxolitinib showed reduction of mutated allele burden, and ruxolitinib might extend survival of patients with higher-risk myelofibrosis. Raised awareness of the molecular abnormalities and cellular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of MPN is facilitating the development of clinical trials with novel target drugs, either alone or in combination with ruxolitinib. Although for most of these molecules a convincing preclinical rationale was provided, the results of early phase 1 and 2 clinical trials have been quite disappointing to date, and toxicities sometimes have been limiting. In this review, we critically illustrate the current landscape of novel therapies that are under evaluation for patients with MPN on the basis of current guidelines, patient risk stratification criteria, and previous experience, looking ahead to the chance of a cure for these disorders.

  7. Myeloproliferative neoplasms: Current molecular biology and genetics.

    PubMed

    Saeidi, Kolsoum

    2016-02-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal disorders characterized by increased production of mature blood cells. Philadelphia chromosome-negative MPNs (Ph-MPNs) consist of polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). A number of stem cell derived mutations have been identified in the past 10 years. These findings showed that JAK2V617F, as a diagnostic marker involving JAK2 exon 14 with a high frequency, is the best molecular characterization of Ph-MPNs. Somatic mutations in an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, named calreticulin (CALR), is the second most common mutation in patients with ET and PMF after JAK2 V617F mutation. Discovery of CALR mutations led to the increased molecular diagnostic of ET and PMF up to 90%. It has been shown that JAK2V617F is not the unique event in disease pathogenesis. Some other genes' location such as TET oncogene family member 2 (TET2), additional sex combs-like 1 (ASXL1), casitas B-lineage lymphoma proto-oncogene (CBL), isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH1/IDH2), IKAROS family zinc finger 1 (IKZF1), DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A), suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS), enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), tumor protein p53 (TP53), runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) and high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) have also identified to be involved in MPNs phenotypes. Here, current molecular biology and genetic mechanisms involved in MNPs with a focus on the aforementioned factors is presented.

  8. Investigating the case of human nose shape and climate adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Arslan A.; Claes, Peter; McEcoy, Brian; Shriver, Mark D.

    2017-01-01

    The evolutionary reasons for variation in nose shape across human populations have been subject to continuing debate. An import function of the nose and nasal cavity is to condition inspired air before it reaches the lower respiratory tract. For this reason, it is thought the observed differences in nose shape among populations are not simply the result of genetic drift, but may be adaptations to climate. To address the question of whether local adaptation to climate is responsible for nose shape divergence across populations, we use Qst–Fst comparisons to show that nares width and alar base width are more differentiated across populations than expected under genetic drift alone. To test whether this differentiation is due to climate adaptation, we compared the spatial distribution of these variables with the global distribution of temperature, absolute humidity, and relative humidity. We find that width of the nares is correlated with temperature and absolute humidity, but not with relative humidity. We conclude that some aspects of nose shape may indeed have been driven by local adaptation to climate. However, we think that this is a simplified explanation of a very complex evolutionary history, which possibly also involved other non-neutral forces such as sexual selection. PMID:28301464

  9. How often do normal persons sneeze and blow the nose?

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjarne; Mygind, Niels

    2002-03-01

    Rhinitis is defined as an inflammatory disease, but in clinical practice the diagnosis is based on the occurrence of nasal symptoms. As all persons occasionally sneeze and blow the nose, it is necessary to define what is normal. In this study the daily number of sneezes and of nose blowing were recorded in diary-cards over a 14 day period by 80 hospital employees and medical students, who considered themselves not to suffer from rhinitis. The results showed that more than 95% of the normal persons sneezed and blew the nose less than 4 times a day, on average. It is concluded that it is normal to sneeze and blow the nose less than 4 times daily while a higher number can be a sign of rhinitis. It is recommended that counting of sneezes and of nose blowing is used in clinical trials in order to define the study population. Together with an objective measurement of nasal patency this can be useful in defining the effect profile of different types of treatment.

  10. Investigating the case of human nose shape and climate adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Arslan A; Mattern, Brooke C; Claes, Peter; McEcoy, Brian; Hughes, Cris; Shriver, Mark D

    2017-03-01

    The evolutionary reasons for variation in nose shape across human populations have been subject to continuing debate. An import function of the nose and nasal cavity is to condition inspired air before it reaches the lower respiratory tract. For this reason, it is thought the observed differences in nose shape among populations are not simply the result of genetic drift, but may be adaptations to climate. To address the question of whether local adaptation to climate is responsible for nose shape divergence across populations, we use Qst-Fst comparisons to show that nares width and alar base width are more differentiated across populations than expected under genetic drift alone. To test whether this differentiation is due to climate adaptation, we compared the spatial distribution of these variables with the global distribution of temperature, absolute humidity, and relative humidity. We find that width of the nares is correlated with temperature and absolute humidity, but not with relative humidity. We conclude that some aspects of nose shape may indeed have been driven by local adaptation to climate. However, we think that this is a simplified explanation of a very complex evolutionary history, which possibly also involved other non-neutral forces such as sexual selection.

  11. The "hot nose" sign on brain death nuclear scintigraphy: where does the flow really go?

    PubMed

    Appelt, Eric A; Song, Won S; Phillips, William T; Metter, Darlene F; Salman, Umber A; Blumhardt, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear scintigraphy has been used in patients with brain death since the 1970s. Many studies report a "hot nose" sign as predictive of brain death and lack of cerebral flow. Current nuclear medicine textbooks state that increased flow to the nose occurs secondary to occlusion of the internal carotid artery with flow rerouted to the nose via the external carotid artery. This explanation has been provided for decades assuming that the blood flow is actually increased to the nose. We performed a study to determine whether flow is really seen in the nose when a hot nose sign is present.

  12. Somatic CALR Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms with Nonmutated JAK2

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, E.J.; Nice, F.L.; Gundem, G.; Wedge, D.C.; Avezov, E.; Li, J.; Kollmann, K.; Kent, D.G.; Aziz, A.; Godfrey, A.L.; Hinton, J.; Martincorena, I.; Van Loo, P.; Jones, A.V.; Guglielmelli, P.; Tarpey, P.; Harding, H.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.D.; Goudie, C.T.; Ortmann, C.A.; Loughran, S.J.; Raine, K.; Jones, D.R.; Butler, A.P.; Teague, J.W.; O’Meara, S.; McLaren, S.; Bianchi, M.; Silber, Y.; Dimitropoulou, D.; Bloxham, D.; Mudie, L.; Maddison, M.; Robinson, B.; Keohane, C.; Maclean, C.; Hill, K.; Orchard, K.; Tauro, S.; Du, M.-Q.; Greaves, M.; Bowen, D.; Huntly, B.J.P.; Harrison, C.N.; Cross, N.C.P.; Ron, D.; Vannucchi, A.M.; Papaemmanuil, E.; Campbell, P.J.; Green, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Somatic mutations in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2) occur in many myeloproliferative neoplasms, but the molecular pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2 is obscure, and the diagnosis of these neoplasms remains a challenge. METHODS We performed exome sequencing of samples obtained from 151 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. The mutation status of the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR) was assessed in an additional 1345 hematologic cancers, 1517 other cancers, and 550 controls. We established phylogenetic trees using hematopoietic colonies. We assessed calreticulin subcellular localization using immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. RESULTS Exome sequencing identified 1498 mutations in 151 patients, with medians of 6.5, 6.5, and 13.0 mutations per patient in samples of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and myelofibrosis, respectively. Somatic CALR mutations were found in 70 to 84% of samples of myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2, in 8% of myelodysplasia samples, in occasional samples of other myeloid cancers, and in none of the other cancers. A total of 148 CALR mutations were identified with 19 distinct variants. Mutations were located in exon 9 and generated a +1 base-pair frameshift, which would result in a mutant protein with a novel C-terminal. Mutant calreticulin was observed in the endoplasmic reticulum without increased cell-surface or Golgi accumulation. Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms carrying CALR mutations presented with higher platelet counts and lower hemoglobin levels than patients with mutated JAK2. Mutation of CALR was detected in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Clonal analyses showed CALR mutations in the earliest phylogenetic node, a finding consistent with its role as an initiating mutation in some patients. CONCLUSIONS Somatic mutations in the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone CALR were found in a majority of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms with

  13. Electronic Nose Based on an Optimized Competition Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Men, Hong; Liu, Haiyan; Pan, Yunpeng; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Haiping

    2011-01-01

    In view of the fact that there are disadvantages in that the class number must be determined in advance, the value of learning rates are hard to fix, etc., when using traditional competitive neural networks (CNNs) in electronic noses (E-noses), an optimized CNN method was presented. The optimized CNN was established on the basis of the optimum class number of samples according to the changes of the Davies and Bouldin (DB) value and it could increase, divide, or delete neurons in order to adjust the number of neurons automatically. Moreover, the learning rate changes according to the variety of training times of each sample. The traditional CNN and the optimized CNN were applied to five kinds of sorted vinegars with an E-nose. The results showed that optimized network structures could adjust the number of clusters dynamically and resulted in good classifications. PMID:22163887

  14. Electronic noses and their applications in environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hashem, S.; Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Kangas, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    Compact, portable systems capable of quickly identifying contaminants in the field are of great importance when monitoring the environment. In this paper, we examine the effectiveness of using artificial neural networks for real-time data analysis of a sensor array. Analyzing the sensor data in parallel may allow for rapid identification of contaminants in the field without requiring highly selective component sensors. A sensor array combined with a data analysis module is referred to as an electronic nose. In this paper, we investigate the trade off between sensor sensitivity and selectivity relating to the applications of neural network based-electronic noses in environmental monitoring. We use a prototype electronic nose which consists of nine tin-oxide Taguchi-type sensors, a temperature sensor, and a humidity sensor. We illustrate that by using neural network based analysis of a sensor data, the selectivity of a sensor array may be significantly improved, especially when some (or all) sensors are not highly selective.

  15. A Portable Electronic Nose For Hydrazine and Monomethyl Hydrazine Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Rebecca C.; Linnell, Bruce R.; Peterson, Barbara V.; Brooks, Kathy B.; Griffin, Tim P.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Program and military use large quantities Hydrazine (Hz) and monomethyl hydrazine (MMI-I) as rocket propellant. These substances are very toxic and are suspected human carcinogens. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist set the threshold limit value to be 10 parts per billion (ppb). Current off-the-shelf portable instruments require 10 to 20 minutes of exposure to detect 10 ppb concentration. This shortcofriing is not acceptable for many operations. A new prototype instrument using a gas sensor array and pattern recognition software technology (i.e., an electronic nose) has demonstrated the ability to identify either Hz or MM}{ and quantify their concentrations at 10 parts per billion in 90 seconds. This paper describes the design of the portable electronic nose (e-nose) instrument, test equipment setup, test protocol, pattern recognition algorithm, concentration estimation method, and laboratory test results.

  16. NDE Process Development Specification for SRB Composite Nose Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suits, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Shuttle Upgrade program is a continuing improvement process to enable the Space Shuttle to be an effective space transportation vehicle for the next few decades. The Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), as a component of that system, is currently undergoing such an improvement. Advanced materials, such as composites, have given us a chance to improve performance and to reduce weight. The SRB Composite Nose Cap (CNC) program aims to replace the current aluminum nose cap, which is coated with a Thermal Protection System and poses a possible debris hazard, with a lighter, stronger, CNC. For the next 2 years, this program will evaluate the design, material selection, properties, and verification of the CNC. This particular process specification cites the methods and techniques for verifying the integrity of such a nose cap with nondestructive evaluation.

  17. [The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].

    PubMed

    Foda, H M T

    2010-09-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.

  18. Determination of authenticity of brand perfume using electronic nose prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebicki, Jacek; Szulczynski, Bartosz; Kaminski, Marian

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the practical application of an electronic nose technique for fast and efficient discrimination between authentic and fake perfume samples. Two self-built electronic nose prototypes equipped with a set of semiconductor sensors were employed for that purpose. Additionally 10 volunteers took part in the sensory analysis. The following perfumes and their fake counterparts were analysed: Dior—Fahrenheit, Eisenberg—J’ose, YSL—La nuit de L’homme, 7 Loewe and Spice Bomb. The investigations were carried out using the headspace of the aqueous solutions. Data analysis utilized multidimensional techniques: principle component analysis (PCA), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), k-nearest neighbour (k-NN). The results obtained confirmed the legitimacy of the electronic nose technique as an alternative to the sensory analysis as far as the determination of authenticity of perfume is concerned.

  19. Flowfield calculations past an entry probe with ablated nose shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A.; Graves, R. A., Jr.; Wellmuenster, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of ablated nose shapes on the flowfield solutions are studied, using a time-dependent finite-difference method developed by Kumar, et al. (1979). Solutions are obtained for the laminar flow of a radiating mixture of H-He in chemical equilibrium past a blunt axisymmetric body at zero angle of attack. The freestream conditions correspond to a point on a typical Jovian entry trajectory, and the initial probe shape is a 45-deg half-angle spherically blunted cone. It is found that as nose bluntness increases, the following occur: in the nose region, shock standoff distances and radiative heating rates increase substantially; surface pressure level increases, but convective heating rates decrease.

  20. High-Temperature Gas Sensor Array (Electronic Nose) Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2002-01-01

    The ability to measure emissions from aeronautic engines and in commercial applications such as automotive emission control and chemical process monitoring is a necessary first step if one is going to actively control those emissions. One single sensor will not give all the information necessary to determine the chemical composition of a high-temperature, harsh environment. Rather, an array of gas sensor arrays--in effect, a high-temperature electronic "nose"--is necessary to characterize the chemical constituents of a diverse, high-temperature environment, such as an emissions stream. The signals produced by this nose could be analyzed to determine the constituents of the emission stream. Although commercial electronic noses for near-room temperature applications exist, they often depend significantly on lower temperature materials or only one sensor type. A separate development effort necessary for a high-temperature electronic nose is being undertaken by the NASA Glenn Research Center, Case Western Reserve University, Ohio State University, and Makel Engineering, Inc. The sensors are specially designed for hightemperature environments. A first-generation high-temperature electronic nose has been demonstrated on a modified automotive engine. This nose sensor array was composed of sensors designed for hightemperature environments fabricated using microelectromechanical-systems- (MEMS-) based technology. The array included a tin-oxide-based sensor doped for nitrogen oxide (NOx) sensitivity, a SiC-based hydrocarbon (CxHy) sensor, and an oxygen sensor (O2). These sensors operate on different principles--resistor, diode, and electrochemical cell, respectively--and each sensor has very different responses to the individual gases in the environment. A picture showing the sensor head for the array is shown in the photograph on the left and the sensors installed in the engine are shown in the photograph on the right. Electronics are interfaced with the sensors for

  1. Increasing Electronic Nose Recognition Ability by Laser Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alejandra, Massacane; Juan, Vorobioff; Karina, Pierpauli; Norberto, Boggio; Silvia, Reich; Carlos, Rinaldi; Alfredo, Boselli; Alberto, Lamagna; Laura, Azcárate M.; Jorge, Codnia; Francisco, Manzano

    2009-05-01

    We present a method to increase the capability of an electronic nose to discriminate between a priori similar odours. We analyze the case of olive oil because it is well known that the characteristics of its aroma impair in many cases the discrimination between different kinds of olive oils especially when they are from similar geographic regions. In the present work we study how to improve the electronic nose performance for the above mentioned discrimination by the use of two IR laser wavelengths for vaporization.

  2. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster Frustum and Nose ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster Frustum and Nose Cap assembly undergoing preparations and assembly procedures in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The Nose Cap contains the Pilot and Drogue Chutes and the Frustum contains the three Main Parachutes, Altitude Switches and forward booster Separation Motors. In this view the assembly is rotated so that the four Separation Motors are in view and aligned with the approximate centerline of the image. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  3. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Nose Caps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Nose Caps mounted on ground support equipment in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center as they are being prepared for attachment to the SRB Frustum. The Nose Cap contains the Pilot and Drogue Chutes that are deployed prior to the main chutes as the SRBs descend to a splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean where they are recovered refurbished and reused. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  4. CONDITIONAL NEOPLASMS AND SUBTHRESHOLD NEOPLASTIC STATES

    PubMed Central

    Rous, Peyton; Kidd, John G.

    1941-01-01

    The "warts" which tar elicits on rabbit skin (papillomas, carcinomatoids, frill horns) are true tumors, benign growths expressive of slight yet irreversible deviations of epidermal cells from the normal. The neoplastic condition gives the cells a superiority over their neighbors when both are submitted to the same encouraging influences, and then they proliferate into tumors. Their state entails such disabilities, though, that they are unable to maintain themselves under ordinary circumstances, and consequently growths composed of them disappear when no longer aided. Often the neoplastic cells resume the normal aspect and habit of life long before the tumor mass is gone; and they may persist as part of an apparently normal epidermis, retaining their neoplastic potentialities for months after all signs of the growth have disappeared. In these instances it can be made to appear again, sometimes repeatedly, by non-carcinogenic stimulation of the skin (wound healing, turpentining). There is reason however to suppose that in the end the tumor cells, unless helped, die or are cast off. It is plain that the neoplastic state does not necessarily connote independence of behavior or success in tumor formation. On the contrary it may render cells unable to survive or endow them with powers which they can exert only under favoring conditions. This is the case with the cells composing the tar warts of rabbits. In the lack of such conditions the cells of these growths do not manifest themselves but remain in a subthreshold neoplastic state, whereas if aided they form neoplasms. The deviations from the normal represented by the benign tar tumors of rabbits are slight and limited in character, but further deviations in larger variety may be superimposed upon them, with result in malignant tumors, growths possessed of a greater, though not always absolute, independence. Tar cancers usually come about in this way, by successive, step-like deviations from the normal, and so also do

  5. From Nose to Brain: Un-Sensed Electrical Currents Applied in the Nose Alter Activity in Deep Brain Structures

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Tali; Shushan, Sagit; Ravia, Aharon; Hahamy, Avital; Secundo, Lavi; Weissbrod, Aharon; Ben-Yakov, Aya; Holtzman, Yael; Cohen-Atsmoni, Smadar; Roth, Yehudah; Sobel, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Rules linking patterns of olfactory receptor neuron activation in the nose to activity patterns in the brain and ensuing odor perception remain poorly understood. Artificially stimulating olfactory neurons with electrical currents and measuring ensuing perception may uncover these rules. We therefore inserted an electrode into the nose of 50 human volunteers and applied various currents for about an hour in each case. This induced assorted non-olfactory sensations but never once the perception of odor. To validate contact with the olfactory path, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure resting-state brain activity in 18 subjects before and after un-sensed stimulation. We observed stimulation-induced neural decorrelation specifically in primary olfactory cortex, implying contact with the olfactory path. These results suggest that indiscriminate olfactory activation does not equate with odor perception. Moreover, this effort serendipitously uncovered a novel path for minimally invasive brain stimulation through the nose. PMID:27591145

  6. From Nose to Brain: Un-Sensed Electrical Currents Applied in the Nose Alter Activity in Deep Brain Structures.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Tali; Shushan, Sagit; Ravia, Aharon; Hahamy, Avital; Secundo, Lavi; Weissbrod, Aharon; Ben-Yakov, Aya; Holtzman, Yael; Cohen-Atsmoni, Smadar; Roth, Yehudah; Sobel, Noam

    2016-09-02

    Rules linking patterns of olfactory receptor neuron activation in the nose to activity patterns in the brain and ensuing odor perception remain poorly understood. Artificially stimulating olfactory neurons with electrical currents and measuring ensuing perception may uncover these rules. We therefore inserted an electrode into the nose of 50 human volunteers and applied various currents for about an hour in each case. This induced assorted non-olfactory sensations but never once the perception of odor. To validate contact with the olfactory path, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure resting-state brain activity in 18 subjects before and after un-sensed stimulation. We observed stimulation-induced neural decorrelation specifically in primary olfactory cortex, implying contact with the olfactory path. These results suggest that indiscriminate olfactory activation does not equate with odor perception. Moreover, this effort serendipitously uncovered a novel path for minimally invasive brain stimulation through the nose.

  7. Hepatic small vessel neoplasm, a rare infiltrative vascular neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Ryan M.; Buelow, Benjamin; Mather, Cheryl; Joseph, Nancy M.; Alves, Venancio; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Liu, Ta-Chiang; Makhlouf, Hala; Marginean, Celia; Nalbantoglu, ILKe; Sempoux, Christine; Snover, Dale C.; Thung, Swan N.; Yeh, Matthew M.; Ferrell, Linda D.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Characteristic but rare vascular neoplasms in the adult liver composed of small vessels with an infiltrative border were collected from an international group of collaborators over a 5-year period (N = 17). These tumors were termed hepatic small vessel neoplasm (HSVN), and the histologic differential diagnosis was angiosarcoma (AS). The average age of patients was 54 years (range, 24–83 years). HSVN was more common in men. The average size was 2.1 cm (range, 0.2–5.5 cm). Diagnosis was aided by immunohistochemical stains for vascular lineage (CD31, CD34, FLI-1), which were uniformly positive in HSVN. Immunohistochemical stains (p53, c-Myc, GLUT-1, and Ki-67) for possible malignant potential are suggestive of a benign/low-grade tumor. Capture-based next-generation sequencing (using an assay that targets the coding regions of more than 500 cancer genes) identified an activating hotspot GNAQ mutation in 2 of 3 (67%) tested samples, and one of these cases also had a hotspot mutation in PIK3CA. When compared with hepatic AS (n = 10) and cavernous hemangioma (n = 6), the Ki-67 proliferative index is the most helpful tool in excluding AS, which demonstrated a tumor cell proliferative index greater than 10% in all cases. Strong p53 and diffuse c-Myc staining was also significantly associated with AS but not with HSVN or cavernous hemangioma. There have been no cases with rupture/hemorrhage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, or Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. Thus far, there has been no metastasis or recurrence of HSVN, but complete resection and close clinical follow-up are recommended because the outcome remains unknown. PMID:27090685

  8. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... device includes the esophageal dilator; tracheal bistour (a long, narrow surgical knife); tracheal dilator; tracheal hook; laryngeal injection set; laryngeal knife; laryngeal saw; laryngeal trocar...; wire ear loop; microrule; mirror; mobilizer; ear, nose, and throat punch; ear, nose and throat...

  9. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... device includes the esophageal dilator; tracheal bistour (a long, narrow surgical knife); tracheal dilator; tracheal hook; laryngeal injection set; laryngeal knife; laryngeal saw; laryngeal trocar...; wire ear loop; microrule; mirror; mobilizer; ear, nose, and throat punch; ear, nose and throat...

  10. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... device includes the esophageal dilator; tracheal bistour (a long, narrow surgical knife); tracheal dilator; tracheal hook; laryngeal injection set; laryngeal knife; laryngeal saw; laryngeal trocar...; wire ear loop; microrule; mirror; mobilizer; ear, nose, and throat punch; ear, nose and throat...

  11. Nose Fairing Modeling and Simulation to Support Trident II D5 Lifecycle Extension

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    the nose fairing was used to evaluate the nose fairing under tensile and compressive loading conditions to simulate the lifting evolution and...nose fairing was used to evaluate the nose fairing under tensile and compressive loading conditions to simulate the lifting evolution and closure...stage, solid propellant missile, the D5 uses inertial and stellar guidance technology [4]. The three rocket motor stages are nearly 26 feet, eight feet

  12. Molecular determinants of pathogenesis and clinical phenotype in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Grinfeld, Jacob; Nangalia, Jyoti; Green, Anthony R.

    2017-01-01

    The myeloproliferative neoplasms are a heterogeneous group of clonal disorders characterized by the overproduction of mature cells in the peripheral blood, together with an increased risk of thrombosis and progression to acute myeloid leukemia. The majority of patients with Philadelphia-chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasms harbor somatic mutations in Janus kinase 2, leading to constitutive activation. Acquired mutations in calreticulin or myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene are found in a significant number of patients with essential thrombocythemia or myelofibrosis, and mutations in numerous epigenetic regulators and spliceosome components are also seen. Although the cellular and molecular consequences of many of these mutations remain unclear, it seems likely that they interact with germline and microenvironmental factors to influence disease pathogenesis. This review will focus on the determinants of specific myeloproliferative neoplasm phenotypes as well as on how an improved understanding of molecular mechanisms can inform our understanding of the disease entities themselves. PMID:27909216

  13. [Pathologic characteristics of malignant neoplasms occurring in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Arai, Tomio; Matsuda, Yoko; Aida, Junko; Takubo, Kaiyo

    2015-08-01

    Malignant neoplasm preferentially occurs in the elderly. Common cancers in the elderly are gastric, colorectal, lung and prostate cancers in men whereas colorectal, lung, gastric and pancreatic cancers in women. There are several characteristic features such as tumor location, histology, biological behavior and pathway of carcinogenesis in malignant neoplasms occurring in the elderly. Multiple cancers increase with aging. Although it is generally believed that carcinoma in the elderly shows well differentiation, slow growth, low incidence of metastasis and favorable prognosis, the tumor does not always show such features. Regarding biological behavior of malignant tumor in the elderly, age-related alterations of the host such as stromal weakness and decreased immune response against cancer cell invasion should be considered as well as characteristics of tumor cell itself. Thus, we need a specific strategy for treatment for malignant neoplasms in the elderly.

  14. The role of JAK2 abnormalities in hematologic neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Alabdulaali, Mohammed K.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, an activating mutation in the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) was identified in a significant proportion of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms, mainly polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis. Many types of mutations in the JAK-STAT pathway have been identified, the majority are related to JAK2. Currently JAK2 mutations are important in the area of diagnosis of myeloid neoplasms, but its role beyond the confirmation of clonality is growing and widening our knowledge about these disorders. In addition to that, clinical trials to target JAK2-STAT pathway will widen our knowledge and hopefully will offer more therapeutic options. In this review, we will discuss the role of JAK2 abnormalities in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, classification, severity and management of hematologic neoplasms.

  15. Identification of the most common cutaneous neoplasms in dogs and evaluation of breed and age distributions for selected neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Villamil, J Armando; Henry, Carolyn J; Bryan, Jeffrey N; Ellersieck, Mark; Schultz, Loren; Tyler, Jeff W; Hahn, Allen W

    2011-10-01

    OBJECTIVE-To identify the most common cutaneous neoplasms in dogs and evaluate breed and age distributions for selected neoplasms. DESIGN-Retrospective epidemiological study. SAMPLE-Records available through the Veterinary Medical Database of dogs examined at veterinary teaching hospitals in North America between 1964 and 2002. PROCEDURES-Information on tumor type and patient breed and age was collected. Incidence and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS-Records of 1,139,616 dogs were reviewed. Cutaneous neoplasms were diagnosed in 25,996 of these dogs; records for the remaining 1,113,620 dogs did not indicate that cutaneous neoplasms had been diagnosed, and these dogs were considered controls. The most frequent age range for dogs with cutaneous neoplasms was 10 to 15 years. Lipoma, adenoma, and mast cell tumor were the most common skin tumor types. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Results supported previously reported data regarding cutaneous neoplasia in dogs but provided updated information on the most common skin tumors and on age and breed distributions.

  16. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  17. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  18. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  19. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear,...

  20. 33 CFR 110.71 - Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.71 Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md. The water area of Jacobs Nose Cove, on the west side of the mouth of Elk River, Maryland, comprising the...

  1. 33 CFR 110.71 - Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.71 Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md. The water area of Jacobs Nose Cove, on the west side of the mouth of Elk River, Maryland, comprising the...

  2. 33 CFR 110.71 - Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.71 Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md. The water area of Jacobs Nose Cove, on the west side of the mouth of Elk River, Maryland, comprising the...

  3. 33 CFR 110.71 - Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.71 Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md. The water area of Jacobs Nose Cove, on the west side of the mouth of Elk River, Maryland, comprising the...

  4. 33 CFR 110.71 - Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.71 Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md. The water area of Jacobs Nose Cove, on the west side of the mouth of Elk River, Maryland, comprising the...

  5. View of hangar access apron entering nose dock hangar. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of hangar access apron entering nose dock hangar. View shows exposed tail of aircraft being serviced inside the hangar. Operational apron in background. View to southeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  6. Using Electronic Noses to Detect Tumors During Neurosurgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie L.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Lara, Liana M.; Kateb, Babak; Chen, Mike

    2008-01-01

    It has been proposed to develop special-purpose electronic noses and algorithms for processing the digitized outputs of the electronic noses for determining whether tissue exposed during neurosurgery is cancerous. At present, visual inspection by a surgeon is the only available intraoperative technique for detecting cancerous tissue. Implementation of the proposal would help to satisfy a desire, expressed by some neurosurgeons, for an intraoperative technique for determining whether all of a brain tumor has been removed. The electronic-nose technique could complement multimodal imaging techniques, which have also been proposed as means of detecting cancerous tissue. There are also other potential applications of the electronic-nose technique in general diagnosis of abnormal tissue. In preliminary experiments performed to assess the viability of the proposal, the problem of distinguishing between different types of cultured cells was substituted for the problem of distinguishing between normal and abnormal specimens of the same type of tissue. The figure presents data from one experiment, illustrating differences between patterns that could be used to distinguish between two types of cultured cancer cells. Further development can be expected to include studies directed toward answering questions concerning not only the possibility of distinguishing among various types of normal and abnormal tissue but also distinguishing between tissues of interest and other odorous substances that may be present in medical settings.

  7. 23. AIRCRAFT IN STORAGE, TIPPED ON THEIR NOSES. Photographic copy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. AIRCRAFT IN STORAGE, TIPPED ON THEIR NOSES. Photographic copy of historic photograph. 1947 OAMA (original print located at Ogden Air Logistics Center, Hill Air Force Base, Utah). Photographer Unknown - Hill Field, Airplane Repair Hangars No. 1-No. 4, 5875 Southgate Avenue, Layton, Davis County, UT

  8. General view of the Nose Cap, Frustum and Forward Skirt ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Nose Cap, Frustum and Forward Skirt assembly being hoisted and mated with the previously assembled Solid Rocket Booster segments on the Mobile Launch Platform in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  9. Simulation of nose whistlers: An application to low latitude whistlers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kalpana; Singh, R. P.; Kumar Singh, Abhay; Singh, R. N.

    2006-05-01

    Simulation technique for whistler mode signal propagating through inhomogeneous plasma using WKB approximation has been developed (Singh, K., Singh, R.P., Ferencz, O.E., 2004. Simulation of whistler mode propagation for low latitude stations. Earth Planet Space 56, 979-987). In the present paper, we have used it for the analysis of recorded signals at low latitudes and estimated the nose frequency, which is not observed on the dynamic spectra. At low latitudes nose frequency is ˜100 kHz or more and therefore it is absent in the dynamic spectra due to attenuation of the signal at higher frequencies. The importance of nose frequency is in determining the exact path of propagation, which is required in probing of ambient medium. It is shown that the method permits to study the nose frequency variation, it can be used to deduce physical parameters as the global electric field. A case study permits to get a reasonable value of the electric field, which up to now could not be done at very low latitude.

  10. Ear, nose and throat problems in Accident and Emergency.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Tanya

    Nurses working in A&E departments throughout the UK frequently encounter patients with ear, nose and throat conditions. While the majority of these are straightforward, a small number are serious and even life-threatening. Tanya Reynolds discusses the nursing management of this group of patients and stresses the importance of appropriate assessment, pain management and referral.

  11. Closeup view of the reinforced carboncarbon nose on the forward ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the reinforced carbon-carbon nose on the forward section of the Orbiter Discovery's in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  12. Solving the Nose-Hoover thermostat for Nuclear Pasta

    SciTech Connect

    Perez Garcia, M. Angeles

    2006-06-19

    At densities just below nuclear saturation density, there may be possible non-uniform spatial configurations of neutron rich matter. In this work we present a calculation using molecular dynamics techniques for a nuclear system interacting via a semiclassical potential depending on both positions and momenta and kept at fixed temperature by using the Nose-Hoover Thermostat.

  13. Disseminated encephalomyelitis-like central nervous system neoplasm in childhood.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhui; Bao, Xinhua; Fu, Na; Ye, Jintang; Li, Ting; Yuan, Yun; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Yuehua; Qin, Jiong; Wu, Xiru

    2014-08-01

    A malignant neoplasm in the central nervous system with diffuse white matter changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is rare in children. It could be misdiagnosed as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. This report presents our experience based on 4 patients (3 male, 1 female; aged 7-13 years) whose MRI showed diffuse lesions in white matter and who were initially diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. All of the patients received corticosteroid therapy. After brain biopsy, the patients were diagnosed with gliomatosis cerebri, primitive neuroectodermal tumor and central nervous system lymphoma. We also provide literature reviews and discuss the differentiation of central nervous system neoplasm from acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

  14. Compensating for Effects of Humidity on Electronic Noses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie; Ryan, Margaret A.; Manatt, Kenneth; Zhou, Hanying; Manfreda, Allison

    2004-01-01

    A method of compensating for the effects of humidity on the readouts of electronic noses has been devised and tested. The method is especially appropriate for use in environments in which humidity is not or cannot be controlled for example, in the vicinity of a chemical spill, which can be accompanied by large local changes in humidity. Heretofore, it has been common practice to treat water vapor as merely another analyte, the concentration of which is determined, along with that of the other analytes, in a computational process based on deconvolution. This practice works well, but leaves room for improvement: changes in humidity can give rise to large changes in electronic-nose responses. If corrections for humidity are not made, the large humidity-induced responses may swamp smaller responses associated with low concentrations of analytes. The present method offers an improvement. The underlying concept is simple: One augments an electronic nose with a separate humidity and a separate temperature sensor. The outputs of the humidity and temperature sensors are used to generate values that are subtracted from the readings of the other sensors in an electronic nose to correct for the temperature-dependent contributions of humidity to those readings. Hence, in principle, what remains after corrections are the contributions of the analytes only. Laboratory experiments on a first-generation electronic nose have shown that this method is effective and improves the success rate of identification of analyte/ water mixtures. Work on a second-generation device was in progress at the time of reporting the information for this article.

  15. Cutaneous metastasis of ovarian carcinoma with shadow cells mimicking a primary pilomatrical neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Lalich, Daniel; Tawfik, Ossama; Chapman, Julia; Fraga, Garth

    2010-07-01

    Shadow cells are characteristic of pilomatricoma, although they have been described in other cutaneous and visceral neoplasms, particularly endometrioid adenocarcinomas of the female genital tract. We describe a metastasis of an ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with shadow cells to the skin that was initially misinterpreted as a pilomatricoma. We compare the histology of the ovarian neoplasm to 21 pilomatricomas. This is the first reported case of a cutaneous metastasis of a visceral neoplasm mimicking a primary pilomatrical neoplasm.

  16. Mimicking the human smell sensing mechanism with an artificial nose platform.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kwon, Oh Seok; Song, Hyun Seok; Park, Seon Joo; Sung, Jong Hwan; Jang, Jyongsik; Park, Tai Hyun

    2012-02-01

    Sensing smell is a highly complex biological process, and characterizing and mimicking the interaction between the olfactory receptor (OR) protein and its ligands is extremely challenging. Herein, we report a highly sensitive and selective human nose-like nanobioelectronic nose (nbe-nose), which responds to gaseous odorants sensitively and selectively, has a signal specificity pattern similar to that in the cellular signal transduction pathway, and maintains an antagonistic behavior similar to the human nose. The human olfaction mechanism was mimicked by using carboxylated polypyrrole nanotubes (CPNTs) functionalized with human OR protein. The nbe-nose was able to detect gaseous odorants at a concentration as low as 0.02 parts-per-trillion (ppt), which was comparable to a highly trained, human expert's nose. The nbe-nose can be used scientifically for smell mechanism studies. It can be also applied to various fields that rely on smell monitoring for industrial and public purposes.

  17. Electronic noses and tongues: applications for the food and pharmaceutical industries.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Bai, Jinhe; Plotto, Anne; Dea, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The electronic nose (e-nose) is designed to crudely mimic the mammalian nose in that most contain sensors that non-selectively interact with odor molecules to produce some sort of signal that is then sent to a computer that uses multivariate statistics to determine patterns in the data. This pattern recognition is used to determine that one sample is similar or different from another based on headspace volatiles. There are different types of e-nose sensors including organic polymers, metal oxides, quartz crystal microbalance and even gas-chromatography (GC) or combined with mass spectroscopy (MS) can be used in a non-selective manner using chemical mass or patterns from a short GC column as an e-nose or "Z" nose. The electronic tongue reacts similarly to non-volatile compounds in a liquid. This review will concentrate on applications of e-nose and e-tongue technology for edible products and pharmaceutical uses.

  18. Serous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas: clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics.

    PubMed

    Reid, Michelle D; Choi, Hyejeong; Balci, Serdar; Akkas, Gizem; Adsay, Volkan

    2014-11-01

    We herein summarize the pathology and most recent advances in the molecular genetics of serous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas. They typically present as relatively large, well-demarcated tumors (mean size, 6cm), predominantly occurring in females. Pre-operative diagnosis remains challenging; imaging findings and cyst fluid analysis often prove non-specific and fine-needle aspiration often does not yield diagnostic cells. Pathologically, they are characterized by a distinctive cytology referred to as "serous." Although they have ductal differentiation, they distinctly lack the mucin production that characterizes most other pancreatic ductal tumors, including ductal adenocarcinoma and its variants, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN). They instead produce abundant glycogen (glycogen-rich adenoma). Serous cystadenomas also lack the molecular alterations that characterize ductal neoplasms, such as mutation of KRAS (high prevalence in most mucinous ductal neoplasms), inactivation of SMAD4 (seen in ductal adenocarcinomas), and mutations in GNAS (seen in some IPMNs) and RNF43 (detected in MCNs and IPMNs). Instead, new molecular and immunohistochemical observations place serous pancreatic tumors closer to "clear cell neoplasms" seen in various other organs that are associated with the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) pathway, such as clear cell renal cell carcinomas and capillary hemangioblastomas. Patients with VHL syndrome have an increased risk of developing serous pancreatic tumors and somatic mutations of the VHL gene are common in these tumors along with modification of its downstream effectors including hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1), glucose uptake and transporter-1 (GLUT-1), a common factor in clear cell (glycogen-rich) tumors, as well as expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thought to be a factor in the striking capillarization of serous cystadenomas and other non-pancreatic clear cell tumors. VEGF may

  19. A historical vignette (15). "Be proud of yourself: you have a history!" The nose and the plague.

    PubMed

    Tainmont, J

    2009-01-01

    The nose and the plague. Although the plague does not cause any specific nasal pathology, the miasma theory and the repulsive smell of the disease were factors that contributed to a strong emphasis on the nose. To stop the spread of the disease, it was thought necessary to saturate the nose with protective scents (hence the nose of the plague doctors) (Figure 1), or simply to hold one's nose. Moreover, the nose was long considered to be an outlet for mucus from the encephalon, and so induced nose bleeding and sneezing were advised when the plague seemed to be attacking the brain.

  20. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wibbelt, G.; Kurth, A.; Hellmann, D.; Weishaar, M.; Barlow, A.; Veith, M.; Pruger, J.; Gorfol, T.; Grosche, T.; Bontadina, F.; Zophel, U.; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, P.M.; Blehert, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  1. Olfactory perception, communication, and the nose-to-brain pathway.

    PubMed

    Stockhorst, Ursula; Pietrowsky, Reinhard

    2004-10-30

    The present paper's aim is of to give an overview about the basic knowledge as well as actual topics of olfaction--with a special regard on behavior. We summarize different functions of the nose and the olfactory system in human physiology and psychology. We will first describe the functional anatomy of the olfactory system in man. Afterwards, the function of the olfactory system will be viewed from an evolutionary and phylogenetic perspective. We will further outline the main features of olfactory perception, and will show how olfactory perception is influenced by learning. Olfactory signals are relevant stimuli that affect communication. Consequently, the role of the olfactory system in social interaction and mood will be described and gender differences will be addressed. Finally, the function of the nose as an interface to the brain, including implications for pharmacology, will be discussed.

  2. F-18 HARV in flight with actuated nose strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's F-18 from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, soars over the Mojave Desert while flying the third and final phase of the HARV (High Alpha Research Vehicle) program. A set of control surfaces called strakes were installed in the nose of the aircraft. The strakes, outlined in gold and white, provided improved yaw control at steep angles of attack. Normally folded flush, the units -- four feet long and six inches wide -- can be opened independently to interact with the nose vortices to produce large side forces for control. Testing involved evaluation of the strakes by themselves as well as combined with the aircraft's Thrust Vectoring System. The strakes were designed by NASA's Langley Research Center, then installed and flight tested at Dryden.

  3. F-18 HARV in flight with actuated nose strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's F-18 from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, soars over the Mojave Desert while flying the current phase of the HARV (High Alpha Research Vehicle) program. A set of control surfaces called strakes were installed in the nose of the aircraft. The strakes, outlined in gold and white, provided improved yaw control at steep angles of attack. Normally folded flush, the units -- four feet long and six inches wide -- can be opened independently to interact with the nose vortices to produce large side forces for control. Testing involved evaluation of the strakes by themselves as well as combined with the aircraft's Thrust Vectoring System. The strakes were designed by NASA's Langley Research Center, then installed and flight tested at Dryden.

  4. Electrolyte depletion in white-nose syndrome bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, Paul M.; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Blehert, David S.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Turner, Gregory G.; Webb, Julie; Behr, Melissa; Verant, Michelle L.; Russell, Robin E.; Castle, Kevin T.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome is causing widespread mortality in hibernating North American bats. White-nose syndrome occurs when the fungus Geomyces destructans infects the living skin of bats during hibernation, but links between infection and mortality are underexplored. We analyzed blood from hibernating bats and compared blood electrolyte levels to wing damage caused by the fungus. Sodium and chloride tended to decrease as wing damage increased in severity. Depletion of these electrolytes suggests that infected bats may become hypotonically dehydrated during winter. Although bats regularly arouse from hibernation to drink during winter, water available in hibernacula may not contain sufficient electrolytes to offset winter losses caused by disease. Damage to bat wings from G. destructans may cause life-threatening electrolyte imbalances.

  5. Laryngeal mask airways in ear, nose, and throat procedures.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Jeff E

    2010-09-01

    The use of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and its variants in ear, nose, and throat procedures have been extensively described in case reports, retrospective reviews, and randomized clinical trials. The LMA has developed a considerable following because of its lack of tracheal stimulation, which can be a considerable advantage in ear, nose, and throat (ENT) procedures. The incidence of coughing on emergence has been shown to be lower with the LMA than with the endotracheal tube (ETT). Although other approaches to smooth emergence have been described, few would argue that it is as easy to achieve a smooth emergence with an ETT as with an LMA. Although patients certainly exist for whom the LMA is contraindicated, many will experience better results with the LMA because of the features delineated in this article.

  6. The process of developing an instrument: the JPL electronic nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, M. A.

    2012-06-01

    An electronic nose is a sensing array designed to monitor for targeted chemical species or mixtures. From 1995 to 2008, an electronic nose was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to monitor the environment in human occupied spacecraft for the sudden release, such as leaks or spills, of targeted chemical species. The JPL ENose was taken through three generations of device, from basic exploratory research into polymer-carbon composite chemiresistive sensors to a fully operating instrument which was demonstrated on the International Space Station for several months. The Third Generation JPL ENose ran continuously in the U.S. Lab on the International Space Station to monitor for sudden releases of a targeted group of chemical species. It is capable of detecting, identifying and quantifying targeted species in the parts-per-million range in air, and of operating at a range of temperatures, humidities and pressures.

  7. Rain simulation studies for high-intensity acoustic nose cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, R. M.; Cho, Y. I.; Shakkottai, P.; Back, L. H.

    1988-01-01

    Unarmed plastic projectiles can be equipped with small axisymmetric cavities for the generation of intense tones that are useful in training maneuvers. Attention is presently given to the simulation of rainfall in an airstream and the effect of rain droplet impingement on the nose of projectiles, and especially to any penetration or accumulation of water at the base of the cavity that might increase the fundamental cavity frequency and/or reduce the intensity of sound production during rain conditions.

  8. View of the forward fuselage and the reinforced carboncarbon nose ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the forward fuselage and the reinforced carbon-carbon nose of the Orbiter Discovery looking aft while mounted atop the 76-wheeled orbiter transfer system as it is being rolled from the Orbiter Processing Facility to the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  9. The Electronic Nose: A Protocol To Evaluate Fresh Meat Flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isoppo, S.; Cornale, P.; Barbera, S.

    2009-05-01

    An Electronic Nose, comprising 10 MOS, was used to carry out meat aroma measurements in order to define an analytical protocol. Every meat sample (Longissimus Dorsi) was tested before, during and after cooking in oven (at 165° C for 600 seconds). Analysis took place in these three steps because consumers perceive odor when they buy (raw aroma), cook (cooking aroma) and eat meat (cooked aroma). Therefore these tests permitted to obtain a protocol useful to measure aroma daily perceived by meat eater.

  10. Identification of sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma using an electronic nose

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xia; Wan, Jun; Chu, Liang; Liu, Wengang; Jing, Yafeng; Wu, Chunjie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pinelliae Rhizoma is a commonly used Chinese herb which will change brown during the natural drying process. However, sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma will get a better appearance than naturally dried one. Sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma is potentially toxical due to sulfur dioxide and sulfites formed during the fuming procedures. The odor components in sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma is complex. At present, there is no analytical method available to determine sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma simply and rapidly. To ensure medication safety, it is highly desirable to have an effective and simple method to identify sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma. Materials and Methods: This paper presents a novel approach using an electronic nose based on metal oxide sensors to identify whether Pinelliae Rhizoma was fumed with sulfur, and to predict the fuming degree of Pinelliae Rhizoma. Multivariate statistical methods such as principal components analysis (PCA), discriminant factorial analysis (DFA) and partial least squares (PLS) were used for data analyzing and identification. The use of the electronic nose to discriminate between different fuming degrees Pinelliae Rhizoma and naturally dried Pinelliae Rhizoma was demonstrated. Results: The electronic nose was also successfully applied to identify unknown samples including sulfur fumed samples and naturally dried samples, high recognition value was obtained. Quantitative analysis of fuming degree of Pinelliae Rhizoma was also demonstrated. The method developed is simple and fast, which provides a new quality control method of Chinese herbs from the aspect of odor. Conclusion: It has shown that this electronic nose based metal oxide sensor is sensitive to sulfur and sulfides. We suggest that it can serve as a supportive method to detect residual sulfur and sulfides. PMID:24914293

  11. ["Clown nose"--skin metastasis of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Soyer, H P; Cerroni, L; Smolle, J; Kerl, H

    1990-10-01

    We report on a 74-year-old woman showing a reddish infiltration of the tip of the nose, which had appeared 3 months ago. Clinically, we considered the following differential diagnoses: sarcoidosis, rosacea, pseudolymphoma, and metastasis. Histological and immunohistological investigation proved a cutaneous metastasis of carcinoma of the breast. Our case report gives evidence of the fact that cutaneous metastases of systemic malignancies are frequently located in acral regions of the skin.

  12. Detection And Identification Of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Electronic Nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covington, J. A.; Ouaret, N.; Gardner, J. W.; Nwokolo, C.; Bardhan, K. D.; Arasaradnam, R. P.

    2011-11-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an inflammation of the lining of the human bowel and a major health issue in Europe. IBD carries with it significant morbidity from toxic treatment, surgery and a risk of developing bowel cancer. Thus there is a need for early identification of the disease using non-invasive tests. Present diagnostic techniques are based around invasive tests (i.e. endoscopy) and laboratory culture; the latter is limited as only 50% of the gut bacteria can be identified. Here we explore the use of an e-nose as a tool to detect and identify two IBDs (i.e. Crohn's disease (CD) & Ulcerative Colitis (UC)) based on headspace analysis from urine samples. We believe that the gut bacterial flora is altered by disease (due to fermentation) that in-turn modulates the gas composition within urine samples. 24 samples (9 CD, 6 UC, 9 controls) were analysed with an in-house e-nose and an Owlstone IMS instrument. Data analysis was performed using linear discriminant analysis (LDA and principal components analysis (PCA). Using the e-nose, LDA separates both disease groups and control, whilst PCA shows a small overlap of classes. The IMS data are more complex but shows some disease/control separation. We are presently collecting further samples for a larger study using more advanced data processing methods.

  13. Revisiting human nose anatomy: phylogenic and ontogenic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Roger

    2011-11-01

    This review suggests revisiting nose anatomy by considering the ethmoidal labyrinths as part of the olfactory nose and not as paranasal sinuses. Phylogenetically, the olfactory and respiratory organs of the most primitive vertebrates are separated. Exaptation, a mechanism of evolution, may explain the fusion of the olfactory and respiratory organs in dipnoi. The respiratory and olfactory noses remain anatomically separated by the transverse lamina in most mammals, whose olfactory labyrinth is a blind recess housing the ethmoturbinates. In humans, the partitioning between the olfactory cleft and the ethmoid labyrinth seems to be a consequence of ethmoid bone remodeling induced by the acquisition of an upright posture. The ethmoid bone is derived from the cartilaginous nasal capsule of primitive vertebrates and considered to be a highly conserved region among the bony elements of the skull base. It appears to be involved only in housing and protecting the olfactory function. During the early stages of human fetal development, rupture of the oronasal membrane leads to the integration of the primary olfactory sac in the future respiratory organ. The cartilaginous nasal capsule appears in the tissue under the brain and around the olfactory channels. Its early fetal development is classically regarded as the beginning of paranasal sinus formation. From phylogenic and ontogenic perspectives, it may be regarded as the development of the olfactory labyrinth as modified by the remodeling process of the human face and skull base. The endochondral bony origin of the ethmoid labyrinths makes them substantially different from the other paranasal sinuses.

  14. SLN approach for nose-to-brain delivery of alprazolam.

    PubMed

    Singh, Alok Pratap; Saraf, Shailendra K; Saraf, Shubhini A

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, alprazolam-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. They were evaluated for their efficiency in nose-to-brain targeting and biodistribution in a suitable animal model after intranasal delivery. Solid lipid nanoparticles may offer an improvement to nose-to-brain drug delivery since they are able to protect the encapsulated drug from biological and/or chemical degradation. The distribution of the drug to different organs was recorded through biodistribution studies in male Wistar rats and gamma scintigraphy imaging in New Zealand rabbits by tagging the formulation with radioactive substance (99m)Tc. The radioactivity count of various organs was taken as a function of the drug concentration. The study reveals that alprazolam can be rapidly transferred to the brain via intranasal route, bypassing the blood-brain barrier and a direct nose-to-brain transfer. The enhanced rate and extent of transport may help in reducing the dose and dosing frequency, thereby providing ease for ambulatory patients.

  15. Review of the cetacean nose: form, function, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Berta, Annalisa; Ekdale, Eric G; Cranford, Ted W

    2014-11-01

    The cetacean nose presents a unique suite of anatomical modifications. Key among these is posterior movement of the external nares from the tip of the rostrum to the top of the head. Concomitant with these anatomical changes are functional changes including the evolution of echolocation in odontocetes, and reduction of olfaction in Neoceti (crown odontocetes and mysticetes). Anatomical and embryological development of the nose in crown cetaceans is reviewed as well as their functional implications. A sequence of evolutionary transformations of the nose is proposed in the transition from a terrestrial to an aquatic lifestyle made by whales. Basilosaurids and all later whales reduce the nasal turbinates. The next stage characterizes Neoceti which exhibit reduction of the major olfactory structures, i.e. the ethmoturbinates, cribriform plate and maxilloturbinates with further reduction and subsequent loss in odontocetes. These anatomical modifications reflect underlying genetic changes such as the reduction of olfactory receptor genes, although mysticetes retain some olfactory abilities. Modifications of the facial and nasal region of odontocetes reflect specialization for biosonar sound production.

  16. The microbial community structure of the cotton rat nose.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Moreno, Diego; Plumeier, Iris; Kahl, Silke; Krismer, Bernhard; Peschel, Andreas; Oxley, Andrew P A; Jauregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar H

    2015-12-01

    The cotton rat nose is commonly used as a model for Staphylococcus aureus colonization, as it is both physiologically and anatomically comparable to the human nares and can be easily colonized by this organism. However, while the colonization of the human anterior nares has been extensively studied, the microbial community structure of cotton rat noses has not been reported so far. We describe here the microbial community structure of the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) nose through next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons covering the V1-V2 region and the analysis of nearly full length 16S rRNA genes of the major phylotypes. Roughly half of the microbial community was composed of two undescribed species of the genus Campylobacter, with phylotypes belonging to the genera Catonella, Acholeplasma, Streptobacillus and Capnocytophaga constituting the predominant community members. Thus, the nasal community of the cotton rat is uniquely composed of several novel bacterial species and may not reflect the complex interactions that occur in human anterior nares. Mammalian airway microbiota may, however, be a rich source of hitherto unknown microbes.

  17. Cosmetic Concerns Related to the Posttraumatic Nose without Nasal Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Farrior, Edward H; Eisler, Lindsay S

    2015-06-01

    Because of its prominent position on the facial skeleton, the nose is commonly injured. Though significant trauma can result in nasal obstruction, there is also considerable concern for potential cosmetic deformity. Repairing traumatic deformities is complex and can involve all aspects of the nose, including the bony and cartilaginous framework as well as the soft tissue envelope. Trauma can result in deflection, asymmetry, and deformity of the bony nasal dorsum, midvault, and nasal tip. Any serious nasal trauma places patients at risk for complications that may include nasal septal hematoma, septal perforation, and possible cerebral spinal fluid leak. Unrecognized or untreated septal hematomas can result in cartilaginous septal necrosis followed by saddle nose deformity. Though damage to structural scaffolding is often the cause of cosmetic deformity following nasal trauma, the nasal soft tissue envelope is also commonly affected. This can result in lacerations, avulsions, and traumatic tattooing. The following will discuss the evaluation, diagnosis, and management of these cosmetic concerns relating to nasal trauma.

  18. Similar Fracture Patterns in Human Nose and Gothic Cathedral.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shu Jin; Tse, Kwong Ming; Lee, Heow Pueh

    2015-10-01

    This study proposes that the bony anatomy of the human nose and masonry structure of the Gothic cathedral are geometrically similar, and have common fracture patterns. We also aim to correlate the fracture patterns observed in patients' midface structures with those seen in the Gothic cathedral using computational approach. CT scans of 33 patients with facial fractures were examined and compared with computer simulations of both the Gothic cathedral and human nose. Three similar patterns were found: (1) Cracks of the nasal arch with crumpling of the vertical buttresses akin to the damage seen during minor earthquakes; (2) lateral deviation of the central nasal arch and collapse of the vertical buttresses akin to those due to lateral forces from wind and in major earthquakes; and (3) Central arch collapse seen as a result of collapse under excessive dead weight. Interestingly, the finding of occult nasal and septal fractures in the mandible fractures with absence of direct nasal trauma highlights the possibility of transmission of forces from the foundation to the arch leading to structural failure. It was also found that the structural buttresses of the Gothic cathedral delineate the vertical buttresses in the human midface structure. These morphologic similarities between the human nose and Gothic cathedral will serve as a basis to study the biomechanics of nasal fractures. Identification of structural buttresses in a skeletal structure has important implications for reconstruction as reestablishment of structural continuity restores normal anatomy and architectural stability of the human midface structure.

  19. Effect of trap color and height on captures of blunt-nosed and sharp-nosed leafhoppers (hemiptera: cicadellidae) and non-target arthropods in cranberry bogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of field experiments were conducted in cranberry bogs in 2006-2010 to determine adult attraction of the two most economically important leafhopper pests of cultivated Vaccinium spp. in the northeast USA, the blunt-nosed leafhopper, Limotettix vaccinii, and sharp-nosed leafhopper, Scaphytopi...

  20. Second neoplasms following megavoltage radiation for pediatric tumors

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, W.A.; Dusenbery, K.E.; Potish, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    Because ionizing radiation is a known carcinogen, diligent long term follow-up; in children exposed to therapeutic radiation is required. Since 1954 a large cohort of children receiving megavoltage RT at the University of Minnesota have been closely followed, and we now update our previous reports on the nature and risk of second neoplasms in this patient population. We have followed 487 children who were treated with megavoltage radiation therapy (RT) between 1/1/1954 and 12/31/1980. Patients at the time of RT ranged in age from 2 weeks to 17 years (median 6.2 years) and were treated for a variety of benigh (n=39) and malignant (n=448) conditions. The most common indications for RT were ALL (n=160), primary brain tumors (n=79), Hodgkin`s Disease (n=56), Wilms Tumor (n=36), neuroblastoma (n=33), and Histiocytosis X (n=24). Median follow-up of surviving patients is 19.9 years (range 4.8 to 39.9 years) with a total of 9832 patient years of follow-up accrued. Only 14 (2.9%) of patients were lost to follow-up and were censored at the time of last follow-up. Kaplan Meier actuarial survival estimates for all patients was 93% (95% C.I.90-95%) at 20 years and 86% (95% C.I. 81-90.5%) at 30 years. Forty-two (8.6%) patients developed second neoplasms from 3.8 to 32 years (median 15 years) after RT. The cumulative risk of developing a second neoplasm was 17% at 20 years. The most common second neoplasms were breast cancer (n=8), meningiomas (n-6) and skin cancers (n=7), all of which were within the RT fields, and developed at a median of 18, 16 and 21 years after RT, respectively. Of the 42 patients with second neoplasms, 16 died either of the second neoplasm (n=15) or of recurrent primary tumor (n=1). Risk factors associated with developing a second malignancy included age >10 years at RT (p=0.009), and an initial diagnosis of Hodgkin`s Disease (p<0.0001).

  1. Further investigations of the etiology of subcutaneous neoplasms in native gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum)

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, A.D.; Ostrander, G.K.

    1995-10-01

    Aspects of the etiology of subcutaneous spindle-cell neoplasms in feral gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) collected from Lake of the Arbuckles, Oklahoma, were investigated. Field collections of adult and juvenile gizzard shad were conducted to determine the prevalence and seasonality of neoplasms and site specificity of neoplasms-bearing fish. Overall neoplasm prevalence for adult gizzard shad was 22.1%; no juveniles exhibited neoplasms. Neoplasm occurrence did not appear seasonal. Neoplasm-bearing gizzard shad were found at all three sampling sites within Lake of the Arbuckles with similar neoplasm prevalence rates (Guy Sandy Creek 22.1%, Rock creek, 17.9%, and Buckhorn Creek 22.4%). No gizzard shad (juvenile or adult) collected from Lake Carl Blackwell, Oklahoma, the reference site, exhibited neoplasms. Water, sediment, and shad liver tissue from Lake of the Arbuckles and the reference site were analyzed for total recoverable metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, and lead, by graphite furnace atomic absorption). Chromium, copper, and nickel were found in the water samples at concentrations of >1 to 8.6 {micro}g/L. Low concentrations (>1 to 13.6 {micro}g/g wet weight) of all the metals were found in the sediment and liver tissue for both sites. Heavy metal contamination does not appear linked to neoplasm occurrence. To determine if a nonbacterial infectious agent was responsible for tumor formation, cell-free neoplasm homogenates were injected into healthy rainbow trout. Neoplasms were not transmitted into rainbow trout. Neoplasms were not transmitted into rainbow trout. The etiology of these neoplasms remains unknown.

  2. Lesions and Neoplasms of the Penis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Heller, Debra S

    2016-01-01

    In addition to practitioners who care for male patients, with the increased use of high-resolution anoscopy, practitioners who care for women are seeing more men in their practices as well. Some diseases affecting the penis can impact on their sexual partners. Many of the lesions and neoplasms of the penis occur on the vulva as well. In addition, there are common and rare lesions unique to the penis. A review of the scope of penile lesions and neoplasms that may present in a primary care setting is presented to assist in developing a differential diagnosis if such a patient is encountered, as well as for practitioners who care for their sexual partners. A familiarity will assist with recognition, as well as when consultation is needed.

  3. Prospect of JAK2 inhibitor therapy in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Atallah, Ehab; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the Janus kinase (JAK)2 V617F mutation in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms was a major milestone in understanding the biology of those disorders. Several groups simultaneously reported on the high incidence of this mutation in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms: almost all patients with polycythemia vera harbor the mutation and about 50% of patients with essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis have the mutation, making the development of JAK2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors an attractive therapeutic goal. In addition, inhibition of JAK2 kinase may have a therapeutic role in other hematologic malignancies, such as chronic myeloid leukemia or lymphoma. A number of molecules that inhibit JAK2 kinase have been described in the literature, and several are being evaluated in a clinical setting. Here, we summarize current clinical experience with JAK2 inhibitors. PMID:19445582

  4. Molecular pathogenesis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Thosani, Nirav; Dasari, Chandra S; Bhutani, Manoop S; Raimondo, Massimo; Guha, Sushovan

    2010-11-01

    Over the last 3 decades, there have been substantial improvements in diagnostic imaging and sampling techniques to evaluate pancreatic diseases. The modern technology has helped us to recognize premalignant conditions of pancreas including mucinous cystic neoplasms and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). Differentiation between benign and malignant lesions and early detection of any malignant transformation in premalignant lesion are extremely important for further management decisions. Diagnostic cytology has limited sensitivity to further differentiate between benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions of the pancreas. There is limited information about the epidemiological risk factors and molecular mechanisms leading to development and further progression to malignancy of IPMNs. Several studies have shown that pancreatic juice and pancreatic tissue from the lesion can be tested for molecular markers including K-ras, p53, and p16 to differentiate between cancer and chronic inflammatory process. We review cellular signaling pathways that contribute to pathogenesis of IPMNs of the pancreas to further identify potential biomarkers and molecular targets.

  5. Secondary neoplasms after radiotherapy for a childhood solid tumor.

    PubMed

    Paulino, Arnold C; Fowler, B Zach

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the outcome of patients who develop a second neoplasm after radiotherapy (RT) for a childhood solid tumor. From 1956 to 1998, 429 children with a malignant solid tumor were treated at a single radiation oncology facility. The medical records and radiotherapy charts were reviewed to determine if the patient developed a secondary neoplasm after treatment for malignancy. Twenty-three (5.4%) patients developed a secondary neoplasm. There were 12 males and 11 females with a median age at RT of 6.6 years (range, 2 months to 20 years). There were 14 malignant neoplasms in 13 (3.0%) and 14 benign neoplasms in 11 patients (2.6%). The types of initial solid tumors treated with RT were Ewing sarcoma in 6, Wilms tumor in 6, medulloblastoma in 5, neuroblastoma in 3, and other in 3. Median RT dose was 45 Gy (range, 12.3 to 60 Gy) using 4 MV in 9, 1.25 MV in 8, 250 KV in 4, and 6 MV photons in 1 patient. One child was treated using 15-MeV electrons. Fourteen had chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 23.2 years (range, 5.3 to 44.4 years). For the 14 malignant neoplasms, the median time interval from initial tumor to second malignancy was 10.1 years. The 14 second malignant neoplasms (SMN) were osteosarcoma in 3, breast carcinoma in 2, melanoma in 2, malignant fibrous histiocytoma in 1, dermatofibrosarcoma in 1, leiomyosarcoma in 1, mucoepidermoid carcinoma in 1, colon cancer in 1, chronic myelogenous leukemia in 1, and basal cell carcinoma in 1. Ten of the 14 SMN (71%) were at the edge or inside the RT field. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rate after diagnosis of an SMN was 69.2%; it was 70% for children with a SMN at the edge or inside the RT field and 66.7% for those outside of the RT field. The 14 benign neoplasms appeared at a median time of 16.9 years and included cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in 3, osteochondroma in 3, thyroid adenoma in 1, duodenal adenoma in 1, lipoma in 1, cherry angioma in 1, uterine leiomyoma in 1, ovarian

  6. Neoplastic disease after liver transplantation: Focus on de novo neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Burra, Patrizia; Rodriguez-Castro, Kryssia I

    2015-01-01

    De novo neoplasms account for almost 30% of deaths 10 years after liver transplantation and are the most common cause of mortality in patients surviving at least 1 year after transplant. The risk of malignancy is two to four times higher in transplant recipients than in an age- and sex-matched population, and cancer is expected to surpass cardiovascular complications as the primary cause of death in transplanted patients within the next 2 decades. Since exposure to immunosuppression is associated with an increased frequency of developing neoplasm, long-term immunosuppression should be therefore minimized. Promising results in the prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence have been reported with the use of mTOR inhibitors including everolimus and sirolimus and the ongoing open-label prospective randomized controlled SILVER. Study will provide more information on whether sirolimus-containing vs mTOR-inhibitor-free immunosuppression is more efficacious in reducing HCC recurrence. PMID:26269665

  7. Epidemio-hygieological aspects of gastric neoplasms in aged patients.

    PubMed

    Shibata, H; Hara, M; Makino, T; Kikuchi, K; Senoue, I; Nomiyama, T; Miwa, M; Suzuki, S; Harasawa, S; Tani, N; Miwa, T

    1982-07-01

    A 100-year-old male who died of gastric carcinoma was discussed and illustrated epidemiohygieologically. According to dynamic population statistics of the Health and Welfare Ministry of Japan, 418 persons over the age of 100 years died in 1979. Among them, 157 (38%) died of cardiovascular diseases and 49 (12%) died of pulmonary diseases, but only six died of neoplasms including two with gastric carcinomas (0.48%). To our knowledge no such case has been reported previously in the literature.

  8. US in preoperative evaluation of parotid gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Gerwel, Agata; Kosik, Krzysztof; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms account for only 3% of all tumors of the head and neck area, but as they represent a wide variety of histological types, they are a big diagnostic challenge. The cornerstone of salivary gland neoplasm treatment, both for the benign and malignant lesions, is surgery. The main goal of the therapy is not only to achieve complete surgical tumor resection, but also to preserve adjacent structures (facial nerve, parapharyngeal space structures). Ultrasonography is an examination commonly used in the preoperative diagnosis of the lesions localized within salivary glands. Very often it is the only diagnostic imaging method used in these cases. The aim of the study was to establish diagnostic value of US examination and its parameters for the assessment of parotid gland tumors. A prospective study was performed on a group of 51 patients with parotid gland neoplasms, who over a period of 3 years underwent surgery in Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology Department with Craniomaxillofacial Surgery Department of Central Clinical Hospital of Ministry of Defence in Warsaw. All the included patients underwent US examination in the preoperative period. The parameters selected for the assessment were: ill-defined tumor margins, tumor vascularity and the presence of enlarged regional lymph nodes. The results of imaging examination were compared to the final diagnosis based on pathological examination of the surgical specimen. The parameters of the US examination such as sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for the evaluation of parotid gland tumors were established based on the examination results. An analysis was performed and ill-defined parotid tumor margins turned out to be a US parameter with higher diagnostic value for differentiating benign and malignant lesions than increased tumor vascularity. The presence of enlarged regional lymph nodes with blurred echostructure on the US examination

  9. GATA3 immunohistochemical expression in salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Lauren E; Begum, Shahnaz; Westra, William H; Bishop, Justin A

    2013-12-01

    GATA3 is a zinc finger transcription factor that regulates the normal development of many tissues and cell types. Recent studies have shown that immunohistochemical nuclear staining for GATA3 among tumors is highly restricted to carcinomas of breast and urothelial origin; however salivary gland tumors have not been tested. Given that breast and salivary gland tissues are very similar with respect to embryologic development and structure, we performed GATA3 staining on a spectrum of salivary gland neoplasms. GATA3 immunohistochemistry was performed on a diverse collection of 180 benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms including 10 acinic cell carcinomas, 2 adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified, 41 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 2 epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas, 1 low grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma, 15 mammary analogue secretory carcinomas, 7 metastatic squamous cell carcinomas, 27 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 2 oncocytic carcinomas, 5 oncocytomas, 34 pleomorphic adenomas, 4 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas, 25 salivary duct carcinomas, and 5 Warthin tumors. Staining for GATA3 was observed in 92/180 (51 %) of salivary gland tumors. GATA3 staining was observed in most of the tumor types, but diffuse immunolabeling was consistently seen in salivary duct carcinoma (25 of 25) and mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (15 of 15)-the two tumor types that most closely resemble breast neoplasia. Background benign salivary gland tissue was also usually weakly positive in both acini and ducts. GATA3 immunostaining is not restricted to tumors of breast and urothelial origin. Rather, it is expressed across many different types of salivary gland neoplasms. As a result, salivary gland origin should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a GATA3-positive carcinoma, particularly in the head and neck. Although GATA3 immunohistochemistry is not helpful in resolving the differential diagnosis between a primary salivary gland neoplasm and metastatic breast

  10. Risk of myeloid neoplasms after solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Lindsay M.; Gibson, Todd M.; Clarke, Christina A.; Lynch, Charles F.; Anderson, Lesley A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth; Landgren, Ola; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Engels, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Solid organ transplant recipients have elevated cancer risks, due in part to pharmacologic immunosuppression. However, little is known about risks for hematologic malignancies of myeloid origin. We linked the US Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients with 15 population-based cancer registries to ascertain cancer occurrence among 207,859 solid organ transplants (1987–2009). Solid organ transplant recipients had significantly elevated risk for myeloid neoplasms, with standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of 4.6 (95% confidence interval 3.8–5.6; N=101) for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), 2.7 (2.2–3.2; N=125) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 2.3 (1.6–3.2; N=36) for chronic myeloid leukemia, and 7.2 (5.4–9.3; N=57) for polycythemia vera. SIRs were highest among younger individuals and varied by time since transplantation and organ type (Poisson regression P<0.05 for all comparisons). Azathioprine for initial maintenance immunosuppression increased risk for MDS (P=0.0002) and AML (2–5 years after transplantation, P=0.0163). Overall survival following AML/MDS among transplant recipients was inferior to that of similar patients reported to US cancer registries (log-rank P<0.0001). Our novel finding of increased risks for specific myeloid neoplasms after solid organ transplantation supports a role for immune dysfunction in myeloid neoplasm etiology. The increased risks and inferior survival should heighten clinician awareness of myeloid neoplasms during follow-up of transplant recipients. PMID:24727673

  11. Intraductal papillary neoplasm originating from an anomalous bile duct.

    PubMed

    Maki, Harufumi; Aoki, Taku; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Tanaka, Mariko; Sakatani, Takashi; Beck, Yoshifumi; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2017-02-17

    An 82-year-old woman who had been suffering from repeated obstructive jaundice for 7 years was referred to our hospital. Although endoscopic aspiration of the mucin in the common bile duct had been temporally effective, origin of the mucin production had not been detectable. The patient thus had been forced to be on long-term follow-up without curative resection. Endoscopic retrograde cholangioscopy on admission revealed massive mucin in the common bile duct. In addition, an anomalous bile duct located proximal to the gallbladder was identified. Since the lumen of the anomalous duct was irregular and the rest of biliary tree was completely free of suspicious lesions, the anomalous duct was judged to be the primary site. Surgical resection of the segment 4 and 5 of the liver combined with the extrahepatic biliary tract was performed. Pathological diagnosis was compatible to intraductal papillary neoplasm with high-grade intraepithelial dysplasia of the anomalous bile duct. The patient has been free from the disease for 6.5 years after resection. This is the first case of intraductal papillary neoplasm derived from an anomalous bile duct, which was resected after long-term conservative treatment. The present case suggested the slow growing character of natural history of the neoplasm.

  12. A Strategy for Precise Treatment of Cardiac Malignant Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenshuo; Shen, Jinqiang; Tao, Hongyue; Zhao, Yun; Nian, Hui; Wei, Lai; Ling, Xiaoyuan; Yang, Ye; Xia, Limin

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiac malignant neoplasms in the general population has been shown to be significant higher than what was previously estimated, yet their treatment has remained difficult and effective therapies are lacking. In the current study, we developed a novel thermotherapy in which PEG-functionalized carbon nanotubes were injected into the tumor regions to assist in the targeted delivery of infrared radiation energy with minimal hyperthermic damage to the surrounding normal tissues. In a mouse model of cardiac malignant neoplasms, the injected carbon nanotubes could rapidly induce coagulative necrosis of tumor tissues when exposed to infrared irradiation. In accordance, the treatment was also found to result in a restoration of heart functions and a concomitant increase of survival rate in mice. Taken together, our carbon nanotube-based thermotherapy successfully addressed the difficulty facing conventional laser ablation methods with regard to off-target thermal injury, and could pave the way for the development of more effective therapies against cardiac malignant neoplasms. PMID:28393926

  13. Tryptophan autofluorescence imaging of neoplasms of the human colon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Bhaskar; Renkoski, Timothy; Graves, Logan R.; Rial, Nathaniel S.; Tsikitis, Vassiliki Liana; Nfonsom, Valentine; Pugh, Judith; Tiwari, Piyush; Gavini, Hemanth; Utzinger, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Detection of flat neoplasia is a major challenge in colorectal cancer screening, as missed lesions can lead to the development of an unexpected `incident' cancer prior to the subsequent endoscopy. The use of a tryptophan-related autofluorescence has been reported to be increased in murine intestinal dysplasia. The emission spectra of cells isolated from human adenocarcinoma and normal mucosa of the colon were studied and showed markedly greater emission intensity from cancerous cells compared to cells obtained from the surrounding normal mucosa. A proto-type multispectral imaging system optimized for ultraviolet macroscopic imaging of tissue was used to obtain autofluorescence images of surgical specimens of colonic neoplasms and normal mucosa after resection. Fluorescence images did not display the expected greater emission from the tumor as compared to the normal mucosa, most probably due to increased optical absorption and scattering in the tumors. Increased fluorescence intensity in neoplasms was observed however, once fluorescence images were corrected using reflectance images. Tryptophan fluorescence alone may be useful in differentiating normal and cancerous cells, while in tissues its autofluorescence image divided by green reflectance may be useful in displaying neoplasms.

  14. Clinical parameters predictive of malignancy of thyroid follicular neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, N.L.; Gordon, M.; Germann, E.; Robins, R.E.; McGregor, G.I. )

    1991-05-01

    Needle aspiration biopsy is commonly employed in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. Unfortunately, the cytologic finding of a 'follicular neoplasm' does not distinguish between a thyroid adenoma and a follicular cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical parameters that characterize patients with an increased risk of having a thyroid follicular cancer who preoperatively have a 'follicular neoplasm' identified by needle aspiration biopsy. A total of 395 patients initially treated at Vancouver General Hospital and the British Columbia Cancer Agency between the years of 1965 and 1985 were identified and their data were entered into a computer database. Patients with thyroid adenomas were compared to patients with follicular cancer using the chi-square test and Student's t-test. Statistically significant parameters that distinguished patients at risk of having a thyroid cancer (p less than 0.05) included age greater than 50 years, nodule size greater than 3 cm, and a history of neck irradiation. Sex, family history of goiter or neoplasm, alcohol and tobacco use, and use of exogenous estrogen were not significant parameters. Patients can be identified preoperatively to be at an increased risk of having a follicular cancer and accordingly appropriate surgical resection can be planned.

  15. Detection of hydrazine (H) and (MMH) using cyranose E-nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Young, Rebecca; Ryan, Margaret A.

    2001-01-01

    The Cyranose electronic nose (e-nose) has been used for the first time to detect hydrazine (H) and monomethyl hydrazine (MMH). The concentrations of hydrazine chosen in this study were 52 ppm (parts per million), 18 ppm, and 1.1 ppm and the concentrations of MMH was 14 ppm and 1 ppm. The Cyranose E-nose has detected hydrazine of 52 ppm and 18 ppm with a good response. The response of the E-Nose for 1.1 ppm hydrazine was insignificant. The response of E-Nose for 14 ppm MMH was significant and 1 ppm MMH was reasonably identifiable. The Cyranose E-Nose may be used to detect hydrazine and MMH with concentrations of at least 18 ppm and 1 ppm, respectively.

  16. Expression of S-100 protein in renal cell neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fan; Yang, Wannian; Betten, Mark; Teh, Bin Tean; Yang, Ximing J

    2006-04-01

    Polyclonal antibody to S-100 protein has been routinely applied for initial screening of various types of tumors, including, melanocytic tumors and neurogenic tumors. S-100 protein has been shown to have a broad distribution in human tissues, including renal tubules. The potential utility of S-100 protein in renal cell neoplasms has not been extensively investigated. Using an EnVision-Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP; Dako, Carpinteria, Calif) kit, we evaluated the diagnostic value of S-100 protein on tissue microarray sections from 175 cases of renal epithelial neoplasm (145 primary renal neoplasms and 30 metastatic renal cell carcinomas) and 24 non-neoplastic renal tissues. Immunohistochemical stains for pancytokeratin, HMB-45, and Mart-1 were also performed. Western blot using the same antibody (anti-S-100 protein) was performed on 10 cases of renal cell neoplasm. The results demonstrated that nuclear and cytoplasmic staining pattern for S-100 protein was observed in 56 (69%) of 81 conventional (clear cell) renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), 10 (30%) of 33 papillary RCCs, 1 (6%) of 16 ChRCCs, and 13 (87%) of 15 oncocytomas. Among the 81 cases of CRCC, positivity for S-100 protein was seen in 41 (71%) of 58 and 15 (65%) of 23 cases with Furhman nuclear grade I/II and III/IV, respectively. Focal immunostaining was present in 22 (92%) of 24 normal renal tubules. Similar staining pattern was observed in 21 (70%) of 30 metastatic RCCs. Western blotting demonstrated the S-100 protein expression in both renal cell neoplasm and normal renal tissue. Overexpression of S-100 in oncocytomas compared with ChRCCs was confirmed by the data of Western blot and cDNA microarray analysis. Importantly, 14.8% (12/81) of clear cell RCC and 13.3% (4/30) of metastatic RCC revealed an immunostaining profile of pancytokeratin (-)/S-100 protein (+). These data indicate that caution should be taken in interpreting an unknown primary with S-100 positivity and cytokeratin negativity. In addition, it

  17. A Novel Semi-Supervised Electronic Nose Learning Technique: M-Training

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Pengfei; Huang, Tailai; Duan, Shukai; Ge, Lingpu; Yan, Jia; Wang, Lidan

    2016-01-01

    When an electronic nose (E-nose) is used to distinguish different kinds of gases, the label information of the target gas could be lost due to some fault of the operators or some other reason, although this is not expected. Another fact is that the cost of getting the labeled samples is usually higher than for unlabeled ones. In most cases, the classification accuracy of an E-nose trained using labeled samples is higher than that of the E-nose trained by unlabeled ones, so gases without label information should not be used to train an E-nose, however, this wastes resources and can even delay the progress of research. In this work a novel multi-class semi-supervised learning technique called M-training is proposed to train E-noses with both labeled and unlabeled samples. We employ M-training to train the E-nose which is used to distinguish three indoor pollutant gases (benzene, toluene and formaldehyde). Data processing results prove that the classification accuracy of E-nose trained by semi-supervised techniques (tri-training and M-training) is higher than that of an E-nose trained only with labeled samples, and the performance of M-training is better than that of tri-training because more base classifiers can be employed by M-training. PMID:26985898

  18. Metal Oxide Sensors for Electronic Noses and Their Application to Food Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berna, Amalia

    2010-01-01

    Electronic noses (E-noses) use various types of electronic gas sensors that have partial specificity. This review focuses on commercial and experimental E-noses that use metal oxide semi-conductors. The review covers quality control applications to food and beverages, including determination of freshness and identification of contaminants or adulteration. Applications of E-noses to a wide range of foods and beverages are considered, including: meat, fish, grains, alcoholic drinks, non-alcoholic drinks, fruits, milk and dairy products, olive oils, nuts, fresh vegetables and eggs. PMID:22319332

  19. Prospective Study of the Surgical Techniques Used in Primary Rhinoplasty on the Caucasian Nose and Comparison of the Preoperative and Postoperative Anthropometric Nose Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf; Freitas, Renato da Silva; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Pinto, José Simão de Paula; Macedo Filho, Evaldo Dacheux; Mocellin, Marcos; Fagundes, Marina Serrato Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The knowledge and study of surgical techniques and anthropometric measurements of the nose make possible a qualitative and quantitative analysis of surgical results. Objective Study the main technique used in rhinoplasty on Caucasian noses and compare preoperative and postoperative anthropometric measurements of the nose. Methods A prospective study with 170 patients was performed at a private hospital. Data were collected using the Electronic System Integrated of Protocols software (Sistema Integrado de Protocolos Eletrônicos, SINPE©). The surgical techniques used in the nasal dorsum and tip were evaluated. Preoperative and 12-month follow-up photos as well as the measurements compared with the ideal aesthetic standard of a Caucasian nose were analyzed objectively. Student t test and standard deviation test were applied. Results There was a predominance of endonasal access (94.4%). The most common dorsum technique was hump removal (33.33%), and the predominance of sutures (24.76%) was observed on the nasal tip, with the lateral intercrural the most frequent (32.39%). Comparison between preoperative and postoperative photos found statistically significant alterations on the anthropometric measurements of the noses. Conclusion The main surgical techniques on Caucasian noses were evaluated, and a great variety was found. The evaluation of anthropometric measurements of the nose proved the efficiency of the performed procedures. PMID:25992149

  20. Classification of feline intraocular neoplasms based on morphology, histochemical staining, and immunohistochemical labeling.

    PubMed

    Grahn, Bruce H; Peiffer, Robert L; Cullen, Cheryl L; Haines, Deborah M

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate morphologic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical characteristics of well-differentiated and anaplastic intraocular neoplasms of cats, and to develop a diagnostic algorithm for, and investigate the association of ruptured lenses with these neoplasms. Seventy-five feline globes with intraocular neoplasms were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined by light microscopy. Morphologic diagnoses included 33 intraocular sarcomas, 17 diffuse iris melanomas, 15 lymphosarcomas, three ciliary adenomas, one metastatic carcinoma, and six undifferentiated intraocular neoplasms. Sections of these globes were then stained with periodic acid Schiff (PAS), and immunohistochemical (IHC) labels for various cellular markers. Histochemical staining and IHC labeling confirmed cellular differentiation in 73/75 neoplasms but was discordant with morphologic diagnoses in 8/75. These included four neoplasms morphologically diagnosed as lymphosarcomas but which expressed differentiation antigens consistent with melanoma (n = 3) or ciliary adenocarcinoma (n = 1), and four tumors morphologically diagnosed as intraocular sarcomas that expressed differentiation antigens for melanoma (n = 2), metastatic carcinoma (n = 1), or remained undifferentiated (n = 1). Immunohistochemical labeling suggested a diagnosis in 5/6 morphologically undifferentiated neoplasms including one intraocular sarcoma, two diffuse iridal melanomas, and two ciliary adenocarcinomas. Based upon morphologic, histochemical, and IHC characterization, ruptured lens capsules were detected in 28/30 intraocular sarcomas, 3/24 diffuse iris melanomas and 1/11 lymphosarcomas, but not in ciliary epithelial neoplasms, metastatic carcinomas, or undifferentiated intraocular neoplasms. An algorithm is provided that facilitates stain and IHC label selection for differentiating anaplastic intraocular feline neoplasms.

  1. Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of spontaneous thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Gibbons, P M; Garner, M M; Kiupel, M

    2013-03-01

    Reports of thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are rare, but thyroid tumors are among the most common neoplasms seen in cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath. This report describes the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of thyroid neoplasms and lists the concurrent conditions found in guinea pig cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath during 1998 to 2008. Of 526 guinea pig case submissions, 19 had thyroid neoplasms. The most common clinical findings included a palpable mass on the ventral neck and progressive weight loss. Neoplasms were removed as an excisional biopsy from 7 guinea pigs, and 3 of these animals died within a few days after surgery. Radiographic mineral density was detected in 2 masses. Five of the neoplasms were reported as cystic; 5 were black or a dark color. Histologically, the neoplasms were classified as macrofollicular thyroid adenoma (8), thyroid cystadenoma (1), papillary thyroid adenoma (3), follicular thyroid carcinoma (5), follicular-compact thyroid carcinoma (1), and small-cell thyroid carcinoma (1). Osseous metaplasia was present in 8 neoplasms, and myeloid hyperplasia was present in 1 neoplasm. All 19 neoplasms were positive for thyroid transcription factor 1 and thyroglobulin but negative for parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. Numerous concurrent diseases, including hepatopathies, cardiomyopathies, and nephropathies, were present and considered to be the cause of death in many cases. Research is needed to determine the appropriate modalities for antemortem diagnosis and treatment and whether thyroid disease plays a role in the pathogenesis of chronic degenerative diseases in guinea pigs.

  2. Graphene-Based Chemical Vapor Sensors for Electronic Nose Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nallon, Eric C.

    An electronic nose (e-nose) is a biologically inspired device designed to mimic the operation of the olfactory system. The e-nose utilizes a chemical sensor array consisting of broadly responsive vapor sensors, whose combined response produces a unique pattern for a given compound or mixture. The sensor array is inspired by the biological function of the receptor neurons found in the human olfactory system, which are inherently cross-reactive and respond to many different compounds. The use of an e-nose is an attractive approach to predict unknown odors and is used in many fields for quantitative and qualitative analysis. If properly designed, an e-nose has the potential to adapt to new odors it was not originally designed for through laboratory training and algorithm updates. This would eliminate the lengthy and costly R&D costs associated with materiel and product development. Although e-nose technology has been around for over two decades, much research is still being undertaken in order to find new and more diverse types of sensors. Graphene is a single-layer, 2D material comprised of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice, with extraordinary electrical, mechanical, thermal and optical properties due to its 2D, sp2-bonded structure. Graphene has much potential as a chemical sensing material due to its 2D structure, which provides a surface entirely exposed to its surrounding environment. In this configuration, every carbon atom in graphene is a surface atom, providing the greatest possible surface area per unit volume, so that electron transport is highly sensitive to adsorbed molecular species. Graphene has gained much attention since its discovery in 2004, but has not been realized in many commercial electronics. It has the potential to be a revolutionary material for use in chemical sensors due to its excellent conductivity, large surface area, low noise, and versatile surface for functionalization. In this work, graphene is incorporated into a

  3. Electronic Nose Functionality for Breath Gas Analysis during Parabolic Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolch, Michael E.; Hummel, Thomas; Fetter, Viktor; Helwig, Andreas; Lenic, Joachim; Moukhamedieva, Lana; Tsarkow, Dimitrij; Chouker, Alexander; Schelling, Gustav

    2017-02-01

    The presence of humans in space represents a constant threat for their health and safety. Environmental factors such as living in a closed confinement, as well as exposure to microgravity and radiation, are associated with significant changes in bone metabolism, muscular atrophy, and altered immune response, which has impacts on human performance and possibly results in severe illness. Thus, maintaining and monitoring of crew health status has the highest priority to ensure whole mission success. With manned deep space missions to moon or mars appearing at the horizon where short-term repatriation back to earth is impossible the availability of appropriate diagnostic platforms for crew health status is urgently needed. In response to this need, the present experiment evaluated the functionality and practicability of a metal oxide based sensor system (eNose) together with a newly developed breath gas collecting device under the condition of altering acceleration. Parabolic flights were performed with an Airbus A300 ZeroG at Bordeaux, France. Ambient air and exhaled breath of five healthy volunteers was analyzed during steady state flight and parabolic flight maneuvres. All volunteers completed the study, the breath gas collecting device valves worked appropriately, and breathing through the collecting device was easy and did not induce discomfort. During breath gas measurements, significant changes in metal oxide sensors, mainly sensitive to aromatic and sulphur containing compounds, were observed with alternating conditions of acceleration. Similarly, metal oxide sensors showed significant changes in all sensors during ambient air measurements. The eNose as well as the newly developed breath gas collecting device, showed appropriate functionality and practicability during alternating conditions of acceleration which is a prerequisite for the intended use of the eNose aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for breath gas analysis and crew health status

  4. Assessment of nose protector for sport activities: finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Coto, Neide Pena; Meira, Josete Barbosa Cruz; Brito e Dias, Reinaldo; Driemeier, Larissa; de Oliveira Roveri, Guilherme; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito

    2012-04-01

    There has been a significant increase in the number of facial fractures stemming from sport activities in recent years, with the nasal bone one of the most affected structures. Researchers recommend the use of a nose protector, but there is no standardization regarding the material employed. Clinical experience has demonstrated that a combination of a flexible and rigid layer of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) offers both comfort and safety to practitioners of sports. The aim of the present study was the investigation into the stresses generated by the impact of a rigid body on the nasal bone on models with and without an EVA protector. For such, finite element analysis was employed. A craniofacial model was constructed from images obtained through computed tomography. The nose protector was modeled with two layers of EVA (1 mm of rigid EVA over 2 mm of flexible EVA), following the geometry of the soft tissue. Finite element analysis was performed using the LS Dyna program. The bone and rigid EVA were represented as elastic linear material, whereas the soft tissues and flexible EVA were represented as hyperelastic material. The impact from a rigid sphere on the frontal region of the face was simulated with a constant velocity of 20 m s(-1) for 9.1 μs. The model without the protector served as the control. The distribution of maximal stress of the facial bones was recorded. The maximal stress on the nasal bone surpassed the breaking limit of 0.13-0.34 MPa on the model without a protector, while remaining below this limit on the model with the protector. Thus, the nose protector made from both flexible and rigid EVA proved effective at protecting the nasal bones under high-impact conditions.

  5. Nose-To-Brain Delivery of PLGA-Diazepam Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Sharma, Navneet; Gabrani, Reema; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Ali, Javed; Dang, Shweta

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to optimize diazepam (Dzp)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (NP) to achieve delivery in the brain through intranasal administration. Dzp nanoparticles (DNP) were formulated by nanoprecipitation and optimized using Box-Behnken design. The influence of various independent process variables (polymer, surfactant, aqueous to organic (w/o) phase ratio, and drug) on resulting properties of DNP (z-average and drug entrapment) was investigated. Developed DNP showed z-average 148-337 d.nm, polydispersity index 0.04-0.45, drug entrapment 69-92%, and zeta potential in the range of -15 to -29.24 mV. Optimized DNP were further analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ex-vivo drug release, and in-vitro cytotoxicity. Ex-vivo drug release study via sheep nasal mucosa from DNP showed a controlled release of 64.4% for 24 h. 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay performed on Vero cell line showed less toxicity for DNP as compared to Dzp suspension (DS). Gamma scintigraphy and biodistribution study of DNP and DS was performed on Sprague-Dawley rats using technetium-99m-labeled ((99m)Tc) Dzp formulations to investigate the nose-to-brain drug delivery pathway. Brain/blood uptake ratios, drug targeting efficiency, and direct nose-to-brain transport were found to be 1.23-1.45, 258, and 61% for (99m)Tc-DNP (i.n) compared to (99m)Tc-DS (i.n) (0.38-1.06, 125, and 1%). Scintigraphy images showed uptake of Dzp from nose-to-brain, and this observation was in agreement with the biodistribution results. These results suggest that the developed poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) NP could serve as a potential carrier of Dzp for nose-to-brain delivery in outpatient management of status epilepticus.

  6. Adiaspiromycosis in south Australian hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons).

    PubMed

    Mason, R W; Gauhwin, M

    1982-01-01

    Spherical organisms, with an average diameter of about 22 microns, were detected in the lungs of adult and pouched young hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons). Although infections of up to 640 X 10(3) organisms per cubic centimeter were detected, their presence produced only limited pathological change. In-vitro growth was obtained at 30 C but not at 37 C or 40 C. However, at the higher temperatures, typical chlamydospore spherules were produced by colonies initially grown at 30 c. This report presents the first record of adiaspiromycosis in Australia and in wombats.

  7. F-5F Shark Nose radome lightning test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    A unique F-5F radome wtih a geometry similar to a Shark Nose profile was tested with a high voltage Marx generator, 1,200,000 volts in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the lightning protection system with currents from 5,000 amperes or greater. An edge discontinuity configuration is a characteristic feature in the forward region of the radome and occasionally serves as an attachment point. The results of nineteen attachment tests at various aspect angles with an air gap of one meter indicated that no damage occurred to the dielectric material of the radom. The test proved the effectiveness of the lightning protection system.

  8. Anaphylactic reaction following administration of nose drops containing benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Mezger, Elke; Wendler, Olaf; Mayr, Susanne; Bozzato, Alessandro

    2012-10-18

    We describe a case of anaphylactic reaction in a 46-year-old female post application of decongestant nose drops containing benzalkonium chloride (BAC). With some latency, the patient complained of cough, dyspnea, sensation of heat, croakiness and pruritus. Since she showed all of these symptoms, typical of an anaphylactic reaction, we proceeded some weeks later with a prick test with solutions containing BAC, a cationic surfactant commonly used as an antibacterial preservative in many medical solutions. The prick test was positive, confirming the assumption of a hypersensitive reaction to BAC.

  9. Closeup view of the nose and landing gear on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the nose and landing gear on the forward section of the Orbiter Discovery in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The Orbiter is being supported by jack stands in the left and right portion of the view. The jack stands attach to the Orbiter at the four hoist attach points, two located on the forward fuselage and two on the aft fuselage. Note the access platforms that surround and nearly touch the orbiter. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  10. Anaphylactic reaction following administration of nose drops containing benzalkonium chloride

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We describe a case of anaphylactic reaction in a 46-year-old female post application of decongestant nose drops containing benzalkonium chloride (BAC). With some latency, the patient complained of cough, dyspnea, sensation of heat, croakiness and pruritus. Since she showed all of these symptoms, typical of an anaphylactic reaction, we proceeded some weeks later with a prick test with solutions containing BAC, a cationic surfactant commonly used as an antibacterial preservative in many medical solutions. The prick test was positive, confirming the assumption of a hypersensitive reaction to BAC. PMID:23078861

  11. Bat white-nose syndrome: An emerging fungal pathogen?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blehert, D.S.; Hicks, A.C.; Behr, M.; Meteyer, C.U.; Berlowski-Zier, B. M.; Buckles, E.L.; Coleman, J.T.H.; Darling, S.R.; Gargas, A.; Niver, R.; Okoniewski, J.C.; Rudd, R.J.; Stone, W.B.

    2009-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a condition associated with an unprecedented bat mortality event in the northeastern United States. Since the winter of 2006*2007, bat declines exceeding 75% have been observed at surveyed hibernacula. Affected bats often present with visually striking white fungal growth on their muzzles, ears, and/or wing membranes. Direct microscopy and culture analyses demonstrated that the skin of WNS-affected bats is colonized by a psychro-philic fungus that is phylogenetically related to Geomyces spp. but with a conidial morphology distinct from characterized members of this genus. This report characterizes the cutaneous fungal infection associated with WNS.

  12. A patient with a severe glottic stenosis and saddle nose.

    PubMed

    Sabato, Vito; Vanderveken, Olivier M; Van den Wyngaert, Tim; Van Laer, Carl; Ebo, Didier

    2016-03-15

    We present the case of a 39-year-old man with a severe glottis stenosis. The saddle nose, images of laryngotracheal stenosis and the (FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography lead to a final diagnosis of relapsing polychondritis. In the patient a coexistent myelodysplastic syndrome was diagnosed. Moreover, the elevated total IgG4 exceeding 135 ml/dl requested additional immunochemistry for detection of IgG4-bearing plasma cells in the biopsies. The patient underwent an allogenic stem cell transplantation and died on day 40 after the transplantation because of an acute steroid-resistent graft vs host.

  13. Classification of white wine aromas with an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Lozano, J; Santos, J P; Horrillo, M C

    2005-09-15

    This paper reports the use of a tin dioxide multisensor array based electronic nose for recognition of 29 typical aromas in white wine. Headspace technique has been used to extract aroma of the wine. Multivariate analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA) as well as probabilistic neural networks (PNNs), has been used to identify the main aroma added to the wine. The results showed that in spite of the strong influence of ethanol and other majority compounds of wine, the system could discriminate correctly the aromatic compounds added to the wine with a minimum accuracy of 97.2%.

  14. Acinar neoplasms of the pancreas-A summary of 25 years of research.

    PubMed

    Klimstra, David S; Adsay, Volkan

    2016-09-01

    Our understanding about the family of acinar neoplasms of the pancreas has grown substantially over the past 25 years. The prototype is acinar cell carcinoma, an uncommon variant of pancreatic carcinoma that demonstrates production of pancreatic exocrine enzymes, verifiable using immunohistochemistry, and exhibits characteristic histologic features. Related neoplasms include mixed acinar carcinomas such as mixed acinar neuroendocrine carcinoma and mixed acinar ductal carcinoma. In the pediatric age group, pancreatoblastoma is also closely related. Cystic and extrapancreatic forms have been described. These neoplasms share molecular alterations that are distinct from the more common ductal and neuroendocrine neoplasms of the pancreas. Although there is a broad range of genetic findings, a number of potential therapeutic targets have emerged. This review explores the clinical and pathologic features of pancreatic acinar neoplasms along with their more common molecular phenotypes. The differential diagnosis with other pancreatic neoplasms is explored as well.

  15. Frequency and Histopathology by Site, Major Pathologies, Symptoms and Signs of Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    The frequency distribution of salivary gland neoplasms (SGNs) is, in decreasing order, parotid neoplasms, submandibular gland neoplasms, minor SGNs, and sublingual gland neoplasms. The larger the salivary gland (e.g. parotid), the more likely a neoplasm is benign, and the smaller the gland (e.g. minor salivary gland), the more likely the neoplasm is malignant. The majority of SGNs, benign and/or malignant, irrespective of site, present as a painless swelling or mass. Definitive symptoms and signs of salivary gland malignancy are the presence of named nerve palsy in anatomical proximity to the gland and/or the presence of cervical lymphadenopathy. All discrete major salivary gland masses and non-ulcerated submucosal masses presenting in the head and neck region, irrespective of age, should be investigated, with the aim of excluding an SGN.

  16. Radiation-induced intracranial neoplasms. A report of three possible cases

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.R.; Treip, C.S.

    1984-02-01

    The pathologic findings are described in three patients who developed second intracranial neoplasms after irradiation for central nervous system malignancy. The second neoplasms were an astrocytoma, an ependymoma, and multiple meningiomas. All were histologically different from the first neoplasms and appeared in the field of irradiation between 3 and 15 years later. It is suggested that therapeutic irradiation was a causative factor in the development of these tumors.

  17. Radiation-induced intracranial neoplasms. A report of three possible cases.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R; Treip, C S

    1984-02-01

    The pathologic findings are described in three patients who developed second intracranial neoplasms after irradiation for central nervous system malignancy. The second neoplasms were an astrocytoma, an ependymoma, and multiple meningiomas. All were histologically different from the first neoplasms and appeared in the field of irradiation between 3 and 15 years later. It is suggested that therapeutic irradiation was a causative factor in the development of these tumors.

  18. Estimation of bacteriological spoilage of pork cutlets by electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Kinga M; Seregély, Zs; Dalmadi, I; Andrássy, Eva; Farkas, J

    2007-06-01

    The utility of chemosensor array (EN) signals of head-space volatiles of aerobically stored pork cutlets as a non-invasive technique for monitoring their microbiological load was studied during storage at 4, 8 and 12 degrees C, respectively. The bacteriological quality of the meat samples was determined by standard total aerobic plate counts (TAPC) and colony count of selectively estimated Pseudomonas (PS) spp., the predominant aerobic spoilage bacteria. Statistical analysis of the electronic nose measurements were principal component analysis (PCA), and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA). Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to model correlation between microbial loads and EN signal responses, the degree of bacteriological spoilage, independently of the temperature of the refrigerated storage. Sensor selection techniques were applied to reduce the dimensionality and more robust calibration models were computed by determining few individual sensors having the smallest cross correlations and highest correlations with the reference data. Correlations between the predicted and "real" values were given on cross-validated data from both data reduced models and for full calibrations using the 23 sensor elements. At the same time, sensorial quality of the raw cutlets was noted subjectively on faultiness of the odour and colour, and drip formation of the samples. These preliminary studies indicated that the electronic nose technique has a potential to detect bacteriological spoilage earlier or at the same time as olfactory quality deterioration.

  19. Sonar beam dynamics in leaf-nosed bats.

    PubMed

    Linnenschmidt, Meike; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2016-07-07

    Ultrasonic emissions of bats are directional and delimit the echo-acoustic space. Directionality is quantified by the aperture of the sonar beam. Recent work has shown that bats often widen their sonar beam when approaching movable prey or sharpen their sonar beam when navigating through cluttered habitats. Here we report how nose-emitting bats, Phyllostomus discolor, adjust their sonar beam to object distance. First, we show that the height and width of the bats sonar beam, as imprinted on a parabolic 45 channel microphone array, varies even within each animal and this variation is unrelated to changes in call level or spectral content. Second, we show that these animals are able to systematically decrease height and width of their sonar beam while focusing on the approaching object. Thus it appears that sonar beam sharpening is a further, facultative means of reducing search volume, likely to be employed by stationary animals when the object position is close and unambiguous. As only half of our individuals sharpened their beam onto the approaching object we suggest that this strategy is facultative, under voluntary control, and that beam formation is likely mediated by muscular control of the acoustic aperture of the bats' nose leaf.

  20. Sonar beam dynamics in leaf-nosed bats

    PubMed Central

    Linnenschmidt, Meike; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic emissions of bats are directional and delimit the echo-acoustic space. Directionality is quantified by the aperture of the sonar beam. Recent work has shown that bats often widen their sonar beam when approaching movable prey or sharpen their sonar beam when navigating through cluttered habitats. Here we report how nose-emitting bats, Phyllostomus discolor, adjust their sonar beam to object distance. First, we show that the height and width of the bats sonar beam, as imprinted on a parabolic 45 channel microphone array, varies even within each animal and this variation is unrelated to changes in call level or spectral content. Second, we show that these animals are able to systematically decrease height and width of their sonar beam while focusing on the approaching object. Thus it appears that sonar beam sharpening is a further, facultative means of reducing search volume, likely to be employed by stationary animals when the object position is close and unambiguous. As only half of our individuals sharpened their beam onto the approaching object we suggest that this strategy is facultative, under voluntary control, and that beam formation is likely mediated by muscular control of the acoustic aperture of the bats’ nose leaf. PMID:27384865

  1. [Lupus vulgaris manifestation as a destructive nose and facial tumor].

    PubMed

    Haller, D; Reisser, C

    2009-04-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most frequent manifestation of cutaneous tuberculosis, but in Europe it is limited to isolated cases. Mainly immunocompetent individuals are affected by this result of an endogenous reinfection on a lymphogenous-less frequently hematogenous-pathway. Lupus vulgaris has been observed to develop in more than 50% of all patients who already suffer from other manifestations of tuberculosis. The development of a squamous cell carcinoma in the lupus vulgaris is a rare complication; therefore, lupus vulgaris is deemed a facultative precancerosis.A 68-year-old female Serbo-Croatian patient presented with an extensive ulcerative nose and facial tumor. Her anamnesis included a squamous cell carcinoma of the nose that had been excised alio loco 3 years before. Further examinations revealed enlarged cervical lymphoma on both sides, and pulmonary metastases were also suspected. The tumor biopsy revealed a necrotic, granulomatous inflammation. No acid-fast rods were seen on Ziehl-Neelsen stain. The tuberculous origin of this ulcerative skin tumor-the lupus vulgaris-as an endogenous reinfection of pulmonary tuberculosis manifestation was confirmed by the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in polymerase chain reaction and the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis colonies in the bacterial culture (skin biopsy and bronchial secretion). The skin tumor as well as the pulmonary manifestation were successfully treated with combined tuberculostatic therapy and showed a dramatic response within 3 months.

  2. Electronic Noses for Composites Surface Contamination Detection in Aerospace Industry.

    PubMed

    Vito, Saverio De; Miglietta, Maria Lucia; Massera, Ettore; Fattoruso, Grazia; Formisano, Fabrizio; Polichetti, Tiziana; Salvato, Maria; Alfano, Brigida; Esposito, Elena; Francia, Girolamo Di

    2017-04-02

    The full exploitation of Composite Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) in so-called green aircrafts design is still limited by the lack of adequate quality assurance procedures for checking the adhesive bonding assembly, especially in load-critical primary structures. In this respect, contamination of the CFRP panel surface is of significant concern since it may severely affect the bonding and the mechanical properties of the joint. During the last years, the authors have developed and tested an electronic nose as a non-destructive tool for pre-bonding surface inspection for contaminants detection, identification and quantification. Several sensors and sampling architectures have been screened in view of the high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) scenarios requirements. Ad-hoc pattern recognition systems have also been devised to ensure a fast and reliable assessment of the contamination status, by combining real time classifiers and the implementation of a suitable rejection option. Results show that e-noses could be used as first line low cost Non Destructive Test (NDT) tool in aerospace CFRP assembly and maintenance scenarios.

  3. Design and Integration of an Actuated Nose Strake Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flick, Bradley C.; Thomson, Michael P.; Regenie, Victoria A.; Wichman, Keith D.; Pahle, Joseph W.; Earls, Michael R.

    1996-01-01

    Aircraft flight characteristics at high angles of attack can be improved by controlling vortices shed from the nose. These characteristics have been investigated with the integration of the actuated nose strakes for enhanced rolling (ANSER) control system into the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle. Several hardware and software systems were developed to enable performance of the research goals. A strake interface box was developed to perform actuator control and failure detection outside the flight control computer. A three-mode ANSER control law was developed and installed in the Research Flight Control System. The thrust-vectoring mode does not command the strakes. The strakes and thrust-vectoring mode uses a combination of thrust vectoring and strakes for lateral- directional control, and strake mode uses strakes only for lateral-directional control. The system was integrated and tested in the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) simulation for testing before installation in the aircraft. Performance of the ANSER system was monitored in real time during the 89-flight ANSER flight test program in the DFRC Mission Control Center. One discrepancy resulted in a set of research data not being obtained. The experiment was otherwise considered a success with the majority of the research objectives being met.

  4. Nanoparticles for direct nose-to-brain delivery of drugs.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Alpesh; Stolnik, Snjezana; Illum, Lisbeth

    2009-09-08

    This review aims to evaluate the evidence for the existence of a direct nose-to-brain delivery route for nanoparticles administered to the nasal cavity and transported via the olfactory epithelium and/or via the trigeminal nerves directly to the CNS. This is relevant in the field of drug delivery as well as for new developments in nanotechnology. Experiments in animal models have shown that nano-sized drug delivery systems can enhance nose-to-brain delivery of drugs compared to equivalent drug solutions formulations. Protection of the drug from degradation and/or efflux back into the nasal cavity may partly be the reason for this effect of nanoparticles. It is uncertain, however, whether drug from the nanoparticles is being released in the nasal cavity or the nanoparticles carrying the drug are transported via the olfactory system or the trigeminal nerves into the CNS where the drug is released. Furthermore, toxicity of nanoparticulate drug delivery systems in the nasal cavity and/or in the CNS has not been extensively studied and needs to be considered carefully.

  5. [Surgical reconstruction of large defects of the nose].

    PubMed

    Hofer, S O P; Mureau, M A M

    2008-07-26

    --Skin cancer of the face is the most prevalent type of cancer. The large increase of the incidence of this type of cancer in recent years has resulted in an increase of skin cancer resections in the face. --Nasal defects are the most challenging of these facial defects. Nasal reconstruction requires reconstruction of three tissue layers: the inner mucosal lining, supporting structures (cartilage or bone) and the outer cutaneous lining. --The new inner lining should consist of well-vascularized thin tissue to prevent rejection of cartilage or bone in the supporting layer. For example, septal mucosa or skin can be used in various ways to reconstruct the inner lining. --The new supporting structures, consisting of transplanted cartilage or bone, should be strong enough to prevent contraction of the soft tissues--inner and outer lining--during wound healing. --The outer lining is reconstructed per subunit of the nose, e.g. nostril, ala nasi or ridge of the nose. Usually a paramedian forehead flap is used for the reconstruction of the outer lining.

  6. Chemiresistive Electronic Nose toward Detection of Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hi Gyu; Jung, Youngmo; Han, Soo Deok; Shim, Young-Seok; Shin, Beomju; Lee, Taikjin; Kim, Jin-Sang; Lee, Seok; Jun, Seong Chan; Park, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Chulki; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2016-08-17

    Detection of gas-phase chemicals finds a wide variety of applications, including food and beverages, fragrances, environmental monitoring, chemical and biochemical processing, medical diagnostics, and transportation. One approach for these tasks is to use arrays of highly sensitive and selective sensors as an electronic nose. Here, we present a high performance chemiresistive electronic nose (CEN) based on an array of metal oxide thin films, metal-catalyzed thin films, and nanostructured thin films. The gas sensing properties of the CEN show enhanced sensitive detection of H2S, NH3, and NO in an 80% relative humidity (RH) atmosphere similar to the composition of exhaled breath. The detection limits of the sensor elements we fabricated are in the following ranges: 534 ppt to 2.87 ppb for H2S, 4.45 to 42.29 ppb for NH3, and 206 ppt to 2.06 ppb for NO. The enhanced sensitivity is attributed to the spillover effect by Au nanoparticles and the high porosity of villi-like nanostructures, providing a large surface-to-volume ratio. The remarkable selectivity based on the collection of sensor responses manifests itself in the principal component analysis (PCA). The excellent sensing performance indicates that the CEN can detect the biomarkers of H2S, NH3, and NO in exhaled breath and even distinguish them clearly in the PCA. Our results show high potential of the CEN as an inexpensive and noninvasive diagnostic tool for halitosis, kidney disorder, and asthma.

  7. Software Compensates Electronic-Nose Readings for Humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Hanying

    2007-01-01

    A computer program corrects for the effects of humidity on the readouts of an array of chemical sensors (an "electronic nose"). To enable the use of this program, the array must incorporate an independent humidity sensor in addition to sensors designed to detect analytes other than water vapor. The basic principle of the program was described in "Compensating for Effects of Humidity on Electronic Noses" (NPO-30615), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 6 (June 2004), page 63. To recapitulate: The output of the humidity sensor is used to generate values that are subtracted from the outputs of the other sensors to correct for contributions of humidity to those readings. Hence, in principle, what remains after corrections are the contributions of the analytes only. The outputs of the non-humidity sensors are then deconvolved to obtain the concentrations of the analytes. In addition, the humidity reading is retained as an analyte reading in its own right. This subtraction of the humidity background increases the ability of the software to identify such events as spills in which contaminants may be present in small concentrations and accompanied by large changes in humidity.

  8. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Nose-Only Inhalation Exposures ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is a critical need to assess the health effects associated with exposure of commercially produced NPs across the size ranges reflective of that detected in the industrial sectors that are generating, as well as incorporating, NPs into products. Generation of stable and low concentrations of size-fractionated nanoscale aerosols in nose-only chambers can be difficult, and when the aerosol agglomerates during generation, the problems are significantly increased. One problem is that many nanoscale aerosol generators have higher aerosol output and/or airflow than can be accommodated by a nose-only inhalation chamber, requiring much of the generated aerosol to be diverted to exhaust. Another problem is that mixing vessels used to modulate the fluctuating output from aerosol generators can cause substantial wall losses, consuming much of the generated aerosol. Other available aerosol generation systems can produce nanoscale aerosols from nanoparticles (NPs), however these NPs are generated in real time and do not approximate the physical and chemical characteristics of NPs that are commercially produced exposing the workers and the public. The health effects associated with exposure to commercial NP production, which are more morphologically and size heterogeneous, is required for risk assessment. To overcome these problems, a low-consumption dry-particulate nanoscale aerosol generator was developed to deliver stable concentrations in the range of 10–5000 µg

  9. Signal processing inspired from the olfactory bulb for electronic noses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Ya-Qi; Meng, Qing-Hao; Qi, Pei-Feng; Zeng, Ming; Liu, Ying-Jie

    2017-01-01

    A bio-inspired signal processing method is proposed for electronic noses (e-noses). The proposed method contains an olfactory bulb model and a feature generation step. The structure of the olfactory bulb model is similar to the anatomical structure of mammals’ olfactory bulb. It consists of olfactory receptor neurons, mitral cells, granule cells, periglomerular cells, and short axon cells. This model uses gas sensors’ original response curves and transforms them to neuron spiking series no matter what kind the response curve is. This largely simplifies the follow-up feature generation step. Recurrence quantification analysis is employed to perform feature generation and the five most important features are selected. Finally, in order to verify the performance of the proposed method, seven kinds of Chinese liquors are tested and three classification methods are used to classify them. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method has a higher classification rate (99.05%) and also a steadier performance with the change of sensor number and types than the classic one.

  10. Update on surgical treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    D’Haese, Jan G; Tosolini, Chiara; Ceyhan, Güralp O; Kong, Bo; Esposito, Irene; Michalski, Christoph W; Kleeff, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNENs) are rare and account for only 2%-4% of all pancreatic neoplasms. All PNENs are potential (neurendocrine tumors PNETs) or overt (neuroendocrine carcinomas PNECs) malignant, but a subset of PNETs is low-risk. Even in case of low-risk PNETs surgical resection is frequently required to treat hormone-related symptoms and to obtain an appropriate pathological diagnosis. Low-risk PNETs in the body and the tail are ideal for minimally-invasive approaches which should be tailored to the individual patient. Generally, surgeons must aim for parenchyma sparing in these cases. In high-risk and malignant PNENs, indications for tumor resection are much wider than for pancreatic adenocarcinoma, in many cases due to the relatively benign tumor biology. Thus, patients with locally advanced and metastatic PNETs may benefit from extensive resection. In experienced hands, even multi-organ resections are accomplished with acceptable perioperative morbidity and mortality rates and are associated with excellent long term survival. However, poorly differentiated neoplasms with high proliferation rates are associated with a dismal prognosis and may frequently only be treated with chemotherapy. The evidence on surgical treatment of PNENs stems from reviews of mostly single-center series and some analyses of nation-wide tumor registries. No randomized trial has been performed to compare surgical and non-surgical therapies in potentially resectable PNEN. Though such a trial would principally be desirable, ethical considerations and the heterogeneity of PNENs preclude realization of such a study. In the current review, we summarize recent advances in the surgical treatment of PNENs. PMID:25320524

  11. The myeloproliferative neoplasms, unclassifiable: clinical and pathological considerations.

    PubMed

    Gianelli, Umberto; Cattaneo, Daniele; Bossi, Anna; Cortinovis, Ivan; Boiocchi, Leonardo; Liu, Yen-Chun; Augello, Claudia; Bonometti, Arturo; Fiori, Stefano; Orofino, Nicola; Guidotti, Francesca; Orazi, Attilio; Iurlo, Alessandra

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigate in detail the morphological, clinical and molecular features of 71 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms, unclassifiable. We performed a meticulous morphological analysis and found that most of the cases displayed a hypercellular bone marrow (70%) with normal erythropoiesis without left-shifting (59%), increased granulopoiesis with left-shifting (73%) and increased megakaryocytes with loose clustering (96%). Megakaryocytes displayed frequent giant forms with hyperlobulated or bulbous nuclei and/or other maturation defects. Interestingly, more than half of the cases displayed severe bone marrow fibrosis (59%). Median values of hemoglobin level and white blood cells count were all within the normal range; in contrast, median platelets count and lactate dehydrogenase were increased. Little less than half of the patients (44%) showed splenomegaly. JAK2V617F mutation was detected in 72% of all patients. Among the JAK2-negative cases, MPLW515L mutation was found in 17% and CALR mutations in 67% of the investigated cases, respectively. Finally, by multiple correspondence analysis of the morphological profiles, we found that all but four of the cases could be grouped in three morphological clusters with some features similar to those of the classic BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. Analysis of the clinical parameters in these three clusters revealed discrepancies with the morphological profile in about 55% of the patients. In conclusion, we found that the category of myeloproliferative neoplasm, unclassifiable is heterogeneous but identification of different subgroups is possible and should be recommended for a better management of these patients.

  12. Diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses in child

    PubMed Central

    Stenner, Markus; Rudack, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Diseases of the pediatric nose and nasal sinuses as well as neighboring anatomical structures encompass a variety of pathologies, especially of inflammatory nature. Congenital disease, such as malformations and structural deviations of the nasal septum, as well as systemic metabolic pathologies affecting the nose and sinuses, rarely require medical therapy from an Otolaryngologist. The immunological function of the mucosa and genetic factors play a role in the development of disease in the pediatric upper airway tract, especially due to the constantly changing anatomy in this growth phase. Disease description of the nose and nasal sinuses due to mid-facial growth must also take developmental age differences (infant, toddler, preschool, and school age) into account. Epidemiological examinations and evidence based studies are often lacking in the pediatric population. The wide range of inflammatory diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses, such as the acute and chronic rhinosinusitis, the allergic rhinitis, and adenoid disease, play a role in the susceptibility of a child to infection. The susceptibility to infection depends on the pediatric age structure (infant, young child) and has yet to be well defined. The acute rhinosinusitis in children develops after a viral infection of the upper airways, also referred to as the “common cold” in the literature. It usually spontaneously heals within ten days without any medical therapy. Antibiotic therapy is prudent in complicated episodes of ARS. The antibiotic therapy is reserved for children with complications or associated disease, such as bronchial asthma and/or chronic bronchitis. A chronic rhinosinusitis is defined as the inflammatory change in the nasal mucosa and nasal sinus mucosa, in which the corresponding symptoms persist for over 12 weeks. The indication for CT-imaging of the nasal sinuses is reserved for cases of chronic rhinosinusitis that have been successfully treated with medication. A staged

  13. Four primary malignant neoplasms in a single patient

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, D.M.; Triedman, L.J.

    1986-05-01

    A 60-year-old Caucasian male, with a previous history of a 10-year occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, chemical carcinogens, and a long history of tobacco and alcohol abuse, developed synchronous squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth and adenocarcinoma of the lung. Four years later, squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx followed by squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue were diagnosed. In this case report, we suggest that increased exposure to multiple carcinogenic factors may result in an increased incidence of both synchronous and metachronous primary malignant neoplasms.

  14. Fine-Needle Aspiration in the Evaluation of Thyroid Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Oertel, Yolanda C.

    1997-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a safe, rapid, and accurate diagnostic tool. Although it continues to gain acceptance, the pace is slow. Probably, if more pathologists master the basics (i.e., learn how to obtain a good sample), this simple technique could be utilized to its fullest advantage. If the sample is not adequate or representative of the lesion, the diagnosis will not be correct. Based on personal experience, we believe that suction should be minimal when obtaining thyroid aspirates. Cytologic diagnostic criteria for the most common neoplasms of the thyroid gland are provided.

  15. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Therapies in Pancreatic Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dennis; DiMaio, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has evolved from being primarily a diagnostic modality into an interventional endoscopic tool for the management of both benign and malignant gastrointestinal illnesses. EUS-guided therapy has garnered particular interest as a minimally invasive approach for the treatment of pancreatic cancer, a disease often complicated by its aggressive course and poor survival. The potential advantage of an EUS-guided approach revolves around real-time imaging for targeted therapy of a difficult to reach organ. In this review, we focus on EUS-guided therapies for pancreatic neoplasms. PMID:25802863

  16. Contiguous but dissimilar epithelial neoplasms of the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Tapp, E.; Morrison, D.

    1968-01-01

    An unusual tumour of the urinary bladder is described. It consists of two distinct nodules each with a quite different histological appearance, one being mucus-secreting adenocarcinoma, the other transitional cell carcinoma. Where the nodules are in contact there is little intermingling of the two histological patterns and it is suggested that the findings are probably due to the collision of two separate neoplasms. Metaplastic changes are present in the bladder mucosa adjacent to the tumour. The significance of these changes in the pathogenesis of adanocarcinoma is discussed. Images PMID:4301687

  17. Endoscopic Diagnosis of Leiomyosarcoma of the Esophagus, a Rare Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Massimo; Zanasi, Giulio; Vanini, Marco; Camozzi, Mario

    1998-01-01

    We report a case of leiomyosarcoma of the distal third of the esophagus in a 51-year-old woman presenting with a six-month history of severe epigastric pain, disphagia and weight loss. The diagnosis, suspected on endoscopic examination, was preoperatively acheived by biopsy and immunohistological stain. Surgical treatment was undertaken with good results. Differentiation between leiomyosarcoma and more common esophageal neoplasm may be difficult if based on radiographic and endoscopic appearance. Preoperative histological confirmation is therefore mandatory to schedule a wide surgical excision. PMID:18493479

  18. Endoscopic diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma of the esophagus, a rare neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Ravini, M; Torre, M; Zanasi, G; Vanini, M; Camozzi, M

    1998-01-01

    We report a case of leiomyosarcoma of the distal third of the esophagus in a 51-year-old woman presenting with a six-month history of severe epigastric pain, disphagia and weight loss. The diagnosis, suspected on endoscopic examination, was preoperatively acheived by biopsy and immunohistological stain. Surgical treatment was undertaken with good results. Differentiation between leiomyosarcoma and more common esophageal neoplasm may be difficult if based on radiographic and endoscopic appearance. Preoperative histological confirmation is therefore mandatory to schedule a wide surgical excision.

  19. Unusual malignant neoplasms of ovary in children: two cases report

    PubMed Central

    Bouden, Aicha; Gasmi, Manef; Hamzaoui, Mourad

    2016-01-01

    Sex cord tumors with annular tubules are known to originate from the sex cord of embryonic gonads that synthesize Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, granulosa cells, and theca cells of the ovarian stroma, while ovarian small cell carcinoma of the hypercalcemic type is a type of neuroendocrine tumor. Both these tumors are uncommon, potentially malignant neoplasms in children. We report the case of a sex cord tumor with annular tubules in an 11-year-old girl and a case of small cell carcinoma of the hypercalcemic type in a 10-year-old girl. We also discuss the prognosis and management of these tumors. PMID:28018460

  20. Uterine rupture due to invasive metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Bruner, David I; Pritchard, Amy M; Clarke, Jonathan

    2013-09-01

    While complete molar pregnancies are rare, they are wrought with a host of potential complications to include invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease following molar pregnancy is a potentially fatal complication that must be recognized early and treated aggressively for both immediate and long-term recovery. We present the case of a 21-year-old woman with abdominal pain and presyncope 1 month after a molar pregnancy with a subsequent uterine rupture due to invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasm. We will discuss the complications of molar pregnancies including the risks and management of invasive, metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

  1. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tan, Huangying

    2016-01-01

    Gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms (g-NENs) are a group of heterogeneous tumors arising from the endocrine cells of stomach. Most g-NENs progresses slowly and have a long disease course; however, some other g-NENs grow rapidly, similar to the progression of gastric adenocarcinoma. g-NENs have complex and diverse clinical manifestations and their prognosis and treatment strategies depend highly on clinical subtype, pathological grade, tumour stage, and other factors. Due to their low prevalence, most clinicians have limited knowledge about g-NENs. Missed diagnosis and excessive/inadequate treatment is common in clinical settings. Thus, the diagnosis and treatment of g-NENs needs to be further standardized.

  2. [Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas, IPMN].

    PubMed

    Sirén, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    With the development and increasing use of imaging techniques, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is being detected with increasing frequency. Two forms of the disease are distinguished, the rare main duct form and the common accessory pancreatic duct form. The former often progresses to malignancy, the latter only seldom. The mixed form of IPMN exhibits features of both forms. In main duct IPMN, mucin production obstructs the pancreatic duct causing its dilatation and often symptoms typical of chronic pancreatitis. Main duct IPMN is always an indication for surgery, whereas monitoring is often sufficient for side duct IPMN.

  3. [Secondary neoplasms of the larynx from a colonic adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Dadkhah, Naser; Hahn, Christoffer

    2015-01-26

    Secondary neoplasms of the larynx are rare and account for 0.09-0,4% of all laryngeal tumours. Cutaneous melanomas are the preponderant primaries metastasizing to the larynx, followed by renal cell carcinomas, breast and lung carcinomas. Colonic adenocarcinoma metastases to the larynx are extremely rare. Tumours spreading to the larynx may be asymptomatic or may result in hoarseness, stridor or airway obstruction. Patients with metastasis of colonic adenocarcinoma to the larynx usually present with disseminated disease. We present a case of an isolated laryngeal metastasis from a colonic adenocarcinoma. The patient was treated with endoscopic surgery and radiation.

  4. Uterine Rupture Due to Invasive Metastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, David I.; Pritchard, Amy M.; Clarke, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    While complete molar pregnancies are rare, they are wrought with a host of potential complications to include invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease following molar pregnancy is a potentially fatal complication that must be recognized early and treated aggressively for both immediate and long-term recovery. We present the case of a 21-year-old woman with abdominal pain and presyncope 1 month after a molar pregnancy with a subsequent uterine rupture due to invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasm. We will discuss the complications of molar pregnancies including the risks and management of invasive, metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. PMID:24106538

  5. Pancreatic endocrine neoplasms: Epidemiology and prognosis of pancreatic endocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R.; Rubin, Joseph; Farnell, Michael B.; Grant, Clive S.; Petersen, Gloria M.

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatic endocrine neoplasms (PETs) are uncommon tumors with an annual incidence less than 1 per 100,000 persons per year in the general population. PETs that produce hormones resulting in symptoms are designated as functional. The majority of PETs are nonfunctional. Of the functional tumors, insulinomas are the most common, followed by gastrinomas. The clinical course of patients with PETs is variable and depends on the extent of the disease and the treatment rendered. Patients with completely resected tumors generally have a good prognosis, and aggressive surgical therapy in patients with advanced disease may also prolong survival. The epidemiology, prognosis and established and novel prognostic markers of PETs are reviewed. PMID:18508996

  6. Incidental pancreatic cystic neoplasms in an asymptomatic healthy population of 21,745 individuals

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ye Rim; Park, Joo Kyung; Jang, Jin-Young; Kwon, Wooil; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although incidental pancreatic cystic neoplasms are being diagnosed with increasing frequency, little is known about the accurate prevalence of pancreatic cysts in the general population. The aims of this study were to evaluate the crude prevalence rate of pancreatic cystic neoplasms in asymptomatic healthy adults, and calculate the age- and sex-adjusted nationwide prevalence rate. A total of 21,745 asymptomatic individuals who underwent abdominal computed tomography (CT) as a health screening examination were enrolled between 2003 and 2013 at the Seoul National University Hospital Healthcare System Gangnam Center. Nationwide population data of 2010 were collected from the National Statistical Office, Korea. Incidental pancreatic cystic neoplasms were found in 457 individuals whose mean age was 58.7 years. The types of neoplasms were reviewed by 2 separate designated radiologists and the final diagnosis was made as follows: intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm: 376 (82%), serous cystic neoplasm: 19 (4%), mucinous cystic neoplasm: 7 (2%), and indeterminate cysts: 55 (12%). Eight cases underwent operation. The crude prevalence rate was 2.1% and the age- and sex-adjusted expected nationwide prevalence was 2.2%. The prevalence increased with age. Here, we reported the first large-scale study among the healthy population to find out the prevalence rate of pancreatic cystic neoplasms; the age- and sex-adjusted prevalence was 2.2%, and increased with age. Further investigations regarding the clinical implications of incidental pancreatic neoplasms are necessary. PMID:28002329

  7. Current perspectives on pancreatic serous cystic neoplasms: Diagnosis, management and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Peng; Yu, Zhong-Xun; Zhao, Yu-Pei; Dai, Meng-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cystic neoplasms have been increasingly recognized recently. Comprising about 16% of all resected pancreatic cystic neoplasms, serous cystic neoplasms are uncommon benign lesions that are usually asymptomatic and found incidentally. Despite overall low risk of malignancy, these pancreatic cysts still generate anxiety, leading to intensive medical investigations with considerable financial cost to health care systems. This review discusses the general background of serous cystic neoplasms, including epidemiology and clinical characteristics, and provides an updated overview of diagnostic approaches based on clinical features, relevant imaging studies and new findings that are being discovered pertaining to diagnostic evaluation. We also concisely discuss and propose management strategies for better quality of life. PMID:27022447

  8. A Combined CFD/Characteristic Method for Prediction and Design of Hypersonic Inlet with Nose Bluntness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wenzhi; Li, Zhufei; Yang, Jiming

    Leading edge bluntness is widely used in hypersonic inlet design for thermal protection[1]. Detailed research of leading edge bluntness on hypersonic inlet has been concentrated on shock shape correlation[2], boundary layer flow[3], inlet performance[4], etc. It is well known that blunted noses cause detached bow shocks which generate subsonic regions around the noses and entropy layers in the flowfield.

  9. Odor source identification by grounding linguistic descriptions in an artificial nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loutfi, Amy; Coradeschi, Silvia; Duckett, Tom; Wide, Peter

    2001-03-01

    This paper addresses the problem of enabling autonomous agents (e.g., robots) to carry out human oriented tasks using an electronic nose. The nose consists of a combination of passive gas sensors with different selectivity, the outputs of which are fused together with an artificial neural network in order to recognize various human-determined odors. The basic idea is to ground human-provided linguistic descriptions of these odors in the actual sensory perceptions of the nose through a process of supervised learning. Analogous to the human nose, the paper explains a method by which an electronic nose can be used for substance identification. First, the receptors of the nose are exposed to a substance by means of inhalation with an electric pump. Then a chemical reaction takes place in the gas sensors over a period of time and an artificial neural network processes the resulting sensor patterns. This network was trained to recognize a basic set of pure substances such as vanilla, lavender and yogurt under controlled laboratory conditions. The complete system was then validated through a series of experiments on various combinations of the basic substances. First, we showed that the nose was able to consistently recognize unseen samples of the same substances on which it had been trained. In addition, we presented some first results where the nose was tested on novel combinations of substances on which it had not been trained by combining the learned descriptions - for example, it could distinguish lavender yogurt as a combination of lavender and yogurt.

  10. Lupus vulgaris of external nose with septal perforation--a rarity in antibiotic era.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ajay; Wadhera, Raman; Gulati, S P; Singh, Jagjit

    2010-07-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV) is the commonest morphological variant of cutaneous tuberculosis. Case of LV of external nose extending to internal nose causing septal perforation is documented here. Histopathology of biopsy taken confirmed the diagnosis of LV. Patient responded well to Anti-tubercular therapy (ATT).

  11. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874... throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill is a rotating drilling device, including the handpiece, that... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or...

  12. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874... throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill is a rotating drilling device, including the handpiece, that... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or...

  13. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4500 Ear..., and throat area. The device is used, for example, in microsurgical procedures to excise lesions and... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon...

  14. 21 CFR 868.5375 - Heat and moisture condenser (artificial nose).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Heat and moisture condenser (artificial nose). 868.5375 Section 868.5375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... moisture condenser (artificial nose). (a) Identification. A heat and moisture condenser (artificial...

  15. 21 CFR 868.5375 - Heat and moisture condenser (artificial nose).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Heat and moisture condenser (artificial nose). 868.5375 Section 868.5375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... moisture condenser (artificial nose). (a) Identification. A heat and moisture condenser (artificial...

  16. 21 CFR 868.5375 - Heat and moisture condenser (artificial nose).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Heat and moisture condenser (artificial nose). 868.5375 Section 868.5375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... moisture condenser (artificial nose). (a) Identification. A heat and moisture condenser (artificial...

  17. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. 874.3620 Section 874.3620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  18. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. 874.3620 Section 874.3620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  19. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. 874.3620 Section 874.3620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  20. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. 874.3620 Section 874.3620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  1. 21 CFR 874.3620 - Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat synthetic polymer material. 874.3620 Section 874.3620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., and throat synthetic polymer material. (a) Identification. Ear, nose, and throat synthetic...

  2. Design and Implementation of an Electronic Nose System for the Determination of Fish Freshness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masot, Rafael; Alcañiz, Miguel; Pérez-Esteve, Edgar; Barat, José M.; Gil, Luis; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Garcia-Breijo, Eduardo

    2009-05-01

    An electronic nose has been designed to evaluate fish freshness. The e-nose consists of 15 commercial sensors, a home-made data acquisition system and a PC application that communicates with the data acquisition system. The equipment has been conceived so that the sensors can be configured in non-standard operation modes in order to improve the sensors discrimination capabilities.

  3. Can odors of TCM be captured by electronic nose? The novel quality control method for musk by electronic nose coupled with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Ye, Tao; Jin, Cheng; Zhou, Jian; Li, Xingfeng; Wang, Haitao; Deng, Pingye; Yang, Ying; Wu, Yanwen; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2011-07-15

    Musk is a precious and wide applied material in traditional Chinese medicine, also, an important material for the perfume industry all over the world. To establish a rapid, cost-effective and relatively objective assessment for the quality of musk, different musk samples, including authentic, fake and adulterate, were collected. A oxide sensor based electronic nose (E-nose) was employed to measure the musk samples, the E-nose generated data were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA), the responses of 18 sensors of E-nose were evaluated by loading analysis. Results showed that a rapid evaluation of complex response of the samples could be obtained, in combination with PCA and the perception level of the E-nose was given better results in the recognition values of the musk aroma. The authentic, fake and adulterate musk could be distinguished by E-nose coupled with PCA, sensor 2, 3, 5, 12, 15 and 17 were found to be able to better discriminate between musk samples, confirming the potential application of an electronic instrument coupled with chemometrics for a rapid and on-line quality control for the traditional medicines.

  4. Threshold detection of aromatic compounds in wine with an electronic nose and a human sensory panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, José Pedro; Lozano, Jesús; Aleixandre, Manuel; Arroyo, Teresa; Cabellos, Juan Mariano; Gil, Mar; del Carmen Horrillo, Maria

    2009-05-01

    An electronic nose (e-nose) based on thin film semiconductor sensors has been developed in order to compare the performance with a trained human sensory panel. The panel had 25 members and was trained to detect concentration thresholds of some compounds of interest present in wine. Typical red wine compounds such as whiskylactone and white wine compounds such as 3-methyl butanol were measured at different concentrations starting from the detection threshold found in literature (in the micrograms to milligrams per liter range). Pattern recognition methods (principal component analisys and neural networks) were used to process the data. The results showed that the performance of the e-nose for threshold detection was much better than the human panel. The compounds were detected by the e-nose at concentrations up to ten times lower than the panel. Moreover the e-nose was able to identify correctly each concentration level therefore quantitative applications are devised for this system.

  5. Electronic nose system combined with membrane interface probe for detection of VOCs in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Junghwan; Howard, Zachary; Kurup, Pradeep

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a novel electronic nose system combined with a membrane interface probe (MIP) for detecting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water. The MIP is an in situ tool that allows the detection of certain VOCs in the soil via a pushed or driven probe. The MIP was combined with a sensor array consisting of four different tin-oxide gas sensors known as an electronic nose (e-nose). The designed e-nose system was calibrated in aqueous media spiked with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and p-xylene (BTEX) at concentrations of 100, 250, and 500 ppm. Since the experiment was conducted utilizing five repetitions for each analyte, a data set of 60 measurements was prepared for principal components analysis (PCA). The results of the PCA showed that two principal components contain more than 99% variance information and each VOC is separable and detectable by the e-nose.

  6. Improved Classification of Orthosiphon stamineus by Data Fusion of Electronic Nose and Tongue Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md.; Adom, Abdul Hamid; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Aziz, Abdul Hallis Abdul; Fikri, Nazifah Ahmad; Abdullah, Abu Hassan; Kamarudin, Latifah Munirah

    2010-01-01

    An improved classification of Orthosiphon stamineus using a data fusion technique is presented. Five different commercial sources along with freshly prepared samples were discriminated using an electronic nose (e-nose) and an electronic tongue (e-tongue). Samples from the different commercial brands were evaluated by the e-tongue and then followed by the e-nose. Applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) separately on the respective e-tongue and e-nose data, only five distinct groups were projected. However, by employing a low level data fusion technique, six distinct groupings were achieved. Hence, this technique can enhance the ability of PCA to analyze the complex samples of Orthosiphon stamineus. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was then used to further validate and classify the samples. It was found that the LDA performance was also improved when the responses from the e-nose and e-tongue were fused together. PMID:22163381

  7. Investigation of nose bluntness and angle of attack effects on slender bodies in viscous hypersonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehgal, A. K.; Tiwari, S. N.; Singh, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    Hypersonic flows over cones and straight biconic configurations are calculated for a wide range of free stream conditions in which the gas behind the shock is treated as perfect. Effect of angle of attack and nose bluntness on these slender cones in air is studied extensively. The numerical procedures are based on the solution of complete Navier-Stokes equations at the nose section and parabolized Navier-Stokes equations further downstream. The flow field variables and surface quantities show significant differences when the angle of attack and nose bluntness are varied. The complete flow field is thoroughly analyzed with respect to velocity, temperature, pressure, and entropy profiles. The post shock flow field is studied in detail from the contour plots of Mach number, density, pressure, and temperature. The effect of nose bluntness for slender cones persists as far as 200 nose radii downstream.

  8. Current Status of Radiopharmaceuticals for the Theranostics of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Fani, Melpomeni; Kolenc Peitl, Petra; Velikyan, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear medicine plays a pivotal role in the management of patients affected by neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). Radiolabeled somatostatin receptor analogs are by far the most advanced radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy (radiotheranostics) of NENs. Their clinical success emerged receptor-targeted radiolabeled peptides as an important class of radiopharmaceuticals and it paved the way for the investigation of other radioligand-receptor systems. Besides the somatostatin receptors (sstr), other receptors have also been linked to NENs and quite a number of potential radiolabeled peptides have been derived from them. The Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor (GLP-1R) is highly expressed in benign insulinomas, the Cholecystokinin 2 (CCK2)/Gastrin receptor is expressed in different NENs, in particular medullary thyroid cancer, and the Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide (GIP) receptor was found to be expressed in gastrointestinal and bronchial NENs, where interestingly, it is present in most of the sstr-negative and GLP-1R-negative NENs. Also in the field of sstr targeting new discoveries brought into light an alternative approach with the use of radiolabeled somatostatin receptor antagonists, instead of the clinically used agonists. The purpose of this review is to present the current status and the most innovative strategies for the diagnosis and treatment (theranostics) of neuroendocrine neoplasms using a cadre of radiolabeled regulatory peptides targeting their receptors. PMID:28295000

  9. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for colorectal neoplasms: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Taku; Mori, Genki; Yamada, Masayoshi; Kinjo, Yuzuru; So, Eriko; Abe, Seiichiro; Otake, Yosuke; Nakajima, Takeshi; Matsuda, Takahisa; Saito, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has expanded the application of endoscopic treatment, which can be used for lesions with a low metastatic potential regardless of their size. ESD has the advantage of achieving en bloc resection with a lower local recurrence rate compared with that of piecemeal endoscopic mucosal resection. Moreover, in the past, surgery was indicated in patients with large lesions spreading to almost the entire circumference of the rectum, regardless of the depth of invasion, as endoscopic resection of these lesions was technically difficult. Therefore, a prime benefit of ESD is significant improvement in the quality of life for patients who have large rectal lesions. On the other hand, ESD is not as widely applied in the treatment of colorectal neoplasms as it is in gastric cancers owing to the associated technical difficulty, longer procedural duration, and increased risk of perforation. To diversify the available endoscopic treatment strategies for superficial colorectal neoplasms, endoscopists performing ESD need to recognize its indications, the technical issues involved in its application, and the associated complications. This review outlines the methods and type of devices used for colorectal ESD, and the training required by endoscopists to perform this procedure. PMID:25473168

  10. A novel assay to detect calreticulin mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Valentina; Petiti, Jessica; Bracco, Enrico; Pedrola, Roberto; Carnuccio, Francesca; Signorino, Elisabetta; Carturan, Sonia; Calabrese, Chiara; Bot-Sartor, Giada; Ronconi, Michela; Serra, Anna; Saglio, Giuseppe; Frassoni, Francesco; Cilloni, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    The myeloproliferative neoplasms are chronic myeloid cancers divided in Philadelphia positive (Ph+), chronic myeloid leukemia, or negative: polycythemia vera (PV) essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Most Ph negative cases have an activating JAK2 or MPL mutation. Recently, somatic mutations in the calreticulin gene (CALR) were detected in 56–88% of JAK2/MPL-negative patients affected by ET or PMF. The most frequent mutations in CARL gene are type-1 and 2. Currently, CALR mutations are evaluated by sanger sequencing. The evaluation of CARL mutations increases the diagnostic accuracy in patients without other molecular markers and could represent a new therapeutic target for molecular drugs. We developed a novel detection assay in order to identify type-1 and 2 CALR mutations by PNA directed PCR clamping. Seventy-five patients affected by myeloproliferative neoplasms and seven controls were examined by direct DNA sequencing and by PNA directed PCR clamping. The assay resulted to be more sensitive, specific and cheaper than sanger sequencing and it could be applied even in laboratory not equipped for more sophisticated analysis. Interestingly, we report here a case carrying both type 1 and type2 mutations in CALR gene. PMID:28031530

  11. Multifocal Primary Neoplasms in Kidney Allografts: Evaluation of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Robert J.; Ng, Keng Lim; Samaratunga, Hemamali; Del Vecchio, Sharon J.; Wood, Simon T.

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the fifth most common malignancy in kidney transplant recipients, with increased risk arising due to immunosuppression. De novo RCC occurrence in kidney allografts is much less common when compared with the native kidneys. Multifocal RCC in allograft kidneys is rarely described. In this report, we discuss two cases of de novo multifocal renal neoplasms in allograft kidneys. Case 1 had three distinct neoplastic lesions of >5 mm, and case 2 had four. Using the World Health Organization 2016 classification of adult renal tumours, case 1 had one clear-cell (cc) RCC (grade 3) and two papillary adenomas; all confined to the kidney. Case 2 had a nodular lesion classified as ccRCC (grade 4) with focal rhabdoid differentiation and some infiltration of renal sinus fat; a cc tubulopapillary RCC; a multilocular cystic renal neoplasm of low malignant potential; and a mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma; the last three all confined to the kidney. This is the first report of mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma in a kidney allograft. When considering multifocal RCC with discordant histology, it is likely that these represent independent tumourigenic events. PMID:28326280

  12. Altered glutamyl-aminopeptidase activity and expression in renal neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in the knowledge of renal neoplasms have demonstrated the implication of several proteases in their genesis, growth and dissemination. Glutamyl-aminopeptidase (GAP) (EC. 3.4.11.7) is a zinc metallopeptidase with angiotensinase activity highly expressed in kidney tissues and its expression and activity have been associated wtih tumour development. Methods In this prospective study, GAP spectrofluorometric activity and immunohistochemical expression were analysed in clear-cell (CCRCC), papillary (PRCC) and chromophobe (ChRCC) renal cell carcinomas, and in renal oncocytoma (RO). Data obtained in tumour tissue were compared with those from the surrounding uninvolved kidney tissue. In CCRCC, classic pathological parameters such as grade, stage and tumour size were stratified following GAP data and analyzed for 5-year survival. Results GAP activity in both the membrane-bound and soluble fractions was sharply decreased and its immunohistochemical expression showed mild staining in the four histological types of renal tumours. Soluble and membrane-bound GAP activities correlated with tumour grade and size in CCRCCs. Conclusions This study suggests a role for GAP in the neoplastic development of renal tumours and provides additional data for considering the activity and expression of this enzyme of interest in the diagnosis and prognosis of renal neoplasms. PMID:24885240

  13. Diverse and Targetable Kinase Alterations Drive Histiocytic Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Eli L.; Durham, Benjamin H.; Haroche, Julien; Yao, Zhan; Ma, Jing; Parikh, Sameer A.; Wang, Zhaoming; Choi, John; Kim, Eunhee; Cohen-Aubart, Fleur; Lee, Stanley Chun-Wei; Gao, Yijun; Micol, Jean-Baptiste; Campbell, Patrick; Walsh, Michael P.; Sylvester, Brooke; Dolgalev, Igor; Aminova, Olga; Heguy, Adriana; Zappile, Paul; Nakitandwe, Joy; Ganzel, Chezi; Dalton, James D.; Ellison, David W.; Estrada-Veras, Juvianee; Lacouture, Mario; Gahl, William A.; Stephens, Philip J.; Miller, Vincent A.; Ross, Jeffrey S.; Ali, Siraj M.; Briggs, Samuel R.; Fasan, Omotayo; Block, Jared; Héritier, Sebastien; Donadieu, Jean; Solit, David B.; Hyman, David M.; Baselga, Jose; Janku, Filip; Taylor, Barry S.; Park, Christopher Y.; Amoura, Zahir; Dogan, Ahmet; Emile, Jean-Francois; Rosen, Neal; Gruber, Tanja A.; Abdel-Wahab, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Histiocytic neoplasms are clonal, hematopoietic disorders characterized by an accumulation of abnormal, monocyte-derived dendritic cells or macrophages in Langerhans Cell (LCH) and non-Langerhans (non-LCH) histiocytoses, respectively. The discovery of BRAFV600E mutations in ~50% of these patients provided the first molecular therapeutisc target in histiocytosis. However, recurrent driving mutations in the majority of BRAFV600E-wildtype, non-LCH patients are unknown, and recurrent cooperating mutations in non-MAP kinase pathways are undefined for the histiocytic neoplasms. Through combined whole exome and transcriptome sequencing, we identified recurrent kinase fusions involving BRAF, ALK, and NTRK1, as well as recurrent, activating MAP2K1 and ARAF mutations in BRAFV600E-wildtype, non-LCH patients. In addition to MAP kinase pathway lesions, recurrently altered genes involving diverse cellular pathways were identified. Treatment of MAP2K1- and ARAF-mutated, non-LCH patients using MEK and RAF inhibitors, respectively, resulted in clinical efficacy demonstrating the importance of detecting and targeting diverse kinase alterations in these disorders. PMID:26566875

  14. Molecular pathology of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Paini, Marina; Crippa, Stefano; Partelli, Stefano; Scopelliti, Filippo; Tamburrino, Domenico; Baldoni, Andrea; Falconi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Since the first description of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas in the eighties, their identification has dramatically increased in the last decades, hand to hand with the improvements in diagnostic imaging and sampling techniques for the study of pancreatic diseases. However, the heterogeneity of IPMNs and their malignant potential make difficult the management of these lesions. The objective of this review is to identify the molecular characteristics of IPMNs in order to recognize potential markers for the discrimination of more aggressive IPMNs requiring surgical resection from benign IPMNs that could be observed. We briefly summarize recent research findings on the genetics and epigenetics of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, identifying some genes, molecular mechanisms and cellular signaling pathways correlated to the pathogenesis of IPMNs and their progression to malignancy. The knowledge of molecular biology of IPMNs has impressively developed over the last few years. A great amount of genes functioning as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes have been identified, in pancreatic juice or in blood or in the samples from the pancreatic resections, but further researches are required to use these informations for clinical intent, in order to better define the natural history of these diseases and to improve their management. PMID:25110429

  15. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for colorectal neoplasms: a review.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Taku; Mori, Genki; Yamada, Masayoshi; Kinjo, Yuzuru; So, Eriko; Abe, Seiichiro; Otake, Yosuke; Nakajima, Takeshi; Matsuda, Takahisa; Saito, Yutaka

    2014-11-21

    The introduction of colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has expanded the application of endoscopic treatment, which can be used for lesions with a low metastatic potential regardless of their size. ESD has the advantage of achieving en bloc resection with a lower local recurrence rate compared with that of piecemeal endoscopic mucosal resection. Moreover, in the past, surgery was indicated in patients with large lesions spreading to almost the entire circumference of the rectum, regardless of the depth of invasion, as endoscopic resection of these lesions was technically difficult. Therefore, a prime benefit of ESD is significant improvement in the quality of life for patients who have large rectal lesions. On the other hand, ESD is not as widely applied in the treatment of colorectal neoplasms as it is in gastric cancers owing to the associated technical difficulty, longer procedural duration, and increased risk of perforation. To diversify the available endoscopic treatment strategies for superficial colorectal neoplasms, endoscopists performing ESD need to recognize its indications, the technical issues involved in its application, and the associated complications. This review outlines the methods and type of devices used for colorectal ESD, and the training required by endoscopists to perform this procedure.

  16. Morphological variation and airflow dynamics in the human nose.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Steven E; Shackelford, Laura L; Georgi, J Nicole; Black, Michael T

    2004-01-01

    Airflow dynamics are recognized as being important to the functioning of the human nose in conditioning and filtering inspired air, yet these dynamics are poorly understood. Despite considerable research on airflow dynamics by otolaryngologists, respiratory physiologists, and toxicologists, major disagreements remain about the nature of airflow in the human nose. Specifically, there is little consensus about the character of nasal airflow regimes (laminar or turbulent) and about the major pathways of airflow through the internal chamber. Additionally, a number of features in the human nose have been argued to enhance airflow turbulence, thus increasing the exposure of moving air to the nasal mucosa and facilitating heat and moisture exchange in cold and/or dry climates. These features include: an inferior orientation of the nares; a nasal sill that is high relative to the floor of the internal nasal chamber; a nasal valve that is small in cross-sectional area relative to that of the internal chamber; and large, projecting conchae. The claim that these features affect airflow dynamics has never been tested. To clarify the nature of human nasal airflow and to test these claims of functional significance to nasal variation, we studied airflow across physiological flow rates using water and dye flowing through anatomically accurate acrylic models of human nasal air passageways (with adjustment of water flow rates to maintain dynamic similarity). The models were derived from direct casting of the nasal passageways of 10 Caucasian ("leptorrhine") cadavers (six male, four female). Measures of naris angle, nasal sill height, nasal valve area relative to internal chamber cross-sectional area, and relative projection of the inferior and middle turbinates were taken directly on the resulting casts. The relationships between aspects of nasal morphology and turbulent air flow were evaluated by examining the flow regimes (laminar, semiturbulent, or turbulent) at varying flow

  17. CMC Nose Skirt Panels for X-38 - Successfully Qualification Tested and Fit-Checked

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabandt, Ulrich; Handrik, Karin

    2002-01-01

    The X-38 Nose assembly follows an advanced design concept by considering light-weight C/SiC structures with C/SiC attachments for the Nose Cap and metallic attachments for the Nose Skirt. The design concept of the C/SiC nose assembly contains the advantages of low expansion and stable contour at high temperatures which enabled 3 different companies with different C/SiC materials to combine 4 different C/SiC components to a complete hot structural element. The Nose Cap, fabricated by DLR, can be seen as a separate part of the Nose Assembly due to the special fastening concepts, whereas the Nose Skirt follows a similar design concept for the panels and the metallic fastening concept is identical. The Nose Skirt is divided into the two large side panels, manufactured by Astrium and the small lower part of the skirt, the Chin Panel has been delivered by MAN-Technologie (see figure below). The design of the 3 Skirt panels comprises a light-weight, stringer stiffened concept which compensates the thermal expansion by a system of flexible metallic stand-offs. An optimum in flexibility and stiffness to fulfil all requirements had to be found: strong and stiff enough to carry the thermo-mechanical loads, but flexible enough to realise a fastening concept which does not fail due to thermal expansion. The thermal and vibration qualification tests have been successfully performed with a complete nose assembly full scale qualification model on a nose tip cold structure. These tests provided data with respect to the thermal deflection of the Nose Skirt Panels and the temperature gradients into the cold structure. On a sub-scale model the influences of the steps and gaps between the different panels and to the nose cap were investigated and were found non-critical for the re-entry environmental conditions. The paper gives an overview of the design concept of the newly developed TPS, presents the results of thermal, structural and plasma testing and gives an outlook for further

  18. Bat white-nose syndrome in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blehert, David S.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Ballmann, Anne E.; Cryan, Paul M.; Meteyer, Carol U.

    2011-01-01

    * The newly described fungus, Geomyces destructans, causes an invasive skin infection in bats and is the likely agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS). * With immune system functions and body temperatures reduced during hibernation, bats may be unusually susceptible to a pathogenic fungus such as G. destructans. * WNS was first observed in a popular show cave near Albany, New York, leading some investigators to suspect that a visitor inadvertently introduced G. destructans at this site, triggering a wider WNS outbreak in North America. * Biologists trying to manage WNS within North American bat populations face major challenges, including the variety of susceptible host species, incredible dispersal capabilities of bats, difficulties in treating such populations, and persistence of the pathogen in their vulnerable underground habitats.

  19. Be careful... She has a pituitary gland in her nose.

    PubMed

    Rabelink, N M; Lips, P; Castelijns, J A

    2012-12-01

    In this case report we describe a 38 year-old-female with galactorrhea several months after the birth of an anencephalic child. She had hyperpolactemia and imaging of the pituitary gland revealed a midline defect and a nasopharyngeal mass compatible with a meningo-(hypophyso-) encephalocele and possibly an ectopic teratoma or desmoid. She was treated with dopamine agonists for 10 years and after cessation of therapy her prolactin levels remain normal. The nasopharyngeal mass remained unchanged over time and there were no signs of hypopituitarism. The hyperprolactinemia at presentation was probably caused by earlier pregnancy and stalk dysfunction due to traction by the mass. With decline of pituitary size, after starting dopamine agonists, the traction probably reduced resulting in a normal prolactin level. Our patient was warned against manipulation in de nose, because this could damage the meningo-encephalocele. An MRI will be preformed every 2 years to monitor changes in de mass.

  20. Electronic Nose To Detect Patients with COPD From Exhaled Breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velásquez, Adriana; Durán, Cristhian M.; Gualdron, Oscar; Rodríguez, Juan C.; Manjarres, Leonardo

    2009-05-01

    To date, there is no effective tool analysis and detection of COPD syndrome, (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) which is linked to smoking and, less frequently to toxic substances such as, the wood smoke or other particles produced by noxious gases. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of this disease show it affects more than 52 million people and kills more than 2.7 million human beings each year. In order to solve the problem, a low-cost Electronic Nose (EN) was developed at the University of Pamplona (N. S) Colombia, for this specific purpose and was applied to a sample group of patients with COPD as well as to others who were healthy. From the exhalation breath samples of these patients, the results were as expected; an appropriate classification of the patients with the disease, as well as from the healthy group was obtained.

  1. Sexual dimorphism in the snub-nosed langurs (Colobinae: Rhinopithecus).

    PubMed

    Jablonski, N G; Ruliang, P

    1995-03-01

    Sexual dimorphism in the dentition and skeleton of the four extant species of snub-nosed langurs, Rhinopithecus (R.) bieti, R. (R.) brelichi, R. (R.) roxellana and R. (Presbytiscus) avunculus, was studied. The species shared a similar general pattern of sexual dimorphism, but were found to differ in respects that appear to reflect the influence of disparate socioecological and environmental factors. All the species showed marked canine dimorphism but the very high degree of canine dimorphism in R. bieti appeared to be due to the intensity of intermale competition for mates during a temporally restricted breeding season, and possibly also to the intensity of competition between males for other resources during other times of the year. Sexual dimorphism in the postcranial skeleton of Rhinopithecus species was also most pronounced in R. bieti and may be related to the relatively higher frequency of terrestrial locomotion in males of the species.

  2. Supersonic flow past pointed-nose thin airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemdan, Hamdi T.; Selim, Abdulfatah A.

    1992-05-01

    Accurate results for steady inviscid supersonic flow past any pointed-nose thin airfoil at small angle of attack are obtained in this paper. Straightforward perturbation from some basic wedge flow is applied to a recently developed hypersonic theory with second-order terms in the longitudinal curvature included. The hypersonic equations are thus reduced to two systems of simple linear ordinary differential equations for which polynomial solutions of the first and second degree are obtained. Further, the hypersonic theory is extended to include second-order effects on the basic wedge flow. This resulted in great increase in the accuracy of the results for curved airfoils besides, the range of validity of the theory extended to cover moderate supersonic speeds with quite reasonable accuracy.

  3. Electronic Nose For Measuring Wine Evolution In Wine Cellars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, J.; Santos, J. P.; Horrillo, M. C.; Cabellos, J. M.; Arroyo, T.

    2009-05-01

    An electronic nose installed in a wine cellar for measuring the wine evolution is presented in this paper. The system extract the aroma directly from the tanks where wine is stored and carry the volatile compounds to the sensors cell. A tin oxide multisensor, prepared with RF sputtering onto an alumina substrate and doped with chromium and indium, is used. The whole system is fully automated and controlled by computer and can be supervised by internet. Linear techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear ones like probabilistic neural networks (PNN) are used for pattern recognition. Results show that system can detect the evolution of two different wines along 9 months stored in tanks. This system could be trained to detect off-odours of wine and warn the wine expert to correct it as soon as possible, improving the final quality of wine.

  4. Industrial Applications of Electronic Nose Technology in the Textiles Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Tim; Chandler, Rob; Hallam, Viv; Simpson, Claire; Bentham, Martin

    2009-05-01

    Electronic nose technology has been available commercially for over 12 years but uptake in actual industrial applications has yet to be fully realised. We report 2 specific test protocols being used in the textiles industry that allow the direct measurement of anti-odour and anti-microbial capabilities of fabrics. Results will be shown for the standard anti-odour test which was specifically commissioned by Courtaulds PLC and which is being used by a number of manufacturers. The second test, which measures the anti-microbial and the anti-odour capabilities of fabrics simultaneously was developed in 2008. Results will be shown that clearly indicate both parameters are detected and proofs of anti-microbial capabilities will be given. These 2 tests will for the first time, enable the fulfillment of legislation that states for textile product claims, anti-odour and anti-microbial capabilities of fabrics must be scientifically substantiated.

  5. Electronic Nose For Measuring Wine Evolution In Wine Cellars

    SciTech Connect

    Lozano, J.

    2009-05-23

    An electronic nose installed in a wine cellar for measuring the wine evolution is presented in this paper. The system extract the aroma directly from the tanks where wine is stored and carry the volatile compounds to the sensors cell. A tin oxide multisensor, prepared with RF sputtering onto an alumina substrate and doped with chromium and indium, is used. The whole system is fully automated and controlled by computer and can be supervised by internet. Linear techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear ones like probabilistic neural networks (PNN) are used for pattern recognition. Results show that system can detect the evolution of two different wines along 9 months stored in tanks. This system could be trained to detect off-odours of wine and warn the wine expert to correct it as soon as possible, improving the final quality of wine.

  6. An Artificial Nose Based on Microcantilever Array Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, H. P.; Ramseyer, J. P.; Grange, W.; Braun, T.; Schmid, D.; Hunziker, P.; Jung, C.; Hegner, M.; Gerber, C.

    2007-03-01

    We used microfabricated cantilever array sensors for an artificial nose setup. Each cantilever is coated on its top surface with a polymer layer. Volatile gaseous analytes are detected by tracking the diffusion process of the molecules into the polymer layers, resulting in swelling of the polymer layers and therewith bending of the cantilevers. From the bending pattern of all cantilevers in the array, a characteristic 'fingerprint' of the analyte is obtained, which is evaluated using principal component analysis. In a flow of dry nitrogen gas, the bending of the cantilevers is reverted to its initial state before exposure to the analyte, which allows reversible and reproducible operation of the sensor. We show examples of detection of solvents, perfume essences and beverage flavors. In a medical application, the setup provides indication of presence of diseases in patient's breath samples.

  7. Results from the Space Shuttle STS-95 Electronic Nose Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, M. A.; Buehler, M. G.; Homer, M. L.; Mannatt, K. S.; Lau, B.; Jackson, S.; Zhou, H.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature electronic nose in which the sensing media are insulating polymers loaded with carbon black as a conductive medium has been designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The ENose has a volume of 1700 cc, weighs 1.4 kg including the operating computer, and uses 1.5 W average power (3 W peak power). This ENose was used in a demonstration experiment aboard STS-95 (October, 1998), in which the ENose was operated continuously for six days and recorded the sensors' response to the air in the middeck. The ENose was designed to detect ten common contaminants in space shuttle crew quarters air. The experiment was controlled by collecting air samples daily and analyzing them using standard analytical techniques after the flight. Changes in humidity were detected and quantified, neither the ENose nor the air samples detected any of the contaminants on the target list. The device is microgravity insensitive.

  8. Sensing a Changing Chemical Mixture Using an Electronic Nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan; Ryan, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    A method of using an electronic nose to detect an airborne mixture of known chemical compounds and measure the temporally varying concentrations of the individual compounds is undergoing development. In a typical intended application, the method would be used to monitor the air in an inhabited space (e.g., the interior of a building) for the release of solvents, toxic fumes, and other compounds that are regarded as contaminants. At the present state of development, the method affords a capability for identifying and quantitating one or two compounds that are members of a set of some number (typically of the order of a dozen) known compounds. In principle, the method could be extended to enable monitoring of more than two compounds. An electronic nose consists of an array of sensors, typically made from polymer carbon composites, the electrical resistances of which change upon exposure to a variety of chemicals. By design, each sensor is unique in its responses to these chemicals: some or all of the sensitivities of a given sensor to the various vapors differ from the corresponding sensitivities of other sensors. In general, the responses of the sensors are nonlinear functions of the concentrations of the chemicals. Hence, mathematically, the monitoring problem is to solve the set of time-dependent nonlinear equations for the sensor responses to obtain the time dependent concentrations of individual compounds. In the present developmental method, successive approximations of the solution are generated by a learning algorithm based on independent-component analysis (ICA) an established information theoretic approach for transforming a vector of observed interdependent signals into a set of signals that are as nearly statistically independent as possible.

  9. Histopathologic criteria to confirm white-nose syndrome in bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meteyer, C.U.; Buckles, E.L.; Blehert, D.S.; Hicks, A.C.; Green, D.E.; Shearn-Bochsler, V.; Thomas, N.J.; Gargas, A.; Behr, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a cutaneous fungal disease of hibernating bats associated with a novel Geomyces sp. fungus. Currently, confirmation of WNS requires histopathologic examination. Invasion of living tissue distinguishes this fungal infection from those caused by conventional transmissible dermatophytes. Although fungal hyphae penetrate the connective tissue of glabrous skin and muzzle, there is typically no cellular inflammatory response in hibernating bats. Preferred tissue samples to diagnose this fungal infection are rostral muzzle with nose and wing membrane fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin. To optimize detection, the muzzle is trimmed longitudinally, the wing membrane is rolled, and multiple cross-sections are embedded to increase the surface area examined. Periodic acid-Schiff stain is essential to discriminate the nonpigmented fungal hyphae and conidia. Fungal hyphae form cup-like epidermal erosions and ulcers in the wing membrane and pinna with involvement of underlying connective tissue. In addition, fungal hyphae are present in hair follicles and in sebaceous and apocrine glands of the muzzle with invasion of tissue surrounding adnexa. Fungal hyphae in tissues are branching and septate, but the diameter and shape of the hyphae may vary from parallel walls measuring 2 ??m in diameter to irregular walls measuring 3-5 ??m in diameter. When present on short aerial hyphae, curved conidia are approximately 2.5 ??m wide and 7.5 ??m in curved length. Conidia have a more deeply basophilic center, and one or both ends are usually blunt. Although WNS is a disease of hibernating bats, severe wing damage due to fungal hyphae may be seen in bats that have recently emerged from hibernation. These recently emerged bats also have a robust suppurative inflammatory response.

  10. Role of Advanced Laryngeal Imaging in Glottic Cancer: Early Detection and Evaluation of Glottic Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tibbetts, Kathleen M; Tan, Melin

    2015-08-01

    Laryngeal cancer accounts for approximately 2.4% of new malignancies worldwide each year. Early identification of laryngeal neoplasms results in improved prognosis and functional outcomes. Imaging plays an integral role in the diagnosis, staging, and long-term follow-up of laryngeal cancer. This article highlights advanced laryngeal imaging techniques and their application to early glottic neoplasms.

  11. Helicobacter pylori-related chronic gastritis as a risk factor for colonic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Izumi; Kato, Jun; Tamai, Hideyuki; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Maekita, Takao; Yoshimura, Noriko; Ichinose, Masao

    2014-02-14

    To summarize the current views and insights on associations between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-related chronic gastritis and colorectal neoplasm, we reviewed recent studies to clarify whether H. pylori infection/H. pylori-related chronic gastritis is associated with an elevated risk of colorectal neoplasm. Recent studies based on large databases with careful control for confounding variables have clearly demonstrated an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm associated with H. pylori infection. The correlation between H. pylori-related chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and colorectal neoplasm has only been examined in a limited number of studies. A recent large study using a national histopathological database, and our study based on the stage of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis as determined by serum levels of H. pylori antibody titer and pepsinogen, indicated that H. pylori-related CAG confers an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm, and more extensive atrophic gastritis will probably be associated with even higher risk of neoplasm. In addition, our study suggested that the activity of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis is correlated with colorectal neoplasm risk. H. pylori-related chronic gastritis could be involved in an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm that appears to be enhanced by the progression of gastric atrophy and the presence of active inflammation.

  12. Cystic and Papillary Neoplasm at the Hepatic Hilum Possibly Originating in the Peribiliary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Takashi; Uesaka, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Cystic neoplasms of the liver are divided into two types: mucinous cystic neoplasm and cystic intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct. We herein report two cases of cystic and papillary neoplasm of the liver which differed from the abovementioned types. Case  1. A 70-year-old man. Radiologically, a cystic tumor measuring 20 mm in diameter was found at the hepatic hilum. Right hepatectomy was performed under a diagnosis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) based on the imaging findings. Case  2. A 70-year-old man. Radiologically, a cystic tumor measuring 60 mm in diameter was found at the hepatic hilum. Under a diagnosis of iCCA, left hepatic trisectionectomy was performed. In both cases, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography did not demonstrate communication between the cystic tumor and adjacent bile ducts. Pathologically, these two tumors were cystic neoplasms located at the hepatic hilum and were morphologically characterized by an intracystic papillary neoplasm composed of diffuse high-grade dysplasia and associated with an invasive carcinoma. Ovarian-like stroma was not found in the capsule of these tumors. Interestingly, there were peribiliary glands near these tumors, and MUC6 was expressed in these papillary neoplasms as well as in the peribiliary glands. These neoplasms might have arisen from the peribiliary glands. PMID:27656307

  13. Depicting the inner and outer nose: the representation of the nose and the nasal mucosa on the human primary somatosensory cortex (SI).

    PubMed

    Gastl, Mareike; Brünner, Yvonne F; Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica

    2014-09-01

    The nose is important not only for breathing, filtering air, and perceiving olfactory stimuli. Although the face and hands have been mapped, the representation of the internal and external surface of the nose on the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) is still poorly understood. To fill this gap functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to localize the nose and the nasal mucosa in the Brodman areas (BAs) 3b, 1, and 2 of the human postcentral gyrus (PG). Tactile stimulation during fMRI was applied via a customized pneumatically driven device to six stimulation sites: the alar wing of the nose, the lateral nasal mucosa, and the hand (serving as a reference area) on the left and right side of the body. Individual representations could be discriminated for the left and right hand, for the left nasal mucosa and left alar wing of the nose in BA 3b and BA 1 by comparing mean activation maxima and Euclidean distances. Right-sided nasal conditions and conditions in BA 2 could further be separated by different Euclidean distances. Regarding the alar wing of the nose, the results concurred with the classic sensory homunculus proposed by Penfield and colleagues. The nasal mucosa was not only determined an individual and bilateral representation, its position on the somatosensory cortex is also situated closer to the caudal end of the PG compared to that of the alar wing of the nose and the hand. As SI is commonly activated during the perception of odors, these findings underscore the importance of the knowledge of the representation of the nasal mucosa on the primary somatosensory cortex, especially for interpretation of results of functional imaging studies about the sense of smell.

  14. Application of electronic nose for industrial odors and gaseous emissions measurement and monitoring--An overview.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Sharvari; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Pandey, R A; Jana, Arun

    2015-11-01

    The present review evaluates the key modules of the electronic nose, a biomimetic system, with specific examples of applications to industrial emissions monitoring and measurement. Regulations concerning the odor control are becoming very strict, due to ever mounting environmental pollution and its subsequent consequences and it is advantageous to employ real time measurement system. In this perspective, systems like the electronic nose are an improved substitute for assessing the complex industrial emissions over other analytical techniques (odorant concentration measurement) and olfactometry (odor concentration measurement). Compared to tools like gas chromatography, electronic nose systems are easy to develop, are non-destructive and useful for both laboratory and on field purposes. Although there has been immense development of more sensitive and selective sensor arrays and advanced data mining techniques, there have been limited reports on the application of electronic nose for the measurement of industrial emissions. The current study sheds light on the practical applicability of electronic nose for the effective industrial odor and gaseous emissions measurement. The applications categorization is based on gaseous pollutants released from the industries. Calibration and calibration transfer methodologies have been discussed to enhance the applicability of electronic nose system. Further, industrial gas grab sampling technique is reviewed. Lastly, the electronic mucosa system, which has the ability to overcome the flaws of electronic nose system, has been examined. The review ends with the concluding remarks describing the pros and cons of artificial olfaction technique for the industrial applications.

  15. Feasibility of electronic nose technology for discriminating between head and neck, bladder, and colon carcinomas.

    PubMed

    van de Goor, R M G E; Leunis, N; van Hooren, M R A; Francisca, E; Masclee, A; Kremer, B; Kross, K W

    2017-02-01

    Electronic nose (e-nose) technology has the potential to detect cancer at an early stage and can differentiate between cancer origins. Our objective was to compare patients who had head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with patients who had colon or bladder cancer to determine the distinctive diagnostic characteristics of the e-nose. Feasibility study An e-nose device was used to collect samples of exhaled breath from patients who had HNSCC and those who had bladder or colon cancer, after which the samples were analyzed and compared. One hundred patients with HNSCC, 40 patients with bladder cancer, and 28 patients with colon cancer exhaled through an e-nose for 5 min. An artificial neural network was used for the analysis, and double cross-validation to validate the model. In differentiating HNSCC from colon cancer, a diagnostic accuracy of 81 % was found. When comparing HNSCC with bladder cancer, the diagnostic accuracy was 84 %. A diagnostic accuracy of 84 % was found between bladder cancer and colon cancer. The e-nose technique using double cross-validation is able to discriminate between HNSCC and colon cancer and between HNSCC and bladder cancer. Furthermore, the e-nose technique can distinguish colon cancer from bladder cancer.

  16. Electronic Noses and Tongues: Applications for the Food and Pharmaceutical Industries

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Elizabeth A.; Bai, Jinhe; Plotto, Anne; Dea, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The electronic nose (e-nose) is designed to crudely mimic the mammalian nose in that most contain sensors that non-selectively interact with odor molecules to produce some sort of signal that is then sent to a computer that uses multivariate statistics to determine patterns in the data. This pattern recognition is used to determine that one sample is similar or different from another based on headspace volatiles. There are different types of e-nose sensors including organic polymers, metal oxides, quartz crystal microbalance and even gas-chromatography (GC) or combined with mass spectroscopy (MS) can be used in a non-selective manner using chemical mass or patterns from a short GC column as an e-nose or “Z” nose. The electronic tongue reacts similarly to non-volatile compounds in a liquid. This review will concentrate on applications of e-nose and e-tongue technology for edible products and pharmaceutical uses. PMID:22163873

  17. Asian Rhinoplasty: Correction of the Short Nose with a Septal Integration Graft

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Han, Kihwan

    2015-01-01

    Correction of the short nose is the most challenging part in a rhinoplasty. It is even more difficult in Asians compared with Caucasians due to the thicker skin soft tissue envelope and weaker cartilaginous frameworks. Additionally, most of the Asian patients need augmentation of the nasal dorsum, and projection of the nasal tip at the same time of short nose surgery, which makes short nose correction more complex. Septal extension grafts can effectively and concomitantly correct a short nose. However, the amount of the septal cartilage is not sufficient as a source for the graft often; therefore, the authors devised a septal integration graft in which a septal cartilage graft was fixed to the caudal septum (columellar L-strut) in an end-to-end position to save an amount of the septal cartilage for correction of the short nose. A septal integration graft application resulted in lengthening of the short nose. In addition, the retracted columella and the acute columellar labial angle were improved aesthetically. Therefore, the authors suggest a septal integration graft, a modification of the septal extension graft, for correction of the short nose in an Asian rhinoplasty. PMID:26648807

  18. Progress in oncolytic virotherapy for the treatment of thyroid malignant neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Guan, Mingxu; Romano, Gaetano; Coroniti, Roberta; Henderson, Earl E

    2014-11-01

    Thyroid malignant neoplasm develops from follicular or parafollicular thyroid cells. A higher proportion of anaplastic thyroid cancer has an adverse prognosis. New drugs are being used in clinical treatment. However, for advanced thyroid malignant neoplasm such as anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, the major impediment to successful control of the disease is the absence of effective therapies. Oncolytic virotherapy has significantly progressed as therapeutics in recent years. The advance is that oncolytic viruses can be designed with biological specificity to infect, replicate and lyse tumor cells. Significant advances in virotherapy have being achieved to improve the accessibility, safety and efficacy of the treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to summarize and bring together the main areas covered by these investigations for the virotherapy of thyroid malignant neoplasm. We provide an overview of the progress in virotherapy research and clinical trials, which employ virotherapy for thyroid malignant neoplasm as well as the future prospect for virotherapy of thyroid malignant neoplasms.

  19. Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With HIV and Relapsed, Refractory, or Disseminated Malignant Neoplasms

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-22

    AIDS-Related Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; HIV Infection; Locally Advanced Malignant Neoplasm; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm; Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Kaposi Sarcoma; Recurrent Malignant Neoplasm; Recurrent Melanoma of the Skin; Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Malignant Neoplasm; Solid Neoplasm; Stage IIIA Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma; Stage IVA Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  20. Use of electronic noses for detection of odour from animal production facilities: a review.

    PubMed

    Nimmermark, S

    2001-01-01

    In the field of controlling livestock and poultry odours in the internal and external environment and in derived food products, one main obstacle is how to measure the odour in a suitable way. Olfactometry and a human panel have been used in most studies of farm odour until now. Alternatives like electronic noses are interesting considering disadvantages for olfactometry regarding cost and labour requirement. An electronic device can produce an almost instant response which is useful in many applications. Studies have shown detection of farm odour for some electronic noses and also response to odour concentrations. Other studies have shown very high odour threshold values compared to human noses. Electronic noses with a large number of sensors have been developed since a base was formed in the 1950s. The fast progress in data processing and sensor development in the latest years have made the electronic noses interesting for a large number of industrial applications in the food processing industry, as well as in other areas. Materials like manure produce a complex mixture of odorous compounds and the interaction between these creates a unique odour where no specific dominating and characterising compound seems to exist. Related to swine farms almost 200 different odorous compounds have been reported. The electronic noses can, depending on the sensitivity of its sensors, detect some compounds at lower levels than the human nose, while other compounds offensive to a human nose cannot be detected. Proper function of the electronic noses with sensitivity for the odorous gases in the application must be followed by satisfying properties regarding ageing, temperature stability, humidity and other environmental factors.

  1. Subsequent neoplasms of the CNS among survivors of childhood cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Daniel C; Nathan, Paul C; Constine, Louis; Woodman, Catherine; Bhatia, Smita; Keller, Karen; Bashore, Lisa

    2013-07-01

    Childhood cancer survivors are at risk for development of subsequent neoplasms of the CNS. Better understanding of the rates, risk factors, and outcomes of subsequent neoplasms of the CNS among survivors of childhood cancer could lead to more informed screening guidelines. Two investigators independently did a systematic search of Medline and Embase (from January, 1966, through March, 2012) for studies examining subsequent neoplasms of the CNS among survivors of childhood cancer. Articles were selected to answer three questions: what is the risk of CNS tumours after radiation to the cranium for a paediatric cancer, compared with the risk in the general population; what are the outcomes in children with subsequent neoplasms of the CNS who received CNS-directed radiation for a paediatric cancer; and, are outcomes of subsequent neoplasms different from primary neoplasms of the same histology? Our search identified 72 reports, of which 18 were included in this Review. These studies reported that childhood cancer survivors have an 8·1-52·3-times higher incidence of subsequent CNS neoplasms compared with the general population. Nearly all cancer survivors who developed a CNS neoplasm had been exposed to cranial radiation, and some studies showed a correlation between radiation dose and risk of subsequent CNS tumours. 5-year survival ranged from 0-19·5% for subsequent high-grade gliomas and 57·3-100% for meningiomas, which are similar rates to those observed in patients with primary gliomas or meningiomas. The quality of evidence was limited by variation in study design, heterogeneity of details regarding treatment and outcomes, limited follow-up, and small sample sizes. We conclude that survivors of childhood cancer who received cranial radiation therapy have an increased risk for subsequent CNS neoplasms. The current literature is insufficient to comment about the potential harms and benefits of routine screening for subsequent CNS neoplasms.

  2. Hematologic neoplasms: interpreting lung findings in chest computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Calvillo Batllés, P; Carreres Polo, J; Sanz Caballer, J; Salavert Lletí, M; Compte Torrero, L

    2015-01-01

    Lung disease is very common in patients with hematologic neoplasms and varies in function of the underlying disease and its treatment. Lung involvement is associated with high morbidity and mortality, so it requires early appropriate treatment. Chest computed tomography (CT) and the analysis of biologic specimens are the first line diagnostic tools in these patients, and sometimes invasive methods are necessary. Interpreting the images requires an analysis of the clinical context, which is often complex. Starting from the knowledge about the differential diagnosis of lung findings that radiologists acquire during training, this article aims to explain the key clinical and radiological aspects that make it possible to orient the diagnosis correctly and to understand the current role of CT in the treatment strategy for this group of patients.

  3. Gastroenteropancreatic (neuro)endocrine neoplasms: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Rindi, Guido; Bordi, C; La Rosa, S; Solcia, E; Delle Fave, Gianfranco

    2011-03-01

    Based on the year 2000 World Health Organization (WHO) classification and the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) grading and staging proposals, we here define the minimal guidelines for pathology reporting of (neuro)endocrine neoplasms. The macroscopical description is recommended according to standard procedures and the microscopical description according to recognized architectural and cytological features for endocrine lesions. Minimal diagnostic immunohistochemistry entails the use of chromogranin A, synaptophysin and Ki67. Other potentially useful tests are those for CD56 N-CAM, PGP 9.5 and hormones for diagnosis, the somatostatin receptor subtype 2 for potential radiodiagnostics and therapy, and transcription factors like TTF1 and CDX2, for site of origin. Grading definition is always mandatory as well as TNM staging for surgical specimens.

  4. Molecular insights into regulation of JAK2 in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Stevan R.

    2015-01-01

    The critical role of Janus kinase-2 (JAK2) in regulation of myelopoiesis was established 2 decades ago, but identification of mutations in the pseudokinase domain of JAK2 in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and in other hematologic malignancies highlighted the role of JAK2 in human disease. These findings have revolutionized the diagnostics of MPNs and led to development of novel JAK2 therapeutics. However, the molecular mechanisms by which mutations in the pseudokinase domain lead to hyperactivation of JAK2 and clinical disease have been unclear. Here, we describe recent advances in the molecular characterization of the JAK2 pseudokinase domain and how pathogenic mutations lead to constitutive activation of JAK2. PMID:25824690

  5. Clinical management of myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm overlap syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Clara, Joseph A.; Sallman, David A.; Padron, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPNs) are a unique group of hematologic malignancies characterized by concomitant myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative features. According to the 2008 WHO classification, the category includes atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), MDS/MPN-unclassifiable (MDS/MPN-U), and the provisional entity refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts and thrombocytosis (RARS-T). Although diagnosis currently remains based on clinicopathologic features, the incorporation of next-generation platforms has allowed for the recent molecular characterization of these diseases which has revealed unique and complex mutational profiles that support their distinct biology and is anticipated to soon play an integral role in diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment. Future goals of research should include the development of disease-modifying therapies, and further genetic understanding of the category will likely form the foundation of these efforts. PMID:27807503

  6. Management of metastatic spinal column neoplasms--an update.

    PubMed

    Araujo, João Luiz Vitorino; Veiga, José Carlos Esteves; Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha; Barboza, Victor Rosseto; Daniel, Jefferson Walter; Panagopoulos, Alexandros Theodoros

    2013-01-01

    The increased survival of cancer patients due to the improvement and advancement of therapeutic modalities has promoted progressive increase in the prevalence of metastatic tumors of the spine, making it important for healthcare professionals to acquire knowledge in the field. Spinal column metastases are usually secondary to malignant neoplasm of the breast, lung and prostate, male gender being the most often affected and pain being the initial symptom in 90% of patients. It is estimated that 30-90% of terminally ill patients with cancer have metastases at some spinal column segment. Clinical history, physical and neurological assessments are critical to determine the degree and extent of the lesion, and therefore choose the appropriate imaging method to be requested. This study aims to perform a review and didactic description of the main aspects related to the physiopathology, diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

  7. JAK2 GGCC haplotype in MPL mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Pietra, Daniela; Casetti, Ilaria; Da Vià, Matteo C; Elena, Chiara; Milanesi, Chiara; Rumi, Elisa

    2012-07-01

    JAK2 (V617F) is associated with a genetic predisposition to its acquisition,as it is preferentially found in subjects with a common constitutional JAK2 haplotype known as 46/1 or GGCC. A recent study suggests that a genetic predisposition to acquisition of MPL mutation may exist in sporadic patients, since an association was found with the JAK2 46/1 haplotype. We genotyped 509 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), 7% of which carrying a somatic mutation of MPL Exon 10. We found that the JAK2 GGCC haplotype was closely associated with JAK2 (V617F) (OR 1.84, P < 0.001) but not with MPL mutations (OR 0.98), suggesting a different genetic background for these molecular lesions.

  8. Localization of gonadotropin binding sites in human ovarian neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, R.; Kitayama, S.; Yamoto, M.; Shima, K.; Ooshima, A. )

    1989-10-01

    The binding of human luteinizing hormone and human follicle-stimulating hormone to ovarian tumor biopsy specimens from 29 patients was analyzed. The binding sites for human luteinizing hormone were demonstrated in one tumor of epithelial origin (mucinous cystadenoma) and in one of sex cord-stromal origin (theca cell tumor). The binding sites for human follicle-stimulating hormone were found in three tumors of epithelial origin (serous cystadenoma and mucinous cystadenoma) and in two of sex cord-stromal origin (theca cell tumor and theca-granulosa cell tumor). The surface-binding autoradiographic study revealed that the binding sites for gonadotropins were localized in the stromal tissue. The results suggest that gonadotropic hormones may play a role in the growth and differentiation of a certain type of human ovarian neoplasms.

  9. Dermoscopy of benign and malignant neoplasms in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Haliasos, Helen C; Zalaudek, Iris; Malvehy, Josep; Lanschuetzer, Christoph; Hinter, Helmut; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer; Braun, Ralph; Marghoob, Ashfaq A

    2010-12-01

    Dermoscopy is a noninvasive technique that enables visualization of subsurface colors and structures within the skin that are imperceptible to the naked eye. The dermatoscope allows the physician to examine both the macroscopic and microscopic primary morphology of skin lesions, identify subtle clinical clues, confirm naked-eye clinical diagnoses, and monitor treatment progress while posing little threat to the young patient. Dermoscopic findings have been formulated into diagnostic criteria that assist experienced clinicians in differentiating benign and malignant neoplasms. In this review, clinical morphology of melanocytic nevi and melanoma in the pediatric population is examined and the relevant dermoscopic findings and histopathologic correlates that aid in the diagnosis and management of these lesions are described.

  10. Application of FT IR microspectroscopy in diagnosing thyroid neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Christian P.; Liu, Kan-Zhi; Salamon, Elizabeth A.; Riese, Karl T.; Mantsch, Henry H.

    1999-05-01

    Tissue biopsies and fine-needle aspirates (FNA) of patients with suspected benign or malignant thyroid neoplasms were investigated by infrared microspectroscopy and multivariate statistical methods. Unsupervised cluster analysis revealed four different spectral patterns for the aspirates analyzed, corresponding to colloid goiter, adenoma, carcinomas and negative diagnoses. Infrared microspectroscopic measurements of neoplastic cells on infrared transparent slides provide a potentially new tool for diagnostic screening of these FNA. Biopsy material obtained during surgical removal of gland tissue, was successfully used to generate statistically significant criteria for the distinction of neoplastic from normal tissue. Bivariate histogram plots demonstrate that two selected parameters, DNA and protein, are sufficient to separate control tissue from adenoma and carcinomas

  11. Brain Neoplasm and the Potential Impact on Self-Identity.

    PubMed

    Anderson-Shaw, Lisa; Baslet, Gaston; Villano, J Lee

    2010-01-01

    Cancers of the brain can cause alterations in a person's neurocognitive abilities, and in some patients can even challenge their concept of self and self-identity. Cancer treatment may offer some hope for longer survival, but residual neurocognitive alterations generally remain. Individualized care for these patients should include information related to anticipated effects of their disease or treatments affecting their perception or expression of self. At present, the concepts of self and self-identity are largely unexplored in neuro-oncology, but we will discuss this clinical population in order to highlight the need for further clinical evaluation of these phenomena among patients with brain neoplasm. Finally, we will briefly note the need for a clinical tool to assess self and self-identity changes in brain tumor patients.

  12. Gastric neuroendocrine neoplasm with liver metastases: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    A 39-year-old women was admitted to our department with gastric mass and multiple liver space-occupying lesions found during health check-up. A gastroscopy showed an irregular ridge-like lesion at the lesser curvature of the stomach body (about 40 cm away from the incisor tooth); the pathological and immunohistochemical findings demonstrated the presence of a neuroendocrine tumor of well-differentiated (G1). An abdominal MRI indicated the possibility of multiple liver metastases and multiple perigastric lymph node metastases. After eight cycles of sandostatin treatment, a proximal subtotal gastrectomy + right hepatectomy + left partial hepatectomy + cholecystectomy were performed, and the diagnosis of gastric neuroendocrine neoplasm (gNEN) with liver metastases was confirmed. The patient recovered smoothly after operation and received sandostatin treatment just as pre-operation. We report a case of a gNEN with metastases by multimodality therapy with a view of the literature. PMID:28138622

  13. The drag of magnetically suspended wind-tunnel models with nose-cones of various shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubois, G.

    1983-01-01

    This article concerns the experimental determination of optimum nose-cones (minimum drag) of a body of revolution at supersonic and hypersonic speeds by means of ONERA magnetic suspension. The study concerns two groups of models, specifically: a group whose nose-cone has a profile in the shape of X(n); the AGARD B group whose nose-cone is plotted in accordance with a given law. The results obtained for the first group are comparable to those calculated with the approximations of Cole and Newton and the experiments carried out by Kubota.

  14. A Portable Electronic Nose For Toxic Vapor Detection, Identification, and Quantification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linnell, B. R.; Young, R. C.; Griffin, T. P.; Meneghelli, B. J.; Peterson, B. V.; Brooks, K. B.

    2005-01-01

    A new prototype instrument based on electronic nose (e-nose) technology has demonstrated the ability to identify and quantify many vapors of interest to the Space Program at their minimum required concentrations for both single vapors and two-component vapor mixtures, and may easily be adapted to detect many other toxic vapors. To do this, it was necessary to develop algorithms to classify unknown vapors, recognize when a vapor is not any of the vapors of interest, and estimate the concentrations of the contaminants. This paper describes the design of the portable e-nose instrument, test equipment setup, test protocols, pattern recognition algorithms, concentration estimation methods, and laboratory test results.

  15. White-nose syndrome in North American bats - U.S. Geological Survey updates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moede Rogall, Gail; Lankau, Emily W.

    2016-12-27

    White-nose syndrome is a devastating wildlife disease that has killed millions of hibernating bats. This disease first appeared in New York during 2007 and has continued to spread at an alarming rate from the northeastern to the central United States and throughout eastern Canada. The disease is named for the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which often appears white when it infects the skin of the nose, ears, and wings of hibernating bats. This fact sheet provides updates on white-nose syndrome research and management efforts and highlights US Geological Survey scientists’ contributions to understanding and combating this disease.

  16. Electronic Nose Aided Verification of an Odour Dispersion Model for Composting Plants' Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artoni, Riccardo; Palmeri, Luca; Pittarello, Alberto; Benzo, Maurizio

    2009-05-01

    The dispersion of odour from a composting plant was calculated with the CALPUFF modeling system, where site specific meteorology and geophysical informations were taken into account. The odour emissions, both from forced and free-convection sources, were measured by means of dynamic olfactometry and implemented in the model. The results obtained from the model were verified with a MOS sensor based Electronic Nose equipped with a preconcentrator, placed in two target sites 50 m and 250 m far from the plant. Odour episodes, detected by electronic nose, were compared with model's forecast; a procedure for tuning the model parameters is needed, in order to reproduce Electronic Nose measurements.

  17. Differentiation of red wines using an electronic nose based on surface acoustic wave devices.

    PubMed

    García, M; Fernández, M J; Fontecha, J L; Lozano, J; Santos, J P; Aleixandre, M; Sayago, I; Gutiérrez, J; Horrillo, M C

    2006-02-15

    An electronic nose, utilizing the principle of surface acoustic waves (SAW), was used to differentiate among different wines of the same variety of grapes which come from the same cellar. The electronic nose is based on eight surface acoustic wave sensors, one is a reference sensor and the others are coated by different polymers by spray coating technique. Data analysis was performed by two pattern recognition methods; principal component analysis (PCA) and probabilistic neuronal network (PNN). The results showed that electronic nose was able to identify the tested wines.

  18. Diagnosis, risk stratification, and response evaluation in classical myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Philadelphia-negative classical myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) include polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The 2016 revision of the WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues includes new criteria for the diagnosis of these disorders. Somatic mutations in the 3 driver genes, that is, JAK2, CALR, and MPL, represent major diagnostic criteria in combination with hematologic and morphological abnormalities. PV is characterized by erythrocytosis with suppressed endogenous erythropoietin production, bone marrow panmyelosis, and JAK2 mutation. Thrombocytosis, bone marrow megakaryocytic proliferation, and presence of JAK2, CALR, or MPL mutation are the main diagnostic criteria for ET. PMF is characterized by bone marrow megakaryocytic proliferation, reticulin and/or collagen fibrosis, and presence of JAK2, CALR, or MPL mutation. Prefibrotic myelofibrosis represents an early phase of myelofibrosis, and is characterized by granulocytic/megakaryocytic proliferation and lack of reticulin fibrosis in the bone marrow. The genomic landscape of MPNs is more complex than initially thought and involves several mutant genes beyond the 3 drivers. Comutated, myeloid tumor-suppressor genes contribute to phenotypic variability, phenotypic shifts, and progression to more aggressive disorders. Patients with myeloid neoplasms are at variable risk of vascular complications, including arterial or venous thrombosis and bleeding. Current prognostic models are mainly based on clinical and hematologic parameters, but innovative models that include genetic data are being developed for both clinical and trial settings. In perspective, molecular profiling of MPNs might also allow for accurate evaluation and monitoring of response to innovative drugs that target the mutant clone. PMID:28028026

  19. Computed tomographic characteristics of odontogenic neoplasms in dogs.

    PubMed

    Amory, Joseph T; Reetz, Jennifer A; Sánchez, Melissa D; Bradley, Charles W; Lewis, John R; Reiter, Alexander M; Mai, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic neoplasms are locally invasive oral tumors in dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe CT characteristics for varying histopathologic types of canine odontogenic neoplasms. A board-certified veterinary radiologist who was unaware of histologic findings reviewed and scored imaging studies. A total of 29 dogs were included in the study. Twenty-three of these dogs had concurrent dental radiographs. The most common CT characteristics for all tumor types were a direct association with or in the region of multiple teeth in 96.4% (27/28), contrast enhancement in 96.3% (26/27), alveolar bone lysis in 93.1% (27/29), and mass-associated tooth displacement in 85.2% (23/27). Mass-associated cyst-like structures were identified in 53.6% (15/28) and were only present in tumors containing odontogenic epithelium. Canine acanthomatous ameloblastomas (n = 15) appeared as extra-osseous (10/15) or intra-osseous (5/15) masses. Intra-osseous canine acanthomatous ameloblastomas were more likely to have mass-associated cyst-like structures and were subjectively more aggressive when compared with extra-osseous canine acanthomatous ameloblastomas. Amyloid-producing odontogenic tumors (n = 3) had subjectively uniform CT imaging characteristics and consisted of round soft tissue and mineral attenuating masses with multiple associated cyst-like structures. Fibromatous epulides of periodontal ligament origin (n = 4) were contrast enhancing extra-osseous masses that were rarely referred for CT examinations and 25% (1/4) were not visible with CT. Other odontogenic tumors were less represented or had more variable CT imaging characteristics. Mass-associated tooth destruction was appreciated more often with dental radiographs and extra-oral tumor extension was identified more often with CT.

  20. Diagnosis, risk stratification, and response evaluation in classical myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Rumi, Elisa; Cazzola, Mario

    2017-02-09

    Philadelphia-negative classical myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) include polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The 2016 revision of the WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues includes new criteria for the diagnosis of these disorders. Somatic mutations in the 3 driver genes, that is, JAK2, CALR, and MPL, represent major diagnostic criteria in combination with hematologic and morphological abnormalities. PV is characterized by erythrocytosis with suppressed endogenous erythropoietin production, bone marrow panmyelosis, and JAK2 mutation. Thrombocytosis, bone marrow megakaryocytic proliferation, and presence of JAK2, CALR, or MPL mutation are the main diagnostic criteria for ET. PMF is characterized by bone marrow megakaryocytic proliferation, reticulin and/or collagen fibrosis, and presence of JAK2, CALR, or MPL mutation. Prefibrotic myelofibrosis represents an early phase of myelofibrosis, and is characterized by granulocytic/megakaryocytic proliferation and lack of reticulin fibrosis in the bone marrow. The genomic landscape of MPNs is more complex than initially thought and involves several mutant genes beyond the 3 drivers. Comutated, myeloid tumor-suppressor genes contribute to phenotypic variability, phenotypic shifts, and progression to more aggressive disorders. Patients with myeloid neoplasms are at variable risk of vascular complications, including arterial or venous thrombosis and bleeding. Current prognostic models are mainly based on clinical and hematologic parameters, but innovative models that include genetic data are being developed for both clinical and trial settings. In perspective, molecular profiling of MPNs might also allow for accurate evaluation and monitoring of response to innovative drugs that target the mutant clone.

  1. Recurrent genetic defects on chromosome 5q in myeloid neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Hosono, Naoko; Mahfouz, Reda; Przychodzen, Bartlomiej; Yoshida, Kenichi; Jerez, Andres; LaFramboise, Thomas; Polprasert, Chantana; Clemente, Michael J; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Sanada, Masashi; Cui, Edward; Verma, Amit K; McDevitt, Michael A; List, Alan F; Saunthararajah, Yogen; Sekeres, Mikkael A; Boultwood, Jacqueline; Ogawa, Seishi

    2017-01-01

    Background Deletion of chromosome 5q (del(5q)) is the most common karyotypic abnormality in myeloid neoplasms. Materials and Methods To define the pathogenic molecular features associated with del(5q), next–generation sequencing was applied to 133 patients with myeloid neoplasms (MDS; N = 69, MDS/MPN; N = 5, sAML; N = 29, pAML; N = 30) with del(5q) as a sole abnormally or a part of complex karyotype and results were compared to molecular features of patients diploid for chr5. Findings A number of 5q genes with haploinsufficient expression and/or recurrent somatic mutations were identified; for these genes, CSNK1A1 and G3BP1 within the commonly deleted 5q region and DDX41 within a commonly retained region were most commonly affected by somatic mutations. These genes showed consistent haploinsufficiency in deleted cases; low expression/mutations of G3BP1 or DDX41 were associated with poor survival, likely due to decreased cellular function. The most common mutations on other chromosomes in patients with del(5q) included TP53, and mutations of FLT3 (ITD or TKD), NPM1 or TET2 and were mutually exclusive. Serial sequencing allowed for definition of clonal architecture and dynamics, in patients with exome sequencing allelic imbalance for informative SNPs facilitated simultaneous approximation of clonal size of del(5q) and clonal burden for somatic mutations. Interpretation Our results illuminate the spectrum of molecular defects characteristic of del(5q), their clinical impact and succession of stepwise evolution. PMID:28031539

  2. Hepatic neoplasms associated with contraceptive and anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Ishak, K G

    1979-01-01

    This paper evaluates the differences between HCA (hepatocellular adenoma) and FNH (focal nodular hyperplasia) and the association of HCA and FNH with OC (oral contraceptives). FNH occurs at least twice as frequent in females as in males. A study conducted by the author revealed that only 20% of patients with FNH had symptoms and signs related to their neoplasms; in the rest, FNH was accidentally discovered during surgery for diseases of the gallbladder or at necropsy. The highly characteristic gross appearance of FNH is discribed in detail. The etiologic relationship between FNH and OC was cited in the light of frequent findings of FNH in infants and children, and of suggestions by other authors that FNH could be a direct result on OC therapy or that contraceptive steroids or conjugated estrogens accelerate the growth of FNH, a very slow growing neoplasm. Simple excision is the treatment of choice for FNH; in some cases, hepatic artery ligation is indicated. In the case of HCA, statistics show that the incidence of HCA has been increasing since 1960. Majority of patients with HCA have normal tests of hepatic function. Radiographic studies and hepatic scans may reveal HCA, but the best diagnostic method so far is angiography. Although gross appearance of HCA is variable, the features are clearly distinguishable from that of FNH. Other topics discussed include the occasional occurence of nodular regenerative hyperplasia in patients on OC or anabolic steroids (AS), and malignant liver tumors in patients using OC or AS. Further research should be done to clarify the etiologic relationship between androgenic-anabolic steroids and hepatocellular tumors and tumorlike lesions.

  3. Aeroacoustic characterization of scaled canonical nose landing gear configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawodny, Nikolas S.

    Aircraft noise is a critical issue in the commercial airline industry. Airframe noise is a subcomponent of aircraft noise and is generally dominant over jet engine noise during approach conditions, which can lead to high community impact. Landing gears have been identified as major components of airframe noise during landing configurations for commercial aircraft. They are perhaps the least understood contributors to airframe noise due to complex flow patterns associated with intricate gear component geometries. Nose landing gear in particular have received much attention in recent years, exhibiting acoustic signatures on the order of the main landing gear assembly of an aircraft, while simultaneously being more amenable to scaled wind tunnel testing. In order to characterize the acoustic signature of a complex geometry such as a nose landing gear, it is important to isolate, study, and understand the acoustic contributions of individual component geometries. The purpose of this dissertation is to develop a correlation between the complex flow field nature and far-field acoustic signature of a nose landing gear sub-system. The model under investigation is a 1/2-scale shock-strut cylinder coupled with an adjustable torque link apparatus. This geometry was chosen due to its fundamental importance and implementation across a wide span of commercial aircraft. The fluid dynamic (surface pressure and stereoscopic particle image velocimety) and aeroacoustic (far-field microphone and phased array) experiments were performed in the University of Florida Aeroacoustic Flow Facility. The experimental data compare favorably with the results of a numerical simulation using PowerFLOW, a lattice-Boltzmann solver developed by the Exa Corporation. The far-field acoustic results of this dissertation have shown non-uniform scaling behavior as a function of frequency for the different model configurations tested. For frequencies that appropriately satisfied the condition of acoustic

  4. The Tool Life of Ball Nose end Mill Depending on the Different Types of Ramping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vopát, Tomáš; Peterka, Jozef; Kováč, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The article deals with the cutting tool wear measurement process and tool life of ball nose end mill depending on upward ramping and downward ramping. The aim was to determine and compare the wear (tool life) of ball nose end mill for different types of copy milling operations, as well as to specify particular steps of the measurement process. In addition, we examined and observed cutter contact areas of ball nose end mill with machined material. For tool life test, DMG DMU 85 monoBLOCK 5-axis CNC milling machine was used. In the experiment, cutting speed, feed rate, axial depth of cut and radial depth of cut were not changed. The cutting tool wear was measured on Zoller Genius 3s universal measuring machine. The results show different tool life of ball nose end mills depending on the copy milling strategy.

  5. The use of a deflectable nose on a missile as a control device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, K. D.

    1981-05-01

    Wind tunnel tests have been carried out on a blunted ogive-cylinder with a deflectable nose at Mach numbers between 0.8 and 2.0. Although the results are subject to scale effects, it appears that the deflectable nose could find use as a missile control method. The results have been applied to two missile configurations. For a long slender missile the deflectable nose produces non-linear trim curves at subsonic speeds, approaching linearity at supersonic Mach numbers. Nevertheless, worth-while trimmed incidences can be achieved. Although a deflectable nose on a 105 mm shell at subsonic speeds produces only relatively small normal force coefficients at trim, the trim curves are linear. Furthermore, it appears that when used for terminal control significant deviations in shell impact point are attainable.

  6. Electronic nose for quality control of Colombian coffee through the detection of defects in "Cup Tests".

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Juan; Durán, Cristhian; Reyes, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Electronic noses (ENs), are used for many applications, but we must emphasize the importance of their application to foodstuffs like coffee. This paper presents a research study about the analysis of Colombian coffee samples for the detection and classification of defects (i.e., using "Cup Tests"), which was conducted at the Almacafé quality control laboratory in Cúcuta, Colombia. The results obtained show that the application of an electronic nose called "A-NOSE", may be used in the coffee industry for the cupping tests. The results show that e-nose technology can be a useful tool for quality control to evaluate the excellence of the Colombian coffee produced by National Federation of Coffee Growers.

  7. Social play behavior in infant Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Qinling Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinhua; Guo, Songtao; Ji, Weihong; He, Gang; Wang, Xiaowei; Li, Baoguo

    2011-09-01

    We describe the development of social play behavior and assess factors influencing the development of play in infant Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana). Infant snub-nosed monkeys began to exhibit social play at 3 months of age, when they spent an average 0.89% of time engaging in this behavior (range: 0.7-1.12%). At 6 months of age, there was a significant increase in the proportion of time spent in social play, averaging 9.78% of observation time (range: 4.92-17.08%). However, from 7 to 9 months of age during the winter, social play decreased gradually before rising again from 10 months of age in the spring. Play behavior in infant snub-nosed monkeys is influenced by environmental temperature. Males were observed to play more than females, although further data on this are required. Social rank did not influence the social play of wild Sichuan snub-nosed monkey infants.

  8. A novel method for qualitative analysis of edible oil oxidation using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lirong; Yu, Xiuzhu; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Rui

    2016-07-01

    An electronic nose (E-nose) was used for rapid assessment of the degree of oxidation in edible oils. Peroxide and acid values of edible oil samples were analyzed using data obtained by the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) Official Method for reference. Qualitative discrimination between non-oxidized and oxidized oils was conducted using the E-nose technique developed in combination with cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The results from CA, PCA and LDA indicated that the E-nose technique could be used for differentiation of non-oxidized and oxidized oils. LDA produced slightly better results than CA and PCA. The proposed approach can be used as an alternative to AOCS Official Method as an innovative tool for rapid detection of edible oil oxidation.

  9. The Application of AN Electronic Nose as a Predictive Technique against Human Diabetic Nephropathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, E. I.; Festuccia, A. M.; Martinelli, E.; Andreoli, A.; Martini, A.; di Natale, C.; de Lorenzo, A.

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study is to apply electronic nose (EN) technology as an alternative method for fast monitoring of metabolic clearances and nephropathy insurgence in diabetics. This will be performed through urine analyses of diabetic patients and healthy subjects.

  10. [Utility of bone marrow biopsy in the diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasm].

    PubMed

    Tovar-Bobadilla, José Leonard; Ortiz-Hidalgo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    A diagnostic approach of myeloproliferative neoplasms, according to the 2008 WHO classification system for hematological malignancies, has to consider clinical, molecular, and cytogenetic information as well as bone marrow histology. A diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia requires the presence of BCR-ABL-1, and the Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph-1-negative) myeloproliferative neoplasms constitute three main subtypes, including primary myelofibrosis, polycythemia rubra vera, and essential thrombocythemia. These three Ph-1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms share many pathogenic characteristic such as JAK2 mutations; however, they differ in prognosis, progression to myelofibrosis, and risk of leukemic transformation. There are currently various major points of interest in bone marrow examination in myeloproliferative neoplasms. One is the morphology of megakaryocytes, which are the hallmark of Ph-1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms and play a crucial role in separating the different subtypes of myeloproliferative neoplasms. Another is reticulin fibrosis or collagen fibrosis, which may only be detected on a bone marrow biopsy specimen by reticulin and trichrome stains, respectively, and immunohistochemistry and certain molecular techniques may be applied in bone marrow biopsies as supporting evidence of certain features of myeloproliferative neoplasms.

  11. Neoplasm seeding in biopsy tract of the musculoskeletal system. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Marcelo Parente; Lima, Pablo Moura de Andrade; da Silva, Hilton Justino; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira

    2014-01-01

    To identify, through a systematic literature review, the characteristics of neoplasm seeding in biopsy performed on the musculoskeletal system. We performed a search on PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO from August to October 2010. We included articles that addressed the neoplasm seeding in biopsy performed on the musculoskeletal system. The search was limited to English, Spanish and Portuguese as publication languages, but it was not limited by year of publication. We retrieved 2858 articles, but only seven were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Other four papers were found in the references of selected articles, totalizing 11 articles that were used to perform this systematic review. Issues may be raised in the literature: age and gender don't seem to influence the occurrence of neoplasm seeding; without resection of the biopsy tract, the possibility of local recurrence is very real; the influence of the type of tumor in the occurrence of neoplasm seeding is uncertain; it is impossible to conclude whether the closed biopsy technique has a lower chance of neoplasm seeding; it is likely that adjuvant chemotherapy has a protective effect against neoplasm seeding; an unfavorable prognosis is expected according to neoplasm seeding results. PMID:24899866

  12. CD5-positive B-cell neoplasms of indeterminate immunophenotype: a clinicopathologic analysis of 26 cases.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Sheryl L; McKenna, Robert W; Doolittle, Jeff E; Kroft, Steven H

    2005-12-01

    The flow cytometric classification of CD5-positive small B-cell neoplasms is dependent largely on the differential expression of CD23 and FMC-7. Occasional CD5-positive neoplasms with prominent co-expression of these antigens are encountered, precluding definitive immunophenotypic classification. The authors studied the clinicopathologic features of 26 neoplasms with this indeterminate immunophenotype. Available morphologic material was reviewed and analysis of CYCLIN D1 derangement was performed in selected cases by a combination of immunohistochemical, molecular, and cytogenetic techniques. Individual neoplasms were classified based on correlation of morphologic features and results of CYCLIN D1 studies. The neoplasms were classified into five categories: chronic lymphocytic leukemia (14 cases), "favor chronic lymphocytic leukemia" (3 cases), mantle cell lymphoma (3 cases), lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (1 case), and unclassifiable (5 cases). Three of the unclassifiable neoplasms had morphologic features of mantle cell lymphoma, but CYCLIN D1 derangement could not be demonstrated. Neither relative expression of CD23 and FMC-7 nor intensity of CD20 or surface immunoglobulin expression was helpful in final classification. The authors conclude that CD5-positive small B-cell neoplasms with an indeterminate immunophenotype are a heterogeneous group, requiring additional studies for final classification. The majority (65%) appear to be chronic lymphocytic leukemia, with most of the remaining cases either definitively mantle cell lymphoma or unclassifiable.

  13. Hemosuccus pancreaticus caused by a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yuri; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Fukuya, Akira; Nakamura, Fumika; Goji, Takahiro; Kitamura, Shinji; Kimura, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Koichi; Sogabe, Masahiro; Muguruma, Naoki; Shimada, Mitsuo; Bando, Yoshimi; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2017-04-01

    Hemosuccus pancreaticus is a gastrointestinal hemorrhage through the main pancreatic duct. Here, we report a rare case of hemosuccus pancreaticus due to a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas. A 62-year-old woman who had been followed for a branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm visited our emergency room due to severe abdominal pain and bloody discharge. Computed tomography revealed that the pancreatic cyst increased the tension of the wall and a high-density area indicative of bleeding into the cyst was observed. Endoscopy showed opening of and hemorrhaging from the papilla of Vater. The patient was diagnosed with hemosuccus pancreaticus caused by hemorrhaging into the cyst from the branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Based on this diagnosis, elective distal pancreatectomy was performed. The histopathological diagnosis was a mucinous cystic neoplasm with intermediate-grade dysplasia based upon the pathological findings that fibrous ovarian-type stroma existed abundantly and the stroma cells were positive for progesterone receptor and inhibin. Hemosuccus pancreaticus caused by a mucinous cystic neoplasm is extremely rare and there has been only one case reported to date. In conclusion, it should be recognized that pancreatic cystic neoplasms including mucinous cystic neoplasms may cause hemosuccus pancreaticus.

  14. Incidence of underlying biliary neoplasm in patients after major hepatectomy for preoperative benign hepatolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeong Min; Cho, Chol Kyoon; Koh, Yang Seok; Kim, Hee Joon; Park, Eun Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Despite hepatolithiasis being a risk factor for biliary neoplasm including cholangiocarcinoma, the incidence of underlying biliary neoplasm is unknown in patients with preoperative benign hepatolithiasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of underlying biliary neoplasm in patients who underwent major hepatectomy for preoperative benign hepatolithiasis. Methods Between March 2005 and December 2015, 73 patients who underwent major hepatectomy for preoperative benign hepatolithiasis were enrolled in this study. The incidence and pathological differentiation of concomitant biliary neoplasm were retrospectively determined by review of medical records. Postoperative complications after major hepatectomy were evaluated. Results Concomitant biliary neoplasm was pathologically confirmed in 20 patients (27.4%). Biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BIN) was detected in 12 patients (16.4%), and 1 patient (1.4%) had intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), as the premalignant lesion. Cholangiocarcinoma was pathologically confirmed in 7 patients (9.6%). Preoperative imaging of the 73 patients revealed biliary stricture at the first branch of bile duct in 31 patients (42.5%), and at the second branch of bile duct in 39 patients (53.4%). Postoperative complications developed in 14 patients (19.1%). Almost all patients recovered from complications, including intra-abdominal abscess (9.6%), bile leakage (4.1%), pleural effusion (2.7%), and wound infection (1.4%). Only 1 patient (1.4%) died from aspiration pneumonia. Conclusions The incidence of underlying biliary neoplasm was not negligible in the patients with hepatolithiasis, despite meticulous preoperative evaluations. PMID:28261696

  15. In Tube Integrated Electronic Nose System on a Flexible Polymer Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Kinkeldei, Thomas; Zysset, Christoph; Münzenrieder, Niko; Petti, Luisa; Tröster, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    The fabrication of electronic devices, such as gas sensors on flexible polymer substrates, enables the use of electronics in applications where conventional devices on stiff substrates could not be used. We demonstrate the development of a new intra-tube electronic-nose (e-nose) gas sensor device with multiple sensors fabricated and integrated on a flexible substrate. For this purpose, we developed a new method of fabricating a sensor array of four gas sensors on a flexible polymer substrate. The method allowed the use of lithography techniques to pattern different polymers with a broad range of solubility parameters. Conductive polymer composites were used as a gas sensitive layer due to the high stretchability of the material. Each of the 30 e-nose devices on one substrate was designed to fit on a polymer strip with a width of 2 mm. A single e-nose strip was successfully integrated into the inlet tube of a gas-measurement apparatus with an inner-tube diameter of 3 mm. Using the e-nose, we were able to differentiate between four different volatile solvent vapors. The tube-integrated e-nose outperformed a chamber-integrated e-nose of the same type in terms of response time and flow-rate influences. The sensor array inside the tube showed a faster response time and detected short pulses of analyte exposure compared to the same sensor array outside of the tube. We measured gas flow rates from 1,000 to 30 sccm without significant changes in sensor performance using this intra-tube e-nose prototype. The tube could be bent to radii <15 mm with a sensor performance similar to an unbent sensor. PMID:23202016

  16. Sichuan Snub-Nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) Consume Cicadas in the Qinling Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Zhang, Peng; Garber, Paul A; Hedley, Richard; Li, Baoguo

    2016-01-01

    There is limited information on insectivory in folivorous primates. Here, we report that wild Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) consume cicadas (Karenia caelatata) in the Qinling Mountains of China. Our research suggests that snub-nosed monkeys expand their diet and prey on cicadas during summer and early autumn, possibly in response to increased availability of these insects and their relatively high protein and fat content relative to leaves.

  17. Development of a Portable Electronic Nose System for the Detection and Classification of Fruity Odors

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kea-Tiong; Chiu, Shih-Wen; Pan, Chih-Heng; Hsieh, Hung-Yi; Liang, Yao-Sheng; Liu, Ssu-Chieh

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we have developed a prototype of a portable electronic nose (E-Nose) comprising a sensor array of eight commercially available sensors, a data acquisition interface PCB, and a microprocessor. Verification software was developed to verify system functions. Experimental results indicate that the proposed system prototype is able to identify the fragrance of three fruits, namely lemon, banana, and litchi. PMID:22163403

  18. Effects of white-nose syndrome on regional population patterns of 3 hibernating bat species.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Thomas E; Sewall, Brent J; Amelon, Sybill K

    2016-10-01

    Hibernating bats have undergone severe recent declines across the eastern United States, but the cause of these regional-scale declines has not been systematically evaluated. We assessed the influence of white-nose syndrome (an emerging bat disease caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, formerly Geomyces destructans) on large-scale, long-term population patterns in the little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus), the northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis), and the tricolored bat (Perimyotis subflavus). We modeled population trajectories for each species on the basis of an extensive data set of winter hibernacula counts of more than 1 million individual bats from a 4-state region over 13 years and with data on locations of hibernacula and first detections of white-nose syndrome at each hibernaculum. We used generalized additive mixed models to determine population change relative to expectations, that is, how population trajectories differed with a colony's infection status, how trajectories differed with distance from the point of introduction of white-nose syndrome, and whether declines were concordant with first local observation of the disease. Population trajectories in all species met at least one of the 3 expectations, but none met all 3. Our results suggest, therefore, that white-nose syndrome has affected regional populations differently than was previously understood and has not been the sole cause of declines. Specifically, our results suggest that in some areas and species, threats other than white-nose syndrome are also contributing to population declines, declines linked to white-nose syndrome have spread across large geographic areas with unexpected speed, and the disease or other threats led to declines in bat populations for years prior to disease detection. Effective conservation will require further research to mitigate impacts of white-nose syndrome, renewed attention to other threats to bats, and improved surveillance efforts to ensure

  19. Synchronous Low-grade Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm and Primary Peritoneal Low-grade Serous Carcinoma: A First Description of These 2 Neoplasms Presenting Together as Suspected Peritoneal Carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Sekulic, Miroslav; Pichler Sekulic, Simona; Movahedi-Lankarani, Saeid

    2016-09-28

    Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm is a neoplasm typically of appendiceal origin, which is characterized by diffuse peritoneal involvement by pools of mucin with mucinous epithelium lacking high-grade cytologic atypia, and clinically presents as suspected peritoneal carcinomatosis. A similar clinical presentation can sometimes be seen with disseminated low-grade serous carcinomas of the peritoneum, fallopian tubes, or ovaries; however, this neoplasm is histologically characterized by tubal-type epithelium and invasive or confluent growth. In this case report, we describe a patient presenting with a clinical examination and radiologic features suggestive of peritoneal carcinomatosis and a prominent pelvic mass; however, after pathologic review, the patient was proven to have peritoneal involvement by both low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm of appendiceal origin and a low-grade peritoneal primary serous carcinoma. In short, we present the first description of low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm and serous carcinoma of the peritoneum presenting synchronously, providing morphologic characterization and immunohistochemical studies supporting the diagnosis, and illustrating a rare instance in which 2 neoplastic processes are underlying clinically suspected peritoneal carcinomatosis.

  20. An Ultrasensitive, Selective, Multiplexed Superbioelectronic Nose That Mimics the Human Sense of Smell.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Seok; Song, Hyun Seok; Park, Seon Joo; Lee, Seung Hwan; An, Ji Hyun; Park, Jin Wook; Yang, Heehong; Yoon, Hyeonseok; Bae, Joonwon; Park, Tai Hyun; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-10-14

    Human sensory-mimicking systems, such as electronic brains, tongues, skin, and ears, have been promoted for use in improving social welfare. However, no significant achievements have been made in mimicking the human nose due to the complexity of olfactory sensory neurons. Combinational coding of human olfactory receptors (hORs) is essential for odorant discrimination in mixtures, and the development of hOR-combined multiplexed systems has progressed slowly. Here, we report the first demonstration of an artificial multiplexed superbioelectronic nose (MSB-nose) that mimics the human olfactory sensory system, leading to high-performance odorant discriminatory ability in mixtures. Specifically, portable MSB-noses were constructed using highly uniform graphene micropatterns (GMs) that were conjugated with two different hORs, which were employed as transducers in a liquid-ion gated field-effect transistor (FET). Field-induced signals from the MSB-nose were monitored and provided high sensitivity and selectivity toward target odorants (minimum detectable level: 0.1 fM). More importantly, the potential of the MSB-nose as a tool to encode hOR combinations was demonstrated using principal component analysis.

  1. Dynamical and thermal qualification of the C-SiC nose for the IXV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffenoir, François; Escafre, David; Brault, Tiana; Rival, Loic; Girard, Florent

    2016-07-01

    The Intermediate experimental Vehicle (IXV) atmospheric re-entry demonstrator, developed within the FLPP (Future Launcher Preparatory Program) and funded by ESA, was aimed at developing a demonstration vehicle that gave Europe a unique opportunity to increase its knowledge in the field of advanced atmospheric re-entry technologies. Within this program, HERAKLES, Safran Group, was in charge of the TPS of the windward and nose assemblies of the vehicle, and has developed and manufactured SepcarbInox® Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) protection systems that provided a high temperature resistant nonablative outer mold line (OML) for enhanced aerodynamic control. A key component of this TPS is the nose assembly, which is one the most loaded part during re-entry. The paper describes the analysis activities that led to the qualification of the nose assembly, through two activities: Dynamical behavior of the nose. Thermal behavior of the nose For both cases, the paper shows how FE models, compared with tests results, led to the understanding and simulation of the nose assembly behavior, allowing HERAKLES to confirm the design margins before flight.

  2. Close-To-Practice Assessment Of Meat Freshness With Metal Oxide Sensor Microarray Electronic Nose

    SciTech Connect

    Musatov, V. Yu.; Sysoev, V. V.; Sommer, M.; Kiselev, I.

    2009-05-23

    In this report we estimate the ability of KAMINA e-nose, based on a metal oxide sensor (MOS) microarray and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) pattern recognition, to evaluate meat freshness. The received results show that, 1) one or two exposures of standard meat samples to the e-nose are enough for the instrument to recognize the fresh meat prepared by the same supplier with 100% probability; 2) the meat samples of two kinds, stored at 4 deg. C and 25 deg. C, are mutually recognized at early stages of decay with the help of the LDA model built independently under the e-nose training to each kind of meat; 3) the 3-4 training cycles of exposure to meat from different suppliers are necessary for the e-nose to build a reliable LDA model accounting for the supplier factor. This study approves that the MOS e-nose is ready to be currently utilised in food industry for evaluation of product freshness. The e-nose performance is characterized by low training cost, a confident recognition power of various product decay conditions and easy adjustment to changing conditions.

  3. Phylogeny, biogeography and systematic revision of plain long-nosed squirrels (genus Dremomys, Nannosciurinae).

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Melissa T R; Helgen, Kristofer M; Maldonado, Jesus E; Rockwood, Larry L; Tsuchiya, Mirian T N; Leonard, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    The plain long-nosed squirrels, genus Dremomys, are high elevation species in East and Southeast Asia. Here we present a complete molecular phylogeny for the genus based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Concatenated mitochondrial and nuclear gene trees were constructed to determine the tree topology, and date the tree. All speciation events within the plain-long nosed squirrels (genus Dremomys) were ancient (dated to the Pliocene or Miocene), and averaged older than many speciation events in the related Sunda squirrels, genus Sundasciurus. Within the plain long-nosed squirrels, the most recent interspecific split occurred 2.9 million years ago, older than some splits within Sunda squirrels, which dated to the Pleistocene. Our results demonstrate that the plain long-nosed squirrels are not monophyletic. The single species with a distinct distribution, the Bornean mountain ground squirrel (Dremomys everetti), which is endemic to the high mountains of Borneo, is nested within the Sunda squirrels with high support. This species diverged from its sister taxa in the Sunda squirrels 6.62 million years ago, and other plain long-nosed squirrels over 11 million years ago. Our analyses of morphological traits in these related genera support the re-classification of the Bornean mountain ground squirrel, Dremomys everetti, to the genus Sundasciurus, which changes its name to Sundasciurus everetti. Past inclusion in the plain long-nosed squirrels (Dremomys) reflects convergent evolution between these high elevation species.

  4. Effects of nose bluntness and angle of attack on slender bodies in hypersonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Sehgal, A. K.; Singh, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of angle of attack and nose bluntness on the flow field and wall quantities are investigated for hypersonic flows of air over slender bodies. The bodies considered are slender cones and straight biconic configurations. The numerical procedures used are based on the solution of complete Navier-Stokes equations in the nose region and parabolized Navier-Stokes equations in the downstream region. Results are obtained for a wide range of free stream conditions in which the gas behind the shock is treated as perfect. The flow field variables and surface quantities show significant differences when the angle of attack and nose bluntness are varied. The postshock flow field is studied in detail from the contour plots of Mach number, density, and temperature. Flow separation is observed on the leeward plane for an on-axis, 12.84 deg/7 deg (fore-cone and aft-cone angles) biconic geometry at 12 deg angle of attack. Also, the windward and leeward heating rates for the fore-cone section decrease by a factor of four and five, respectively, when the nose bluntness is increased by an order of magnitude. The effect of nose bluntness for slender cone persists as far as 200 nose radii downstream.

  5. Aerodynamic Effects of a 24-Foot, Multisegmented Telescoping Nose Boom on an F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Smith, Mark S.; Frederick, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    An experimental multisegmented telescoping nose boom has been installed on an F-15B airplane to be tested in a flight environment. The experimental nose boom is representative of one that could be used to tailor the sonic boom signature of an airplane such as a supersonic business jet. The nose boom consists of multiple sections and could be extended during flight to a length of 24 ft. The preliminary analyses indicated that the addition of the experimental nose boom could adversely affect vehicle flight characteristics and air data systems. Before the boom was added, a series of flights was flown to update the aerodynamic model and characterize the air data systems of the baseline airplane. The baseline results have been used in conjunction with estimates of the nose boom s influence to prepare for a series of research flights conducted with the nose boom installed. Data from these flights indicate that the presence of the experimental boom reduced the static pitch and yaw stability of the airplane. The boom also adversely affected the static-position error of the airplane but did not significantly affect angle-of-attack or angle-of-sideslip measurements. The research flight series has been successfully completed.

  6. Coupling gas chromatography and electronic nose detection for detailed cigarette smoke aroma characterization.

    PubMed

    Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Tienpont, Bart; Mitsui, Kazuhisa; Masugi, Eri; Yoshimura, Yuta; Nagata, Hisanori; David, Frank; Sandra, Pat

    2014-10-24

    Aroma characterization of whole cigarette smoke samples using sensory panels or electronic nose (E-nose) devices is difficult due to the masking effect of major constituents and solvent used for the extraction step. On the other hand, GC in combination with olfactometry detection does not allow to study the delicate balance and synergetic effect of aroma solutes. To overcome these limitations a new instrumental set-up consisting of heart-cutting gas chromatography using a capillary flow technology based Deans switch and low thermal mass GC in combination with an electronic nose device is presented as an alternative to GC-olfactometry. This new hyphenated GC-E-nose configuration is used for the characterization of cigarette smoke aroma. The system allows the transfer, combination or omission of selected GC fractions before injection in the E-nose. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant factor analysis (DFA) allowed clear visualizing of the differences among cigarette brands and classifying them independently of their nicotine content. Omission and perceptual interaction tests could also be carried out using this configuration. The results are promising and suggest that the GC-E-nose hyphenation is a good approach to measure the contribution level of individual compounds to the whole cigarette smoke.

  7. Aerodynamic Effects of a 24-foot Multisegmented Telescoping Nose Boom on an F-15B Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Smith, Mark S.; Frederick, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental multisegmented telescoping nose boom has been installed on an F-15B airplane to be tested in a flight environment. The experimental nose boom is representative of one that could be used to tailor the sonic boom signature of an airplane such as a supersonic business jet. The nose boom consists of multiple sections and could be extended during flight to a length of 24 ft. The preliminary analyses indicate that the addition of the experimental nose boom could adversely affect vehicle flight characteristics and air data systems. Before the boom was added, a series of flights was conducted to update the aerodynamic model and characterize the air data systems of the baseline airplane. The baseline results have been used in conjunction with estimates of the nose boom's influence to prepare for a series of research flights conducted with the nose boom installed. Data from these flights indicate that the presence of the experimental boom reduced the static pitch and yaw stability of the airplane. The boom also adversely affected the static-position error of the airplane but did not significantly affect angle-of-attack or angle-of-sideslip measurements. The research flight series has been successfully completed.

  8. The Development and Application of High-Critical-Speed Nose Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baals, Donald D; Smith, Norman F; Wright, John B

    1948-01-01

    An analysis of the nose-inlet shapes developed in previous investigations to represent the optimum from the standpoint of critical speed has shown that marked similarity exists between the nondimensional profiles of inlets which have widely different proportions and critical speeds. With the nondimensional similarity of such profiles established, the large differences in the critical speeds of these nose inlets must be a function of their proportions. An investigation was undertaken in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel to establish the effects of nose-inlet proportions on critical Mach number to develop a rational method for the design of high-critical-speed nose inlets to meet desired requirements. The test results data have been arranged in the form of design charts from NACA 1-series nose-inlet proportions and can be selected for given values of critical Mach number and airflow quantity. Examples of nose-inlet selections are presented for a typical jet-propulsion installation (critical Mach number of 0.83) and for two conventional radial-engine installations (critical Mach number of 0.76).

  9. Discrimination of chicken seasonings and beef seasonings using electronic nose and sensory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Huaixiang; Li, Fenghua; Qin, Lan; Yu, Haiyan; Ma, Xia

    2014-11-01

    This study examines the feasibility of electronic nose as a method to discriminate chicken and beef seasonings and to predict sensory attributes. Sensory evaluation showed that 8 chicken seasonings and 4 beef seasonings could be well discriminated and classified based on 8 sensory attributes. The sensory attributes including chicken/beef, gamey, garlic, spicy, onion, soy sauce, retention, and overall aroma intensity were generated by a trained evaluation panel. Principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant factor analysis (DFA), and cluster analysis (CA) combined with electronic nose were used to discriminate seasoning samples based on the difference of the sensor response signals of chicken and beef seasonings. The correlation between sensory attributes and electronic nose sensors signal was established using partial least squares regression (PLSR) method. The results showed that the seasoning samples were all correctly classified by the electronic nose combined with PCA, DFA, and CA. The electronic nose gave good prediction results for all the sensory attributes with correlation coefficient (r) higher than 0.8. The work indicated that electronic nose is an effective method for discriminating different seasonings and predicting sensory attributes.

  10. The Grueneberg ganglion: a novel sensory system in the nose.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Joerg; Breer, Heinz

    2010-07-01

    Within the nasal epithelium of mammals, there are several compartments which are populated with neuronal cells. One of them - the so-called Grueneberg ganglion - is composed of ciliated neurons residing in the anterior region of the nose. Although cells of the Grueneberg ganglion lack direct contact with the lumen of the nasal cavity, they are endowed with features indicative of olfactory sensory neurons, such as the olfactory marker protein and distinct olfactory receptors, as well as projection of axonal processes to the olfactory bulb of the brain. These findings have led to the notion that the Grueneberg ganglion might be a novel olfactory subsystem; a concept which was lately supported by the observation that chemical cues activate Grueneberg ganglion neurons. Unexpectedly, it was recently found that these cells also respond to cool ambient temperatures, presumably via a signaling pathway mediated by second messengers. Thus, the Grueneberg ganglion may operate as a dual sensory organ involved in the detection of both chemical and thermal stimuli.

  11. Airborne inflammatory factors: "from the nose to the brain".

    PubMed

    Tonelli, Leonardo H; Postolache, Teodor T

    2010-01-01

    The intranasal pathway is a direct route of communication between the environment and the brain. This pathway is currently used for the delivery of several experimental therapeutic peptides and vaccines because it bypasses the blood brain barrier. It is also a route of entrance to the brain for several viruses and toxic substances. Airborne infectious, allergic and pollution agents are among the most common inflammatory factors which may affect brain function via the brain-nose interface. The inflammatory processes triggered in the upper respiratory tract by these agents are positioned to influence the immune response of the brain and therefore, influence its function and alter behavior. Several clinical and epidemiological studies find an association between inflammatory factors affecting the intranasal pathway and neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases as well as mental disorders including anxiety and mood disorders. However the mechanisms of interaction between the immune response in the nasal epithelium and the brain are poorly understood. This article discusses current evidence about these mechanisms and associations with neurological and mental diseases.

  12. Retraction Assembly for Space Shuttle Extended Nose Landing Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Files, Bradley S.; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    As part of a project to encourage the use of shape memory alloy actuators for space actuators, this mechanism uses a nitinol ribbon to provide the necessary motion to help retract the proposed extended nose landing gear (ENLG) for the space shuttle. Initial proof-of-concept design of the ENLG did not include the ability to retract the gear automatically. One proposed actuator for this purpose was designed at Johnson Space Center and uses resistive heating to rotate the ribbon around a cylinder. This rotation then allows the assembly to pull down a wedge that is used to hold the landing gear strut in place, thus returning the landing gear to its previous height before extension. The presentation will follow the design of this assembly from working with the nitinol ribbon to providing mechanical connections and allowing minimal friction for motion of three wraps around a cylinder. Also to be presented is preliminary work on design of a shape memory alloy gripper, a design project to demonstrate uses of NiTi.

  13. Reproductive compensation in broad-nosed pipefish females

    PubMed Central

    Goncalves, Ines Braga; Mobley, Kenyon B.; Ahnesjö, Ingrid; Sagebakken, Gry; Jones, Adam G.; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2010-01-01

    The differential allocation hypothesis assumes that animals should weigh costs and benefits of investing into reproduction with a current mate against the expected quality of future mates, and predicts that they should invest more into reproduction when pairing with a high-quality mate. In the broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle), males care for the embryos in a brood pouch and females compete for access to male mating partners. Both sexes prefer mating with large partners. In the present study, we show that the same female provides both large and small mating partners with eggs of similar size, weight and lipid content when mated to two males in succession. Importantly, however, eggs provided to small males (less preferred) had higher egg protein content (11% more) than those provided to large males (preferred). Thus, contrary to the differential allocation hypothesis, eggs did not contain more resources when females mated with a larger male. Instead, the pattern observed in our results is consistent with a compensatory reproductive strategy. PMID:20106851

  14. Calibration of an electronic nose for poultry farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Shukor, S. A.; Kamis, M. S.; Shakaff, A. Y. M.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Mamduh, S. M.; Kamarudin, K.; Saad, F. S. A.; Masnan, M. J.; Mustafa, H.

    2017-03-01

    Malodour from the poultry farms could cause air pollution and therefore potentially dangerous to humans' and animals' health. This issue also poses sustainability risk to the poultry industries due to objections from local community. The aim of this paper is to develop and calibrate a cost effective and efficient electronic nose for poultry farm air monitoring. The instrument main components include sensor chamber, array of specific sensors, microcontroller, signal conditioning circuits and wireless sensor networks. The instrument was calibrated to allow classification of different concentrations of main volatile compounds in the poultry farm malodour. The outcome of the process will also confirm the device's reliability prior to being used for poultry farm malodour assessment. The Multivariate Analysis (HCA and KNN) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) pattern recognition technique was used to process the acquired data. The results show that the instrument is able to calibrate the samples using ANN classification model with high accuracy. The finding verifies the instrument's performance to be used as an effective poultry farm malodour monitoring.

  15. Separated flows near the nose of a body of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S. P.

    1986-01-01

    The solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the problem of cross-flow separataion about a deforming cylinder was achieved by iteration. It was shown that the separation starts at the rear stagnation point and the point of primary separation moves upstram along the cylinder surface. A general method of linear stability analysis for nonparallel external flows was constructed, which consists of representing the eigenfunctions with complete orthogonal sets and forms characteristic equations with the Galerkin method. The method was applied to the Kovasznay flow which is an exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equation. The results show that when the critical parameter is exceeded, there are only a few isolated unstable eigen-frequencies. Another exact solution is shown to be absolutely and monotonically stable with respect to infinitesimal disturbances of all frequencies. The flow is also globally, asymptotically, and monotonically stable in the mean with respect o three-dimensional disturbances. This result forms the sound foundation of rigorous stability analysis for nonparallel flows, and provides an invaluable test ground for future studies of nonparallel flows in which the basic states do not posses exact solutions. The application of this method to the study of the formation of spiral vorticies near the nose of a rotating body of revolution is underway. The same method will be applied to the stability analysis of reversed flow over a plate with suction.

  16. Impacts of urbanization on West Nose Creek: a Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    van Duin, B; Garcia, J

    2006-01-01

    The lower reaches of West Nose Creek have been subject to urbanization since the 1970s, leading to channel widening and excessive erosion. This paper discusses what would likely happen if urbanization were allowed to continue in the same manner. Comparisons are presented of the channel width and depth for both the upstream rural and downstream urbanizing reaches. Estimates of the evolution of the creek were generated by linking the dominant discharge to the entire shape and volume of the hydrograph that the creek is subjected to rather than solely considering peak discharges. otential remedial measures and stormwater management philosophies are discussed in relationship to instream flow needs (IFNs) initiatives. IFNs are generally developed by relating the amount of suitable aquatic habitat to the quantity of flow. The emphasis has so far been on IFNs for large river systems. Unfortunately, none of the IFN approaches cover streams that are subject to significant urbanization. In urbanized streams the issue is not as much the impacts due to withdrawals but due to significantly increased runoff rates and volumes generated within the urban areas. Examples are provided how fisheries habitat is impacted by the changed hydrologic regime and changed stream morphology.

  17. Vapor Dosimetry in the Nose and Upper Airways of Humans

    SciTech Connect

    Thrall, Karla D.

    2010-04-01

    A number of methodologies have been reported for measuring vapor uptake efficiencies in the upper respiratory tract of experimental animals (1). Hybrid computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models, as described by Frederick et al. (2) that incorporate information on the anatomy of both rats and humans have been used to improve interspecies dosimetric corrections for human health risk assessments. However, validation of these models requires sufficient experimental data, and robust data defining the role of the upper respiratory tract in modulating the absorption of gases and vapors in human volunteers, are lacking. A survey of the available literature shows a limited number of experimental studies to evaluate the dosimetry of vapors in the nose and upper airways of humans. The scarcity of literature data undoubtedly reflects the complication of conducting controlled studies in human volunteers, and with the exception of a few limited studies, little experimental data is available. This chapter will highlight studies specific for nasal dosimetry data from humans and briefly review modeling approaches for predictive extrapolations from animal data.

  18. Stable Odor Recognition by a neuro-adaptive Electronic Nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Eugenio; Magna, Gabriele; Polese, Davide; Vergara, Alexander; Schild, Detlev; di Natale, Corrado

    2015-06-01

    Sensitivity, selectivity and stability are decisive properties of sensors. In chemical gas sensors odor recognition can be severely compromised by poor signal stability, particularly in real life applications where the sensors are exposed to unpredictable sequences of odors under changing external conditions. Although olfactory receptor neurons in the nose face similar stimulus sequences under likewise changing conditions, odor recognition is very stable and odorants can be reliably identified independently from past odor perception. We postulate that appropriate pre-processing of the output signals of chemical sensors substantially contributes to the stability of odor recognition, in spite of marked sensor instabilities. To investigate this hypothesis, we use an adaptive, unsupervised neural network inspired by the glomerular input circuitry of the olfactory bulb. Essentially the model reduces the effect of the sensors’ instabilities by utilizing them via an adaptive multicompartment feed-forward inhibition. We collected and analyzed responses of a 4 × 4 gas sensor array to a number of volatile compounds applied over a period of 18 months, whereby every sensor was sampled episodically. The network conferred excellent stability to the compounds’ identification and was clearly superior over standard classifiers, even when one of the sensors exhibited random fluctuations or stopped working at all.

  19. Perendoscopic Nd:YAG laser therapy of colorectal neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberto, Lorenzo; Ranzato, Riccardo; Marino, Saverio; Erroi, F.; Angriman, Imerio; Donadi, Michele; Paratore, S.; Scuderi, G.; D'Amico, D. F.

    1996-01-01

    The range of application of Nd:YAG laser is now wide and of particular interest in the treatment of neoplastic lesions of the large bowel, both benign and malignant, which, besides the debilitating of vegetative lesions, may also provide a good hemostasis of the bleeding ones. Yag laser treatment of malignancies is indicated in patients not suitable for surgery due to the extent of the disease or to the high anesthesiologic/surgical risk. The treatment of choice for benign neoplasms is represented by endoscopic polypectomy, being Yag laser therapy reserved to patients with very large polyps and with a high anesthesiologic risk. Yag laser therapy is also recommended in teleangiectasies with active or previous bleeding, since it allows the complete ablation of such lesions with subsequent outstanding hemostasis. Furthermore this treatment may be advantageously associated to other operative endoscopic procedures, such as diatermotherapy, dilatation and injection therapy. It is also to be outlined that Yag laser therapy is currently used to cure benign diseases and for the palliation of advanced cancer in inoperable patients. Our laser instrument is an Nd:Yag laser MBB Medilas 2 with maximum power of 100 watts at the tip, with 'non-contact' laser fibers. We use flexible optic fiberendoscopes of several sizes, according to the type of lesion to be treated. Moreover we have employed both Savary dilators of progressive caliber from 5 to 15 mm and Rigiflex pneumatic balloons. Adequate bowel preparation by means of isosmotic solution was achieved in patients with non stenotic neoplasm, or evacuative enemas and fluid diet in patients with bowel neoplastic stenoses. The patients were premedicated with benzodiazepines. Stenotic malignant lesions have been treated with endoscopic dilatation before laser treatment. At each session 4,000 - 8,000 joules of energy were administered; all patients received an average of 5 - 6 laser sessions. Followup laser sessions have then been

  20. Pancreatic endometrial cyst mimics mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Mederos, Michael A; Villafañe, Nicole; Dhingra, Sadhna; Farinas, Carlos; McElhany, Amy; Fisher, William E; Van Buren II, George

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cysts include a variety of benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions. Endometrial cysts in the pancreas are exceedingly rare lesions that are difficult to diagnose pre-operatively. This report describes the findings in a 43-year-old patient with a recent episode of acute pancreatitis who presented with a large cyst in the tail of the pancreas. Imaging demonstrated a loculated pancreatic cyst, and cyst fluid aspiration revealed an elevated amylase and carcinoembryonic antigen. The patient experienced an interval worsening of abdominal pain, fatigue, diarrhea, and a 15-pound weight loss 3 mo after the initial episode of pancreatitis. With concern for a possible pre-malignant lesion, the patient underwent a laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy, which revealed a 16 cm × 12 cm × 4 cm lesion. Final histopathology was consistent with an intra-pancreatic endometrial cyst. Here we discuss the overlapping imaging and laboratory features of pancreatic endometrial cysts and mucinous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas. PMID:28246486