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Sample records for nose neoplasms

  1. Your Nose

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can probably guess what happens next. You sneeze . Sneezes can send those unwelcome particles speeding out ... ON THIS TOPIC Movie: Nose What Makes Me Sneeze? When Sinuses Attack! Why Does My Nose Run? ...

  2. Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic ...

  3. Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  4. Broken Nose

    MedlinePlus

    ... include contact sports, physical fights, falls and motor vehicle accidents that result in facial trauma. A broken ... such as football or hockey Physical altercations Motor vehicle accidents Falls A broken nose can even be ...

  5. Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  6. Electronic Nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Grace Industries, Inc.'s Electronic Nose is a vapor and gas detector, deriving from NASA's electronic circuitry, capable for sensing the presence of accelerants several days after a fire. The device is powered by rechargeable battery and no special training needed to operate. If an accelerant is present, device will emit a beeping sound and trigger a flashing light; the faster the beep rate, the more volatile the accelerant. Its sensitivity can also detect minute traces of accelerants. Unit saves investigators of fire causes time and expense by providing speedy detection of physical evidence for use in court. Device is also useful for detecting hazardous fumes, locating and detecting gas leaks in refineries and on oil drilling rigs.

  7. Nose Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... suffer. For example, the stuffy nose of the common cold can make it hard for you to breathe, sleep, or get comfortable. Many problems besides the common cold can affect the nose. They include Deviated septum - ...

  8. The crooked nose.

    PubMed

    Shipchandler, Taha Z; Papel, Ira D

    2011-04-01

    Straightening a crooked nose is a challenge. Several techniques exist ranging from simple to technically complex. It is important to approach the nose systematically and to remember that perfection may be impossible to achieve. If straightening is not attainable, softening grafts or onlay grafts should be used to camouflage subtle irregularities.

  9. Treatment Options for Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic ...

  10. General Information about Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic ...

  12. Treatment Options for Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  14. General Information about Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Chronic ...

  15. Nose Hill Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Vivian

    2008-01-01

    A Blackfoot woman, caught in the act of adultery, was condemned at this site to have her nose cut off as a penalty for her actions. People do not know her story. The tribe cast it on the ground. And so She, Nose Hill, was named. John Laurie Boulevard holds her mound in a circlet of asphalt, defining the map of her "terra incognita." She…

  16. Stuffy or runny nose - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... stuffy or runny nose may be caused by: Common cold Flu Sinus infection The congestion typically goes away ... D.A.M. Editorial team. Allergy Read more Common Cold Read more Nose Injuries and Disorders Read more ...

  17. Why Does My Nose Run?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Why Does My Nose Run? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Does My Nose Run? Print A A A en ... smell, you must be upside down! But why does your nose run? Read on to find out ...

  18. Runny and stuffy nose (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... runny or stuffy nose can be due to colds, allergies, sinus infections or the flu. When there is an excess of mucus secretions the nose is runny. The additional secretions drain from the front of the nose, or down the back (post- ...

  19. Myeloid neoplasms with eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Andreas; Gotlib, Jason

    2017-02-09

    Molecular diagnostics has generated substantial dividends in dissecting the genetic basis of myeloid neoplasms with eosinophilia. The family of diseases generated by dysregulated fusion tyrosine kinase (TK) genes is recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) category, "Myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia and rearrangement of PDGFRA, PDGFRB, or FGFR1, or with PCM1-JAK2" In addition to myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), these patients can present with myelodysplastic syndrome/MPN, as well as de novo or secondary mixed-phenotype leukemias or lymphomas. Eosinophilia is a common, but not invariable, feature of these diseases. The natural history of PDGFRA- and PDGFRB-rearranged neoplasms has been dramatically altered by imatinib. In contrast, patients with FGFR1 and JAK2 fusion TK genes exhibit a more aggressive course and variable sensitivity to current TK inhibitors, and in most cases, long-term disease-free survival may only be achievable with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Similar poor prognosis outcomes may be observed with rearrangements of FLT3 or ABL1 (eg, both of which commonly partner with ETV6), and further investigation is needed to validate their inclusion in the current WHO-defined group of eosinophilia-associated TK fusion-driven neoplasms. The diagnosis chronic eosinophilic leukemia, not otherwise specified (CEL, NOS) is assigned to patients with MPN with eosinophilia and nonspecific cytogenetic/molecular abnormalities and/or increased myeloblasts. Myeloid mutation panels have identified somatic variants in patients with a provisional diagnosis of hypereosinophilia of undetermined significance, reclassifying some of these cases as eosinophilia-associated neoplasms. Looking forward, one of the many challenges will be how to use the results of molecular profiling to guide prognosis and selection of actionable therapeutic targets. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  20. Electronic Nose System Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has designed and built an electronic nose system -- ENose -- to take on the duty of staying alert for smells that could indicate hazardous conditions in a closed spacecraft environment. Its sensors (shown here) are tailored so they conduct electricity differently when an air stream carries a particular chemical across them. JPL has designed and built a 3-pound flight version. The active parts are 32 sensors, each with a different mix of polymers saturated with carbon. When certain chemicals latch onto a sensor, they change how the sensor conducts electricity. This signal tells how much of a compound is in the air. The electronic nose flown aboard STS-95 in 1998 was capable of successfully detecting 10 toxic compounds.

  1. Electronic Nose System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has designed and built an electronic nose system -- ENose -- to take on the duty of staying alert for smells that could indicate hazardous conditions in a closed spacecraft environment. Its sensors are tailored so they conduct electricity differently when an air stream carries a particular chemical across them. JPL has designed and built a 3-pound flight version (shown with palm-size control and data computer). The active parts are 32 sensors, each with a different mix of polymers saturated with carbon. When certain chemicals latch onto a sensor, they change how the sensor conducts electricity. This signal tells how much of a compound is in the air. The electronic nose flown aboard STS-95 in 1998 was capable of successfully detecting 10 toxic compounds.

  2. JPL Electronic Nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Margaret A.; Homer, Margie L.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Electronic Nose (ENose) is a full-time, continuously operating event monitor designed to detect air contamination from spills and leaks in the crew habitat in the International Space Station. It fills the long-standing gap between onboard alarms and complex analytical instruments. ENose provides rapid, early identification and quantification of atmospheric changes caused by chemical species to which it has been trained. ENose can also be used to monitor cleanup processes after a leak or a spill.

  3. The Indian Nose.

    PubMed

    Nagarkar, Purushottam; Pezeshk, Ronnie A; Rohrich, Rod J

    2016-11-01

    Despite the growing number of rhinoplasty procedures being performed on Indian patients, there is a very limited body of literature regarding nuances of the Indian rhinoplasty. The authors review the spectrum of nasal phenotypes that fall under the category of the Indian nose; goals of rhinoplasty in these patients; operative techniques that can be used to address them; and, importantly, the specific pitfalls to be avoided in these groups.

  4. The average Indian female nose.

    PubMed

    Patil, Surendra B; Kale, Satish M; Jaiswal, Sumeet; Khare, Nishant; Math, Mahantesh

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to delineate the anthropometric measurements of the noses of young women of an Indian population and to compare them with the published ideals and average measurements for white women. This anthropometric survey included a volunteer sample of 100 young Indian women ages 18 to 35 years with Indian parents and no history of previous surgery or trauma to the nose. Standardized frontal, lateral, oblique, and basal photographs of the subjects' noses were taken, and 12 standard anthropometric measurements of the nose were determined. The results were compared with published standards for North American white women. In addition, nine nasal indices were calculated and compared with the standards for North American white women. The nose of Indian women differs significantly from the white nose. All the nasal measurements for the Indian women were found to be significantly different from those for North American white women. Seven of the nine nasal indices also differed significantly. Anthropometric analysis suggests differences between the Indian female nose and the North American white nose. Thus, a single aesthetic ideal is inadequate. Noses of Indian women are smaller and wider, with a less projected and rounded tip than the noses of white women. This study established the nasal anthropometric norms for nasal parameters, which will serve as a guide for cosmetic and reconstructive surgery in Indian women.

  5. Nose: Applied Aspects in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Dammaningala Venkataramaiah; Shilpa, Kanathur; Nataraja, Holavanahally Veerabhadrappa; Divya, Kallapa Gorur

    2016-01-01

    Nose is the most prominent part of the mid-face and has important physiological, aesthetic and psychological functions. Skin diseases on the nose are commonly seen by dermatologists, otorhinolaryngologists, and plastic surgeons. Because of its exposed, highly visible localization, lesions on the skin of the nose are often noticed by patients themselves, typically very early in the course of the disease. Similarly, the dermatological lexicon is well known with descriptive terminologies, synonyms, acronyms, eponyms, toponyms, misnomers. We have tried to compile the anatomical applications of nose in cosmetology and dermatosurgery subspecialities with nasal eponyms and signs encountered in clinical dermatology that would be helpful for residents. PMID:27057038

  6. Clown nose: a case of disfiguring nodular squamous cell carcinoma of the face.

    PubMed

    Colletti, Giacomo; Allevi, Fabiana; Moneghini, Laura; Palvarini, Marina

    2014-01-31

    'Clown nose' (CN) is the common medical term referring to a reddish-brown bulge involving the tip of the nose, reminding of a clown's fake red nose. Reports about these tumours are scarce. Most reports refer to metastatic skin manifestation of systemic malignancies: this condition has been rarely described as a primary skin neoplasm. We report a case of a 31-year-old patient with a giant cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the nose which evolved into a CN. After ruling out genetic or immune risk factors, the patient was treated with surgical excision of the lesion and local reconstruction with good aesthetic outcome and no recurrence over a 2-year follow-up.

  7. Lupus vulgaris of external nose.

    PubMed

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B Usha

    2008-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  8. Foreign body in the nose

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as marbles), crayon pieces, erasers, paper wads, cotton, and beads. A foreign body in a child's ... DO NOT search the nose with cotton swabs or other tools. This may push the object further into the nose. DO NOT use tweezers or other tools to remove ...

  9. Occupation and lymphoid neoplasms.

    PubMed Central

    La Vecchia, C.; Negri, E.; D'Avanzo, B.; Franceschi, S.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between occupation and exposure to a number of occupational agents and lymphoid neoplasms was investigated in a case-control study of 69 cases of Hodgkin's disease, 153 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 110 multiple myelomas and 396 controls admitted for acute diseases to a network of teaching and general hospitals in the greater Milan area. Among the cases, there was a significant excess of individuals ever occupied in agriculture and food processing: the multivariate relative risks (RR) were 2.1 (95% confidence interval, CI = 1.0-3.8) for Hodgkin's disease, 1.9 (95% CI = 1.2-3.0) for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and 2.0 (95% CI = 1.1-3.5) for multiple myeloma. Significant trends for duration of exposure to herbicides were observed for lymphomas, but the association was stronger for overall occupation in agriculture than with the specific question of herbicide use. History of occupation in the chemical industry was more frequent among Hodgkin's disease (RR = 4.3, 95% CI = 1.4-10.2), and a significant trend in risk was observed between duration of exposure to benzene and other solvents and multiple myeloma. No significant relation was found between any of the lymphoid neoplasms considered and rubber, dye, painting, printing, tanning leather, photography, pharmaceuticals, wood, coal/gas and nuclear industries. PMID:2789947

  10. Cutaneous lesions of the nose

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Skin diseases on the nose are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, otorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners and general plastic and dermatologic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the nose. This article is the second part of a review series dealing with cutaneous lesions on the head and face, which are frequently seen in daily practice by a dermatologic surgeon. In this review, we focus on those skin diseases on the nose where surgery or laser therapy is considered a possible treatment option or that can be surgically evaluated. PMID:20525327

  11. [Neoplasms and medical thermodynamics].

    PubMed

    Klimek, Rudolf

    2003-09-01

    Oncology--just as every field of medicine that deals with etiology, diagnostics, pathomechanism and treatment of diseases--is only a part of the general human knowledge, whose all significant achievements must be used to protect human health. This pursuit has as its object not only the benefits form practical discoveries (L. Pasteur, W.C. Roentgen, P. Curie and M. Skłodowska-Curie, V. Schally etc.), but also theoretical generalizations (A. Einstein, W.K. Heisenberg and I. Prigogine). Unfortunately it is the lack and/or slow adaptation of that information, that is responsible for the still unsatisfactory progress in clinical oncology. Responsibility rests not only with oncologists, but primarily with editors of medical journals and textbooks, who have a moral duty to follow the entire general knowledge, especially in the field of the basic research. On the basis of an analysis of the contents of the Polish oncology textbooks and materials from the specialist conferences in gynaecologic oncology, they were found to: 1. Omit the current, particularly domestic literature, 2. Contain mostly works, whose conclusions are textbook information, 3. Rarely include studies in the area of medical thermodynamics, 4. Attempt to explain the effects of the modern technologies, e.g. fotodynamics or nanotechnology using theoretical generalizations which are inadequate for them, and 5. Disregard the rule primum non nocere not only in prevention but even in the treatment of neoplasms. Neoplastic disease has many conditionings and types because of the unique identity of the neoplasms which cause it and which are caused by universal and natural phenomena of the self-organizing dissipative structures. It requires not only early diagnosing but also causative treatment already in the precancerous states, which are better detected by modern methods based on the quantum thermodynamics (lasers, fotodynamics, nuclear magnetic resonance, genetic nanotechnology etc.).

  12. Stuffy or runny nose - adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... stuffy or runny nose may be caused by: Common cold Flu Sinus infection The congestion typically goes away ... D.A.M. Editorial team. Allergy Read more Common Cold Read more Drug Reactions Read more A.D. ...

  13. An encephalocele replacing nose completely.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, G

    1999-01-01

    Congenital encephalocele presenting in the nasal region is extremely rare. We present here a case ot tncephaloce lecompletely replacing the nose of a five year old boy and duscuss about similar swellings in this region.

  14. Correction of the crooked nose.

    PubMed

    Potter, Jason K

    2012-02-01

    Correction of the deviated nose is one of the most difficult tasks in rhinoplasty surgery and should be approached in a systematic manner to ensure a satisfied patient and surgeon. Correction of the deviated nose is unique in that the patient's complaints frequently include aesthetic and functional characteristics. Equal importance should be given to the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative aspects of the patient's treatment to ensure a favorable outcome.

  15. [Surgical anatomy of the nose].

    PubMed

    Nguyen, P S; Bardot, J; Duron, J B; Jallut, Y; Aiach, G

    2014-12-01

    Thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the nose is an essential prerequisite for preoperative analysis and the understanding of surgical techniques. Like a tent supported by its frame, the nose is an osteo-chondral structure covered by a peri-chondroperiosteal envelope, muscle and cutaneous covering tissues. For didactic reasons, we have chosen to treat this chapter in the form of comments from eight key configurations that the surgeon should acquire before performing rhinoplasty.

  16. Myeloproliferative neoplasm stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mead, Adam J; Mullally, Ann

    2017-03-23

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) arise in the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment as a result of the acquisition of somatic mutations in a single HSC that provides a selective advantage to mutant HSC over normal HSC and promotes myeloid differentiation to engender a myeloproliferative phenotype. This population of somatically mutated HSC, which initiates and sustains MPNs, is termed MPN stem cells. In >95% of cases, mutations that drive the development of an MPN phenotype occur in a mutually exclusive manner in 1 of 3 genes: JAK2, CALR, or MPL The thrombopoietin receptor, MPL, is the key cytokine receptor in MPN development, and these mutations all activate MPL-JAK-STAT signaling in MPN stem cells. Despite common biological features, MPNs display diverse disease phenotypes as a result of both constitutional and acquired factors that influence MPN stem cells, and likely also as a result of heterogeneity in the HSC in which MPN-initiating mutations arise. As the MPN clone expands, it exerts cell-extrinsic effects on components of the bone marrow niche that can favor the survival and expansion of MPN stem cells over normal HSC, further sustaining and driving malignant hematopoiesis. Although developed as targeted therapies for MPNs, current JAK2 inhibitors do not preferentially target MPN stem cells, and as a result, rarely induce molecular remissions in MPN patients. As the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the clonal dominance of MPN stem cells advances, this will help facilitate the development of therapies that preferentially target MPN stem cells over normal HSC.

  17. Myeloproliferative Neoplasms in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Inga

    2015-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are a group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by aberrant proliferation of one or more myeloid lineages often with increased immature cells in the peripheral blood. The three classical BCR-ABL-negative MPNs are: 1) polycythemia vera (PV), 2) essential thrombocythemia (ET), and 3) primary myelofibrosis (PMF), which are typically disorders of older adults and are exceedingly rare in children. The diagnostic criteria for MPNs remain largely defined by clinical, laboratory and histopathology assessments in adults, but they have been applied to the pediatric population. The discovery of the JAK2 V617F mutation, and more recently, MPL and CALR mutations, are major landmarks in the understanding of MPNs. Nevertheless, they rarely occur in children, posing a significant diagnostic challenge given the lack of an objective, clonal marker. Therefore, in pediatric patients, the diagnosis must rely heavily on clinical and laboratory factors, and exclusion of secondary disorders to make an accurate diagnosis of MPN. This review focuses on the clinical presentation, diagnostic work up, differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of the classical BCR-ABL-negative MPNs (PV, ET and PMF) in children and highlights key differences to the adult diseases. Particular attention will be given to pediatric PMF, as it is the only disorder of this group that is observed in infants and young children, and in many ways appears to be a unique entity compared to adult PMF. PMID:26609329

  18. Genomics of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Zoi, Katerina; Cross, Nicholas C P

    2017-03-20

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a group of related clonal hematologic disorders characterized by excess accumulation of one or more myeloid cell lineages and a tendency to transform to acute myeloid leukemia. Deregulated JAK2 signaling has emerged as the central phenotypic driver of BCR -ABL1-negative MPNs and a unifying therapeutic target. In addition, MPNs show unexpected layers of genetic complexity, with multiple abnormalities associated with disease progression, interactions between inherited factors and phenotype driver mutations, and effects related to the order in which mutations are acquired. Although morphology and clinical laboratory analysis continue to play an important role in defining these conditions, genomic analysis is providing a platform for better disease definition, more accurate diagnosis, direction of therapy, and refined prognostication. There is an emerging consensus with regard to many prognostic factors, but there is a clear need to synthesize genomic findings into robust, clinically actionable and widely accepted scoring systems as well as the need to standardize the laboratory methodologies that are used.

  19. Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPNs) Patient Registry

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-28

    Primary Myelofibrosis; Polycythemia Vera; Essential Thrombocythemia; Mastocytosis; Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic, Atypical, BCR-ABL Negative; Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Juvenile; Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia-not Otherwise Specified; Myelodysplastic-Myeloproliferative Diseases; Neoplasms; Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic

  20. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Colds Prevention Treatment Children Complications Special Features References Common Cold Understanding Colds Anatomy of the Nose The nose ... cm (3/8 inch) per minute. What a Common Cold Is A common cold is an illness caused ...

  1. Petroleum Jelly: Safe for a Dry Nose?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe for a dry nose? I've put petroleum jelly on the inside of my nose for years ... safe? Answers from Lawrence E. Gibson, M.D. Petroleum jelly is generally safe to use. Rarely, however, inhaling ...

  2. Time to reconsider Spitzoid neoplasms?

    PubMed Central

    Urso, Carmelo

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background: Spitzoid neoplasms may pose significant diagnostic problems because in a fraction of them it is quite difficult or impossible to establish if they are benign or malignant lesions. An extraordinarily large number of studies have been made in attempts to solve this problem; regrettably, the histological criteria proposed and the various special sophisticated techniques employed have proven to be ineffective in making this distinction with confidence. Objectives: To explore the possible causes for this diagnostic failure and an attempt to identify the source of this problem. Method: A historical and technical analysis of the specialized literature is performed, critically evaluating the main points of this controversial topic. Results: The reasons for the diagnostic failure in Spitzoid neoplasms are not clear but could be the result of inappropriate conceptual representation. The analysis of available data and a rational review of old and new assumptions and concepts may suggest a different representation for Spitzoid neoplasms: Spitz nevus, atypical Spitz tumor and Spitzoid melanoma, rather than being three different tumors that are difficult or impossible to distinguish with assurance, could be viewed as one unique entity, Spitz tumor (ST). This tumor is a low-grade malignant neoplasm, in which the amount of intrinsic risk is variable, ranging from very low to high (ST1, ST2, ST3), and malignant potential could be estimated. Conclusions: The proposed alternative representation of Spitzoid neoplasms as a unique tumor may help in overcoming the difficulty in diagnosis of these tumors. PMID:27222771

  3. 21 CFR 868.6225 - Nose clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nose clip. 868.6225 Section 868.6225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6225 Nose clip. (a) Identification. A nose clip is a device...

  4. 21 CFR 868.6225 - Nose clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nose clip. 868.6225 Section 868.6225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6225 Nose clip. (a) Identification. A nose clip is a device...

  5. Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyay, Rajib

    Human beings have five senses, namely, vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste. The sensors for vision, hearing and touch have been developed for several years. The need for sensors capable of mimicking the senses of smell and taste have been felt only recently in food industry, environmental monitoring and several industrial applications. In the ever-widening horizon of frontier research in the field of electronics and advanced computing, emergence of electronic nose (E-Nose) and electronic tongue (E-Tongue) have been drawing attention of scientists and technologists for more than a decade. By intelligent integration of multitudes of technologies like chemometrics, microelectronics and advanced soft computing, human olfaction has been successfully mimicked by such new techniques called machine olfaction (Pearce et al. 2002). But the very essence of such research and development efforts has centered on development of customized electronic nose and electronic tongue solutions specific to individual applications. In fact, research trends as of date clearly points to the fact that a machine olfaction system as versatile, universal and broadband as human nose and human tongue may not be feasible in the decades to come. But application specific solutions may definitely be demonstrated and commercialized by modulation in sensor design and fine-tuning the soft computing solutions. This chapter deals with theory, developments of E-Nose and E-Tongue technology and their applications. Also a succinct account of future trends of R&D efforts in this field with an objective of establishing co-relation between machine olfaction and human perception has been included.

  6. Staging of neoplasms. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    Glazer, G.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book is divided into ten chapters. The first, an overview of the importance of staging, is followed by separate chapters on computed tomographic (CT) evaluation of lymph node metastases; metastatic disease to the thorax; staging of laryngeal, hypopharyngeal, esophageal, non-small cell lung, and renal carcinoma; and pediatric abdominal malignancies. CT staging of lymphomas is dealt with in a separate chapter. The final chapter summarizes initial experiences with staging of neoplasms by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Other neoplasms, such as pelvic, pancreatic, and gastrointestinal, are not discussed in depth. The book concludes with ten case studies, most of which deal with pelvic and gastrointestinal malignancies.

  7. Nose tip refinement using interdomal suture in caucasian nose

    PubMed Central

    Pasinato, Rogério; Mocelin, Marcos; Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Refinement of the nose tip can be accomplished by a variety of techniques, but currently, the use of sutures in the nasal tip with conservative resection of the alar cartilage is the most frequently recommended approach. Objective: To classify the nasal tip and to demonstrate the interdomal suture applied to nasal tip refinement in the Caucasian nose, as well as to provide a simple and practical presentation of the surgical steps. Method: Development of surgical algorithm for nasal tip surgery: 1. Interdomal suture (double binding suture), 2. Interdomal suture with alar cartilage weakening (cross-hatching), 3. Interdomal suture with cephalic removal of the alar cartilage (McIndoe technique) based on the nasal tip type classification. This classification assesses the interdomal distance (angle of domal divergence and intercrural distance), domal arch width, cartilage consistency, and skin type. Interdomal suture is performed through endonasal rhinoplasty by basic technique without delivery (Converse-Diamond technique) under local anesthesia. Conclusion: This classification is simple and facilitates the approach of surgical treatment of the nasal tip through interdomal suture, systematizing and standardizing surgical maneuvers for better refinement of the Caucasian nose. PMID:25991963

  8. Drugs Approved for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  9. Intramural hemorrhage simulating gastric neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Sheward, S E; Davis, M; Amparo, E G; Gogel, H K

    1988-01-01

    We report a case of benign gastric ulcer with secondary extensive intramural hemorrhage causing a radiographic appearance consistent with a large ulcerated gastric neoplasm. This is the second such case reported and the first studied with sonography and computed tomographic scan. A brief review of the literature on intramural gastric hematoma is presented.

  10. Second-Generation Electronic Nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie; Yen, Shiao-Pin; Ryan, Margaret; Shevade, Abhijit; Zhou, Hanying; Kisor, Adam; Jan, Darrell; Jewell, April; Taylor, Charles; Manfreda, Allison; Manatt, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    A report discusses the second generation of the JPL Electronic Nose (ENose), an array of 32 semi-specific chemical sensors used as an event monitor to identify and quantify contaminants released into breathing air by leaks or spills. It is designed to monitor the environment for changes in air quality, and is trained to identify and quantify selected chemical species at predetermined concentrations, ranging from sub-ppm to ppth. This system has improved reproducibility for making matched arrays, allowing use of data analysis software with minimal recalibration on sensor set replacement. The Second Generation (SG) ENose is a follow-up to the first JPL Electronic Nose that was tested on an earlier space shuttle mission (STS-95). Improvements have been made to the hardware, sensor materials, and data analysis software.

  11. The nose and nasal vault.

    PubMed

    Vogelzang, P J; Babbel, R W; Harnsberger, H R

    1991-12-01

    In this article we have reviewed the anatomy of the nose and nasal vault, with emphasis on specific features that are imaged with the SSCT. Important areas of the lateral wall anatomy include the OMU and SER, areas that are key to understanding the obstructive patterns of inflammatory sinonasal disease. Lesions that result in these specific obstructive patterns include anatomic variants and other focal pathological lesions, such as polyps. Other types of sinonasal inflammatory disease include sinonasal polyposis and granulomatous and fungal disease. Congenital lesions of the nose may be understood through a knowledge of the relevant developmental anatomy. These lesions include nasal dermoids and epidermoids, cephaloceles, gliomas, and choanal atresia. Important benign masses include antrochoanal polyps, inverting papillomas, angiomatous polyps, JNAs, and osteomas. Benign nasal masses have characteristic features that distinguish them from malignant lesions. Malignant nasal tumors, such as SSCa, esthesioneuroblastoma, and others, are characterized by their more aggressive and destructive behavior.

  12. Enhancing Targeted Therapy for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Myeloproliferative Neoplasms PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gary W. Reuther CONTRACTING...2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 2012-2 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Enhancing Targeted Therapy for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms ...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Myeloproliferative neoplasms

  13. Enhancing Targeted Therapy for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0450 TITLE: Enhancing Targeted Therapy for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms PRINCIPAL...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2012 - 29 Sep 20144 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Enhancing Targeted Therapy for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms ... Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are blood cancers that affect almost 300,000 people in the United States. MPN drugs (JAK inhibitors) do not effectively

  14. Management of the aging nose.

    PubMed

    Quatela, Vito C; Pearson, James M

    2009-11-01

    As a growing segment of our population, mature patients seeking rhinoplasty for both functional and aesthetic reasons will increasingly be encountered by the facial plastic surgeon. The aging process is characterized by a gradual derotation and deprojection of the nasal tip. This article provides an overview of versatile and proven techniques that may be applied to the majority of aging nose rhinoplasty cases and that have been found to yield predictable and lasting results. Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers.

  15. Skin diseases of the nose.

    PubMed

    Yigider, Ayse Pelin; Kayhan, Fatma Tulin; Yigit, Ozgur; Kavak, Ayse; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this study was to review the main lesion types of the nasal skin and appropriate treatment strategies rather than to present a comprehensive list of all diseases that affect the skin that can involve the nose. We reviewed the main nasal skin lesion types and available treatment strategies. Nasal skin lesions were classified as benign, premalignant, or malignant. Benign lesions of the nose include nonmalignant tumoral lesions (i.e., freckles, comedo, adenoma sebaceum [Pringle disease], hydrocystoma, fibrous papules, sebaceous hyperplasia, and rhinophyma), autoimmune and inflammatory conditions (i.e., pemphigus, sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, facial eosinophilic granuloma, rosacea, herpes zoster infection, leishmaniasis, and leprosy), and vascular lesions (i.e., telangiectasis, hemangioma, and spider nevus). Premalignant lesions are actinic keratosis and keratoacanthoma; and malignant tumors are melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. Regardless of whether or not they are malignant, all facial lesions can yield significant cosmetic discomfort that should be evaluated carefully before commencing any curative or corrective intervention. In general, benign lesions are treated with dermabrasive modalities, such as trichloroacetic acid, phenol, salicylate, and laser ablation. Electrocautery, cryosurgery, and surgical excision are also used, although these methods may result in scar formation, which can sometimes be more problematic than the original lesion itself. Any disease that affects the skin, especially those diseases that are triggered by ultraviolet exposure, can involve the face and nose. Cosmetic defects due both to the lesion itself and the intervention must be discussed with the patient, preferably in the presence of a first-degree relative, before commencement of treatment. As a result of heterogeneity of skin lesions of the nose, appropriate education of general practitioners as well as otorhinolaryngologists is

  16. Nose-only exposure system

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, William C.; Bass, Edward W.; Decker, Jr., John R.

    1988-01-01

    An exposure system for supplying a gaseous material, i.e. an aerosol, gas or a vapor, directly to the noses of experimental animals includes concentric vertical inner and outer manifolds. The outer manifold connects with the necks of a large number of bottles in which the animals are confined with their noses adjacent the bottle necks. Readily detachable small tubes communicate with the inner manifold and extend to the necks of the bottles. The upper end of the outer manifold and the lower end of the inner manifold are closed. Gaseous material is supplied to the upper end of the inner manifold, flows through the small tubes to points adjacent the noses of the individual animals, then is drawn out through the bottom of the outer manifold. The bottles are readily removable and the device can be disassembled, e.g., for cleaning, by removing the bottles, removing the small tubes, and lifting the inner manifold from the outer manifold. The bottles are supported by engagement of their necks with the outer manifold supplemented, if additional support is required, by individual wire cradles. The outer ends of the bottles are closed by plugs, through which pass metal tubes which receive the tails of the animals (usually rodents) and which serve to dissipate body heat. The entire device is mounted for rotation on turntable bearings.

  17. Spontaneous endomyometrial neoplasms in aging Chinese hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Brownstein, D.G.; Brooks, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    Twenty-one endomyometrial neoplasms among 93 nulliparous noninbred Chinese hamsters were evaluated. The median survival time of the 93 females was 1040 days. The median age of hamsters with endomyometrial neoplasms was 1200 days. Neoplasms were classified as carcinomas or malignant mixed muellerian tumors of the endometrium and benign or malignant myometrial neoplasms. There were 13 endometrial adenocarcinomas. Three tumors were mixed adenosquamous carcinomas, which occurred in significantly older Chinese hamsters than did adenocarcinomas. Three malignant mixed muellerian tumors consisted of 2 carcinosarcomas and 1 mixed mesodermal tumor. The 2 myometrial neoplasms were a lelomyoma and a lelomyosarcoma. The classification and relative frequency of these neoplasms were similar to endomyometrial neoplasms of women, which makes Chinese hamsters useful subjects for studies of spontaneous endomyometrial cancers.

  18. Imaging of pediatric ovarian neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Epelman, Monica; Chikwava, Kudakwashe R; Chauvin, Nancy; Servaes, Sabah

    2011-09-01

    We review the clinical and imaging characteristics of the most common ovarian neoplasms in children and adolescents. Because of the widespread use of diagnostic imaging, incidental ovarian neoplasms might be encountered during the evaluation of abdominal pain, trauma or other indications and might pose a diagnostic dilemma. Conducting adequate imaging studies under these conditions is important, as management strategies differ according to the size and appearance of the lesion as well as the age of the patient. US dominates in gynecological imaging because of its excellent visualization, absence of ionizing radiation and sedation risks and comparatively low cost. For further examination of indeterminate lesions found using US, MRI is being used more progressively in this field, particularly for the evaluation of complex pelvic masses with the aim of distinguishing benign and malignant conditions and conditions requiring surgical intervention. CT is reserved primarily for tumor staging and follow-up and for emergency situations.

  19. Risk of neoplasms in acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Szczepanek-Parulska, Ewelina; Fularz, Maciej; Woliński, Kosma

    2012-01-01

    Acromegaly is a chronic disease caused by the excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), and as a result, of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Untreated, the condition reduces the patients’ life expectancy and leads to a series of complications, among which an increased risk of carcinogenesis is considered most important. This paper is an analysis of the publications on the issue of the formation of neoplasms, both malignant and benign, in acromegalic patients. Although the influence of acromegaly on carcinogenesis remains controversial, a number of studies indicate that the frequency of developing tumors in this patient group is higher. Moreover, numerous publications particularly stress the increased risk of developing neoplasms in patients who had been untreated for a long period of time and show elevated levels of GH and IGF-1. Consequently, a quick diagnosis and the implementation of effective treatment play a key role in the management of this disease. PMID:23788865

  20. Cardiac effects of noncardiac neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Schoen, F.J.; Berger, B.M.; Guerina, N.G.

    1984-11-01

    Clinically significant cardiovascular abnormalities may occur as secondary manifestations of noncardiac neoplasms. The principal cardiac effects of noncardiac tumors include the direct results of metastases to the heart or lungs, the indirect effects of circulating tumor products (causing nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, myeloma-associated amyloidosis, pheochromocytoma-associated cardiac hypertrophy and myofibrillar degeneration, and carcinoid heart disease), and the undesired cardiotoxicities of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. 89 references.

  1. [Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the breast].

    PubMed

    Anlauf, M; Neumann, M; Bomberg, S; Luczak, K; Heikaus, S; Gustmann, C; Antke, C; Ezziddin, S; Fottner, C; Pavel, M; Pape, U-F; Rinke, A; Lahner, H; Schott, M; Cremer, B; Hörsch, D; Baum, R P; Groh, U; Alkatout, I; Rudlowski, C; Scheler, P; Zirbes, T K; Hoffmann, J; Fehm, T; Gabbert, H E; Baldus, S E

    2015-05-01

    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) of the breast are specific tumor entities. According to the literature up to 5% of breast neoplasms are malignant epithelial neoplasms of the breast. They are defined by a neuroendocrine (NE) architecture and cytology combined with an expression of the neuroendocrine vesicle markers chromogranin A and/or synaptophysin. The diagnosis is supplemented by the receptor status and the proliferative activity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of 2012 the following groups of NEN are distinguished: (1) invasive breast carcinoma with NE differentiation, (2) well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (NET) and (3) poorly differentiated small cell carcinoma (NEC). This review article focuses on (1) the definition and basic principles of diagnostics, (2) the history, nomenclature and WHO classification from 2003 and 2012, (3) the frequency of breast NEN, (4) the hereditary background and functional activity, (5) the expression of receptors and (6) the possible clinical implications. In addition, the first results of a retrospective single center study (n = 465 patients with breast cancer over a time period of 4 years) on the frequency of NEN of the breast at the Breast Center of the University Hospital Düsseldorf are presented. In this study a frequency of 4.5% of NEN was found based on a diagnostic cut-off of > 50% Chromogranin A and/or synaptophysin positive tumor cells.

  2. Cystic Neoplasms of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Tran Cao, Hop S.; Kellogg, Benjamin; Lowy, Andrew M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Whereas pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a well-studied (but still poorly understood) disease with a dismal prognosis, cystic neoplasms of the pancreas form a more recently recognized group of pancreatic tumors. They are diverse and variable in their pathologic characteristics, clinical course, and outcomes,1–3 although all portend a better overall prognosis than PDA. In recent years, with the improved sensitivity and increasing use of cross-sectional imaging in clinical practice, these lesions are more commonly identified,4 with many being discovered incidentally. Indeed, large radiological series using computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have reported detection rates of pancreatic cystic lesions between 1.2% and almost 20%,5,6 approaching the 24.3% prevalence rate in an autopsy series by Kimura and colleagues.7 Although most of these lesions are pseudocysts, a significant portion consist of cystic neoplasms, which are estimated to represent 10% to 15% of all primary pancreatic cystic lesions.8 Given the growing clinical relevance of these tumors, a keen understanding of their natural history and pathophysiology is needed. This article reviews pancreatic cystic neoplasms, with a focus on the challenges encountered in their diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20159515

  3. Classification of Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Presently, there is no universal 'working' classification system acceptable to all clinicians involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with salivary gland neoplasms. The most recent World Health Organization Classification of Tumours: Head and Neck Tumours (Salivary Glands) (2005) for benign and malignant neoplasms represents the consensus of current knowledge and is considered the standard pathological classification based on which series should be reported. The TNM classification of salivary gland malignancies has stood the test of time, and using the stage groupings remains the current standard for reporting treated patients' outcomes. Many developments in molecular and genetic methods in the meantime have identified a number of new entities, and new findings for several of the well-established salivary malignancies need to be considered for inclusion in any new classification system. All clinicians involved in the diagnosis, assessment and treatment of patients with salivary gland neoplasms must understand and respect the need for the various classification systems, enabling them to work within a multidisciplinary clinical team environment.

  4. Revision rhinoplasty for the Asian nose.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2008-08-01

    Revision rhinoplasty of the Asian nose requires a combination of cultural sensitivity and unique surgical strategies to achieve a successful outcome. Cultural sensitivity means understanding some of the folkloric motivations to undergo rhinoplasty and divergent ethnic standards of beauty. Basic techniques for Asian rhinoplasty are reviewed as a prerequisite knowledge for revision rhinoplasty of the Asian nose, specifically a combination technique of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene for bridge augmentation and autogenous cartilage tip grafting. Revision Asian nose surgery oftentimes involves removal of a previously placed solid silicone implant, which remains the most popular option for augmentation rhinoplasty in Asia. Strategies for revision rhinoplasty in the Asian nose are then reviewed.

  5. Rhinoplasty for the Mediterranean nose.

    PubMed

    Palma, Pietro; Bignami, Maurizio; Delù, Giovanni; De Bernardi, Francesca; Castelnuovo, Paolo

    2003-08-01

    Homogenization of world culture through communications media, refinements in surgical techniques, and improved rhinoplasty results have resulted in a more extended dissemination of rhinoplasty among non-Caucasians. This request has led to increasingly anatomic, morphologic, and anthropometrical studies of the non-Caucasian nose upon which surgical techniques have been proposed and addressed to create in these patients nasal features typical of a Caucasian-looking nose. There are few reports in medical literature concerning rhinoplasty that specifically address particular Caucasian ethnic groups (Anglo-Saxon, Germanic, Latin, and Slavic). Generally included within the Latin group are subjects presenting both paradigmatic nasal morphologies (typically, the classic "Greek," "Roman," and "French" noses) and important cultural differences that greatly influence the subjective perception of the defect and, therefore, the type of change requested. These challenging conditions require a highly "customized" approach, both in the phase of the preoperative planning and in the choice of surgical options. The authors, by means of a photographic analysis systematically used with all their rhinoplasty patients, have identified some archetypes of nasal pyramid configurations that are typical of the reference population (44% Northern Italy, 15% Central Italy, 41% Southern Italy) and, on the basis of a medium/long-term evaluation of the relationship between adopted surgical techniques and results, propose some surgical options that are specific for every nasal archetype. This categorization helps the surgeon carry out a structured preoperative aesthetical analysis and provides him/her with both an anticipation of what findings to expect and the ability to deal with already diagnosed problems. Every archetype shows strong similarities in terms of preoperative analysis, surgical solutions, and subjective perception of the success of the surgery. The surgical options used proved to be

  6. [The detection of the human papilloma virus during hyperplastic processes in the nose, ears and throat].

    PubMed

    Boiko, N V; Panchenko, S N

    The objective of the present work was to carry out the virological and histological studies of various neoplastic and hyperplastic processes in the nose, ears, and throat with a view to identifying the presence of human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus. The brush biopsies and remote neoplasms obtained from 18 patients (including 2 children and 16 adults) presenting with various ENT diseases and tumours were available for the virological investigation with the use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a system MY09-MY11 degenerate primers . The histological study of biopsies and remote neoplasms was carried out by means of conventional light microscopy. The virological and histological studies conducted in parallel confirmed the diagnostic significance of morphological changes at the tissue and cellular levels caused by the human papilloma virus.

  7. Detection of hydrazine and monomethyl hydrazine using electronic noses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, R.; Young, R. C.; Buttner, W. J.; Ryan, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    Two electronic noses, the Cyranose electronic nose and the electronic nose developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, have been tested to determine their utility for detecting hydrazine and monomethyl hydrazine (MMH).

  8. CT of soft-tissue neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Weekes, R.G.; McLeod, R.A.; Reiman, H.M.; Pritchard, D.J.

    1985-02-01

    The computed tomographic scans (CT) of 84 patients with untreated soft-tissue neoplasms were studied, 75 with primary and nine with secondary lesions. Each scan was evaluated using several criteria: homogeneity and density, presence and type of calcification, presence of bony destruction, involvement of multiple muscle groups, definition of adjacent fat, border definition, and vessel or nerve involvement. CT demonstrated the lesion in all 84 patients and showed excellent anatomic detail in 64 of the 75 patients with primary neoplasms. The CT findings were characteristic enough to suggest the histology of the neoplasm in only 13 lesions (nine lipomas, three hemangiomas, one neurofibroma). No malignant neoplasm had CT characteristics specific enough to differentiate it from any other malignant tumor. However, malignant neoplasms could be differentiated from benign neoplasms in 88% of the cases.

  9. 21 CFR 878.3680 - Nose prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nose prosthesis. 878.3680 Section 878.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3680 Nose prosthesis....

  10. 21 CFR 878.3680 - Nose prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nose prosthesis. 878.3680 Section 878.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3680 Nose prosthesis....

  11. 21 CFR 878.3680 - Nose prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nose prosthesis. 878.3680 Section 878.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3680 Nose prosthesis....

  12. 21 CFR 878.3680 - Nose prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nose prosthesis. 878.3680 Section 878.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3680 Nose prosthesis....

  13. 21 CFR 878.3680 - Nose prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nose prosthesis. 878.3680 Section 878.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3680 Nose prosthesis....

  14. Electronic nose for space program applications.

    PubMed

    Young, Rebecca C; Buttner, William J; Linnell, Bruce R; Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2003-08-01

    The ability to monitor air contaminants in the shuttle and the International Space Station is important to ensure the health and safety of astronauts, and equipment integrity. Three specific space applications have been identified that would benefit from a chemical monitor: (a) organic contaminants in space cabin air; (b) hypergolic propellant contaminants in the shuttle airlock; (c) pre-combustion signature vapors from electrical fires. NASA at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is assessing several commercial and developing electronic noses (E-noses) for these applications. A short series of tests identified those E-noses that exhibited sufficient sensitivity to the vapors of interest. Only two E-noses exhibited sufficient sensitivity for hypergolic fuels at the required levels, while several commercial E-noses showed sufficient sensitivity of common organic vapors. These E-noses were subjected to further tests to assess their ability to identify vapors. Development and testing of E-nose models using vendor supplied software packages correctly identified vapors with an accuracy of 70-90%. In-house software improvements increased the identification rates between 90 and 100%. Further software enhancements are under development. Details on the experimental setup, test protocols, and results on E-nose performance are presented in this paper along with special emphasis on specific software enhancements. c2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Roman Nose, Cheyenne: A Brief Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Maurice

    1989-01-01

    Examines the military career of Roman Nose, war chief of the Hmisis band of northern Cheyenne, highlighting the hostilities of 1865-68. Describes Roman Nose's leadership of the fierce Dog Soldiers, his confrontations with Hancock, Custer, Sherman, and Forsyth, and his religious beliefs and practices. Contains 36 references. (SV)

  16. Electronic nose for space program applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Rebecca C.; Buttner, William J.; Linnell, Bruce R.; Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2003-01-01

    The ability to monitor air contaminants in the shuttle and the International Space Station is important to ensure the health and safety of astronauts, and equipment integrity. Three specific space applications have been identified that would benefit from a chemical monitor: (a) organic contaminants in space cabin air; (b) hypergolic propellant contaminants in the shuttle airlock; (c) pre-combustion signature vapors from electrical fires. NASA at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is assessing several commercial and developing electronic noses (E-noses) for these applications. A short series of tests identified those E-noses that exhibited sufficient sensitivity to the vapors of interest. Only two E-noses exhibited sufficient sensitivity for hypergolic fuels at the required levels, while several commercial E-noses showed sufficient sensitivity of common organic vapors. These E-noses were subjected to further tests to assess their ability to identify vapors. Development and testing of E-nose models using vendor supplied software packages correctly identified vapors with an accuracy of 70-90%. In-house software improvements increased the identification rates between 90 and 100%. Further software enhancements are under development. Details on the experimental setup, test protocols, and results on E-nose performance are presented in this paper along with special emphasis on specific software enhancements. c2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electronic nose for space program applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Rebecca C.; Buttner, William J.; Linnell, Bruce R.; Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2003-01-01

    The ability to monitor air contaminants in the shuttle and the International Space Station is important to ensure the health and safety of astronauts, and equipment integrity. Three specific space applications have been identified that would benefit from a chemical monitor: (a) organic contaminants in space cabin air; (b) hypergolic propellant contaminants in the shuttle airlock; (c) pre-combustion signature vapors from electrical fires. NASA at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is assessing several commercial and developing electronic noses (E-noses) for these applications. A short series of tests identified those E-noses that exhibited sufficient sensitivity to the vapors of interest. Only two E-noses exhibited sufficient sensitivity for hypergolic fuels at the required levels, while several commercial E-noses showed sufficient sensitivity of common organic vapors. These E-noses were subjected to further tests to assess their ability to identify vapors. Development and testing of E-nose models using vendor supplied software packages correctly identified vapors with an accuracy of 70-90%. In-house software improvements increased the identification rates between 90 and 100%. Further software enhancements are under development. Details on the experimental setup, test protocols, and results on E-nose performance are presented in this paper along with special emphasis on specific software enhancements. c2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Second Malignant Neoplasms Following Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanath

    2012-01-01

    More than half of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy as a part of their treatment. With the increasing number of long-term cancer survivors, there is a growing concern about the risk of radiation induced second malignant neoplasm [SMN]. This risk appears to be highest for survivors of childhood cancers. The exact mechanism and dose-response relationship for radiation induced malignancy is not well understood, however, there have been growing efforts to develop strategies for the prevention and mitigation of radiation induced cancers. This review article focuses on the incidence, etiology, and risk factors for SMN in various organs after radiotherapy. PMID:23249860

  19. Embedded Electronic Nose for VOC Mixture Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Botre, B.; Gharpure, D.; Shaligram, A.

    2009-05-23

    This paper details the work done towards a low cost, small size, portable embedded electronic nose (e-nose) and its application for analysis of different VOC mixtures. The sensor array is composed of commercially available metal oxide semiconductor sensors by Figaro. The embedded E-nose consists of an ADuC831 and has an RS 232 interface for Desktop PC for higher level data collection and NN training. The ESP tool with database facility and multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP NN) is employed to interface the embedded hardware and to process the electronic nose signals before being classified. The use of embedded e-nose for the quantification of VOCs in mixtures is investigated.

  20. Micro-Electronic Nose System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zee, Frank C.

    2011-12-01

    The ability to "smell" various gas vapors and complex odors is important for many applications such as environmental monitoring for detecting toxic gases as well as quality control in the processing of food, cosmetics, and other chemical products for commercial industries. Mimicking the architecture of the biological nose, a miniature electronic nose system was designed and developed consisting of an array of sensor devices, signal-processing circuits, and software pattern-recognition algorithms. The array of sensors used polymer/carbon-black composite thin-films, which would swell or expand reversibly and reproducibly and cause a resistance change upon exposure to a wide variety of gases. Two types of sensor devices were fabricated using silicon micromachining techniques to form "wells" that confined the polymer/carbon-black to a small and specific area. The first type of sensor device formed the "well" by etching into the silicon substrate using bulk micromachining. The second type built a high-aspect-ratio "well" on the surface of a silicon wafer using SU-8 photoresist. Two sizes of "wells" were fabricated: 500 x 600 mum² and 250 x 250 mum². Custom signal-processing circuits were implemented on a printed circuit board and as an application-specific integrated-circuit (ASIC) chip. The circuits were not only able to measure and amplify the small resistance changes, which corresponded to small ppm (parts-per-million) changes in gas concentrations, but were also adaptable to accommodate the various characteristics of the different thin-films. Since the thin-films were not specific to any one particular gas vapor, an array of sensors each containing a different thin-film was used to produce a distributed response pattern when exposed to a gas vapor. Pattern recognition, including a clustering algorithm and two artificial neural network algorithms, was used to classify the response pattern and identify the gas vapor or odor. Two gas experiments were performed, one

  1. The Spindle Cell Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-01-01

    Spindle cell neoplasms are defined as neoplasms that consist of spindle-shaped cells in the histopathology. Spindle cell neoplasms can affect the oral cavity. In the oral cavity, the origin of the spindle cell neoplasms may be traced to epithelial, mesenchymal and odontogenic components. This article aims to review the spindle cell neoplasms of the oral cavity with emphasis on histopathology. PMID:26351482

  2. Bio-Benchmarking of Electronic Nose Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Berna, Amalia Z.; Anderson, Alisha R.; Trowell, Stephen C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Electronic noses, E-Noses, are instruments designed to reproduce the performance of animal noses or antennae but generally they cannot match the discriminating power of the biological original and have, therefore, been of limited utility. The manner in which odorant space is sampled is a critical factor in the performance of all noses but so far it has been described in detail only for the fly antenna. Methodology Here we describe how a set of metal oxide (MOx) E-Nose sensors, which is the most commonly used type, samples odorant space and compare it with what is known about fly odorant receptors (ORs). Principal Findings Compared with a fly's odorant receptors, MOx sensors from an electronic nose are on average more narrowly tuned but much more highly correlated with each other. A set of insect ORs can therefore sample broader regions of odorant space independently and redundantly than an equivalent number of MOx sensors. The comparison also highlights some important questions about the molecular nature of fly ORs. Conclusions The comparative approach generates practical learnings that may be taken up by solid-state physicists or engineers in designing new solid-state electronic nose sensors. It also potentially deepens our understanding of the performance of the biological system. PMID:19641604

  3. Diffuse lichenplanopilaris and multiple squamous neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Leigh; Eduardo, Castro; Butler, David F

    2015-01-15

    Lichen planus is an inflammatory process that can affect the skin, mucosa, and hair follicles. An increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma has been noted in lichen planus of the mucosa. Rarely, in chronic, hypertrophic lichen planus of the skin, squamous cell neoplasms have been reported. We report a case of new onset lichen planopilaris with multiple squamous cell neoplasms.

  4. 9 CFR 311.11 - Neoplasms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Neoplasms. 311.11 Section 311.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.11 Neoplasms. (a)...

  5. Northrop F-5F shark nose development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, O. R.

    1978-01-01

    During spin susceptibility testing of the Northrop F-5F airplane, two erect spin entries were obtained from purely longitudinal control inputs at low speed. Post flight analysis of the data showed that the initial yaw departure occurred at zero sideslip, and review of wind tunnel data showed significant yawing moments present at angles of attack well above stall. Further analysis of this wind tunnel data indicated that the yawing moments were being generated by the long slender nose of the airplane. Redesign of the nose was accomplished, resulting in a nose configuration which completely alleviated the asymmetric yawing moments.

  6. [Total gastrectomy for gastric neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Taschieri, A M; Rovati, M P; Elli, M; Pisacreta, M; Danelli, P G; Lesma, A; Cristaldi, M; Tommaso, V; Kurihara, H

    1995-01-01

    In spite of the decreasing incidence of gastric carcinoma, as it is reported in recent reports from the U.S.A., total gastrectomy and its surgical indications results and complications, focus the interest of surgeons. We analize 61 cases of total gastrectomy for carcinoma, treated in the years 1982-1992. Perioperative mortality and long term survival appear highly satisfactory, mainly if one considers that the site and extension of the neoplasms treated would have severely impaired the possibilities of cure or long term survival with surgery of lesser momentum. We believe that nowaday indications for total gastrectomy can be widened in the hope of improving results of gastric cancer surgery with no or little additional risk.

  7. [Benign neoplasms of female urethra].

    PubMed

    Usunova, I; Vladimirov, V

    2009-01-01

    In clinical practice neoplasms of female urethra are found usually in adult women. They can also be found in adolescent girls and as rare congenital abnormality. Those conditions are most frequently detected during gynecological or urological examination. Symptoms are few. Lesions are situated at the outer orifice of urethra at the broad basis. Authors have diagnosed and treated 331 patients between 26 and 87 years. Electro coagulation has been performed in 185 patients. Surgical excision has been performed in 41 patients. Excision with following electrocoagulation has been performed in 18 patients. Conservative treatment has been performed in 87 patients. Histological sample analysis has provided diagnosis of urethral polyp, caruncle and mucosal prolaps. Second electrocoagulation after surgical excision has been performed in 5 patients. Collaboration between urologists and gynecologists is essential for early diagnosis, prophylaxis and successful treatment of above mentioned diseases.

  8. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that is... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section...

  9. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that is... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section...

  10. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  11. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  12. 21 CFR 874.4140 - Ear, nose, and throat bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat bur. 874.4140 Section 874...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4140 Ear, nose, and throat bur. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat bur is a device consisting of an interchangeable drill bit that...

  13. How to Use Nose Drops Properly

    MedlinePlus

    ... Use nose drops only as long as directed Store medications out of reach of children Copyright 2013, American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. All rights reserved. This material may not be reproduced, displayed, modified, or distributed ...

  14. White-Nose Syndrome of bats

    Treesearch

    Jessie A. Glaeser; Martin J. Pfeiffer; Daniel L. Lindner

    2016-01-01

    Devastating. Catastrophic. Unprecedented. This is how white-nose syndrome of bats (WNS) is characterized. It is one of the deadliest wildlife diseases ever observed and could have significant impacts on outdoor recreation, agriculture and wildlife management.

  15. Two Algorithms for Processing Electronic Nose Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Rebecca; Linnell, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Two algorithms for processing the digitized readings of electronic noses, and computer programs to implement the algorithms, have been devised in a continuing effort to increase the utility of electronic noses as means of identifying airborne compounds and measuring their concentrations. One algorithm identifies the two vapors in a two-vapor mixture and estimates the concentration of each vapor (in principle, this algorithm could be extended to more than two vapors). The other algorithm identifies a single vapor and estimates its concentration.

  16. Monitoring the Halitosis with an Electronic Nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Enrico; Pennazza, Giorgio; Santonico, Marco; Capuano, Rosamaria; Mummolo, Stefano; Marzo, Giuseppe; Di Natale, Corrado

    2011-09-01

    Halitosis disease results in a distinctive volatile fingerprint of the individual exhaled breath. Here a QMB based electronic nose has been used to study such fingerprints. This study aimed at following the time evolution of halitosis conditions in patients undergoing two different treatments. Professional operators assessed oral odor, and their evaluation was used for classifier training. Results show that the electronic nose can identify the presence of oral malodor and the attenuation of the condition achieved by the application of the treatment.

  17. Electronic Nose Feature Extraction Methods: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jia; Guo, Xiuzhen; Duan, Shukai; Jia, Pengfei; Wang, Lidan; Peng, Chao; Zhang, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    Many research groups in academia and industry are focusing on the performance improvement of electronic nose (E-nose) systems mainly involving three optimizations, which are sensitive material selection and sensor array optimization, enhanced feature extraction methods and pattern recognition method selection. For a specific application, the feature extraction method is a basic part of these three optimizations and a key point in E-nose system performance improvement. The aim of a feature extraction method is to extract robust information from the sensor response with less redundancy to ensure the effectiveness of the subsequent pattern recognition algorithm. Many kinds of feature extraction methods have been used in E-nose applications, such as extraction from the original response curves, curve fitting parameters, transform domains, phase space (PS) and dynamic moments (DM), parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), energy vector (EV), power density spectrum (PSD), window time slicing (WTS) and moving window time slicing (MWTS), moving window function capture (MWFC), etc. The object of this review is to provide a summary of the various feature extraction methods used in E-noses in recent years, as well as to give some suggestions and new inspiration to propose more effective feature extraction methods for the development of E-nose technology. PMID:26540056

  18. Male reproductive system neoplasms. Special listing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    This Special Listing of Current Cancer Research Projects is a publication of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute. Each Listing contains descriptions of ongoing projects in one selected cancer research area. The research areas include: Experimental prostate carcinogenesis and related biology; Epidemiology of prostatic neoplasms; Preclinical studies of prostatic cancers; Diagnosis and prognosis of prostatic cancer; Therapy of prostatic cancer; Experimental testicular carcinogenesis and related biology; Epidemiology of testicular cancer; Diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of testicular neoplasms; Penile and other reproductive system neoplasms.

  19. Molecular diagnostics of myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Langabeer, Stephen E; Andrikovics, Hajnalka; Asp, Julia; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Carillo, Serge; Haslam, Karl; Kjaer, Lasse; Lippert, Eric; Mansier, Olivier; Oppliger Leibundgut, Elisabeth; Percy, Melanie J; Porret, Naomi; Palmqvist, Lars; Schwarz, Jiri; McMullin, Mary F; Schnittger, Susanne; Pallisgaard, Niels; Hermouet, Sylvie

    2015-10-01

    Since the discovery of the JAK2 V617F mutation in the majority of the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis ten years ago, further MPN-specific mutational events, notably in JAK2 exon 12, MPL exon 10 and CALR exon 9 have been identified. These discoveries have been rapidly incorporated into evolving molecular diagnostic algorithms. Whilst many of these mutations appear to have prognostic implications, establishing MPN diagnosis is of immediate clinical importance with selection, implementation and the continual evaluation of the appropriate laboratory methodology to achieve this diagnosis similarly vital. The advantages and limitations of these approaches in identifying and quantitating the common MPN-associated mutations are considered herein with particular regard to their clinical utility. The evolution of molecular diagnostic applications and platforms has occurred in parallel with the discovery of MPN-associated mutations, and it therefore appears likely that emerging technologies such as next-generation sequencing and digital PCR will in the future play an increasing role in the molecular diagnosis of MPN.

  20. Imaging features of myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Murphy, I G; Mitchell, E L; Raso-Barnett, L; Godfrey, A L; Godfrey, E M

    2017-10-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a heterogeneous group of haematological disorders including polycythaemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythaemia (ET), primary myelofibrosis (PMF), and chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). These disorders show large overlap in genetic and clinical presentations, and can have many different imaging manifestations. Unusual thromboses, embolic events throughout the systemic or pulmonary vasculature, or osseous findings can often be clues to the underlying disease. There is limited literature about the imaging features of these disorders, and this may result in under-diagnosis. Multiple treatments are available for symptom control, and the development of multiple new pharmacological inhibitors has significantly improved morbidity and prognosis. Knowledge of these conditions may enable the radiologist to suggest an MPN as a possible underlying cause for certain imaging findings, particularly unexplained splanchnic venous thrombosis, i.e. in the absence of chronic liver disease or pancreatitis. The aim of the present review is to outline using examples the different categories of MPN and illustrate the variety of radiological findings associated with these diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. All rights reserved.

  1. Neoplasms of the Small Bowel

    PubMed Central

    Silberman, Howard; Crichlow, Robert W.; Caplan, Howard S.

    1974-01-01

    Small bowel tumors are unusual lesions exhibiting nonspecific clinical features often diagnosed at an advanced stage. In the cases studied at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania nearly all the 32 patients with malignancies were symptomatic whereas in the 34 patients with benign lesions the condition was discovered as an incidental finding in about half of the patients. Weight loss, palpable mass or anemia usually indicated malignancy. Small bowel radiography was the most useful diagnostic aid in the present series. While the etiology of these lesions is unknown, villous adenomas probably bear a relationship to carcinoma. The association between chronic regional enteritis and small bowel tumors is unestablished but suggestive. An analysis of reported series reveals a disproportionate incidence of additional primary tumors in patients with small bowel neoplasms. Surgical extirpation is indicated for curative treatment. In the present series, resection in hope of cure was carried out in 25 of 32 malignant tumors resulting in eight five-year survivals. One of these latter lived nine years with disseminated malignant carcinoid reflecting the occasional indolent course of this tumor. PMID:4842978

  2. Pathological and Molecular Evaluation of Pancreatic Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Rishi, Arvind; Goggins, Michael; Wood, Laura D.; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic neoplasms are morphologically and genetically heterogeneous and include wide variety of neoplasms ranging from benign to malignant with an extremely poor clinical outcome. Our understanding of these pancreatic neoplasms has improved significantly with recent advances in cancer sequencing. Awareness of molecular pathogenesis brings in new opportunities for early detection, improved prognostication, and personalized gene-specific therapies. Here we review the pathological classification of pancreatic neoplasms from their molecular and genetic perspective. All of the major tumor types that arise in the pancreas have been sequenced, and a new classification that incorporates molecular findings together with pathological findings is now possible (Table 1). This classification has significant implications for our understanding of why tumors aggregate in some families, for the development of early detection tests, and for the development of personalized therapies for patients with established cancers. Here we describe this new classification using the framework of the standard histological classification. PMID:25726050

  3. Automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Matorin, Oleg V.; Reshetov, Igor V.

    2015-01-01

    We have analysed the clinical symptoms and the malignization signs of pigmented skin neoplasms. We have estimated the complex of clinical parameters which could be measured for the purpose of skin screening diagnostic via digital image processing. Allowable errors of clinical parameter characterization have been calculated, and the origin of these errors has been discussed. Proposed technique for automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms should become an effective tool for early skin diagnostics.

  4. Computerized tomography in evaluation of hepatic neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, R.F.; Resende, C.; Tishler, J.M.A.; Aldrete, J.S.; Shin, M.S.; Rubin, E.; Rahn, N.H.

    1984-08-01

    The authors reviewed their experience with computerized tomography (CT) of the abdomen in 212 patients with histologically documented liver neoplasms seen during a 30-month period. The CT findings in cavernous hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia were specific, and permitted accurate diagnosis of this lesion before biopsy. The CT appearance of all other lesions was variable. CT is useful in providing an accurate evaluation of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic extent of the neoplasm.

  5. Predicting odor pleasantness with an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Rafi; Medhanie, Abebe; Roth, Yehudah; Harel, David; Sobel, Noam

    2010-04-15

    A primary goal for artificial nose (eNose) technology is to report perceptual qualities of novel odors. Currently, however, eNoses primarily detect and discriminate between odorants they previously "learned". We tuned an eNose to human odor pleasantness estimates. We then used the eNose to predict the pleasantness of novel odorants, and tested these predictions in naïve subjects who had not participated in the tuning procedure. We found that our apparatus generated odorant pleasantness ratings with above 80% similarity to average human ratings, and with above 90% accuracy at discriminating between categorically pleasant or unpleasant odorants. Similar results were obtained in two cultures, native Israeli and native Ethiopian, without retuning of the apparatus. These findings suggest that unlike in vision and audition, in olfaction there is a systematic predictable link between stimulus structure and stimulus pleasantness. This goes in contrast to the popular notion that odorant pleasantness is completely subjective, and may provide a new method for odor screening and environmental monitoring, as well as a critical building block for digital transmission of smell.

  6. Predicting Odor Pleasantness with an Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Rafi; Medhanie, Abebe; Roth, Yehudah; Harel, David; Sobel, Noam

    2010-01-01

    A primary goal for artificial nose (eNose) technology is to report perceptual qualities of novel odors. Currently, however, eNoses primarily detect and discriminate between odorants they previously “learned”. We tuned an eNose to human odor pleasantness estimates. We then used the eNose to predict the pleasantness of novel odorants, and tested these predictions in naïve subjects who had not participated in the tuning procedure. We found that our apparatus generated odorant pleasantness ratings with above 80% similarity to average human ratings, and with above 90% accuracy at discriminating between categorically pleasant or unpleasant odorants. Similar results were obtained in two cultures, native Israeli and native Ethiopian, without retuning of the apparatus. These findings suggest that unlike in vision and audition, in olfaction there is a systematic predictable link between stimulus structure and stimulus pleasantness. This goes in contrast to the popular notion that odorant pleasantness is completely subjective, and may provide a new method for odor screening and environmental monitoring, as well as a critical building block for digital transmission of smell. PMID:20418961

  7. How to Harmonize the Ethnic Nose.

    PubMed

    Grinfeld, Artur; Betelli, Rodrigo; Arruda, Guilherme; Almeida, Washington

    2016-12-01

    The demand for cosmetic surgery has significantly increased in the past few years mainly due to economic rise witnessed in Brazil. The state of Bahia has predominately Afro-descendant population with the same countrywide scenario, where the surgeon must be able to face challenges such as the specifics demands of rhinoplasty in an ethnic nose. It represents not only a different nasal variety from the Caucasoid, but also a complex anatomical feature, with its own peculiarities, as thicker and oilier skin, with bulky fibrous fatty tissue with numerous sebaceous glands. The nose tip features both inadequate projection and definition, including a short columella and underdeveloped nasal spine. The lower lateral cartilages are lower and thinner if compared with Caucasian noses. The nasal septum is short and fragile, whereas the dorsum is low and wide with deep nasion and wide obtuse angles between nasal bones. Finally, yet importantly, the nose base has increased interalar distance and excess of alar wing, with an ovoid, horizontal, and open nostril. Considering all these uniqueness, the existing challenges to approach an ethnic nose are clear. It requires skill and accurate surgical maneuvers to seek facial harmony while maintaining the characteristics that define the individual ethnicity and identity. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  8. Inherited predisposition to myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Amy V.

    2013-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are haematological disorders characterized by an overproduction of mature myeloid cells with a tendency to transform to acute myeloid leukaemia. Clonal proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells is driven by somatically acquired mutations, most notably JAK2 V617F, but there are important features relating to pathogenesis and phenotypic diversity that cannot be explained by acquired mutations alone. In this review we consider what is currently known about the role that inherited factors play in the development and biology of both sporadic and familial forms of MPN. Although most MPN cases appear to be sporadic, familial predisposition has been recognized for many years in a subset of cases and epidemiological studies have indicated the presence of common susceptibility alleles. Currently the JAK2 46/1 haplotype (also referred to as ‘GGCC’) is the strongest known predisposition factor for sporadic MPNs carrying a JAK2 V617F mutation, explaining a large proportion of the heritability of this disorder. Less is known about what genetic variants predispose to MPNs that lack JAK2 V617F, but there have been recent reports of interesting associations in biologically plausible candidates, and more loci are set to emerge with the application of systematic genome-wide association methodologies. Several highly penetrant predisposition variants that affect erythropoietin signalling, thrombopoietin signalling or oxygen sensing have been characterized in families with nonclonal hereditary erythrocytosis or thrombocytosis, but much less is known about familial predisposition to true clonal MPN. The heterogeneous pattern of inheritance and presumed genetic heterogeneity in these families makes analysis difficult, but whole exome or genome sequencing should provide novel insights into these elusive disorders. PMID:23926457

  9. Global coagulation in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tripodi, Armando; Chantarangkul, Veena; Gianniello, Francesca; Clerici, Marigrazia; Lemma, Laura; Padovan, Lidia; Gatti, Loredana; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Peyvandi, Flora

    2013-12-01

    In spite of their recognized risk of thrombosis, patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) show little or no abnormalities of traditional coagulation tests, perhaps because these are unable to represent the balance between pro- and anticoagulants nor the effect of platelets and blood cells. We investigated whether global tests such as thrombin generation in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or thromboelastometry in whole blood were able to detect signs of procoagulant imbalance in MPN. The endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) of 111 patients and 89 controls was measured in PRP with platelet count adjusted to the original patient- or control-count. Testing was performed with and without thrombomodulin (the physiological protein C activator) and results were expressed as ETP ratios (with/without thrombomodulin). High ETP ratios reflect resistance to thrombomodulin and were taken as indexes of procoagulant imbalance. Patients were also investigated by thromboelastometry that provides such parameters as the clot formation time (CFT) and maximal clot firmness (MCF). Short CFT or high MCF were taken as indexes of procoagulant imbalance. ETP ratios were higher in patients than in controls and were directly correlated with platelet counts and inversely with the plasma levels of free protein S, protein C and antithrombin. Patients on hydroxyurea had lower ETP ratios than those on other treatments. CFT was shorter and MCF was greater in patients than controls; CFT and MCF were correlated with platelet counts. In conclusion, patients with MPN display a procoagulant imbalance detectable by thrombin generation and thromboelastometry. These tests might be useful in the frame of clinical trials to assess their association with the occurrence of thrombosis and with the effect of therapeutic strategies in MPN.

  10. Calreticulin Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Lavi, Noa

    2014-01-01

    With the discovery of the JAK2V617F mutation in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph−) myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) in 2005, major advances have been made in the diagnosis of MPNs, in understanding of their pathogenesis involving the JAK/STAT pathway, and finally in the development of novel therapies targeting this pathway. Nevertheless, it remains unknown which mutations exist in approximately one-third of patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). At the end of 2013, two studies identified recurrent mutations in the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR) using whole-exome sequencing. These mutations were revealed in the majority of ET and PMF patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL but not in polycythemia vera patients. Somatic 52-bp deletions (type 1 mutations) and recurrent 5-bp insertions (type 2 mutations) in exon 9 of the CALR gene (the last exon encoding the C-terminal amino acids of the protein calreticulin) were detected and found always to generate frameshift mutations. All detected mutant calreticulin proteins shared a novel amino acid sequence at the C-terminal. Mutations in CALR are acquired early in the clonal history of the disease, and they cause activation of JAK/STAT signaling. The CALR mutations are the second most frequent mutations in Ph− MPN patients after the JAK2V617F mutation, and their detection has significantly improved the diagnostic approach for ET and PMF. The characteristics of the CALR mutations as well as their diagnostic, clinical, and pathogenesis implications are discussed in this review. PMID:25386351

  11. Electronic Noses and Tongues in Wine Industry

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Méndez, María L.; De Saja, José A.; González-Antón, Rocio; García-Hernández, Celia; Medina-Plaza, Cristina; García-Cabezón, Cristina; Martín-Pedrosa, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The quality of wines is usually evaluated by a sensory panel formed of trained experts or traditional chemical analysis. Over the last few decades, electronic noses (e-noses) and electronic tongues have been developed to determine the quality of foods and beverages. They consist of arrays of sensors with cross-sensitivity, combined with pattern recognition software, which provide a fingerprint of the samples that can be used to discriminate or classify the samples. This holistic approach is inspired by the method used in mammals to recognize food through their senses. They have been widely applied to the analysis of wines, including quality control, aging control, or the detection of fraudulence, among others. In this paper, the current status of research and development in the field of e-noses and tongues applied to the analysis of wines is reviewed. Their potential applications in the wine industry are described. The review ends with a final comment about expected future developments. PMID:27826547

  12. Progress of Biomimetic Artificial Nose and Tongue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Qingjun

    2009-05-01

    As two of the basic senses of human beings, olfaction and gustation play a very important role in daily life. These two types of chemical sensors are important for recognizing environmental conditions. Electronic nose and electronic tongue, which mimics animals' olfaction and gustation to detect odors and chemical components, have been carried out due to their potential commercial applications for biomedicine, food industry and environmental protection. In this report, the biomimetic artificial nose and tongue is presented. Firstly, the smell and taste sensors mimicking the mammalian olfaction and gustation was described, and then, some mimetic design of electronic nose and tongue for odorants and tastants detection are developed. Finally, olfactory and gustatory biosensors are presented as the developing trends of this field.

  13. Handbook of Machine Olfaction: Electronic Nose Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Tim C.; Schiffman, Susan S.; Nagle, H. Troy; Gardner, Julian W.

    2003-02-01

    "Electronic noses" are instruments which mimic the sense of smell. Consisting of olfactory sensors and a suitable signal processing unit, they are able to detect and distinguish odors precisely and at low cost. This makes them very useful for a remarkable variety of applications in the food and pharmaceutical industry, in environmental control or clinical diagnostics and more. The scope covers biological and technical fundamentals and up-to-date research. Contributions by renowned international scientists as well as application-oriented news from successful "e-nose" manufacturers give a well-rounded account of the topic, and this coverage from R&D to applications makes this book a must-have read for e-nose researchers, designers and users alike.

  14. NASA Orbiter Extended Nose Landing Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Steven R.; Jensen, Scott A.; Hansen, Christopher P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the design, development, test, and evaluation of a prototype Extended Nose Landing Gear (ENLG) for NASA's Space Shuttle orbiters. The ENLG is a proposed orbiter modification developed in-house at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) by a joint government/industry team. It increases the orbiter's nose landing gear (NLG) length, thereby changing the vehicle's angle of attack during rollout, which lowers the aerodynamic forces on the vehicle. This, in combination with a dynamic elevon change, will lower the loads on the orbiter's main landing gear (MLG). The extension is accomplished by adding a telescoping section to the current NLG strut that will be pneumatically extended during NLG deployment.

  15. 14 CFR 23.499 - Supplementary conditions for nose wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Structure Ground Loads § 23.499 Supplementary conditions for nose wheels. In determining the ground loads on nose wheels and affected supporting structures, and assuming that the shock absorbers and tires are...

  16. 14 CFR 23.499 - Supplementary conditions for nose wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Structure Ground Loads § 23.499 Supplementary conditions for nose wheels. In determining the ground loads on nose wheels and affected supporting structures, and assuming that the shock absorbers and tires are...

  17. 14 CFR 23.499 - Supplementary conditions for nose wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Structure Ground Loads § 23.499 Supplementary conditions for nose wheels. In determining the ground loads on nose wheels and affected supporting structures, and assuming that the shock absorbers and tires are...

  18. 14 CFR 23.499 - Supplementary conditions for nose wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Structure Ground Loads § 23.499 Supplementary conditions for nose wheels. In determining the ground loads on nose wheels and affected supporting structures, and assuming that the shock absorbers and tires are...

  19. 14 CFR 23.499 - Supplementary conditions for nose wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Structure Ground Loads § 23.499 Supplementary conditions for nose wheels. In determining the ground loads on nose wheels and affected supporting structures, and assuming that the shock absorbers and tires are...

  20. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders Pediatric Obesity ... self-esteem, and isolation from their peers. Pediatric obesity and otolaryngic problems Otolaryngologists, or ear, nose, and ...

  1. Proteomic expression profiling of thyroid neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Braunschweig, Till; Kaserer, Klaus; Chung, Joon-Yong; Bilke, Sven; Krizman, David; Knezevic, Vladimir; Hewitt, Stephen M

    2007-03-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasm with multiple histologic subtypes, each associated with different treatments and outcomes. Differentiating benign neoplasms such as follicular adenomas from malignant entities such as follicular carcinomas and papillary carcinoma can be challenging. To define the proteomic profile of different thyroid tumors, we screened an antibody array of 330 features against five thyroid neoplasms: follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, and medullary carcinoma as well as normal thyroid epithelium. Eight candidate biomarkers; c-erbB-2, Stat5a, Annexin IV, IL-11, RARα, FGF7, Caspase 9, and phospho-c-myc were identified as differentially expressed on the antibody array, and validated with immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, with a total of 144 samples of the same variety of thyroid neoplasms. Analysis revealed c-erbB-2, Annexin IV, and Stat5a have potential clinical utility to differentiate follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma from each other. By using an antibody array as a discovery platform and a tissue microarray as a first step in validation on a large number of specimens, we have identified new markers that have potential utility in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms. Copyright © 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. CD200 Expression in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Love, Jason E; Thompson, Kimberly; Kilgore, Mark R; Westerhoff, Maria; Murphy, Claire E; Papanicolau-Sengos, Antonios; McCormick, Kinsey A; Shankaran, Veena; Vandeven, Natalie; Miller, Faith; Blom, Astrid; Nghiem, Paul T; Kussick, Steven J

    2017-09-01

    CD200 expression has been well studied in hematopoietic malignancies; however, CD200 expression has not been well-characterized in neuroendocrine neoplasms. We examined CD200 expression in 391 neuroendocrine neoplasms from various anatomic sites. Tissue blocks containing pulmonary small cell carcinoma, pulmonary carcinoid, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, gastrointestinal carcinoid, and Merkel cell carcinoma were evaluated for CD200 expression by immunohistochemistry. A set of nonneuroendocrine carcinomas was stained for comparison. CD200 was expressed in 87% of the neuroendocrine neoplasms studied, including 60 of 72 (83%) pulmonary small cell carcinomas, 15 of 22 (68%) pulmonary carcinoids, three of four (75%) pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, 125 of 146 (86%) Merkel cell carcinomas, 79 of 83 (95%) gastrointestinal luminal carcinoids, and 56 of 60 (93%) pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Thirty-two of 157 (20%) nonneuroendocrine carcinomas expressed CD200. In gastrointestinal carcinoid and pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms, CD200 negativity correlated with higher grade. CD200 is a relatively sensitive marker of neuroendocrine neoplasms and represents a potential therapeutic target in these difficult-to-treat malignancies.

  3. Diagnosis and management of pediatric endocrine neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Corey W; Wahoff, David C

    2009-06-01

    To guide the clinician in the diagnostic evaluation of endocrine neoplasms, to distinguish between benign and malignant and determine when surgical referral is indicated. Thyroid nodules are uncommon but malignant in as many as 27% of patients. Fine needle aspiration should be considered in adolescents, in which accuracy is as high as 90%; surgical resection should be undertaken in all preadolescents (<13 years) with a thyroid nodule. Prognosis for most primary thyroid malignancies is favorable. Primary hyperparathyroidism is rare and due to an adenoma in up to 70% of patients. Surgical resection carries a cure rate of 95% with the use of intraoperative parathyroid hormone assays. Adrenal neoplasms cover a wide spectrum of disorder. They are functional in 95% of patients and require a thorough diagnostic evaluation prior to surgical resection. Malignant lesions of the adrenal gland carry a poor prognosis when complete surgical resection cannot be achieved. Carcinoids are rare neuroendocrine neoplasms, primarily of the appendix, associated with carcinoid syndrome in 10% of patients. The indolent course warrants aggressive surgical control. Endocrine neoplasms are unusual in the pediatric population. Their presence should raise concern about a multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome and appropriate diagnostic and endocrine work-up. Most neoplasms will require surgical resection.

  4. Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma of the nose without paraproteinemia.

    PubMed

    Kunikata, Nagisa; Kikuchi, Katsuko; Hashimoto, Akira; Tagami, Hachiro

    2006-11-01

    We report a 65-year-old Japanese woman who presented with a nodule on the nose near the left eye. Histological examination of the totally resected lesion revealed the typical features of necrobiotic xanthogranuloma (NXG). However, her laboratory investigation revealed no paraproteinemia. We believe that the present case represents a cutaneous variant of NXG without accompaniment of paraproteinemia or any systemic involvement.

  5. Sharpening ball-nose mill cutters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    Economical attachment allows faster, more precise grinding. Vibrationless and rigid relation between grinding wheel and cutter allows for extremely high finish and accurate grinding. Leveling device levels flutes with respect to toolholder rotation that generates ball-nose radius. Constant relief around entire profile of cutting edge produces longer tool life.

  6. Ethnic considerations of the crooked nose.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Roxana

    2011-10-01

    Ethnic features must be taken into account when planning surgery of a patient with a crooked nose. A systematic approach is presented with emphasis on reinforcing structural support, correcting functional and cosmetic abnormalities, aligning structures, and using camouflage techniques to improve appearance and function. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  7. Sharpening ball-nose mill cutters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    Economical attachment allows faster, more precise grinding. Vibrationless and rigid relation between grinding wheel and cutter allows for extremely high finish and accurate grinding. Leveling device levels flutes with respect to toolholder rotation that generates ball-nose radius. Constant relief around entire profile of cutting edge produces longer tool life.

  8. The Gendered Nose and its Lack: "Medieval" Nose-Cutting and its Modern Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Time magazine's cover photograph in August 2010 of a noseless Afghan woman beside the emotive strap line, "What happens if we leave Afghanistan," fuelled debate about the "medieval" practices of the Taliban, whose local commander had instructed her husband to take her nose and ears. Press reports attributed the violence to the Pashtun tradition that a dishonored husband "lost his nose." This equation of nose-cutting with tradition begs questions not only about the Orientalist lens of the western press when viewing Afghanistan, but also about the assumption that the word "medieval" can function as a label for such practices. A study of medieval nose-cutting suggests that its identification as an "eastern" practice should be challenged. Rather clearer is its connection with patriarchal values of authority and honor: the victims of such punishment have not always been women, but this is nevertheless a gendered punishment of the powerless by the powerful.

  9. Ion nose spectral structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferradas, C. P.; Zhang, J.-C.; Spence, H. E.; Kistler, L. M.; Larsen, B. A.; Reeves, G.; Skoug, R.; Funsten, H.

    2016-12-01

    We present a statistical study of nose-like structures observed in energetic hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions near the inner edge of the plasma sheet. Nose structures are spectral features named after the characteristic shapes of energy bands or gaps in the energy-time spectrograms of in situ measured ion fluxes. Using 22 months of observations from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron instrument onboard Van Allen Probe A, we determine the number of noses observed, and the minimum L shell reached and energy of each nose on each pass through the inner magnetosphere. We find that multiple noses occur more frequently in heavy ions than in H+ and are most often observed during quiet times. The heavy-ion noses penetrate to lower L shells than H+ noses, and there is an energy-magnetic local time (MLT) dependence in the nose locations and energies that is similar for all species. The observations are interpreted by using a steady state model of ion drift in the inner magnetosphere. The model is able to explain the energy and MLT dependence of the different types of nose structures. Different ion charge-exchange lifetimes are the main cause for the deeper penetration of heavy-ion noses. The species dependence and preferred geomagnetic conditions of multiple-nose events indicate that they must be on long drift paths, leading to strong charge-exchange effects. The results provide important insight into the spatial distribution, species dependence, and geomagnetic conditions under which nose structures occur.

  10. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  11. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  12. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION First-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.105 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class...

  13. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  14. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Third-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.305 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class...

  15. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION Second-Class Airman Medical Certificate § 67.205 Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class...

  16. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class airman... by, or that may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  17. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class airman..., vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  18. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class airman..., vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  19. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class airman... may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  20. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class airman... by, or that may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  1. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class airman... by, or that may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  2. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class airman... may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  3. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class airman..., vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  4. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class airman... may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium....

  5. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1989-05-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. The clinical signs are usually the result of an overproduction of hormones that are normally biosynthesized by the neoplastic endocrine gland (orthoendocrine syndromes), as opposed to those that are the result of hormones that are not normally biosynthesized and secreted by those cells that have undergone neoplastic transformation (paraendocrine syndromes, also known as endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes or ectopic hormone syndromes). The biological effects produced by a neoplasm may be out of proportion to the actual size of the tumor. This report focuses on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas. Discussion will focus on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis. 2 tabs.

  6. Conventional radiological strategy of common gastrointestinal neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi-Zhuo; Wu, Pei-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes the clinical characteristics and imaging features of common gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms in terms of conventional radiological imaging methods. Barium studies are readily available for displaying primary malignancies and are minimally or not at all invasive. A neoplasm may be manifested as various imaging findings, including mucosal disruption, soft mass, ulcer, submucosal invasion and lumen stenosis on barium studies. Benign tumors typically appear as smoothly marginated intramural masses. Malignant neoplasms most often appear as irregular infiltrative lesions on barium examination. Tumor extension to adjacent GI segments may be indistinct on barium images. Cross-sectional images such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may provide more accurate details of the adjacent organ invasion, omental or peritoneal spread. PMID:25628800

  7. Surgical treatment of small bowel neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Coco, C; Rizzo, G; Manno, A; Mattana, C; Verbo, A

    2010-04-01

    Small intestinal neoplasms are uncommon cancers. Benign small intestinal tumors (e.g., leiomyoma, lipoma, hamartoma, or desmoid tumor) usually are asymptomatic but may present with complications. Primary malignancies of the small intestine, including adenocarcinoma, leiomyosarcoma, carcinoid, and lymphoma, are often symptomatic and may present with intestinal obstruction, jaundice, bleeding, or pain. Metastatic neoplasms may involve the small intestine via contiguous spread, peritoneal metastases or hematogenous metastases. Because the small intestine is relatively inaccessible to routine endoscopy, diagnosis of small intestinal neoplasms is often delayed for months after onset of symptoms. During last years the increase of small bowel endoscopy and other diagnostic tools allow earlier non-operative diagnosis. Even though radical resection of small bowel cancer plays an important role, the 5 yr overall survival remains low.

  8. Intraductal Oncocytic Papillary Neoplasms of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Kallen, Michael E; Naini, Bita V

    2016-09-01

    Intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms (IOPNs) are cystic neoplasms with intraductal growth and complex papillae composed of oncocytic cells. IOPNs have been reported both in the pancreas and biliary tree, and are most likely closely related in these 2 locations. In the pancreas, these rare tumors are now considered 1 of the 4 histologic subtypes of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Significant differences in histology, immunophenotype, and molecular genetics have been reported between IOPNs and other IPMN subtypes. However, there are limited data regarding the clinical behavior and prognosis of IOPNs in comparison to other subtypes of IPMN. We review features of pancreatic IOPNs and discuss the differential diagnosis of other intraductal lesions in the pancreas.

  9. Pathology and Molecular Genetics of Pancreatic Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Laura D.; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is fundamentally a genetic disease caused by the ac cumulation of somatic mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. In the last decade, rapid advances in sequencing and bioinformatic technology led to an explosion in sequencing studies of cancer genomes, greatly expanding our knowledge of the genetic changes underlying a variety of tumor types. Several of these studies of cancer genomes have focused on pancreatic neoplasms, and cancers from the pancreas are some of the best characterized tumors at the genetic level. Pancreatic neoplasms encompass a wide array of clinical diseases, from benign cysts to deadly cancers, and the genetic alterations underlying neoplasms of the pancreas are similarly diverse. This new knowledge of pancreatic cancer genomes has deepened our understanding of tumorigenesis in the pancreas and has opened several promising new avenues for novel diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:23187835

  10. Diagnostic Approach to Eosinophilic Renal Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kryvenko, Oleksandr N.; Jorda, Merce; Argani, Pedram; Epstein, Jonathan I.

    2015-01-01

    Context Eosinophilic renal neoplasms include a spectrum of solid and papillary tumors ranging from indolent benign oncocytoma to highly aggressive malignancies. Recognition of the correct nature of the tumor, especially in biopsy specimens, is paramount for patient management. Objective To review the diagnostic approach to eosinophilic renal neoplasms with light microscopy and ancillary techniques. Data Sources Review of the published literature and personal experience. Conclusions The following tumors are in the differential diagnosis of oncocytic renal cell neoplasm: oncocytoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC), hybrid tumor, tubulocystic carcinoma, papillary RCC, clear cell RCC with predominant eosinophilic cell morphology, follicular thyroid-like RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis–associated RCC, acquired cystic disease–associated RCC, rhabdoid RCC, microphthalmia transcription factor translocation RCC, epithelioid angiomyolipoma, and unclassified RCC. In low-grade nonpapillary eosinophilic neoplasms, distinction between oncocytoma and low-grade RCC mostly rests on histomorphology; however, cytokeratin 7 immunostain may be helpful. In high-grade nonpapillary lesions, there is more of a role for ancillary techniques, including immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin 7, CA9, CD10, racemase, HMB45, and Melan-A. In papillary eosinophilic neoplasms, it is important to distinguish sporadic type 2 papillary RCC from microphthalmia transcription factor translocation and hereditary leiomyomatosis–associated RCC. Histologic and cytologic features along with immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization tests for TFE3 (Xp11.2) and TFEB [t(6;11)] are reliable confirmatory tests. Eosinophilic epithelial neoplasms with architecture, cytology, and/or immunoprofile not qualifying for either of the established types of RCC should be classified as unclassified eosinophilic RCC and arbitrarily assigned a grade (low or high). PMID:25357116

  11. Recently described neoplasms of the sinonasal tract.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A

    2016-03-01

    Surgical pathology of the sinonasal region (i.e., nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses) is notoriously difficult, due in part to the remarkable diversity of neoplasms that may be encountered in this area. In addition, a number of neoplasms have been only recently described in the sinonasal tract, further compounding the difficulty for pathologists who are not yet familiar with them. This manuscript will review the clinicopathologic features of some of the recently described sinonasal tumor types: NUT midline carcinoma, HPV-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic-like features, SMARCB1 (INI-1) deficient sinonasal carcinoma, biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma, and adamantinoma-like Ewing family tumor.

  12. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas with concurrent pancreatic and periampullary neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Sahora, K; Crippa, S; Zamboni, G; Ferrone, C; Warshaw, A L; Lillemoe, K; Mino-Kenudson, M; Falconi, M; Fernandez-del Castillo, C

    2016-02-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) have been reported to be associated with concurrent, distinct pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (con-PDAC) in about 8% (range, 4-10%) of resected branch duct (BD) lesions. In addition, other pancreatic and ampullary tumors are occasionally diagnosed with IPMN in patients undergoing pancreatic surgery. The objective of this study is to describe the prevalence, clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of IPMN with concurrent pancreatic and ampullary neoplasms, especially con-PDAC. The combined databases of pancreatic resections from the Massachusetts General Hospital and the Negrar Hospital, Italy, were analyzed for patients who had been diagnosed with IPMN and concurrent pancreatic or ampullary neoplasms. 2762 patients underwent pancreatic surgery from January 2000 to December 2012. Sixteen percent (n = 441) had pathologically confirmed IPMN and 11% of these (n = 50) had a different distinct synchronous pancreatic neoplasm. The majority of these, 62%, were con-PDAC, followed by neuroendocrine neoplasms (10%) and ampullary carcinoma (10%). Less frequently, mucinous (6%) as well as serous cystic neoplasms (6%), adenosquamous carcinoma (4%) and distal bile duct cancer (2%) were diagnosed. Among all patients with synchronous neoplasms, 66% harbored BD-IPMN, 28% combined IPMN and 6% main duct IPMN. Abdominal pain and/or jaundice were the leading symptoms in half of patients. IPMN, mainly BD-IPMN, are associated with con-PDAC in about 7% of patients and account for 62% of all concurrent pancreatic/ampullary neoplasms. Other synchronous neoplasms may be found sporadically with IPMN without a suspected association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Centaur D-1A nose fairing jettison test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prati, W. M.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to verify the functional and structural capability of the Centaur D-1A nose fairing. A full-scale flight-type nose fairing was jettisoned at the Lewis Research Center Space Power Chamber at simulated altitude. Two complete jettisons of the nose fairing were performed, one without aft helper springs and one with aft helper springs. A ''static'' rotation test was also performed to verify capability of the helper springs and to allow clearance measurements between the nose fairing and spacecraft envelope mock-up at certain discrete nose fairing rotation angles. Nose fairing trajectories, structural deflections, clearances, and hinge forces during jettison are presented. Data from subsequent Centaur D-1A flights, relative to nose fairing jettisons, are compared with the experimental results.

  14. Delusional Disorder Arising From a CNS Neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Stupinski, John; Kim, Jihye; Francois, Dimitry

    2017-01-01

    Erotomania arising from a central nervous system (CNS) neoplasm has not been previously described. Here, we present the first known case, to our knowledge, of erotomania with associated persecutory delusions arising following diagnosis and treatment of a left frontal lobe brain tumor.

  15. [Viruses as agents inducing cutaneous neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Bravo Puccio, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    The oncogenic role of viruses in cutaneous neoplasms has been known by humankind for more than a century, when the origin of the common wart, or verruca vulgaris, was attributed to the human papilloma virus (HPV). Currently, virus-induced cutaneous neoplasms may be grouped into solid tumors and lymphoproliferative disorders. HPV, from which various serotypes are now known, each being linked to a specific neoplasm, the human herpes virus type 8 producing Kaposi sarcoma, and the Merkel cell polyomavirus, highlight among the first group. Regarding the lymphoproliferative disorders, we should mention the human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1), which is responsible for the T-cell lymphomas, in which the cutaneous manifestations are non-specific and have a wide spectrum, thus posing a challenge for differential diagnosis. The Epstein Barr virus, linked to nasal lymphomas of NK/T-cells and Hydroa-like cutaneous lymphomas, is also part of this group. In an era in which the genetic and molecular aspects of cancer research prevail, we may not leave behind the concept of neoplasms as a result an infection with a viral agent, which opens a wide array of new possibilities for cancer treatment based on antiviral drugs.

  16. Clinical experience in appendiceal neuroendocrine neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Ozcelik, Caglar K.; Bozdogan, Nazan; Dibekoglu, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study To analyse the incidence of appendiceal neuroendocrine neoplasms in appendectomy specimens and establish the epidemiological and histopathological features, treatment, and clinical course. Material and methods Between 2004 and 2013, 975 patients who underwent appendectomy in Ankara Oncology Education and Research Hospital were retrospectively analysed. Results Neuroendocrine neoplasm was detected in the nine of 975 (0.9%) patients. Neuroendocrine neoplasms were diagnosed in eight patients by appendectomy, which was performed because of the prediagnosis of acute appendicitis, and in one patient by the suspicious mass detection during surgical procedures that were done in the appendix for a different reason. Eight of the patients’ tumours were in the tip of the appendix, and one of the patients’ tumours was at the base of appendix. Tumour size in 77.8% of patients was equal or less than 1 cm, in 22.2% patients it was 1–2 cm. There was tumour invasion in the muscularis propria layer in four patients, in the serosa layer in three patients, and in the deep mesoappendix in two patients. Patients were followed for a median of 78 months. In the follow-up of patients who were operated because of colon cancer, metachronous colon tumour evolved. This patient died due to progressive disease. Other patients are still disease-free. Conclusions The diagnosis of neuroendocrine neoplasm is often incidentally done after appendectomy. Tumour size is important in determining the extent of disease and in the selection of the surgical method during operation. PMID:26793027

  17. Neoplasms identified in free-flying birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegfried, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Nine neoplasms were identified in carcasses of free-flying wild birds received at the National Wildlife Health Laboratory; gross and microscopic descriptions are reported herein. The prevalence of neoplasia in captive and free-flying birds is discussed, and lesions in the present cases are compared with those previously described in mammals and birds.

  18. Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Vassallo, Jose; Chauffaille, Maria de Lourdes Lopes Ferrari; Xavier, Sandra Guerra; Pagnano, Katia Borgia; Nascimento, Ana Clara Kneese; De Souza, Carmino Antonio; Chiattone, Carlos Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Chronic myeloproliferative diseases without the Philadelphia chromosome marker (Ph-), although first described 60 years ago, only became the subject of interest after the turn of the millennium. In 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO) defined the classification of this group of diseases and in 2008 they were renamed myeloproliferative neoplasms based on morphological, cytogenetic and molecular features. In 2005, the identification of a recurrent molecular abnormality characterized by a gain of function with a mutation in the gene encoding Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) paved the way for greater knowledge of the pathophysiology of myeloproliferative neoplasms. The JAK2 mutation is found in 90-98% of polycythemia vera and in about 50% essential thrombocytosis and primary myelofibrosis. In addition to the JAK2 mutation, other mutations involving TET2 (ten-eleven translocation), LNK (a membrane-bound adaptor protein); IDH1/2 (isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 enzyme); ASXL1 (additional sex combs-like 1) genes were found in myeloproliferative neoplasms thus showing the importance of identifying molecular genetic alterations to confirm diagnosis, guide treatment and improve our understanding of the biology of these diseases. Currently, polycythemia vera, essential thrombocytosis, myelofibrosis, chronic neutrophilic leukemia, chronic eosinophilic leukemia and mastocytosis are included in this group of myeloproliferative neoplasms, but are considered different situations with individualized diagnostic methods and treatment. This review updates pathogenic aspects, molecular genetic alterations, the fundamental criteria for diagnosis and the best approach for each of these entities. PMID:23049404

  19. SNP Array in Hematopoietic Neoplasms: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jinming; Shao, Haipeng

    2015-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis is essential for the diagnosis and prognosis of hematopoietic neoplasms in current clinical practice. Many hematopoietic malignancies are characterized by structural chromosomal abnormalities such as specific translocations, inversions, deletions and/or numerical abnormalities that can be identified by karyotype analysis or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays offer high-resolution identification of copy number variants (CNVs) and acquired copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (LOH)/uniparental disomy (UPD) that are usually not identifiable by conventional cytogenetic analysis and FISH studies. As a result, SNP arrays have been increasingly applied to hematopoietic neoplasms to search for clinically-significant genetic abnormalities. A large numbers of CNVs and UPDs have been identified in a variety of hematopoietic neoplasms. CNVs detected by SNP array in some hematopoietic neoplasms are of prognostic significance. A few specific genes in the affected regions have been implicated in the pathogenesis and may be the targets for specific therapeutic agents in the future. In this review, we summarize the current findings of application of SNP arrays in a variety of hematopoietic malignancies with an emphasis on the clinically significant genetic variants. PMID:27600067

  20. Cancer of the nose and paranasal sinuses in the metal industry: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Comba, P; Barbieri, P G; Battista, G; Belli, S; Ponterio, F; Zanetti, D; Axelson, O

    1992-03-01

    The association between nasal cancer and work in the metal industry was investigated in a case-control study located in the province of Brescia, north eastern Italy. Thirty five cases of malignant epithelial neoplasms of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses who were resident in the province of Brescia and diagnosed or treated by the ear, nose, and throat department and the radiotherapy unit (Centro Alte Energie) of the Brescia Hospital in the years 1980-9 were included in the study. Controls (102) were patients affected by benign and malignant neoplasms of the head and neck who were resident in the Brescia Province and matched the cases by age and sex. All the subjects were interviewed by telephone. Metal workers showed an increased risk of nasal cancer (odds ratio (OR) 3.1; 90% confidence interval (90% CI) 0.48-20); a higher risk was associated with work in foundries (OR 5.9; 90 CI 0.77-46). Work in wood, leather, and textile industries was also associated with increased risk of nasal cancer.

  1. Sex and the nose: human pheromonal responses

    PubMed Central

    Bhutta, Mr Mahmood F

    2007-01-01

    The chemosensory functions of the human nose are underappreciated. Traditional teaching is that the sense of smell detects volatile compounds, which may then allow the identification of substances that may be beneficial or harmful—such as good versus putrefied food. However, increasing evidence from research in other animals suggests that olfaction may serve another and more important purpose, that of mate selection in sexual reproduction; indeed, olfaction may be an essential impetus for evolution. PMID:17541097

  2. Reconstruction of the burned nose and ear.

    PubMed

    Bernard, S L

    2000-01-01

    Patients who have survived thermal injuries to the face suffer from severe disfigurement. When the nose and ear are involved, the resulting deformities are immediately obvious to all who see the patient. This level of injury results in a self-imposed confinement; the patients never leave their homes. It is therefore important that we plastic surgeons know, understand, and use all options available to improve our patients' appearance and ultimately their mental and physical well being.

  3. A Look at Digital Nose Wheel Steering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-24

    22 Bibliographl 24 Appendix A: Sample Rates A-1 Appendix B: NS Case Sumaries B-1 Overview This report assesses the relative merits of digital nose...tune controllers. Upgrades of more mature systems also make use of software flexibili’y. Central flight control software on digitally controlled...fault detection. Two approaches (among many) to digital system built-in-test are the use of a reference model and the use of component failure models to

  4. Electronic Noses for Environmental Monitoring Applications

    PubMed Central

    Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Rosso, Renato Del

    2014-01-01

    Electronic nose applications in environmental monitoring are nowadays of great interest, because of the instruments' proven capability of recognizing and discriminating between a variety of different gases and odors using just a small number of sensors. Such applications in the environmental field include analysis of parameters relating to environmental quality, process control, and verification of efficiency of odor control systems. This article reviews the findings of recent scientific studies in this field, with particular focus on the abovementioned applications. In general, these studies prove that electronic noses are mostly suitable for the different applications reported, especially if the instruments are specifically developed and fine-tuned. As a general rule, literature studies also discuss the critical aspects connected with the different possible uses, as well as research regarding the development of effective solutions. However, currently the main limit to the diffusion of electronic noses as environmental monitoring tools is their complexity and the lack of specific regulation for their standardization, as their use entails a large number of degrees of freedom, regarding for instance the training and the data processing procedures. PMID:25347583

  5. The nose and sleep-disordered breathing.

    PubMed

    Pirsig, Wolfgang

    2003-06-01

    The influence of nasal obstruction on the pathogenesis of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has not yet been clearly defined. Similarly, a lack of data about the long-term effect of nasal surgery on snoring and obstructive sleep apnea keeps discussion of this topic controversial. This special issue of Sleep and Breathing presents four review articles that try to elucidate the complex interrelationship between the nose and SDB. An outstanding review article opens our eyes to the fascinating palette of the activities of nitric oxide, focusing on its inseparable connection to obstructive sleep apnea. Another summarizes data on the role of the nose in the pathophysiology of SDB and the slow progress concerning rhinologic treatments for SDB. The part of nose in the diagnostics of SDB is treated in a third article that also focuses on acoustic reflectometry as the newest technical development in the diagnostics of SDB. The last article elucidates the effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure on the nasal passages including the authors' own data on the relatively poor long-term compliance of nasal continuous positive airway pressure.

  6. Aesthetic septorhinoplasty in the burned nose.

    PubMed

    Hafezi, Farhad; Karimi, Hamid; Nouhi, Amirhosein

    2005-03-01

    Patients who have survived thermal injuries to the face suffer severe disfigurement from the devastating deformities of full-thickness facial burns. The nose is the prominent central organ of the face, which has crucial effect on Aesthetic appearance. The plastic surgeon's role to deal with such cases is to undertake procedures to produce a more pleasant look although the target organ could be the non-burned areas of the face. It is a common belief that surgical intervention under the scarred or grafted nose is risky and may result in skin or covering graft necrosis. For this reason, plastic surgeons are cautious and hesitate to perform Aesthetic surgery on burn scarred tissue. We present 13 cases, 10 women and three men with complete or subtotal nasal burn. Classic Aesthetic Rhinoplasty operations were performed to create a better appearance and correct any internal or external deviations. These procedures are carried out under severely burned skins, or previously grafted and reconstructed noses. Cases were followed for about a one-year period. There was no necrosis in any part of skin after surgery. We believe that Aesthetic rhinoplasty can be done safely in these victims with pleasing outcome. The problems that we encountered in these cases were irregularities of burned alar margins, multiple operations and intractable nasal deviation in severe cases.

  7. Rhinoplasty for the multiply revised nose.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the problems encountered on revising a multiply operated nose and the methods used in correcting such problems. The study included 50 cases presenting for revision rhinoplasty after having had 2 or more previous rhinoplasties. An external rhinoplasty approach was used in all cases. Simultaneous septal surgery was done whenever indicated. All cases were followed for a mean period of 32 months (range, 1.5-8 years). Evaluation of the surgical result depended on clinical examination, comparison of pre- and postoperative photographs, and degree of patients' satisfaction with their aesthetic and functional outcome. Functionally, 68% suffered nasal obstruction that was mainly caused by septal deviations and nasal valve problems. Aesthetically, the most common deformities of the upper two thirds of the nose included pollybeak (64%), dorsal irregularities (54%), dorsal saddle (44%), and open roof deformity (42%), whereas the deformities of lower third included depressed tip (68%), tip contour irregularities (60%), and overrotated tip (42%). Nasal grafting was necessary in all cases; usually more than 1 type of graft was used in each case. Postoperatively, 79% of the patients, with preoperative nasal obstruction, reported improved breathing; 84% were satisfied with their aesthetic result; and only 8 cases (16%) requested further revision to correct minor deformities. Revision of a multiply operated nose is a complex and technically demanding task, yet, in a good percentage of cases, aesthetic as well as functional improvement are still possible.

  8. Breath alcohol, multisensor arrays, and electronic noses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsson, Nils; Winquist, Fredrik

    1997-01-01

    The concept behind a volatile compound mapper, or electronic nose, is to use the combination of multiple gas sensors and pattern recognition techniques to detect and quantify substances in gas mixtures. There are several different kinds of sensors which have been developed during recent years of which the base techniques are conducting polymers, piezo electrical crystals and solid state devices. In this work we have used a combination of gas sensitive field effect devices and semiconducting metal oxides. The most useful pattern recognition routine was found to be ANNs, which is a mathematical approximation of the human neural network. The aim of this work is to evaluate the possibility of using electronic noses in field instruments to detect drugs, arson residues, explosives etc. As a test application we have chosen breath alcohol measurements. There are several reasons for this. Breath samples are a quite complex mixture contains between 200 and 300 substances at trace levels. The alcohol level is low but still possible to handle. There are needs for replacing large and heavy mobile instruments with smaller devices. Current instrumentation is rather sensitive to interfering substances. The work so far has dealt with sampling, how to introduce ethanol and other substances in the breath, correlation measurements between the electronic nose and headspace GC, and how to evaluate the sensor signals.

  9. Fruit volatile analysis using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Vallone, Simona; Lloyd, Nathan W; Ebeler, Susan E; Zakharov, Florence

    2012-03-30

    Numerous and diverse physiological changes occur during fruit ripening, including the development of a specific volatile blend that characterizes fruit aroma. Maturity at harvest is one of the key factors influencing the flavor quality of fruits and vegetables. The validation of robust methods that rapidly assess fruit maturity and aroma quality would allow improved management of advanced breeding programs, production practices and postharvest handling. Over the last three decades, much research has been conducted to develop so-called electronic noses, which are devices able to rapidly detect odors and flavors. Currently there are several commercially available electronic noses able to perform volatile analysis, based on different technologies. The electronic nose used in our work (zNose, EST, Newbury Park, CA, USA), consists of ultra-fast gas chromatography coupled with a surface acoustic wave sensor (UFGC-SAW). This technology has already been tested for its ability to monitor quality of various commodities, including detection of deterioration in apple; ripeness and rot evaluation in mango; aroma profiling of thymus species; C(6) volatile compounds in grape berries; characterization of vegetable oil and detection of adulterants in virgin coconut oil. This system can perform the three major steps of aroma analysis: headspace sampling, separation of volatile compounds, and detection. In about one minute, the output, a chromatogram, is produced and, after a purging cycle, the instrument is ready for further analysis. The results obtained with the zNose can be compared to those of other gas-chromatographic systems by calculation of Kovats Indices (KI). Once the instrument has been tuned with an alkane standard solution, the retention times are automatically converted into KIs. However, slight changes in temperature and flow rate are expected to occur over time, causing retention times to drift. Also, depending on the polarity of the column stationary phase, the

  10. Intraductal tubular neoplasms of the bile ducts.

    PubMed

    Katabi, Nora; Torres, Javiera; Klimstra, David S

    2012-11-01

    Although most tumors of the bile ducts are predominantly invasive, some have an exophytic pattern within the bile ducts; these intraductal papillary neoplasms usually have well-formed papillae at the microscopic level. In this study, however, we describe a novel type of intraductal neoplasm of the bile ducts with a predominantly tubular growth pattern and other distinctive features. Ten cases of biliary intraductal neoplasms with a predominantly tubular architecture were identified in the files of the Pathology Department at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center from 1983 to 2006. For each of these cases we studied the clinical presentation, histologic and immunohistochemical features (9 cases only), and the clinical follow-up of the patients. Three male and 7 female patients (38 to 78 y) presented with obstructive jaundice or abdominal pain. Eight of the patients underwent a partial hepatectomy; 2 underwent a laparoscopic bile duct excision, followed by a pancreatoduodenectomy in one of them. The tumors range in size from 0.6 to 8.0 cm. The intraductal portions of the tumors (8 intrahepatic, 1 extrahepatic hilar, 1 common bile duct) were densely cellular and composed of back-to-back tubular glands and solid sheets with minimal papillary architecture. The cells were cuboidal to columnar with mild to moderate cytologic atypia. Foci of necrosis were present in the intraductal component in 6 cases. An extraductal invasive carcinoma component was present in 7 cases, composing <25% of the tumor in 4 cases, and >75% in 1 case. It was observed by immunohistochemical analysis that the tumor cells expressed CK19, CA19-9, MUC1, and MUC6 in most cases and that SMAD4 expression was retained. MUC2, MUC5AC, HepPar1, synaptophysin, chromogranin, p53, and CA125 were negative in all cases and most were negative for CEA-M and B72.3. Four patients were free of tumor recurrence after 7 to 85 months (average, 27 mo). Four patients with an invasive carcinoma component suffered

  11. Measuring step geometry using the Nose-to-Nose method: validity and repeatability.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Daniel; Sloan, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Precise measurement of stairway geometry is important in order to establish whether a stairway meets design goals, standards and codes. The Traditional method of measuring risers and runs (goings) does not measure the stairs in the way that codes define risers and runs, and does not measure the stairs in the way users experience them. The Nose-to-Nose method does. This study was conducted to determine the validity and repeatability of this method. Two researchers used this method to study the risers and runs on two separate stairways, one carpeted and the other not. Results demonstrated a high degree of validity and repeatability.

  12. [Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: concepts and related issues].

    PubMed

    Lai, Maode

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) has been gradually increasing and most of NENs are located in gastroenteropancreatic system. With the application of target therapeutic drugs in recent years, the precise pathological diagnosis is required critically for effective clinical treatment: target therapy needs targeted pathological diagnosis. In this article, the definition of NENs, and the century-long evolution of diagnostic terms and grades are reviewed. The eight steps of pathological diagnosis of NENs for clinical needs are described. Four inconsistent concepts in NENs diagnosis are also discussed, that is immunohistochemical biomarkers of pathological diagnosis, subpopulation of neuroendocrine neoplasms with high proliferative activity, general adenocarcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation and molecular genetics characteristics. To correctly understand these issues would be of great value for diagnosis and treatment of NENs.

  13. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Very little is known regarding the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in companion animals. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms. Most studies of thoracic neoplasia have focused on the pathology of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the lung with little attention given to diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Although the cited incidence rate for primary respiratory tract neoplasia is low, 8.5 cases per 100,000 dogs and 5.5 cases per 100,000 cats, intrathoracic masses often attract attention out of proportion to their actual importance since they are often readily visualized on routine thoracic radiographs.

  14. Towards a Chemiresistive Sensor-Integrated Electronic Nose: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Shih-Wen; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2013-01-01

    Electronic noses have potential applications in daily life, but are restricted by their bulky size and high price. This review focuses on the use of chemiresistive gas sensors, metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensors and conductive polymer gas sensors in an electronic nose for system integration to reduce size and cost. The review covers the system design considerations and the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated technology for a chemiresistive gas sensor electronic nose, including the integrated sensor array, its readout interface, and pattern recognition hardware. In addition, the state-of-the-art technology integrated in the electronic nose is also presented, such as the sensing front-end chip, electronic nose signal processing chip, and the electronic nose system-on-chip. PMID:24152879

  15. Spitz nevus and atypical spitzoid neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Maria; Lazova, Rossitza

    2010-09-01

    Spitz nevus (SN) and Spitzoid malignant melanoma (SMM) represent benign and malignant counterparts at both ends of the spectrum of Spitzoid lesions. Atypical Spitzoid neoplasm (ASN) is a poorly defined and characterized category of melanocytic tumors with histologic features of both benign Spitz nevi and malignant melanomas. The group of ASN represents a mixture of Spitz nevi with atypical features and Spitzoid melanomas. However, at the current moment in time, histopathologists are not capable of differentiating between the 2 in some cases and are forced to place them in this ambiguous category, where the behavior of these lesions cannot be predicted with certainty. Because this group encompasses both benign and malignant lesions, and perhaps also a separate category of melanocytic tumors that behave better than conventional melanomas, some of these neoplasms can metastasize and kill patients, whereas others have no metastatic potential, and yet others might only metastasize to regional lymph nodes. Although diagnostic accuracy has improved over the years, many of these lesions remain controversial, and there is still poor interobserver agreement in classifying problematic Spitzoid lesions among experienced dermatopathologists. The objective of this review article is to summarize the most relevant information about SN and ASNs. At this time histologic examination remains the golden standard for diagnosing these melanocytic neoplasms. We therefore concentrate on the histopathologic, clinical, and dermoscopic aspects of these lesions. We also review the most recent advances in immunohistochemical and molecular diagnostics as well as discuss the controversies and dilemma regarding whether to consider sentinel lymph node biopsy for diagnostically ambiguous melanocytic neoplasms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Endocrine neoplasms in familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Li, Yulong; Simonds, William F

    2015-06-01

    Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT), comprise 2-5% of primary hyperparathyroidism cases. Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism are also associated with a range of endocrine and nonendocrine tumors, including potential malignancies. Complications of the associated neoplasms are the major causes of morbidities and mortalities in these familial syndromes, e.g., parathyroid carcinoma in HPT-JT syndrome; thymic, bronchial, and enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1; and medullary thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma in MEN2A. Because of the different underlying mechanisms of neoplasia, these familial tumors may have different characteristics compared with their sporadic counterparts. Large-scale clinical trials are frequently lacking due to the rarity of these diseases. With technological advances and the development of new medications, the natural history, diagnosis, and management of these syndromes are also evolving. In this article, we summarize the recent knowledge on endocrine neoplasms in three familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes, with an emphasis on disease characteristics, molecular pathogenesis, recent developments in biochemical and radiological evaluation, and expert opinions on surgical and medical therapies. Because these familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes are associated with a wide variety of tumors in different organs, this review is focused on those endocrine neoplasms with malignant potential. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  17. Ion nose spectral structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

    DOE PAGES

    Ferradas, C. P.; Zhang, J. -C.; Spence, H. E.; ...

    2016-11-22

    Here, we present a statistical study of nose-like structures observed in energetic hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions near the inner edge of the plasma sheet. Nose structures are spectral features named after the characteristic shapes of energy bands or gaps in the energy-time spectrograms of in situ measured ion fluxes. Using 22 months of observations from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument onboard Van Allen Probe A, we determine the number of noses observed, and the minimum L-shell reached and energy of each nose on each pass through the inner magnetosphere. We find that multiple noses occur more frequentlymore » in heavy ions than in H+, and are most often observed during quiet times. The heavy-ion noses penetrate to lower L shells than H+ noses and there is an energy-magnetic local time (MLT) dependence in the nose locations and energies that is similar for all species. The observations are interpreted using a steady-state model of ion drift in the inner magnetosphere. The model is able to explain the energy and MLT dependence of the different types of nose structures. Different ion charge exchange lifetimes are the main cause for the deeper penetration of heavy-ion noses. The species dependence and preferred geomagnetic conditions of multiple-nose events indicate that they must be on long drift paths, leading to strong charge-exchange effects. The results provide important insight into the spatial distribution, species dependence, and geomagnetic conditions under which nose structures occur.« less

  18. Ion nose spectral structures observed by the Van Allen Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Ferradas, C. P.; Zhang, J. -C.; Spence, H. E.; Kistler, L. M.; Larsen, Brian Arthur; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Skoug, Ruth M.; Funsten, Herbert O.

    2016-11-22

    Here, we present a statistical study of nose-like structures observed in energetic hydrogen, helium, and oxygen ions near the inner edge of the plasma sheet. Nose structures are spectral features named after the characteristic shapes of energy bands or gaps in the energy-time spectrograms of in situ measured ion fluxes. Using 22 months of observations from the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument onboard Van Allen Probe A, we determine the number of noses observed, and the minimum L-shell reached and energy of each nose on each pass through the inner magnetosphere. We find that multiple noses occur more frequently in heavy ions than in H+, and are most often observed during quiet times. The heavy-ion noses penetrate to lower L shells than H+ noses and there is an energy-magnetic local time (MLT) dependence in the nose locations and energies that is similar for all species. The observations are interpreted using a steady-state model of ion drift in the inner magnetosphere. The model is able to explain the energy and MLT dependence of the different types of nose structures. Different ion charge exchange lifetimes are the main cause for the deeper penetration of heavy-ion noses. The species dependence and preferred geomagnetic conditions of multiple-nose events indicate that they must be on long drift paths, leading to strong charge-exchange effects. The results provide important insight into the spatial distribution, species dependence, and geomagnetic conditions under which nose structures occur.

  19. Ulcerative Lupus Vulgaris Over Nose, Leading to Cosmetic Deformity

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Pragya A; Mehta, Malay J; Patel, Bhumi B

    2015-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV), is a chronic and progressive form of secondary cutaneous tuberculosis. In India, it is commonly seen over buttocks, thighs, and legs whereas involvement of nose is quite rare. Ulcerative variant particularly over nose causes destruction of cartilage, leading to irreversible deformities and contracture. High-index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and prevention of cosmetic deformity. A case of LV over nose in a young male with ulceration is reported who responded well to anti-tubercular therapy, but left with scarring of nose, which could have been prevented if adequate awareness regarding extra-pulmonary cases would have been practiced. PMID:25657427

  20. Ulcerative lupus vulgaris over nose, leading to cosmetic deformity.

    PubMed

    Nair, Pragya A; Mehta, Malay J; Patel, Bhumi B

    2015-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV), is a chronic and progressive form of secondary cutaneous tuberculosis. In India, it is commonly seen over buttocks, thighs, and legs whereas involvement of nose is quite rare. Ulcerative variant particularly over nose causes destruction of cartilage, leading to irreversible deformities and contracture. High-index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and prevention of cosmetic deformity. A case of LV over nose in a young male with ulceration is reported who responded well to anti-tubercular therapy, but left with scarring of nose, which could have been prevented if adequate awareness regarding extra-pulmonary cases would have been practiced.

  1. Why Rudolph's nose is red: observational study.

    PubMed

    Ince, Can; van Kuijen, Anne-Marije; Milstein, Dan M J; Yürük, Koray; Folkow, Lars P; Fokkens, Wytske J; Blix, Arnoldus S

    2012-12-14

    To characterise the functional morphology of the nasal microcirculation in humans in comparison with reindeer as a means of testing the hypothesis that the luminous red nose of Rudolph, one of the most well known reindeer pulling Santa Claus's sleigh, is due to the presence of a highly dense and rich nasal microcirculation. Observational study. Tromsø, Norway (near the North Pole), and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Five healthy human volunteers, two adult reindeer, and a patient with grade 3 nasal polyposis. Architecture of the microvasculature of the nasal septal mucosa and head of the inferior turbinates, kinetics of red blood cells, and real time reactivity of the microcirculation to topical medicines. Similarities between human and reindeer nasal microcirculation were uncovered. Hairpin-like capillaries in the reindeers' nasal septal mucosa were rich in red blood cells, with a perfused vessel density of 20 (SD 0.7) mm/mm(2). Scattered crypt or gland-like structures surrounded by capillaries containing flowing red blood cells were found in human and reindeer noses. In a healthy volunteer, nasal microvascular reactivity was demonstrated by the application of a local anaesthetic with vasoconstrictor activity, which resulted in direct cessation of capillary blood flow. Abnormal microvasculature was observed in the patient with nasal polyposis. The nasal microcirculation of reindeer is richly vascularised, with a vascular density 25% higher than that in humans. These results highlight the intrinsic physiological properties of Rudolph's legendary luminous red nose, which help to protect it from freezing during sleigh rides and to regulate the temperature of the reindeer's brain, factors essential for flying reindeer pulling Santa Claus's sleigh under extreme temperatures.

  2. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and Nose-Hoover dynamics.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Massimiliano; Monnai, Takaaki

    2011-05-12

    We show that systems driven by an external force and described by Nose-Hoover dynamics allow for a consistent nonequilibrium thermodynamics description when the thermostatted variable is initially assumed in a state of canonical equilibrium. By treating the "real" variables as the system and the thermostatted variable as the reservoir, we establish the first and second law of thermodynamics. As for Hamiltonian systems, the entropy production can be expressed as a relative entropy measuring the system-reservoir correlations established during the dynamics.

  3. [Nose surgical anatomy in six aesthetic subunits].

    PubMed

    Chaput, B; Lauwers, F; Lopez, R; Saboye, J; André, A; Grolleau, J-L; Chavoin, J-P

    2013-04-01

    The nose is a complex entity, combining aesthetic and functional roles. Descriptive anatomy is a fundamental science that it can be difficult to relate directly to our daily surgical activity. Reasoning in terms of aesthetic subunits to decide on his actions appeared to us so obvious. The aim of this paper is to resume the anatomical bases relevant to our daily practice in order to fully apprehend the restorative or cosmetic procedures. We discuss the limits of the systematization of these principles in nasal oncology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Proliferating trichilemmal tumor of the nose*

    PubMed Central

    Rosmaninho, Aristóteles; Caetano, Mónica; Oliveira, Ana; de Almeida, Teresa Pinto; Selores, Manuela; Alves, Rosário

    2012-01-01

    Proliferating trichilemmal tumor is a rare tumor originating in the external root sheath, that is usually found in the scalp of middle-aged or elderly females. Its histologic appearance may not correlate with its clinical behavior. In addition, there are no guidelines available for the treatment of these tumors, making its management a challenge for physicians. We report the case of a 53 year-old woman with a proliferating trichilemmal tumor on her nose, which is a very uncommon location for these lesions. PMID:23197215

  5. Nose-Hoover dynamics in a shaker.

    PubMed

    Faou, Erwan

    2006-05-14

    We introduce a new class of systems based on the Nose-Hoover equations. We show that we can add time-dependent terms without destroying the measure and energy conservation properties of the initial system. These "shakers" are typically pseudoperiodic in time, i.e., depend on a collection of harmonic oscillators. We show by numerical examples that it strengthens the sampling properties of the initial system with respect to the Gibbs measure and helps the computation of averages in the canonical ensemble.

  6. S-IB Nose Cone Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as an interim vehicle in MSFC's 'building block' approach to the Saturn rocket development, the Saturn IB utilized Saturn I technology to further develop and refine the larger boosters and the Apollo spacecraft capabilities required for the manned lunar missions. The Saturn IB vehicle was a two-stage rocket and had a payload capability about 50 percent greater than the Saturn I vehicle. The first stage, S-IB stage, was a redesigned first stage of the Saturn I. This photograph is of the S-IB nose cone #3 during assembly in building 4752.

  7. The Gendered Nose and its Lack: “Medieval” Nose-Cutting and its Modern Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Time magazine’s cover photograph in August 2010 of a noseless Afghan woman beside the emotive strap line, “What happens if we leave Afghanistan,” fuelled debate about the “medieval” practices of the Taliban, whose local commander had instructed her husband to take her nose and ears. Press reports attributed the violence to the Pashtun tradition that a dishonored husband “lost his nose.” This equation of nose-cutting with tradition begs questions not only about the Orientalist lens of the western press when viewing Afghanistan, but also about the assumption that the word “medieval” can function as a label for such practices. A study of medieval nose-cutting suggests that its identification as an “eastern” practice should be challenged. Rather clearer is its connection with patriarchal values of authority and honor: the victims of such punishment have not always been women, but this is nevertheless a gendered punishment of the powerless by the powerful. PMID:24790391

  8. The Electronic Nose Training Automation Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schattke, Nathan

    2002-01-01

    The electronic nose is a method of using several sensors in conjunction to identify an unknown gas. Statistical analysis has shown that a large number of training exposures need to be performed in order to get a model that can be depended on. The number of training exposures needed is on the order of 1000. Data acquisition from the noses are generally automatic and built in. The gas generation equipment consists of a Miller-Nelson (MN) flow/temperature/humidity controller and a Kin-Tek (KT) trace gas generator. This equipment has been controlled in the past by an old data acquisition and control system. The new system will use new control boards and an easy graphical user interface. The programming for this is in the LabVIEW G programming language. A language easy for the user to make modifications to. This paper details some of the issues in selecting the components and programming the connections. It is not a primer on LabVIEW programming, a separate CD is being delivered with website files to teach that.

  9. Cough reflex sensitization from esophagus and nose.

    PubMed

    Hennel, Michal; Brozmanova, Mariana; Kollarik, Marian

    2015-12-01

    The diseases of the esophagus and nose are among the major factors contributing to chronic cough although their role in different patient populations is debated. Studies in animal models and in humans show that afferent C-fiber activators applied on esophageal or nasal mucosa do not initiate cough, but enhance cough induced by inhaled irritants. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that activation of esophageal and nasal C-fibers contribute to cough reflex hypersensitivity observed in chronic cough patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and chronic rhinitis, respectively. The afferent nerves mediating cough sensitization from the esophagus are probably the neural crest-derived vagal jugular C-fibers. In addition to their responsiveness to high concentration of acid typical for gastroesophageal reflux (pH < 5), esophageal C-fibers also express receptors for activation by weakly acidic reflux such as receptors highly sensitive to acid and receptors for bile acids. The nature of sensory pathways from the nose and their activators relevant for cough sensitization are less understood. Increased cough reflex sensitivity was also reported in many patients with GERD or rhinitis who do not complain of cough indicating that additional endogenous or exogenous factors may be required to develop chronic coughing in these diseases.

  10. Cough reflex sensitization from esophagus and nose

    PubMed Central

    Hennel, Michal; Brozmanova, Mariana; Kollarik, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The diseases of the esophagus and nose are among the major factors contributing to chronic cough although their role in different patient populations is debated. Studies in animal models and in humans show that afferent C-fiber activators applied on esophageal or nasal mucosa do not initiate cough, but enhance cough induced by inhaled irritants. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that activation of esophageal and nasal C-fibers contribute to cough reflex hypersensitivity observed in chronic cough patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and chronic rhinitis, respectively. The afferent nerves mediating cough sensitization from the esophagus are probably the neural crest-derived vagal jugular C-fibers. In addition to their responsiveness to high concentration of acid typical for gastroesophageal reflux (pH<5), esophageal C-fibers also express receptors for activation by weakly acidic reflux such as receptors highly sensitive to acid and receptors for bile acids. The nature of sensory pathways from the nose and their activators relevant for cough sensitization are less understood. Increased cough reflex sensitivity was also reported in many patients with GERD or rhinitis who do not complain of cough indicating that additional endogenous or exogenous factors may be required to develop chronic coughing in these diseases. PMID:26498387

  11. Electronic Nose: Evaluation of Kamina Prototype Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schattke, Nathan

    2001-01-01

    The Kamina, Sam and Cyranose electronic nose systems were evaluated and partially trained. Much work was performed on the Kamina as it has the ability to respond to low (less than 10 ppb) concentrations of hydrazine compounds. We were able to tell the difference between Hydrazine (Hz) and Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) in standard clean humid air. We were able to detect MMH in reduced pressure (1/3 atm) at about 250 ppb, however the training set was to far from the real situation to be useful now. Various engineering and usability aspects of both the noses was noted, especially the software. One serious physical engineering flaw was remedied in the Kamina system. A gas flow manifold was created for the Sam system. Different chips were evaluated for the Kamina system. It is still unclear if they can be exchanged without retraining the software.The Sam Detect commercial unit was evaluated for solvent detection and evaluation. It was able to successfully identify some solvents. The Cyranose, was observed and evaluated for two days. It has the ability to detect gasses in the 100 parts per million level but not the 10 parts per billion level. It is very sensitive to humidity changes; there is software to partially handle this.

  12. Clinical and imaging overview of functional adrenal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Low, Gavin; Sahi, Kamal

    2012-08-01

    Adrenal adenoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma are four discrete adrenal neoplasms that have the potential for functional activity. Functional adrenal neoplasms can secrete cortisol, aldosterone, sex hormones or catecholamines. These heterogeneous groups of tumors show varied biological behavior and clinical outcomes. These neoplasms are encountered with increasing clinical frequency as a result of an expansion in the volume of medical imaging carried out. The clinical presentation, including prognosis and treatment options, and the imaging features of these neoplasms are discussed. The key radiological observations of each of these neoplasms are shown using multimodality images. Familiarity with the clinical and imaging features of these neoplasms improves diagnosis, and facilitates appropriate clinical decision-making and patient management. © 2012 The Japanese Urological Association.

  13. Pancreatic cystic neoplasms: a review of preoperative diagnosis and management*

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xue-li; Zhang, Qi; Masood, Noman; Masood, Waqas; Zhang, Yun; Liang, Ting-bo

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCNs) are a diverse group of neoplasms in the pancreas, and are more increasingly encountered with widespread abdominal screening and improved imaging techniques. The most common types of PCNs are serous cystic neoplasms (SCNs), mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs), and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). Clinicians frequently feel bewildered in the differential diagnosis and subsequent management among the various types of lesions in the pancreas, which may lead to overtreatment or delayed treatment. The current review provides recent developments in the understanding of the three most common types of PCNs, the latest modalities used in preoperative diagnosis and differential diagnosis, as well as the most up to date management. Suggestions for diagnosis and differential diagnosis of SCNs, MCNs, and IPMNs are also provided for young surgeons. Better understanding of these neoplasms is essential for clinicians to make accurate diagnosis and to provide the best management for patients. PMID:23463761

  14. BRCC3 mutations in myeloid neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Dayong; Nagata, Yasunobu; Grossmann, Vera; Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Okuno, Yusuke; Nagae, Genta; Hosono, Naoko; Schnittger, Susanne; Sanada, Masashi; Przychodzen, Bartlomiej; Kon, Ayana; Polprasert, Chantana; Shen, Wenyi; Clemente, Michael J.; Phillips, James G.; Alpermann, Tamara; Yoshida, Kenichi; Nadarajah, Niroshan; Sekeres, Mikkael A.; Oakley, Kevin; Nguyen, Nhu; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Koeffler, H. Phillip; Klein, Hans-Ulrich; Dugas, Martin; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Miyano, Satoru; Haferlach, Claudia; Kern, Wolfgang; Haferlach, Torsten; Du, Yang; Ogawa, Seishi; Makishima, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies have provided insights into the molecular heterogeneity of various myeloid neoplasms, revealing previously unknown somatic genetic events. In our cohort of 1444 cases analyzed by next generation sequencing, somatic mutations in the gene BRCA1-BRCA2-containing complex 3 (BRCC3) were identified in 28 cases (1.9%). BRCC3 is a member of the JAMM/MPN+ family of zinc metalloproteases capable of cleaving Lys-63 linked polyubiquitin chains, and is implicated in DNA repair. The mutations were located throughout its coding region. The average variant allelic frequency of BRCC3 mutations was 30.1%, and by a serial sample analysis at two different time points a BRCC3 mutation was already identified in the initial stage of a myelodysplastic syndrome. BRCC3 mutations commonly occurred in nonsense (n=12), frameshift (n=4), and splice site (n=5) configurations. Due to the marginal male dominance (odds ratio; 2.00, 0.84–4.73) of BRCC3 mutations, the majority of mutations (n=23; 82%) were hemizygous. Phenotypically, BRCC3 mutations were frequently observed in myelodysplastic syndromes and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms and associated with -Y abnormality (odds ratio; 3.70, 1.25–11.0). Clinically, BRCC3 mutations were also related to higher age (P=0.01), although prognosis was not affected. Knockdown of Brcc3 gene expression in murine bone marrow lineage negative, Sca1 positive, c-kit positive cells resulted in 2-fold more colony formation and modest differentiation defect. Thus, BRCC3 likely plays a role as tumor-associated gene in myelodysplastic syndromes and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms. PMID:26001790

  15. Effect of mutation order on myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, Christina A; Kent, David G; Nangalia, Jyoti; Silber, Yvonne; Wedge, David C; Grinfeld, Jacob; Baxter, E Joanna; Massie, Charles E; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Menon, Suraj; Godfrey, Anna L; Dimitropoulou, Danai; Guglielmelli, Paola; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Besses, Carles; Döhner, Konstanze; Harrison, Claire N; Vassiliou, George S; Vannucchi, Alessandro; Campbell, Peter J; Green, Anthony R

    2015-02-12

    Cancers result from the accumulation of somatic mutations, and their properties are thought to reflect the sum of these mutations. However, little is known about the effect of the order in which mutations are acquired. We determined mutation order in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms by genotyping hematopoietic colonies or by means of next-generation sequencing. Stem cells and progenitor cells were isolated to study the effect of mutation order on mature and immature hematopoietic cells. The age at which a patient presented with a myeloproliferative neoplasm, acquisition of JAK2 V617F homozygosity, and the balance of immature progenitors were all influenced by mutation order. As compared with patients in whom the TET2 mutation was acquired first (hereafter referred to as "TET2-first patients"), patients in whom the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) mutation was acquired first ("JAK2-first patients") had a greater likelihood of presenting with polycythemia vera than with essential thrombocythemia, an increased risk of thrombosis, and an increased sensitivity of JAK2-mutant progenitors to ruxolitinib in vitro. Mutation order influenced the proliferative response to JAK2 V617F and the capacity of double-mutant hematopoietic cells and progenitor cells to generate colony-forming cells. Moreover, the hematopoietic stem-and-progenitor-cell compartment was dominated by TET2 single-mutant cells in TET2-first patients but by JAK2-TET2 double-mutant cells in JAK2-first patients. Prior mutation of TET2 altered the transcriptional consequences of JAK2 V617F in a cell-intrinsic manner and prevented JAK2 V617F from up-regulating genes associated with proliferation. The order in which JAK2 and TET2 mutations were acquired influenced clinical features, the response to targeted therapy, the biology of stem and progenitor cells, and clonal evolution in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. (Funded by Leukemia and Lymphoma Research and others.).

  16. The Meaning of Disfigurement in Wilhelm Hauff's "Dwarf Nose."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blamires, David

    2002-01-01

    Notes that Wilhelm Hauff's fairy tale "Dwarf Nose" tells of a boy who is turned into a squirrel for seven years, then regains human form as a dwarf with a long nose before finally achieving normal adult proportions. Discusses how the story includes details that suggest a sexual interpretation. (SG)

  17. Applications and advances in electronic-nose technologies

    Treesearch

    A. D. Wilson; M. Baietto

    2009-01-01

    Electronic-nose devices have received considerable attention in the field of sensor technology during the past twenty years, largely due to the discovery of numerous applications derived from research in diverse fields of applied sciences. Recent applications of electronic nose technologies have come through advances in sensor design, material improvements, software...

  18. Advances in electronic-nose technologies developed for biomedical applications

    Treesearch

    Dan Wilson; Manuela. Baietto

    2011-01-01

    The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The purposes of this review are to present a comprehensive analysis of past and...

  19. The Meaning of Disfigurement in Wilhelm Hauff's "Dwarf Nose."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blamires, David

    2002-01-01

    Notes that Wilhelm Hauff's fairy tale "Dwarf Nose" tells of a boy who is turned into a squirrel for seven years, then regains human form as a dwarf with a long nose before finally achieving normal adult proportions. Discusses how the story includes details that suggest a sexual interpretation. (SG)

  20. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must be demonstrated that its use does not require exceptional pilot skill during takeoff and landing, in crosswinds...) Movement of the pilot's steering control must not interfere with the retraction or extension of the...

  1. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must be demonstrated that its use does not require exceptional pilot skill during takeoff and landing, in crosswinds...) Movement of the pilot's steering control must not interfere with the retraction or extension of the...

  2. F-18 HARV With Nose Strakes For Forebody Vortex Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.

    1996-01-01

    Nose of F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) modified with conformal, mechanically actuated nose strakes for enhanced rolling (ANSER). Forebody vortex control effected by use of actuated strakes and/or other flow-control devices. System provides means to evaluate design tradeoffs.

  3. Myeloproliferative neoplasms in five multiple sclerosis patients☆

    PubMed Central

    Thorsteinsdottir, Sigrun; Bjerrum, Ole Weis; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl

    2013-01-01

    The concurrence of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and multiple sclerosis (MS) is unusual. We report five patients from a localized geographic area in Denmark with both MS and MPN; all the patients were diagnosed with MPNs in the years 2007–2012. We describe the patients' history and treatment. A potential link between MS and MPNs has not been previously recognized. This observation calls attention to potential environmental factors and/or previously unrecognized genetic factors predisposing these patients to both MS and MPNs. PMID:24371783

  4. Rectal neuroendocrine neoplasms: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (GI-NENs) are very rare, among which second most common type is the rectal NENs in China. Patients with rectal NENs may experience non-specific symptoms such as pain, perianal bulge, anemia, and bloody stools, and surgery is considered as the first treatment for rectal NENs. We report a case of rectal NENs in a 68-year-old male patient with bloody stools, who received surgery and postoperative pathology revealed an elevated well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. PMID:28138616

  5. Spectrum and Classification of Cystic Neoplasms of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Greer, Jonathan B; Ferrone, Cristina R

    2016-04-01

    As patients are living longer and axial imaging is more widespread, increasing numbers of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are found. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and mucinous cystic neoplasms are the most common. The revised Sendai guidelines provide a safe algorithm for expectant management of certain cystic neoplasms; however, studies are ongoing to identify further subgroups that can be treated nonoperatively. For those patients with high-risk clinical features or symptoms, surgical resection can be performed safely at high-volume pancreatic centers. Accurate diagnosis is critical for accurate decision making.

  6. An Evaluation of Electronic Nose for Space Program Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Rebecca C.; Linnell, Bruce R.; Buttner, William J.; Mersqhelte, Barry

    2003-01-01

    The ability to monitor air contaminants in the Shuttle and the International Space Station is important to ensure the health and safety of astronauts. Three specific space applications have been identified that would benefit from a chemical monitor: organic contaminants in crew cabins, propellant contaminants in the airlock, and pre-combustion fire detection. NASA has assessed several commercial and developing electronic noses (e-noses) for these applications. A preliminary series of tests identified those e-noses that exhibited sufficient sensitivity to the vapors of interest. These e-noses were further tested to assess their ability to identify vapors, and in-house software has been developed to enhance identification. This paper describes the tests, the classification ability of selected e-noses, and the software improvements made to meet the requirements for these space program applications.

  7. Clinical evaluation of the electronic nose in the diagnosis of ear, nose and throat infection: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Shykhon, M E; Morgan, D W; Dutta, R; Hines, E L; Gardner, J W

    2004-09-01

    The term electronic nose describes an electronic system that is able to mimic the human sense of smell. Electronic noses have been developed over the last 10 or more years to perform a variety of identification tasks in various industries. More recently electronic noses have attracted new interest in their application in the field of medical diagnosis. The aim of this study is to explore the use of an electronic nose to identify and classify pathogens associated with ear, nose and throat (ENT) infections. In this study 90 bacterial swab samples were collected from 90 patients with ENT infections. Some of these samples were analysed immediately with a commercial electronic nose (Cyranose C320). Similar numbers of swabs were also taken from the same site of infection and were sent for microbiology culture and sensitivity. The electronic nose diagnosis was compared with the microbiology diagnosis and it was found that the electronic nose diagnosis was correct in 88.2 per cent of the cases, which is an encouraging result.

  8. Neoplasms in young dogs after perinatal irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, S.A.; Lee, A.C.; Angleton, G.M.; Saunders, W.J.; Miller, G.K.; Williams, J.S.; Brewster, R.D.; Long, R.I.

    1986-08-01

    For a study of the life-time effects of irradiation during development, 1,680 beagles were given single, whole-body exposures to /sup 60/Co gamma-radiation at one of three prenatal (preimplantation, embryonic, and fetal) or at one of three postnatal (neonatal, juvenile, and young adult) ages. Mean doses were 0, 0.16, or 0.83 Gy. For comparison with data on childhood cancer after prenatal irradiation, examination was made of tumors occurring in young dogs in this life-span experiment. Up to 4 years of age, 18 dogs had neoplasms diagnosed, 2 of these being in controls. Four dogs that were irradiated in the perinatal (late fetal or neonatal) period died of cancers prior to 2 years of age. This risk was of significant increase compared to the risks for other experimental groups and for the canine population in general. Overall, 71% (5 of 7) of all cancers and 56% (10 of 18) of all benign and malignant neoplasms seen in the first 4 years of life occurred in 29% (480 of 1680) of the dogs irradiated in the perinatal period. These data suggest an increased risk for neoplasia after perinatal irradiation in dogs.

  9. Malignant neoplasms of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Paxton V; Davidoff, Andrew M

    2006-05-01

    Head and neck masses represent a common clinical entity in children. In general, these masses are classified as developmental, inflammatory, or neoplastic. Having a working knowledge of lesions within this region and conducting a thorough history and physical examination generally enables the clinician to facilitate an appropriate workup and establish a diagnosis. The differential diagnosis is broad, and expeditiously distinguishing benign from malignant masses is critical for instituting a timely multidisciplinary approach to the management of malignant lesions. Neoplasms of the head and neck account for approximately 5% of all childhood malignancies. A diagnosis of malignancy may represent a primary tumor or metastatic foci to cervical nodes. In this review, we discuss the general approach to evaluating suspicious masses and adenopathy in the head and neck region and summarize the most common malignant neoplasms of the head and neck with regard to their incidence, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, staging, and management. Thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary gland tumors are discussed elsewhere in this issue of Seminars in Pediatric Surgery.

  10. Biomedical application of an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Mantini, A; Di Natale, C; Macagnano, A; Paolesse, R; Finazzi-Agrò, A; D'Amico, A

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of volatiles secreted outside the human body to get information on the health status of the individuals has been proposed several times in the past. This kind of analysis is complex both from the point of view of sample collection and data interpretation when, for instance, gas chromatography is utilized. In the recent years the advent of chemical sensors and chemical sensors systems (the so-called electronic noses) opened the way to the possibility of fast and simple analysis of odors in many fields, and, recently, among them, in medicine. In this paper some examples of these applications are illustrated. The results, although preliminary, encourage in pursuing these researches that can give rise to a better comprehension of the role of smell and odor in humans and, possibly in the near future, in novel diagnostic tools.

  11. Grinding arrangement for ball nose milling cutters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, C. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A grinding arrangement for spiral fluted ball nose end mills and like tools includes a tool holder for positioning the tool relative to a grinding wheel. The tool is mounted in a spindle within the tool holder for rotation about its centerline and the tool holder is pivotably mounted for angular movement about an axis which intersects that centerline. A follower arm of a cam follower secured to the spindle cooperates with a specially shaped cam to provide rotation of the tool during the angular movement of the tool holder during the grinding cycle, by an amount determined by the cam profile. In this way the surface of the cutting edge in contact with the grinding wheel is maintained at the same height on the grinding wheel throughout the angular movement of the tool holder during the grinding cycle.

  12. Drug delivery systems from nose to brain.

    PubMed

    Misra, Ambikanandan; Kher, Gitanjali

    2012-09-01

    The treatment of brain disorders is particularly challenging due to the presence of a variety of formidable obstacles to deliver drugs selectively and effectively to the brain. Blood-brain-barrier (BBB) constitutes the major obstacle to the uptake of drugs into the brain following systemic administration. Intranasal delivery offers a non-invasive and convenient method to bypass the BBB and delivery of therapeutics directly to the brain. The review discusses the potential of intranasal route to deliver drugs to the brain, the mechanisms and pathways of direct nose to brain drug transport, the various factors influencing transnasal drug absorption, the conventional and novel intranasal drug delivery systems, the various intranasal drug delivery techniques and devices, and examples of brain drug transport that have been feasible in treating various brain disorders. Moreover, products on the market, investigational drugs, and the author's perceptions about the prospect of intranasal delivery for treating brain disorders are also been discussed.

  13. Miniature sensor suitable for electronic nose applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnaduwage, Lal A.; Gehl, Anthony C.; Allman, Steve L.; Johansson, Alicia; Boisen, Anja

    2007-05-01

    A major research effort has been devoted over the years for the development of chemical sensors for the detection of chemical and explosive vapors. However, the deployment of such chemical sensors will require the use of multiple sensors (probably tens of sensors) in a sensor package to achieve selective detection. In order to keep the overall detector unit small, miniature sensors with sufficient sensitivity of detection will be needed. We report sensitive detection of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a stimulant for the nerve agents, using a miniature sensor unit based on piezoresistive microcantilevers. The sensor can detect parts-per-trillion concentrations of DMMP within 10s exposure times. The small size of the sensor makes it ideally suited for electronic nose applications.

  14. Aspergillosis of the nose and paranasal sinuses.

    PubMed Central

    Milroy, C M; Blanshard, J D; Lucas, S; Michaels, L

    1989-01-01

    Fulminant aspergillosis was diagnosed on nasal biopsy in a 49 year old man who had features of an aspergilloma. Further postmortem examination of this area was performed and the results were contrasted with the histological features of other Aspergillus infections. The nasal biopsy specimen and postmortem examination showed infiltrating Aspergillus hyphae with tissue necrosis and little inflammatory response. The hyphae were easily seen with routine stains. This contrasts with the findings in invasive aspergillosis where there is fibrosis and a granulomatous response to the Aspergillus hyphae. The hyphae are seen in giant cells using fungal stains. In the saprophytic infections aspergilloma and allergic Aspergillus sinusitis there is no tissue invasion or destruction. Aspergillus infections of the nose and paranasal sinuses often require biopsy for accurate diagnosis. As treatment varies pathologists need to be able to distinguish the different patterns of infection. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:2921352

  15. Investigating white-nose syndrome in bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blehert, David S.

    2009-01-01

    A devastating, emergent disease afflicting hibernating bats has pread from the northeast to the mid-Atlantic region of the United States at an alarming rate. Since the winter of 2006-2007, hundreds of thousands of insect-eating bats from at least nine states have died from this new disease, named White-Nose Syndrome (WNS). The disease is named for the white fungus often seen on the muzzles, ears, and wings of bats. This disease poses a threat to cave hibernating bats of the United States and potentially all temperate regions of the world. USGS scientists from the National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) and the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT), in collaboration with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and others have linked a newly described, cold-loving fungus to WNS.

  16. Inspirational airflow patterns in deviated noses: a numerical study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian Hua; Lee, Heow Pueh; Lim, Kian Meng; Lee, Shu Jin; San, Lynette Teo Li; Wang, De Yun

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the effects of deviation of external nose to nasal airflow patterns. Four typical subjects were chosen for model reconstruction based on computed tomography images of undeviated, S-shaped deviated, C-shaped deviated and slanted deviated noses. To study the hypothetical influence of deviation of external nasal wall on nasal airflow (without internal blockage), the collapsed region along the turbinate was artificially reopened in all the three cases with deviated noses. Computational fluid dynamics simulations were carried out in models of undeviated, original deviated and reopened nasal cavities at both flow rates of 167 and 500 ml/s. The shape of the anterior nasal roof was found to be collapsed on one side of the nasal airways in all the deviated noses. High wall shear stress region was found around the collapsed anterior nasal roof. The nasal resistances in cavities with deviated noses were considerably larger than healthy nasal cavity. Patterns of path-line distribution and wall shear stress distribution were similar between original deviated and reopened models. In conclusion, the deviation of an external nose is associated with the collapse of one anterior nasal roof. The crooked external nose induced a larger nasal resistance compared to the undeviated case, while the internal blockage of the airway along the turbinates further increased it.

  17. Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies Developed for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Alphus D.; Baietto, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The purposes of this review are to present a comprehensive analysis of past and recent biomedical research findings and developments of electronic-nose sensor technologies, and to identify current and future potential e-nose applications that will continue to advance the effectiveness and efficiency of biomedical treatments and healthcare services for many years. An abundance of electronic-nose applications has been developed for a variety of healthcare sectors including diagnostics, immunology, pathology, patient recovery, pharmacology, physical therapy, physiology, preventative medicine, remote healthcare, and wound and graft healing. Specific biomedical e-nose applications range from uses in biochemical testing, blood-compatibility evaluations, disease diagnoses, and drug delivery to monitoring of metabolic levels, organ dysfunctions, and patient conditions through telemedicine. This paper summarizes the major electronic-nose technologies developed for healthcare and biomedical applications since the late 1980s when electronic aroma detection technologies were first recognized to be potentially useful in providing effective solutions to problems in the healthcare industry. PMID:22346620

  18. Respiratory volume perception through the nose and mouth determined noninvasively.

    PubMed

    Fox, J; Kreisman, H; Colacone, A; Wolkove, N

    1986-08-01

    The relative importance of the nose vs. the mouth in the perception of respiratory volumes has never been assessed, nor have previous respiratory perception studies been performed noninvasively. Using respiratory inductive plethysmography, we monitored 12 normal subjects noninvasively when breathing either exclusively through the nose or mouth. The sensation of inspired volume mouth breathing was compared with that of nose breathing over a wide range of the inspiratory capacity. The psychophysical techniques of tidal volume duplication, tidal volume doubling, and magnitude estimation were utilized. A just noticeable difference was calculated from the constant error of the tidal volume duplication trials. The exponents for magnitude estimation were 1.06 and 1.07 for nose and mouth breathing, respectively. The other psychophysical techniques also revealed no differences in nose and mouth volume perception. These results suggest that tidal volume changes are perceived equally well through the nose and mouth. Furthermore, the location of the receptors, important in volume perception, is probably at a distal point common to the nose and mouth.

  19. Treatment protocol for "Mestizo nose" with open rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    de la Peña-Salcedo, Jose Abel; Soto-Miranda, Miguel Angel; Lopez-Salguero, Jose Fernando

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an operative sequence to guide plastic surgeons on how to handle the challenges of "Mestizo nose" during rhinoplasty. This type of nose has characteristics quite different from the Caucasian nose. Rhinoplasties on Mestizo nose represent a surgical challenge because of the anatomical characteristics of a weak frame and thick skin. The Hispanic population has grown, and nowadays a large number of patients requesting rhinoplasty within the US belong to this ethnic group. We have developed an operative sequence for the treatment of Mestizo nose. This operative sequence has been tested in 879 rhinoplasties (92.37% females and 7.62% males, aged 15-63 years, mean age = 39 years). All were primary cases. An algorithm on how to approach the different types of Mestizo nose is presented. We had overall good results using our algorithm, with an improvement in the nasal aesthetics of about 54.75%. Complications were postoperative bleeding (1.37%), pain (0.57%), septal hematoma (0.23%), unaesthetic scars (0.34%), and cartilage extrusion (0.11%). Our revision rate was 5%. We present ten complete cases to show our surgical results. This operative sequence has allowed us to get predictable and reliable surgical outcomes when used in Mestizo rhinoplasty operations. We think it can be very useful for every plastic surgeon who performs Mestizo nose rhinoplasty, although not all steps need to be performed in every case.

  20. A new kernel discriminant analysis framework for electronic nose recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Tian, Feng-Chun

    2014-03-13

    Electronic nose (e-Nose) technology based on metal oxide semiconductor gas sensor array is widely studied for detection of gas components. This paper proposes a new discriminant analysis framework (NDA) for dimension reduction and e-Nose recognition. In a NDA, the between-class and the within-class Laplacian scatter matrix are designed from sample to sample, respectively, to characterize the between-class separability and the within-class compactness by seeking for discriminant matrix to simultaneously maximize the between-class Laplacian scatter and minimize the within-class Laplacian scatter. In terms of the linear separability in high dimensional kernel mapping space and the dimension reduction of principal component analysis (PCA), an effective kernel PCA plus NDA method (KNDA) is proposed for rapid detection of gas mixture components by an e-Nose. The NDA framework is derived in this paper as well as the specific implementations of the proposed KNDA method in training and recognition process. The KNDA is examined on the e-Nose datasets of six kinds of gas components, and compared with state of the art e-Nose classification methods. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed KNDA method shows the best performance with average recognition rate and total recognition rate as 94.14% and 95.06% which leads to a promising feature extraction and multi-class recognition in e-Nose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Childhood ovarian neoplasms in Ibadan, South-western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajani, Mustapha Akanji; Aramide, Kolawole Olanrewaju; Ajani, Tinuade Adesola; Salami, Ayodeji A; Okolo, Clement Abu

    2016-01-01

    Childhood ovarian neoplasms are very rare. Little information is available on the relative pattern and frequency of these tumors in Nigerian children. Earlier study done in Ibadan involved ovarian neoplasms in children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to review cases of ovarian neoplasms in children <15 years over a 22½ years period. This was a retrospective study. Twenty-four cases of childhood ovarian neoplasms were seen in patients <15 years of age. These cases were classified using the current World Health Organization histological classification of ovarian tumors. Childhood ovarian neoplasms accounted for 2.8% of all cases of ovarian tumors seen in this period. Fourteen (58.3%) cases of childhood ovarian neoplasms were benign, and 10 (41.7%) were malignant. Mature cystic teratoma occurring in 13 (54.2%) was the most common childhood ovarian neoplasm and was most prevalent between 10 and 14 years of age. Burkitt lymphoma was the most common 4 (40%) malignant childhood ovarian tumor and prevalent between 5 and 14 years of age. Mature cystic teratoma remains the single most common childhood ovarian neoplasms, and Burkitt's lymphoma is the most malignant childhood ovarian tumor in Ibadan, South-western Nigeria.

  2. Pathology and genetics of pancreatic neoplasms with acinar differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wood, Laura D; Klimstra, David S

    2014-11-01

    Pancreatic neoplasms with acinar differentiation, including acinar cell carcinoma, pancreatoblastoma, and carcinomas with mixed differentiation, are distinctive pancreatic neoplasms with a poor prognosis. These neoplasms are clinically, pathologically, and genetically unique when compared to other more common pancreatic neoplasms. Most occur in adults, although pancreatoblastomas usually affect children under 10 years old. All of these neoplasms exhibit characteristic histologic features including a solid or acinar growth pattern, dense neoplastic cellularity, uniform nuclei with prominent nucleoli, and granular eosinophilic cytoplasm. Exocrine enzymes are detectable by immunohistochemistry and, for carcinomas with mixed differentiation, neuroendocrine or ductal lineage markers are also expressed. The genetic alterations of this family of neoplasms largely differ from conventional ductal adenocarcinomas, with only rare mutations in TP53, KRAS, and p16, but no single gene or neoplastic pathway is consistently altered in acinar neoplasms. Instead, there is striking genomic instability, and a subset of cases has mutations in the APC/β-catenin pathway, mutations in SMAD4, RAF gene family fusions, or microsatellite instability. Therapeutically targetable mutations are often present. This review summarizes the clinical and pathologic features of acinar neoplasms and reviews the current molecular data on these uncommon tumors.

  3. Effect of Mutation Order on Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Nangalia, Jyoti; Silber, Yvonne; Wedge, David C.; Grinfeld, Jacob; Baxter, E. Joanna; Massie, Charles E.; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Menon, Suraj; Godfrey, Anna L.; Dimitropoulou, Danai; Guglielmelli, Paola; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Besses, Carles; Döhner, Konstanze; Harrison, Claire N.; Vassiliou, George S.; Vannucchi, Alessandro; Campbell, Peter J.; Green, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cancers result from the accumulation of somatic mutations, and their properties are thought to reflect the sum of these mutations. However, little is known about the effect of the order in which mutations are acquired. METHODS We determined mutation order in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms by genotyping hematopoietic colonies or by means of next-generation sequencing. Stem cells and progenitor cells were isolated to study the effect of mutation order on mature and immature hematopoietic cells. RESULTS The age at which a patient presented with a myeloproliferative neoplasm, acquisition of JAK2 V617F homozygosity, and the balance of immature progenitors were all influenced by mutation order. As compared with patients in whom the TET2 mutation was acquired first (hereafter referred to as “TET2-first patients”), patients in whom the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) mutation was acquired first (“JAK2-first patients”) had a greater likelihood of presenting with polycythemia vera than with essential thrombocythemia, an increased risk of thrombosis, and an increased sensitivity of JAK2-mutant progenitors to ruxolitinib in vitro. Mutation order influenced the proliferative response to JAK2 V617F and the capacity of double-mutant hematopoietic cells and progenitor cells to generate colony-forming cells. Moreover, the hematopoietic stem-and-progenitor-cell compartment was dominated by TET2 single-mutant cells in TET2-first patients but by JAK2–TET2 double-mutant cells in JAK2-first patients. Prior mutation of TET2 altered the transcriptional consequences of JAK2 V617F in a cell-intrinsic manner and prevented JAK2 V617F from up-regulating genes associated with proliferation. CONCLUSIONS The order in which JAK2 and TET2 mutations were acquired influenced clinical features, the response to targeted therapy, the biology of stem and progenitor cells, and clonal evolution in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. (Funded by Leukemia and Lymphoma Research

  4. Classification of Agarwood Oil Using an Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Hidayat, Wahyu; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md.; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Adom, Abdul Hamid

    2010-01-01

    Presently, the quality assurance of agarwood oil is performed by sensory panels which has significant drawbacks in terms of objectivity and repeatability. In this paper, it is shown how an electronic nose (e-nose) may be successfully utilised for the classification of agarwood oil. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), were used to classify different types of oil. The HCA produced a dendrogram showing the separation of e-nose data into three different groups of oils. The PCA scatter plot revealed a distinct separation between the three groups. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used for a better prediction of unknown samples. PMID:22399899

  5. Classification of agarwood oil using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Hidayat, Wahyu; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Adom, Abdul Hamid

    2010-01-01

    Presently, the quality assurance of agarwood oil is performed by sensory panels which has significant drawbacks in terms of objectivity and repeatability. In this paper, it is shown how an electronic nose (e-nose) may be successfully utilised for the classification of agarwood oil. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), were used to classify different types of oil. The HCA produced a dendrogram showing the separation of e-nose data into three different groups of oils. The PCA scatter plot revealed a distinct separation between the three groups. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used for a better prediction of unknown samples.

  6. F-18 HARV smoke flow visualization of actuated nose strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    During the final phase of tests with the HARV, Dryden technicians installed nose strakes, which were panels that fitted flush against the sides of the forward nose. When the HARV was at a high alpha, the aerodynamics of the nose caused a loss of directional stability. Extending one or both of the strakes results in strong side forces that, in turn, generated yaw control. This approach, along with the aircraft's Thrust Vectoring Control system, proved to be stability under flight conditions in which conventional surfaces, such as the vertical tails, were ineffective.

  7. Treatment of the scoliotic nose with extracorporeal septoplasty.

    PubMed

    Gubisch, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    A septal deformity with severe deviation of the septal L strut is seen in nearly every crooked or scoliotic nose. Unless the underlying septal deformity is properly diagnosed and treated, the nasal axis cannot be completely straightened. In addition, because standard septoplasty techniques often fail to adequately address severe L-strut deformities, extracorporeal septoplasty is often a prerequisite for straightening the crooked nose. This article presents a detailed explanation of the extracorporeal technique, as well as representative long-term clinical results showing the efficacy and durability of extracorporeal septoplasty. Extracorporeal septoplasty a safe and reliable method for straightening the severely deviated nose.

  8. Zosteriform cutaneous leiomyoma: a rare cutaneous neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Arfan-ul-Bari

    2013-08-01

    Cutaneous leiomyomas are firm, round to oval, skin-coloured to brownish papules and nodules that may present as a solitary, few discrete or multiple clustered lesions. Different uncommon patterns of multiple leiomyoma distribution have been noted as bilateral, symmetrical, linear, zosteriform, or dermatomal-like arrangement. One such rare presentation was seen in a 23-year-old patient who presented with zosteriform skin coloured, occasionally painful cutaneous lesions over left shoulder region. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of cutaneous leiomyoma. He was symptomatically managed with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and topical capcicum cream. Case is reported here due to rare occurrence of this benign cutaneous neoplasm in an atypical pattern and on uncommon site.

  9. Colonoscopy Atlas of Colon Polyps and Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shou-Jiang; Sones, James Q

    2016-03-01

    Optical colonoscopy is the gold standard for colon cancer screening and adenoma detection and is the only screening option that can potentially provide therapeutic interventions and adenoma removal during the same session. When other screening strategies generate positive results, currently colonoscopy is the next step for definitive diagnosis and potentially curative therapy. For gastrointestinal endoscopists, the ileocecum is the finishing line during colonoscopy, and it is identified by three endoscopic landmarks: terminal ileum, ileocecal valve, and the appendiceal orifice. Careful and systematic examination should be stressed during endoscopic training and practice. In this pictorial review, the authors demonstrate common colon polyps and neoplasms that can be found during colonoscopy. Our aim is to educate gastroenterologists, endoscopy staff other health care providers, and interested patients on certain colon pathologies and common endoscopic interventions.

  10. Synchronous unilateral parotid neoplasms. A case report.

    PubMed

    Herce-López, Javier; Salazar-Fernández, Clara I; Mayorga-Jiménez, Francisco; Gallana-Alvarez, Silvia; Pérez-Sánchez, Juan M

    2009-02-01

    The parotid gland is the most usual location of benign neoplasms affecting major salivary glands and quite often the recurrence of these tumours is noticed, specially in the case of pleomorphic adenoma. The occurrence of multiple tumours in the parotid glands is rare and the majority of these are multifocal Warthin's tumors (papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum). The simultaneous development of tumours with different histological types is unusual and when it occurs, the most common combination is a pleomorphic adenoma and a Warthin's tumor. There are many articles about Multiple Parotid Tumors (MPT) but only a few of them are focused on unilateral synchronous benings tumors, being pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin's these tumors. The report describes a 55 year old female with a pleomorphic adenoma occurring synchronously with a Warthin's tumor within the superficial lobe of her left parotid gland.

  11. Cholesteryl esters in human malignant neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tosi, M R; Bottura, G; Lucchi, P; Reggiani, A; Trinchero, A; Tugnoli, V

    2003-01-01

    Cholesteryl esters (CholE) were detected in human malignant neoplasms by means of in vitro nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Spectroscopic analysis of the total lipid extracts obtained from cerebral tumors revealed appreciable amount of esterified cholesterol in high grade gliomas such as glioblastomas and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, characterized by prominent neovascularity. The finding that no CholE were detected in the healthy brain and in low grade and benign tumors supports a possible correlation between this class of lipids and histological vascular proliferation. Compared with high grade gliomas, renal cell carcinomas show higher levels of CholE, absent in the healthy renal parenchyma and in benign oncocytomas. In nefro-carcinomas, cytoplasmic lipid inclusions and prominent vascularization contribute to the increased levels of CholE present mainly as oleate. CholE are discussed as potential biochemical markers of cancer and as a target for new therapeutic strategies.

  12. Hematologic neoplasms: Dendritic cells vaccines in motion.

    PubMed

    Galati, Domenico; Zanotta, Serena

    2017-09-11

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are bone-marrow-derived immune cells accounted for a key role in cancer vaccination as potent antigen-presenting cells within the immune system. Cancer microenvironment can modulate DCs maturation resulting in their accumulation into functional states associated with a reduced antitumor immune response. In this regard, a successful cancer vaccine needs to mount a potent antitumor immune response able to overcome the immunosuppressive tumor milieu. As a consequence, DCs-based approaches are a safe and promising strategy for improving the therapeutic efficacy in hematological malignancies, particularly in combinations with additional treatments. This review summarizes the most significant evidence about the immunotherapeutic strategies performed to target hematologic neoplasms including the tumoral associated antigens (TAA) pulsed on DCs, whole tumor cell vaccines or leukemia-derived DCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment of Malignant Cutaneous Adnexal Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bernárdez, C; Requena, L

    2017-10-05

    Malignant cutaneous adnexal neoplasms form a group of rare, typically low-grade-malignancy carcinomas with follicular, sebaceous, apocrine, or eccrine differentiation or a combination of the first 3 subtypes. Their clinical presentation is usually unremarkable, and biopsy is required to establish the differentiation subtype and the definitive diagnosis. Due to their rarity, no clear consensus has been reached on which treatment is most effective. Mohs micrographic surgery is considered to be the best option to prevent recurrence in the majority of patients. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy have been studied in very few cases and have rarely been shown to be effective. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical photodynamic therapy of malignant neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stranadko, Eugeny P.; Skobelkin, Oleg K.; Litwin, Gregory; Astrakhankina, Tamara A.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of the results of treatment of 379 malignant neoplasms with PDT in 89 patients has been made. Photogem (hematoporphyrin derivative) and Photosense (aluminum sulfonated derivative) -- both produced in Russia -- were used as photosensitizers. An argon-pumped dye- laser called `Innova 200' (Coherent USA), a Russian dye laser with copper vapor pumping (Yakhroma 2), a gold vapor laser (630 nm and 627.8 nm, accordingly) for Photogem, and a solid aluminate ittrium laser (672 nm) for Photosense were used. Up to now we have had follow-up control of 75 patients for the period of 2 months to 2.5 years. Positive effect of PDT was seen in 90.7% (68 out of 75); including complete regression -39 (52%), partial (50 - 100%), -in 29 (38.7%).

  15. Neoplasms of Anal Canal and Perianal Skin

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Daniel; Beddy, David; Dozois, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Tumors of the anus and perianal skin are rare. Their presentation can vary and often mimics common benign anal pathology, thereby delaying diagnosis and appropriate and timely treatment. The anatomy of this region is complex because it represents the progressive transition from the digestive system to the skin with many different co-existing types of cells and tissues. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal is the most frequent tumor found in the anal and perianal region. Less-frequent lesions include Bowen's and Paget's disease, basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and adenocarcinoma. This article aims to review the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment options for neoplasms of the anal canal and perianal skin. PMID:22379406

  16. Surgical and molecular pathology of pancreatic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Hackeng, Wenzel M; Hruban, Ralph H; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Brosens, Lodewijk A A

    2016-06-07

    Histologic characteristics have proven to be very useful for classifying different types of tumors of the pancreas. As a result, the major tumor types in the pancreas have long been classified based on their microscopic appearance. Recent advances in whole exome sequencing, gene expression profiling, and knowledge of tumorigenic pathways have deepened our understanding of the underlying biology of pancreatic neoplasia. These advances have not only confirmed the traditional histologic classification system, but also opened new doors to early diagnosis and targeted treatment. This review discusses the histopathology, genetic and epigenetic alterations and potential treatment targets of the five major malignant pancreatic tumors - pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm, acinar cell carcinoma and pancreatoblastoma.

  17. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of canine oral amelanotic melanocytic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Smedley, R C; Lamoureux, J; Sledge, D G; Kiupel, M

    2011-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of canine oral melanocytic neoplasms is often difficult because of variability in pigmentation and cellular pleomorphism. These neoplasms can resemble carcinomas, sarcomas, and round cell neoplasms, which differ in prognosis and treatment. A variety of immunohistochemical antibodies have been used for diagnosis of melanocytic neoplasms in humans and dogs; however, sensitivity and specificity of many markers have not been determined in amelanotic melanocytic neoplasms in dogs. The authors investigated a comprehensive panel of immunohistochemical markers in 49 canine oral amelanotic melanocytic neoplasms--namely, Melan-A, PNL2, HMB-45, microphthalmia transcription factor (MiTF), S-100, tyrosine hydroxylase, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2 (TRP-1 and TRP-2), and CD34. Ten well-differentiated cutaneous soft tissue spindle cell sarcomas were negative controls. Melan-A, PNL2, TRP-1, and TRP-2 were highly sensitive and 100% specific for the diagnosis of canine oral amelanotic melanocytic neoplasms. S-100 and MiTF showed high sensitivity but were less specific; that is, they also labeled a proportion of the soft tissue spindle cell sarcomas. HMB-45, tyrosinase, and tyrosine hydroxylase were 100% specific but had low sensitivities. CD34 did not label any of the melanocytic neoplasms but did label 80% of the soft tissue spindle cell sarcomas. A cost-effective and efficient immunodiagnostic cocktail containing antibodies against PNL2, Melan-A, TRP-1, and TRP-2 was created that had 100% specificity and 93.9% sensitivity in identifying canine oral amelanotic melanocytic neoplasms. The spindloid variant was the variant with the lowest sensitivity to the cocktail. The likelihood of correctly diagnosing canine oral amelanotic melanocytic neoplasms was dramatically higher when biopsy samples contained ample overlying and adjacent epithelium.

  18. Malignant neoplasms of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: a series of 256 patients in Mexico City and Monterrey. Is air pollution the missing link?

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Delgado, R; Calderón-Garcidueñas, A; Meneses, A; Ruiz, L M; De La Garza, J; Acuna, H; Villarreal-Calderón, A; Raab-Traub, N; Devlin, R

    2000-04-01

    Air pollution is a serious health problem in major cities in Mexico. The concentrations of monitored criteria pollutants have been above the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards for the last decade. To determine whether the number of primary malignant nasal and paranasal neoplasms has increased, we surveyed 256 such cases admitted to a major adult oncology hospital located in metropolitan Mexico City (MMC) for the period from 1976-1997 and to a tertiary hospital in Monterrey, an industrial city, for the period from 1993-1998. The clinical histories and histopathologic material were reviewed, and a brief clinical summary was written for each case. In the MMC hospital the number of newly diagnosed nasal and paranasal neoplasms per year for the period from 1976-1986 averaged 5.1, whereas for the next 11 years it increased to 12.5. The maximal increase was observed in 1995-1997, with an average of 20.3 new cases per year (P = 0.0006). The predominant neoplasms in these series were non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, adenocarcinoma, Schneiderian carcinoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In the Monterrey hospital a 2-fold increase in the numbers of newly diagnosed nasal and paranasal neoplasms was recorded between 1993 and 1998. The predominant MMC neoplasm in this series, namely nasal T-cell/natural killer cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, is potentially Epstein-Barr virus related. Nasal and paranasal malignant neoplasms are generally rare. Environmental causative factors include exposure in industries such as nickel refining, leather, and wood furniture manufacturing. Although epidemiologic studies have not addressed the relationship between outdoor air pollution and sinonasal malignant neoplasms, there is strong evidence for the nasal and paranasal carcinogenic effect of occupational aerosol complex chemical mixtures. General practitioners and ear, nose, and throat physicians working in highly polluted cities should be aware of the clinical

  19. Somatic mutations of calreticulin in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Klampfl, Thorsten; Gisslinger, Heinz; Harutyunyan, Ashot S; Nivarthi, Harini; Rumi, Elisa; Milosevic, Jelena D; Them, Nicole C C; Berg, Tiina; Gisslinger, Bettina; Pietra, Daniela; Chen, Doris; Vladimer, Gregory I; Bagienski, Klaudia; Milanesi, Chiara; Casetti, Ilaria Carola; Sant'Antonio, Emanuela; Ferretti, Virginia; Elena, Chiara; Schischlik, Fiorella; Cleary, Ciara; Six, Melanie; Schalling, Martin; Schönegger, Andreas; Bock, Christoph; Malcovati, Luca; Pascutto, Cristiana; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Cazzola, Mario; Kralovics, Robert

    2013-12-19

    Approximately 50 to 60% of patients with essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis carry a mutation in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2), and an additional 5 to 10% have activating mutations in the thrombopoietin receptor gene (MPL). So far, no specific molecular marker has been identified in the remaining 30 to 45% of patients. We performed whole-exome sequencing to identify somatically acquired mutations in six patients who had primary myelofibrosis without mutations in JAK2 or MPL. Resequencing of CALR, encoding calreticulin, was then performed in cohorts of patients with myeloid neoplasms. Somatic insertions or deletions in exon 9 of CALR were detected in all patients who underwent whole-exome sequencing. Resequencing in 1107 samples from patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms showed that CALR mutations were absent in polycythemia vera. In essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis, CALR mutations and JAK2 and MPL mutations were mutually exclusive. Among patients with essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis with nonmutated JAK2 or MPL, CALR mutations were detected in 67% of those with essential thrombocythemia and 88% of those with primary myelofibrosis. A total of 36 types of insertions or deletions were identified that all cause a frameshift to the same alternative reading frame and generate a novel C-terminal peptide in the mutant calreticulin. Overexpression of the most frequent CALR deletion caused cytokine-independent growth in vitro owing to the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) by means of an unknown mechanism. Patients with mutated CALR had a lower risk of thrombosis and longer overall survival than patients with mutated JAK2. Most patients with essential thrombocythemia or primary myelofibrosis that was not associated with a JAK2 or MPL alteration carried a somatic mutation in CALR. The clinical course in these patients was more indolent than that in patients with the JAK2 V617F

  20. Incidence of colorectal neoplasms among male pilots

    PubMed Central

    Moshkowitz, Menachem; Toledano, Ohad; Galazan, Lior; Hallak, Aharon; Arber, Nadir; Santo, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prevalence of colorectal neoplasms (adenomas, advanced adenomas and colorectal cancers) among Israeli military and commercial airline pilots. METHODS: Initial screening colonoscopy was performed on average-risk (no symptoms and no family history) airline pilots at the Integrated Cancer Prevention Center (ICPC) in the Tel-Aviv Medical Center. Visualized polyps were excised and sent for pathological examination. Advanced adenoma was defined as a lesion >10 mm in diameter, with high-grade dysplasia or villous histology. The results were compared with those of an age- and gender-matched random sample of healthy adults undergoing routine screening at the ICPC. RESULTS: There were 270 pilots (mean age 55.2 ± 7.4 years) and 1150 controls (mean age 55.7 ± 7.8 years). The prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was 15.9% among the pilots and 20.6% among the controls (P = 0.097, χ2 test). There were significantly more hyperplastic polyps among pilots (15.5% vs 9.4%, P = 0.004) and a trend towards fewer adenomas (14.8% vs 20.3% P = 0.06). The prevalence of advanced lesions among pilots and control groups was 5.9% and 4.7%, respectively (P = 0.49), and the prevalence of cancer was 0.7% and 0.69%, respectively (P = 0.93). CONCLUSION: There tends to be a lower colorectal adenoma, advanced adenoma and cancer prevalence but a higher hyperplastic polyp prevalence among pilots than the general population. PMID:25083084

  1. Incidence of colorectal neoplasms among male pilots.

    PubMed

    Moshkowitz, Menachem; Toledano, Ohad; Galazan, Lior; Hallak, Aharon; Arber, Nadir; Santo, Erwin

    2014-07-21

    To assess the prevalence of colorectal neoplasms (adenomas, advanced adenomas and colorectal cancers) among Israeli military and commercial airline pilots. Initial screening colonoscopy was performed on average-risk (no symptoms and no family history) airline pilots at the Integrated Cancer Prevention Center (ICPC) in the Tel-Aviv Medical Center. Visualized polyps were excised and sent for pathological examination. Advanced adenoma was defined as a lesion >10 mm in diameter, with high-grade dysplasia or villous histology. The results were compared with those of an age- and gender-matched random sample of healthy adults undergoing routine screening at the ICPC. There were 270 pilots (mean age 55.2 ± 7.4 years) and 1150 controls (mean age 55.7 ± 7.8 years). The prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was 15.9% among the pilots and 20.6% among the controls (P = 0.097, χ (2) test). There were significantly more hyperplastic polyps among pilots (15.5% vs 9.4%, P = 0.004) and a trend towards fewer adenomas (14.8% vs 20.3% P = 0.06). The prevalence of advanced lesions among pilots and control groups was 5.9% and 4.7%, respectively (P = 0.49), and the prevalence of cancer was 0.7% and 0.69%, respectively (P = 0.93). There tends to be a lower colorectal adenoma, advanced adenoma and cancer prevalence but a higher hyperplastic polyp prevalence among pilots than the general population.

  2. Cytogenetically unrelated clones in hematological neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Heim, S; Mitelman, F

    1989-01-01

    We have reviewed literature data on 6,306 cases of hematological neoplasia--acute and chronic lymphatic and myeloid leukemias (CML excepted), myelodysplastic and chronic lymphoproliferative and myeloproliferative disorders, and malignant lymphomas--with the goal of quantitatively ascertaining how often cytogenetically unrelated clones occur in these diseases. Unexpectedly wide variations were found: in ANLL, unrelated clones were present in 1.1% of the 2,506 known cases with chromosome abnormalities characterized with banding technique; in the various myelodysplastic (MDS) and chronic myeloproliferative (CMD) disorders (total number of cases 1,299) the frequency was 4.3% and in lymphatic malignancies 1.3% (total case number 2,501). In the latter group the proportions varied between 0.4% and 0.6% in ALL and malignant lymphoma (ML) to as much as 6.2% in CLD and 7.3% in CLL. Some karyotypic abnormalities were encountered more often than would be expected from their general frequency in the various diseases. This discrepancy was particularly evident in MDS and CMD, where 5q- was found in slightly less and +8 in somewhat more than half of the 56 cases. Furthermore, these two aberrations were found as the only changes in the two coexisting clones in one-fourth of the material. Although if viewed in isolation these data would undoubtedly be best explained by assuming a multicellular origin of the neoplasm, it is entirely possible that what are cytogenetically perceived as unrelated clones could be subclones with some invisible aberration in common. If so, this interpretation indicates that changes like +8 and 5q-, both of which are common rearrangements in bone marrow neoplasms, are actually secondary changes that develop during tumor progression.

  3. Increased risk of lymphoid neoplasm in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm: a study of 1,915 patients

    PubMed Central

    Rumi, Elisa; Passamonti, Francesco; Elena, Chiara; Pietra, Daniela; Arcaini, Luca; Astori, Cesare; Zibellini, Silvia; Boveri, Emanuela; Pascutto, Cristiana; Lazzarino, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Within a cohort of 1,915 consecutive patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm followed for a median time of 5.2 years (range 0–33.3), we investigated the occurrence of lymphoid neoplasm with the aim of defining this risk and to investigate the role of genetic predisposing factors. We identified 22 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm who developed lymphoid neoplasm over their lifetime. We found that the risk of developing lymphoid neoplasm was 2.79-fold higher (95% CI, 1.80–4.33; P<0.001) than that of the general Italian population. A tag SNP surrogate for JAK2 GGCC haplotype was used to clarify a potential correlation between lymphoid-myeloid neoplasm occurrence and this genetic predisposing factor. As we did not find any difference in GGCC haplotype frequency between patients with both myeloid and lymphoid neoplasm and patients with myeloid neoplasm, JAK2 GGCC haplotype should not be considered a genetic predisposing factor. No difference in familial clustering was observed between the two groups. PMID:21109692

  4. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear, nose...

  5. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear, nose...

  6. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear, nose...

  7. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear, nose...

  8. 21 CFR 874.4500 - Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide..., nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat microsurgical carbon dioxide laser is a device intended for the surgical excision of tissue from the ear, nose...

  9. Future applications of electronic-nose technologies in healthcare and biomedicine

    Treesearch

    Alphus D. Wilson

    2011-01-01

    The development and utilization of many new electronic-nose (e-nose) applications in the healthcare and biomedical fields have continued to rapidly accelerate over the past 20 years. Innovative e-nose technologies are providing unique solutions to a diversity of complex problems in biomedicine that are now coming to fruition. A wide range of electronic-nose instrument...

  10. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source...

  11. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and...

  12. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat drug... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...

  13. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat drug... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration...

  14. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and...

  15. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose...; and ear, nose, and throat trocar. (b) Classification Class I (general controls). The device is exempt... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical...

  16. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source...

  17. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4420 Ear, nose...; and ear, nose, and throat trocar. (b) Classification Class I (general controls). The device is exempt... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical...

  18. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  19. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  20. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  1. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  2. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  3. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  4. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  5. 21 CFR 874.5300 - Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5300 Ear, nose, and throat examination and treatment unit. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  6. 21 CFR 874.5220 - Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5220 Ear, nose, and throat drug administration device. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and throat...

  7. 21 CFR 874.4350 - Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4350 Ear, nose, and throat fiberoptic light source and carrier. (a) Identification. An ear, nose, and...

  8. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  9. 21 CFR 874.4250 - Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Surgical Devices § 874.4250 Ear, nose, and throat electric or pneumatic surgical drill. (a) Identification. An ear, nose,...

  10. Histopathology confirms white-nose syndrome in bats in Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pikula, J.; Bandouchova, H.; Novotny, L.; Meteyer, C.U.; Zukal, J.; Irwin, N.R.; Zima, J.; Martinkova, N.

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome, associated with the fungal skin infection geomycosis, caused regional population collapse in bats in North America. Our results, based on histopathology, show the presence of white-nose syndrome in Europe. Dermatohistopathology on two bats (Myotis myotis) found dead in March 2010 with geomycosis in the Czech Republic had characteristics resembling Geomyces destructans infection in bats confirmed with white-nose syndrome in US hibernacula. In addition, a live M. myotis, biopsied for histopathology during hibernation in April 2011, had typical fungal infection with cupping erosion and invasion of muzzle skin diagnostic for white-nose syndrome and conidiospores identical to G. destructans that were genetically confirmed as G. destructans. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2012.

  11. Questions and Answers: Runny Nose (with Green or Yellow Mucus)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Glossary For Patients Common Illnesses Bronchitis (Chest Cold) Common Cold & Runny Nose Ear Infection Influenza (Flu) Sinus Infection ( ... a normal part of what happens during the common cold and as it gets better. Here are some ...

  12. Comparison of aerodynamic noise from three nose-cylinder combinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guenther, R. A.; Reding, M. P.

    1970-01-01

    Results of experiments with three different cylinder and blunted nose combinations are discussed. Combinations include smooth cylinder with single 15 deg cone, smooth cylinder with double cone of 25 and 10 deg, and longitudinally corrugated cylinder with similar double cone.

  13. Histopathology confirms white-nose syndrome in bats in Europe.

    PubMed

    Pikula, Jiri; Bandouchova, Hana; Novotny, Ladislav; Meteyer, Carol U; Zukal, Jan; Irwin, Nancy R; Zima, Jan; Martínková, Natália

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome, associated with the fungal skin infection geomycosis, caused regional population collapse in bats in North America. Our results, based on histopathology, show the presence of white-nose syndrome in Europe. Dermatohistopathology on two bats (Myotis myotis) found dead in March 2010 with geomycosis in the Czech Republic had characteristics resembling Geomyces destructans infection in bats confirmed with white-nose syndrome in US hibernacula. In addition, a live M. myotis, biopsied for histopathology during hibernation in April 2011, had typical fungal infection with cupping erosion and invasion of muzzle skin diagnostic for white-nose syndrome and conidiospores identical to G. destructans that were genetically confirmed as G. destructans.

  14. A Compact and Low Cost Electronic Nose for Aroma Detection

    PubMed Central

    Macías, Miguel Macías; Agudo, J. Enrique; Manso, Antonio García; Orellana, Carlos Javier García; Velasco, Horacio Manuel González; Caballero, Ramón Gallardo

    2013-01-01

    This article explains the development of a prototype of a portable and a very low-cost electronic nose based on an mbed microcontroller. Mbeds are a series of ARM microcontroller development boards designed for fast, flexible and rapid prototyping. The electronic nose is comprised of an mbed, an LCD display, two small pumps, two electro-valves and a sensor chamber with four TGS Figaro gas sensors. The performance of the electronic nose has been tested by measuring the ethanol content of wine synthetic matrices and special attention has been paid to the reproducibility and repeatability of the measurements taken on different days. Results show that the electronic nose with a neural network classifier is able to discriminate wine samples with 10, 12 and 14% V/V alcohol content with a classification error of less than 1%. PMID:23698265

  15. An electronic nose for quantitative determination of gas concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, Grzegorz; Kalinowski, Paweł; Woźniak, Łukasz

    2016-11-01

    The practical application of human nose for fragrance recognition is severely limited by the fact that our sense of smell is subjective and gets tired easily. Consequently, there is considerable need for an instrument that can be a substitution of the human sense of smell. Electronic nose devices from the mid 1980s are used in growing number of applications. They comprise an array of several electrochemical gas sensors with partial specificity and a pattern recognition algorithms. Most of such systems, however, is only used for qualitative measurements. In this article usage of such system in quantitative determination of gas concentration is demonstrated. Electronic nose consist of a sensor array with eight commercially available Taguchi type gas sensor. Performance of three different pattern recognition algorithms is compared, namely artificial neural network, partial least squares regression and support vector machine regression. The electronic nose is used for ammonia and nitrogen dioxide concentration determination.

  16. The air-conditioning capacity of the human nose.

    PubMed

    Naftali, Sara; Rosenfeld, Moshe; Wolf, Michael; Elad, David

    2005-04-01

    The nose is the front line defender of the respiratory system. Unsteady simulations in three-dimensional models have been developed to study transport patterns in the human nose and its overall air-conditioning capacity. The results suggested that the healthy nose can efficiently provide about 90% of the heat and the water fluxes required to condition the ambient inspired air to near alveolar conditions in a variety of environmental conditions and independent of variations in internal structural components. The anatomical replica of the human nose showed the best performance and was able to provide 92% of the heating and 96% of the moisture needed to condition the inspired air to alveolar conditions. A detailed analysis explored the relative contribution of endonasal structural components to the air-conditioning process. During a moderate breathing effort, about 11% reduction in the efficacy of nasal air-conditioning capacity was observed.

  17. Centuries of Climate May Have Shaped Your Nose

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164141.html Centuries of Climate May Have Shaped Your Nose Local temperatures, humidity ... or hate it, you can perhaps blame ancestral climates for how it looks today, new research suggests. " ...

  18. Southeast Elevation, Attic Stair Nosing, Day Room Fireplace Details, Day ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast Elevation, Attic Stair Nosing, Day Room Fireplace Details, Day Room Mantel Shelf, Northeast Elevation - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers - Battle Mountain Sanitarium, Ward 4, 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  19. Cryptococcosis in Gilbert's and long-nosed potoroo.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, R J; Vitali, S D; Eden, P A; Payne, K L; Warren, K S; Forshaw, D; Friend, J A; Horwitz, A M; Main, C; Krockenberger, M B; Malik, R

    2007-12-01

    Two cases of fatal cryptococcosis are described, one of Cryptococcus neoformans infection in a Gilbert's potoroo (Potorous gilbertii) and one of Cryptococcus gattii infection in a long-nosed potoroo (Potorous tridactylus). The diagnoses were confirmed by culture and specific immunohistochemistry, respectively. The long-nosed potoroo tested positive using the latex cryptococcal antigen test (LCAT), whereas the Gilbert's potoroo had a negative LCAT result despite having advanced disease of some duration. In both cases, the clinical presentation was a progressive neurologic disease associated with a central nervous system infection. Pulmonary infection was also observed in the long-nosed potoroo. Specific treatment with antifungal agents was unsuccessful in the long-nosed potoroo.

  20. Main Stair Newel Post, Handrail, and Baluster; Nosing Profile; Landing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Main Stair Newel Post, Handrail, and Baluster; Nosing Profile; Landing Profile; Stringer Profile; Rotunda Balustrade and Balcony Profile - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers - Battle Mountain Sanitarium, Administration Building, 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  1. [Fractures of the nose: simplified diagnosis and management].

    PubMed

    Gallucci, A; Coulet, O; Brignol, L; Achache, M; Tomasi, M; Thiéry, G

    2009-12-01

    Fracture of the nose is a frequent injury. Careful management is necessary to avoid not only cosmetic but also functional sequels. Therapeutic modalities are simple and can easily be carried out under local anesthesia.

  2. Evaluating Soil Moisture Status Using an e-Nose

    PubMed Central

    Bieganowski, Andrzej; Jaromin-Glen, Katarzyna; Guz, Łukasz; Łagód, Grzegorz; Jozefaciuk, Grzegorz; Franus, Wojciech; Suchorab, Zbigniew; Sobczuk, Henryk

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of distinguishing different soil moisture levels by electronic nose (e-nose) was studied. Ten arable soils of various types were investigated. The measurements were performed for air-dry (AD) soils stored for one year, then moistened to field water capacity and finally dried within a period of 180 days. The volatile fingerprints changed during the course of drying. At the end of the drying cycle, the fingerprints were similar to those of the initial AD soils. Principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis showed that e-nose results can be used to distinguish soil moisture. It was also shown that different soils can give different e-nose signals at the same moistures. PMID:27338404

  3. Long-Term Complications of Button Batteries in the Nose.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Satvinder Singh; Coumare, V Nirmal; Priya, Madhu; Kumar, Sithananda

    2016-03-01

    One of the common emergencies presenting to the emergency department is a child who has inserted a foreign body into their nose. Of the various things that children insert accidently, the most dangerous are button batteries. We followed up 11 cases of children with history of button battery insertion in the nose for 1 year. We found that all of the patients had developed a septal perforation; other sequelae included nasal adhesions and saddle nose. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Button batteries in the nose are dangerous and can lead to early complications with long-term consequences for the patients. Early diagnosis is required so that they can be removed as soon as possible to prevent the development of complications and long-term sequelae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Electronic nose for detecting multiple targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Anirban; Parthasarathi, Ganga; Poddar, Rakesh; Zhao, Weiqiang; Luo, Cheng

    2006-05-01

    The discovery of high conductivity in doped polyacetylene in 1977 (garnering the 2000 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the three discovering scientists) has attracted considerable interest in the application of polymers as the semiconducting and conducting materials due to their promising potential to replace silicon and metals in building devices. Previous and current efforts in developing conducting polymer microsystems mainly focus on generating a device of a single function. When multiple micropatterns made of different conducting polymers are produced on the same substrate, many microsystems of multiple functions can be envisioned. For example, analogous to the mammalian olfactory system which includes over 1,000 receptor genes in detecting various odors (e.g., beer, soda etc.), a sensor consisting of multiple distinct conducting polymer sensing elements will be capable of detecting a number of analytes simultaneously. However, existing techniques present significant technical challenges of degradation, low throughput, low resolution, depth of field, and/or residual layer in producing conducting polymer microstructures. To circumvent these challenges, an intermediate-layer lithography method developed in our group is used to generate multiple micropatterns made of different, commonly used conducting polymers, Polypyrrole (PPy), Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy)thiophene (PEDOT) and Polyaniline (PANI). The generated multiple micropatterns are further used in an "electronic nose" to detect water vapor, glucose, toluene and acetone.

  5. Role of Extracorporeal Septoplasty in Deviated Noses.

    PubMed

    Ghaisas, Virendra; Parab, Sapna Ramkrishna

    2015-09-01

    Severe gross septal deviations present big surgical challenges for operating surgeon. Septal deviations has direct effect on aesthetic and functional part of nose. Correcting septal deviations during rhinoplasty is basic procedure. Extreme deviations of septum especially on dorsal and caudal end of cartilaginous septum are difficult to treat. The classical septoplasty approach becomes unsuitable for such severe deviations. Gubisch has first reported in 1995 about extracorporeal septoplasty. To report the experience of Extracorporeal septoplasty and the complication rates with the technique. Retrospective study of 112 patients who underwent extracorporeal septoplasty in primary rhinoplasty from May 2009 to June 2014. Patient's pre and postoperatively evaluation was done by photographs, nasal endoscopy and subjective by symptoms evaluation satisfaction scale 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Nasal endoscopy revealed significant improvement in nasal airway and nasal valve and subjective evaluation satisfaction score was very encouraging. Complications like septal perforation, bleeding, aesthetic complications were minimal (9 %) On basis of results obtained, shows that this technique, increases patients nasal airway and aesthetic look of the patients. Irrespective of extreme nasal deviations.

  6. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster Frustum and Nose ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster Frustum and Nose Cap assembly undergoing preparations and close-out procedures in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The Nose Cap contains the Pilot and Drogue Chutes and the Frustum contains the three Main Parachutes, Altitude Switches and forward booster Separation Motors. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  7. Lupus vulgaris of external nose--a case report.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, J S; Naveen, K N; Prasad, K C; Santhosh, S G; Hegde, J S

    2013-02-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common morphological variant of cutaneous tuberculosis accounting for approximately 59% of cases of cutaneous tuberculosis in India. We present a case of lupus vulgaris of external nose diagnosed early and treated with CAT-3 RNTCP regimen for six months without any nasal deformity except for a small scar over the dorsum of the nose. Patient followed up for one year after completion of the prescribed regimen, there being no recurrence of the lesion.

  8. Evaluation of Three Electronic Noses for Detecting Incipient Wood Decay

    PubMed Central

    Baietto, Manuela; Wilson, Alphus D.; Bassi, Daniele; Ferrini, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Tree assessment methodologies, currently used to evaluate the structural stability of individual urban trees, usually involve a visual analysis followed by measurements of the internal soundness of wood using various instruments that are often invasive, expensive, or inadequate for use within the urban environment. Moreover, most conventional instruments do not provide an adequate evaluation of decay that occurs in the root system. The intent of this research was to evaluate the possibility of integrating conventional tools, currently used for assessments of decay in urban trees, with the electronic nose–a new innovative tool used in diverse fields and industries for various applications such as quality control in manufacturing, environmental monitoring, medical diagnoses, and perfumery. Electronic-nose (e-nose) technologies were tested for the capability of detecting differences in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by wood decay fungi and wood from healthy and decayed trees. Three e-noses, based on different types of operational technologies and analytical methods, were evaluated independently (not directly compared) to determine the feasibility of detecting incipient decays in artificially-inoculated wood. All three e-nose devices were capable of discriminating between healthy and artificially-inoculated, decayed wood with high levels of precision and confidence. The LibraNose quartz microbalance (QMB) e-nose generally provided higher levels of discrimination of sample unknowns, but not necessarily more accurate or effective detection than the AromaScan A32S conducting polymer and PEN3 metal-oxide (MOS) gas sensor e-noses for identifying and distinguishing woody samples containing different agents of wood decay. However, the conducting polymer e-nose had the greater advantage for identifying unknowns from diverse woody sample types due to the associated software capability of utilizing prior-developed, application-specific reference libraries with

  9. Closeup view of the reinforced carboncarbon nose of the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the reinforced carbon-carbon nose of the Orbiter Discovery from the service platform in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. Note the clear protective shield around the nose cap, and the reflective insulation protecting the Crew Compartment bulkhead and orbiter structure in the void created by the removal of the Forward Reaction Control Module. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  10. Autologous Rib Grafts in the Management of the Crooked Nose.

    PubMed

    Porter, Paul; Kriet, J David; Humphrey, Clinton D

    2015-06-01

    Rhinoplasty is arguably one of the most challenging procedures a facial plastic surgeon performs. Numerous techniques have been developed since the inception of rhinoplasty to aid in correction of aesthetic and functional issues. Congenital, iatrogenic, and traumatic etiologies can all lead to a crooked nose. Autologous rib or costal cartilage grafting is a powerful tool that can aid the surgeon in successful correction of the crooked nose. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Topics in histopathology of sweat gland and sebaceous neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Ansai, Shin-Ichi

    2017-03-01

    This article reviews several topics regarding sweat gland and sebaceous neoplasms. First, the clinicopathological characteristics of poroid neoplasms are summarized. It was recently reported that one-fourth of poroid neoplasms are composite tumors and one-fourth are apocrine type lesions. Recent progress in the immunohistochemical diagnosis of sweat gland neoplasms is also reviewed. CD117 can help to distinguish sweat gland or sebaceous tumors from other non-Merkel cell epithelial tumors of the skin. For immunohistochemical differential diagnosis between sweat gland carcinoma (SGC) other than primary cutanesous apocrine carcinoma and skin metastasis of breast carcinoma (SMBC), a panel of antibodies may be useful, including p63 (SGC(+) , SMBC(-) ), CK5/6 (SGC(+) , SMBC(-) ), podoplanin (SGC(+) , SMBC(-) ) and mammaglobin (SGC(-) , SMBC(+) ). Comparison of antibodies used for immunohistochemical diagnosis of sebaceous carcinoma (SC) suggests that adipophilin has the highest sensitivity and specificity. Some authors have found that immunostaining for survivin, androgen receptor and ZEB2/SIP1 has prognostic value for ocular SC, but not extraocular SC. In situ SC is rare, especially extraocular SC, but there have been several recent reports that actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease are the source of invasive SC. Finally, based on recent reports, classification of sebaceous neoplasms into three categories is proposed, which are sebaceoma (a benign neoplasm with well-defined architecture and no atypia), borderline sebaceous neoplasm (low-grade SC; an intermediate tumor with well-defined architecture and nuclear atypia) and SC (a malignant tumor with invasive growth and evident nuclear atypia).

  12. Functional tension nose as a cause of nasal airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kantas, Ilias V; Papadakis, Chariton E; Balatsouras, Dimitrios G; Vafiadis, Marinos; Korres, Stavros G; Panagiotakopoulou, Aggeliki; Danielidis, Vassilios

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the influence of functional tension nose in nasal obstruction and to discuss its frequency and management. Over the years 2000-2006, 153 patients underwent revision operation for nasal obstruction in our rhinoplastic center. Twenty-two of them (14.37%) suffered from functional tension nose. All 22 patients refused rhinoplasty during primary septoplasty. Sixteen of them had a kyphotic nose and the rest six cases suffered from hanging columella (drooped nose). Eighteen of them underwent primary rhinoplasty in combination with caudal diminution under general anesthesia. The other four patients refused rhinoplasty, and under local anesthesia their tip was deprojected and reprojected. Marked improvement in nasal airflow was noted at the most recent follow-up evaluation in 20 patients out of 22 (90.91%). The mean length of follow-up was 8 months (ranging from 4 to 12 months). All follow-up results were based on office examination and pre- and post-operative computer-assisted rhinomanometry evaluation. In only two cases results were not efficient enough. Our study strongly suggests that tension nose is a usual misdiagnosed cause of nasal obstruction. This problem is concealed under a "kyphotic", "big", or "pinocchio" nose. Usually the functional defect is spontaneously corrected during conventional rhinoplasty. However, tip should be deprojected and reprojected in cases where the patient refuses cosmetic intervention and surgeon tries to resolve his functional problem.

  13. Applications and Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Alphus D.; Baietto, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    Electronic-nose devices have received considerable attention in the field of sensor technology during the past twenty years, largely due to the discovery of numerous applications derived from research in diverse fields of applied sciences. Recent applications of electronic nose technologies have come through advances in sensor design, material improvements, software innovations and progress in microcircuitry design and systems integration. The invention of many new e-nose sensor types and arrays, based on different detection principles and mechanisms, is closely correlated with the expansion of new applications. Electronic noses have provided a plethora of benefits to a variety of commercial industries, including the agricultural, biomedical, cosmetics, environmental, food, manufacturing, military, pharmaceutical, regulatory, and various scientific research fields. Advances have improved product attributes, uniformity, and consistency as a result of increases in quality control capabilities afforded by electronic-nose monitoring of all phases of industrial manufacturing processes. This paper is a review of the major electronic-nose technologies, developed since this specialized field was born and became prominent in the mid 1980s, and a summarization of some of the more important and useful applications that have been of greatest benefit to man. PMID:22346690

  14. The spectacular human nose: an amplifier of individual quality?

    PubMed Central

    Mikalsen, Åse Kristine Rognmo; Yoccoz, Nigel Gilles; Laeng, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Amplifiers are signals that improve the perception of underlying differences in quality. They are cost free and advantageous to high quality individuals, but disadvantageous to low quality individuals, as poor quality is easier perceived because of the amplifier. For an amplifier to evolve, the average fitness benefit to the high quality individuals should be higher than the average cost for the low quality individuals. The human nose is, compared to the nose of most other primates, extraordinary large, fragile and easily broken—especially in male–male interactions. May it have evolved as an amplifier among high quality individuals, allowing easy assessment of individual quality and influencing the perception of attractiveness? We tested the latter by manipulating the position of the nose tip or, as a control, the mouth in facial pictures and had the pictures rated for attractiveness. Our results show that facial attractiveness failed to be influenced by mouth manipulations. Yet, facial attractiveness increased when the nose tip was artificially centered according to other facial features. Conversely, attractiveness decreased when the nose tip was displaced away from its central position. Our results suggest that our evaluation of attractiveness is clearly sensitive to the centering of the nose tip, possibly because it affects our perception of the face’s symmetry and/or averageness. However, whether such centering is related to individual quality remains unclear. PMID:24765588

  15. Effect of nose perturbation on asymmetric vortices over a blunt-nose body at high angle of attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Y. X.; Wang, Y. K.; Qi, Z. Y.

    2017-04-01

    To improve the maneuverability, the modern missiles of blunt-nose slender body configuration are required to flight at high angle of attack where many research show complex asymmetric vortices flow will develop over the slender body. The effect of artificial perturbation located on the nose of a blunt slender body at high angle of attack(α=50°) on asymmetric vortices has been investigated with low speed wind tunnel test. The Reynolds number(ReD) of the experiment was 1.48×105. The experimental results are shown to be the following: Asymmetric flow over blunt-nose body was extremely sensitive to the machining tolerances of the nose and can be governed by the artificial perturbation; with the circumferential angle of artificial perturbation varied a period, asymmetric vortices present a behavior of single-period.

  16. Solid and papillary epithelial neoplasm of the pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.C.; Lichtenstein, J.E.; Fishman, E.K.; Oertel, J.E.; Dachman, A.H.; Siegelman, S.S.

    1985-02-01

    Solid and papillary epithelial neoplasm of the pancreas is an uncommon low grade malignant tumor histologically distinct from the usual ductal adenocarcinoma and amenable to cure by surgical excision. It tends to occur in black women in their second or third decade of life and has often been misclassified as nonfunctional islet cell tumor or as cystadenoma or cystadenocarcinoma. Twelve cases were reviewed. Sonography and CT of solid and pipillary epithelial neoplasms depict a well-demarcated mass that can be solid, mixed cystic and solid, or largely cystic. The radiologic appearance is dependent on the maintenance of the integrity of the neoplasm versus the extent of retrogressive changes that have occurred.

  17. Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Norman Oneil; al Qadhi, Hani; al Wahibi, Khalifa

    2015-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are neoplasms that are characterized by ductal dilation, intraductal papillary growth, and thick mucus secretion. This relatively recently defined pathology is evolving in terms of its etiopathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, management, and treatment guidelines. A PubMed database search was performed. All the relevant abstracts in English language were reviewed and the articles in which cases of IPMN could be identified were further scrutinized. Information of IPMN was derived, and duplication of information in several articles and those with areas of persisting uncertainties were excluded. The recent consensus guidelines were examined. The reported incidence of malignancy varies from 57% to 92% in the main duct-IPMN (MD-IPMN) and from 6% to 46% in the branch duct-IPMN (BD-IPMN). The features of high-risk malignant lesions that raise concern include obstructive jaundice in a patient with a cystic lesion in the pancreatic head, the findings on radiological imaging of a mass lesion of >30 mm, enhanced solid component, and the main pancreatic duct (MPD) of size ≥10 mm; while duct size 5-9 mm and cyst size <3 mm are considered as “worrisome features.” Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) are primary investigations in diagnosing and following up on these patients. The role of pancreatoscopy and the analysis of aspirated cystic fluid for cytology and DNA analysis is still to be established. In general, resection is recommended for most MD-IPMN, mixed variant, and symptomatic BD-IPMN. The 5-year survival of patients after surgical resection for noninvasive IPMN is reported to be at 77-100%, while for those with invasive carcinoma, it is significantly lower at 27-60%. The follow-up of these patients could vary from 6 months to 1 year and would depend on the risk stratification for invasive malignancy and the pathology of the resected specimen. The understanding of

  18. Intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Adsay, N V; Adair, C F; Heffess, C S; Klimstra, D S

    1996-08-01

    We describe the clinical and pathologic features of 11 intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms of the pancreas, a hitherto unrecognized tumor. The patients were six men and five women, and most of the tumors were in the head (head: body/tail = 8:3). The mean patient age was 62 (range, 39-78), and the average tumor size was 6 cm. Grossly the tumors exhibited mucin-filled cysts containing nodular papillary projections. Dilated ducts communicating with the main tumor were sometimes noted. Microscopically the cystic structures appeared to represent dilated ducts containing intraductal tumor. The tumors were characterized by variably complex, arborizing papillary structures. The papillae had thin, delicate fibrovascular cores with focal myxoid changes and were lined by stratified oncocytic cells. Goblet cells and intra-epithelial mucin-containing lumina were present, the latter resulting in a characteristic cribriform pattern. The exuberance of the epithelial proliferation varied from case to case and between different regions within individual tumors; solid sheets of cells were often identified. Although the degree of cytologic atypia was not generally severe, the complexity of the architecture justified a designation of intraductal oncocytic papillary carcinoma in 10 of the 11 cases. In nine cases the tumor was entirely intraductal; one case exhibited focal microinvasion and another showed widespread invasive carcinoma, the invasive elements appearing cytologically similar to the intraductal papillary components. The oncocytic cells stained positively with phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin and Novelli stains. Immunohistochemically, all cases stained positively for B72.3, and five cases showed focal, weak luminal membrane staining for carcinoembryonic antigen. Ultrastructurally many of the cells were packed with mitochondria, and mucin was also identified. Seven patients were alive and free of tumor from 1 month to 3 years (average, 1 year) after resection. Two

  19. Theseus Nose and Pod Cones Being Unloaded

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Crew members are seen here unloading the nose and pod cones of the Theseus prototype research aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in May of 1996. The Theseus aircraft, built and operated by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia, was a unique aircraft flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, under a cooperative agreement between NASA and Aurora. Dryden hosted the Theseus program, providing hangar space and range safety for flight testing. Aurora Flight Sciences was responsible for the actual flight testing, vehicle flight safety, and operation of the aircraft. The Theseus remotely piloted aircraft flew its maiden flight on May 24, 1996, at Dryden. During its sixth flight on November 12, 1996, Theseus experienced an in-flight structural failure that resulted in the loss of the aircraft. As of the beginning of the year 2000, Aurora had not rebuilt the aircraft. Theseus was built for NASA under an innovative, $4.9 million fixed-price contract by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation and its partners, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Fairmont State College, Fairmont, West Virginia. The twin-engine, unpiloted vehicle had a 140-foot wingspan, and was constructed largely of composite materials. Powered by two 80-horsepower, turbocharged piston engines that drove twin 9-foot-diameter propellers, Theseus was designed to fly autonomously at high altitudes, with takeoff and landing under the active control of a ground-based pilot in a ground control station 'cockpit.' With the potential ability to carry 700 pounds of science instruments to altitudes above 60,000 feet for durations of greater than 24 hours, Theseus was intended to support research in areas such as stratospheric ozone depletion and the atmospheric effects of future high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Instruments carried aboard Theseus also would be able to validate satellite-based global environmental

  20. Electronic nose based tea quality standardization.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Ritaban; Kashwan, K R; Bhuyan, M; Hines, E L; Gardner, J W

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we have used a metal oxide sensor (MOS) based electronic nose (EN) to analyze five tea samples with different qualities, namely, drier month, drier month again over-fired, well fermented normal fired in oven, well fermented overfired in oven, and under fermented normal fired in oven. The flavour of tea is determined mainly by its taste and smell, which is generated by hundreds of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Non-Volatile Organic Compounds present in tea. These VOCs are present in different ratios and determine the quality of the tea. For example Assamica (Sri Lanka and Assam Tea) and Assamica Sinesis (Darjeeling and Japanese Tea) are two different species of tea giving different flavour notes. Tea flavour is traditionally measured through the use of a combination of conventional analytical instrumentation and human or ganoleptic profiling panels. These methods are expensive in terms of time and labour and also inaccurate because of a lack of either sensitivity or quantitative information. In this paper an investigation has been made to determine the flavours of different tea samples using an EN and to explore the possibility of replacing existing analytical and profiling panel methods. The technique uses an array of 4 MOSs, each of, which has an electrical resistance that has partial sensitivity to the headspace of tea. The signals from the sensor array are then conditioned by suitable interface circuitry. The data were processed using Principal Components Analysis (PCA), Fuzzy C Means algorithm (FCM). We also explored the use of a Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method along with a Radial Basis Function network (RBF) and a Probabilistic Neural Network classifier. Using FCM and SOM feature extraction techniques along with RBF neural network we achieved 100% correct classification for the five different tea samples with different qualities. These results prove that our EN is capable of discriminating between the flavours of teas manufactured under

  1. The Hematopoietic Niche in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt-Graeff, Annette H.; Nitschke, Roland; Zeiser, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Specialized microanatomical areas of the bone marrow provide the signals that are mandatory for the maintenance and regulation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitor cells. A complex microenvironment adjacent to the marrow vasculature (vascular niche) and close to the endosteum (endosteal niche) harbors multiple cell types including mesenchymal stromal cells and their derivatives such as CAR cells expressing high levels of chemokines C-X-C motif ligand 12 and early osteoblastic lineage cells, endothelial cells, and megakaryocytes. The characterization of the cellular and molecular networks operating in the HSC niche has opened new perspectives for the understanding of the bidirectional cross-talk between HSCs and stromal cell populations in normal and malignant conditions. A structural and functional remodeling of the niche may contribute to the development of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Malignant HSCs may alter the function and survival of MSCs that do not belong to the neoplastic clone. For example, a regression of nestin+ MSCs by apoptosis has been attributed to neuroglial damage in MPN. Nonneoplastic MSCs in turn can promote aggressiveness and drug resistance of malignant cells. In the future, strategies to counteract the pathological interaction between the niche and neoplastic HSCs may offer additional treatment strategies for MPN patients. PMID:26696752

  2. Eponyms in cardiothoracic radiology: Part I. Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H; Saettele, Megan R; Saettele, Timothy; Patel, Vikas; Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Eponyms serve the purpose of honoring individuals who have made important observations and discoveries. As with other fields of medicine, eponyms are frequently encountered in radiology, particularly in chest radiology. However, inappropriate use of an eponym may lead to potentially dangerous miscommunication. Moreover, an eponym may honor the incorrect person or a person who falls into disrepute. Despite their limitations, eponyms are still widespread in medical literature. Furthermore, in some circumstances, more than one individual may have contributed to the description or discovery of a particular anatomical structure or disease, whereas in others, an eponym may have been incorrectly applied initially and propagated for years in medical literature. Nevertheless, radiologic eponyms are a means of honoring those who have made lasting contributions to the field of radiology, and familiarity with these eponyms is critical for proper reporting and accurate communication. In addition, the acquisition of some historical knowledge about those whose names are associated with various structures or pathologic conditions conveys a sense of humanity in the field of medicine. In this article, the first of a multipart series, the authors discuss a number of chest radiology eponyms as they relate to neoplasms, including relevant clinical and imaging features, as well biographic information of the respective eponym׳s namesake.

  3. Calreticulin Exon 9 Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Background Calreticulin (CALR) mutations were recently discovered in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). We studied the frequency and type of CALR mutations and their hematological characteristics. Methods A total of 168 MPN patients (36 polycythemia vera [PV], 114 essential thrombocythemia [ET], and 18 primary myelofibrosis [PMF] cases) were included in the study. CALR mutation was analyzed by the direct sequencing method. Results CALR mutations were detected in 21.9% of ET and 16.7% of PMF patients, which accounted for 58.5% and 33.3% of ET and PMF patients without Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) or myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogenes (MPL) mutations, respectively. A total of five types of mutation were detected, among which, L367fs*46 (53.6%) and K385fs*47 (35.7%) were found to be the most common. ET patients with CALR mutation had lower leukocyte counts and ages compared with JAK2-mutated ET patients. Conclusion Genotyping for CALR could be a useful diagnostic tool for JAK2-or MPL-negative ET or PMF patients. CALR mutation may be a distinct disease group, with different hematological characteristics than that of JAK2-positive patients. PMID:25553276

  4. CALR mutation characterization in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Bilbao-Sieyro, Cristina; Florido, Yanira; Gómez-Casares, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Identification of somatic frameshift mutations in exon 9 of the calreticulin gene (CALR) in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) in December of 2013 has been a remarkable finding. It has provided a new molecular diagnostic marker, particularly in essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF), where is the second most common altered gene after JAK2V617F. There are two main types of CALR mutants, type 1 and type 2, and there is evidence about their distinct clinical/prognostic implications, for instances, it is believed that favorable outcome might be restricted to type-1 in PMF. By using reasoned approaches, very recent publications have supported classifying the alternative mutants in type-1-like or type-2-like. If further studies confirm these results, new considerations may be taken into account in the molecular diagnosis of MPNs. This implies that precise mutation characterization must be performed and caution should be taken in screening technique selection. In this Editorial we summarize the current information regarding all this issues. PMID:27384487

  5. Guidelines for the management of myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chul Won; Bang, Soo-Mee; Jang, Seongsoo; Jung, Chul Won; Kim, Hee-Jin; Kim, Ho Young; Kim, Soo-Jeong; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Park, Jinny; Won, Jong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis are collectively known as ‘Philadelphia-negative classical myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs).’ The discovery of new genetic aberrations such as Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) have enhanced our understanding of the pathophysiology of MPNs. Currently, the JAK2 mutation is not only a standard criterion for diagnosis but is also a new target for drug development. The JAK1/2 inhibitor, ruxolitinib, was the first JAK inhibitor approved for patients with intermediate- to high-risk myelofibrosis and its effects in improving symptoms and survival benefits were demonstrated by randomized controlled trials. In 2011, the Korean Society of Hematology MPN Working Party devised diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for Korean MPN patients. Subsequently, other genetic mutations have been discovered and many kinds of new drugs are now under clinical investigation. In view of recent developments, we have revised the guidelines for the diagnosis and management of MPN based on published evidence and the experiences of the expert panel. Here we describe the epidemiology, new genetic mutations, and novel therapeutic options as well as diagnostic criteria and standard treatment strategies for MPN patients in Korea. PMID:26552452

  6. Targeting myeloproliferative neoplasms with JAK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pardanani, Animesh; Tefferi, Ayalew

    2011-03-01

    The discovery of JAK2V617F and other JAK-STAT-activating mutations in BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) has led to the development of small-molecule ATP-mimetics that inhibit wild-type and mutant JAK. Here, we review the current experience with JAK inhibitors used for the treatment of myelofibrosis and polycythemia vera/essential thrombocythemia. Consistent with the clonal complexity of MPN, JAK inhibitors have not thus far shown disease-modifying activity; treatment with these agents has however shown clinically meaningful benefits, particularly decreased splenomegaly and improvement in constitutional symptoms, in myelofibrosis patients. Although these benefits accrue with both JAK-2 (TG101348) and JAK-1/2 (INCB018424, CYT387) inhibitors, the mode of action (predominant anticlonal versus anticytokine activity) may be different between the two groups. It is possible that an optimal balance between JAK-1-inhibitory and JAK-2-inhibitory activities may broaden the therapeutic activity (i.e. anemia improvement), as has been preliminarily seen (CYT387). Although JAK inhibitors have important benefits in myelofibrosis therapy, their role in polycythemia vera/essential thrombocythemia treatment is still being defined. The optimal dosing strategy and feasibility for combination with other therapeutic agents remains to be established. Another challenge is the identification of robust primary end-points that will support labeling claims for JAK inhibitors for the aforementioned indications.

  7. Liver Resection in Children with Hepatic Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Judson G.; Altman, R. Peter; Arensman, Robert M.; Matlak, Michael E.; Leikin, Sanford L.

    1978-01-01

    In the past ten years, 28 patients with primary tumors of the liver have been treated. There were 11 benign tumors, including four hamartomas, three patients with focal nodular hyperplasia, and two each with congenital cysts and hemangioma. Hamartomas and masses of focal nodular hyperplasia should be excised when possible, but both are benign lesions; therefore life threatening excisions at the porta hepatis should be avoided. Cysts are often resectable, but when occupying all lobes of the liver, they can be successfully managed by marsupialization into the free peritoneal cavity. If resectable, hemangiomas should be removed; when occupying most of the liver as they often do, patients may be subject to platelet trapping or to cardiac failure. In some instances these lesions have been controlled by steroids, radiation therapy or hepatic artery ligation. Of 17 malignant tumors seen, 12 proved to be hepatoblastomas. Nine of the 12 patients underwent liver resection, of whom four are cured, (33%). There were three children with hepatocellular carcinomas and two with embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. One child from each of these groups is cured by surgical excision. At present the only known cures in children with primary malignant liver neoplasms have been achieved by operative removal. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:206216

  8. [Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the appendix and colorectum].

    PubMed

    Klöppel, G; Scherübl, H

    2011-07-01

    Appropriate diagnosis and treatment of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of the appendix and colorectum requires a detailed knowledge of their proper classification according to the updated WHO and TNM systems. The WHO classification distinguishes well differentiated NEN, the neuroendocrine tumors (G1 and G2 NETs), from the poorly differentiated carcinomas (G3 NECs). While NETs are common in the appendix and rectum, NECs occur predominantly in the colon. G1 appendiceal and rectal NETs of 1 cm in size or below that do not invade either the muscular wall or vessels bear almost no metastatic risk and can be treated by appendectomy or endoscopic resection. G2 appendiceal and rectal NETs larger than 1 cm in size in combination with other risk factors have an increased risk of metastasis and need to be treated more aggressively. NECs of the colon usually require chemotherapy in addition to resection. Today, most patients with NETs of the appendix and rectum have an excellent prognosis when these diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines are borne in mind.

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Plasma Cell Neoplasms Including Multiple Myeloma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neoplasms for more information. High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant This treatment is a way of giving ... blood -forming cells destroyed by the cancer treatment. Stem cells (immature blood cells) are removed from the blood ...

  10. General Information about Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neoplasms for more information. High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant This treatment is a way of giving ... blood -forming cells destroyed by the cancer treatment. Stem cells (immature blood cells) are removed from the blood ...

  11. Treatment Options for Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neoplasms for more information. High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant This treatment is a way of giving ... blood -forming cells destroyed by the cancer treatment. Stem cells (immature blood cells) are removed from the blood ...

  12. Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neoplasms for more information. High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant This treatment is a way of giving ... blood -forming cells destroyed by the cancer treatment. Stem cells (immature blood cells) are removed from the blood ...

  13. Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) are composed of three major myeloid disorders: chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), and atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML). Learn about the clinical features and treatment of these leukemias.

  14. Primary malignant neoplasms associated with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Lishner, M.; Prokocimer, M.; Ron, E.; Shaklai, M.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and primary malignant neoplasms was evaluated using data from the Hematology Division in Beilinson Medical Center and the Israel Cancer Registry. The study population consisted of 81 patients diagnosed between 1962 and 1984. A total of 16 patients were found to have 21 malignant neoplasms in addition to their CLL. Excluding patients with nonmelanoma skin tumours, a 1.7 increased risk (statistically not significant) for developing second malignant neoplasms in CLL patients was detected. The only tumour which occurred significantly more than expected subsequent to CLL diagnosis was brain cancer. The coexistence of multiple cancers in the same patient was diagnosed in four of the patients. The results of this study further support the hypothesis that patients with CLL are prone to develop second neoplasms. PMID:3684832

  15. Assessment of compost maturity by using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    López, Rafael; Giráldez, Inmaculada; Palma, Alberto; Jesús Díaz, M

    2016-02-01

    The composting process produces and emits hundreds of different gases. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can provide information about progress of composting process. This paper is focused on the qualitative and quantitative relationships between compost age, as sign of compost maturity, electronic-nose (e-nose) patterns and composition of compost and composting gas at an industrial scale plant. Gas and compost samples were taken at different depths from composting windrows of different ages. Temperature, classical chemical parameters, O2, CO, combustible gases, VOCs and e-nose profiles were determined and related using principal component analysis (PCA). Factor analysis carried out to a data set including compost physical-chemical properties, pile pore gas composition and composting time led to few factors, each one grouping together standard composting parameters in an easy to understand way. PCA obtained from e-nose profiles allowed the classifying of piles, their aerobic-anaerobic condition, and a rough estimation of the composting time. That would allow for immediate and in-situ assessment of compost quality and maturity by using an on-line e-nose. The e-nose patterns required only 3-4 sensor signals to account for a great percentage (97-98%) of data variance. The achieved patterns both from compost (chemical analysis) and gas (e-nose analysis) samples are robust despite the high variability in feedstock characteristics (3 different materials), composting conditions and long composting time. GC-MS chromatograms supported the patterns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiation myelopathy of cervical spinal cord simulating intramedullary neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Fogelholm, R.; Haltia, M.; Andersson, L. C.

    1974-01-01

    Radiation myelopathy is a well-known complication of irradiation therapy of neoplasms in the vicinity of the spinal cord. Most earlier authors have stressed the association of a normal myelogram and normal CSF protein level with this condition. One case of radiation myelopathy with a myelogram simulating intramedullary neoplasm and with extremely high CSF protein concentration is presented. Six months after myelography necropsy revealed severe atrophy of the previously thickened lower cervical spinal cord. The pathogenetic mechanisms are discussed. Images PMID:4443812

  17. Squamous neoplasms arising within tattoos: clinical presentation, histopathology and management.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, A L; Wanat, K A; Farah, R S

    2017-08-01

    Tattooing, which involves the placement of ink into the skin, is an ancient decorative technique that has remained popular in modern society. Tattoos have long been known to cause cutaneous reactions, which include the emergence of neoplasms such as keratoacanthoma (KA) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in tattooed areas of the skin. We review the clinical presentations, histology and treatment options for squamous neoplasms, primarily KA and SCC, arising in tattoos. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Nonpolypoid colorectal neoplasms: gender differences in prevalence and malignant potential.

    PubMed

    Rondagh, Eveline J A; Masclee, Ad A M; van der Valk, Mirthe E; Winkens, Bjorn; de Bruïne, Adriaan P; Kaltenbach, Tonya; Soetikno, Roy M; Sanduleanu, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Colonoscopy may fail to prevent colorectal cancer, especially in the proximal colon and in women. Nonpolypoid colorectal neoplasms may potentially explain some of these post-colonoscopy cancers. In the present study, we aimed to examine the prevalence and malignant potential of nonpolypoid colorectal neoplasms in a large population, with special attention to gender and location. We performed a cross-sectional study of all consecutive patients undergoing elective colonoscopy at a single academic medical center. The endoscopists were familiarized on the detection and treatment of nonpolypoid lesions. Advanced histology was defined by the presence of high-grade dysplasia or early cancer. We included 2310 patients (53.9% women, mean age 58.4 years) with 2143 colorectal polyps. Prevalences of colorectal neoplasms and nonpolypoid colorectal neoplasms were lower in women than in men (20.9% vs. 33.7%, p < 0.001 and 3.0% vs. 5.5%, p = 0.002). In women, nonpolypoid colorectal neoplasms were significantly more likely to contain advanced histology than polypoid ones (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.24-6.74, p = 0.01), while this was not the case in men (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.40-2.06, p = 0.83). Proximal neoplasms with advanced histology were more likely to be nonpolypoid than distal ones (OR 4.68, 95% CI 1.54-14.2, p = 0.006). Nonpolypoid mechanisms may play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis, in both women and men. Although women have fewer colorectal neoplasms than men, they have nonpolypoid colorectal neoplasms, which frequently contain advanced histology.

  19. Plurihormonal Cosecretion by a Case of Adrenocortical Oncocytic Neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Corrales, J. J.; Robles-Lázaro, C.; Sánchez-Marcos, A. I.; González-Sánchez, M. C.; Antúnez-Plaza, P.; Miralles, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms (oncocytomas) are extremely rare; only approximately 159 cases have been described so far. The majority are nonfunctional and benign. We describe an unusual case of a functional oncocytoma secreting an excess of glucocorticoids (cortisol) and androgens (androstenedione and DHEAS), a pattern of plurihormonal cosecretion previously not reported in men, presenting with endocrine manifestations of Cushing's syndrome. The neoplasm was considered to be of uncertain malignant potential (borderline) according to the Lin-Weiss-Bisceglia criteria. PMID:27413559

  20. Management of eyelid neoplasms in the dog and cat.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Susette M

    2007-05-01

    Eyelid neoplasms are common in the older dog and typically benign. Eyelid neoplasms in the cat are less common and more often malignant. Resection of eyelid masses may be curative; however, restoration of the eyelid structure after mass excision is essential for maintaining long-term ocular surface health. Surgical techniques and instrumentation for eyelid surgery are reviewed. Indications, benefits. and limitations of sharp excision, cryotherapy, and laser excision and ablation are discussed. Neoplasia of the third eyelid is also discussed.

  1. Epidemiology of carcinoid neoplasms in Vaud, Switzerland, 1974–97

    PubMed Central

    Levi, F; Te, V-C; Randimbison, L; Rindi, G; La Vecchia, C

    2000-01-01

    In Vaud, Switzerland, the incidence of carcinoids based on 218 malignant and 215 benign cases rose from 19.6/106in 1974–85 to 28.2/106in 1986–97, more so among males and malignant neoplasms. Lung was the commonest site for malignant and large intestine for benign carcinoids. Sixty-eight (16%) carcinoids had another neoplasm. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10970700

  2. Intraductal tubular neoplasms of the pancreas: an overview.

    PubMed

    Chelliah, Adeline; Kalimuthu, Sangeetha; Chetty, Runjan

    2016-10-01

    Intraductal lesions of the pancreas are an uncommon but increasingly recognized group of entities mainly because of advances in imaging technology. In the past, precise categorization and understanding of true pancreatic intraduct neoplasms were hampered not only by their relative rarity but also because of the plethora of terminology and criteria used in nomenclature and diagnosis. Although significant progress has been made in the characterization of some of these lesions, as exemplified by intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, understanding of the rare intraductal tubular adenoma (ITA) and intraduct tubular carcinoma (ITC) continues to evolve. By definition, these are a group of intraductal, radiologically detectable neoplasms that can progress to or be associated with invasive adenocarcinoma and, as such, are precursor lesions to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Their often shared clinical and radiological features make precise histological diagnosis essential for appropriate management and optimal outcome. We provide an overview of these neoplasms and highlight recent developments in the understanding of ITA and ITC which have led to ITA being considered a variant of gastric-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and ITC being encompassed within the intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm category. We also emphasize the distinguishing histological features to aid diagnosis of these rare lesions.

  3. CT characteristics of primary retroperitoneal neoplasms in children.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yufeng; Wang, Jichen; Peng, Yun; Zeng, Jinjin

    2010-09-01

    Primary retroperitoneal neoplasms are uncommon in children. Retroperitoneal neoplasms are either mesodermal, neurogenic, germ cell ectodermal or lymphatic in origin. In general, primary retroperitoneal neoplasms in children have different spectrum and prevalence compared to those in adults. Neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, benign teratoma and lymphoma are the common retroperitoneal neoplasms. In this review, the clinical and CT futures of common retroperitoneal neoplasms in children are described. Coarse, amorphous, and mottled calcification are very common in neuroblastoma. Paraganglioma tends to show marked and early enhancement and may present with clinical symptoms associated with the excess catecholamine. Sarcomas are often very large and have heterogeneous appearance. Imaging cannot be reliably used to identify the type of retroperitoneal sarcomas due to overlapped radiographic features. In children, lipoblastoma is the most common lipomatous tumor in the retroperitoneum. The percentage of visible fat in tumor varies depending on the cellular composition of the lesion. The CT characteristics of teratoma are quite variable, which may be cystic, solid, on a combination of both. Typically teratoma appears as a large complex mass containing fluid, fat, fat-fluid level, and calcifications. Lymphoma is often homogeneous on both enhanced and unenhanced CT scans. Necrosis and calcification are rare on CT. In conclusion, making a final histological diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumor base on CT features is not often possible; however, CT can help to develop a differential diagnosis and determine the size and extent of the retroperitoneal neoplasms.

  4. Investigating the case of human nose shape and climate adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Arslan A.; Claes, Peter; McEcoy, Brian; Shriver, Mark D.

    2017-01-01

    The evolutionary reasons for variation in nose shape across human populations have been subject to continuing debate. An import function of the nose and nasal cavity is to condition inspired air before it reaches the lower respiratory tract. For this reason, it is thought the observed differences in nose shape among populations are not simply the result of genetic drift, but may be adaptations to climate. To address the question of whether local adaptation to climate is responsible for nose shape divergence across populations, we use Qst–Fst comparisons to show that nares width and alar base width are more differentiated across populations than expected under genetic drift alone. To test whether this differentiation is due to climate adaptation, we compared the spatial distribution of these variables with the global distribution of temperature, absolute humidity, and relative humidity. We find that width of the nares is correlated with temperature and absolute humidity, but not with relative humidity. We conclude that some aspects of nose shape may indeed have been driven by local adaptation to climate. However, we think that this is a simplified explanation of a very complex evolutionary history, which possibly also involved other non-neutral forces such as sexual selection. PMID:28301464

  5. Investigating the case of human nose shape and climate adaptation.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Arslan A; Mattern, Brooke C; Claes, Peter; McEcoy, Brian; Hughes, Cris; Shriver, Mark D

    2017-03-01

    The evolutionary reasons for variation in nose shape across human populations have been subject to continuing debate. An import function of the nose and nasal cavity is to condition inspired air before it reaches the lower respiratory tract. For this reason, it is thought the observed differences in nose shape among populations are not simply the result of genetic drift, but may be adaptations to climate. To address the question of whether local adaptation to climate is responsible for nose shape divergence across populations, we use Qst-Fst comparisons to show that nares width and alar base width are more differentiated across populations than expected under genetic drift alone. To test whether this differentiation is due to climate adaptation, we compared the spatial distribution of these variables with the global distribution of temperature, absolute humidity, and relative humidity. We find that width of the nares is correlated with temperature and absolute humidity, but not with relative humidity. We conclude that some aspects of nose shape may indeed have been driven by local adaptation to climate. However, we think that this is a simplified explanation of a very complex evolutionary history, which possibly also involved other non-neutral forces such as sexual selection.

  6. How often do normal persons sneeze and blow the nose?

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjarne; Mygind, Niels

    2002-03-01

    Rhinitis is defined as an inflammatory disease, but in clinical practice the diagnosis is based on the occurrence of nasal symptoms. As all persons occasionally sneeze and blow the nose, it is necessary to define what is normal. In this study the daily number of sneezes and of nose blowing were recorded in diary-cards over a 14 day period by 80 hospital employees and medical students, who considered themselves not to suffer from rhinitis. The results showed that more than 95% of the normal persons sneezed and blew the nose less than 4 times a day, on average. It is concluded that it is normal to sneeze and blow the nose less than 4 times daily while a higher number can be a sign of rhinitis. It is recommended that counting of sneezes and of nose blowing is used in clinical trials in order to define the study population. Together with an objective measurement of nasal patency this can be useful in defining the effect profile of different types of treatment.

  7. Fat grafting to the nose: personal experience with 36 patients.

    PubMed

    Monreal, Juan

    2011-10-01

    Clinicians are facing an increasing trend toward nonsurgical nose reshaping using synthetic injectables, mainly for patients who refuse standard rhinoplasties. Autologous fat grafting is a safer and convenient alternative to permanent or semipermanent injectables due to better results as well as fewer and milder side effects. The author reports his experience with fat grafting to the nose using his personal technique for 36 consecutive patients. The experience covers primary treatments of noses not treated by surgery, treatment of post rhinoplasty deformities, and combination fat grafting and rhinoplasties. The technique used by the author for fat grafting to the nose does not differ significantly from that used for other body or face areas. It is based in the atraumatic extraction of fat fragments using a multi-orifice cannula and injection of these fragments using 1.4- to 1.6-mm cannulas or needles. In combining rhinoplasties with fat grafting, fat grafts are used in the same location instead of a prosthesis or cartilage grafts. The initial analysis of postoperative results showed a good to high level of patient satisfaction, particularly in primary cases, with virtually no complications or severe side effects. Some easily corrected side effects probably were learning curve dependent. Autologous fat grafting is an effective and reliable technique for aesthetic and reconstructive nose reshaping for patients who refuse surgical treatments. Although optimal results can be achieved with this technique, they are not comparable with those obtained by surgical rhinoplasties, and this is an important issue to discuss with the prospective patient.

  8. Intrahepatic Biliary Intraductal Oncocytic Papillary Neoplasm/Carcinoma: First Reported Case in Australia and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Chu, Christopher; Felbel, William; Chu, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Biliary (hepatic and extrahepatic) intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms/carcinoma are rare neoplasms. Classification of biliary intraductal papillary tumors can be confusing and reports in radiology literature are extremely limited. We describe the first reported case of biliary intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms/carcinoma in the liver in Australia. The intraductal nature of such neoplasms can be identified on magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography.

  9. Overview of the clinical problem: facts and current issues of mucinous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Jeurnink, S M; Vleggaar, F P; Siersema, P D

    2008-11-01

    Pancreatic cystic lesions are uncommon and consist of pseudocysts, congenital cysts and cystic neoplasms including mucinous cystic neoplasms, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and serous cystic neoplasms. Mucinous cystic neoplasms are large septated cysts without connection to the ductal system, characterised by the presence of thick-walled ovarian-type stroma and mucin. They occur predominantly in women and often are malignant. Therefore, surgical resection is recommended. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are neoplasms with tall, columnar, mucin-containing epithelium involving the main pancreatic ducts or major side branches. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms occur in men and women in their 60s and 70s and may differentiate into malignant neoplasms. Therefore, surgical resection is mandatory. Serous cystic neoplasms appear as multiple cysts lined with cubic flat epithelium containing glycogen-rich cells with clear cytoplasm. They mainly occur in women in their 50s and are generally benign. Therefore, a conservative approach is recommended. As both mucinous cystic neoplasm and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms have a high malignant potential, it is important to differentiate between the various pancreatic cystic lesions. Several imaging techniques and tumour markers have been evaluated. Nonetheless, definitive guidelines to differentiate between serous cystic neoplasms, mucinous cystic neoplasms and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are still poorly defined. A number of management issues regarding these neoplasms are still under debate, for example which imaging technique to use, differentiation between malignant or benign lesions and the preferred treatment modality for each pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Further research may lead to a definitive guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of mucinous cystic neoplasms, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and serous cystic neoplasms.

  10. Emerging treatments for classical myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Harrison, Claire N

    2017-02-09

    There has been a major revolution in the management of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), and in particular those with myelofibrosis and extensive splenomegaly and symptomatic burden, after the introduction of the JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib. The drug also has been approved as second-line therapy for polycythemia vera (PV). However, the therapeutic armamentarium for MPN is still largely inadequate for coping with patients' major unmet needs, which include normalization of life span (myelofibrosis and some patients with PV), reduction of cardiovascular complications (mainly PV and essential thrombocythemia), prevention of hematological progression, and improved quality of life (all MPN). In fact, none of the available drugs has shown clear evidence of disease-modifying activity, even if some patients treated with interferon and ruxolitinib showed reduction of mutated allele burden, and ruxolitinib might extend survival of patients with higher-risk myelofibrosis. Raised awareness of the molecular abnormalities and cellular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of MPN is facilitating the development of clinical trials with novel target drugs, either alone or in combination with ruxolitinib. Although for most of these molecules a convincing preclinical rationale was provided, the results of early phase 1 and 2 clinical trials have been quite disappointing to date, and toxicities sometimes have been limiting. In this review, we critically illustrate the current landscape of novel therapies that are under evaluation for patients with MPN on the basis of current guidelines, patient risk stratification criteria, and previous experience, looking ahead to the chance of a cure for these disorders.

  11. Secondary malignant neoplasms in testicular cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Curreri, Stephanie A; Fung, Chunkit; Beard, Clair J

    2015-09-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among men aged 15 to 40 years, and the incidence of testicular cancer is steadily increasing. Despite successful treatment outcomes and the rate of survival at 5 to 10 years being 95%, survivors can experience late effects of both their cancer and the treatment they received, including secondary malignant neoplasms (SMNs). We discuss the development of non-germ cell SMNs that develop after diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer and their effect on mortality. Patients diagnosed with testicular cancer frequently choose postoperative surveillance if they are diagnosed with clinical stage I disease. These patients may experience an increased risk for developing SMNs following radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging. Similarly, radiotherapy for testicular cancer is associated with increased risks of developing both solid tumors and leukemia. Studies have reported that patients exposed to higher doses of radiation have an increased risk of developing SMNs when compared with patients who received lower doses of radiation. Patients treated with chemotherapy also experience an increased risk of developing SMNs following testicular cancer, though the risk following chemotherapy and radiation therapy combined is not well described. A large population-based study concluded that the rate ratios for both cancer-specific and all-cause mortality for SMNs among testicular cancer survivors were not significantly different from those of matched first cancers. Although it is known that patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy or who undergo routine diagnostic or follow-up imaging for a primary testicular cancer are at an increased risk for developing SMNs, the extent of this risk is largely unknown. It is critically important that research be conducted to determine this risk and its contributing factors as accurately as possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Myeloproliferative neoplasms: Current molecular biology and genetics.

    PubMed

    Saeidi, Kolsoum

    2016-02-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal disorders characterized by increased production of mature blood cells. Philadelphia chromosome-negative MPNs (Ph-MPNs) consist of polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). A number of stem cell derived mutations have been identified in the past 10 years. These findings showed that JAK2V617F, as a diagnostic marker involving JAK2 exon 14 with a high frequency, is the best molecular characterization of Ph-MPNs. Somatic mutations in an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, named calreticulin (CALR), is the second most common mutation in patients with ET and PMF after JAK2 V617F mutation. Discovery of CALR mutations led to the increased molecular diagnostic of ET and PMF up to 90%. It has been shown that JAK2V617F is not the unique event in disease pathogenesis. Some other genes' location such as TET oncogene family member 2 (TET2), additional sex combs-like 1 (ASXL1), casitas B-lineage lymphoma proto-oncogene (CBL), isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH1/IDH2), IKAROS family zinc finger 1 (IKZF1), DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A), suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS), enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), tumor protein p53 (TP53), runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) and high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) have also identified to be involved in MPNs phenotypes. Here, current molecular biology and genetic mechanisms involved in MNPs with a focus on the aforementioned factors is presented.

  13. Calreticulin (CALR) mutation in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs)

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wenyi

    2015-01-01

    As a heterogeneous group of disease, myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) have confused hematologists and hematopathologists with their protean clinical presentations and myriads of morphologies. A thought of classifying MPNs based on molecular alterations has gained popularity because there is increasing evidence that molecular or chromosomal alterations have a better correlation with clinical presentation, response to therapies, and prognosis than conventional morphological classification. This type of efforts has been facilitated by the advancement of molecular technologies. A significant number of gene mutations have been identified in MPNs with JAK2 and MPL being the major ones. However, a significant gap is present in that many cases of MPNs do not harbor any of these mutations. This gap is recently filled by the discovery of Calreticulin (CALR) mutation in MPNs without JAK2 or MPL mutation and since then, the clinical and molecular correlation in MPNs has become a hot research topic. There seems to be a fairly consistent correlation between CALR mutation and certain hematological parameters such as a high platelet count and a better prognosis in MPNs with CALR mutation. However, controversies are present regarding the risks of thrombosis, interactions of CALR with other gene mutation, the role of CALR in the pathogenesis, and the optimal treatment strategies. In addition, there are many questions remain to be answered, which all boiled down to the molecular mechanisms by which CALR causes or contributes to MPNs. Here, we summarized current published literatures on CALR mutations in MPNs with an emphasis on the clinical-molecular correlation. We also discussed the controversies and questions remain to be answered. PMID:27358884

  14. Targeting glutamine metabolism in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Huichun; Ciano, Kristen; Dong, Katherine; Zucker, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    JAK2V617F mutation can be detected in the majority of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) patients. The JAK2 inhibitor Ruxolitinib is the first FDA-approved treatment for MPNs. However, its use is limited by various dose related toxicities. Here, we studied the metabolic state and glutamine metabolism of BaF3-hEPOR-JAK2V617F and BaF3-hEPOR-JAK2WT cells. We found that the JAK2V617F-mutant cells were associated with increased oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate than the JAK2WT cells and there was an increased glutamine metabolism in JAK2V617F-mutant cells compared to wild-type cells. Glutaminase (GLS), the key enzyme in gluta-mine metabolism, was upregulated in the JAK2V617F-mutant BaF3 cells compared to the JAK2WT BaF3 cells. In MPN patient peripheral blood CD34+ cells, GLS expression was increased in JAK2V617F-mutant progenitor cells compared to JAK2 wild-type progenitor cells from the same patients and GLS levels were increased at the time of disease progression compared to at earlier time points. Moreover, GLS inhibitor increased the growth inhibitory effect of Ruxolitinib in both JAK2V617F-mutant cell lines and peripheral blood CD34+ cells from MPN patients. Therefore, GLS inhibitor should be further explored to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of JAK2 inhibitor and allow the administration of lower doses of the drug to avoid its toxicity. PMID:26227854

  15. Genetic–pathologic characterization of myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yonggoo; Park, Joonhong; Jo, Irene; Lee, Gun Dong; Kim, Jiyeon; Kwon, Ahlm; Choi, Hayoung; Jang, Woori; Chae, Hyojin; Han, Kyungja; Eom, Ki-Seong; Cho, Byung-Sik; Lee, Sung-Eun; Yang, Jinyoung; Shin, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Hyunjung; Ko, Yoon Ho; Park, Haeil; Jin, Jong Youl; Lee, Seungok; Jekarl, Dong Wook; Yahng, Seung-Ah; Kim, Myungshin

    2016-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by the proliferation of one or more myeloid lineages. The current study demonstrates that three driver mutations were detected in 82.6% of 407 MPNs with a mutation distribution of JAK2 in 275 (67.6%), CALR in 55 (13.5%) and MPL in 6 (1.5%). The mutations were mutually exclusive in principle except in one patient with both CALR and MPL mutations. The driver mutation directed the pathologic features of MPNs, including lineage hyperplasia, laboratory findings and clinical presentation. JAK2-mutated MPN showed erythroid, granulocytic and/or megakaryocytic hyperplasia whereas CALR- and MPL-mutated MPNs displayed granulocytic and/or megakaryocytic hyperplasia. The lineage hyperplasia was closely associated with a higher mutant allele burden and peripheral cytosis. These findings corroborated that the lineage hyperplasia consisted of clonal proliferation of each hematopoietic lineage acquiring driver mutations. Our study has also demonstrated that bone marrow (BM) fibrosis was associated with disease progression. Patients with overt fibrosis (grade ⩾2) presented an increased mutant allele burden (P<0.001), an increase in chromosomal abnormalities (P<0.001) and a poor prognosis (P<0.001). Moreover, among patients with overt fibrosis, all patients with wild-type JAK2/CALR/MPL (triple-negative) showed genomic alterations by genome-wide microarray study and revealed the poorest overall survival, followed by JAK2-mutated MPNs. The genetic–pathologic characteristics provided the information for understanding disease pathogenesis and the progression of MPNs. The prognostic significance of the driver mutation and BM fibrosis suggests the necessity of a prospective therapeutic strategy to improve the clinical outcome. PMID:27444979

  16. Mismatch repair genes in renal cortical neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Baiyee, Daniel; Banner, Barbara

    2006-02-01

    Mutation of human mutL homolog 1 (MLH-1) and human mutS homolog 2 (MSH-2) has been linked with the pathogenesis of colorectal carcinoma in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome and other carcinomas. Mutations of these genes in renal cell carcinomas were recently described. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of MLH-1 and MSH-2 in renal cortical neoplasms of various histological types by immunohistochemistry. Thirty-eight (n = 38) resected renal tumors were obtained from the surgical pathology files of the UMass Memorial Healthcare, including clear cell carcinomas (CLEARs, n = 20), papillary carcinomas (PAPs, n = 8), chromophobe carcinomas (CHRs, n = 4), and oncocytomas (ONCs, n = 6). Positive immunostaining for MLH-1 and MSH-2 was graded by the number of positive tumor cell nuclei, as follows: 0, negative; 1, up to one third of positive nuclei; 2, one to two thirds positive; and 3, greater than two thirds positive. Loss of MLH-1 or MSH-2 was defined as a tumor with grade 0 or 1, compared with the normal tubules. Normal tubules and intercalated ducts contained cells positive for MLH-1 and MSH-2 in all cases. For both antibodies, positive staining in tumors ranged from grade 1 to 3 in the CLEAR and PAP but was only grade 2 to 3 in the CHR and ONC. Loss of MLH-1 and/or MSH-2 occurred in malignant tumors but not in ONC. Loss of MLH-1 was present in 8 (40%) of 20 CLEARs and 4 (50%) of 8 PAPs, compared with loss of MSH-2 in 4 (20%) of 20 CLEARs and 1 (25%) of 4 CHRs. Our results suggest that loss of mismatch repair genes is involved in the malignant transformation in some renal carcinomas, particularly those derived from the proximal tubules.

  17. The "hot nose" sign on brain death nuclear scintigraphy: where does the flow really go?

    PubMed

    Appelt, Eric A; Song, Won S; Phillips, William T; Metter, Darlene F; Salman, Umber A; Blumhardt, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear scintigraphy has been used in patients with brain death since the 1970s. Many studies report a "hot nose" sign as predictive of brain death and lack of cerebral flow. Current nuclear medicine textbooks state that increased flow to the nose occurs secondary to occlusion of the internal carotid artery with flow rerouted to the nose via the external carotid artery. This explanation has been provided for decades assuming that the blood flow is actually increased to the nose. We performed a study to determine whether flow is really seen in the nose when a hot nose sign is present.

  18. The nose between ethics and aesthetics: Sushruta's legacy.

    PubMed

    Sorta-Bilajac, Iva; Muzur, Amir

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this article is to determine the origin of interest in rhinoplasty in ancient India, as well as to discuss the ethical and aesthetic implications of the nose in human history. Literature review. Articles on history of medical ethics and rhinoplastic surgery were reviewed. Sushruta is considered "the father of plastic surgery," and ancient India a cradle of rhinoplastic method called "the Indian method." Origin of interest in and need for rhinoplasty is deeply rooted in ancient Indian society due to the practice of nose mutilations as a form of public punishment for immoral conduct. The nose, once symbol of morality expressed through physical integrity, today becomes an important factor of human beauty. Rhinoplastic surgery is, both then and now, deeply pervaded with both ethics and aesthetics.

  19. Electronic noses and their applications in environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hashem, S.; Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Kangas, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    Compact, portable systems capable of quickly identifying contaminants in the field are of great importance when monitoring the environment. In this paper, we examine the effectiveness of using artificial neural networks for real-time data analysis of a sensor array. Analyzing the sensor data in parallel may allow for rapid identification of contaminants in the field without requiring highly selective component sensors. A sensor array combined with a data analysis module is referred to as an electronic nose. In this paper, we investigate the trade off between sensor sensitivity and selectivity relating to the applications of neural network based-electronic noses in environmental monitoring. We use a prototype electronic nose which consists of nine tin-oxide Taguchi-type sensors, a temperature sensor, and a humidity sensor. We illustrate that by using neural network based analysis of a sensor data, the selectivity of a sensor array may be significantly improved, especially when some (or all) sensors are not highly selective.

  20. Determination of authenticity of brand perfume using electronic nose prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebicki, Jacek; Szulczynski, Bartosz; Kaminski, Marian

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the practical application of an electronic nose technique for fast and efficient discrimination between authentic and fake perfume samples. Two self-built electronic nose prototypes equipped with a set of semiconductor sensors were employed for that purpose. Additionally 10 volunteers took part in the sensory analysis. The following perfumes and their fake counterparts were analysed: Dior—Fahrenheit, Eisenberg—J’ose, YSL—La nuit de L’homme, 7 Loewe and Spice Bomb. The investigations were carried out using the headspace of the aqueous solutions. Data analysis utilized multidimensional techniques: principle component analysis (PCA), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), k-nearest neighbour (k-NN). The results obtained confirmed the legitimacy of the electronic nose technique as an alternative to the sensory analysis as far as the determination of authenticity of perfume is concerned.

  1. A Portable Electronic Nose For Hydrazine and Monomethyl Hydrazine Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Rebecca C.; Linnell, Bruce R.; Peterson, Barbara V.; Brooks, Kathy B.; Griffin, Tim P.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Program and military use large quantities Hydrazine (Hz) and monomethyl hydrazine (MMI-I) as rocket propellant. These substances are very toxic and are suspected human carcinogens. The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist set the threshold limit value to be 10 parts per billion (ppb). Current off-the-shelf portable instruments require 10 to 20 minutes of exposure to detect 10 ppb concentration. This shortcofriing is not acceptable for many operations. A new prototype instrument using a gas sensor array and pattern recognition software technology (i.e., an electronic nose) has demonstrated the ability to identify either Hz or MM}{ and quantify their concentrations at 10 parts per billion in 90 seconds. This paper describes the design of the portable electronic nose (e-nose) instrument, test equipment setup, test protocol, pattern recognition algorithm, concentration estimation method, and laboratory test results.

  2. NDE Process Development Specification for SRB Composite Nose Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suits, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Shuttle Upgrade program is a continuing improvement process to enable the Space Shuttle to be an effective space transportation vehicle for the next few decades. The Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), as a component of that system, is currently undergoing such an improvement. Advanced materials, such as composites, have given us a chance to improve performance and to reduce weight. The SRB Composite Nose Cap (CNC) program aims to replace the current aluminum nose cap, which is coated with a Thermal Protection System and poses a possible debris hazard, with a lighter, stronger, CNC. For the next 2 years, this program will evaluate the design, material selection, properties, and verification of the CNC. This particular process specification cites the methods and techniques for verifying the integrity of such a nose cap with nondestructive evaluation.

  3. Electronic Nose Based on an Optimized Competition Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Men, Hong; Liu, Haiyan; Pan, Yunpeng; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Haiping

    2011-01-01

    In view of the fact that there are disadvantages in that the class number must be determined in advance, the value of learning rates are hard to fix, etc., when using traditional competitive neural networks (CNNs) in electronic noses (E-noses), an optimized CNN method was presented. The optimized CNN was established on the basis of the optimum class number of samples according to the changes of the Davies and Bouldin (DB) value and it could increase, divide, or delete neurons in order to adjust the number of neurons automatically. Moreover, the learning rate changes according to the variety of training times of each sample. The traditional CNN and the optimized CNN were applied to five kinds of sorted vinegars with an E-nose. The results showed that optimized network structures could adjust the number of clusters dynamically and resulted in good classifications. PMID:22163887

  4. Flowfield calculations past an entry probe with ablated nose shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A.; Graves, R. A., Jr.; Wellmuenster, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of ablated nose shapes on the flowfield solutions are studied, using a time-dependent finite-difference method developed by Kumar, et al. (1979). Solutions are obtained for the laminar flow of a radiating mixture of H-He in chemical equilibrium past a blunt axisymmetric body at zero angle of attack. The freestream conditions correspond to a point on a typical Jovian entry trajectory, and the initial probe shape is a 45-deg half-angle spherically blunted cone. It is found that as nose bluntness increases, the following occur: in the nose region, shock standoff distances and radiative heating rates increase substantially; surface pressure level increases, but convective heating rates decrease.

  5. [The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].

    PubMed

    Foda, H M T

    2010-09-01

    The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.

  6. High-Temperature Gas Sensor Array (Electronic Nose) Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2002-01-01

    The ability to measure emissions from aeronautic engines and in commercial applications such as automotive emission control and chemical process monitoring is a necessary first step if one is going to actively control those emissions. One single sensor will not give all the information necessary to determine the chemical composition of a high-temperature, harsh environment. Rather, an array of gas sensor arrays--in effect, a high-temperature electronic "nose"--is necessary to characterize the chemical constituents of a diverse, high-temperature environment, such as an emissions stream. The signals produced by this nose could be analyzed to determine the constituents of the emission stream. Although commercial electronic noses for near-room temperature applications exist, they often depend significantly on lower temperature materials or only one sensor type. A separate development effort necessary for a high-temperature electronic nose is being undertaken by the NASA Glenn Research Center, Case Western Reserve University, Ohio State University, and Makel Engineering, Inc. The sensors are specially designed for hightemperature environments. A first-generation high-temperature electronic nose has been demonstrated on a modified automotive engine. This nose sensor array was composed of sensors designed for hightemperature environments fabricated using microelectromechanical-systems- (MEMS-) based technology. The array included a tin-oxide-based sensor doped for nitrogen oxide (NOx) sensitivity, a SiC-based hydrocarbon (CxHy) sensor, and an oxygen sensor (O2). These sensors operate on different principles--resistor, diode, and electrochemical cell, respectively--and each sensor has very different responses to the individual gases in the environment. A picture showing the sensor head for the array is shown in the photograph on the left and the sensors installed in the engine are shown in the photograph on the right. Electronics are interfaced with the sensors for

  7. Rare cardiac sequelae of a hump-nosed viper bite.

    PubMed

    Thillainathan, Sharmila; Priyangika, Dilani; Marasinghe, Indika; Kanapathippillai, Karunayokiny; Premawansa, Gayani

    2015-09-14

    The hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) is the commonest cause for venomous snakebites in Sri Lanka. Previously, it was thought to cause only local envenomation. However recently, several systemic effects and even mortality has been reported. Along with other snakes, such as the Indian cobra (Naja naja), the common krait (Bungarus caeruleus), the Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) and the saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus), the hump-nosed viper is now also considered capable of causing lethal envenomation. Unlike other snake species, the systemic manifestations occurring through the bite of a hump-nosed viper, such as acute renal failure, thrombotic microangiopathy etc are rare and unpredictable. A 49-year-old Sri Lankan Tamil male presented with a hump-nosed viper bite, which had resulted in a cardiac arrest within half an hour of envenomation. On arrival to the Emergency Treatment Unit, he was unconscious and without spontaneous breathing. Electrocardiography monitoring revealed ST elevation in leads II, III and aVF with reciprocal changes in leads I and aVL-indicating inferior wall infarction-as well as atrial fibrillation. Glasgow Coma Scale was 7/15, which indicated severe brain injury and electroencephalogram on day 10 revealed a low amplitude pattern compatible with diffuse brain damage. This case describes an authenticated case of myocardial infarction in a 49-year-old male following envenomation by a hump-nosed viper in Sri Lanka. This systemic effect of this viper's bite has not previously been described in the literature. This case report is intended to increase the vigilance for myocardial infarction following hump-nosed viper envenomation.

  8. Impact of crooked nose rhinoplasty on observer perceptions of attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Roxbury, Christopher; Ishii, Masaru; Godoy, Andres; Papel, Ira; Byrne, Patrick J; Boahene, Kofi D O; Ishii, Lisa E

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of a crooked nose on observer perceptions of facial asymmetry and attractiveness and the ability of rhinoplasty to minimize it. We hypothesized that the presence of a crooked nose would penalize symmetry and attractiveness ratings as compared to normal faces. We further hypothesized that straightening rhinoplasty would restore symmetry and improve attractiveness. Randomized controlled experiment. A group of 39 naïve observers viewed pictures of patients with crooked noses before and after straightening rhinoplasty, and normal patients. Observers rated the overall asymmetry and attractiveness, and the asymmetry of facial subunits using a survey with a rating scale of 1 to 10 for each category. For asymmetry, patient group (preoperative, postoperative, normal) was statistically significant by multivariate analysis of the variance. Post-analysis of variance showed significant differences in asymmetry scores for overall, nose subunit, and mouth subunit. Pairwise testing then showed significantly different overall asymmetry scores between normal and preoperative (P < .001), and preoperative and postoperative (P < .001), but not between normal and postoperative (P = .215) groups. Mixed linear regression analysis showed that decreasing nasal asymmetry by 1 point increases attractiveness by 0.18 points or 0.082 attractiveness standard deviations (P < .001). Faces with crooked noses were rated less symmetrical overall and less symmetrical at the nose and mouth subunits as compared to normal and postoperative faces. Straightening rhinoplasty diminished overall facial asymmetry and subunit asymmetry scores. Decreasing nasal asymmetry led to significant improvements in facial attractiveness. These data provide objective evidence supporting the idea that a straightening rhinoplasty can improve attractiveness. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. [Cost analysis of the colorectal neoplasm screen program in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Mao, Ayan; Dong, Pei; Yan, Xiaoling; Hu, Guangyu; Chen, Qingkun; Qiu, Wuqi

    2015-05-01

    To conduct with a cost analysis of the colorectal neoplasm screening program in Beijing, and provide data evidence for decision making. Based on stratified cluster sampling method, we carried out a 2-stage colorectal neoplasm screening program within 6 districts, Dongcheng, Xicheng, Chaoyang, Haidian, Fengtai and Shijingshan, of Beijing city between October, 2012 to May. 2013. The first stage of the program was to conducting a cancer risk level evaluation for community residents who were forty years older and the second stage's task was to providing clinical exam for those high risk people who were selected from the first stage. There were about 12 953 residents were involved in this program. We calculated the main cost of the colorectal neoplasm screen program in Beijing. Then estimate the cost of detecting one Colorectal Neoplasm patient of this program and compare it with the total treatment cost for a patient. 2 487 high risk residents were selected by the first stage and 1 055 of them made appointment for the colonoscopy exam but only 375 accepted the exam, participate rate was 35.5%. 9 neoplasm cancer patients and 71 pre-cancer patient were found at the second stage, the detection rate were 69.2/100 000 and 546/100 000, respectively. The direct input for this neoplasm screening program was 227 100 CNY and the transport expense was 4 200 CNY in the calculations. The cost for detecting one cancer patient was about 19 900 CNY. Comparing with the total medical care cost of a cancer patient (1 282 800 CNY), especially for those have been diagnosed as middle to end stage cancer, the screening program (cost 842 800 CNY) might help to reduce the total health expenditure about 128 700 CNY, based on 12 953 local residents age above 40 years old. An colonoscopy based colorectal neoplasm screening program showed its function on medical expenditure saving and might have advantage on health social labor creating.

  10. Somatic CALR Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms with Nonmutated JAK2

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, E.J.; Nice, F.L.; Gundem, G.; Wedge, D.C.; Avezov, E.; Li, J.; Kollmann, K.; Kent, D.G.; Aziz, A.; Godfrey, A.L.; Hinton, J.; Martincorena, I.; Van Loo, P.; Jones, A.V.; Guglielmelli, P.; Tarpey, P.; Harding, H.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.D.; Goudie, C.T.; Ortmann, C.A.; Loughran, S.J.; Raine, K.; Jones, D.R.; Butler, A.P.; Teague, J.W.; O’Meara, S.; McLaren, S.; Bianchi, M.; Silber, Y.; Dimitropoulou, D.; Bloxham, D.; Mudie, L.; Maddison, M.; Robinson, B.; Keohane, C.; Maclean, C.; Hill, K.; Orchard, K.; Tauro, S.; Du, M.-Q.; Greaves, M.; Bowen, D.; Huntly, B.J.P.; Harrison, C.N.; Cross, N.C.P.; Ron, D.; Vannucchi, A.M.; Papaemmanuil, E.; Campbell, P.J.; Green, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Somatic mutations in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2) occur in many myeloproliferative neoplasms, but the molecular pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2 is obscure, and the diagnosis of these neoplasms remains a challenge. METHODS We performed exome sequencing of samples obtained from 151 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. The mutation status of the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR) was assessed in an additional 1345 hematologic cancers, 1517 other cancers, and 550 controls. We established phylogenetic trees using hematopoietic colonies. We assessed calreticulin subcellular localization using immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. RESULTS Exome sequencing identified 1498 mutations in 151 patients, with medians of 6.5, 6.5, and 13.0 mutations per patient in samples of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and myelofibrosis, respectively. Somatic CALR mutations were found in 70 to 84% of samples of myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2, in 8% of myelodysplasia samples, in occasional samples of other myeloid cancers, and in none of the other cancers. A total of 148 CALR mutations were identified with 19 distinct variants. Mutations were located in exon 9 and generated a +1 base-pair frameshift, which would result in a mutant protein with a novel C-terminal. Mutant calreticulin was observed in the endoplasmic reticulum without increased cell-surface or Golgi accumulation. Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms carrying CALR mutations presented with higher platelet counts and lower hemoglobin levels than patients with mutated JAK2. Mutation of CALR was detected in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Clonal analyses showed CALR mutations in the earliest phylogenetic node, a finding consistent with its role as an initiating mutation in some patients. CONCLUSIONS Somatic mutations in the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone CALR were found in a majority of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms with

  11. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster Frustum and Nose ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster Frustum and Nose Cap assembly undergoing preparations and assembly procedures in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The Nose Cap contains the Pilot and Drogue Chutes and the Frustum contains the three Main Parachutes, Altitude Switches and forward booster Separation Motors. In this view the assembly is rotated so that the four Separation Motors are in view and aligned with the approximate centerline of the image. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  12. Closeup view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Nose Caps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Nose Caps mounted on ground support equipment in the Solid Rocket Booster Assembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center as they are being prepared for attachment to the SRB Frustum. The Nose Cap contains the Pilot and Drogue Chutes that are deployed prior to the main chutes as the SRBs descend to a splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean where they are recovered refurbished and reused. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  13. Increasing Electronic Nose Recognition Ability by Laser Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alejandra, Massacane; Juan, Vorobioff; Karina, Pierpauli; Norberto, Boggio; Silvia, Reich; Carlos, Rinaldi; Alfredo, Boselli; Alberto, Lamagna; Laura, Azcárate M.; Jorge, Codnia; Francisco, Manzano

    2009-05-01

    We present a method to increase the capability of an electronic nose to discriminate between a priori similar odours. We analyze the case of olive oil because it is well known that the characteristics of its aroma impair in many cases the discrimination between different kinds of olive oils especially when they are from similar geographic regions. In the present work we study how to improve the electronic nose performance for the above mentioned discrimination by the use of two IR laser wavelengths for vaporization.

  14. CONDITIONAL NEOPLASMS AND SUBTHRESHOLD NEOPLASTIC STATES

    PubMed Central

    Rous, Peyton; Kidd, John G.

    1941-01-01

    The "warts" which tar elicits on rabbit skin (papillomas, carcinomatoids, frill horns) are true tumors, benign growths expressive of slight yet irreversible deviations of epidermal cells from the normal. The neoplastic condition gives the cells a superiority over their neighbors when both are submitted to the same encouraging influences, and then they proliferate into tumors. Their state entails such disabilities, though, that they are unable to maintain themselves under ordinary circumstances, and consequently growths composed of them disappear when no longer aided. Often the neoplastic cells resume the normal aspect and habit of life long before the tumor mass is gone; and they may persist as part of an apparently normal epidermis, retaining their neoplastic potentialities for months after all signs of the growth have disappeared. In these instances it can be made to appear again, sometimes repeatedly, by non-carcinogenic stimulation of the skin (wound healing, turpentining). There is reason however to suppose that in the end the tumor cells, unless helped, die or are cast off. It is plain that the neoplastic state does not necessarily connote independence of behavior or success in tumor formation. On the contrary it may render cells unable to survive or endow them with powers which they can exert only under favoring conditions. This is the case with the cells composing the tar warts of rabbits. In the lack of such conditions the cells of these growths do not manifest themselves but remain in a subthreshold neoplastic state, whereas if aided they form neoplasms. The deviations from the normal represented by the benign tar tumors of rabbits are slight and limited in character, but further deviations in larger variety may be superimposed upon them, with result in malignant tumors, growths possessed of a greater, though not always absolute, independence. Tar cancers usually come about in this way, by successive, step-like deviations from the normal, and so also do

  15. SOLID PSEUDOPAPILLARY NEOPLASM OF THE PANCREAS.

    PubMed

    Carlotto, Jorge Roberto Marcante; Torrez, Franz Robert Apodaca; Gonzalez, Adriano Miziara; Linhares, Marcelo Moura; Triviño, Tarcisio; Herani-Filho, Benedito; Goldenberg, Alberto; Lopes-Filho, Gaspar de Jesus; Lobo, Edson José

    2016-01-01

    The solid pseudopapillary neoplasm is a rare tumor of the pancreas. However, it´s etiology still maintain discussions. To analyze it´s clinical data, diagnosis and treatment. A retrospective study of medical records of all patients treated from January 1997 until July 2015. Were identified 17 cases. Most patients were women (94.11%) and the average age was 32.88 years. The main complaint was abdominal mass (47.05%). The most frequent location was in the body/tail of the pancreas (72.22%) and the most frequently performed surgery was distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (64.70%). No patient had metastases at diagnosis. Conservative surgery for pancreatic parenchyma was performed in only three cases. The rate of complications in the postoperative period was 35.29% and the main complication was pancreatic fistula (29.41%). No patient underwent adjuvant treatment. The treatment is surgical and the most common clinical presentation is abdominal mass. Distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy was the most frequently performed surgery for its treatment. A neoplasia sólida pseudopapilar é tumor raro de pâncreas de tratamento cirúrgico. No entanto, sua causa ainda gera discussões. Analisar os dados clínicos, do diagnóstico e do tratamento da dessa neoplasia. Estudo retrospectivo com dados médicos de pacientes tratados entre janeiro de 1997 a julho de 2015. Foram identificados 17 casos. A maioria era de mulheres (94,11%) e a média de idade foi de 32,88 anos. A principal queixa era massa abdominal (47,05%). A localização mais frequente era no corpo/cauda do pâncreas (72,22%) e a operação mais realizada foi a pancreatectomia corpocaudal com esplenectomia (64,70%). Nenhum caso apresentou metástase no momento do diagnóstico. Operação conservadora de parênquima pancreático foi realizada em apenas três casos. A taxa de complicações no pós-operatório foi de 35,29% e a principal complicação foi fístula pancreática (29,41%). Nenhum paciente realizou

  16. From Nose to Brain: Un-Sensed Electrical Currents Applied in the Nose Alter Activity in Deep Brain Structures

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Tali; Shushan, Sagit; Ravia, Aharon; Hahamy, Avital; Secundo, Lavi; Weissbrod, Aharon; Ben-Yakov, Aya; Holtzman, Yael; Cohen-Atsmoni, Smadar; Roth, Yehudah; Sobel, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Rules linking patterns of olfactory receptor neuron activation in the nose to activity patterns in the brain and ensuing odor perception remain poorly understood. Artificially stimulating olfactory neurons with electrical currents and measuring ensuing perception may uncover these rules. We therefore inserted an electrode into the nose of 50 human volunteers and applied various currents for about an hour in each case. This induced assorted non-olfactory sensations but never once the perception of odor. To validate contact with the olfactory path, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure resting-state brain activity in 18 subjects before and after un-sensed stimulation. We observed stimulation-induced neural decorrelation specifically in primary olfactory cortex, implying contact with the olfactory path. These results suggest that indiscriminate olfactory activation does not equate with odor perception. Moreover, this effort serendipitously uncovered a novel path for minimally invasive brain stimulation through the nose. PMID:27591145

  17. From Nose to Brain: Un-Sensed Electrical Currents Applied in the Nose Alter Activity in Deep Brain Structures.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Tali; Shushan, Sagit; Ravia, Aharon; Hahamy, Avital; Secundo, Lavi; Weissbrod, Aharon; Ben-Yakov, Aya; Holtzman, Yael; Cohen-Atsmoni, Smadar; Roth, Yehudah; Sobel, Noam

    2016-09-02

    Rules linking patterns of olfactory receptor neuron activation in the nose to activity patterns in the brain and ensuing odor perception remain poorly understood. Artificially stimulating olfactory neurons with electrical currents and measuring ensuing perception may uncover these rules. We therefore inserted an electrode into the nose of 50 human volunteers and applied various currents for about an hour in each case. This induced assorted non-olfactory sensations but never once the perception of odor. To validate contact with the olfactory path, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure resting-state brain activity in 18 subjects before and after un-sensed stimulation. We observed stimulation-induced neural decorrelation specifically in primary olfactory cortex, implying contact with the olfactory path. These results suggest that indiscriminate olfactory activation does not equate with odor perception. Moreover, this effort serendipitously uncovered a novel path for minimally invasive brain stimulation through the nose.

  18. Hepatic small vessel neoplasm, a rare infiltrative vascular neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Ryan M.; Buelow, Benjamin; Mather, Cheryl; Joseph, Nancy M.; Alves, Venancio; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Liu, Ta-Chiang; Makhlouf, Hala; Marginean, Celia; Nalbantoglu, ILKe; Sempoux, Christine; Snover, Dale C.; Thung, Swan N.; Yeh, Matthew M.; Ferrell, Linda D.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Characteristic but rare vascular neoplasms in the adult liver composed of small vessels with an infiltrative border were collected from an international group of collaborators over a 5-year period (N = 17). These tumors were termed hepatic small vessel neoplasm (HSVN), and the histologic differential diagnosis was angiosarcoma (AS). The average age of patients was 54 years (range, 24–83 years). HSVN was more common in men. The average size was 2.1 cm (range, 0.2–5.5 cm). Diagnosis was aided by immunohistochemical stains for vascular lineage (CD31, CD34, FLI-1), which were uniformly positive in HSVN. Immunohistochemical stains (p53, c-Myc, GLUT-1, and Ki-67) for possible malignant potential are suggestive of a benign/low-grade tumor. Capture-based next-generation sequencing (using an assay that targets the coding regions of more than 500 cancer genes) identified an activating hotspot GNAQ mutation in 2 of 3 (67%) tested samples, and one of these cases also had a hotspot mutation in PIK3CA. When compared with hepatic AS (n = 10) and cavernous hemangioma (n = 6), the Ki-67 proliferative index is the most helpful tool in excluding AS, which demonstrated a tumor cell proliferative index greater than 10% in all cases. Strong p53 and diffuse c-Myc staining was also significantly associated with AS but not with HSVN or cavernous hemangioma. There have been no cases with rupture/hemorrhage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, or Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. Thus far, there has been no metastasis or recurrence of HSVN, but complete resection and close clinical follow-up are recommended because the outcome remains unknown. PMID:27090685

  19. Hepatic small vessel neoplasm, a rare infiltrative vascular neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential.

    PubMed

    Gill, Ryan M; Buelow, Benjamin; Mather, Cheryl; Joseph, Nancy M; Alves, Venancio; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Liu, Ta-Chiang; Makhlouf, Hala; Marginean, Celia; Nalbantoglu, ILKe; Sempoux, Christine; Snover, Dale C; Thung, Swan N; Yeh, Matthew M; Ferrell, Linda D

    2016-08-01

    Characteristic but rare vascular neoplasms in the adult liver composed of small vessels with an infiltrative border were collected from an international group of collaborators over a 5-year period (N=17). These tumors were termed hepatic small vessel neoplasm (HSVN), and the histologic differential diagnosis was angiosarcoma (AS). The average age of patients was 54years (range, 24-83years). HSVN was more common in men. The average size was 2.1cm (range, 0.2-5.5cm). Diagnosis was aided by immunohistochemical stains for vascular lineage (CD31, CD34, FLI-1), which were uniformly positive in HSVN. Immunohistochemical stains (p53, c-Myc, GLUT-1, and Ki-67) for possible malignant potential are suggestive of a benign/low-grade tumor. Capture-based next-generation sequencing (using an assay that targets the coding regions of more than 500 cancer genes) identified an activating hotspot GNAQ mutation in 2 of 3 (67%) tested samples, and one of these cases also had a hotspot mutation in PIK3CA. When compared with hepatic AS (n=10) and cavernous hemangioma (n=6), the Ki-67 proliferative index is the most helpful tool in excluding AS, which demonstrated a tumor cell proliferative index greater than 10% in all cases. Strong p53 and diffuse c-Myc staining was also significantly associated with AS but not with HSVN or cavernous hemangioma. There have been no cases with rupture/hemorrhage, disseminated intravascular coagulation, or Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. Thus far, there has been no metastasis or recurrence of HSVN, but complete resection and close clinical follow-up are recommended because the outcome remains unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... device includes the esophageal dilator; tracheal bistour (a long, narrow surgical knife); tracheal dilator; tracheal hook; laryngeal injection set; laryngeal knife; laryngeal saw; laryngeal trocar...; wire ear loop; microrule; mirror; mobilizer; ear, nose, and throat punch; ear, nose and throat...

  1. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... device includes the esophageal dilator; tracheal bistour (a long, narrow surgical knife); tracheal dilator; tracheal hook; laryngeal injection set; laryngeal knife; laryngeal saw; laryngeal trocar...; wire ear loop; microrule; mirror; mobilizer; ear, nose, and throat punch; ear, nose and throat...

  2. 21 CFR 874.4420 - Ear, nose, and throat manual surgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... device includes the esophageal dilator; tracheal bistour (a long, narrow surgical knife); tracheal dilator; tracheal hook; laryngeal injection set; laryngeal knife; laryngeal saw; laryngeal trocar...; wire ear loop; microrule; mirror; mobilizer; ear, nose, and throat punch; ear, nose and throat...

  3. Nose Fairing Modeling and Simulation to Support Trident II D5 Lifecycle Extension

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    the nose fairing was used to evaluate the nose fairing under tensile and compressive loading conditions to simulate the lifting evolution and...nose fairing was used to evaluate the nose fairing under tensile and compressive loading conditions to simulate the lifting evolution and closure...stage, solid propellant missile, the D5 uses inertial and stellar guidance technology [4]. The three rocket motor stages are nearly 26 feet, eight feet

  4. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bat, France

    PubMed Central

    Puechmaille, Sébastien J.; Verdeyroux, Pascal; Fuller, Hubert; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Bekaert, Michaël

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans and is responsible for the deaths of >1,000,000 bats since 2006. This disease and fungus had been restricted to the northeastern United States. We detected this fungus in a bat in France and assessed the implications of this finding. PMID:20113562

  5. Investigation of a Nanowire Electronic Nose by Computer Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-14

    for explosives, monitoring food quality and testing human breath for signs of disease are some of the applications of electronic noses. The ideal...19 3.3.1 InAs and InP Structures Used For DFT Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3.3.2 The Choice ...22 3.3.4 The Choice of Basis Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4 Results and

  6. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23.745 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT...) Movement of the pilot's steering control must not interfere with the retraction or extension of the landing...

  7. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23.745 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT...) Movement of the pilot's steering control must not interfere with the retraction or extension of the landing...

  8. View of hangar access apron entering nose dock hangar. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of hangar access apron entering nose dock hangar. View shows exposed tail of aircraft being serviced inside the hangar. Operational apron in background. View to southeast - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Operational & Hangar Access Aprons, Spanning length of northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  9. Closeup view of the reinforced carboncarbon nose on the forward ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the reinforced carbon-carbon nose on the forward section of the Orbiter Discovery's in the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  10. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bat, France.

    PubMed

    Puechmaille, Sebastien J; Verdeyroux, Pascal; Fuller, Hubert; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Bekaert, Michael; Teeling, Emma C

    2010-02-01

    White-nose syndrome is caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans and is responsible for the deaths of >1,000,000 bats since 2006. This disease and fungus had been restricted to the northeastern United States. We detected this fungus in a bat in France and assessed the implications of this finding.

  11. Simulation of nose whistlers: An application to low latitude whistlers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kalpana; Singh, R. P.; Kumar Singh, Abhay; Singh, R. N.

    2006-05-01

    Simulation technique for whistler mode signal propagating through inhomogeneous plasma using WKB approximation has been developed (Singh, K., Singh, R.P., Ferencz, O.E., 2004. Simulation of whistler mode propagation for low latitude stations. Earth Planet Space 56, 979-987). In the present paper, we have used it for the analysis of recorded signals at low latitudes and estimated the nose frequency, which is not observed on the dynamic spectra. At low latitudes nose frequency is ˜100 kHz or more and therefore it is absent in the dynamic spectra due to attenuation of the signal at higher frequencies. The importance of nose frequency is in determining the exact path of propagation, which is required in probing of ambient medium. It is shown that the method permits to study the nose frequency variation, it can be used to deduce physical parameters as the global electric field. A case study permits to get a reasonable value of the electric field, which up to now could not be done at very low latitude.

  12. 23. AIRCRAFT IN STORAGE, TIPPED ON THEIR NOSES. Photographic copy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. AIRCRAFT IN STORAGE, TIPPED ON THEIR NOSES. Photographic copy of historic photograph. 1947 OAMA (original print located at Ogden Air Logistics Center, Hill Air Force Base, Utah). Photographer Unknown - Hill Field, Airplane Repair Hangars No. 1-No. 4, 5875 Southgate Avenue, Layton, Davis County, UT

  13. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23.745 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... demonstrated that its use does not require exceptional pilot skill during takeoff and landing, in crosswinds...

  14. Using Electronic Noses to Detect Tumors During Neurosurgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie L.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Lara, Liana M.; Kateb, Babak; Chen, Mike

    2008-01-01

    It has been proposed to develop special-purpose electronic noses and algorithms for processing the digitized outputs of the electronic noses for determining whether tissue exposed during neurosurgery is cancerous. At present, visual inspection by a surgeon is the only available intraoperative technique for detecting cancerous tissue. Implementation of the proposal would help to satisfy a desire, expressed by some neurosurgeons, for an intraoperative technique for determining whether all of a brain tumor has been removed. The electronic-nose technique could complement multimodal imaging techniques, which have also been proposed as means of detecting cancerous tissue. There are also other potential applications of the electronic-nose technique in general diagnosis of abnormal tissue. In preliminary experiments performed to assess the viability of the proposal, the problem of distinguishing between different types of cultured cells was substituted for the problem of distinguishing between normal and abnormal specimens of the same type of tissue. The figure presents data from one experiment, illustrating differences between patterns that could be used to distinguish between two types of cultured cancer cells. Further development can be expected to include studies directed toward answering questions concerning not only the possibility of distinguishing among various types of normal and abnormal tissue but also distinguishing between tissues of interest and other odorous substances that may be present in medical settings.

  15. Pseudogymnoascus destructans transcriptome changes during white-nose syndrome infections

    Treesearch

    Sophia M. Reeder; Jonathan M. Palmer; Jenni M. Prokkola; Thomas M. Lilley; DeeAnn M. Reeder; Kenneth A. Field

    2017-01-01

    White nose syndrome (WNS) is caused by the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans that can grow in the environment saprotrophically or parasitically by infecting hibernating bats. Infections are pathological in many species of North American bats, disrupting hibernation and causing mortality. To determine what fungal pathways are...

  16. Ear, nose and throat problems in Accident and Emergency.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Tanya

    Nurses working in A&E departments throughout the UK frequently encounter patients with ear, nose and throat conditions. While the majority of these are straightforward, a small number are serious and even life-threatening. Tanya Reynolds discusses the nursing management of this group of patients and stresses the importance of appropriate assessment, pain management and referral.

  17. DETAIL VIEW OF THE ORBITER NOSE ACCESS PLATFORMS, MAIN FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF THE ORBITER NOSE ACCESS PLATFORMS, MAIN FLOOR LEVELS, PLATFORMS E-SOUTH AND E-NORTH, HB-3, FACING NORTH - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  18. General view of the Nose Cap, Frustum and Forward Skirt ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Nose Cap, Frustum and Forward Skirt assembly being hoisted and mated with the previously assembled Solid Rocket Booster segments on the Mobile Launch Platform in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Solid Rocket Boosters, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  19. [Ophthalmological findings in pediatric brain neoplasms: 58 cases].

    PubMed

    Santamaría, A; Martínez, R; Astigarraga, I; Etxebarría, J; Sánchez, M

    2008-08-01

    To describe the visual manifestations of brain neoplasms, and to analyze the effect of tumor control on these. This is a descriptive retrospective study, which includes patients under 14 years of age, suffering from different brain neoplasms in our hospital between 1996 and 2005 inclusive. In the group of patients with low visual acuity, 44% had organic amblyopias. In 28% of cases, the amblyopia was secondary to the strabismus/nystagmus produced by the developing tumor. Corrective treatment was successful in some cases of partial or total organic amblyopia. Ophthalmologic evaluation (including perimetry and fundoscopy) enabled detection of 3 tumor relapses. Visual analysis (visual acuity, perimetry, fundoscopy) should be an essential component of assessment during brain neoplasm treatment and follow-up. Corrective treatment is sometimes successful in organic amblyopias

  20. Molecular determinants of pathogenesis and clinical phenotype in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Grinfeld, Jacob; Nangalia, Jyoti; Green, Anthony R.

    2017-01-01

    The myeloproliferative neoplasms are a heterogeneous group of clonal disorders characterized by the overproduction of mature cells in the peripheral blood, together with an increased risk of thrombosis and progression to acute myeloid leukemia. The majority of patients with Philadelphia-chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasms harbor somatic mutations in Janus kinase 2, leading to constitutive activation. Acquired mutations in calreticulin or myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene are found in a significant number of patients with essential thrombocythemia or myelofibrosis, and mutations in numerous epigenetic regulators and spliceosome components are also seen. Although the cellular and molecular consequences of many of these mutations remain unclear, it seems likely that they interact with germline and microenvironmental factors to influence disease pathogenesis. This review will focus on the determinants of specific myeloproliferative neoplasm phenotypes as well as on how an improved understanding of molecular mechanisms can inform our understanding of the disease entities themselves. PMID:27909216

  1. The role of JAK2 abnormalities in hematologic neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Alabdulaali, Mohammed K.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, an activating mutation in the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) was identified in a significant proportion of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms, mainly polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis. Many types of mutations in the JAK-STAT pathway have been identified, the majority are related to JAK2. Currently JAK2 mutations are important in the area of diagnosis of myeloid neoplasms, but its role beyond the confirmation of clonality is growing and widening our knowledge about these disorders. In addition to that, clinical trials to target JAK2-STAT pathway will widen our knowledge and hopefully will offer more therapeutic options. In this review, we will discuss the role of JAK2 abnormalities in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, classification, severity and management of hematologic neoplasms.

  2. [Pathologic characteristics of malignant neoplasms occurring in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Arai, Tomio; Matsuda, Yoko; Aida, Junko; Takubo, Kaiyo

    2015-08-01

    Malignant neoplasm preferentially occurs in the elderly. Common cancers in the elderly are gastric, colorectal, lung and prostate cancers in men whereas colorectal, lung, gastric and pancreatic cancers in women. There are several characteristic features such as tumor location, histology, biological behavior and pathway of carcinogenesis in malignant neoplasms occurring in the elderly. Multiple cancers increase with aging. Although it is generally believed that carcinoma in the elderly shows well differentiation, slow growth, low incidence of metastasis and favorable prognosis, the tumor does not always show such features. Regarding biological behavior of malignant tumor in the elderly, age-related alterations of the host such as stromal weakness and decreased immune response against cancer cell invasion should be considered as well as characteristics of tumor cell itself. Thus, we need a specific strategy for treatment for malignant neoplasms in the elderly.

  3. Identification of the most common cutaneous neoplasms in dogs and evaluation of breed and age distributions for selected neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Villamil, J Armando; Henry, Carolyn J; Bryan, Jeffrey N; Ellersieck, Mark; Schultz, Loren; Tyler, Jeff W; Hahn, Allen W

    2011-10-01

    OBJECTIVE-To identify the most common cutaneous neoplasms in dogs and evaluate breed and age distributions for selected neoplasms. DESIGN-Retrospective epidemiological study. SAMPLE-Records available through the Veterinary Medical Database of dogs examined at veterinary teaching hospitals in North America between 1964 and 2002. PROCEDURES-Information on tumor type and patient breed and age was collected. Incidence and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS-Records of 1,139,616 dogs were reviewed. Cutaneous neoplasms were diagnosed in 25,996 of these dogs; records for the remaining 1,113,620 dogs did not indicate that cutaneous neoplasms had been diagnosed, and these dogs were considered controls. The most frequent age range for dogs with cutaneous neoplasms was 10 to 15 years. Lipoma, adenoma, and mast cell tumor were the most common skin tumor types. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Results supported previously reported data regarding cutaneous neoplasia in dogs but provided updated information on the most common skin tumors and on age and breed distributions.

  4. 33 CFR 110.71 - Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.71 Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md. The water area of Jacobs Nose Cove, on the west side of the mouth of Elk River, Maryland, comprising the entire...

  5. 33 CFR 110.71 - Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.71 Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md. The water area of Jacobs Nose Cove, on the west side of the mouth of Elk River, Maryland, comprising the entire...

  6. 33 CFR 110.71 - Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.71 Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md. The water area of Jacobs Nose Cove, on the west side of the mouth of Elk River, Maryland, comprising the entire...

  7. 33 CFR 110.71 - Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.71 Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md. The water area of Jacobs Nose Cove, on the west side of the mouth of Elk River, Maryland, comprising the entire...

  8. 33 CFR 110.71 - Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.71 Jacobs Nose Cove, Elk River, Md. The water area of Jacobs Nose Cove, on the west side of the mouth of Elk River, Maryland, comprising the entire...

  9. Use of an Upland Pine Forest by the Star-Nosed Mole, Condylura Cristata

    Treesearch

    Timothy S. McCay; Mark J. Komoraoski; William M. Ford

    1999-01-01

    The star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata) is a semi-aquatic insectivore, commonly found near marshy areas and streams. We report two captures of star-nosed moles from a xeric, upland pine forest more than 500 m from the nearest persistent source of water. Both captures occurred during rainy nights, suggesting that star-nosed moles use rain events as...

  10. Diverse Applications of Electronic-Nose Technologies in Agriculture and Forestry

    Treesearch

    Alphus D. Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Electronic-nose (e-nose) instruments, derived from numerous types of aroma-sensor technologies, have been developed for a diversity of applications in the broad fields of agriculture and forestry. Recent advances in e-nose technologies within the plant sciences, including improvements in gas-sensor designs, innovations in data analysis and pattern-recognition...

  11. Review of electronic-nose technologies and algorithms to detect hazardous chemicals in the environment

    Treesearch

    Alphus D. Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Novel mobile electronic-nose (e-nose) devices and algorithms capable of real-time detection of industrial and municipal pollutants, released from point-sources, recently have been developed by scientists worldwide that are useful for monitoring specific environmental-pollutant levels for enforcement and implementation of effective pollution-abatement programs. E-nose...

  12. Canine Central Nervous System Neoplasm Phenotyping Using Tissue Microarray Technique.

    PubMed

    Spitzbarth, I; Heinrich, F; Herder, V; Recker, T; Wohlsein, P; Baumgärtner, W

    2017-05-01

    Tissue microarrays (TMAs) represent a useful technique for the simultaneous phenotyping of large sample numbers and are particularly suitable for histopathologic tumor research. In this study, TMAs were used to evaluate semiquantitatively the expression of multiple antigens in various canine central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms and to identify markers with potential discriminative diagnostic relevance. Ninety-seven canine CNS neoplasms, previously diagnosed on hematoxylin and eosin sections according to the World Health Organization classification, were investigated on TMAs, with each tumor consisting of 2 cylindrical samples from the center and the periphery of the neoplasm. Tumor cells were phenotyped using a panel of 28 monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, and hierarchical clustering analysis was applied to group neoplasms according to similarities in their expression profiles. Hierarchical clustering generally grouped cases with similar histologic diagnoses; however, gliomas especially exhibited a considerable heterogeneity in their positivity scores. Multiple tumor groups, such as astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, significantly differed in the proportion of positive immunoreaction for certain markers such as p75(NTR), AQP4, GFAP, and S100 protein. The study highlights AQP4 and p75(NTR) as novel markers, helping to discriminate between canine astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma. Furthermore, the results suggest that p75(NTR) and proteolipid protein may represent useful markers, whose expression inversely correlates with malignant transformation in canine astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, respectively. Tissue microarray was demonstrated to be a useful and time-saving tool for the simultaneous immunohistochemical characterization of multiple canine CNS neoplasms. The present study provides a detailed overview of the expression patterns of different types of canine CNS neoplasms.

  13. Compensating for Effects of Humidity on Electronic Noses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie; Ryan, Margaret A.; Manatt, Kenneth; Zhou, Hanying; Manfreda, Allison

    2004-01-01

    A method of compensating for the effects of humidity on the readouts of electronic noses has been devised and tested. The method is especially appropriate for use in environments in which humidity is not or cannot be controlled for example, in the vicinity of a chemical spill, which can be accompanied by large local changes in humidity. Heretofore, it has been common practice to treat water vapor as merely another analyte, the concentration of which is determined, along with that of the other analytes, in a computational process based on deconvolution. This practice works well, but leaves room for improvement: changes in humidity can give rise to large changes in electronic-nose responses. If corrections for humidity are not made, the large humidity-induced responses may swamp smaller responses associated with low concentrations of analytes. The present method offers an improvement. The underlying concept is simple: One augments an electronic nose with a separate humidity and a separate temperature sensor. The outputs of the humidity and temperature sensors are used to generate values that are subtracted from the readings of the other sensors in an electronic nose to correct for the temperature-dependent contributions of humidity to those readings. Hence, in principle, what remains after corrections are the contributions of the analytes only. Laboratory experiments on a first-generation electronic nose have shown that this method is effective and improves the success rate of identification of analyte/ water mixtures. Work on a second-generation device was in progress at the time of reporting the information for this article.

  14. Multiple uterine angioleiomyomas mimicking an ovarian neoplasm: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hakverdi, S; Dolapçioğlu, K; Güngören, A; Yaldiz, M; Hakverdi, A U

    2009-01-01

    Angioleiomyoma is a rare benign neoplasm that originates from smooth muscle cells and contains thick-walled blood vessels. A 69-year-old woman had been complaining of progressive abdominal distention for the last five years. At the exploration, a tumoral mass that could not be differentiated as to whether it had its origin from the uterus or ovary was specified. The patient underwent total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH+BSO). On pathologic examination of the specimen, the tumor was diagnosed as an angioleiomyoma. Here, we present a case of giant-multiple uterine angioleiomyomas mimicking an ovarian neoplasm.

  15. Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome and gestational trophoblastic neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Priya; Kumar, Sobha; Kumar, K K Santhosh

    2014-09-01

    Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a non-heritable venous malformation with bone and soft tissue hypertrophy and cutaneous nevi. Neonate with Klippel Trenaunay syndrome born to a mother with past history of Gestational trophoblastic neoplasm. Antenatally, a fetal vascular malformation was identified ultrasonologically at 29 weeks gestation. Acute myeloid leukemia was diagnosed in mother at 33 weeks gestation. A rare association of Klippel Trenaunay syndrome and gestational trophoblastic neoplasm with the possible role of either hyperglycosylated Human Chorionic Gonadotropin or chemotherapy as a link is highlighted.

  16. Disseminated encephalomyelitis-like central nervous system neoplasm in childhood.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhui; Bao, Xinhua; Fu, Na; Ye, Jintang; Li, Ting; Yuan, Yun; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Yuehua; Qin, Jiong; Wu, Xiru

    2014-08-01

    A malignant neoplasm in the central nervous system with diffuse white matter changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is rare in children. It could be misdiagnosed as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. This report presents our experience based on 4 patients (3 male, 1 female; aged 7-13 years) whose MRI showed diffuse lesions in white matter and who were initially diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. All of the patients received corticosteroid therapy. After brain biopsy, the patients were diagnosed with gliomatosis cerebri, primitive neuroectodermal tumor and central nervous system lymphoma. We also provide literature reviews and discuss the differentiation of central nervous system neoplasm from acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

  17. E-nose based rapid prediction of early mouldy grain using probabilistic neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Xiaoguo; Liu, Wei; Hui, Guohua; Fu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, early mouldy grain rapid prediction method using probabilistic neural network (PNN) and electronic nose (e-nose) was studied. E-nose responses to rice, red bean, and oat samples with different qualities were measured and recorded. E-nose data was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), back propagation (BP) network, and PNN, respectively. Results indicated that PCA and BP network could not clearly discriminate grain samples with different mouldy status and showed poor predicting accuracy. PNN showed satisfying discriminating abilities to grain samples with an accuracy of 93.75%. E-nose combined with PNN is effective for early mouldy grain prediction. PMID:25714125

  18. The Continuing Value of Ultrastructural Observation in Central Nervous System Neoplasms in Children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Rae; Park, Sung-Hye

    2015-11-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms are the second most common childhood malignancy after leukemia and the most common solid organ neoplasm in children. Diagnostic dilemmas with small specimens from CNS neoplasms are often the result of multifactorial etiologies such as frozen or fixation artifact, biopsy size, or lack of knowledge about rare or unfamiliar entities. Since the late 1950s, ultrastructural examination has been used in the diagnosis of CNS neoplasms, though it has largely been replaced by immunohistochemical and molecular cytogenetic studies. Nowadays, pathologic diagnosis of CNS neoplasms is achieved through intraoperative cytology, light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and molecular cytogenetic results. However, the utility of electron microscopy (EM) in the final diagnosis of CNS neoplasms and investigation of its pathogenetic origin remains critical. Here, we reviewed the distinguishing ultrastructural features of pediatric CNS neoplasms and emphasize the continuing value of EM in the diagnosis of CNS neoplasms.

  19. Predictors of depression and anxiety in patients with intracranial neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Appleby, Brian S; Appleby, Kristin K; Rabins, Peter V

    2008-01-01

    A retrospective review of patients with intracranial neoplasms was performed to identify characteristics of patients with comorbid depression and/or anxiety. This study suggests that depression and anxiety are common comorbidities and that preexisting psychiatric disorders predispose to their occurrence within the neuro-oncology setting.

  20. Molecular Pathogenesis of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Influence of Age and Gender.

    PubMed

    Patterson-Fortin, Jeffrey; Moliterno, Alison R

    2017-09-25

    The myeloproliferative neoplasms polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) display distinct clinical and pathologic features but are characterized by mutations in JAK2, MPL, and CALR leading to activation of the JAK-STAT pathway. This review addresses the pathogenesis and mechanisms of these mutant alleles and the unique interactions of both of age and gender.

  1. Lifestyle Behaviors as Predictors of Malignant Neoplasm Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, L. S.; And Others

    The relationship between lifestyle behaviors and the onset of neoplasm development has been researched extensively. This study took a multivariate approach in attempting to identify lifestyle variables which could predict group membership among subjects diagnosed as having cancer and those subjects who have not been diagnosed as having cancer.…

  2. Cutaneous epithelioid angiosarcoma: a neoplasm with potential pitfalls in diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mobini, Narciss

    2009-03-01

    Angiosarcoma (AS) is a rare neoplasm. Cutaneous AS is the most common form of AS. The epithelioid variant of the disease, however, is a rare entity. This subset can histologically mimic non-vascular neoplasms and impose serious challenges in reaching the correct diagnosis. We present five patients with cutaneous epithelioid angiosarcoma (EAS); in none, the clinical diagnosis included a vascular lesion. Three patients had history of breast conservation surgery with/without radiation therapy. Other patients had no previous radiation, and there was no lymphedema in any of the cases. The histopathological examination of the biopsy specimens by hematoxylin and eosin method was not suggestive of a malignant vascular neoplasm initially and the differential diagnoses included carcinoma, malignant melanoma and atypical lymphoid infiltrate. Only after performing immunohistochemical studies that included vascular markers, a definitive diagnosis was possible. Some cases showed unusual histopathological features. Cutaneous EAS is a rare variant of cutaneous AS that can mimic a variety of more common, non-vascular neoplasms, creating a major pitfall in the diagnosis. A careful and thorough histopathological examination and a high index of suspicion, along with appropriate immunohistochemical evaluation, can help reach a correct diagnosis and provide optimal patient care.

  3. The histopathology of lepromatous leprosy in the nose.

    PubMed

    McDougall, A C; Rees, R J; Weddell, A G; Kanan, M W

    1975-04-01

    On the basis of clinical, histological and bacteriological assessments, 31 patients in Central India were selected and classified as having active but early lepromatous leprosy and 4 patients as having early borderline leprosy. From the nose of each patient an average of 4 biopsies were taken from particular sites of the septum and turbinates either by punch biopsy or dissection with a scalpel. The nasal tissues from all the lepromatous patients contained many acid-fast bacilli; no bacilli or abnormalities were seen in nasal tissues from the borderline patients. The histopathology of these highly bacilliferous tissues is described. Bacilli were universally seen in macrophages, but they were also seen in blood monocytes and polymorphs, fibroblasts, squamous and pseudo-columnar epithelium, keratin, peri- and endo-neurial cells of tiny nerve bundles, erectile tissue, vascular plain muscle, perivascular histiocytes and frequently and abundantly in the cytoplasm of endothelial lining cells of lymphatics and of small blood vessels and free within the lumina of these vessels. Five basic mechanisms of escape of bacilli from the submucosa on to the surface, and thus into the external environment, are described. Secondary infection, in the presence of an expansile lepromatous infiltrate, together with simple trauma to the surface epithelium, are the main factors in the discharge of bacilli. These histopathological observations are consistent with the findings from other recent studies on the nose in leprosy regarding (1) the large numbers of morphologically intact and viable Myco. leprae excreted in the nasal mucus of lepromatous patients; (2) the clinical changes observed in the nose of such patients, and (3) the similar nasal involvement and excretion of Myco. leprae from the nose of mice inoculated with leprosy bacilli of human origin. Of particular interest was the frequency and intensity of bacilli within the endothelial lining cells of small blood and lymph vessels and

  4. Electronic noses and tongues: applications for the food and pharmaceutical industries.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Elizabeth A; Bai, Jinhe; Plotto, Anne; Dea, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The electronic nose (e-nose) is designed to crudely mimic the mammalian nose in that most contain sensors that non-selectively interact with odor molecules to produce some sort of signal that is then sent to a computer that uses multivariate statistics to determine patterns in the data. This pattern recognition is used to determine that one sample is similar or different from another based on headspace volatiles. There are different types of e-nose sensors including organic polymers, metal oxides, quartz crystal microbalance and even gas-chromatography (GC) or combined with mass spectroscopy (MS) can be used in a non-selective manner using chemical mass or patterns from a short GC column as an e-nose or "Z" nose. The electronic tongue reacts similarly to non-volatile compounds in a liquid. This review will concentrate on applications of e-nose and e-tongue technology for edible products and pharmaceutical uses.

  5. Serous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas: clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics.

    PubMed

    Reid, Michelle D; Choi, Hyejeong; Balci, Serdar; Akkas, Gizem; Adsay, Volkan

    2014-11-01

    We herein summarize the pathology and most recent advances in the molecular genetics of serous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas. They typically present as relatively large, well-demarcated tumors (mean size, 6cm), predominantly occurring in females. Pre-operative diagnosis remains challenging; imaging findings and cyst fluid analysis often prove non-specific and fine-needle aspiration often does not yield diagnostic cells. Pathologically, they are characterized by a distinctive cytology referred to as "serous." Although they have ductal differentiation, they distinctly lack the mucin production that characterizes most other pancreatic ductal tumors, including ductal adenocarcinoma and its variants, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN). They instead produce abundant glycogen (glycogen-rich adenoma). Serous cystadenomas also lack the molecular alterations that characterize ductal neoplasms, such as mutation of KRAS (high prevalence in most mucinous ductal neoplasms), inactivation of SMAD4 (seen in ductal adenocarcinomas), and mutations in GNAS (seen in some IPMNs) and RNF43 (detected in MCNs and IPMNs). Instead, new molecular and immunohistochemical observations place serous pancreatic tumors closer to "clear cell neoplasms" seen in various other organs that are associated with the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) pathway, such as clear cell renal cell carcinomas and capillary hemangioblastomas. Patients with VHL syndrome have an increased risk of developing serous pancreatic tumors and somatic mutations of the VHL gene are common in these tumors along with modification of its downstream effectors including hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF1), glucose uptake and transporter-1 (GLUT-1), a common factor in clear cell (glycogen-rich) tumors, as well as expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thought to be a factor in the striking capillarization of serous cystadenomas and other non-pancreatic clear cell tumors. VEGF may

  6. Age-specific incidence of all neoplasms after colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Levi, Fabio; Randimbison, Lalao; Blanc-Moya, Rafael; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    Patients diagnosed with a specific neoplasm tend to have a subsequent excess risk of the same neoplasm. The age incidence of a second neoplasm at the same site is approximately constant with age, and consequently the relative risk is greater at younger age. It is unclear whether such a line of reasoning can be extended from a specific neoplasm to the incidence of all neoplasms in subjects diagnosed with a defined neoplasm. We considered the age-specific incidence of all non-hormone-related epithelial neoplasms after a first primary colorectal cancer (n = 9542) in the Vaud Cancer Registry data set. In subjects with a previous colorectal cancer, the incidence rate of all other epithelial non-hormone-related cancers was stable around 800 per 100,000 between age 30 and 60 years, and rose only about twofold to reach 1685 at age 70 to 79 years and 1826 per 100,000 at age 80 years or older. After excluding synchronous cancers, the rise was only about 1.5-fold, that is, from about 700 to 1000. In the general population, the incidence rate of all epithelial non-hormone-related cancers was 29 per 100,000 at age 30 to 39 years, and rose 30-fold to 883 per 100,000 at age 70 to 79 years. Excluding colorectal cancers, the rise of all non-hormone-related cancers was from 360 per 100,000 at age 40 to 49 years to 940 at age 70 to 79 years after colorectal cancer, and from 90 to 636 per 100,000 in the general population (i.e., 2.6- vs. 7.1-fold). The rise of incidence with age of all epithelial non-hormone-related second cancers after colorectal cancer is much smaller than in the general population. This can possibly be related to the occurrence of a single mutational event in a population of susceptible individuals, although alternative models are plausible within the complexity of the process of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cutaneous metastasis of ovarian carcinoma with shadow cells mimicking a primary pilomatrical neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Lalich, Daniel; Tawfik, Ossama; Chapman, Julia; Fraga, Garth

    2010-07-01

    Shadow cells are characteristic of pilomatricoma, although they have been described in other cutaneous and visceral neoplasms, particularly endometrioid adenocarcinomas of the female genital tract. We describe a metastasis of an ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with shadow cells to the skin that was initially misinterpreted as a pilomatricoma. We compare the histology of the ovarian neoplasm to 21 pilomatricomas. This is the first reported case of a cutaneous metastasis of a visceral neoplasm mimicking a primary pilomatrical neoplasm.

  8. Histological pattern of thyroid gland neoplasms in Kano, Northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Raphael, S; Mohammed, A Z; Iliyasu, Y

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid gland neoplasms occur globally with geographical variation in incidence and histopathological pattern related to age, sex, dietary and environmental factors. There is, however, no published histological study from northwestern Nigeria; hence, the need for this retrospective study to document the pattern in Kano. This was a retrospective study of all histologically diagnosed thyroid neoplasms in the Department of Pathology, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), Kano Nigeria, over a ten year period from 1st January, 2002 to 31st December, 2011. A total of 522 thyroid specimens (1.5% of all biopsies) were received over the ten year period. Thyroid neoplasms accounted for 157 (30.1%) of all the thyroid specimens, comprising 130 females (82.8%) and 27 males (17.2%) with female to male ratio of 4.8:1. The ages range from 15 to 80 years with a mean age of 35.8 years and peak occurrence in the 4th decade. There were 82 cases (52.2%) of thyroid adenoma (mostly follicular) while thyroid carcinoma accounted for 66 cases (42%). Papillary carcinoma predominated (53%) followed by follicular carcinoma (33.3%) and medullary carcinoma (9.1%). One case each (1.5%) of anaplastic carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma were seen. All the malignant tumours were epithelial and all except one were primary thyroid malignancy. Thyroid neoplasmis a common thyroid gland lesion in Kano with a striking female preponderance. Thyroid adenoma was the most common benign neoplasm while papillary carcinoma seen a decade earlier in females was the most common malignant thyroid neoplasm. The predominance of papillary carcinoma over follicular carcinoma is a reverse of the finding of an earlier clinicopatholgical study on thyroid gland diseases in Kano.

  9. Novel materials and applications of electronic noses and tongues.

    PubMed

    Gouma, Perena; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2004-10-01

    This introductory article describes the content of the October 2004 issue of MRS Bulletin focusing on novel materials and applications of electronic noses and tongues. The articles in this issue review the state of the art in materials, devices, and data processing algorithms used in electronic olfaction and taste systems. The most common gas- and liquid-phase analyte detection tools are presented and compared with traditional chemical analysis instrumentation such as gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy systems. Metal oxides, polymer/polymer composites, and dyes are covered in these articles as key sensing materials. Resistive, optical, electrochemical, and other types of electronic nose and tongue systems are reviewed, and their use in diverse applications, including environmental and food-quality monitoring and medical diagnostics, is discussed.

  10. Electrolyte depletion in white-nose syndrome bats.

    PubMed

    Cryan, Paul M; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Blehert, David S; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Turner, Gregory G; Webb, Julie; Behr, Melissa; Verant, Michelle; Russell, Robin E; Castle, Kevin T

    2013-04-01

    The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome is causing widespread mortality in hibernating North American bats. White-nose syndrome occurs when the fungus Geomyces destructans infects the living skin of bats during hibernation, but links between infection and mortality are underexplored. We analyzed blood from hibernating bats and compared blood electrolyte levels to wing damage caused by the fungus. Sodium and chloride tended to decrease as wing damage increased in severity. Depletion of these electrolytes suggests that infected bats may become hypotonically dehydrated during winter. Although bats regularly arouse from hibernation to drink during winter, water available in hibernacula may not contain sufficient electrolytes to offset winter losses caused by disease. Damage to bat wings from G. destructans may cause life-threatening electrolyte imbalances.

  11. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe.

    PubMed

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans Peter; Seidl, Hans Peter; Blehert, David S

    2010-08-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  12. Electrolyte depletion in white-nose syndrome bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, Paul M.; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Blehert, David S.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Turner, Gregory G.; Webb, Julie; Behr, Melissa; Verant, Michelle L.; Russell, Robin E.; Castle, Kevin T.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome is causing widespread mortality in hibernating North American bats. White-nose syndrome occurs when the fungus Geomyces destructans infects the living skin of bats during hibernation, but links between infection and mortality are underexplored. We analyzed blood from hibernating bats and compared blood electrolyte levels to wing damage caused by the fungus. Sodium and chloride tended to decrease as wing damage increased in severity. Depletion of these electrolytes suggests that infected bats may become hypotonically dehydrated during winter. Although bats regularly arouse from hibernation to drink during winter, water available in hibernacula may not contain sufficient electrolytes to offset winter losses caused by disease. Damage to bat wings from G. destructans may cause life-threatening electrolyte imbalances.

  13. Detached Eddy Simulation of a Nose Landing-Gear Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langtry, R.; Spalart, P.

    Some aircraft have exhibited a noticeable vibration and aero-acoustic phenomenon inside the nose landing gear cavity. The goal of the present study was to determine whether unsteady CFD using either unsteady RANS or detached eddy simulation (DES) could predict the cavity oscillation that was measured in a Boeing wind tunnel test. In general the agreement between the experiment and CFD was good. The CFD predicted an aircraft scale cavity tone frequency of 17 Hz compared to the measured value of 15 Hz. As well, the CFD predicted sound pressure level of the tone was within 4 dB of the measurements. From the present results it would appear that CFD can be used as a tool to investigate and possibly mitigate nose gear cavity tone mechanisms on new aircraft designs.

  14. F-18 HARV in flight with actuated nose strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's F-18 from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, soars over the Mojave Desert while flying the third and final phase of the HARV (High Alpha Research Vehicle) program. A set of control surfaces called strakes were installed in the nose of the aircraft. The strakes, outlined in gold and white, provided improved yaw control at steep angles of attack. Normally folded flush, the units -- four feet long and six inches wide -- can be opened independently to interact with the nose vortices to produce large side forces for control. Testing involved evaluation of the strakes by themselves as well as combined with the aircraft's Thrust Vectoring System. The strakes were designed by NASA's Langley Research Center, then installed and flight tested at Dryden.

  15. F-18 HARV in flight with actuated nose strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's F-18 from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, soars over the Mojave Desert while flying the current phase of the HARV (High Alpha Research Vehicle) program. A set of control surfaces called strakes were installed in the nose of the aircraft. The strakes, outlined in gold and white, provided improved yaw control at steep angles of attack. Normally folded flush, the units -- four feet long and six inches wide -- can be opened independently to interact with the nose vortices to produce large side forces for control. Testing involved evaluation of the strakes by themselves as well as combined with the aircraft's Thrust Vectoring System. The strakes were designed by NASA's Langley Research Center, then installed and flight tested at Dryden.

  16. Olfactory perception, communication, and the nose-to-brain pathway.

    PubMed

    Stockhorst, Ursula; Pietrowsky, Reinhard

    2004-10-30

    The present paper's aim is of to give an overview about the basic knowledge as well as actual topics of olfaction--with a special regard on behavior. We summarize different functions of the nose and the olfactory system in human physiology and psychology. We will first describe the functional anatomy of the olfactory system in man. Afterwards, the function of the olfactory system will be viewed from an evolutionary and phylogenetic perspective. We will further outline the main features of olfactory perception, and will show how olfactory perception is influenced by learning. Olfactory signals are relevant stimuli that affect communication. Consequently, the role of the olfactory system in social interaction and mood will be described and gender differences will be addressed. Finally, the function of the nose as an interface to the brain, including implications for pharmacology, will be discussed.

  17. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wibbelt, G.; Kurth, A.; Hellmann, D.; Weishaar, M.; Barlow, A.; Veith, M.; Pruger, J.; Gorfol, T.; Grosche, T.; Bontadina, F.; Zophel, U.; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, P.M.; Blehert, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  18. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bats, Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus. PMID:20678317

  19. Exposing animals to oxidant gases: nose only vs. whole body.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung Sung; Bowen, Larry; Rando, Roy J; Postlethwait, Edward M; Squadrito, Giuseppe L; Matalon, Sadis

    2010-07-01

    Inhalation experiments using laboratory animals are performed under controlled conditions to assess the toxicity of and to investigate interventional strategies to ameliorate injury resulting from oxidant gas exposures. A variety of dynamic inhalation exposure systems that use whole-body or nose-only exposure chambers have been developed for rodents. In a whole-body exposure chamber, the animals are immersed in the test atmosphere, whereas in nose-only or head-only exposure systems, exposures are localized primarily to the head and/or nasal regions. There are advantages and disadvantages with both types of exposure approaches. Considerations such as animal number, exposure duration, end points of study, and availability of test material should influence the selection of a particular exposure system.

  20. The process of developing an instrument: the JPL electronic nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, M. A.

    2012-06-01

    An electronic nose is a sensing array designed to monitor for targeted chemical species or mixtures. From 1995 to 2008, an electronic nose was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to monitor the environment in human occupied spacecraft for the sudden release, such as leaks or spills, of targeted chemical species. The JPL ENose was taken through three generations of device, from basic exploratory research into polymer-carbon composite chemiresistive sensors to a fully operating instrument which was demonstrated on the International Space Station for several months. The Third Generation JPL ENose ran continuously in the U.S. Lab on the International Space Station to monitor for sudden releases of a targeted group of chemical species. It is capable of detecting, identifying and quantifying targeted species in the parts-per-million range in air, and of operating at a range of temperatures, humidities and pressures.

  1. Laryngeal mask airways in ear, nose, and throat procedures.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Jeff E

    2010-09-01

    The use of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and its variants in ear, nose, and throat procedures have been extensively described in case reports, retrospective reviews, and randomized clinical trials. The LMA has developed a considerable following because of its lack of tracheal stimulation, which can be a considerable advantage in ear, nose, and throat (ENT) procedures. The incidence of coughing on emergence has been shown to be lower with the LMA than with the endotracheal tube (ETT). Although other approaches to smooth emergence have been described, few would argue that it is as easy to achieve a smooth emergence with an ETT as with an LMA. Although patients certainly exist for whom the LMA is contraindicated, many will experience better results with the LMA because of the features delineated in this article.

  2. A historical vignette (15). "Be proud of yourself: you have a history!" The nose and the plague.

    PubMed

    Tainmont, J

    2009-01-01

    The nose and the plague. Although the plague does not cause any specific nasal pathology, the miasma theory and the repulsive smell of the disease were factors that contributed to a strong emphasis on the nose. To stop the spread of the disease, it was thought necessary to saturate the nose with protective scents (hence the nose of the plague doctors) (Figure 1), or simply to hold one's nose. Moreover, the nose was long considered to be an outlet for mucus from the encephalon, and so induced nose bleeding and sneezing were advised when the plague seemed to be attacking the brain.

  3. Tour of a labyrinth: exploring the vertebrate nose.

    PubMed

    Van Valkenburgh, Blaire; Smith, Timothy D; Craven, Brent A

    2014-11-01

    This special issue of The Anatomical Record is the outcome of a symposium entitled "Inside the Vertebrate Nose: Evolution, Structure and Function." The skeletal framework of the nasal cavity is a complicated structure that often houses sinuses and comprises an internal skeleton of bone or cartilage that can vary greatly in architecture among species. The nose serves multiple functions, including olfaction and respiratory air-conditioning, and its morphology is constrained by evolution, development, and conflicting demands on cranial space, such as enlarged orbits. The nasal cavity of vertebrates has received much more attention in the last decade due to the emergence of nondestructive methods that allow improved visualization of the internal anatomy of the skull, such as high-resolution x-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The 17 articles included here represent a broad range of investigators, from paleontologists to engineers, who approach the nose from different perspectives. Key topics include the evolution and development of the nose, its comparative anatomy and function, and airflow through the nasal cavity of individual species. In addition, this special issue includes review articles on anatomical reduction of the olfactory apparatus in both cetaceans and primates (the vomeronasal system), as well as the molecular biology of olfaction in vertebrates. Together these articles provide an expansive summary of our current understanding of vertebrate nasal anatomy and function. In this introduction, we provide background information and an overview of each of the three primary topics, and place each article within the context of previous research and the major challenges that lie ahead. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. View of the forward fuselage and the reinforced carboncarbon nose ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the forward fuselage and the reinforced carbon-carbon nose of the Orbiter Discovery looking aft while mounted atop the 76-wheeled orbiter transfer system as it is being rolled from the Orbiter Processing Facility to the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  5. Experimental Modeling of a Formula Student Carbon Composite Nose Cone.

    PubMed

    Fellows, Neil A

    2017-06-06

    A numerical impact study is presented on a Formula Student (FS) racing car carbon composite nose cone. The effect of material model and model parameter selection on the numerical deceleration curves is discussed in light of the experimental deceleration data. The models show reasonable correlation in terms of the shape of the deceleration-displacement curves but do not match the peak deceleration values with errors greater that 30%.

  6. The Electronic Nose: A Protocol To Evaluate Fresh Meat Flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isoppo, S.; Cornale, P.; Barbera, S.

    2009-05-01

    An Electronic Nose, comprising 10 MOS, was used to carry out meat aroma measurements in order to define an analytical protocol. Every meat sample (Longissimus Dorsi) was tested before, during and after cooking in oven (at 165° C for 600 seconds). Analysis took place in these three steps because consumers perceive odor when they buy (raw aroma), cook (cooking aroma) and eat meat (cooked aroma). Therefore these tests permitted to obtain a protocol useful to measure aroma daily perceived by meat eater.

  7. Rain simulation studies for high-intensity acoustic nose cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, R. M.; Cho, Y. I.; Shakkottai, P.; Back, L. H.

    1988-01-01

    Unarmed plastic projectiles can be equipped with small axisymmetric cavities for the generation of intense tones that are useful in training maneuvers. Attention is presently given to the simulation of rainfall in an airstream and the effect of rain droplet impingement on the nose of projectiles, and especially to any penetration or accumulation of water at the base of the cavity that might increase the fundamental cavity frequency and/or reduce the intensity of sound production during rain conditions.

  8. Inhalability of micron particles through the nose and mouth.

    PubMed

    Se, Camby Mei King; Inthavong, Kiao; Tu, Jiyuan

    2010-03-01

    Aspiration efficiencies from nose and mouth inhalations are investigated at low and high inhalation rates by using the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software CFX 11. A realistic human head with detailed facial features was constructed. Facial features were matched to represent the 50th percentile of a human male, aged between 20 and 65 years old, based on anthropometric data. The constant freestream velocity was 0.2 ms(-1), normal to the face, and inhalation rates through the mouth and nose were 15 liters per minute (LPM) for light breathing and 40 LPM for heavy breathing. It was found that the flow field in the near breathing region exhibited vertical direction caused by the presence of the torso where the airstream diverges as it flows around and over the body. The critical area concept was used as a tool to determine the aspiration efficiency of particles. Comparisons between critical areas for the nose and mouth inhalations show similar geometric properties such as the area's shape, and its vertical distance location on the x-z plane located at y = 80 cm upstream. The critical area sizes were found to be slightly larger for the mouth inhalation mainly due to the larger mouth area and also the aligned orientation of the mouth to the upstream flow, whereas the nose is perpendicular to the upstream flow. This study was undertaken to establish the flow field in the near breathing region that will help to characterize the flow and particle field for initial boundary conditions leading to a more holistic modeling approach of respiration through the internal nasal cavity and mouth.

  9. ["Clown nose"--skin metastasis of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Soyer, H P; Cerroni, L; Smolle, J; Kerl, H

    1990-10-01

    We report on a 74-year-old woman showing a reddish infiltration of the tip of the nose, which had appeared 3 months ago. Clinically, we considered the following differential diagnoses: sarcoidosis, rosacea, pseudolymphoma, and metastasis. Histological and immunohistological investigation proved a cutaneous metastasis of carcinoma of the breast. Our case report gives evidence of the fact that cutaneous metastases of systemic malignancies are frequently located in acral regions of the skin.

  10. Identification of sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma using an electronic nose

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xia; Wan, Jun; Chu, Liang; Liu, Wengang; Jing, Yafeng; Wu, Chunjie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pinelliae Rhizoma is a commonly used Chinese herb which will change brown during the natural drying process. However, sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma will get a better appearance than naturally dried one. Sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma is potentially toxical due to sulfur dioxide and sulfites formed during the fuming procedures. The odor components in sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma is complex. At present, there is no analytical method available to determine sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma simply and rapidly. To ensure medication safety, it is highly desirable to have an effective and simple method to identify sulfur fumed Pinelliae Rhizoma. Materials and Methods: This paper presents a novel approach using an electronic nose based on metal oxide sensors to identify whether Pinelliae Rhizoma was fumed with sulfur, and to predict the fuming degree of Pinelliae Rhizoma. Multivariate statistical methods such as principal components analysis (PCA), discriminant factorial analysis (DFA) and partial least squares (PLS) were used for data analyzing and identification. The use of the electronic nose to discriminate between different fuming degrees Pinelliae Rhizoma and naturally dried Pinelliae Rhizoma was demonstrated. Results: The electronic nose was also successfully applied to identify unknown samples including sulfur fumed samples and naturally dried samples, high recognition value was obtained. Quantitative analysis of fuming degree of Pinelliae Rhizoma was also demonstrated. The method developed is simple and fast, which provides a new quality control method of Chinese herbs from the aspect of odor. Conclusion: It has shown that this electronic nose based metal oxide sensor is sensitive to sulfur and sulfides. We suggest that it can serve as a supportive method to detect residual sulfur and sulfides. PMID:24914293

  11. The microbial community structure of the cotton rat nose.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Moreno, Diego; Plumeier, Iris; Kahl, Silke; Krismer, Bernhard; Peschel, Andreas; Oxley, Andrew P A; Jauregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar H

    2015-12-01

    The cotton rat nose is commonly used as a model for Staphylococcus aureus colonization, as it is both physiologically and anatomically comparable to the human nares and can be easily colonized by this organism. However, while the colonization of the human anterior nares has been extensively studied, the microbial community structure of cotton rat noses has not been reported so far. We describe here the microbial community structure of the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) nose through next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons covering the V1-V2 region and the analysis of nearly full length 16S rRNA genes of the major phylotypes. Roughly half of the microbial community was composed of two undescribed species of the genus Campylobacter, with phylotypes belonging to the genera Catonella, Acholeplasma, Streptobacillus and Capnocytophaga constituting the predominant community members. Thus, the nasal community of the cotton rat is uniquely composed of several novel bacterial species and may not reflect the complex interactions that occur in human anterior nares. Mammalian airway microbiota may, however, be a rich source of hitherto unknown microbes.

  12. Anthropometric Analysis of the South Indian Woman's Nose.

    PubMed

    Packiriswamy, Vasanthakumar; Bashour, Mounir; Nayak, Satheesha

    2016-06-01

    The normal values of nasal dimensions and position have been established for various racial and ethnic groups. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of information related to these values in South Indian females, leading to surgeons being forced to use statistical data from Caucasians in their decision making. The objective of the present study was to compare statistically the nasal anthropometric measurement of South Indian women (SIW) with published norms for North American white women (NAWW) using independent t-test. Anthropometric analysis was done on standardized frontal, lateral, and basal photographs of South Indian woman's noses (n = 375) ages 18 to 35 years. Comparative analysis showed significant differences between SIW and NAWW in 15 of 17 measurements. All 14 nasal indices revealed significant differences that were calculated. SIW had relatively shorter, wider, and more horizontally oriented noses, and the noses have ellipsoid appearance in submental view, deeper nasal root, underrotated nasal tip, flared alae, and rounded nasal tip. As cosmetic surgery becomes more popular among South Indians, the obtained normative mean values might serve as a prototype for facial surgery. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Classification of buildings mold threat using electronic nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łagód, Grzegorz; Suchorab, Zbigniew; Guz, Łukasz; Sobczuk, Henryk

    2017-07-01

    Mold is considered to be one of the most important features of Sick Building Syndrome and is an important problem in current building industry. In many cases it is caused by the rising moisture of building envelopes surface and exaggerated humidity of indoor air. Concerning historical buildings it is mostly caused by outdated raising techniques among that is absence of horizontal isolation against moisture and hygroscopic materials applied for construction. Recent buildings also suffer problem of mold risk which is caused in many cases by hermetization leading to improper performance of gravitational ventilation systems that make suitable conditions for mold development. Basing on our research there is proposed a method of buildings mold threat classification using electronic nose, based on a gas sensors array which consists of MOS sensors (metal oxide semiconductor). Used device is frequently applied for air quality assessment in environmental engineering branches. Presented results show the interpretation of e-nose readouts of indoor air sampled in rooms threatened with mold development in comparison with clean reference rooms and synthetic air. Obtained multivariate data were processed, visualized and classified using a PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and ANN (Artificial Neural Network) methods. Described investigation confirmed that electronic nose - gas sensors array supported with data processing enables to classify air samples taken from different rooms affected with mold.

  14. SLN approach for nose-to-brain delivery of alprazolam.

    PubMed

    Singh, Alok Pratap; Saraf, Shailendra K; Saraf, Shubhini A

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, alprazolam-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. They were evaluated for their efficiency in nose-to-brain targeting and biodistribution in a suitable animal model after intranasal delivery. Solid lipid nanoparticles may offer an improvement to nose-to-brain drug delivery since they are able to protect the encapsulated drug from biological and/or chemical degradation. The distribution of the drug to different organs was recorded through biodistribution studies in male Wistar rats and gamma scintigraphy imaging in New Zealand rabbits by tagging the formulation with radioactive substance (99m)Tc. The radioactivity count of various organs was taken as a function of the drug concentration. The study reveals that alprazolam can be rapidly transferred to the brain via intranasal route, bypassing the blood-brain barrier and a direct nose-to-brain transfer. The enhanced rate and extent of transport may help in reducing the dose and dosing frequency, thereby providing ease for ambulatory patients.

  15. Review of the cetacean nose: form, function, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Berta, Annalisa; Ekdale, Eric G; Cranford, Ted W

    2014-11-01

    The cetacean nose presents a unique suite of anatomical modifications. Key among these is posterior movement of the external nares from the tip of the rostrum to the top of the head. Concomitant with these anatomical changes are functional changes including the evolution of echolocation in odontocetes, and reduction of olfaction in Neoceti (crown odontocetes and mysticetes). Anatomical and embryological development of the nose in crown cetaceans is reviewed as well as their functional implications. A sequence of evolutionary transformations of the nose is proposed in the transition from a terrestrial to an aquatic lifestyle made by whales. Basilosaurids and all later whales reduce the nasal turbinates. The next stage characterizes Neoceti which exhibit reduction of the major olfactory structures, i.e. the ethmoturbinates, cribriform plate and maxilloturbinates with further reduction and subsequent loss in odontocetes. These anatomical modifications reflect underlying genetic changes such as the reduction of olfactory receptor genes, although mysticetes retain some olfactory abilities. Modifications of the facial and nasal region of odontocetes reflect specialization for biosonar sound production.

  16. Cosmetic Concerns Related to the Posttraumatic Nose without Nasal Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Farrior, Edward H; Eisler, Lindsay S

    2015-06-01

    Because of its prominent position on the facial skeleton, the nose is commonly injured. Though significant trauma can result in nasal obstruction, there is also considerable concern for potential cosmetic deformity. Repairing traumatic deformities is complex and can involve all aspects of the nose, including the bony and cartilaginous framework as well as the soft tissue envelope. Trauma can result in deflection, asymmetry, and deformity of the bony nasal dorsum, midvault, and nasal tip. Any serious nasal trauma places patients at risk for complications that may include nasal septal hematoma, septal perforation, and possible cerebral spinal fluid leak. Unrecognized or untreated septal hematomas can result in cartilaginous septal necrosis followed by saddle nose deformity. Though damage to structural scaffolding is often the cause of cosmetic deformity following nasal trauma, the nasal soft tissue envelope is also commonly affected. This can result in lacerations, avulsions, and traumatic tattooing. The following will discuss the evaluation, diagnosis, and management of these cosmetic concerns relating to nasal trauma.

  17. Detection And Identification Of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Electronic Nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covington, J. A.; Ouaret, N.; Gardner, J. W.; Nwokolo, C.; Bardhan, K. D.; Arasaradnam, R. P.

    2011-11-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an inflammation of the lining of the human bowel and a major health issue in Europe. IBD carries with it significant morbidity from toxic treatment, surgery and a risk of developing bowel cancer. Thus there is a need for early identification of the disease using non-invasive tests. Present diagnostic techniques are based around invasive tests (i.e. endoscopy) and laboratory culture; the latter is limited as only 50% of the gut bacteria can be identified. Here we explore the use of an e-nose as a tool to detect and identify two IBDs (i.e. Crohn's disease (CD) & Ulcerative Colitis (UC)) based on headspace analysis from urine samples. We believe that the gut bacterial flora is altered by disease (due to fermentation) that in-turn modulates the gas composition within urine samples. 24 samples (9 CD, 6 UC, 9 controls) were analysed with an in-house e-nose and an Owlstone IMS instrument. Data analysis was performed using linear discriminant analysis (LDA and principal components analysis (PCA). Using the e-nose, LDA separates both disease groups and control, whilst PCA shows a small overlap of classes. The IMS data are more complex but shows some disease/control separation. We are presently collecting further samples for a larger study using more advanced data processing methods.

  18. Similar Fracture Patterns in Human Nose and Gothic Cathedral.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shu Jin; Tse, Kwong Ming; Lee, Heow Pueh

    2015-10-01

    This study proposes that the bony anatomy of the human nose and masonry structure of the Gothic cathedral are geometrically similar, and have common fracture patterns. We also aim to correlate the fracture patterns observed in patients' midface structures with those seen in the Gothic cathedral using computational approach. CT scans of 33 patients with facial fractures were examined and compared with computer simulations of both the Gothic cathedral and human nose. Three similar patterns were found: (1) Cracks of the nasal arch with crumpling of the vertical buttresses akin to the damage seen during minor earthquakes; (2) lateral deviation of the central nasal arch and collapse of the vertical buttresses akin to those due to lateral forces from wind and in major earthquakes; and (3) Central arch collapse seen as a result of collapse under excessive dead weight. Interestingly, the finding of occult nasal and septal fractures in the mandible fractures with absence of direct nasal trauma highlights the possibility of transmission of forces from the foundation to the arch leading to structural failure. It was also found that the structural buttresses of the Gothic cathedral delineate the vertical buttresses in the human midface structure. These morphologic similarities between the human nose and Gothic cathedral will serve as a basis to study the biomechanics of nasal fractures. Identification of structural buttresses in a skeletal structure has important implications for reconstruction as reestablishment of structural continuity restores normal anatomy and architectural stability of the human midface structure.

  19. Effect of trap color and height on captures of blunt-nosed and sharp-nosed leafhoppers (hemiptera: cicadellidae) and non-target arthropods in cranberry bogs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A series of field experiments were conducted in cranberry bogs in 2006-2010 to determine adult attraction of the two most economically important leafhopper pests of cultivated Vaccinium spp. in the northeast USA, the blunt-nosed leafhopper, Limotettix vaccinii, and sharp-nosed leafhopper, Scaphytopi...

  20. Second neoplasms following megavoltage radiation for pediatric tumors

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, W.A.; Dusenbery, K.E.; Potish, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    Because ionizing radiation is a known carcinogen, diligent long term follow-up; in children exposed to therapeutic radiation is required. Since 1954 a large cohort of children receiving megavoltage RT at the University of Minnesota have been closely followed, and we now update our previous reports on the nature and risk of second neoplasms in this patient population. We have followed 487 children who were treated with megavoltage radiation therapy (RT) between 1/1/1954 and 12/31/1980. Patients at the time of RT ranged in age from 2 weeks to 17 years (median 6.2 years) and were treated for a variety of benigh (n=39) and malignant (n=448) conditions. The most common indications for RT were ALL (n=160), primary brain tumors (n=79), Hodgkin`s Disease (n=56), Wilms Tumor (n=36), neuroblastoma (n=33), and Histiocytosis X (n=24). Median follow-up of surviving patients is 19.9 years (range 4.8 to 39.9 years) with a total of 9832 patient years of follow-up accrued. Only 14 (2.9%) of patients were lost to follow-up and were censored at the time of last follow-up. Kaplan Meier actuarial survival estimates for all patients was 93% (95% C.I.90-95%) at 20 years and 86% (95% C.I. 81-90.5%) at 30 years. Forty-two (8.6%) patients developed second neoplasms from 3.8 to 32 years (median 15 years) after RT. The cumulative risk of developing a second neoplasm was 17% at 20 years. The most common second neoplasms were breast cancer (n=8), meningiomas (n-6) and skin cancers (n=7), all of which were within the RT fields, and developed at a median of 18, 16 and 21 years after RT, respectively. Of the 42 patients with second neoplasms, 16 died either of the second neoplasm (n=15) or of recurrent primary tumor (n=1). Risk factors associated with developing a second malignancy included age >10 years at RT (p=0.009), and an initial diagnosis of Hodgkin`s Disease (p<0.0001).

  1. Computational fluid dynamic modeling of nose-to-ceiling head positioning for sphenoid sinus irrigation.

    PubMed

    Craig, John R; Palmer, James N; Zhao, Kai

    2017-05-01

    After sinus surgery, patients are commonly instructed to irrigate with saline irrigations with their heads over a sink and noses directed inferiorly (nose-to-floor). Although irrigations can penetrate the sinuses in this head position, no study has assessed whether sphenoid sinus penetration can be improved by irrigating with the nose directed superiorly (nose-to-ceiling). The purpose of this study was to use a validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of sinus irrigations to assess the difference in sphenoid sinus delivery of irrigations after irrigating in a nose-to-floor vs nose-to-ceiling head position. Bilateral maxillary antrostomies, total ethmoidectomies, wide sphenoidotomies, and a Draf III frontal sinusotomy were performed on a single fresh cadaver head. CFD models were created from postoperative computed tomography maxillofacial scans. CFD modeling software was used to simulate a 120-mL irrigation to the left nasal cavity with the following parameters: flow rate 30 mL/second, angle of irrigation 20 degrees to the nasal floor, and either nose-to-floor or nose-to-ceiling head positioning. In the postoperative CFD models, the sphenoid sinuses were completely penetrated by the irrigation while in a nose-to-ceiling head position. However, no sphenoid sinus penetration occurred in the nose-to-floor position. Other sinuses were similarly penetrated in both head positions, although the ipsilateral maxillary sinus was less penetrated in the nose-to-ceiling position. CFD modeling demonstrated that the nose-to-ceiling head position was superior to the nose-to-floor position in delivering a 120-mL irrigation to the sphenoid sinuses. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  2. Central Cemento-Ossifying Fibroma: Primary Odontogenic or Osseous Neoplasm?

    PubMed

    Woo, Sook-Bin

    2015-12-01

    Currently, central cemento-ossifying fibroma is classified by the World Health Organization as a primary bone-forming tumor of the jaws. However, histopathologically, it is often indistinguishable from cemento-osseous dysplasias in that it forms osteoid and cementicles (cementum droplets) in varying proportions. It is believed that pluripotent cells within the periodontal membrane can be stimulated to produce either osteoid or woven bone and cementicles when stimulated. If this is true, cemento-ossifying fibroma would be better classified as a primary odontogenic neoplasm arising from the periodontal ligament. Cemento-ossifying fibromas also do not occur in the long bones. The present report compares several entities that fall within the diagnostic realm of benign fibro-osseous lesions and reviews the evidence for reclassifying central cemento-ossifying fibroma as a primary odontogenic neoplasm. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prospect of JAK2 inhibitor therapy in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Atallah, Ehab; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the Janus kinase (JAK)2 V617F mutation in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms was a major milestone in understanding the biology of those disorders. Several groups simultaneously reported on the high incidence of this mutation in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms: almost all patients with polycythemia vera harbor the mutation and about 50% of patients with essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis have the mutation, making the development of JAK2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors an attractive therapeutic goal. In addition, inhibition of JAK2 kinase may have a therapeutic role in other hematologic malignancies, such as chronic myeloid leukemia or lymphoma. A number of molecules that inhibit JAK2 kinase have been described in the literature, and several are being evaluated in a clinical setting. Here, we summarize current clinical experience with JAK2 inhibitors. PMID:19445582

  4. Neoplastic disease after liver transplantation: Focus on de novo neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Burra, Patrizia; Rodriguez-Castro, Kryssia I

    2015-01-01

    De novo neoplasms account for almost 30% of deaths 10 years after liver transplantation and are the most common cause of mortality in patients surviving at least 1 year after transplant. The risk of malignancy is two to four times higher in transplant recipients than in an age- and sex-matched population, and cancer is expected to surpass cardiovascular complications as the primary cause of death in transplanted patients within the next 2 decades. Since exposure to immunosuppression is associated with an increased frequency of developing neoplasm, long-term immunosuppression should be therefore minimized. Promising results in the prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence have been reported with the use of mTOR inhibitors including everolimus and sirolimus and the ongoing open-label prospective randomized controlled SILVER. Study will provide more information on whether sirolimus-containing vs mTOR-inhibitor-free immunosuppression is more efficacious in reducing HCC recurrence. PMID:26269665

  5. Secondary neoplasms after radiotherapy for a childhood solid tumor.

    PubMed

    Paulino, Arnold C; Fowler, B Zach

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the outcome of patients who develop a second neoplasm after radiotherapy (RT) for a childhood solid tumor. From 1956 to 1998, 429 children with a malignant solid tumor were treated at a single radiation oncology facility. The medical records and radiotherapy charts were reviewed to determine if the patient developed a secondary neoplasm after treatment for malignancy. Twenty-three (5.4%) patients developed a secondary neoplasm. There were 12 males and 11 females with a median age at RT of 6.6 years (range, 2 months to 20 years). There were 14 malignant neoplasms in 13 (3.0%) and 14 benign neoplasms in 11 patients (2.6%). The types of initial solid tumors treated with RT were Ewing sarcoma in 6, Wilms tumor in 6, medulloblastoma in 5, neuroblastoma in 3, and other in 3. Median RT dose was 45 Gy (range, 12.3 to 60 Gy) using 4 MV in 9, 1.25 MV in 8, 250 KV in 4, and 6 MV photons in 1 patient. One child was treated using 15-MeV electrons. Fourteen had chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 23.2 years (range, 5.3 to 44.4 years). For the 14 malignant neoplasms, the median time interval from initial tumor to second malignancy was 10.1 years. The 14 second malignant neoplasms (SMN) were osteosarcoma in 3, breast carcinoma in 2, melanoma in 2, malignant fibrous histiocytoma in 1, dermatofibrosarcoma in 1, leiomyosarcoma in 1, mucoepidermoid carcinoma in 1, colon cancer in 1, chronic myelogenous leukemia in 1, and basal cell carcinoma in 1. Ten of the 14 SMN (71%) were at the edge or inside the RT field. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rate after diagnosis of an SMN was 69.2%; it was 70% for children with a SMN at the edge or inside the RT field and 66.7% for those outside of the RT field. The 14 benign neoplasms appeared at a median time of 16.9 years and included cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in 3, osteochondroma in 3, thyroid adenoma in 1, duodenal adenoma in 1, lipoma in 1, cherry angioma in 1, uterine leiomyoma in 1, ovarian

  6. Lesions and Neoplasms of the Penis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Heller, Debra S

    2016-01-01

    In addition to practitioners who care for male patients, with the increased use of high-resolution anoscopy, practitioners who care for women are seeing more men in their practices as well. Some diseases affecting the penis can impact on their sexual partners. Many of the lesions and neoplasms of the penis occur on the vulva as well. In addition, there are common and rare lesions unique to the penis. A review of the scope of penile lesions and neoplasms that may present in a primary care setting is presented to assist in developing a differential diagnosis if such a patient is encountered, as well as for practitioners who care for their sexual partners. A familiarity will assist with recognition, as well as when consultation is needed.

  7. Molecular pathogenesis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Thosani, Nirav; Dasari, Chandra S; Bhutani, Manoop S; Raimondo, Massimo; Guha, Sushovan

    2010-11-01

    Over the last 3 decades, there have been substantial improvements in diagnostic imaging and sampling techniques to evaluate pancreatic diseases. The modern technology has helped us to recognize premalignant conditions of pancreas including mucinous cystic neoplasms and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs). Differentiation between benign and malignant lesions and early detection of any malignant transformation in premalignant lesion are extremely important for further management decisions. Diagnostic cytology has limited sensitivity to further differentiate between benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions of the pancreas. There is limited information about the epidemiological risk factors and molecular mechanisms leading to development and further progression to malignancy of IPMNs. Several studies have shown that pancreatic juice and pancreatic tissue from the lesion can be tested for molecular markers including K-ras, p53, and p16 to differentiate between cancer and chronic inflammatory process. We review cellular signaling pathways that contribute to pathogenesis of IPMNs of the pancreas to further identify potential biomarkers and molecular targets.

  8. [Precursors of acute leukemia: myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Kreipe, H H

    2011-11-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) represent neoplastic proliferations of hematopoietic stem cells, which may progress to loss of differentiation and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Transitions between MDSs and MPNs as well as combinations between both disorders occur and MPNs may acquire dysplastic features combined with cytopenia. Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms show dysplastic and myeloproliferative properties and have in common genetic aberrations at the stem cell level (TET2, ASXL 1, CBL, IDH 1, IDH 2, EZH2, p53, Runx1), which may be found in one cell or may affect different hematopoietic stem cells, expanding in parallel. Progress to AML follows a linear clonal evolution only in a subset of cases. Alternatively AML derives from secondary clones, devoid of any marker mutation or originates from a common aberrant progenitor cell which shares other but not the JAK2 ( V617F ) mutation.

  9. Differential Diagnosis in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of the Larynx.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Jennifer L; Ferlito, Alfio; Hellquist, Henrik; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Skálová, Alena; Slootweg, Pieter J; Willems, Stefan M; Cardesa, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    The differential diagnosis of neuroendocrine neoplasms of the larynx is broad and includes lesions of epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuroectodermal origin. These lesions have overlapping clinical and pathologic aspects and must be carefully considered in the differential diagnosis of laryngeal neoplasms. The prognosis and treatment are also different among these tumor types, which necessitates making these distinctions clinically. The current literature was reviewed to provide updated information regarding the epithelial-derived tumors, including carcinoid, atypical carcinoid, small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine component. These tumors are compared and contrasted with non-epithelial-derived tumors such as paraganglioma and nonmucosal tumors, such as medullary thyroid carcinoma. The morphologic and cytologic features are discussed, along with helpful immunohistochemical and ancillary investigations.

  10. Further investigations of the etiology of subcutaneous neoplasms in native gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum)

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, A.D.; Ostrander, G.K.

    1995-10-01

    Aspects of the etiology of subcutaneous spindle-cell neoplasms in feral gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) collected from Lake of the Arbuckles, Oklahoma, were investigated. Field collections of adult and juvenile gizzard shad were conducted to determine the prevalence and seasonality of neoplasms and site specificity of neoplasms-bearing fish. Overall neoplasm prevalence for adult gizzard shad was 22.1%; no juveniles exhibited neoplasms. Neoplasm occurrence did not appear seasonal. Neoplasm-bearing gizzard shad were found at all three sampling sites within Lake of the Arbuckles with similar neoplasm prevalence rates (Guy Sandy Creek 22.1%, Rock creek, 17.9%, and Buckhorn Creek 22.4%). No gizzard shad (juvenile or adult) collected from Lake Carl Blackwell, Oklahoma, the reference site, exhibited neoplasms. Water, sediment, and shad liver tissue from Lake of the Arbuckles and the reference site were analyzed for total recoverable metals (cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, and lead, by graphite furnace atomic absorption). Chromium, copper, and nickel were found in the water samples at concentrations of >1 to 8.6 {micro}g/L. Low concentrations (>1 to 13.6 {micro}g/g wet weight) of all the metals were found in the sediment and liver tissue for both sites. Heavy metal contamination does not appear linked to neoplasm occurrence. To determine if a nonbacterial infectious agent was responsible for tumor formation, cell-free neoplasm homogenates were injected into healthy rainbow trout. Neoplasms were not transmitted into rainbow trout. Neoplasms were not transmitted into rainbow trout. The etiology of these neoplasms remains unknown.

  11. GATA3 immunohistochemical expression in salivary gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Lauren E; Begum, Shahnaz; Westra, William H; Bishop, Justin A

    2013-12-01

    GATA3 is a zinc finger transcription factor that regulates the normal development of many tissues and cell types. Recent studies have shown that immunohistochemical nuclear staining for GATA3 among tumors is highly restricted to carcinomas of breast and urothelial origin; however salivary gland tumors have not been tested. Given that breast and salivary gland tissues are very similar with respect to embryologic development and structure, we performed GATA3 staining on a spectrum of salivary gland neoplasms. GATA3 immunohistochemistry was performed on a diverse collection of 180 benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms including 10 acinic cell carcinomas, 2 adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified, 41 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 2 epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas, 1 low grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma, 15 mammary analogue secretory carcinomas, 7 metastatic squamous cell carcinomas, 27 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 2 oncocytic carcinomas, 5 oncocytomas, 34 pleomorphic adenomas, 4 polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas, 25 salivary duct carcinomas, and 5 Warthin tumors. Staining for GATA3 was observed in 92/180 (51 %) of salivary gland tumors. GATA3 staining was observed in most of the tumor types, but diffuse immunolabeling was consistently seen in salivary duct carcinoma (25 of 25) and mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (15 of 15)-the two tumor types that most closely resemble breast neoplasia. Background benign salivary gland tissue was also usually weakly positive in both acini and ducts. GATA3 immunostaining is not restricted to tumors of breast and urothelial origin. Rather, it is expressed across many different types of salivary gland neoplasms. As a result, salivary gland origin should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a GATA3-positive carcinoma, particularly in the head and neck. Although GATA3 immunohistochemistry is not helpful in resolving the differential diagnosis between a primary salivary gland neoplasm and metastatic breast

  12. Imaging considerations in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Pedrosa, Ivan; Boparai, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    With the widespread use of cross-sectional imaging, particularly computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the continuous improvement in the image quality of these techniques, the diagnosis of incidental pancreatic cysts has increased dramatically in the last decades. While the vast majority of these cysts are not clinically relevant, a small percentage of them will evolve into an invasive malignant tumor making their management challenging. Mucinous cystic neoplasms and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) are the most common pancreatic cystic lesions with malignant potential. Imaging findings on CT and MRI correlate tightly with the presence of malignant degeneration in these neoplasms. IPMN can be classified based on their distribution as main duct, branch duct or mixed type lesions. MRI is superior to CT in demonstrating the communication of a branch duct IPMN with the main pancreatic duct (MPD). Most branch duct lesions are benign whereas tumors involving the MPD are frequently associated with malignancy. The presence of solid nodules, thick enhancing walls and/or septae, a wide (> 1 cm) connection of a side-branch lesion with the MPD and the size of the tumor > 3 cm are indicative of malignancy in a branch and mixed type IPMN. A main pancreatic duct > 6 mm, a mural nodule > 3 mm and an abnormal attenuating area in the adjacent pancreatic parenchyma on CT correlates with malignant disease in main duct and mixed type IPMN. An accurate characterization of these neoplasms by imaging is thus crucial for selecting the best management options. In this article, we review the imaging findings of IPMN including imaging predictors of malignancy and surgical resectability. We also discuss follow-up strategies for patients with surgically resected IPMN and patients with incidental pancreatic cysts. PMID:21160838

  13. US in preoperative evaluation of parotid gland neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Gerwel, Agata; Kosik, Krzysztof; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms account for only 3% of all tumors of the head and neck area, but as they represent a wide variety of histological types, they are a big diagnostic challenge. The cornerstone of salivary gland neoplasm treatment, both for the benign and malignant lesions, is surgery. The main goal of the therapy is not only to achieve complete surgical tumor resection, but also to preserve adjacent structures (facial nerve, parapharyngeal space structures). Ultrasonography is an examination commonly used in the preoperative diagnosis of the lesions localized within salivary glands. Very often it is the only diagnostic imaging method used in these cases. The aim of the study was to establish diagnostic value of US examination and its parameters for the assessment of parotid gland tumors. A prospective study was performed on a group of 51 patients with parotid gland neoplasms, who over a period of 3 years underwent surgery in Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology Department with Craniomaxillofacial Surgery Department of Central Clinical Hospital of Ministry of Defence in Warsaw. All the included patients underwent US examination in the preoperative period. The parameters selected for the assessment were: ill-defined tumor margins, tumor vascularity and the presence of enlarged regional lymph nodes. The results of imaging examination were compared to the final diagnosis based on pathological examination of the surgical specimen. The parameters of the US examination such as sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for the evaluation of parotid gland tumors were established based on the examination results. An analysis was performed and ill-defined parotid tumor margins turned out to be a US parameter with higher diagnostic value for differentiating benign and malignant lesions than increased tumor vascularity. The presence of enlarged regional lymph nodes with blurred echostructure on the US examination

  14. Epidemio-hygieological aspects of gastric neoplasms in aged patients.

    PubMed

    Shibata, H; Hara, M; Makino, T; Kikuchi, K; Senoue, I; Nomiyama, T; Miwa, M; Suzuki, S; Harasawa, S; Tani, N; Miwa, T

    1982-07-01

    A 100-year-old male who died of gastric carcinoma was discussed and illustrated epidemiohygieologically. According to dynamic population statistics of the Health and Welfare Ministry of Japan, 418 persons over the age of 100 years died in 1979. Among them, 157 (38%) died of cardiovascular diseases and 49 (12%) died of pulmonary diseases, but only six died of neoplasms including two with gastric carcinomas (0.48%). To our knowledge no such case has been reported previously in the literature.

  15. Risk of myeloid neoplasms after solid organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Lindsay M.; Gibson, Todd M.; Clarke, Christina A.; Lynch, Charles F.; Anderson, Lesley A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth; Landgren, Ola; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Engels, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Solid organ transplant recipients have elevated cancer risks, due in part to pharmacologic immunosuppression. However, little is known about risks for hematologic malignancies of myeloid origin. We linked the US Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients with 15 population-based cancer registries to ascertain cancer occurrence among 207,859 solid organ transplants (1987–2009). Solid organ transplant recipients had significantly elevated risk for myeloid neoplasms, with standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of 4.6 (95% confidence interval 3.8–5.6; N=101) for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), 2.7 (2.2–3.2; N=125) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 2.3 (1.6–3.2; N=36) for chronic myeloid leukemia, and 7.2 (5.4–9.3; N=57) for polycythemia vera. SIRs were highest among younger individuals and varied by time since transplantation and organ type (Poisson regression P<0.05 for all comparisons). Azathioprine for initial maintenance immunosuppression increased risk for MDS (P=0.0002) and AML (2–5 years after transplantation, P=0.0163). Overall survival following AML/MDS among transplant recipients was inferior to that of similar patients reported to US cancer registries (log-rank P<0.0001). Our novel finding of increased risks for specific myeloid neoplasms after solid organ transplantation supports a role for immune dysfunction in myeloid neoplasm etiology. The increased risks and inferior survival should heighten clinician awareness of myeloid neoplasms during follow-up of transplant recipients. PMID:24727673

  16. Detection of hydrazine (H) and (MMH) using cyranose E-nose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Young, Rebecca; Ryan, Margaret A.

    2001-01-01

    The Cyranose electronic nose (e-nose) has been used for the first time to detect hydrazine (H) and monomethyl hydrazine (MMH). The concentrations of hydrazine chosen in this study were 52 ppm (parts per million), 18 ppm, and 1.1 ppm and the concentrations of MMH was 14 ppm and 1 ppm. The Cyranose E-nose has detected hydrazine of 52 ppm and 18 ppm with a good response. The response of the E-Nose for 1.1 ppm hydrazine was insignificant. The response of E-Nose for 14 ppm MMH was significant and 1 ppm MMH was reasonably identifiable. The Cyranose E-Nose may be used to detect hydrazine and MMH with concentrations of at least 18 ppm and 1 ppm, respectively.

  17. Tryptophan autofluorescence imaging of neoplasms of the human colon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Bhaskar; Renkoski, Timothy; Graves, Logan R.; Rial, Nathaniel S.; Tsikitis, Vassiliki Liana; Nfonsom, Valentine; Pugh, Judith; Tiwari, Piyush; Gavini, Hemanth; Utzinger, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Detection of flat neoplasia is a major challenge in colorectal cancer screening, as missed lesions can lead to the development of an unexpected `incident' cancer prior to the subsequent endoscopy. The use of a tryptophan-related autofluorescence has been reported to be increased in murine intestinal dysplasia. The emission spectra of cells isolated from human adenocarcinoma and normal mucosa of the colon were studied and showed markedly greater emission intensity from cancerous cells compared to cells obtained from the surrounding normal mucosa. A proto-type multispectral imaging system optimized for ultraviolet macroscopic imaging of tissue was used to obtain autofluorescence images of surgical specimens of colonic neoplasms and normal mucosa after resection. Fluorescence images did not display the expected greater emission from the tumor as compared to the normal mucosa, most probably due to increased optical absorption and scattering in the tumors. Increased fluorescence intensity in neoplasms was observed however, once fluorescence images were corrected using reflectance images. Tryptophan fluorescence alone may be useful in differentiating normal and cancerous cells, while in tissues its autofluorescence image divided by green reflectance may be useful in displaying neoplasms.

  18. Eye neoplasms research: a bibliometric analysis from 1966 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Boudry, Christophe; Mouriaux, Fréderic

    2015-01-01

    To calculate the growth rate of the biomedical literature on eye neoplasms and to assess which journals, countries, and continents are the most productive. PubMed was used to search for articles published from 1966 to 2012. Total number of articles per year was fitted to a linear equation as well as an exponential curve. To identify the core journals and predict the number of journals containing articles related to eye neoplasms, Bradford's law was applied. For each country and each continent, the gross domestic product (GDP) index (publications per $1 billion USD of GDP) and the population index (publications per million inhabitants) were calculated. A total of 27,943 references were retrieved. The growth in the number of publications showed a linear increase with a yearly average growth rate of 2.08%, which was lower than for the whole PubMed database (3.59%). Using Bradford's law, 17 core journals were identified, among which 2 journals produced more than 1000 articles (JAMA Ophthalmology and American Journal of Ophthalmology). Europe was the most productive continent, followed by North America and Asia. The United States was by far the predominant country in number of publications, followed by Germany and the United Kingdom. However, population and GDP indexes showed that absolute production did not reflect the production per capita or economic efficiency. This bibliometric study provides data contributing to a better understanding of the eye neoplasm research field.

  19. Neoplasms of the salivary glands in a Turkish adult population.

    PubMed

    Kara, Muhammed Isa; Göze, Fahrettin; Ezirganli, Seref; Polat, Serkan; Muderris, Suphi; Elagoz, Sahende

    2010-11-01

    This retrospective study aimed to investigate the types and distribution of neoplasm of salivary glands in a Turkish population. The histological diagnosis records of the Department of Pathology at Cumhuriyet University were reevaluated for 125 patients who were treated for salivary gland tumors from 1987 to 2008. The neoplasms were analyzed for histological diagnosis, age, sex, and site. The histological diagnoses were analyzed according to the 2005 WHO classification. A total of 125 primary salivary gland neoplasms, consisting of 95 (76%) benign and 30 (24%) malignant groups were recorded. The most common major and minor salivary gland sites were the parotid (61.6%) and palatal glands (9.6%), respectively. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most frequent benign tumor followed by Warthin's tumor. Among the malignant group, adenoid cystic carcinoma was the most prevalent. Age for all cases ranged from 16-80 years; mean age was 41.97 years, with a female to male ratio of 1:1.15. Although there were some discrepancies, the characteristics of salivary gland tumors of Turkish patients are in line with those of patients from other countries according to tumor type, tumor site distribution, and age and sex of patients.

  20. Intraductal papillary neoplasm originating from an anomalous bile duct.

    PubMed

    Maki, Harufumi; Aoki, Taku; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Tanaka, Mariko; Sakatani, Takashi; Beck, Yoshifumi; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2017-02-17

    An 82-year-old woman who had been suffering from repeated obstructive jaundice for 7 years was referred to our hospital. Although endoscopic aspiration of the mucin in the common bile duct had been temporally effective, origin of the mucin production had not been detectable. The patient thus had been forced to be on long-term follow-up without curative resection. Endoscopic retrograde cholangioscopy on admission revealed massive mucin in the common bile duct. In addition, an anomalous bile duct located proximal to the gallbladder was identified. Since the lumen of the anomalous duct was irregular and the rest of biliary tree was completely free of suspicious lesions, the anomalous duct was judged to be the primary site. Surgical resection of the segment 4 and 5 of the liver combined with the extrahepatic biliary tract was performed. Pathological diagnosis was compatible to intraductal papillary neoplasm with high-grade intraepithelial dysplasia of the anomalous bile duct. The patient has been free from the disease for 6.5 years after resection. This is the first case of intraductal papillary neoplasm derived from an anomalous bile duct, which was resected after long-term conservative treatment. The present case suggested the slow growing character of natural history of the neoplasm.

  1. A Strategy for Precise Treatment of Cardiac Malignant Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenshuo; Shen, Jinqiang; Tao, Hongyue; Zhao, Yun; Nian, Hui; Wei, Lai; Ling, Xiaoyuan; Yang, Ye; Xia, Limin

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiac malignant neoplasms in the general population has been shown to be significant higher than what was previously estimated, yet their treatment has remained difficult and effective therapies are lacking. In the current study, we developed a novel thermotherapy in which PEG-functionalized carbon nanotubes were injected into the tumor regions to assist in the targeted delivery of infrared radiation energy with minimal hyperthermic damage to the surrounding normal tissues. In a mouse model of cardiac malignant neoplasms, the injected carbon nanotubes could rapidly induce coagulative necrosis of tumor tissues when exposed to infrared irradiation. In accordance, the treatment was also found to result in a restoration of heart functions and a concomitant increase of survival rate in mice. Taken together, our carbon nanotube-based thermotherapy successfully addressed the difficulty facing conventional laser ablation methods with regard to off-target thermal injury, and could pave the way for the development of more effective therapies against cardiac malignant neoplasms. PMID:28393926

  2. Pancreatic Neoplasms in Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Complications, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Casey A.; Benarroch-Gampel, Jaime; Kilic, Gokhan; Kruse, Edward J.; Weber, Sharon M.; Riall, Taylor S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Neoplasms of the pancreas during pregnancy are rare, with less than 25 cases of benign and malignant tumors reported in the literature. METHODS We present three unique cases of pancreatic tumors occurring during pregnancy—one mucinous cystic neoplasm and two adenocarcinomas. We review the literature regarding pancreatic neoplasms during pregnancy and discuss the diagnosis, complications, and management of these tumors. RESULTS MRI and ultrasound are the imaging modalities of choice in pregnancy. In patients with benign or premalignant tumors, surgical resection may be postponed until the second trimester. In symptomatic patients, or if there is a concern for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), urgent surgical intervention should be performed. With malignant tumors, the benefit of delaying surgery must be balanced with the risk of maternal disease progression. Termination of the pregnancy should be discussed when a malignant tumor is diagnosed during the first trimester. Pancreatic tumors diagnosed during the third trimester may be resected after delivery. If malignant, early delivery of the fetus and subsequent maternal operation can be considered at appropriate fetal maturity. CONCLUSION When these tumors occur during pregnancy, they present a diagnostic and treatment dilemma, with variation in treatment based on gestational age and patient preference. PMID:22160782

  3. BRAF T1796A transversion mutation in various thyroid neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Xing, M; Vasko, V; Tallini, G; Larin, A; Wu, Gujun; Udelsman, R; Ringel, M D; Ladenson, P W; Sidransky, D

    2004-03-01

    A high prevalence of activating mutation of the B type Raf kinase (BRAF) gene was recently reported in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). However, the frequency of this mutation in several other types of thyroid neoplasms was not thoroughly investigated. In the present study, in addition to PTC, we evaluated various thyroid tumor types for the most common BRAF T1796A mutation by direct genomic DNA sequencing. We found a high and similar frequency (45%) of the BRAF T1796A mutation in two geographically distinct PTC patient populations: one composed of sporadic cases from North America, and the other from Kiev, Ukraine, that included individuals who were exposed to the Chernobyl nuclear accident. In contrast, we found BRAF mutation in only 20% of anaplastic thyroid cancers and no mutation in medullary thyroid cancers and benign thyroid hyperplasia. We also confirmed previous reports that the BRAF T1796A mutation did not occur in benign thyroid adenomas and follicular thyroid cancers. Specific analysis of the Ukraine patients with confirmed history of radiation exposure failed to show a higher incidence of BRAF mutation. Our results suggest that frequent occurrence of BRAF mutation is inherently associated with PTC, irrespective of geographic origin, and is apparently not a radiation-susceptible mutation. The lack or low prevalence of BRAF mutation in other thyroid neoplasms is consistent with the notion that other previously defined genetic alterations on the same signaling pathway are sufficient to cause tumorigenesis in most thyroid neoplasms.

  4. Clinical parameters predictive of malignancy of thyroid follicular neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, N.L.; Gordon, M.; Germann, E.; Robins, R.E.; McGregor, G.I. )

    1991-05-01

    Needle aspiration biopsy is commonly employed in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. Unfortunately, the cytologic finding of a 'follicular neoplasm' does not distinguish between a thyroid adenoma and a follicular cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical parameters that characterize patients with an increased risk of having a thyroid follicular cancer who preoperatively have a 'follicular neoplasm' identified by needle aspiration biopsy. A total of 395 patients initially treated at Vancouver General Hospital and the British Columbia Cancer Agency between the years of 1965 and 1985 were identified and their data were entered into a computer database. Patients with thyroid adenomas were compared to patients with follicular cancer using the chi-square test and Student's t-test. Statistically significant parameters that distinguished patients at risk of having a thyroid cancer (p less than 0.05) included age greater than 50 years, nodule size greater than 3 cm, and a history of neck irradiation. Sex, family history of goiter or neoplasm, alcohol and tobacco use, and use of exogenous estrogen were not significant parameters. Patients can be identified preoperatively to be at an increased risk of having a follicular cancer and accordingly appropriate surgical resection can be planned.

  5. Prevalence of skin neoplasms among the atomic bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M; Kodama, K; Fujita, S; Akahoshi, M; Yamada, S; Hirose, R; Hori, M

    1996-08-01

    About 7,000 atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki who participate in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) Adult Health Study (AHS) were examined to define the relationship between skin neoplasms and exposure to ionizing radiation. Careful clinical inspection of the skin was undertaken to detect not only skin cancer but precancerous lesions such as senile keratosis. Five cases of basal cell carcinoma, five cases of senile keratosis and one case of Bowen's disease were confirmed histologically among 5955 A-bomb survivors for whom Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) dose estimates are available. The relationship between the combined prevalence of skin cancer and precancerous lesions and DS86 dose was examined together with other factors that might affect skin neoplasms including occupational exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays, age, sex and city. The prevalence of basal cell carcinoma and senile keratosis increased as the DS86 dose increased. The prevalence of skin cancer and senile keratosis among persons engaged in work involving frequent exposure to UV rays was higher than among those who were not engaged in such work. Sex and city were not significantly related to those skin diseases. Odds ratios of skin neoplasm for a 1-Gy dose, occupational exposure to UV rays and age at time of examination (in 10-year increments) are 1.7, 5.9 and 1.9, respectively.

  6. Graphene-Based Chemical Vapor Sensors for Electronic Nose Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nallon, Eric C.

    An electronic nose (e-nose) is a biologically inspired device designed to mimic the operation of the olfactory system. The e-nose utilizes a chemical sensor array consisting of broadly responsive vapor sensors, whose combined response produces a unique pattern for a given compound or mixture. The sensor array is inspired by the biological function of the receptor neurons found in the human olfactory system, which are inherently cross-reactive and respond to many different compounds. The use of an e-nose is an attractive approach to predict unknown odors and is used in many fields for quantitative and qualitative analysis. If properly designed, an e-nose has the potential to adapt to new odors it was not originally designed for through laboratory training and algorithm updates. This would eliminate the lengthy and costly R&D costs associated with materiel and product development. Although e-nose technology has been around for over two decades, much research is still being undertaken in order to find new and more diverse types of sensors. Graphene is a single-layer, 2D material comprised of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice, with extraordinary electrical, mechanical, thermal and optical properties due to its 2D, sp2-bonded structure. Graphene has much potential as a chemical sensing material due to its 2D structure, which provides a surface entirely exposed to its surrounding environment. In this configuration, every carbon atom in graphene is a surface atom, providing the greatest possible surface area per unit volume, so that electron transport is highly sensitive to adsorbed molecular species. Graphene has gained much attention since its discovery in 2004, but has not been realized in many commercial electronics. It has the potential to be a revolutionary material for use in chemical sensors due to its excellent conductivity, large surface area, low noise, and versatile surface for functionalization. In this work, graphene is incorporated into a

  7. Expression of S-100 protein in renal cell neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fan; Yang, Wannian; Betten, Mark; Teh, Bin Tean; Yang, Ximing J

    2006-04-01

    Polyclonal antibody to S-100 protein has been routinely applied for initial screening of various types of tumors, including, melanocytic tumors and neurogenic tumors. S-100 protein has been shown to have a broad distribution in human tissues, including renal tubules. The potential utility of S-100 protein in renal cell neoplasms has not been extensively investigated. Using an EnVision-Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP; Dako, Carpinteria, Calif) kit, we evaluated the diagnostic value of S-100 protein on tissue microarray sections from 175 cases of renal epithelial neoplasm (145 primary renal neoplasms and 30 metastatic renal cell carcinomas) and 24 non-neoplastic renal tissues. Immunohistochemical stains for pancytokeratin, HMB-45, and Mart-1 were also performed. Western blot using the same antibody (anti-S-100 protein) was performed on 10 cases of renal cell neoplasm. The results demonstrated that nuclear and cytoplasmic staining pattern for S-100 protein was observed in 56 (69%) of 81 conventional (clear cell) renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), 10 (30%) of 33 papillary RCCs, 1 (6%) of 16 ChRCCs, and 13 (87%) of 15 oncocytomas. Among the 81 cases of CRCC, positivity for S-100 protein was seen in 41 (71%) of 58 and 15 (65%) of 23 cases with Furhman nuclear grade I/II and III/IV, respectively. Focal immunostaining was present in 22 (92%) of 24 normal renal tubules. Similar staining pattern was observed in 21 (70%) of 30 metastatic RCCs. Western blotting demonstrated the S-100 protein expression in both renal cell neoplasm and normal renal tissue. Overexpression of S-100 in oncocytomas compared with ChRCCs was confirmed by the data of Western blot and cDNA microarray analysis. Importantly, 14.8% (12/81) of clear cell RCC and 13.3% (4/30) of metastatic RCC revealed an immunostaining profile of pancytokeratin (-)/S-100 protein (+). These data indicate that caution should be taken in interpreting an unknown primary with S-100 positivity and cytokeratin negativity. In addition, it

  8. Tumor taxonomy for the developmental lineage classification of neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Jules J

    2004-01-01

    Background The new "Developmental lineage classification of neoplasms" was described in a prior publication. The classification is simple (the entire hierarchy is described with just 39 classifiers), comprehensive (providing a place for every tumor of man), and consistent with recent attempts to characterize tumors by cytogenetic and molecular features. A taxonomy is a list of the instances that populate a classification. The taxonomy of neoplasia attempts to list every known term for every known tumor of man. Methods The taxonomy provides each concept with a unique code and groups synonymous terms under the same concept. A Perl script validated successive drafts of the taxonomy ensuring that: 1) each term occurs only once in the taxonomy; 2) each term occurs in only one tumor class; 3) each concept code occurs in one and only one hierarchical position in the classification; and 4) the file containing the classification and taxonomy is a well-formed XML (eXtensible Markup Language) document. Results The taxonomy currently contains 122,632 different terms encompassing 5,376 neoplasm concepts. Each concept has, on average, 23 synonyms. The taxonomy populates "The developmental lineage classification of neoplasms," and is available as an XML file, currently 9+ Megabytes in length. A representation of the classification/taxonomy listing each term followed by its code, followed by its full ancestry, is available as a flat-file, 19+ Megabytes in length. The taxonomy is the largest nomenclature of neoplasms, with more than twice the number of neoplasm names found in other medical nomenclatures, including the 2004 version of the Unified Medical Language System, the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terminology, the National Cancer Institute's Thesaurus, and the International Classification of Diseases Oncolology version. Conclusions This manuscript describes a comprehensive taxonomy of neoplasia that collects synonymous terms under a unique code number and

  9. Prospective Study of the Surgical Techniques Used in Primary Rhinoplasty on the Caucasian Nose and Comparison of the Preoperative and Postoperative Anthropometric Nose Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Cezar Augusto Sarraf; Freitas, Renato da Silva; Malafaia, Osvaldo; Pinto, José Simão de Paula; Macedo Filho, Evaldo Dacheux; Mocellin, Marcos; Fagundes, Marina Serrato Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The knowledge and study of surgical techniques and anthropometric measurements of the nose make possible a qualitative and quantitative analysis of surgical results. Objective Study the main technique used in rhinoplasty on Caucasian noses and compare preoperative and postoperative anthropometric measurements of the nose. Methods A prospective study with 170 patients was performed at a private hospital. Data were collected using the Electronic System Integrated of Protocols software (Sistema Integrado de Protocolos Eletrônicos, SINPE©). The surgical techniques used in the nasal dorsum and tip were evaluated. Preoperative and 12-month follow-up photos as well as the measurements compared with the ideal aesthetic standard of a Caucasian nose were analyzed objectively. Student t test and standard deviation test were applied. Results There was a predominance of endonasal access (94.4%). The most common dorsum technique was hump removal (33.33%), and the predominance of sutures (24.76%) was observed on the nasal tip, with the lateral intercrural the most frequent (32.39%). Comparison between preoperative and postoperative photos found statistically significant alterations on the anthropometric measurements of the noses. Conclusion The main surgical techniques on Caucasian noses were evaluated, and a great variety was found. The evaluation of anthropometric measurements of the nose proved the efficiency of the performed procedures. PMID:25992149

  10. A Novel Semi-Supervised Electronic Nose Learning Technique: M-Training.

    PubMed

    Jia, Pengfei; Huang, Tailai; Duan, Shukai; Ge, Lingpu; Yan, Jia; Wang, Lidan

    2016-03-14

    When an electronic nose (E-nose) is used to distinguish different kinds of gases, the label information of the target gas could be lost due to some fault of the operators or some other reason, although this is not expected. Another fact is that the cost of getting the labeled samples is usually higher than for unlabeled ones. In most cases, the classification accuracy of an E-nose trained using labeled samples is higher than that of the E-nose trained by unlabeled ones, so gases without label information should not be used to train an E-nose, however, this wastes resources and can even delay the progress of research. In this work a novel multi-class semi-supervised learning technique called M-training is proposed to train E-noses with both labeled and unlabeled samples. We employ M-training to train the E-nose which is used to distinguish three indoor pollutant gases (benzene, toluene and formaldehyde). Data processing results prove that the classification accuracy of E-nose trained by semi-supervised techniques (tri-training and M-training) is higher than that of an E-nose trained only with labeled samples, and the performance of M-training is better than that of tri-training because more base classifiers can be employed by M-training.

  11. A Novel Semi-Supervised Electronic Nose Learning Technique: M-Training

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Pengfei; Huang, Tailai; Duan, Shukai; Ge, Lingpu; Yan, Jia; Wang, Lidan

    2016-01-01

    When an electronic nose (E-nose) is used to distinguish different kinds of gases, the label information of the target gas could be lost due to some fault of the operators or some other reason, although this is not expected. Another fact is that the cost of getting the labeled samples is usually higher than for unlabeled ones. In most cases, the classification accuracy of an E-nose trained using labeled samples is higher than that of the E-nose trained by unlabeled ones, so gases without label information should not be used to train an E-nose, however, this wastes resources and can even delay the progress of research. In this work a novel multi-class semi-supervised learning technique called M-training is proposed to train E-noses with both labeled and unlabeled samples. We employ M-training to train the E-nose which is used to distinguish three indoor pollutant gases (benzene, toluene and formaldehyde). Data processing results prove that the classification accuracy of E-nose trained by semi-supervised techniques (tri-training and M-training) is higher than that of an E-nose trained only with labeled samples, and the performance of M-training is better than that of tri-training because more base classifiers can be employed by M-training. PMID:26985898

  12. Metal oxide sensors for electronic noses and their application to food analysis.

    PubMed

    Berna, Amalia

    2010-01-01

    Electronic noses (E-noses) use various types of electronic gas sensors that have partial specificity. This review focuses on commercial and experimental E-noses that use metal oxide semi-conductors. The review covers quality control applications to food and beverages, including determination of freshness and identification of contaminants or adulteration. Applications of E-noses to a wide range of foods and beverages are considered, including: meat, fish, grains, alcoholic drinks, non-alcoholic drinks, fruits, milk and dairy products, olive oils, nuts, fresh vegetables and eggs.

  13. Metal Oxide Sensors for Electronic Noses and Their Application to Food Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berna, Amalia

    2010-01-01

    Electronic noses (E-noses) use various types of electronic gas sensors that have partial specificity. This review focuses on commercial and experimental E-noses that use metal oxide semi-conductors. The review covers quality control applications to food and beverages, including determination of freshness and identification of contaminants or adulteration. Applications of E-noses to a wide range of foods and beverages are considered, including: meat, fish, grains, alcoholic drinks, non-alcoholic drinks, fruits, milk and dairy products, olive oils, nuts, fresh vegetables and eggs. PMID:22319332

  14. Revisiting human nose anatomy: phylogenic and ontogenic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Roger

    2011-11-01

    This review suggests revisiting nose anatomy by considering the ethmoidal labyrinths as part of the olfactory nose and not as paranasal sinuses. Phylogenetically, the olfactory and respiratory organs of the most primitive vertebrates are separated. Exaptation, a mechanism of evolution, may explain the fusion of the olfactory and respiratory organs in dipnoi. The respiratory and olfactory noses remain anatomically separated by the transverse lamina in most mammals, whose olfactory labyrinth is a blind recess housing the ethmoturbinates. In humans, the partitioning between the olfactory cleft and the ethmoid labyrinth seems to be a consequence of ethmoid bone remodeling induced by the acquisition of an upright posture. The ethmoid bone is derived from the cartilaginous nasal capsule of primitive vertebrates and considered to be a highly conserved region among the bony elements of the skull base. It appears to be involved only in housing and protecting the olfactory function. During the early stages of human fetal development, rupture of the oronasal membrane leads to the integration of the primary olfactory sac in the future respiratory organ. The cartilaginous nasal capsule appears in the tissue under the brain and around the olfactory channels. Its early fetal development is classically regarded as the beginning of paranasal sinus formation. From phylogenic and ontogenic perspectives, it may be regarded as the development of the olfactory labyrinth as modified by the remodeling process of the human face and skull base. The endochondral bony origin of the ethmoid labyrinths makes them substantially different from the other paranasal sinuses. Copyright © 2010 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Electronic Nose Functionality for Breath Gas Analysis during Parabolic Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolch, Michael E.; Hummel, Thomas; Fetter, Viktor; Helwig, Andreas; Lenic, Joachim; Moukhamedieva, Lana; Tsarkow, Dimitrij; Chouker, Alexander; Schelling, Gustav

    2017-06-01

    The presence of humans in space represents a constant threat for their health and safety. Environmental factors such as living in a closed confinement, as well as exposure to microgravity and radiation, are associated with significant changes in bone metabolism, muscular atrophy, and altered immune response, which has impacts on human performance and possibly results in severe illness. Thus, maintaining and monitoring of crew health status has the highest priority to ensure whole mission success. With manned deep space missions to moon or mars appearing at the horizon where short-term repatriation back to earth is impossible the availability of appropriate diagnostic platforms for crew health status is urgently needed. In response to this need, the present experiment evaluated the functionality and practicability of a metal oxide based sensor system (eNose) together with a newly developed breath gas collecting device under the condition of altering acceleration. Parabolic flights were performed with an Airbus A300 ZeroG at Bordeaux, France. Ambient air and exhaled breath of five healthy volunteers was analyzed during steady state flight and parabolic flight maneuvres. All volunteers completed the study, the breath gas collecting device valves worked appropriately, and breathing through the collecting device was easy and did not induce discomfort. During breath gas measurements, significant changes in metal oxide sensors, mainly sensitive to aromatic and sulphur containing compounds, were observed with alternating conditions of acceleration. Similarly, metal oxide sensors showed significant changes in all sensors during ambient air measurements. The eNose as well as the newly developed breath gas collecting device, showed appropriate functionality and practicability during alternating conditions of acceleration which is a prerequisite for the intended use of the eNose aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for breath gas analysis and crew health status

  16. Electronic Nose Functionality for Breath Gas Analysis during Parabolic Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolch, Michael E.; Hummel, Thomas; Fetter, Viktor; Helwig, Andreas; Lenic, Joachim; Moukhamedieva, Lana; Tsarkow, Dimitrij; Chouker, Alexander; Schelling, Gustav

    2017-02-01

    The presence of humans in space represents a constant threat for their health and safety. Environmental factors such as living in a closed confinement, as well as exposure to microgravity and radiation, are associated with significant changes in bone metabolism, muscular atrophy, and altered immune response, which has impacts on human performance and possibly results in severe illness. Thus, maintaining and monitoring of crew health status has the highest priority to ensure whole mission success. With manned deep space missions to moon or mars appearing at the horizon where short-term repatriation back to earth is impossible the availability of appropriate diagnostic platforms for crew health status is urgently needed. In response to this need, the present experiment evaluated the functionality and practicability of a metal oxide based sensor system (eNose) together with a newly developed breath gas collecting device under the condition of altering acceleration. Parabolic flights were performed with an Airbus A300 ZeroG at Bordeaux, France. Ambient air and exhaled breath of five healthy volunteers was analyzed during steady state flight and parabolic flight maneuvres. All volunteers completed the study, the breath gas collecting device valves worked appropriately, and breathing through the collecting device was easy and did not induce discomfort. During breath gas measurements, significant changes in metal oxide sensors, mainly sensitive to aromatic and sulphur containing compounds, were observed with alternating conditions of acceleration. Similarly, metal oxide sensors showed significant changes in all sensors during ambient air measurements. The eNose as well as the newly developed breath gas collecting device, showed appropriate functionality and practicability during alternating conditions of acceleration which is a prerequisite for the intended use of the eNose aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for breath gas analysis and crew health status

  17. Assessment of nose protector for sport activities: finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Coto, Neide Pena; Meira, Josete Barbosa Cruz; Brito e Dias, Reinaldo; Driemeier, Larissa; de Oliveira Roveri, Guilherme; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito

    2012-04-01

    There has been a significant increase in the number of facial fractures stemming from sport activities in recent years, with the nasal bone one of the most affected structures. Researchers recommend the use of a nose protector, but there is no standardization regarding the material employed. Clinical experience has demonstrated that a combination of a flexible and rigid layer of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) offers both comfort and safety to practitioners of sports. The aim of the present study was the investigation into the stresses generated by the impact of a rigid body on the nasal bone on models with and without an EVA protector. For such, finite element analysis was employed. A craniofacial model was constructed from images obtained through computed tomography. The nose protector was modeled with two layers of EVA (1 mm of rigid EVA over 2 mm of flexible EVA), following the geometry of the soft tissue. Finite element analysis was performed using the LS Dyna program. The bone and rigid EVA were represented as elastic linear material, whereas the soft tissues and flexible EVA were represented as hyperelastic material. The impact from a rigid sphere on the frontal region of the face was simulated with a constant velocity of 20 m s(-1) for 9.1 μs. The model without the protector served as the control. The distribution of maximal stress of the facial bones was recorded. The maximal stress on the nasal bone surpassed the breaking limit of 0.13-0.34 MPa on the model without a protector, while remaining below this limit on the model with the protector. Thus, the nose protector made from both flexible and rigid EVA proved effective at protecting the nasal bones under high-impact conditions.

  18. Anaphylactic reaction following administration of nose drops containing benzalkonium chloride

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We describe a case of anaphylactic reaction in a 46-year-old female post application of decongestant nose drops containing benzalkonium chloride (BAC). With some latency, the patient complained of cough, dyspnea, sensation of heat, croakiness and pruritus. Since she showed all of these symptoms, typical of an anaphylactic reaction, we proceeded some weeks later with a prick test with solutions containing BAC, a cationic surfactant commonly used as an antibacterial preservative in many medical solutions. The prick test was positive, confirming the assumption of a hypersensitive reaction to BAC. PMID:23078861

  19. Classification of white wine aromas with an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Lozano, J; Santos, J P; Horrillo, M C

    2005-09-15

    This paper reports the use of a tin dioxide multisensor array based electronic nose for recognition of 29 typical aromas in white wine. Headspace technique has been used to extract aroma of the wine. Multivariate analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA) as well as probabilistic neural networks (PNNs), has been used to identify the main aroma added to the wine. The results showed that in spite of the strong influence of ethanol and other majority compounds of wine, the system could discriminate correctly the aromatic compounds added to the wine with a minimum accuracy of 97.2%.

  20. Bat white-nose syndrome: an emerging fungal pathogen?

    PubMed

    Blehert, David S; Hicks, Alan C; Behr, Melissa; Meteyer, Carol U; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M; Buckles, Elizabeth L; Coleman, Jeremy T H; Darling, Scott R; Gargas, Andrea; Niver, Robyn; Okoniewski, Joseph C; Rudd, Robert J; Stone, Ward B

    2009-01-09

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a condition associated with an unprecedented bat mortality event in the northeastern United States. Since the winter of 2006*2007, bat declines exceeding 75% have been observed at surveyed hibernacula. Affected bats often present with visually striking white fungal growth on their muzzles, ears, and/or wing membranes. Direct microscopy and culture analyses demonstrated that the skin of WNS-affected bats is colonized by a psychrophilic fungus that is phylogenetically related to Geomyces spp. but with a conidial morphology distinct from characterized members of this genus. This report characterizes the cutaneous fungal infection associated with WNS.

  1. Anaphylactic reaction following administration of nose drops containing benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Mezger, Elke; Wendler, Olaf; Mayr, Susanne; Bozzato, Alessandro

    2012-10-18

    We describe a case of anaphylactic reaction in a 46-year-old female post application of decongestant nose drops containing benzalkonium chloride (BAC). With some latency, the patient complained of cough, dyspnea, sensation of heat, croakiness and pruritus. Since she showed all of these symptoms, typical of an anaphylactic reaction, we proceeded some weeks later with a prick test with solutions containing BAC, a cationic surfactant commonly used as an antibacterial preservative in many medical solutions. The prick test was positive, confirming the assumption of a hypersensitive reaction to BAC.

  2. Nose-To-Brain Delivery of PLGA-Diazepam Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Sharma, Navneet; Gabrani, Reema; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Ali, Javed; Dang, Shweta

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to optimize diazepam (Dzp)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (NP) to achieve delivery in the brain through intranasal administration. Dzp nanoparticles (DNP) were formulated by nanoprecipitation and optimized using Box-Behnken design. The influence of various independent process variables (polymer, surfactant, aqueous to organic (w/o) phase ratio, and drug) on resulting properties of DNP (z-average and drug entrapment) was investigated. Developed DNP showed z-average 148-337 d.nm, polydispersity index 0.04-0.45, drug entrapment 69-92%, and zeta potential in the range of -15 to -29.24 mV. Optimized DNP were further analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ex-vivo drug release, and in-vitro cytotoxicity. Ex-vivo drug release study via sheep nasal mucosa from DNP showed a controlled release of 64.4% for 24 h. 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay performed on Vero cell line showed less toxicity for DNP as compared to Dzp suspension (DS). Gamma scintigraphy and biodistribution study of DNP and DS was performed on Sprague-Dawley rats using technetium-99m-labeled ((99m)Tc) Dzp formulations to investigate the nose-to-brain drug delivery pathway. Brain/blood uptake ratios, drug targeting efficiency, and direct nose-to-brain transport were found to be 1.23-1.45, 258, and 61% for (99m)Tc-DNP (i.n) compared to (99m)Tc-DS (i.n) (0.38-1.06, 125, and 1%). Scintigraphy images showed uptake of Dzp from nose-to-brain, and this observation was in agreement with the biodistribution results. These results suggest that the developed poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) NP could serve as a potential carrier of Dzp for nose-to-brain delivery in outpatient management of status epilepticus.

  3. Closeup view of the nose and landing gear on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close-up view of the nose and landing gear on the forward section of the Orbiter Discovery in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The Orbiter is being supported by jack stands in the left and right portion of the view. The jack stands attach to the Orbiter at the four hoist attach points, two located on the forward fuselage and two on the aft fuselage. Note the access platforms that surround and nearly touch the orbiter. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  4. F-5F Shark Nose radome lightning test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    A unique F-5F radome wtih a geometry similar to a Shark Nose profile was tested with a high voltage Marx generator, 1,200,000 volts in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the lightning protection system with currents from 5,000 amperes or greater. An edge discontinuity configuration is a characteristic feature in the forward region of the radome and occasionally serves as an attachment point. The results of nineteen attachment tests at various aspect angles with an air gap of one meter indicated that no damage occurred to the dielectric material of the radom. The test proved the effectiveness of the lightning protection system.

  5. A patient with a severe glottic stenosis and saddle nose.

    PubMed

    Sabato, Vito; Vanderveken, Olivier M; Van den Wyngaert, Tim; Van Laer, Carl; Ebo, Didier

    2016-03-15

    We present the case of a 39-year-old man with a severe glottis stenosis. The saddle nose, images of laryngotracheal stenosis and the (FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography lead to a final diagnosis of relapsing polychondritis. In the patient a coexistent myelodysplastic syndrome was diagnosed. Moreover, the elevated total IgG4 exceeding 135 ml/dl requested additional immunochemistry for detection of IgG4-bearing plasma cells in the biopsies. The patient underwent an allogenic stem cell transplantation and died on day 40 after the transplantation because of an acute steroid-resistent graft vs host.

  6. Adiaspiromycosis in south Australian hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons).

    PubMed

    Mason, R W; Gauhwin, M

    1982-01-01

    Spherical organisms, with an average diameter of about 22 microns, were detected in the lungs of adult and pouched young hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons). Although infections of up to 640 X 10(3) organisms per cubic centimeter were detected, their presence produced only limited pathological change. In-vitro growth was obtained at 30 C but not at 37 C or 40 C. However, at the higher temperatures, typical chlamydospore spherules were produced by colonies initially grown at 30 c. This report presents the first record of adiaspiromycosis in Australia and in wombats.

  7. Saddle nose deformity and septal perforation in granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

    PubMed

    Coordes, Annekatrin; Loose, Sonja Maike; Hofmann, Veit M; Hamilton, Grant S; Riedel, Frank; Menger, Dirk Jan; Albers, Andreas E

    2017-09-07

    Patients who have granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, syn. M. Wegener) often develop an external nose deformity which may have devastating psychological effects. Therefore, reconstruction of nasal deformities by rhinoplasty may become necessary to achieve a normal appearance. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the efficacy and safety of surgical reconstruction in external nasal deformities and septal perforation in GPA patients. A systematic literature search with defined search terms was performed for scientific articles archived in the MEDLINE-Database up to June 10(th) , 2016 (PubMed Advanced MEDLINE Search), describing management of cases or case series in GPA patients with saddle nose deformity and/or septal perforation. Eleven of 614 publications met the criteria for this analysis including 41 GPA patients undergoing external nasal reconstruction and/ or septal reconstruction with a median follow-up of 2.6 years. Overall, saddle nose reconstruction in GPA patients is safe even if an increased rate of revision surgery has to be expected compared with individuals without GPA undergoing septorhinoplasty. Most implanted grafts were autografts of calvarial bone or costal cartilage. For septal perforation reconstruction, few studies were available. Therefore, based upon the available data for surgical outcomes, it is impossible to make evidence-based recommendations. All included GPA patients had minimal or no local disease at the time of reconstructive surgery. Therefore, the relationship between disease activity and its impact on surgical outcomes remains unanswered. The potential impact of immune-modulating medications on increased complication rates and the impact of prophylactic antibiotics are unknown. This study systematically reviews the efficacy and safety of surgical reconstruction of external nasal deformities in GPA patients for the first time. Saddle nose reconstruction in GPA patients with minimal or no local disease is a safe

  8. Bat white-nose syndrome: An emerging fungal pathogen?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blehert, D.S.; Hicks, A.C.; Behr, M.; Meteyer, C.U.; Berlowski-Zier, B. M.; Buckles, E.L.; Coleman, J.T.H.; Darling, S.R.; Gargas, A.; Niver, R.; Okoniewski, J.C.; Rudd, R.J.; Stone, W.B.

    2009-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a condition associated with an unprecedented bat mortality event in the northeastern United States. Since the winter of 2006*2007, bat declines exceeding 75% have been observed at surveyed hibernacula. Affected bats often present with visually striking white fungal growth on their muzzles, ears, and/or wing membranes. Direct microscopy and culture analyses demonstrated that the skin of WNS-affected bats is colonized by a psychro-philic fungus that is phylogenetically related to Geomyces spp. but with a conidial morphology distinct from characterized members of this genus. This report characterizes the cutaneous fungal infection associated with WNS.

  9. Characterization of gene expression and activated signaling pathways in solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm of pancreas.

    PubMed

    Park, Minhee; Kim, Minhyung; Hwang, Daehee; Park, Misun; Kim, Won Kyu; Kim, Sang Kyum; Shin, Jihye; Park, Eun Sung; Kang, Chang Moo; Paik, Young-Ki; Kim, Hoguen

    2014-04-01

    Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm is an uncommon pancreatic tumor with distinct clinicopathologic features. Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms are characterized by mutations in exon 3 of CTNNB1. However, little is known about the gene and microRNA expression profiles of solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms. Thus, we sought to characterize solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm-specific gene expression and identify the signaling pathways activated in these tumors. Comparisons of gene expression in solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm to pancreatic ductal carcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, and non-neoplastic pancreatic tissues identified solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm-specific mRNA and microRNA profiles. By analyzing 1686 (1119 upregulated and 567 downregulated) genes differentially expressed in solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm, we found that the Wnt/β-catenin, Hedgehog, and androgen receptor signaling pathways, as well as genes involved in epithelial mesenchymal transition, are activated in solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms. We validated these results experimentally by assessing the expression of β-catenin, WIF-1, GLI2, androgen receptor, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related markers with western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Our analysis also revealed 17 microRNAs, especially the miR-200 family and miR-192/215, closely associated with the upregulated genes associated with the three pathways activated in solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm and epithelial mesenchymal transition. Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm tumorigenesis and its characteristic less epithelial cell differentiation than the other common pancreatic tumors.

  10. Increased incidence trend of low-grade and high-grade neuroendocrine neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Leoncini, Emanuele; Boffetta, Paolo; Shafir, Michail; Aleksovska, Katina; Boccia, Stefania; Rindi, Guido

    2017-03-16

    The incidence of neuroendocrine neoplasms is increasing. This work aimed at: (i) establishing worldwide incidence trend of low-grade neuroendocrine neoplasms; (ii) defining the incidence and temporal trend of high-grade neuroendocrine neoplasms in USA utilizing the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database; (iii) comparing trends for low-grade vs. high-grade neuroendocrine neoplasms. We conducted a literature search on MEDLINE and Scopus databases and incidence trends were plotted for 1973-2012. The Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database was used to identify incidence rates in USA for 1973-2012. Incidence rates were stratified according to histological grade, gender and ethnicity. Trends were summarized as annual percent change and corresponding 95% confidence interval. 11 studies were identified involving 72,048 cases; neuroendocrine neoplasm incidence rates increased over time in all countries for all sites, except for appendix. In Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results low-grade neuroendocrine neoplasm incidence rate increased from 1.09 in 1973 to 3.51 per 100,000 in 2012. During this interval, high-grade neuroendocrine neoplasm incidence rate increased from 2.54 to 10.52 per 100,000. African Americans had the highest rates of digestive neuroendocrine neoplasms with male prevalence in high-grade. Our data indicate an increase in the incidence of neuroendocrine neoplasms as a worldwide phenomenon, affecting most anatomical sites and involving both low-grade and high-grade neoplasms.

  11. Classification of feline intraocular neoplasms based on morphology, histochemical staining, and immunohistochemical labeling.

    PubMed

    Grahn, Bruce H; Peiffer, Robert L; Cullen, Cheryl L; Haines, Deborah M

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate morphologic, histochemical, and immunohistochemical characteristics of well-differentiated and anaplastic intraocular neoplasms of cats, and to develop a diagnostic algorithm for, and investigate the association of ruptured lenses with these neoplasms. Seventy-five feline globes with intraocular neoplasms were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined by light microscopy. Morphologic diagnoses included 33 intraocular sarcomas, 17 diffuse iris melanomas, 15 lymphosarcomas, three ciliary adenomas, one metastatic carcinoma, and six undifferentiated intraocular neoplasms. Sections of these globes were then stained with periodic acid Schiff (PAS), and immunohistochemical (IHC) labels for various cellular markers. Histochemical staining and IHC labeling confirmed cellular differentiation in 73/75 neoplasms but was discordant with morphologic diagnoses in 8/75. These included four neoplasms morphologically diagnosed as lymphosarcomas but which expressed differentiation antigens consistent with melanoma (n = 3) or ciliary adenocarcinoma (n = 1), and four tumors morphologically diagnosed as intraocular sarcomas that expressed differentiation antigens for melanoma (n = 2), metastatic carcinoma (n = 1), or remained undifferentiated (n = 1). Immunohistochemical labeling suggested a diagnosis in 5/6 morphologically undifferentiated neoplasms including one intraocular sarcoma, two diffuse iridal melanomas, and two ciliary adenocarcinomas. Based upon morphologic, histochemical, and IHC characterization, ruptured lens capsules were detected in 28/30 intraocular sarcomas, 3/24 diffuse iris melanomas and 1/11 lymphosarcomas, but not in ciliary epithelial neoplasms, metastatic carcinomas, or undifferentiated intraocular neoplasms. An algorithm is provided that facilitates stain and IHC label selection for differentiating anaplastic intraocular feline neoplasms.

  12. Morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of spontaneous thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Gibbons, P M; Garner, M M; Kiupel, M

    2013-03-01

    Reports of thyroid gland neoplasms in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are rare, but thyroid tumors are among the most common neoplasms seen in cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath. This report describes the histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of thyroid neoplasms and lists the concurrent conditions found in guinea pig cases submitted to Northwest ZooPath during 1998 to 2008. Of 526 guinea pig case submissions, 19 had thyroid neoplasms. The most common clinical findings included a palpable mass on the ventral neck and progressive weight loss. Neoplasms were removed as an excisional biopsy from 7 guinea pigs, and 3 of these animals died within a few days after surgery. Radiographic mineral density was detected in 2 masses. Five of the neoplasms were reported as cystic; 5 were black or a dark color. Histologically, the neoplasms were classified as macrofollicular thyroid adenoma (8), thyroid cystadenoma (1), papillary thyroid adenoma (3), follicular thyroid carcinoma (5), follicular-compact thyroid carcinoma (1), and small-cell thyroid carcinoma (1). Osseous metaplasia was present in 8 neoplasms, and myeloid hyperplasia was present in 1 neoplasm. All 19 neoplasms were positive for thyroid transcription factor 1 and thyroglobulin but negative for parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. Numerous concurrent diseases, including hepatopathies, cardiomyopathies, and nephropathies, were present and considered to be the cause of death in many cases. Research is needed to determine the appropriate modalities for antemortem diagnosis and treatment and whether thyroid disease plays a role in the pathogenesis of chronic degenerative diseases in guinea pigs.

  13. Multiple neoplasms among cervical cancer patients in the material of the lower Silesian cancer registry.

    PubMed

    Izmajłowicz, Barbara; Kornafel, Jan; Błaszczyk, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    According to the definition by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), primary multiple neoplasms are two or more neoplasms of different histopathological build in one organ, or two or more tumors occurring in one patient, regardless of the time of their occurrence (synchronic - up to 6 months, metachronous - after 6 months), coming from an organ or a tissue and not being an infiltration from another neoplasm, a relapse or a metastasis. It was the aim of the study to analyze the frequency of the occurrence of multiple neoplasms among patients suffering from uterine cervix cancer, with a special interest in coexistent neoplasms, the time of their occurrence and total 5-year survivals. The data from the Lower Silesian Cancer Registry concerning the years 1984-2009 formed the material of the present study. 5.3% of all cervix neoplasms occurred as multiple cancers. Cervix neoplasms were 13.4% of multiple neoplasms. On average, cervical cancer occurred as a subsequent cancer in 6 patients yearly (60.7% of the occurrences of cervical cancer were in the period of 5 years following treatment for the first neoplasm). 5-year survival in patients suffering from primarily multiple cervix neoplasms constituted 57% and was convergent with the results for all patients suffering from cervical cancer. Cervical cancer as the first neoplasm occurred in 287 patients, on average in 11 patients annually. In the period of the first 5 years after the treatment of cervical cancer, there were 42.8% occurrences of other cancers. Cervical neoplasms most frequently coexisted with cancers of the breast, lung and large intestine. The frequency of the occurrence of multiple neoplasm among cervical cancer patients is increasing. Most frequently they coexist with other tobacco-related neoplasms, those related to HPV infections and with secondary post-radiation neoplasms. These facts should be taken into consideration during post-treatment observation and when directing diagnostic

  14. Estimation of bacteriological spoilage of pork cutlets by electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Kinga M; Seregély, Zs; Dalmadi, I; Andrássy, Eva; Farkas, J

    2007-06-01

    The utility of chemosensor array (EN) signals of head-space volatiles of aerobically stored pork cutlets as a non-invasive technique for monitoring their microbiological load was studied during storage at 4, 8 and 12 degrees C, respectively. The bacteriological quality of the meat samples was determined by standard total aerobic plate counts (TAPC) and colony count of selectively estimated Pseudomonas (PS) spp., the predominant aerobic spoilage bacteria. Statistical analysis of the electronic nose measurements were principal component analysis (PCA), and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA). Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to model correlation between microbial loads and EN signal responses, the degree of bacteriological spoilage, independently of the temperature of the refrigerated storage. Sensor selection techniques were applied to reduce the dimensionality and more robust calibration models were computed by determining few individual sensors having the smallest cross correlations and highest correlations with the reference data. Correlations between the predicted and "real" values were given on cross-validated data from both data reduced models and for full calibrations using the 23 sensor elements. At the same time, sensorial quality of the raw cutlets was noted subjectively on faultiness of the odour and colour, and drip formation of the samples. These preliminary studies indicated that the electronic nose technique has a potential to detect bacteriological spoilage earlier or at the same time as olfactory quality deterioration.

  15. Software Compensates Electronic-Nose Readings for Humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Hanying

    2007-01-01

    A computer program corrects for the effects of humidity on the readouts of an array of chemical sensors (an "electronic nose"). To enable the use of this program, the array must incorporate an independent humidity sensor in addition to sensors designed to detect analytes other than water vapor. The basic principle of the program was described in "Compensating for Effects of Humidity on Electronic Noses" (NPO-30615), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 6 (June 2004), page 63. To recapitulate: The output of the humidity sensor is used to generate values that are subtracted from the outputs of the other sensors to correct for contributions of humidity to those readings. Hence, in principle, what remains after corrections are the contributions of the analytes only. The outputs of the non-humidity sensors are then deconvolved to obtain the concentrations of the analytes. In addition, the humidity reading is retained as an analyte reading in its own right. This subtraction of the humidity background increases the ability of the software to identify such events as spills in which contaminants may be present in small concentrations and accompanied by large changes in humidity.

  16. "A shine on the nose": sexual metaphors in surrealism.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sue

    2005-01-01

    This essay explores a curious phenomenon in the work of several European surrealist artists, notably Hans Bellmer and René Magritte, from the late 1920s through the 1950s: In images of the body, a penis may appear in place of a nose; breasts, testicles, or buttocks stand in for the eyes of a face, a vaginal opening for the nostrils, an anus for the mouth. Alternatively, disembodied arms and legs or an elongated neck take on a phallic character, or the entire body becomes an erect penis. Aside from the shock value of these disconcerting substitutions, for which the Surrealists surely strove, what are we to make of them? Psychoanalytic accounts of fetishism point to castration anxiety as one explanatory factor in the creation of such metaphors-Freud's paradigmatic fetishist cathected a "shine on the nose" in place of the missing phallus, as described in the analyst's now-classic essay of 1927. Moreover, the aggression underlying an artist's disfiguring a face by adding genitalia is discussed in light of a general theory of caricature formulated by another contemporary of the Surrealists, Ernst Kris ("The Psychology of Caricature," 1936.) In light of a postwar social reality that included wounded bodies and widespread devastation, Surrealism can be said to reflect the experience of actual disfigurement and death. Additionally, however, biographical information on individual artists suggest possible intrapsychic sources for the hostility behind these sexualized representations.

  17. [Lupus vulgaris manifestation as a destructive nose and facial tumor].

    PubMed

    Haller, D; Reisser, C

    2009-04-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most frequent manifestation of cutaneous tuberculosis, but in Europe it is limited to isolated cases. Mainly immunocompetent individuals are affected by this result of an endogenous reinfection on a lymphogenous-less frequently hematogenous-pathway. Lupus vulgaris has been observed to develop in more than 50% of all patients who already suffer from other manifestations of tuberculosis. The development of a squamous cell carcinoma in the lupus vulgaris is a rare complication; therefore, lupus vulgaris is deemed a facultative precancerosis.A 68-year-old female Serbo-Croatian patient presented with an extensive ulcerative nose and facial tumor. Her anamnesis included a squamous cell carcinoma of the nose that had been excised alio loco 3 years before. Further examinations revealed enlarged cervical lymphoma on both sides, and pulmonary metastases were also suspected. The tumor biopsy revealed a necrotic, granulomatous inflammation. No acid-fast rods were seen on Ziehl-Neelsen stain. The tuberculous origin of this ulcerative skin tumor-the lupus vulgaris-as an endogenous reinfection of pulmonary tuberculosis manifestation was confirmed by the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in polymerase chain reaction and the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis colonies in the bacterial culture (skin biopsy and bronchial secretion). The skin tumor as well as the pulmonary manifestation were successfully treated with combined tuberculostatic therapy and showed a dramatic response within 3 months.

  18. Sonar beam dynamics in leaf-nosed bats

    PubMed Central

    Linnenschmidt, Meike; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic emissions of bats are directional and delimit the echo-acoustic space. Directionality is quantified by the aperture of the sonar beam. Recent work has shown that bats often widen their sonar beam when approaching movable prey or sharpen their sonar beam when navigating through cluttered habitats. Here we report how nose-emitting bats, Phyllostomus discolor, adjust their sonar beam to object distance. First, we show that the height and width of the bats sonar beam, as imprinted on a parabolic 45 channel microphone array, varies even within each animal and this variation is unrelated to changes in call level or spectral content. Second, we show that these animals are able to systematically decrease height and width of their sonar beam while focusing on the approaching object. Thus it appears that sonar beam sharpening is a further, facultative means of reducing search volume, likely to be employed by stationary animals when the object position is close and unambiguous. As only half of our individuals sharpened their beam onto the approaching object we suggest that this strategy is facultative, under voluntary control, and that beam formation is likely mediated by muscular control of the acoustic aperture of the bats’ nose leaf. PMID:27384865

  19. Chemiresistive Electronic Nose toward Detection of Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hi Gyu; Jung, Youngmo; Han, Soo Deok; Shim, Young-Seok; Shin, Beomju; Lee, Taikjin; Kim, Jin-Sang; Lee, Seok; Jun, Seong Chan; Park, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Chulki; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2016-08-17

    Detection of gas-phase chemicals finds a wide variety of applications, including food and beverages, fragrances, environmental monitoring, chemical and biochemical processing, medical diagnostics, and transportation. One approach for these tasks is to use arrays of highly sensitive and selective sensors as an electronic nose. Here, we present a high performance chemiresistive electronic nose (CEN) based on an array of metal oxide thin films, metal-catalyzed thin films, and nanostructured thin films. The gas sensing properties of the CEN show enhanced sensitive detection of H2S, NH3, and NO in an 80% relative humidity (RH) atmosphere similar to the composition of exhaled breath. The detection limits of the sensor elements we fabricated are in the following ranges: 534 ppt to 2.87 ppb for H2S, 4.45 to 42.29 ppb for NH3, and 206 ppt to 2.06 ppb for NO. The enhanced sensitivity is attributed to the spillover effect by Au nanoparticles and the high porosity of villi-like nanostructures, providing a large surface-to-volume ratio. The remarkable selectivity based on the collection of sensor responses manifests itself in the principal component analysis (PCA). The excellent sensing performance indicates that the CEN can detect the biomarkers of H2S, NH3, and NO in exhaled breath and even distinguish them clearly in the PCA. Our results show high potential of the CEN as an inexpensive and noninvasive diagnostic tool for halitosis, kidney disorder, and asthma.

  20. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Nose-Only Inhalation Exposures ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is a critical need to assess the health effects associated with exposure of commercially produced NPs across the size ranges reflective of that detected in the industrial sectors that are generating, as well as incorporating, NPs into products. Generation of stable and low concentrations of size-fractionated nanoscale aerosols in nose-only chambers can be difficult, and when the aerosol agglomerates during generation, the problems are significantly increased. One problem is that many nanoscale aerosol generators have higher aerosol output and/or airflow than can be accommodated by a nose-only inhalation chamber, requiring much of the generated aerosol to be diverted to exhaust. Another problem is that mixing vessels used to modulate the fluctuating output from aerosol generators can cause substantial wall losses, consuming much of the generated aerosol. Other available aerosol generation systems can produce nanoscale aerosols from nanoparticles (NPs), however these NPs are generated in real time and do not approximate the physical and chemical characteristics of NPs that are commercially produced exposing the workers and the public. The health effects associated with exposure to commercial NP production, which are more morphologically and size heterogeneous, is required for risk assessment. To overcome these problems, a low-consumption dry-particulate nanoscale aerosol generator was developed to deliver stable concentrations in the range of 10–5000 µg