Pujol, Miquel; Limón, Enric
Infections related to the health-care system are those associated with health care practices in hospitalized patients as well as in out-patients with health-care contact. Nosocomial infections affect 5% of in-patients, and carry a high morbidity, mortality and economic cost. The main types of nosocomial infections are related to invasive procedures, and include respiratory tract infection, surgical site infections, urinary tract infections, and vascular catheter bacteremia. It has been shown that the application of checklists and a bundle of measures are useful in preventing these infections. Epidemiological surveillance, defined as the gathering of information to take actions, is the basis of infection control programs. These have evolved from a global surveillance targeted at processes and indicators of nosocomial infection. The comparison of these indicators can be useful in establishing preventive measures.
Rozaidi, S W; Sukro, J; Dan, A
CU-acquired nosocomial infection (NI) remains one of the major causes of ICU mortality. This study presents the incidence of ICU-acquired nosocomial infection in ICU HUKM for the years 1998 and 1999, as part of the ongoing ICU-acquired nosocomial infection surveillance program. The overall incidence was 23%. The main types of NI was lower respiratory tract infection (15.3%), primary bacteraemia (8.1%), ventilator associated pneumonia (5.4%), urinary tract infection (2.0%), skin infection (1.6%) central venous catheter sepsis (1.2%) and surgical skin infection (0.8%). The overall culture positive nosocomial infection rate was only 12.1%, majority from the lungs (12.6%), blood (7.3%), skin swabs (2.0%), and urine (1.6%). The main gram-negative organism cultured was Acinetobacter sp. (19%) and Staph. aureus (8.5%) was the gram-positive organism. The overall ICU mortality rate was 27.5% of which 60.9% of patients who died were attributed directly to sepsis.
Leistner, R; Schröder, C; Geffers, C; Breier, A-C; Gastmeier, P; Behnke, M
Surveillance systems for hospital infections are reporting increasing rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Enterobacteriaceae in Europe. We aimed to perform a national survey on this trend and on the regional distribution of nosocomial infections due to ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae in German hospitals. Data from 2007 to 2012 from two components of the German national nosocomial infection surveillance system were used for this analysis. The data derive from intensive care units and surgical departments. Independent factors determining the proportion of ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae among nosocomial infections due to Enterobacteriaceae and changes in its regional distribution (broken down into German federal states) were calculated by regression analysis. From 2007 to 2012, the data showed a significantly increasing proportion of ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae in surgical site infections (from 11.46 to 15.38, 134%, p 0.003), urinary tract infections (9.36 to 16.56, 177%, p <0.001) and lower respiratory tract infections (11.91 to 14.70, 123%, p <0.001) due to Enterobacteriaceae. Factors independently associated with a growing proportion were: Thuringia (p 0.009; odds ratio (OR) 1.53), North Rhine-Westphalia (p <0.001; OR 1.41) and general surgery ward (p 0.002; OR 1.47). The proportion of ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae in nosocomial infections has significantly increased in Germany over the last 6 years. Hospitals in Central Germany and surgical departments in all of Germany are especially affected by this development.
Nosocomial infections develop within a hospital or are produced by microorganisms acquired during hospitalization. They may involve not only patients (2 to 10 percent) but also hospital personnel. They arise from complex interactions of multiple causal factors. Patients risk factors are these that reduce the patient's capacity for resisting the injurious effects of the microorganisms and impair natural host defense mechanisms: patients with malignant disorders or immunosuppressive therapy, poor nutritional status, extensive burn wounds ... The young and the elderly are generally more susceptible to infection. Other infections are preventable. Disease causation is often multifactorial. Nosocomial urinary tract infections had the highest rate, followed by lower respiratory tract infections, surgical infections and bacteremias. The emergence of other nosocomial infections, caused by bacteria (tuberculosis), virus (HIV, hepatitis B and C virus, cytomegalovirus...), Aspergillus species or Pneumocystis carinii appears to be recent in origin and is of importance to immunocompromised hosts, other patients and hospital personnel. Nosocomial infections and their social and economic impacts require for their prevention vigorous organized hospital-wide surveillance and control programs.
Weinstein, R. A.
Historically, staphylococci, pseudomonads, and Escherichia coli have been the nosocomial infection troika; nosocomial pneumonia, surgical wound infections, and vascular access-related bacteremia have caused the most illness and death in hospitalized patients; and intensive care units have been the epicenters of antibiotic resistance. Acquired antimicrobial resistance is the major problem, and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen of greatest concern. The shift to outpatient care is leaving the most vulnerable patients in hospitals. Aging of our population and increasingly aggressive medical and surgical interventions, including implanted foreign bodies, organ transplantations, and xenotransplantation, create a cohort of particularly susceptible persons. Renovation of aging hospitals increases risk of airborne fungal and other infections. To prevent and control these emerging nosocomial infections, we need to increase national surveillance, "risk adjust" infection rates so that interhospital comparisons are valid, develop more noninvasive infection-resistant devices, and work with health-care workers on better implementation of existing control measures such as hand washing. PMID:9716961
Nosocomial urinary tract infection in the intensive care unit: when should Pseudomonas aeruginosa be suspected? Experience of the French national surveillance of nosocomial infections in the intensive care unit, Rea-Raisin.
Venier, A-G; Lavigne, T; Jarno, P; L'heriteau, F; Coignard, B; Savey, A; Rogues, A-M
Individual and ward risk factors for P. aeruginosa-induced urinary tract infection in the case of nosocomial urinary tract infection in the intensive care unit were determined with hierarchical (multilevel) logistic regression. The 2004-2006 prospective French national intensive care unit nosocomial infection surveillance dataset was used and 3252 patients with urinary tract infection were included; 16% were infected by P. aeruginosa. Individual risk factors were male sex, duration of stay, antibiotics at admission and transfer from another intensive care unit. Ward risk factors were patient turnover and incidence of P. aeruginosa-infected patients.
Serban, Roxana; Codiţă, Irina
Since 2005 a sentinel system for surveillance of nosocomial diseases has been introduced in Romania which had, among other objectives, the evaluation of antibiotic resistance. The surveillance methodology was shared annually, the number of participants varying between 12 and 40 hospitals. During 2005-2008 the Reference Laboratory for Nosocomial Infections and Antibiotic Resistance in the "Cantacusino" NIRDMI received 1481 bacterial strains, comprising 531 S. aureus, 486 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 439 enterobacteria and 25 enterococci strains. The resistance percents widely differred for some species, especially regarding the type of hospital unit that sent the strains (ex., Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated form patients with burns). A great variability was noted concerning the manner in which nominalized hospitals responded to the solicitations in the methodology that was shared. especially regarding participation to a national bank for bacterial strains. Only for 5 out of the 40 hospitals that participated along the 4 years in the sentinel programme the annual comparative evaluations of antibiotic resistance were achieved. for a small number of microorganisms that underwent surveillance (S. aureus, E. coli). Among the strong points of the system we can point out: unity in methodology; working protocols for microbiological investigation given to all the participants; special forms for reporting. Among the weak points, we consider: modification in the number of participant hospitals during the program: unequal participation of hospitals, with unwanted effects on the sample representativity of analysed microbial strains; difficulties in stocking and processing laboratory data. In order to increase the quality of data provided, we consider the following as useful: harmonization of the objectives regarding integrated surveillance of nosocomial infections and antibiotic resistance in hospital environment, correlated with the ECDC demands and recommendations; inclusion in
Wu, Jian-nong; Gan, Tie-er; Zhu, Yue-xian; Cao, Jun-min; Ji, Cong-hua; Wu, Yi-hua; Lv, Bin
In many traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) hospitals, most patients are elderly with chronic diseases. Nosocomial bloodstream infections (nBSIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. A retrospective surveillance study was performed to examine the epidemiology and microbiology of nBSIs in a TCM hospital from 2009 to 2011. A total of 482 patients with nBSIs were included in the study period. The incidence rate was 5.7/1000 admissions. Escherichia coli (25.5%) was the most common Gram-negative and coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS) (14.1%) was the most common Gram-positive organism isolated. One-third of the E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from the nBSIs were the third-generation cephalosporin-resistant. Half of the Acinetobacter species isolates were resistant to imipenem. Of all the CoNS isolates, 90.7% were resistant to methicillin. Carbapenems and glycopeptide were the most frequently used for nBSI therapy. Only about one-third of patients (157/482) received appropriate empirical therapy. Septic shock, hemodialysis, Pitt bacteremia score >4, urinary tract infection, and appropriate empirical therapy were most strongly associated with 28-d mortality. The incidence of nBSIs was low in the TCM hospital but the proportion of nBSIs due to antibiotic-resistant organisms was high. A high Pitt bacteremia score was one of the most important risk factors for mortality in nBSIs. Therefore, the implementation of appropriate empirical therapy is crucial to improve the clinical outcome of nBSIs.
Peng, Hui; Tao, Xiu-Bin; Li, Yan; Hu, Qiang; Qian, Li-Hua; Wu, Qun; Ruan, Jing-Jing; Cai, Dong-Zhen
Using a standardized methodology by the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System, a continuous health care-associated infections (HAIs) surveillance was conducted in our mixed intensive care unit at a Chinese teaching hospital. During the study period (2010-2014), 4,013 patients were hospitalized for 32,924 bed days and acquired 427 HAIs (482 HAI events), with an overall rate of 10.64% and 14.640 HAIs per 1,000 bed days. Ventilator-associated pneumonia was the most common device-associated health care-acquired infection, with an incidence rate of 19.561 per 1,000 mechanical ventilator days.
Mataseje, Laura F.; Abdesselam, Kahina; Vachon, Julie; Mitchel, Robyn; Bryce, Elizabeth; Roscoe, Diane; Boyd, David A.; Embree, Joanne; Katz, Kevin; Kibsey, Pamela; Simor, Andrew E.; Taylor, Geoffrey; Turgeon, Nathalie; Langley, Joanne; Gravel, Denise; Amaratunga, Kanchana
Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are increasing globally; here we report on the investigation of CPE in Canada over a 5-year period. Participating acute care facilities across Canada submitted carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014 to the National Microbiology Laboratory. All CPE were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibilities, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing, and plasmid restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and had patient data collected using a standard questionnaire. The 5-year incidence rate of CPE was 0.09 per 10,000 patient days and 0.07 per 1,000 admissions. There were a total of 261 CPE isolated from 238 patients in 58 hospitals during the study period. blaKPC-3 (64.8%) and blaNDM-1 (17.6%) represented the highest proportion of carbapenemase genes detected in Canadian isolates. Patients who had a history of medical attention during international travel accounted for 21% of CPE cases. The hospital 30-day all-cause mortality rate for the 5-year surveillance period was 17.1 per 100 CPE cases. No significant increase in the occurrence of CPE was observed from 2010 to 2014. Nosocomial transmission of CPE, as well as international health care, is driving its persistence within Canada. PMID:27600052
Aujard, Y; Rajguru, M; Bingen, E
High incidence of nosocomial infections in children is largely explained by immunodeficiency, particularly in newborns. Central venous catheter is the main risk factor and coagulase negative staphylococcus the main pathogen in cause. Large variations of nosocomial infection incidences are observed by Nososcomial Infection Surveillance Networks and depend on the pediatric speciality. The highest rate is observed in neonatal intensive care, where incidence density of catheter-related sepsis varies from four to 23 infections for 1000 catheter-days. Local surveillance in each ward, risk factors and knowledge of bacterial epidemiology allow the development of rational preventive and therapeutic protocols. However, prophylactic use of vancomycin is dangerous and immunoglobulins are inefficient.
Adams-Chapman, Ira; Stoll, Barbara J
Nosocomial infections are responsible for significant morbidity and late mortality among neonatal intensive care unit patients. The number of neonatal patients at risk for acquiring nosocomial infections is increasing because of the improved survival of very low birthweight infants and their need for invasive monitoring and supportive care. Effective strategies to prevent nosocomial infection must include continuous monitoring and surveillance of infection rates and distribution of pathogens; strategic nursery design and staffing; emphasis on handwashing compliance; minimizing central venous catheter use and contamination, and prudent use of antimicrobial agents. Educational programs and feedback to nursery personnel improve compliance with infection control programs.
Gorse, G J; Messner, R L; Stephens, N D
To study the association of malnutrition with nosocomial infection in a general medical and surgical inpatient population, we retrospectively compared 45 patients with nosocomial infection to 45 uninfected control patients, matched using several nonnutritional variables known to predispose to nosocomial infection. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done. Poor nutritional score (derived from serum albumin, total lymphocyte count, and unintentional body weight loss), unintentional body weight loss, low serum albumin level at both time of admission and the first nosocomial infection, and worsening in the nutritional score and serum albumin from admission to the first nosocomial infection were associated with the development of nosocomial infection. Nutritional factors were more abnormal in subgroups of patients with nosocomial pneumonia, urinary tract infection, wound infection, and bacteremia than in controls. The findings suggest that further study of correlations between nutritional factors and nosocomial infections is needed.
Meyer, E; Sohr, D; Gastmeier, P; Geffers, C
This study presents data for ventilator use and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rates from the German hospital surveillance system for nosocomial infections (KISS: Krankenhaus Infektions Surveillance System). New Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definitions became effective during 2005 and we describe the new method used by KISS to determine individual units with data at extreme ranges. The number of VAP cases per 1000 device-days was calculated and a new visual method, specifically funnel plots, was introduced to identify outliers. The VAP rate will be highly influenced by chance variability if only a few VAP cases are observed during a low number of ventilator-days. Funnel plots take this relationship between event rate and volume of cases into account. A total of 391 intensive care units (ICUs) reported surveillance data from 8 86 816 patients and included 6896 VAPs and 3 113 983 patient-days for the period January 2005 to December 2007. The mean VAP rate according to the new CDC definitions was 5.5 cases per 1000 ventilator-days (median: 4.4). The mean ventilator use in all ICUs was 35.7 (median: 29.3). Funnel plots identified 14.3% as outliers; 34 of them as high, and 22 as low, outliers. Since 2008, visual feedback to the KISS ICUs has been supplied by funnel plots. These are less prone to misinterpretation than histograms and they indicate when investigation is required for increasing VAP.
Fridkin, S K; Jarvis, W R
This paper briefly reviews the current knowledge of the epidemiology and modes of transmission of nosocomial fungal infections and some of the therapeutic options for treating these diseases. In the mid-1980s, many institutions reported that fungi were common pathogens in nosocomial infections. Most, if not all, hospitals care for patients at risk for nosocomial fungal infections. The proportion in all nosocomial infections reportedly caused by Candida spp. increased from 2% in 1980 to 5% in 1986 to 1989. Numerous studies have identified common risk factors for acquiring these infections, most of which are very common among hospitalized patients; some factors act primarily by inducing immunosuppression (e.g., corticosteroids, chemotherapy, malnutrition, malignancy, and neutropenia), while others primarily provide a route of infection (e.g., extensive burns, indwelling catheter), and some act in combination. Non-albicans Candida spp., including fluconazole-resistant C. krusei and Torulopsis (C.) glabrata, have become more common pathogens. Newer molecular typing techniques can assist in the determination of a common source of infection caused by several fungal pathogens. Continued epidemiologic and laboratory research is needed to better characterize these pathogens and allow for improved diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:8894349
Botterel, F; Faibis, F; Chevalier, C; Delisse, C; Fiacre, A; Dubois, A; Demachy, M C
To estimate the incidence of nosocomial infections (NI) in our hospital and to increase healthcare professionals' awareness of hygiene, a prospective study was performed between January and December 2002 from the microbiology laboratory data. On 1334 suspicions of NI, corresponding to 1062 patients, sent to the hygiene correspondents in each medical care unit, the infection control team received 853 answers (64% of sendings) with 430 NI validated. The incidence rate of NI validated was 1.7 NI/1000 days of hospitalisation and 1.6 NI/100 inpatients. The NI were predominantly related to urinary tract (47%), bloodstream (14%), and lower respiratory tract (12%). Transmission of these informations to medical information department permitted a valorisation of additional 16,000 ISA points. This prospective study permitted to develop a network of hygiene correspondents in every medical care units. None of the medical care units was unharmed by NI but the exhaustive declaration of NI seems difficult to realise. This study permitted to point out some dysfunctionments in the management of invasive procedures and to improve these practices.
Verduyn Lunel, F M; Meis, J F; Voss, A
Candida species are frequently encountered as part of the human commensal flora. Colonization mostly precedes candidemia and is an independent risk factor for the development of candidemia. Genotyping methods showed the similarity between colonizing and infecting strains, thus making endogenous origin likely, though exogenous sources like total parenteral nutrition also have been described. Health care workers (HCWs) play an important role in the transmission of yeasts. Candida species are frequently isolated from the hands of HCWs and can be transmitted from hands to patients. Granulocytopenia and damage of the mucosal lining resulting from intensive chemotherapy due to cancer, the increasing use of broad spectrum antibiotics, and the use of intravenous catheters are other important risk factors for the development of candidemia. Candidemia is associated with a high mortality and prolonged hospitalization. Therefore, and because of the high frequency of dissemination, all candidemias should be treated. Amphotericin B was considered the standard drug for the systemic treatment of candidemia. Fluconazole has been shown to be an effective and safe alternative in non-neutropenic patients. 5-Fluorocytosine has been used in combination with amphotericin B in the treatment of deep-seated infections. Liposomal formulations of amphotericin B and other new antifungal drugs currently are under investigation. C. albicans is the most frequently isolated Candida species, although the proportion of infections caused by non-C. albicans species is increasing. Also, there are reports of development of resistance to amphotericin B. C. lusitaniae is known for primary resistance and the development of resistance to amphotericin B. Development of resistance to fluconazole is mainly seen in AIDS patients with recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis who receive longer courses of therapy.
Zaragoza, Rafael; Ramírez, Paula; López-Pueyo, María Jesús
Nosocomial infections (NI) still have a high incidence in intensive care units (ICUs), and are becoming one of the most important problems in these units. It is well known that these infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients, and are associated with increases in the length of stay and excessive hospital costs. Based on the data from the ENVIN-UCI study, the rates and aetiology of the main nosocomial infections have been described, and include ventilator-associated pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and both primary and catheter related bloodstream infections, as well as the incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. A literature review on the impact of different nosocomial infections in critically ill patients is also presented. Infection control programs such as zero bacteraemia and pneumonia have been also analysed, and show a significant decrease in NI rates in ICUs.
Diouf, E; Bèye, M D; Diop, Ndoye M; Kane, O; Ka, Sall B
Infection is nosocomial if it missed at the time patient admission in the health establishment. When infectious status of the patient on admission is unknown, infection is generally regarded as nosocomial if it appears after a time of at least 48 hours of hospitalization. For surgical site infection, the commonly allowed time is 30 days, or, in case of prosthesis or an implant, one year after surgical intervention. Nosocomial infections (NI) constitute major health care problem from their frequency, their cost, their gravity. Mortality related to NI can attempt 70% in certain units like intensive care units. Two ways of contamination are possible: the endogenous way is responsible of majority of hospital infections. The normally sterile sites are contaminated then colonized by the flora which is carrying the patient himself, with the favor of a rupture of the barriers of defense. The exogenic way is associated colonization, possibly followed by infection, of the patient by external bacteria, coming from others patients or from environment, transmitted in an indirect way (aerosols, manuportage, materials). Whatever its mode of transmission, apparition of nosocomial infection can be related to several supporting factors: age and pathology, certain treatments (antibiotic which unbalance patients' flora and select resistant bacteria, immunosuppressive treatments), invasive practices necessary to the patient treatment. The prevalence of nosocomial infections is higher in the intensive care units where certain studies bring back rates of 42.8% versus 12.1% in others services. The four sites of nosocomial infection most frequently concerned are: the respiratory site, urinary infections, bloodstream infections (Catheters related bloodstream infections in particular), and surgical sites infections. The relative proportion of these infections varies according to principal activity of the unity.
Suleyman, Geehan; Alangaden, George J
Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients and in the immunocompromised population. This article reviews the current epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections in adult patients, with an emphasis on invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis. Recently published recommendations and guidelines for the control and prevention of these nosocomial fungal infections are summarized in this article.
Chien, S T; Hsueh, J C; Lin, H-H; Shih, H-Y; Lee, T-M; Ben, R-J; Chou, S-T; Fong, C-M; Lin, Y E; Tseng, L-R; Chiang, C-S
An epidemiological investigation with Legionella and molecular subtyping was conducted to determine the source of a case of nosocomial Legionnaires' disease (LD) who was hospitalized in three hospitals within a month. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 3, an uncommon serogroup for infection, was isolated from the patient's sputum. Environmental surveillance revealed Legionella colonization in all three hospitals; the patient isolate matched the isolate from the first hospital by molecular typing. Culturing the hospital water supply for Legionella is a pro-active strategy for detection of nosocomial LD even in hospitals experiencing no previous cases.
Iacovelli, Valerio; Gaziev, Gabriele; Topazio, Luca; Bove, Pierluigi; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Finazzi Agrò, Enrico
Nosocomial urinary tract infections are a common complication in healthcare systems worldwide. A review of the literature was performed in June 2014 using the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) database, through either PubMed or Ovid as a search engine, to identify publications regarding nosocomial urinary tract infections (NUTIs) definition, epidemiology, etiology and treatment.According to current definitions, more than 30% of nosocomial infections are urinary tract infections (UTIs). A UTI is defined 'nosocomial' (NUTI) when it is acquired in any healthcare institution or, more generally, when it is related to patient management. The origin of nosocomial bacteria is endogenous (the patient's flora) in two thirds of the cases. Patients with indwelling urinary catheters, those undergoing urological surgery and manipulations, long-stay elderly male patients and patients with debilitating diseases are at high risk of developing NUTIs. All bacterial NUTIs should be treated, whether the patient is harboring a urinary catheter or not. The length of treatment depends on the infection site. There is abundance of important guidance which should be considered to reduce the risk of NUTIs (hand disinfection with instant hand sanitizer, wearing non-sterile gloves permanently, isolation of infected or colonized catheterized patients). Patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria can generally be treated initially with catheter removal or catheter exchange, and do not necessarily need antimicrobial therapy. Symptomatic patients should receive antibiotic therapy. Resistance of urinary pathogens to common antibiotics is currently a topic of concern.
Borkow, Gadi; Gabbay, Jeffrey
The rates of nosocomial infections, especially by those caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria, are increasing alarmingly over the globe. Although more rigorous infection control measures are being implemented, it is clear that the current modalities to reduce nosocomial infections are not sufficient. Textiles are an excellent substrate for bacterial growth under appropriate moisture and temperature conditions. Patients shed bacteria and contaminate their pyjamas and sheets. The temperature and humidity between the patients and the bed are appropriate conditions allowing for effective bacterial proliferation. Several studies have found that personnel in contact with contaminated textiles were the source of transmission of the micro-organisms to susceptible patients. Furthermore, it has been reported that bed making in hospitals releases large quantities of micro-organisms into the air, which contaminate the immediate and non-immediate surroundings. Contaminated textiles in hospitals can thus be an important source of microbes contributing to endogenous, indirect-contact, and aerosol transmission of nosocomial related pathogens. We hypothesize that the use of antimicrobial textiles, especially in those textiles that are in close contact with the patients, may significantly reduce bioburden in clinical settings and consequently reduce the risk of nosocomial infections. These textiles should possess broad spectrum biocidal properties. They should be safe for use and highly effective against antibiotic resistant micro-organisms, including those that are commonly involved in hospital-acquired infections, and they should not permit the development of resistant micro-organisms to the active compound.
Nosocomial or hospital acquired infections threaten the survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, and increase cost of care. Premature infants are particularly vulnerable since they often undergo invasive procedures and are dependent on central catheters to deliver nutrition and on ventilators for respiratory support. Prevention of nosocomial infection is a critical patient safety imperative, and invariably requires a multidisciplinary approach. There are no short cuts. Hand hygiene before and after patient contact is the most important measure, and yet, compliance with this simple measure can be unsatisfactory. Alcohol based hand sanitizer is effective against many microorganisms and is efficient, compared to plain or antiseptic containing soaps. The use of maternal breast milk is another inexpensive and simple measure to reduce infection rates. Efforts to replicate the anti-infectious properties of maternal breast milk by the use of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics have met with variable success, and there are ongoing trials of lactoferrin, an iron binding whey protein present in large quantities in colostrum. Attempts to boost the immunoglobulin levels of preterm infants with exogenous immunoglobulins have not been shown to reduce nosocomial infections significantly. Over the last decade, improvements in the incidence of catheter-related infections have been achieved, with meticulous attention to every detail from insertion to maintenance, with some centers reporting zero rates for such infections. Other nosocomial infections like ventilator acquired pneumonia and staphylococcus aureus infection remain problematic, and outbreaks with multidrug resistant organisms continue to have disastrous consequences. Management of infections is based on the profile of microorganisms in the neonatal unit and community and targeted therapy is required to control the disease without leading to the development of more
Mori-Yoshikawa, Namiko; Ohmagari, Norio; Kirikae, Teruo
The aims of this study were to assess nosocomial infection control measures at middle-scale hospitals throughout Japan. Of the 823 hospitals participating in this questionnaire-based survey, more than half of the middle-scale hospitals have implemented nosocomial infection control measures, including infection surveillance or infection control rounds, while acknowledging a shortage of infection control staff. These hospitals most frequently consulted public health centers to obtain information and advice. Improved nosocomial infection control in middle-scale hospitals requires sufficient staffing and a local network, with active participation by public health centers.
Hug, B L; Flückiger, U; Widmer, A F
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection in hospitalized adults. Nosocomial UTIs are mainly associated with the use of urinary catheters. Thus, the decision for catheterization should be made carefully and catheters removed in time. In order to prevent unnecessary antibiotic use in patients with urinary catheters correct diagnosis is crucial. Chinolones, broad-spectrum penicillins and third-generation cephalosporins are the mainstay of therapy. Comorbidities should be considered and potential obstructions of urinary flow removed. Economically important are the normally higher prices of i.v. antibiotics compared to oral use.
Broad-spectrum antibiotics are commonly used by physicians to treat various infections. The source of infection and causative organisms are not always apparent during the initial evaluation of the patient, and antibiotics are often given empirically to patients with suspected sepsis. Fear of attempting cephalosporins and carbapenems in penicillin-allergic septic patients may result in significant decrease in the spectrum of antimicrobial coverage. Empiric antibiotic therapy should sufficiently cover all the suspected pathogens, guided by the bacteriologic susceptibilities of the medical center. It is important to understand the major pharmacokinetic properties of antibacterial agents for proper use and to minimize the development of resistance. In several septic patients, negative cultures do not exclude active infection and positive cultures may not represent the actual infection. This article will review the important differences in the spectrum of commonly used antibiotics for nosocomial bacterial infections with a particular emphasis on culture-negative sepsis and colonization.
Bingen, E H; Denamur, E; Elion, J
Over the past few years, genotypic methods based on the study of bacterial DNA polymorphism have shown high discriminatory power for strain differentiation and superiority over most phenotypic methods commonly available in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Some of the methods used, however, required either a high level of technology and sophisticated equipment (e.g., pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) or species-specific reagents of restricted availability (randomly cloned DNA probes or gene-specific probes). Because ribotyping uses a universal probe (rRNA) and is a rather simple technology, particularly since the advent of nonradioactive labelling systems, it has been widely used for strain differentiation of most bacterial species involved in nosocomial outbreaks. In vitro and in vivo stability of the markers studied has been demonstrated. Although there may be limitation to this approach, ribotyping was found to be highly discriminative, particularly for typing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas cepacia, and Xanthomonas maltophilia. In many cases, it has improved the understanding of the mechanism of nosocomial acquisition of organisms by allowing a distinction between endogenous and exogenous infections. Among exogenous infections, it has distinguished between individual and epidemic strains, thus differentiating cross-infection from independent acquisition. Images PMID:7923052
Rems, M; Bohanec, M; Urh, B; Kramar, Z
Decision support system for nosocomial infection therapy Ptah can reduce antibiotic misuse with data about bacteria resistance and antibiotic ineffectiveness. Resistance vectors in time series show epidemiological problems with resistant bacterias, named house-bacteria. Most important implementation factors are integrated hospital information system and doctors, nurses and managers interested in problems of nosocomial infection.
Dal-Bó, Karla; da Silva, Rosemeri Maurici; Sakae, Thiago Mamôru
Objective The aim of this study was to describe the incidence and epidemiology of nosocomial infection in newborns who were admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit in a hospital in south Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted for 1 year among 239 neonates who remained as in-patients 48 hours after admission. The criteria that were used to diagnose infection were in accordance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Health Surveillance Agency. Results The incidence of nosocomial infection was 45.8%. The primary reasons for admission were primary bloodstream infection (80.7%) and pneumonia (6.7%). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the most commonly identified agent in the blood cultures and in the hospital unit. Prematurity was the most prevalent reason for admission. The general mortality rate was 12.1%, and mortality from nosocomial infection was 33.8%. Conclusions The incidence of nosocomial infection in the hospital unit was higher than rates that have been reported in other national studies. The major types of nosocomial infection were primary bloodstream infection and pneumonia. PMID:23917937
Kahn, M. G.; Steib, S. A.; Fraser, V. J.; Dunagan, W. C.
Hospital-acquired infections represent a significant cause of prolonged inpatient days and additional hospital charges. We describe an expert system, called GERMWATCHER, which applies the Centers for Disease Control's National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance culture-based criteria for detecting nosocomial infections. GERMWATCHER has been deployed at Barnes Hospital, a large tertiary-care teaching hospital, since February 1993. We describe the Barnes Hospital infection control environment, the expert system design, and a predeployment performance evaluation. We then compare our system to other efforts in computer-based infection control. PMID:8130456
Chen, M L; Chen, Y C; Pan, H J; Chang, S C; Yang, L S; Ho, S W; Luh, K T; Hsieh, W C; Chuang, C Y
Surveillance system of nosocomial infection was established in 1980 at the National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). To identify pathogens and the secular trends in the etiology of nosocomial infection from 1981 to 1994, the prospective, hospital-wide nosocomial surveillance data were analysed. During this period, 22,146 pathogens causing nosocomial infections were isolated. Gram-negative aerobic bacteria remained the major pathogens, but gram-positive cocci and fungi increased rapidly in the past 14 years. When the overall pathogen distribution is examined, Pseudomonas areuginosa was the most frequently isolated pathogen, but Candida albicans and other yeasts have taken the leading position since 1993. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci also increase significantly in recent years. When the pathogens causing infection at the 4 major sites were examined. P. aeruginosa was the pathogen most often associated with respiratory tract and surgical wound infections. In blood stream and urinary tract infections, we observed Escherichia coli was replaced by C. albicans and other yeasts as a most common isolate in these years. In addition, C. albicans and other yeasts and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are emerging as major nosocomial pathogens at NTUH. C. albicans and other yeast increased from 1.8% in 1981 to 14.9% in 1994 in the overall nosocomial infection. The increase was found in the blood stream (2.1% to 16.2%) and urinary tract infections (5.4% to 24.7%). Of 1,742 nosocomial S. aureus isolates, the percentage of MRSA rose from 12.5% in 1981 to 55.2% in 1994. The high percentage of MRSA was observed at 4 major anatomic sites of infection. In summary, significant shifts in the pathogens of nosocomial infection have occurred in the past 14 years at NTUH, and the distribution of nosocomial pathogens was similar to those reported in the United States in recent years.
Kane, O; Bèye, M D; Diop, Ndoye M; Ndiaye, P I; Diouf, E; Sall, Ka B
The nosocomial Infections are associated to an increase of the morbidity, of the mortality and costs. Their frequency stay on raised in our service of cares. Then it is recommended and broadly admitted what each hospital must dispose of a unity of nosocomial infections prevention and to dispose a staff specially vested in those duties. Of the fact the nosocomial infections frequency in reanimation, an imported part of the activity of this specialized staff will have to run out in services of intensive cares. The principal nosocomial infections feature observed is being directly or indirectly associated to engineerings of acting as invasives deputy used to palliate a vital lapse. Of a general manner, all sharp grave affection, as anything severe traumatism (accidental or surgical) drag a capacities reduction of defense against the infection, component so important factors of nosocomial infections installations. Preventive measures pass by the engineerings respect of hands hygiene, the harbour of clean conformable dress, the measures respect of isolation (septic or preventive), the cares grading, the upkeep of the hardware and the bedroom, the respect of the circuit of the linen salts and lastly the sorting and the losses management of activity of cares. For that it must a policy of strife against nosocomial infections with the placing in place of operational unities of hygiene in all hospitals and the redynamisation of the committee of strife against nosocomial infections already existed in different public establishments of health.
Leseva, M; Arguirova, M; Nashev, D; Zamfirova, E; Hadzhyiski, O
The aim of our study was to determine the etiology of nosocomial infections, their changes over a period of five years (2007-2011), and the measures for control of infections and antimicrobial resistance in the Burns Clinic of the N.I. Pirogov University Multi-Profile Hospital for Active Treatment and Emergency Medicine, Sofia, Bulgaria. The medical records for all the patients and the database of the "Clinical Microbiology and Surveillance of Infections" National Information System were reviewed and analyzed to identify the microbial pathogens isolated in our burns Clinic. The three most frequent nosocomial pathogens were S. aureus, A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa. In order to control effectively nosocomial infections, a system of anti-infective and anti- microbial resistance measures has been developed and routinely implemented in our Clinic since 2008. Since 2009, thanks to this system, there has been a significant decrease in the rates of multi-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Although at present the incidence of the nosocomial infections in our burns clinic is lower than in neighboring countries, several important infection control issues still need to be solved. We mainly rely on updating and strengthening the existing anti-infective system in order to control the spread of multi-drug resistant organisms, such as A. baumannii, extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, and carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa.
Ohkushi, Daisuke; Uehara, Yuki; Iwamoto, Akira; Misawa, Shigeki; Kondo, Shigemi; Shimizu, Kenichiro; Hori, Satoshi; Hiramatsu, Keiichi
Hospital-wide active surveillance for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) targeted to adult patients with a history of MRSA carriage within the past 5 years was performed in Juntendo University Hospital (JUH) over a 2-year period. In the first year, MRSA screening culture was ordered by physicians in charge. In the second year, infection-control practitioners (ICPs) took samples for active surveillance culture. The average monthly transmission rate of MRSA in JUH was 0.35 per 1,000 bed-days in the first year and decreased significantly to 0.26 per 1,000 bed-days in the second year (P < 0.05). In the second year, more active commitment of ICPs to MRSA screening was effective in improving the performance rate of screening, shortening turn-around time of screening results, and decreasing transmission rate. Increasing compliance with active MRSA surveillance by involvement of ICPs, targeting patients with a previous history of MRSA carriage in the previous 5 years, was effective to control nosocomial MRSA transmission.
Vatankhah, Sodabe; Mokarami, Hamidreza; Karchani, Mohsen; Hosseini, Zahra; Izadi, Babak; Moradi, Farideh
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of executive programs of infection control committees on the incidence of nosocomial infections in hospitals affiliated with the Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (Kermanshah, Iran) during 2010 and 2011. The numbers of patients admitted in 2010 and 2011 were 8084 and 7166, respectively, and the average prevalence of nosocomial infections in 2010 and 2011 was 0.8 and 1.9 infections per 100 patients, respectively. In 2010, the mean scores obtained by hospital for regular Infection Control Committee meetings, regular gatherings, registration of program information analysis, and regular follow-up meetings were 19, 31, 30.5, and 41.7 (out of 100), respectively. In 2011, they were 20.2, 36.4, 38.1, and 50, respectively. The results of this study indicated that executive programs of infection control committees had no effect on the incidence of nosocomial infections; therefore, the experts who assess hospitals should pay more attention to the systems that are used to conduct surveillance of nosocomial infection control programs.
Velazco, Elsa; Nieves, Beatriz; Araque, María; Calderas, Zoila
Nosocomial infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. In developing countries it is difficult to carry out effective surveillance and control programs for this type of infection because of the cost in both human and material resources. These considerations prompted us to perform a prospective study to determine the epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics of nosocomial infections due to Staphylococcus aureus in the High-risk Neonatal Unit (HRNU) of the Instituto Autónomo Hospital Universitario de Los Andes (IAHULA), during the period of November 1997 to October 1998. Among a total of 120 microorganisms, 24 (20%) strains of Staphylococcus aureus were isolated; 47% were recovered from blood and 33% from conjunctive samples. Among the cases of conjunctivitis, S. aureus was the only pathogen isolated in 42%. Twenty of the 24 Staphylococcus aureus strains (83%) were methicillin-resistant (MRSA). According to their resistance profiles, we established 12 groups of strains from neonates with nosocomial infections and 1 group of strains from the two carriers among the healthcare personnel detected by microbiological screening. The MeRGmR pattern was the most frequent. Plasmid analysis disclosed two profiles, each having a plasmid molecular weight over 23.130 bp. The MRSA strains isolated from the neonates and those isolated from the carriers showed the same plasmid profile. This suggests that the healthcare personnel may have acted as reservoirs of the MRSA strains found in neonates with nosocomial infection.
Nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The current study analysed data from a concurrent surveillance programme to examine the current epidemiological trends for nosocomial BSIs at 22 Japanese university hospitals from 1 April 2008 to 31 March 2012. The number of blood culture sets taken, the rate of multiple blood culture sets and the rates of antibiotic-resistant isolates among six major nosocomial BSI pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida spp.) not including coagulase-negative staphylococci, were evaluated. The clinical characteristics of nosocomial BSIs caused by these pathogens were also collected for 2941 patients. The number of blood culture sets taken per bed increased during the 4-year study period (from 4.07 in 2008 to 5.37 in 2011), and the rates of multiple blood culture sets also increased (from 29.9% in 2008 to 50.0% in 2011). Methicillin resistance was detected in 50.2% of S. aureus isolates. The prevalence rates of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates increased annually during the study period, and the average prevalence rates were 12.3% and 5.8%, respectively. The overall crude mortality of nosocomial BSIs due to the six pathogens evaluated was 24.5% (43.2% in ICU settings and 20.5% in non-ICU settings). Thus, our multicentre study evaluated the current epidemiological trends for nosocomial BSIs, and we found that further efforts are needed to increase the use of multiple blood culture sets and improve the prognosis of nosocomial BSIs in Japanese university hospitals.
Emori, T G; Gaynes, R P
An estimated 2 million patients develop nosocomial infections in the United States annually. The increasing number of antimicrobial agent-resistant pathogens and high-risk patients in hospitals are challenges to progress in preventing and controlling these infections. While Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus remain the most common pathogens isolated overall from nosocomial infections, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), organisms previously considered contaminants in most cultures, are now the predominant pathogens in bloodstream infections. The growing number of antimicrobial agent-resistant organisms is troublesome, particularly vancomycin-resistant CoNS and Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistant to imipenem. The active involvement and cooperation of the microbiology laboratory are important to the infection control program, particularly in surveillance and the use of laboratory services for epidemiologic purposes. Surveillance is used to identify possible infection problems, monitor infection trends, and assess the quality of care in the hospital. It requires high-quality laboratory data that are timely and easily accessible. PMID:8269394
Siempos, Ilias I; Fragoulis, Konstantinos N; Falagas, Matthew E
Nosocomial infections are a major worldwide cause of death and disability, infection control programs are effective in limiting these infections, especially those acquired in the intensive care unit. The development of the world wide web has provided health care professionals with immediate access to continuously updated information in the field of infection control. We sought to identify websites that contain information on nosocomial infection control by using popular internet search engines, such as Google, Yahoo and AltaVista, and by reviewing relevant publications identified in the PubMed and Current Contents databases. Only those sites that were English language, open access, and developed by a government, academic institution, or national or international scientific association were eligible for inclusion. From a vast number of internet sites initially identified, we selected 49 that provide information on infection control for inclusion in our list of practical and relevant internet resources. Several sites provide general information on infection control practices, whereas others focus on one or a few specific infection(s). We provide health care professionals with a timely and succinct list of open access internet resources that contain information regarding the prevention and control of nosocomial infections in order to help in the dissemination of relevant information and so contribute to the limitation of such hazards.
Nosocomial infections are problematic in the ICU because of their frequency, morbidity, and mortality. The most common ICU infections are pneumonia, bloodstream infection, and urinary tract infection, most of which are device related. Surgical site infection is common in surgical ICUs, and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea is occurring with increasing frequency. Prospective observational studies confirm that use of evidence-based guidelines can reduce the rate of these ICU infections, especially when simple tactics are bundled. To increase the likelihood of success, follow the specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time bound (SMART) approach. Choose specific objectives that precisely define and quantify desired outcomes, such as reducing the nosocomial ICU infection rate of an institution by 25%. To measure the objective, monitor staff adherence to tactics and infection rates, and provide feedback to ICU staff. Make objectives achievable and relevant by engaging stakeholders in the selection of specific tactics and steps for implementation. Nurses and other stakeholders can best identify the tactics that are achievable within their busy ICUs. Unburden the bedside provider by taking advantage of new technologies that reduce nosocomial infection rates. Objectives should also be relevant to the institution so that administrators provide adequate staffing and other resources. Appoint a team to champion the intervention and collaborate with administrators and ICU staff. Provide ongoing communication to reinforce educational tactics and fine-tune practices over time. Make objectives time bound; set dates for collecting baseline and periodic data, and a completion date for evaluating the success of the intervention.
Al-Hajje, A; Ezedine, M; Hammoud, H; Awada, S; Rachidi, S; Zein, S; Salameh, P
Nosocomial infections are a significant problem and hospitals need to be aware of their nosocomial infection status. This retrospective study aimed to identify nosocomial bacterial infections in patients admitted to the Lebanese Hospital Center from January 2006 to January 2008 and determine the causative micro-organisms, the antibiotic sensitivity of the micro-organisms and evaluate the hospital treatment. In total 96 patients with nosocomial infection were included. Urinary infections were the commonest nosocomial infections (42%) followed by pulmonary infections (28%). Gram-negative bacteria were responsible for 89% of nosocomial infections and staphylococci for 7%, with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common (46% and 26% respectively). The organisms were resistant to multiples antibiotics and 18% of the patients were treated with imipenem, 7% with vancomycin, 42% with third-generation cephalosporins and 24% with amikacin. Hospital hygiene measures and antibiotic prescription policies are required to fight nosocomial infections and reduce antibiotic resistance among organisms.
Dorschner, P; McElroy, L M; Ison, M G
Infections remain a common complication of solid organ transplantation. Early postoperative infections remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Although significant effort has been made to understand the epidemiology and risk factors for early nosocomial infections in other surgical populations, data in SOT recipients are limited. A literature review was performed to summarize the current understanding of pneumonia, urinary tract infection, surgical-site infection, bloodstream infection, and Clostridium difficult colitis, occurring within the first 30 days after transplantation.
Rosenthal, Victor D; Maki, Dennis G; Mehta, Ajita; Alvarez-Moreno, Carlos; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Higuera, Francisco; Cuellar, Luis E; Madani, Naoufel; Mitrev, Zan; Dueñas, Lourdes; Navoa-Ng, Josephine Anne; Garcell, Humberto Guanche; Raka, Lul; Hidalgo, Rosalía Fernández; Medeiros, Eduardo A; Kanj, Souha S; Abubakar, Salisu; Nercelles, Patricio; Pratesi, Ricardo Diez
We report the results of an International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) surveillance study from 2002 through 2007 in 98 intensive care units (ICUs) in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and Europe. During the 6-year study, using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNIS) definitions for device-associated health care-associated infection, we collected prospective data from 43,114 patients hospitalized in the Consortium's hospital ICUs for an aggregate of 272,279 days. Although device utilization in the INICC ICUs was remarkably similar to that reported from US ICUs in the CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network, rates of device-associated nosocomial infection were markedly higher in the ICUs of the INICC hospitals: the pooled rate of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABs) in the INICC ICUs, 9.2 per 1000 CL-days, is nearly 3-fold higher than the 2.4-5.3 per 1000 CL-days reported from comparable US ICUs, and the overall rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia was also far higher, 19.5 vs 1.1-3.6 per 1000 ventilator-days, as was the rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infection, 6.5 versus 3.4-5.2 per 1000 catheter-days. Most strikingly, the frequencies of resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates to methicillin (MRSA) (80.8% vs 48.1%), Enterobacter species to ceftriaxone (50.8% vs 17.8%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to fluoroquinolones (52.4% vs 29.1%) were also far higher in the Consortium's ICUs, and the crude unadjusted excess mortalities of device-related infections ranged from 14.3% (CLABs) to 27.5% (ventilator-associated pneumonia).
Freixas, Nuria; Sallés, Montserrat; García, Lola
The complexity of surveillance, prevention, and control of nosocomial infections has increased over the last decades, owing to reductions in the length of hospital stay, health care practice outside of the hospital (home care, day hospital care, long-term care facilities, nursing homes), the increase in the number of elderly patients, new and emerging diseases, multidrug-resistant pathogens, and the administrative requirements for accreditation. In this setting, infection control nurses are progressively assuming new responsibilities in addition to infection control, such as ensuring the safety of the patient, guaranteeing health care quality, and other tasks. In the light of these changes, professional organizations of infection control personnel have voiced the opinion that staffing for infection control work should not be based solely on the number of hospital beds, but also on the complexity of the tasks involved, which should be defined according to standardized criteria and infection control indicators. In addition, the cost-benefit relationship of infection control programs should be demonstrated.
Koller, Walter; Blacky, Alexander; Mandl, Harald; Rappelsberger, Andrea; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter
Expectations and requirements of the surveillance of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) trigger a growing differentiation of HAI surveillance approaches. In an attempt to bridge this diversity of definitions and to serve the needs of different user groups, we have enhanced MONI (identification, monitoring, and reporting of nosocomial infections) not only to create better reports, but also to output overviews on complex clinical matters, as well as to generate alerts and reminders for the clinicians' bedside work.
Salazar-Holguín, Héctor Daniel; Cisneros-Robledo, María Elena
Introducción: la resistencia a antimicrobianos por agentes causales de infección nosocomial (IN) constituye un grave problemática global que involucra al HGR 1 del IMSS en Chihuahua, México; si bien con particularidades que requirieron especificarla y evaluarla, a fin de concretar una terapéutica eficaz. Métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo y prospectivo; se llevó a cabo mediante vigilancia activa durante 2014 para la detección de infecciones nosocomiales, su estudio epidemiológico, cultivo y antibiograma para identificar al agente causal y su resistencia a los antibióticos. Resultados: de 13527 egresos hospitalarios, 1079 presentaron IN (8 por 100 egresos) y de ellas destacaron: de líneas vasculares, quirúrgicas, neumonía y de vías urinarias; sumando dos tercios del total. Se realizó cultivo y antibiograma en 300 de ellas (27.8 %); identificando 31 especies bacterianas, siendo siete las principales (77.9 %): Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus y epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae y Enterobacter cloacae; mostrando multirresistencia a 34 antibióticos probados, excepto en siete con baja o nula resistencia: vancomicina, teicoplanina, linezolid, quinupristina-dalfopristina, piperacilina–tazobactam, amikacina y carbapenémicos. Conclusiones: al contrastar tales resultados ante las recomendaciones de las guías de práctica clínica, surgieron contradicciones; por lo que deben tomarse con reserva y ser probadas en cada hospital, mediante cultivos y antibiogramas en prácticamente todos los casos de infección nosocomial.
Ciccolini, Mariano; Donker, Tjibbe; Grundmann, Hajo; Bonten, Marc J M; Woolhouse, Mark E J
Early detection of new or novel variants of nosocomial pathogens is a public health priority. We show that, for healthcare-associated infections that spread between hospitals as a result of patient movements, it is possible to design an effective surveillance system based on a relatively small number of sentinel hospitals. We apply recently developed mathematical models to patient admission data from the national healthcare systems of England and The Netherlands. Relatively short detection times are achieved once 10-20% hospitals are recruited as sentinels and only modest reductions are seen as more hospitals are recruited thereafter. Using a heuristic optimization approach to sentinel selection, the same expected time to detection can be achieved by recruiting approximately half as many hospitals. Our study provides a robust evidence base to underpin the design of an efficient sentinel hospital surveillance system for novel nosocomial pathogens, delivering early detection times for reduced expenditure and effort.
Zhang, Jian; Yuan, Yan; Li, Peiling; Wang, Tuanjie; Gao, Jun; Yao, Jinhua; Li, Shujun
Objective: To study the pathogen distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factors of postoperative nosocomial infections among children with congenital heart disease. Methods: Three hundreds children with congenital heart disease admitted to our hospital to receive surgeries from February 2010 to February 2013 were selected. Results: A total of 120 children were tested as positive by sputum culture, with the infection rate of 40.0%. The top five most common pathogenic microorganisms included Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. S. epidermidis, S. aureus and Enterococcus were highly resistant to penicillin, azithromycin and erythromycin, moderately susceptible to levofloxacin and cefazolin, and completely susceptible to vancomycin. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that hospitalization stay length, combined use of antibiotics, systemic use of hormones, mechanical ventilation and catheter indwelling were the independent risk factors of postoperative nosocomial infections (P<0.05). Conclusion: Nosocomial infection, which was the most frequent postoperative complication of pediatric congenital heart disease, was predominantly induced by Gram-positive bacteria that were highly susceptible to cephalosporins and vancomycin. Particular attention should be paid to decrease relevant risk factors to improve the prognosis. PMID:24948978
Grammatico-Guillon, L; Rusch, E; Astagneau, P
Since the US National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System was implemented in the 1970s, several countries have developed their own surveillance systems, all including surgical site infection (SSI) as a major target. However, the performance of such systems needs to be evaluated further in terms of data quality and cost-effectiveness. The current article presents a literature overview of the main strategies used for SSI surveillance worldwide, focusing on hip and knee arthroplasty infections, and discusses new issues for further development of surveillance databases.
Doi, André Mario; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos; Edmond, Michael B.; Marra, Alexandre Rodrigues; Camargo, Luis Fernando Aranha; Siqueira, Ricardo Andreotti; da Mota, Vivian Pereira; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes
Candidemia is a growing problem in hospitals all over the world. Despite advances in the medical support of critically ill patients, candidiasis leads to prolonged hospitalization, and has a crude mortality rate around 50%. We conducted a multicenter surveillance study in 16 hospitals distributed across five regions of Brazil to assess the incidence, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility, and risk factors for bloodstream infections due to Candida species. From June 2007 to March 2010, we studied a total of 2,563 nosocomial bloodstream infection (nBSI) episodes. Candida spp. was the 7th most prevalent agent. Most of the patients were male, with a median age of 56 years. A total of 64 patients (46.7%) were in the ICU when candidemia occurred. Malignancies were the most common underlying condition (32%). The crude mortality rate of candidemia during the hospital admission was 72.2%. Non-albicans species of Candida accounted for 65.7% of the 137 yeast isolates. C. albicans (34.3%), Candida parapsilosis (24.1%), Candida tropicalis (15.3%) and Candida glabrata (10.2%) were the most prevalent species. Only 47 out of 137 Candida isolates were sent to the reference laboratory for antifungal susceptibility testing. All C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis isolates were susceptible to the 5 antifungal drugs tested. Among 11 C. glabrata isolates, 36% were resistant to fluconazole, and 64% SDD. All of them were susceptible to anidulafungin and amphotericin B. We observed that C. glabrata is emerging as a major player among non-albicans Candida spp. and fluconazole resistance was primarily confined to C. glabrata and C. krusei strains. Candida resistance to echinocandins and amphotericin B remains rare in Brazil. Mortality rates remain increasingly higher than that observed in the Northern Hemisphere countries, emphasizing the need for improving local practices of clinical management of candidemia, including early diagnosis, source control and precise
Rafik, A.; Diouri, M.; Bahechar, N.; Chlihi, A.
Summary Fungal infection is a leading cause of death in burns patients and incurs significant costs for burn units. Our aim was to determine epidemiology of these infections, and analyze risk factors in the burns intensive care unit of the National Center for Burns and Plastic Surgery at Ibn-Rochd University Hospital, Casablanca. It is a retrospective review of all patients admitted from 2011–2014 who developed cultures positive for fungal organisms. Criteria for nosocomial fungal infections were those of the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta (1988, revised 1992, 2004). Microbiological surveillance was carried out daily. Patient demographic data, % TBSA, type of infection, site(s), species and number of cultures, and risk factors for fungal infections were collected. Mean age of patients was 24.5 +/- 27.3 years; 63% were female. Mean % TBSA was 30.7 +/- 23.4%, and % FTSA was 21.7 +/- 20.1%. Injury due to flame was most common (82%), followed by scald (10%), contact (4%), electrical (3%) and chemical (1%). Incidence of nosocomial fungal infection was 10%. The fungal pathogen most frequently isolated was Candida albicans (65.7%), followed by other Candida species (18.6%). Aspergillus spp was present in 3.9% and was statistically associated with mortality (3.2%) and morbidity. In our study, risk factors for these infections were mostly degree of burn (mean TBSA = 30.7%) and prolonged broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. These two factors were associated with a higher incidence of multiple positive cultures, and significantly increased mortality (21.6%). Amphotericin B and fluconazole were the most frequently used antifungal agents. Fungi are emerging as important nosocomial pathogens. The main clinical implications are thinking faster about fungi infections and being more careful with antibiotic prescriptions. PMID:28149227
Rafik, A; Diouri, M; Bahechar, N; Chlihi, A
Fungal infection is a leading cause of death in burns patients and incurs significant costs for burn units. Our aim was to determine epidemiology of these infections, and analyze risk factors in the burns intensive care unit of the National Center for Burns and Plastic Surgery at Ibn-Rochd University Hospital, Casablanca. It is a retrospective review of all patients admitted from 2011-2014 who developed cultures positive for fungal organisms. Criteria for nosocomial fungal infections were those of the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta (1988, revised 1992, 2004). Microbiological surveillance was carried out daily. Patient demographic data, % TBSA, type of infection, site(s), species and number of cultures, and risk factors for fungal infections were collected. Mean age of patients was 24.5 +/- 27.3 years; 63% were female. Mean % TBSA was 30.7 +/- 23.4%, and % FTSA was 21.7 +/- 20.1%. Injury due to flame was most common (82%), followed by scald (10%), contact (4%), electrical (3%) and chemical (1%). Incidence of nosocomial fungal infection was 10%. The fungal pathogen most frequently isolated was Candida albicans (65.7%), followed by other Candida species (18.6%). Aspergillus spp was present in 3.9% and was statistically associated with mortality (3.2%) and morbidity. In our study, risk factors for these infections were mostly degree of burn (mean TBSA = 30.7%) and prolonged broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. These two factors were associated with a higher incidence of multiple positive cultures, and significantly increased mortality (21.6%). Amphotericin B and fluconazole were the most frequently used antifungal agents. Fungi are emerging as important nosocomial pathogens. The main clinical implications are thinking faster about fungi infections and being more careful with antibiotic prescriptions.
Rosenthal, Victor D; Maki, Dennis G; Jamulitrat, Silom; Medeiros, Eduardo A; Todi, Subhash Kumar; Gomez, David Yepes; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Abu Khader, Ilham; Miranda Novales, María Guadalupe; Berba, Regina; Ramírez Wong, Fernando Martín; Barkat, Amina; Pino, Osiel Requejo; Dueñas, Lourdes; Mitrev, Zan; Bijie, Hu; Gurskis, Vaidotas; Kanj, S S; Mapp, Trudell; Hidalgo, Rosalía Fernández; Ben Jaballah, Nejla; Raka, Lul; Gikas, Achilleas; Ahmed, Altaf; Thu, Le Thi Anh; Guzmán Siritt, María Eugenia
We report the results of the International Infection Control Consortium (INICC) surveillance study from January 2003 through December 2008 in 173 intensive care units (ICUs) in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and Europe. During the 6-year study, using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) US National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN; formerly the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance system [NNIS]) definitions for device-associated health care-associated infection, we collected prospective data from 155,358 patients hospitalized in the consortium's hospital ICUs for an aggregate of 923,624 days. Although device utilization in the developing countries' ICUs was remarkably similar to that reported from US ICUs in the CDC's NHSN, rates of device-associated nosocomial infection were markedly higher in the ICUs of the INICC hospitals: the pooled rate of central venous catheter (CVC)-associated bloodstream infections (BSI) in the INICC ICUs, 7.6 per 1000 CVC-days, is nearly 3-fold higher than the 2.0 per 1000 CVC-days reported from comparable US ICUs, and the overall rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) was also far higher, 13.6 versus 3.3 per 1000 ventilator-days, respectively, as was the rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), 6.3 versus 3.3 per 1000 catheter-days, respectively. Most strikingly, the frequencies of resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates to methicillin (MRSA) (84.1% vs 56.8%, respectively), Klebsiella pneumoniae to ceftazidime or ceftriaxone (76.1% vs 27.1%, respectively), Acinetobacter baumannii to imipenem (46.3% vs 29.2%, respectively), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to piperacillin (78.0% vs 20.2%, respectively) were also far higher in the consortium's ICUs, and the crude unadjusted excess mortalities of device-related infections ranged from 23.6% (CVC-associated bloodstream infections) to 29.3% (VAP).
Dennehy, P H; Tente, W E; Fisher, D J; Veloudis, B A; Peter, G
The efficacy of rapid identification of rotavirus-infected patients in the control of nosocomial rotavirus infections on an infant and young toddler ward by use of a rotavirus antigen detection test on stool from patients with diarrhea was evaluated by comparing the rate of nosocomial rotavirus infection in children during two separate 5-week periods in the winters of 1984 and 1986. In contrast to 1984 rapid rotavirus antigen testing by latex agglutination of stool from patients with diarrhea was instituted in 1986, in addition to testing for rotavirus by enzyme immunoassay, to determine whether use of rapid antigen testing resulted in an increased incidence of appropriate isolation and a decrease in nosocomial infections. In 1986 rapid identification of rotavirus resulted in an increase in hospitalization of rotavirus-infected patients in single bed rooms from 68% to 100% (P = 0.02, chi square test) but no significant increase in the use of enteric precautions for these patients. The total number of cases of nosocomial rotavirus infection in the two periods did not differ. In both periods 11 cases occurred; the nosocomial infection rate in 1984 was 18.9 cases/1000 days of exposure whereas in 1986 it was 20.2 cases/1000 days. These findings indicate that the use of rapid rotavirus antigen testing of patients with diarrhea is not of appreciable benefit in preventing the nosocomial spread of rotavirus to infants on the ward.
Navarrete-Navarro, S; Rangel-Frausto, M S
The main objective of a hospital-acquired infections control program is to decrease the risk of acquisition and the morbidity and costs associated. The organization of a team with technical and humanistic leadership is essential. Every infection control program must also develop strategies that allow: a) identification of the problems, b) to establish the importance of each one, c) to determine their causes, d) to develop solutions and e) the evaluation of the recommended solutions. The development of technical and humanistic abilities by the leader and the members of the team, and the use of the tools mentioned above have produced the only validate and highly effective program of quality improvement in the hospital.
Xia, Jufeng; Gao, Jianjun; Tang, Wei
Nosocomial infection is a kind of infection, which is spread in various hospital environments, and leads to many serious diseases (e.g. pneumonia, urinary tract infection, gastroenteritis, and puerperal fever), and causes higher mortality than community-acquired infection. Bacteria are predominant among all the nosocomial infection-associated pathogens, thus a large number of antibiotics, such as aminoglycosides, penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems, are adopted in clinical treatment. However, in recent years antibiotic resistance quickly spreads worldwide and causes a critical threat to public health. The predominant bacteria include Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter baumannii. In these bacteria, resistance emerged from antibiotic resistant genes and many of those can be exchanged between bacteria. With technical advances, molecular mechanisms of resistance have been gradually unveiled. In this review, recent advances in knowledge about mechanisms by which (i) bacteria hydrolyze antibiotics (e.g. extended spectrum β-lactamases, (ii) AmpC β-lactamases, carbapenemases), (iii) avoid antibiotic targeting (e.g. mutated vanA and mecA genes), (iv) prevent antibiotic permeation (e.g. porin deficiency), or (v) excrete intracellular antibiotics (e.g. active efflux pump) are summarized.
Ma, Lili; Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Hogan, William R; Wagner, Michael M; Ma, Haobo
Surveillance of antibiotic resistance and nosocomial infections is one of the most important functions of a hospital infection control program. We employed the association rule method for automatically identifying new, unexpected, and potentially interesting patterns in hospital infection control. We hypothesized that mining for low-support, low-confidence rules would detect unexpected outbreaks caused by a small number of cases. To build a framework, we preprocessed the data and added new templates to eliminate uninteresting patterns. We applied our method to the culture data collected over 3 months from 10 hospitals in the UPMC Health System. We found that the new process and system are efficient and effective in identifying new, unexpected, and potentially interesting patterns in surveillance data. The clinical relevance and utility of this process await the results of prospective studies.
Loss, S L; Goodloe, S
The infection control department at Niagara Falls Memorial Medical Center in Niagara Falls, New York, has developed an innovative approach to decreasing nosocomial infections. By following up on the infections that occur on nursing units, nurses actively work to prevent their occurrence. The approach utilizes nursing accountability, continuing staff education, and documentation, with positive results.
Rosenthal, Victor D; Bijie, Hu; Maki, Dennis G; Mehta, Yatin; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Medeiros, Eduardo A; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Fisher, Dale; Álvarez-Moreno, Carlos; Khader, Ilham Abu; Del Rocío González Martínez, Marisela; Cuellar, Luis E; Navoa-Ng, Josephine Anne; Abouqal, Rédouane; Guanche Garcell, Humberto; Mitrev, Zan; Pirez García, María Catalina; Hamdi, Asma; Dueñas, Lourdes; Cancel, Elsie; Gurskis, Vaidotas; Rasslan, Ossama; Ahmed, Altaf; Kanj, Souha S; Ugalde, Olber Chavarría; Mapp, Trudell; Raka, Lul; Yuet Meng, Cheong; Thu, Le Thi Anh; Ghazal, Sameeh; Gikas, Achilleas; Narváez, Leonardo Pazmiño; Mejía, Nepomuceno; Hadjieva, Nassya; Gamar Elanbya, May Osman; Guzmán Siritt, María Eugenia; Jayatilleke, Kushlani
The results of a surveillance study conducted by the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) from January 2004 through December 2009 in 422 intensive care units (ICUs) of 36 countries in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and Europe are reported. During the 6-year study period, using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN; formerly the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance system [NNIS]) definitions for device-associated health care-associated infections, we gathered prospective data from 313,008 patients hospitalized in the consortium's ICUs for an aggregate of 2,194,897 ICU bed-days. Despite the fact that the use of devices in the developing countries' ICUs was remarkably similar to that reported in US ICUs in the CDC's NHSN, rates of device-associated nosocomial infection were significantly higher in the ICUs of the INICC hospitals; the pooled rate of central line-associated bloodstream infection in the INICC ICUs of 6.8 per 1,000 central line-days was more than 3-fold higher than the 2.0 per 1,000 central line-days reported in comparable US ICUs. The overall rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia also was far higher (15.8 vs 3.3 per 1,000 ventilator-days), as was the rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (6.3 vs. 3.3 per 1,000 catheter-days). Notably, the frequencies of resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates to imipenem (47.2% vs 23.0%), Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates to ceftazidime (76.3% vs 27.1%), Escherichia coli isolates to ceftazidime (66.7% vs 8.1%), Staphylococcus aureus isolates to methicillin (84.4% vs 56.8%), were also higher in the consortium's ICUs, and the crude unadjusted excess mortalities of device-related infections ranged from 7.3% (for catheter-associated urinary tract infection) to 15.2% (for ventilator-associated pneumonia).
Langmaack, H; Schleipen, W; Daschner, F
Nosocomial infections of 1356 mothers and their newborn have been analyzed and compared in three different regimens for postnatal care of newborn (rooming-in service, mixed service and central newborn nursery). The average nosocomial infection rate of mothers was significantly lower in the rooming-in service as compared to the newborn nursery. Most common nosocomial infections of mothers were urinary tract infections, endometritis, wound infection, enteritis and mastitis; in newborn enteritis, oral candida infections, panaritium, conjunctivitis and staphylococcus skin infections. Staphylococcal infection of newborn were higher in the newborn nursery as compared to the rooming-in service. Epidermic nosocomial infections (e.g. enteritis, candida infections) occurred more often in the newborn nursery as compared to the mixed system and rooming-in service. There was an increased risk of cross infections from mothers with wound infection, endometritis and mastitis to their children.
García-Cabrera, E; Jiménez-Mejías, M E; Gil Navarro, M V; Gómez-Gómez, M J; Ortiz-Leyba, C; Cordero, E; Pachón, J
We performed a retrospective and observational study of 51 patients treated with tigecycline, as the treatment for nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant microorganisms, to evaluate the superinfection rate and their etiologies. Superinfections were diagnosed in 12 (23.5%) patients (seven due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 13.7%) and one patient had P. aeruginosa colonization. Five patients with superinfection died (41.6%), three due to superinfections and two to underlying diseases. The superinfection rate observed during tigecycline treatment is higher than that previously reported. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most frequent agent, being the cause of 58.5% of all superinfections.
Wagenlehner, F M E; Naber, K G
Nosocomially acquired urinary tract infections (NAUTI) are common. The reported rates, however, depend very much on the definitions used and the number of investigations requested. In a prospective study on a surgical intensive care unit and adhering closely to the CDC criteria, NAUTI was diagnosed in about 17% of the patients. The urinary catheter associated UTI rate per 1000 catheter days was 14.5 much higher than otherwise reported. Whereas the rates of symptomatic NAUTI and other nosocomially acquired infections were similar, the main difference was found for asymptomatic UTI which depends very much on the effort to search for it systematically. In a prospective study on a urological ward it could be demonstrated that cross-transmission probably plays a much greater role than so far suggested. Continuous surveillance of the bacterial spectrum and resistance is necessary not only on a global but also on a local level. Selection of an appropriate agent for empirical antibacterial therapy can be better tailored if not only the total bacterial spectrum is considered but if all information already available during the identification process is used, such as Gram stain and other simple and rapid tests for stratification of the pathogens. Since in NAUTI usually some kind of biofilm infection is involved, the fluoroquinolones can be considered agents of choice. Only those substances with high antibacterial activity, good bioavailability and those that are mainly excreted by the kidneys should be chosen and they have to be administered at sufficiently high doses.
Murad, Haris Farooq; Inam Pal, Khowaja Mohammad
Nosocomial infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Non-medical objects known as fomites may have a role in their genesis. We investigated the significance of writing pens and spectacles as fomites. The study was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from July 2013 to September 2013. Cultures were taken from pens and/or spectacles of resident nurses, doctors and nursing assistants in intensive care unit (ICU). Organisms important in ICU nosocomial infections were targeted. Seven rounds of sampling over 3 weeks led to 55 pen and 5 spectacle samples. Growth was seen in 3(5.5%) pen samples and 1(20%) spectacle sample. Two (3.6%) pen cultures grew acinetobacter, 1)1.8%) grew candida and acinetobacter, and i spectacle culture grew vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecium (VRE). Two out of the 4 (50%) personnel managing all ICU beds had growth. During the study, one or more ICU patients had infection with the same organisms. Pens and spectacles may be responsible for the spread of organisms like acinetobacter and VRE. Personnel managing multiple beds are more likely to carry contaminated fomites.
Gastmeier, Petra; Geffers, Christine; Herrmann, Mathias; Lemmen, Sebastian; Salzberger, Bernd; Seifert, Harald; Kern, Winfried; Fätkenheuer, Gerd
There is no agreement about the frequency of nosocomial infections and infections caused by multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO) in Germany. The aim of this review is to generate updated estimates of the national burden of these infections and to discuss them in an international context. The most important sources of this analysis are the data of the national prevalence studies conducted in various European countries and in the U.S. It can be assumed that there are between 400,000 and 600,000 patients with nosocomial infections each year in Germany. The mortality attributable to them is between 6000 and 15,000 patients. About 30,000 to 35,000 patients develop nosocomial infections caused by MDRO. Currently there are no robust data how many patients die each year because of MDRO infections. According to the best available estimate, the annual number may be between 1000 and 4000 cases. The problems of nosocomial infections and the increase of antimicrobial resistance are highly relevant and should not be belittled. However, an overestimation of this dangerous trend may lead to inappropriate use of limited resources.
Construction and renovation projects in health care facilities are a risk for certain patients, particularly those who are immunocompromised. A proactive approach must be taken to limit construction-related nosocomial infections. This requires having a multidisciplinary team, supported by administration, to plan and implement preventive measures throughout the duration of the construction project. The ICP should be an active team member in all phases of the project. The ICP plays a major role by providing education to personnel; ensuring that preventive measures are identified, initiated, and maintained; and carrying out surveillance for infections in patients. By ensuring that the appropriate preventive measures are in place and clear lines of communication exist among the personnel, patient safety will be enhanced.
Bentama, I; Soussi, I; Ghanimi, Z; Riane, S; Tligui, H; Mdaghri Alaoui, A; Thimou Izgua, A
The goal of work is to establish a clinical descriptive analysis of the epidemic of nosocomial rotavirus occurred in the Neonatal Unit of the Hospital's Child Rabat for a winter period. We systematically collected all the patients of the service right from the first case of rotavirus nosocomial infection. Patients with a stay of less than 48 hours of hospitalization were excluded. We have established operating sheets for all positive cases, with the term, birth weight, postnatal age and weight during the sampling, clinical symptoms, treatment, and the evolution. Out of the 36 cases analyzed (where 26 preterm and 10 term neonates), 12 samples were positive for rotavirus, so one third of patients. The patients with positive samples were in 75% symptomatic cases. The clinical signs were represented in term newborns with stool weight with stagnant fluid in 2 cases and weight loss in one case and in premature infants with mucous stools with abdominal distension in 2/3 of cases, and fluid and stool dehydration in 1/3 of cases. A very low rate of breastfeeding (17%) was noted among all newborns service in this epidemic. We performed the isolation of positive patients, with a strengthening of hygiene measures. In addition, infants were started on symptomatic treatment with careful clinical monitoring. Evolution was complicated by necrotizing enterocolitis in 3 cases of preterm infants.
Akkoyun, Seviç; Kuloğlu, Figen; Tokuç, Burcu
Nosocomial urinary tract infection (NUSI) is one of the most common hospital acquired infections. In this study, we aimed to determine the risk factors, frequency and the bacterial etiology of NUSI in hospitalized patients at Trace University Hospital, Turkey. Between September 1st 2004 to March 1st 2005, 104 NUSI episodes from 91 adult patients (mean age; 60.8 +/- 16.1 years; 46 were female) were determined among 8704 patients admitted to the hospital. During the study period, cumulative incidence of NUSI was 1.04% and episode rate of NUSI was 1.19%. The most important risk factors for NUSI were detected as urinary catheterization (78.8%), antimicrobial therapy within the previous 15 days (60.6%), fecal incontinence (33.7%) and surgical operations [29.8% (42% of them were urological pertainings)]. In 37.8% of the episodes urinary catheterization was considered as performed unnecessarily. In 26% of the episodes another infection (pneumoniae, abdominal infection, wound infection) accompanied. The causative microorganisms were resistant to the antibiotics used for therapy in 93.6% of the episodes. A total of 118 microorganisms (14 were polymicrobial) have been isolated from the urine cultures. The most frequently isolated ones were Escherichia coil (n: 48; 40.8%), Candida spp. (n: 27; 23%), Enterococcus spp. (n: 13; 11%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n: 9; 7.6%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n: 8; 6.8%) and Acinetobacter spp. (n: 5; 4.2%). The highest susceptibility rates of E. coli isolates were against imipenem and nitrofurantoin (100%) and amikacin (97.7%), the lowest susceptibility rates were against ampicillin (26.7%) and amoxycillin-clavulonate (44.4%). No glycopeptid resistance was detected for Enterococcus spp. while the susceptibility rates to penicilin and nitrofurantoin were 38.5% and 63.6%, respectively. Since the number of the other bacterial species was low (<10) their antimicrobial resistance rates were not evaluated. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL
Jayaratne, P; Rutherford, C
This study evaluated a PCR method for the rapid detection of clinically significant genotypes of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in nosocomial surveillance specimens. Detection of the vanA and vanB genes by multiplex PCR using 657 specimens that showed presumptive growth of VRE on bile esculin azide agar containing 6 mg of vancomycin/liter was compared to the conventional method. The diagnostic values for the PCR compared to the phenotypic method were as follows: 99.8% specificity, 95.4% sensitivity, 98.8% positive predictive value, and 99.3% negative predictive value. The average cost per test for PCR is $8.26, compared to $9.45 for the phenotypic method. The average turnaround time for detecting a VRE is 48 h for PCR, compared to 96 h for the conventional method.
Landre-Peigne, C; Ka, A S; Peigne, V; Bougere, J; Seye, M N; Imbert, P
Neonatal nosocomial infections are public health threats in the developing world, and successful interventions are rarely reported. A before-and-after study was conducted in the neonatal unit of the Hôpital Principal de Dakar, Senegal to assess the efficacy of a multi-faceted hospital infection control programme implemented from March to May 2005. The interventions included clustering of nursing care, a simple algorithm for empirical therapy of suspected early-onset sepsis, minimal invasive care and promotion of early discharge of neonates. Data on nosocomial bloodstream infections, mortality, bacterial resistance and antibiotic use were collected before and after implementation of the infection control programme. One hundred and twenty-five infants were admitted immediately before the programme (Period 1, January-February 2005) and 148 infants were admitted immediately after the programme (Period 2, June-July 2005). The two groups of infants were comparable in terms of reason for admission and birth weight. After implementation of the infection control programme, the overall rate of nosocomial bloodstream infections decreased from 8.8% to 2.0% (P=0.01), and the rate of nosocomial bloodstream infections/patient-day decreased from 10.9 to 2.9/1000 patient-days (P=0.03). Overall mortality rates did not differ significantly. The proportion of neonates who received antimicrobial therapy for suspected early-onset sepsis decreased significantly from 100% to 51% of at-risk infants (P<0.001). The incidence of drug-resistant bacteria was significantly lower after implementation of the programme (79% vs 12%; P<0.001), and remained low one year later. In this neonatal unit, simple, low-cost and sustainable interventions led to the control of a high incidence of bacterial nosocomial bloodstream infections, and the efficacy of these interventions was long-lasting. Such interventions could be extended to other low-income countries.
Nosocomial infection is a serious issue in the hospital management. Countermeasures for this issue have been discussed from various points including clinical and laboratory medicine, nursing as well as hospital administration. This issue is of great importance to those of us medical practitioners, who engage in diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. The role of clinical microbiology laboratories for prevention of nosocomial infection includes performing epidemiological survey, giving information and education, and training and instruction to medical staff. In order to instruct and inspect the countermeasures against nosocomial infection, it is necessary to have a dedicated team in the hospital. We have organized an infection control team(ICT) to collect information and offer training and instruction regarding nosocomial infection. The ICT activities include 1) inspecting if the nosocomial infection control manual is followed correctly, 2) reporting the results of epidemiological survey regarding nosocomial infection, 3) offering the information regarding antimicrobial agents and disinfectants, 4) offering the information regarding the isolation of microorganisms in the hospital and their antimicrobial sensitivities, 5) cost calculation for nosocomial infection control.
Venable, Amanda; Dissanaike, Sharmila
As monitoring requirements for healthcare-acquired infection increase, an efficient and accurate method for surveillance has been sought. The authors evaluated the accuracy of electronic surveillance in multiple intensive care unit settings. Data from 500 intensive care unit patients were reviewed to determine the presence of central line-associated blood stream infection (CLABSI) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). An electronic surveillance report was obtained to determine whether patients had a blood-line nosocomial infection marker or a urine nosocomial infection marker. Manual review was based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. An infection preventionist then reviewed all discrepant cases and made a final determination, which was used as the gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, false-positive rate, and false-negative rate were then calculated for electronic surveillance. In the burn population the sensitivity of electronic surveillance for CAUTI was 66.66%, specificity 96.5%, false-positive rate 3.44%, false-negative rate 33%; and for CLABSI the sensitivity was 100%, specificity 95%, false-positive rate 4.96%, false-negative rate 0%. In the nonburn population the sensitivity for CAUTI was 50%, specificity 97.9%, false-positive rate 2%, and false-negative rate 30%; and for CLABSI sensitivity was 60%, specificity 98.8%, false-positive rate 1%, and false-negative rate 60%. Burn centers may experience a higher false-positive rate for electronic surveillance of CLABSI and CAUTI than other critical care units.
Maoulainine, F-M-R; Elidrissi, N-S; Chkil, G; Abba, F; Soraa, N; Chabaa, L; Amine, M; Aboussad, A
In neonatal intensive care units, the incidence of nosocomial infection is high. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology of a nosocomial bacterial infection in the neonatal intensive care unit of Mohamed VI university hospital. A total of 702 newborns were included in this study. Of the 702 neonates studied, 91 had developed a nosocomial infection. The incidence rate was 13% and incidence density was 21.2 per 1000 patient-days. The types of infection were: bloodstream infections (89%), pneumonia (6.6%), meningitis (3.3%), and urinary tract infections (1.1%). Nosocomial infection was particularly frequent in cases of low birth weight, prematurity, young age at admission, umbilical venous catheter, and mechanical ventilation. Multiresistant bacteria included enterobacteria producing betalactamase (76.9%), especially enterobacteria that were dominated by Klebsiella pneumoniae (39.7%). The mortality rate was 52.7% in nosocomial infections, 19 (20.87%) of whom had septic shock. The results of this study show that nosocomial infection is an intrahospital health problem that could be remedied by a prevention strategy.
Oberdorfer, Peninnah; Pongwilairat, Natthida; Washington, Charles H.
Background. Pediatric patients with neoplastic diseases are more likely to develop nosocomial infections (NIs). NIs may prolong their hospital stay, and increase morbidity and mortality. Objectives. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the incidence of NIs, (2) sites of NIs, (3) causal organisms, and (4) outcomes of NIs among pediatric patients with neoplastic diseases. Methods. This study was a prospective cohort study of pediatric patients with neoplastic diseases who were admitted to the Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand. Results. A total of 707 pediatric patients with neoplastic diseases were admitted. Forty-six episodes of NIs in 30 patients were reported (6.5 NIs/100 admission episodes and 7 NIs/1000 days of hospitalization). Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia had the highest number of NIs (41.3%). The most common causal organisms were gram-negative bacteria (47.1%). Patients who had undergone invasive procedures were more likely to develop NIs than those who had not (P < .05). The mortality rate of patients with NIs was 19.6%. Conclusion. Pediatric patients with neoplastic diseases are more likely to develop NIs after having undergone invasive procedures. Pediatricians should be aware of this and strictly follow infection control guidelines in order to reduce morbidity and mortality rates related to NIs. PMID:20049342
Oberdorfer, Peninnah; Pongwilairat, Natthida; Washington, Charles H
Background. Pediatric patients with neoplastic diseases are more likely to develop nosocomial infections (NIs). NIs may prolong their hospital stay, and increase morbidity and mortality. Objectives. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the incidence of NIs, (2) sites of NIs, (3) causal organisms, and (4) outcomes of NIs among pediatric patients with neoplastic diseases. Methods. This study was a prospective cohort study of pediatric patients with neoplastic diseases who were admitted to the Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand. Results. A total of 707 pediatric patients with neoplastic diseases were admitted. Forty-six episodes of NIs in 30 patients were reported (6.5 NIs/100 admission episodes and 7 NIs/1000 days of hospitalization). Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia had the highest number of NIs (41.3%). The most common causal organisms were gram-negative bacteria (47.1%). Patients who had undergone invasive procedures were more likely to develop NIs than those who had not (P < .05). The mortality rate of patients with NIs was 19.6%. Conclusion. Pediatric patients with neoplastic diseases are more likely to develop NIs after having undergone invasive procedures. Pediatricians should be aware of this and strictly follow infection control guidelines in order to reduce morbidity and mortality rates related to NIs.
Drusin, L M; Sohmer, M; Groshen, S L; Spiritos, M D; Senterfit, L B; Christenson, W N
Seven members of staff in a paediatric intensive care unit and two of their relatives developed hepatitis A over a period of five days. A 13 year old boy who was incontinent of faeces prior to his death, was presumed to be the source of infection. Two hundred and sixty seven other members of staff underwent serological testing and were given prophylactic pooled gamma globulin. Twenty three per cent were immune before exposure. Of people born in the United States, those at highest risk of developing the disease are physicians, dentists, nurses and those under the age of 40. Of those born outside the United States, being white and under the age of 30 are the two main risk factors. Data from a questionnaire sent to 19 nurses at risk (six cases, 13 controls) suggested that sharing food with patients or their families, drinking coffee, sharing cigarettes and eating in the nurses' office in the intensive care unit were associated with an increased incidence of hepatitis. Nurses with three or four of these habits were at particular risk. The costs of screening and prophylaxis were US $64.72 per employee, while prophylaxis alone would have cost US $8.42 per employee. Assessing risk factors on the one hand and costs of prophylaxis on the other are important elements in the control of nosocomial infections. PMID:3632014
Dohmae, S; Okubo, T; Higuchi, W; Takano, T; Isobe, H; Baranovich, T; Kobayashi, S; Uchiyama, M; Tanabe, Y; Itoh, M; Yamamoto, T
It was noticed that there was an increase in Bacillus cereus nosocomial infections in the summer from 2000 to 2005. In 2005, five bloodstream infections occurred in five patients related to catheter use. The causative strains were distinct from each other and belonged to novel multilocus sequence types (ST): ST365, ST366, ST367 and ST368. Two ST365 strains from two patients were further distinguished by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. B. cereus contamination was observed with reused (dried and steamed) towels (>10(6)cfu/towel) and washing machines in hospital linen rooms. B. cereus strains from towels belonged to ST167, ST365, ST380 and ST382, and a proportion of these were the same, or similar, to strains from patients. All the hospital strains of B. cereus were distinct from those from food-poisoning strains (ST26, ST142, ST381). Ciprofloxacin resistance was observed only in hospital strains. Neither emetic toxin nor cytotoxin K gene, usually present in food poisoning strains, were found in the hospital strains, except for one patient isolate. The data suggest that specific B. cereus strains are circulating within a hospital, with genotypes, antibiotic susceptibilities and virulence gene patterns generally distinct from those of food poisoning, and that in Japan, towels are an important source of contamination, especially in summer.
Band, Victor I.; Ibegbu, Chris; Kaur, Surinder Pal; Cagle, Stephanie M.; Trible, Ronald; Jones, Crystal L.; Wang, Yun F.; Kraft, Colleen S.; Ray, Susan M.; Wrammert, Jens; Weiss, David S.
Objectives Nosocomial pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii are a growing public health threat, due in part to their increasing resistance to antibiotics. Since some strains are resistant to all available antibiotics, novel therapies are urgently needed. Plasmablasts are short-lived B cells found in the blood that can be collected and harnessed to produce therapeutic antibodies. We set out to determine whether plasmablasts are induced during infection with A. baumannii and other nosocomial pathogens. Methods We obtained blood samples from patients infected with antibiotic-resistant nosocomial pathogens, and analysed their plasmablast response by flow cytometry. Results We observed a strong induction of plasmablasts in patients with antibiotic-resistant A. baumannii infection. Furthermore, plasmablasts were also induced in response to other drug-resistant nosocomial pathogens. Conclusions These data suggest that plasmablasts may be broadly harnessed to develop therapeutic antibodies to combat otherwise untreatable antibiotic-resistant infections. PMID:24583361
Serrano, Marcos; Barcenilla, Fernando; Limón, Enrique
hospitals are not indicated. The epidemiological surveillance must adapt to clinical guidelines, with the registering of colonized and infected patients being mandatory, along with the coordination between health and social systems by applying global control programs.
Olona, Montserrat; Limón, Enric; Barcenilla, Fernando; Grau, Santiago; Gudiol, Francesc
The first objective of the Catalonian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (VINCat) is to monitor the prevalence (%) of patients with nosocomial infections (NI), patients undergoing urinary catheterization with closed circuit drainage (%) and patients undergoing antibiotic treatment (%). We present the results for the period 2008-2010. Comprehensive and point annual prevalence surveys were conducted that included conventionally hospitalized patients in acute care hospitals belonging to the VINCat Program. The number of participating hospitals was 46 (2008), 48 (2009) and 61 (2010), most belonging to the Network of Public Use Hospitals of Servei Català de la Salut. The results are presented globally and by hospital size (<200 beds, 200-500 beds, >500 beds). The prevalence of patients with active NI acquired during the current or the previous hospitalization (global NI/P%) was 7.6 (2008), 6.2 (2009) and 6.3 (2010). The prevalence of patients with active NI acquired during the current (actual NI/P%) was 6.2 (2008), 4.7 (2009) and 4.6 (2010).The results by hospital size shows that the variation occurred mainly in <200 beds hospitals. The proportion of closed circuit urinary catheterization use was 90.2%. The use of antibiotics varied between 34.6% and 37.6%, with no differences due to hospital size. The global prevalence of NI provides information on the burden of NI at the institutional and regional level. Between 17.3% and 26.9% of patients with NI at the time of the study had acquired it in a previous hospitalization at the same institution.
Arias, Cesar A; Quintero, Gustavo; Vanegas, Blanca E; Rico, Clara Luz; Patiño, Jose Felix
A protocol for surveillance of surgical site infections (SSIs) was established in a tertiary care center in 1991 in Bogota, Colombia and followed for 10 years. Wounds were classified according to the Centers for Disease Control guidelines. The National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance and Study of the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control scores for risk factors were included from June 1999. A total of 33027 surgical procedures were followed by the surveillance team. The overall infection rate was 2.6%. Most surgical procedures (70.6%) were classified as clean; 25.3%, 3.8%, and 0.26% were classified as clean/contaminated, contaminated, and dirty, respectively. Infection rates according to wound classification were 1.28%, 3.9%, 15.4%, and 38.4% for clean, clean/contaminated, contaminated, and dirty procedures, respectively. Escherichia coli and coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequently isolated microorganisms from SSI: 23.9% and 22.8% of isolates, respectively. A program of surveillance of SSIs has been successfully implemented in a country with limited resources and has maintained the infection rate within international standards.
Ennigrou, S; Mokhtar, L; Ben Alaya, N; Dziri, C; Cherif, A; Najah, N; Ben Redjeb, S; Zouari, B
Nosocomial infection incidence and its cost were study. We have identified 61 infected patients and 75 infectious episodes, is an incidence of 9.4% infected for 100 hospitalized by trimester. Operative site infections are the most frequent (60%), operative site infection (9.1%), inferior respiratory ways infections (2.2%). Incriminated germs are represented essentially by negative gram Bacillus (77.3%) with predominance of enterobacterias (59%). Invasive technique usage, surgery types and contamination classes have been identified as risk factors of nosocomial infection occurrence. The supplementary stay duration estimated by simple comparison between infected group and no-infected one is 9.3% days, responsible of an over cost of 336 TD by infected patient and 273 TD by infectious episode. The curative antibiotic costs have been estimated at 70 TD by infected patient being equivalent to two hospitalization days and to 57 TD by infectious episode.
Richards, Michael J; Russo, Phillip L
Surveillance programmes for hospital-acquired infections differ amongst the Australian states. Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland and South Australia have recent substantial initiatives in development of statewide programmes. Whilst the definitions for surgical site infections (SSIs) and bloodstream infections (BSI) developed by the Australian Infection Control Association (AICA) do not differ from the US National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS) programme definitions for SSI and intensive care unit (ICU) acquired central line-associated BSI, only two states use NNIS risk adjustment methods in reporting infection rates. Differences exist in the surgical procedures under surveillance, ICU surveillance, hospital-wide BSI surveillance, staff health immunization surveillance, process measures such us surgical antibiotic prophylaxis and small hospital programmes. Only in the area of antibiotic use surveillance has national consensus been reached. In Victoria, NNIS risk adjustment had limited usefulness in predicting SSIs, especially after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) surveillance had limited acceptance, and is not undertaken in other states. Regular reporting of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis data has been followed by improvement in choice of antibiotic in some procedures. The South Australian programme for the surveillance of multiresistant organisms (MROs) has documented substantial improvement in meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) morbidity over time coincident with the introduction of hand hygiene programmes and other measures. In Queensland, statewide monitoring of needlestick injuries is established. In Victoria, the small hospital programme concentrated on process measures, and in Queensland with a standardized investigation pathways for "signal" events. Data quality presented substantial challenges in small Victorian hospitals. Whilst state-based programmes have facilitated
Ghassemi, A; Farhangi, H; Badiee, Z; Banihashem, A; Mosaddegh, MR
Background Infections in critical care unit are high, and they are serious hospital problems. Infections acquired during the hospital stay are generally called nosocomial infections, initially known as infections arising after 48 h of hospital admission. The mostfrequent nosocomial infections (urinary, respiratory, gastroenteritis and blood stream infection) were common in patients at hospital.The aim was to study, the current status of nosocomial infection, rate of infection among hospitalized children at hematology-oncology ward of Dr. Sheikh children’s hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Materials and Methods Data were collected from 200 patient's records presented with symptoms of nosocomial infection at hematology-oncology ward of Dr. Sheikh children’s hospital from March 2014 to September 2014. Descriptive statistics using percentage was calculated. Results Incidence of nosocomial infections inpatients athematology-oncology ward was 31% (62/200). Of which 69.35% (43/62) blood stream infection being the most frequent; followed by 30.64% (19/62) was urinary tract infection (UTI), and the most common blood culture isolate was been Staphylococcus epidermidis 18 (41.86%), andour study showed that large numbers ofnosocomial UTIs causing by Gram‑negative bacteria. Conclusion This study showed blood stream infection and UTI are the common nosocomial infections among patients athematology-oncology ward. Early recognition of infections and short term use of invasive devices along with proper infection control procedures can significantly decrease the incidence of nosocomial infections in patients. PMID:26985350
Guggenbichler, Josef Peter; Assadian, Ojan; Boeswald, Michael; Kramer, Axel
Health care associated infections, the fourth leading cause of disease in industrialised countries, are a major health issue. One part of this condition is based on the increasing insertion and implantation of prosthetic medical devices, since presence of a foreign body significantly reduces the number of bacteria required to produce infection. The most significant hospital-acquired infections, based on frequency and potential severity, are those related to procedures e.g. surgical site infections and medical devices, including urinary tract infection in catheterized patients, pneumonia in patients intubated on a ventilator and bacteraemia related to intravascular catheter use. At least half of all cases of nosocomial infections are associated with medical devices.Modern medical and surgical practices have increasingly utilized implantable medical devices of various kinds. Such devices may be utilized only short-time or intermittently, for months, years or permanently. They improve the therapeutic outcome, save human lives and greatly enhance the quality of life of these patients. However, plastic devices are easily colonized with bacteria and fungi, able to be colonized by microorganisms at a rate of 0.5 cm per hour. A thick biofilm is formed within 24 hours on the entire surface of these plastic devices once inoculated even with a small initial number of bacteria.The aim of the present work is to review the current literature on causes, frequency and preventive measures against infections associated with intravascular devices, catheter-related urinary tract infection, ventilator-associated infection, and infections of other implantable medical devices. Raising awareness for infection associated with implanted medical devices, teaching and training skills of staff, and establishment of surveillance systems monitoring device-related infection seem to be the principal strategies used to achieve reduction and prevention of such infections. The intelligent use of
Guggenbichler, Josef Peter; Assadian, Ojan; Boeswald, Michael; Kramer, Axel
Health care associated infections, the fourth leading cause of disease in industrialised countries, are a major health issue. One part of this condition is based on the increasing insertion and implantation of prosthetic medical devices, since presence of a foreign body significantly reduces the number of bacteria required to produce infection. The most significant hospital-acquired infections, based on frequency and potential severity, are those related to procedures e.g. surgical site infections and medical devices, including urinary tract infection in catheterized patients, pneumonia in patients intubated on a ventilator and bacteraemia related to intravascular catheter use. At least half of all cases of nosocomial infections are associated with medical devices. Modern medical and surgical practices have increasingly utilized implantable medical devices of various kinds. Such devices may be utilized only short-time or intermittently, for months, years or permanently. They improve the therapeutic outcome, save human lives and greatly enhance the quality of life of these patients. However, plastic devices are easily colonized with bacteria and fungi, able to be colonized by microorganisms at a rate of up to 0.5 cm per hour. A thick biofilm is formed within 24 hours on the entire surface of these plastic devices once inoculated even with a small initial number of bacteria. The aim of the present work is to review the current literature on causes, frequency and preventive measures against infections associated with intravascular devices, catheter-related urinary tract infection, ventilator-associated infection, and infections of other implantable medical devices. Raising awareness for infection associated with implanted medical devices, teaching and training skills of staff, and establishment of surveillance systems monitoring device-related infection seem to be the principal strategies used to achieve reduction and prevention of such infections. The intelligent use
Exner, M; Kramer, A; Kistemann, T; Gebel, J; Engelhart, S
New epidemiological and microbiological investigations using molecular typing methods to link patient and environmental strains demonstrate a strong association between water-borne pathogens and nosocomial infections. Avoiding patient exposure to these pathogens results in a decreased incidence of water-borne nosocomial infections. There remains a tremendous potential to reduce hospital acquired infections previously viewed as inevitable and unavoidable through intervention and preventive measures. The characteristics of water application in health care facilities, the vulnerability of patients, the spectrum of relevant pathogens and their ecologic aspects, legal issues and important measures for prevention and control are discussed.
Alvarado, C J; Stolz, S M; Maki, D G
Approximately 1 year after purchase of one manufacturer's automated endoscope washing machine, we began to detect heavy contamination of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopes cultured after cleaning and disinfection in the washer. During the first 6 months of 1988, 77% of surveillance cultures (20-mL flush through the biopsy channel) were positive for gram-negative bacilli (median concentration, 10(5) cfu/mL), most frequently Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotype 10. During the first 19 months of use of the washer, nosocomial post-UGI endoscopy colonization or infections with P. aeruginosa increased 36%. Investigations show that endoscope contamination derives from a flaw in the design of the EW-10 washer: the detergent holding tank, inlet water hose, and air vents cannot be reliably disinfected and contain heavy biofilms that recontaminate the machine after it has been disinfected, as specified by the manufacturer, with glutaraldehyde. Only by rinsing machine-cleansed endoscopes with 70% alcohol followed by forced air drying has reliable disinfection been achieved. Since adaptation of terminal alcohol treatment and drying, post-UGI endoscopy colonization or infection by P. aeruginosa has declined threefold (p less than 0.001). Testing in other centers using the manufacturer's EW-10 or EW-20 washer has shown similar contamination. In three centers, including our own, postendoscopy infections by machine-associated type 10 P. aeruginosa have been confirmed by demonstrating concordance between isolates from contaminated machines or endoscopes and from infected patients by immunoblot of whole cell lysates and by pulsed-field electrophoresis of DraI endonuclease-digested genomic DNA. This problem reaffirms the vulnerability to microbial contamination of water-containing apparatus and equipment in patient care and points up the critical importance of engineering design to prevent contamination.
Koller, Walter; de Bruin, Jeroen S; Rappelsberger, Andrea; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter
By the use of extended intelligent information technology tools for fully automated healthcare-associated infection (HAI) surveillance, clinicians can be informed and alerted about the emergence of infection-related conditions in their patients. Moni--a system for monitoring nosocomial infections in intensive care units for adult and neonatal patients--employs knowledge bases that were written with extensive use of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic, allowing the inherent un-sharpness of clinical terms and the inherent uncertainty of clinical conclusions to be a part of Moni's output. Thus, linguistic as well as propositional uncertainty became a part of Moni, which can now report retrospectively on HAIs according to traditional crisp HAI surveillance definitions, as well as support clinical bedside work by more complex crisp and fuzzy alerts and reminders. This improved approach can bridge the gap between classical retrospective surveillance of HAIs and ongoing prospective clinical-decision-oriented HAI support.
Roth, Virginia R; Mitchell, Robyn; Vachon, Julie; Alexandre, Stéphanie; Amaratunga, Kanchana; Smith, Stephanie; Vearncombe, Mary; Davis, Ian; Mertz, Dominik; Henderson, Elizabeth; John, Michael; Johnston, Lynn; Lemieux, Camille; Pelude, Linda; Gravel, Denise
BACKGROUND Hip and knee arthroplasty infections are associated with considerable healthcare costs. The merits of reducing the postoperative surveillance period from 1 year to 90 days have been debated. OBJECTIVES To report the first pan-Canadian hip and knee periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) rates and to describe the implications of a shorter (90-day) postoperative surveillance period. METHODS Prospective surveillance for infection following hip and knee arthroplasty was conducted by hospitals participating in the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) using standard surveillance definitions. RESULTS Overall hip and knee PJI rates were 1.64 and 1.52 per 100 procedures, respectively. Deep incisional and organ-space hip and knee PJI rates were 0.96 and 0.71, respectively. In total, 93% of hip PJIs and 92% of knee PJIs were identified within 90 days, with a median time to detection of 21 days. However, 11%-16% of deep incisional and organ-space infections were not detected within 90 days. This rate was reduced to 3%-4% at 180 days post procedure. Anaerobic and polymicrobial infections had the shortest median time from procedure to detection (17 and 18 days, respectively) compared with infections due to other microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSIONS PJI rates were similar to those reported elsewhere, although differences in national surveillance systems limit direct comparisons. Our results suggest that a postoperative surveillance period of 90 days will detect the majority of PJIs; however, up to 16% of deep incisional and organ-space infections may be missed. Extending the surveillance period to 180 days could allow for a better estimate of disease burden. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:147-153.
García, Heladia; Martínez-Muñoz, Angeles Nahima; Peregrino-Bejarano, Leoncio
INTRODUCCIÓN: el recién nacido hospitalizado en una unidad de cuidados intensivos tiene alto riesgo de desarrollar una infección nosocomial. El objetivo de este estudio fue registrar la incidencia y el tipo de infecciones nosocomiales, los microorganismos aislados y el perfil de susceptibilidad de estos en recién nacidos atendidos en una unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales. MÉTODOS: se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo prospectivo longitudinal durante un año. De 113 recién nacidos que presentaron infección nosocomial, se registraron variables demográficas, uso de antibióticos antes del ingreso y de catéter venoso central, tipo de infección, microorganismo aislado y perfil de susceptibilidad.
Raulji, Chittalsinh M; Clay, Kristin; Velasco, Cruz; Yu, Lolie C
Infections remain a serious complication in pediatric oncology patients. To determine if daily bathing with Chlorhexidine gluconate can decrease the rate of nosocomial infection in pediatric oncology patients, we reviewed rates of infections in pediatric oncology patients over a 14-month span. Intervention group received daily bath with Chlorhexidine, while the control group did not receive daily bath. The results showed that daily bath with antiseptic chlorhexidine as daily prophylactic antiseptic topical wash leads to decreased infection density amongst the pediatric oncology patients, especially in patients older than 12 years of age. Furthermore, daily chlorhexidine bathing significantly reduced the rate of hospital acquired infection in patients older than 12 years of age. The findings of this study suggest that daily bathing with chlorhexidine may be an effective measure of reducing nosocomial infection in pediatric oncology patients.
Guimarães, Aline Caixeta; Donalisio, Maria Rita; Santiago, Thaiana Helena Roma; Freire, June Barreiros
This study investigated the socio-demographic profile, clinical procedures and etiology of nosocomial infection associated with deaths in the Hospital Estadual Sumaré, state of São Paulo, Brazil, from 2007 to 2008. The retrospective study of medical records (n = 133) revealed an average of 35 days of hospitalization. Most patients (97%) underwent some invasive procedure associated with nosocomial infection (p ≤ 0.05), including: 90 (67.7%) pneumonia, 62 (46.6%), urinary infections and 97 (73%) septicemia. Infection was the leading cause of death in 75 (56.4%) cases, with defined etiology in 110 (82.7%); 34 (30.9%) because of microorganisms that were multidrug-resistant. The most common was Staphylococcus aureus (25%), related to pneumonia and blood stream infection. The monitoring of hospital infection contributed to intervention at risk situation and death.
Background Data on nosocomial infections in hospitals in low-income countries are scarce and often inconsistent. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of nosocomial infections and antimicrobial drug use in Benin hospitals. Methods All hospitals were invited to participate in the first national point prevalence study conducted between 10–26 October 2012 using the protocol developed by the “Hospitals in Europe Link for Infection Control through Surveillance” (HELICS) project. Infection prevalence rates and the proportion of infected patients and exposure to antimicrobials were assessed. Results Overall, 87% (39/45) of hospitals participated. Of 3130 inpatients surveyed, 972 nosocomial infections were identified among 597 patients, representing an overall prevalence of infected patients of 19.1%. The most frequent infections were related to the urinary tract (48.2%), vascular catheter use (34.7%), and surgical site (24.7%). 64.6% of patients surveyed were treated with antibiotics, including a significant proportion (30%) of non-infected patients and a high proportion of self-medication (40.8%). Resistance of leading nosocomial pathogens to antimicrobials included methicillin-resistance (52.5%) among Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin resistance among enterococci (67.5%), cefotaxime resistance among Escherichia coli (67.6%), and ceftazidime resistance among Acinetobacter baumannii (100%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (68.2%). Conclusions Benin has high nosocomial infection rates and calls for the implementation of new national infection control policies. Patient safety education and training of all individuals involved in healthcare delivery will be critical to highlight awareness of the burden of disease. The high use of antimicrobials needs to be addressed, particularly their indiscriminate use in non-infected patients. PMID:24883183
Picard, B; Goullet, P
A seasonal variation in nosocomial Aeromonas hydrophila infection was correlated with the number of aeromonas in the hospital water supply. The high summer prevalence of A. hydrophila infection coincided with periods when water counts from storage tanks were highest. The waterborne origin of these infections highlights the importance of maintaining clean water supplies, especially where storage tanks are used. Monitoring A. hydrophila in hospital water, particularly during the summer months, may prove helpful.
Rosenthal, Víctor Daniel; Maki, Dennis George; Mehta, Yatin; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Memish, Ziad Ahmed; Al-Mousa, Haifaa Hassan; Balkhy, Hanan; Hu, Bijie; Alvarez-Moreno, Carlos; Medeiros, Eduardo Alexandrino; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Raka, Lul; Cuellar, Luis E; Ahmed, Altaf; Navoa-Ng, Josephine Anne; El-Kholy, Amani Ali; Kanj, Souha Sami; Bat-Erdene, Ider; Duszynska, Wieslawa; Van Truong, Nguyen; Pazmino, Leonardo N; See-Lum, Lucy Chai; Fernández-Hidalgo, Rosalia; Di-Silvestre, Gabriela; Zand, Farid; Hlinkova, Sona; Belskiy, Vladislav; Al-Rahma, Hussain; Luque-Torres, Marco Tulio; Bayraktar, Nesil; Mitrev, Zan; Gurskis, Vaidotas; Fisher, Dale; Abu-Khader, Ilham Bulos; Berechid, Kamal; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Arnaldo; Horhat, Florin George; Requejo-Pino, Osiel; Hadjieva, Nassya; Ben-Jaballah, Nejla; García-Mayorca, Elías; Kushner-Dávalos, Luis; Pasic, Srdjan; Pedrozo-Ortiz, Luis E; Apostolopoulou, Eleni; Mejía, Nepomuceno; Gamar-Elanbya, May Osman; Jayatilleke, Kushlani; de Lourdes-Dueñas, Miriam; Aguirre-Avalos, Guadalupe
We report the results of an International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) surveillance study from January 2007-December 2012 in 503 intensive care units (ICUs) in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and Europe. During the 6-year study using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) U.S. National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definitions for device-associated health care-associated infection (DA-HAI), we collected prospective data from 605,310 patients hospitalized in the INICC's ICUs for an aggregate of 3,338,396 days. Although device utilization in the INICC's ICUs was similar to that reported from ICUs in the U.S. in the CDC's NHSN, rates of device-associated nosocomial infection were higher in the ICUs of the INICC hospitals: the pooled rate of central line-associated bloodstream infection in the INICC's ICUs, 4.9 per 1,000 central line days, is nearly 5-fold higher than the 0.9 per 1,000 central line days reported from comparable U.S. ICUs. The overall rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia was also higher (16.8 vs 1.1 per 1,000 ventilator days) as was the rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (5.5 vs 1.3 per 1,000 catheter days). Frequencies of resistance of Pseudomonas isolates to amikacin (42.8% vs 10%) and imipenem (42.4% vs 26.1%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates to ceftazidime (71.2% vs 28.8%) and imipenem (19.6% vs 12.8%) were also higher in the INICC's ICUs compared with the ICUs of the CDC's NHSN.
Boquete, T; Vindel, A; Martin-Bourgon, C; Azañedo, L; Sáez-Nieto, J A
The distribution of epidemiological markers (serotyping and phage-typing) of Serratia marcescens isolates from nosocomial episodes (63 nosocomial cutbreaks with 475 isolates, and 1208 sporadic cases) received in our laboratory during the period 1981-1991 was studied. The records for 1683 isolates from Spanish hospitals have been analyzed. In relation with the sporadic cases, the predominant types were serotype O6 (13.4%) and serotype O14 (11.4%); polyagglutinable strains accounted for 15.6%; in outbreaks, type O14 is clearly predominant (27.4%). Phage-typing was a good secondary marker, with a 87.9% of typability; the number of lytic patterns was very high, extended patterns (six or more phages) being the most frequent. We have studied the characteristics of S. marcescens isolates causing infections in the nosocomial environment in Spain.
Foreman, Paul M; Chua, Michelle; Harrigan, Mark R; Fisher, Winfield S; Vyas, Nilesh A; Lipsky, Robert H; Walters, Beverly C; Tubbs, R Shane; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Griessenauer, Christoph J
OBJECTIVE Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a recognized complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) that contributes to poor outcome. This study seeks to determine the effect of nosocomial infection on the incidence of DCI and patient outcome. METHODS An exploratory analysis was performed on 156 patients with aSAH enrolled in the Cerebral Aneurysm Renin Angiotensin System study. Clinical and radiographic data were analyzed with univariate analysis to detect risk factors for the development of DCI and poor outcome. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors of DCI. RESULTS One hundred fifty-three patients with aSAH were included. DCI was identified in 32 patients (20.9%). Nosocomial infection (odds ratio [OR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-11.2, p = 0.04), ventriculitis (OR 25.3, 95% CI 1.39-458.7, p = 0.03), aneurysm re-rupture (OR 7.55, 95% CI 1.02-55.7, p = 0.05), and clinical vasospasm (OR 43.4, 95% CI 13.1-143.4, p < 0.01) were independently associated with the development of DCI. Diagnosis of nosocomial infection preceded the diagnosis of DCI in 15 (71.4%) of 21 patients. Patients diagnosed with nosocomial infection experienced significantly worse outcomes as measured by the modified Rankin Scale score at discharge and 1 year (p < 0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Nosocomial infection is independently associated with DCI. This association is hypothesized to be partly causative through the exacerbation of systemic inflammation leading to thrombosis and subsequent ischemia.
Fu, Chuanxi; Wang, Shengyong
The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak in Korea in 2015 may be attributable to poor nosocomial infection control procedures implemented. Strict infection control measures were taken in the hospital where an imported case with MERS was treated in southern China and 53 health care workers were confirmed to be MERS-CoV negative. Infection control in healthcare settings, in which patients with emerging infectious diseases such as MERS, Ebola virus disease, and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) are diagnosed and treated, are often imperfect. When it comes to emerging or unknown infectious diseases, before the imported case was finally identified or community transmission was reported, cases have often occurred in clusters in healthcare settings. Nosocomial infection control measures should be further strengthened among the workers and inpatients in designated healthcare settings that accommodate suspected cases suffering from emerging or unknown infectious diseases.
Panis, C.; Matsuo, T.; Reiche, E.M.V.
Antiretroviral therapy advances have proportioned to AIDS patients a survival increase. At the same time, the permanence of the seropositive people in the nosocomial environment becomes common not only by the adverse reactions caused by this therapy, but also by several opportunistic diseases that take them into and out of hospital environment. During the hospital permanence, the patients expose their impaired immune system to the nosocomial virulent microorganisms, and acquire destructive nosocomial infections that sometimes can be lethal. Among several hospital syndromes described, little is known about infections in immunocompromised patients and how their immune system is able to determine the course of the infection. The objective of this study was to describe the major microorganisms involved in the nosocomial infections of HIV-1 seropositive patients associated with their immunological status. The survey was carried out with the Hospital Infection Control Service records, from University Hospital, Londrina, Paraná, Southern of Brazil, during the period from July 2003 to July 2004. From all the cases studied (n=969), 24 patients (2.5%) had AIDS diagnosis and a half of them was women with the mean of CD4+ T cells counts of 158/mm3. The main topography of the infection was pulmonary (50.0%) and the main isolated microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. A major incidence of infection was observed in patients with CD4+ T cells counts lower than 50/mm3. The study of the relationship between the impairment of the immune system and infectious agents could provide a better healthcare of people living with HIV/AIDS and advances into the nosocomial infection control systems. PMID:24031336
Data on the frequency of nosocomial infections during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in adult populations remain scarce. We investigated the risk factors for nosocomial infections in adult patients undergoing venoarterial ECMO (VA-ECMO) support. From January 2011 to December 2015, a total of 259 patients underwent ECMO. Of these, patients aged 17 years or less and patients undergoing ECMO for less than 48 hours were excluded. Of these, 61 patients diagnosed with cardiogenic shock were evaluated. Mean patient age was 60.6 ± 14.3 years and 21 (34.4%) patients were female. The mean preoperative Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was 8.6 ± 2.2. The mean duration of ECMO support was 6.8 ± 7.4 days. The rates of successful ECMO weaning and survival to discharge were 44.3% and 31.1%, respectively. There were 18 nosocomial infections in 14 (23.0%) patients. These included respiratory tract infections in 9 cases and bloodstream infections in a further 9. In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of infection during ECMO were the preoperative creatinine level (hazard ratio [HR], 2.176; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.065–4.447; P = 0.033) and the duration of ECMO support (HR, 1.400; 95% CI, 1.081–1.815; P = 0.011). A higher preoperative creatinine level and an extended duration of ECMO support are risk factors for infection. Therefore, to avoid the development of nosocomial infections, strategies to shorten the length of ECMO support should be applied whenever possible. PMID:28244284
Kim, Gwan Sic; Lee, Kyo Seon; Park, Choung Kyu; Kang, Seung Ku; Kim, Do Wan; Oh, Sang Gi; Oh, Bong Suk; Jung, Yochun; Kim, Seok; Yun, Ju Sik; Song, Sang Yun; Na, Kook Joo; Jeong, In Seok; Ahn, Byoung Hee
Data on the frequency of nosocomial infections during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in adult populations remain scarce. We investigated the risk factors for nosocomial infections in adult patients undergoing venoarterial ECMO (VA-ECMO) support. From January 2011 to December 2015, a total of 259 patients underwent ECMO. Of these, patients aged 17 years or less and patients undergoing ECMO for less than 48 hours were excluded. Of these, 61 patients diagnosed with cardiogenic shock were evaluated. Mean patient age was 60.6 ± 14.3 years and 21 (34.4%) patients were female. The mean preoperative Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was 8.6 ± 2.2. The mean duration of ECMO support was 6.8 ± 7.4 days. The rates of successful ECMO weaning and survival to discharge were 44.3% and 31.1%, respectively. There were 18 nosocomial infections in 14 (23.0%) patients. These included respiratory tract infections in 9 cases and bloodstream infections in a further 9. In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of infection during ECMO were the preoperative creatinine level (hazard ratio [HR], 2.176; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.065-4.447; P = 0.033) and the duration of ECMO support (HR, 1.400; 95% CI, 1.081-1.815; P = 0.011). A higher preoperative creatinine level and an extended duration of ECMO support are risk factors for infection. Therefore, to avoid the development of nosocomial infections, strategies to shorten the length of ECMO support should be applied whenever possible.
Nagy, Eszter; Giefing, Carmen; von Gabain, Alexander
The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria is a growing challenge for healthcare in the treatment of infectious diseases. In particular, nosocomial infections are getting out of control and reduce the likelihood to recover without, sometimes lethal, complications and long-term damage. Current antibiotics are unable to keep nosocomial infections in check and novel ones move only reluctantly forward and are expected to only delay the problem of multidrug resistance. Progress made in the identification of suitable pathogen targets, a better understanding of host-parasite interactions and the recent inclusion of monoclonal antibodies into the arsenal of novel therapies has provoked the interest to revitalize a historical concept of medicine to treat and prevent bacterial infections with antibodies.
Gallet, E; Le Coutour, X; Turrou, J; Noyer, V; Lechevalier, B; Charbonneau, P; Bazin, C
If meant to be effective, the detection of nosocomial infections demands considering the means that should be used for a daily gathering of necessary complete information. An experiment led in a medical intensive care unit have suggested the elements of such a gathering work. This must be prospective and aimed to relate the frequency, more that the importance of nosocomial infections. It will be carried by a willing and specialized nurse, and will be limited to the necessary warning signs only. As a rule, the information linked to the infection causes will not be looked for. Finally, a special care will be given to ensure a good feedback to the clinician, which is the main purpose of that work. Yet, such an information gathering protocol has to be flexible, and it is even one of its survival conditions regarding the variety of means and requirements inherent of each department.
Dürmaz, Gul; Kiremitçi, Abdurrahman; Akgün, Yurdanur; Oz, Yasemin; Kaşifoğlu, Nilgün; Aybey, Aşkin; Kiraz, Nuri
The relationship between the airborne contaminants obtained from operating theatres and intensive care units and the colonizing and infecting microorganisms isolated from patients were investigated. Air samples were obtained with the biocollector air IDEAL (BioMerieux, France). During the study period (19 weeks), a total of 77 air samples and 870 clinical specimens (swabs from throat, nose, conjunctiva and skin) from 174 patients were collected weekly. Microorganisms were identified by using Vitek system (BioMerieux, France) and conventional methods. According to the criteria of Federal Standard 209E (FD 209E) on cleanrooms, the conventionally ventilated operating- and general surgery rooms, and the anesthesia intensive care unit have been ranked as less than class 3.5 and 3, respectively. The frequency of nosocomial infection related to air-colonization was higher in patients of anestesia intensive care unit (16.4%), than in those of general surgery intensive care unit (4.9%). In general surgery rooms and anesthesia intensive care unit, the most frequent air-colonization related nosocomial infections were surgical wound infections and bacteremia, respectively. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Acinetobacter baumannii. It can be concluded that, total number of airborne viable particles in the critical areas such as operating theatres and intensive care units, seems to be a significant risk factor for the development of nosocomial infections in immunocompromised patients.
Moreno Camacho, Asunción; Ruiz Camps, Isabel
Bacterial infections are the most common infections in solid organ transplant recipients. These infections occur mainly in the first month after transplantation and are hospital-acquired. Nosocomial infections cause significant morbidity and are the most common cause of mortality in this early period of transplantation. These infections are caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) microorganisms, mainly Gram-negative enterobacteria, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli, enterococci, and staphylococci. The patients at risk of developing nosocomial bacterial infections are those previously colonized with MDR bacteria while on the transplant waiting list. Intravascular catheters, the urinary tract, the lungs, and surgical wounds are the most frequent sources of infection. Preventive measures are the same as those applied in non-immunocompromised, hospitalized patients except in patients at high risk for developing fungal infection. These patients need antifungal therapy during their hospitalization, and for preventing some bacterial infections in the early transplant period, patients need vaccinations on the waiting list according to the current recommendations. Although morbidity and mortality related to infectious diseases have decreased during the last few years in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, they are still one of the most important complications in this population. Furthermore, as occurs in the general population, the incidence of nosocomial infections has increased during the different phases of transplantation. It is difficult to establish general preventive measures in these patients, as there are many risk factors conditioning these infections. Firstly, they undergo multiple antibiotic treatments and interventions; secondly, there is a wide variability in the degree of neutropenia and immunosuppression among patients, and finally they combine hospital and home stay during the transplant process. However, some simple measures could be
Yeşilbağ, Zuhal; Çağatay, Arif Atahan; Karadeniz, Aslı; Başaran, Seniha; Orhun, Günseli; Ergin Özcan, Perihan; Özsüt, Halit; Eraksoy, Haluk
Nosocomial infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms are a major problem in intensive care units (ICUs) with high mortality and morbidity rates and the prior colonization is an important risk factor for these infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of rectal colonization of MDR microorganisms and the association between the microorganisms that caused colonization and infection in the patients with nosocomial infections in ICUs. Rectal swabs were obtained on the day of 0, 3, 7, 14, 21 and weekly thereafter from 80 patients over 18 years of age hospitalized in ICU for more than 48 hours, and cultured for vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- producing gram-negative bacilli (GNB) and carbapenem-resistant enteric and nonenteric bacilli. Patients whose rectal swabs were not obtained on admission (on the day of 0), were excluded even they were hospitalized more than 48 hours. Bile esculin agar containing 64 μg/mL ceftazidime and 6 μg/mL vancomycin, chromogenic MRSA agar and blood agar media, MacConkey agar containing 1 mg/L ceftazidime and ceftriaxone, and 5 mL tryptic soy broth media containing 10 µg imipenem and meropenem discs were used for identification. Identification of GNB was determined by conventional methods and ESBL production was determined by double-disc synergy test. Patients have been followed up for nosocomial infections. Bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed with standard microbiological methods. In 37 (46%) of the 80 patients, at least one MDR microorganism was isolated in rectal swab cultures on the day of 0. The most common microorganisms were ESBL-positive E.coli (19%), followed by ESBL-positive K.pneumoniae (13%), carbapenem-resistant P.aeruginosa (10%), ESBL-positive K.oxytoca (3%), MRSA (1%), VRE (1%), carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter sp. (1%) and carbapenem
Bellanger, A P; Bories, C; Foulet, F; Bretagne, S; Botterel, F
The mite Dermanyssus gallinae may cause pruritic dermatitis in humans. We describe a case of nosocomial infestation with D. gallinae from an abandoned pigeon nest suspended on the front wall of the Hôpital Henri Mondor near a window. Close surveillance and regular destruction of pigeon nests could prevent these incidents of infection in humans.
Rincón-León, Héctor A; Navarro-Fuentes, Karla R
Introducción: el tratamiento de las infecciones nosocomiales se dificulta por la tendencia al incremento de la resistencia a antimicrobianos de los gérmenes que las causan. El objetivo fue evaluar las tendencias en la resistencia de las bacterias de aislados de infección nosocomial. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo de 2009 a 2012 en un hospital de tercer nivel en Chiapas. Resultados: fueron obtenidos 1300 gérmenes, 62.3 % bacterias Gram negativas, 22.8 % Gram positivas y 14.9 % levaduras; Pseudomonas aeruginosa pasó del 47.1 al 60.5 % de resistencia a imipenem; Escherichia coli mostró un aumento en la resistencia a aztreonam, cefepime y ceftazidima; Acitenobacter baumannii incrementó su resistencia a amikacina, cefepime, ceftazidima y ciprofloxacino; Klebsiella pneumoniae disminuyó su resistencia a amikacina y piperacilina/tazobactam; la resistencia a vancomicina fue del 3.6 al 25.5 %. Conclusiones: predominaron los gérmenes Gram negativos y mostraron tendencias al incremento en la resistencia antimicrobiana. Hubo un aumento proporcional de la incidencia de infección por E. coli, Candida tropicalis y Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Es indispensable contar con planes y programas para el uso racional y basado en evidencia de antimicrobianos, así como la difusión y el apego a las guías de práctica clínica y la implementación de programas novedosos para la vigilancia y el control de las infecciones hospitalarias, las técnicas de aislamiento y los cuidados generales.
Amoureux, Lucie; Riedweg, Karena; Chapuis, Angélique; Bador, Julien; Siebor, Eliane; Péchinot, André; Chrétien, Marie-Lorraine; de Curraize, Claire
We isolated IMP-19–producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa from 7 patients with nosocomial infections linked to contaminated sinks in France. We showed that blaIMP-19 was located on various class 1 integrons among 8 species of gram-negative bacilli detected in sinks: P. aeruginosa, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, A. aegrifaciens, P. putida, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, P. mendocina, Comamonas testosteroni, and Sphingomonas sp. PMID:28098548
Chen, Jie; Pan, Qin-Shi; Hong, Wan-Dong; Pan, Jingye; Zhang, Wen-Hui; Xu, Gang; Wang, Yu-Min
Statistical methods to analyze and predict the related risk factors of nosocomial infection in lung cancer patients are various, but the results are inconsistent. A total of 609 patients with lung cancer were enrolled to allow factor comparison using Student's t-test or the Mann-Whitney test or the Chi-square test. Variables that were significantly related to the presence of nosocomial infection were selected as candidates for input into the final ANN model. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the performance of the artificial neural network (ANN) model and logistic regression (LR) model. The prevalence of nosocomial infection from lung cancer in this entire study population was 20.1% (165/609), nosocomial infections occurring in sputum specimens (85.5%), followed by blood (6.73%), urine (6.0%) and pleural effusions (1.82%). It was shown that long term hospitalization (≥ 22 days, P= 0.000), poor clinical stage (IIIb and IV stage, P=0.002), older age (≥ 61 year old, P=0.023), and use the hormones were linked to nosocomial infection and the ANN model consisted of these four factors .The artificial neural network model with variables consisting of age, clinical stage, time of hospitalization, and use of hormones should be useful for predicting nosocomial infection in lung cancer cases.
Abdalla, Nazar M; Osman, Amani A; Haimour, Waleed O; Sarhan, Mohammed A A; Mohammed, Mohammed N; Zyad, Eyhab M; Al-Ghtani, Abdalla M
This study aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of antibiotics towards nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter species. The study took place during the period Dec. 2011- Dec. 2012 at Assir Central Hospital in collaboration with the department of microbiology, college of medicine, King Khalid University, Abha. A prospective study involving 150 patients presented with nosocomial infections due to Acinetobacter species detected by bacteriological tests; direct microscopy, culture in blood agar media, fermentation test in MacConkey media and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) for antibiotics sensitivity using Muller Hinton media and Chemical test using API 20. A 150 nosocomial infections in this study showed gram-negative coccobacilli, non motile, glucose-negative fermentor and oxidase negative. All isolates showed 100% sensitivity to: Imipramine, Meropenem, Colistin. From the rest of tested antibiotics the higher resistant ones were; Nitrofurantoin 87% and Cefoxitin 85%. The least resistant antibiotics; Imipenem 3% and Ticarcillin 7%. While variable resistance in the rest of tested antimicrobials. A 47 patients (31.3%) have used antibiotics prior to this study. The high rate of usage occurred in elder patients. The frequency of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus baumannii complex multi-drugs resistance ABCMDR is rising including almost all commonly used antibiotics. Only few antibiotics exert 100% sensitivity towards these bacteria.
Acinetobacter Baumannii is an aerobic strit gram negative bacteria cause of epidemic infection in intensive care units this bacteria is isolated from the patient and its environment. The detection of AB infection require the isolation of patients and decontamination of the material despite the virulence of the germ, these measures are necessary due to the rapid extension of epidemic in the absence of adequate means.
van Vught, Lonneke A; Wiewel, Maryse A; Hoogendijk, Arie J; Scicluna, Brendon P; Belkasim-Bohoudi, Hakima; Horn, Janneke; Schultz, Marcus J; van der Poll, Tom
Critically ill patients show signs of immune suppression, which is considered to increase vulnerability to nosocomial infections. Whole-blood stimulation is frequently used to test the function of the innate immune system. We here assessed the association between whole-blood leukocyte responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and subsequent occurrence of nosocomial infections in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). All consecutive critically ill patients admitted to the ICU between April 2012 and June 2013 with two or more systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria and an expected length of ICU stay of more than 24 h were enrolled. Age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were included as controls. Blood was drawn the first morning after ICU admission and stimulated ex vivo with 100 ng/mL ultrapure LPS for 3 h. Tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 were measured in supernatants. Seventy-three critically ill patients were included, of whom 10 developed an ICU-acquired infection. Compared with healthy subjects, whole-blood leukocytes of patients were less responsive to ex vivo stimulation with LPS, as reflected by strongly reduced tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels in culture supernatants. Results were not different between patients who did and those who did not develop an ICU-acquired infection. The extent of reduced LPS responsiveness of blood leukocytes in critically ill patients on the first day after ICU admission does not relate to the subsequent development of ICU-acquired infections. These results argue against the use of whole-blood stimulation as a functional test applied early after ICU admission to predict nosocomial infection.
Akyol, A; Ulusoy, H; Ozen, I
As most nosocomial infections are thought to be transmitted by the hands of healthcare workers, handwashing is considered to be the single most important intervention to prevent nosocomial infections. However, studies have shown that handwashing practices are poor, especially among medical personnel. This review gives an overview of handwashing in health care and in the community, including some aspects that have attracted little attention, such as hand drying and cultural issues determining hand hygiene behaviour. Hand hygiene is the most effective measure for interrupting the transmission of micro-organisms which cause infection, both in the community and in the healthcare setting. Using hand hygiene as a sole measure to reduce infection is unlikely to be successful when other factors in infection control, such as environmental hygiene, crowding, staffing levels and education, are inadequate. Hand hygiene must be part of an integrated approach to infection control. Compliance with hand hygiene recommendations is poor worldwide. While the techniques involved in hand hygiene are simple, the complex interdependence of factors that determine hand hygiene behaviour makes the study of hand hygiene complex. It is now recognized that improving compliance with hand hygiene recommendations depends on altering human behaviour. Input from behavioural and social sciences is essential when designing studies to investigate compliance. Interventions to increase compliance with hand hygiene practices must be appropriate for different cultural and social needs.
Bartoli, C; Piercecchi-Marti, M D; Pelissier-Alicot, A L; Cianfarani, F; Leonetti, G
The regional commission for conciliation and compensation for medical accidents, iatrogenic diseases and nosocomial infections (commission régionale de conciliation et d'indemnisation des accidents médicaux, affections iatrogènes et infections nosocomiales, CRCI) offers victims of such events the possibility of obtaining compensation without recourse to legal proceedings. We suggest various points of view about this commission set up by the French law no. 2002-303 of 4 March 2002: the composition, role and competence of the CRCI; the place of the expert's report; the opinion pronounced by the CRCI and its outcome, the compensation of victims and, finally, interaction with other procedures.
Diedrich, Sabine; Boettcher, Sindy; Richter, Susanne; Maritschnegg, Peter; Gangl, Dietmar; Fuchs, Simone; Grangl, Gernot; Resch, Bernhard; Urlesberger, Berndt
In 2014, sepsis-like illness affected 9 full-term newborns in 1 hospital in Austria. Although results of initial microbiological testing were negative, electron microscopy identified picornavirus. Archived serum samples and feces obtained after discharge were positive by PCR for human parechovirus 3. This infection should be included in differential diagnoses of sepsis-like illness in newborns. PMID:27532333
Manzoni, Paolo; De Luca, Daniele; Stronati, Mauro; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne; Ruffinazzi, Giulia; Luparia, Martina; Tavella, Elena; Boano, Elena; Castagnola, Elio; Mostert, Michael; Farina, Daniele
Neonatal sepsis causes a huge burden of morbidity and mortality and includes bloodstream, urine, cerebrospinal, peritoneal, and lung infections as well as infections starting from burns and wounds, or from any other usually sterile sites. It is associated with cytokine - and biomediator-induced disorders of respiratory, hemodynamic, and metabolic processes. Neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit feature many specific risk factors for bacterial and fungal sepsis. Loss of gut commensals such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli spp., as occurs with prolonged antibiotic treatments, delayed enteral feeding, or nursing in incubators, translates into proliferation of pathogenic microflora and abnormal gut colonization. Prompt diagnosis and effective treatment do not protect septic neonates form the risk of late neurodevelopmental impairment in the survivors. Thus prevention of bacterial and fungal infection is crucial in these settings of unique patients. In this view, improving neonatal management is a key step, and this includes promotion of breast-feeding and hygiene measures, adoption of a cautious central venous catheter policy, enhancement of the enteric microbiota composition with the supplementation of probiotics, and medical stewardship concerning H2 blockers with restriction of their use. Additional measures may include the use of lactoferrin, fluconazole, and nystatin and specific measures to prevent ventilator associated pneumonia.
Siegmund, Katja; Hübner, Nils; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Brandenburg, Ronny; Rackow, Kristian; Benkhai, Hicham; Schnaak, Volker; Below, Harald; Dornquast, Tina; Assadian, Ojan; Kramer, Axel
Inadequately performed hand hygiene and non-disinfected surfaces are two reasons why the keys and mouse-buttons of laptops could be sources of microbial contamination resulting consequently in indirect transmission of potential pathogens and nosocomial infections. Until now the question has not been addressed whether the ventilation-blowers in laptops are actually responsible for the spreading of nosocomial pathogens. Therefore, an investigational experimental model was developed which was capable of differentiating between the microorganisms originating from the external surfaces of the laptop, and from those being blown out via the ventilation-blower duct. Culture samples were taken at the site of the external exhaust vent and temperature controls were collected through the use of a thermo-camera at the site of the blower exhaust vent as well as from surfaces which were directly exposed to the cooling ventilation air projected by the laptop. Control of 20 laptops yielded no evidence of microbial emission originating from the internal compartment following switching-on of the ventilation blower. Cultures obtained at the site of the blower exhaust vent also showed no evidence of nosocomial potential. High internal temperatures on the inner surfaces of the laptops (up to 73°C) as well as those documented at the site of the blower exhaust vent (up to 56°C) might be responsible for these findings.
Siegmund, Katja; Hübner, Nils; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Brandenburg, Ronny; Rackow, Kristian; Benkhai, Hicham; Schnaak, Volker; Below, Harald; Dornquast, Tina; Assadian, Ojan; Kramer, Axel
Inadequately performed hand hygiene and non-disinfected surfaces are two reasons why the keys and mouse-buttons of laptops could be sources of microbial contamination resulting consequently in indirect transmission of potential pathogens and nosocomial infections. Until now the question has not been addressed whether the ventilation-blowers in laptops are actually responsible for the spreading of nosocomial pathogens. Therefore, an investigational experimental model was developed which was capable of differentiating between the microorganisms originating from the external surfaces of the laptop, and from those being blown out via the ventilation-blower duct. Culture samples were taken at the site of the external exhaust vent and temperature controls were collected through the use of a thermo-camera at the site of the blower exhaust vent as well as from surfaces which were directly exposed to the cooling ventilation air projected by the laptop. Control of 20 laptops yielded no evidence of microbial emission originating from the internal compartment following switching-on of the ventilation blower. Cultures obtained at the site of the blower exhaust vent also showed no evidence of nosocomial potential. High internal temperatures on the inner surfaces of the laptops (up to 73°C) as well as those documented at the site of the blower exhaust vent (up to 56°C) might be responsible for these findings. PMID:20941339
Khoshdel, Abolfazl; Habibian, Roya; Parvin, Neda; Doosti, Abbas; Famouri, Fatemeh; Eshraghi, Ali; Hafizi, Massoud
Clostridium difficile is recognized as a major cause of nosocomial acquired antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. It is a significant financial burden on modern healthcare resources. This study aimed to assess the molecular characterization of C. difficile strains isolated from children under 5 years old suffered from nosocomial diarrhea. One hundred diarrheic and 130 non-diarrheic fecal samples were collected from pediatrics less than 5 years old. Samples were cultured and C. difficile isolates were subjected to the PCR technique to study the distribution of ribotypes of C. difficile using P3 and P5 primers. Fifty-two out of 100 samples (52 %) were positive for C. difficile. The prevalence of bacterium in healthy children was 4.61 %. Total prevalence of C. difficile in diarrheic girls and boys were 48.9 and 54.7 %, respectively. Thirteen to twenty-four month age children had the highest prevalence of C. difficile. The most commonly detected ribotypes in the C. difficile isolates of Iranian pediatrics were RT027 (11.52 %), R1 (9.61 %) and R13 (7.68 %). The ribotypes of all of the six bacterial isolates of healthy children was not diagnosed. According to the presence of C. difficile and R27 ribotype, a continued genotype surveillance of this bacterium is necessary to monitor changes in the prevalence of certain strains and to identify the emergence of new strains that could affect future vaccine strategies.
Fanci, Rosa; Leoni, Franco; Longo, Giovanni
The progressive decline in immune functions render elderly individuals more susceptible to infections than younger patients. To evaluate potential age-related differences in nosocomial infections between younger (<60 yr) and elderly (> or =60 yr) patients with acute leukemia, we retrospectively reviewed 161 consecutive febrile episodes. All neutropenic patients with an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) less than 500/microl were examined during the different phases of intensive chemotherapy and hospitalized until fever and neutropenia resolved. Fever was recorded in 66% of younger and in 64% of elderly patients and occurred respectively in 45% and in 51% during induction, in 32% and in 36% during consolidation, in 23% and in 13% during relapse/refractory treatment (P=0.01). A central venous catheter (CVC) was present in 68% and in 42% of patients (P=0.001). Febrile episodes during severe neutropenia with ANC <100/microl were recorded in 47% and in 22% respectively, during neutropenia with ANC >100/microl in 53% and in 78% respectively (P=0.002). No significant difference was documented in the overall incidence of infections, type of febrile episodes, nosocomial pattern, defervescence-time, median duration of antimicrobic therapy and in overall outcome. Elderly patients do not seem to be more susceptible to infections than younger ones, although the lower frequency of some risk factors must be taken into account.
Clair, Jeffrey D; Colatrella, Sandie
There are approximately 5,700 hospitals in the United States, 3,000-4,000 that are antiquated or obsolescing. To meet increased service demands, remain financially viable; meet needs to upgrade aging infrastructure and incorporate medical and technology advancements, healthcare facilities are in a perpetual state of construction. Outbreaks of nosocomial infections have historically been documented in association with construction and renovation actives within health care facilities. For most healthy individuals, environmental exposures to etiological agents, results in no adverse effects but in immune-compromised patient, they are left susceptible to inadvertent exposures during construction to opportunistic bacteria, fungi and viruses. Evidence scientifically linking construction work and nosocomial infections as well as the efficacy and clinical relevance of infection control precautions is somewhat lacking but the empirical evidence and recommendations to support protective measures is steadily growing. Opening a "Pandora's Box" during construction can unleash unintended consequences therefore; it is imperative that a thorough, multidisciplinary approach towards an infection control plan is put clearly and firmly in place allowing health care construction projects to move forward with confidence that patient safety is the first specification.
Gustin, Marie-Paule; Giard, Marine; Bénet, Thomas; Vanhems, Philippe
The development of anti-staphylococcal vaccines is nowadays a priority to prevent surgical site infections (SSI). The objective of the present study was to identify a potential target population by assessing surveillance data on surgery patients for possible anti-staphylococcal vaccine administration. Individuals at high risk of SSI by Staphylococcus aureus (SA) were targeted by the French SSI Surveillance Network in south-eastern France between 2008 and 2011. Among 238,470 patients, those undergoing primary total hip replacement appeared to be an interesting and healthy enough population for anti-staphylococcal vaccine testing. These male patients, subjected to multiple procedures and with American Society of Anesthesiologists score >2, had a probability of SA SSI about 21 times higher than females with no severe systemic disease and no multiple procedures. Our study indicates that surveillance data on SSI might be an interesting epidemiological source for planning vaccine trials to prevent nosocomial infections. PMID:25668663
Simon, A; Christiansen, B
The Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention at the Robert Koch Institute developed evidence-based recommendations for the prevention and control of nosocomial infections in Germany. Considering the growing impact of multiresistant pathogens (MRE) on morbidity and mortality related to nosocomial infections, the prevention and control of MRE is one of the most important topics on the current agenda. Currently, the German recommendations on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) are being re-evaluated and a recommendation discussing options for the prevention and control of MR Gram-negative pathogens is awaited and will be published in the next months.
Gianino, P; Mastretta, E; Longo, P; Laccisaglia, A; Sartore, M; Russo, R; Mazzaccara, A
Rotavirus is one of the most important aetiological agents of nosocomial infections in childhood. We studied the incidence of nosocomial rotavirus infections in 420 patients (age range 1-18 months) consecutively admitted from 1 December 1999 to 31 May 2000 to the infant ward of the Department of Paediatrics, University of Turin. We also evaluated the protective effect of breast feeding. Faecal specimens were collected from every child (whether developing diarrhoeic symptoms or not) and tested for rotavirus during hospitalization and 72 h after discharge. The incidence of rotavirus nosocomial infections was 27.7%. The incidence of symptomatic nosocomial infections was 16.8%, and the incidence of asymptomatic infections was 10.9%. The attack rate of the infections that occurred during hospitalization was 11.8%, while for those occurring after discharge, it was 15.9%. Rotavirus infection, on average, prolonged hospital stay from 5.2 to 6.4 days. 10.6% of breast-fed infants and 32.4% of non-breast-fed infants contracted rotavirus infection (P<0.005). None of the breast-fed infants who contracted rotavirus infection developed diarrhoeic symptoms.
Drzewiecki, Artur; Chowaniec, Czesław; Wajda-Drzewiecka, Katarzyna; Skowronek, Rafał
The number of pecuniary cases involving patient claims due to nosocomial infections has been increasing for many years, and with it, the amount of adjudged compensations has also been increasing. In this situation, it is important for defendant healthcare facilities to implement a proper policy, both before the trial and during the court proceedings. Unfortunately, as a rule, defendant facilities commit a variety of errors, such as: wrong strategy, inability to cooperate on the part of those involved in the matter and improper preparation and usage of evidence. The result is that the risk of unfavorable assessment of the case increases significantly.
Pazdiora, P; Táborská, J; Svecová, M
The authors evaluated in 1987-1994 the incidence of nosocomial rotavirus infections during hospitalization in 1718 junior children, 450 senior children and adults admitted with diarrhoeal diseases. Rotavirus infection was revealed in 6.2 and 1.3% of the patients resp. During hospitalization the rotaviruses were the most frequent causal agent of nosocomial infections. Hospital infection was contracted regardless of the initial diagnosis most frequently by patients aged 0-12 months. The majority of nosocomial rotavirus infections was associated with symptoms of diarrhoeal disease, on average symptomatic infections prolonged the hospitalization period by 4.2 days. The authors discuss the possibility to influence the incidence of these infections.
Ravi, GS; Alex, Ann Mary; Mamatha, KR; Sunitha, L; Ramya, K Thangam
Introduction Non-diphtheritic corynebacteria are normal inhabitants of skin and mucous membrane. When isolated from clinical specimens they are often considered as contaminants. Recent reports suggest their role as emerging nosocomial pathogens. Aim To speciate non-diphtheritic corynebacteria isolated from wound specimens, to correlate their clinical significance and to determine their invitro antimicrobial susceptibilities to 9 antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods Twenty five non-diphtheritic corynebacteria from skin and soft tissue infections were selected for study. Isolates were identified by battery of tests and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was detected by Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) described broth microdilution method. MIC was interpreted according CLSI and British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) guidelines. Results C. amycolatum was the predominant species (20%) followed by C. striatum (16%). Penicillin was least effective invitro followed by clindamycin and ciprofloxacin. Excellent activities were shown by vancomycin, linezolid and imipenem. Multidrug resistance was found in all the species. Conclusion Non-diphtheritic corynebacteria are potential nosocomial pathogens among acute/chronic complicated skin and soft tissue infection. Vancomycin or linezolid can be used empirically to treat such infections until the invitro susceptibility results are available. PMID:26816891
Kudo, Michiaki; Nomura, Takahiro; Yomoda, Sachie; Tanimoto, Koichi; Tomita, Haruyoshi
Compared with other developed countries, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are not widespread in clinical environments in Japan. There have been no VRE outbreaks and only a few VRE strains have sporadically been isolated in our university hospital in Gunma, Japan. To examine the drug susceptibility of Enterococcus faecalis and nosocomial infection caused by non-VRE strains, a retrospective surveillance was conducted in our university hospital. Molecular epidemiological analyses were performed on 1711 E. faecalis clinical isolates collected in our hospital over a 6-year period [1998-2003]. Of these isolates, 1241 (72.5%) were antibiotic resistant and 881 (51.5%) were resistant to two or more drugs. The incidence of multidrug resistant E. faecalis (MDR-Ef) isolates in the intensive care unit increased after enlargement and restructuring of the hospital. The major group of MDR-Ef strains consisted of 209 isolates (12.2%) resistant to the five drug combination tetracycline/erythromycin/kanamycin/streptomycin/gentamicin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the major MDR-Ef isolates showed that nosocomial infections have been caused by MDR-Ef over a long period (more than 3 years). Multilocus sequence typing showed that these strains were mainly grouped into ST16 (CC58) or ST64 (CC8). Mating experiments suggested that the drug resistances were encoded on two conjugative transposons (integrative conjugative elements), one encoded tetracycline-resistance and the other erythromycin/kanamycin/streptomycin/gentamicin-resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of nosocomial infection caused by vancomycin-susceptible MDR-Ef strains over a long period in Japan.
Wang, Ji-Jun; Hu, Kai; Wang, Zheng-Hui; Wang, Jing; Jing, Hong-Mei; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Yan; Chen, Yu-Ping; Ke, Xiao-Yan
In order to investigate the distribution of nosocomial infection in patients with hematological diseases in our hospital, and to explore the changes of the pathogens isolated. The method of retrospective investigation and analysis was employed. 1164 strain pathogens were isolated from the patients with hematological diseases during the period of 1997-2009. The results showed that the Gram-positive cocci infection increased gradually during the 13 years, but has been stable in the last 4 years. The Gram-negative bacteria showed a trend decrease. The fungi increased during these years. The rates of infection with gram-positive cocci, gram-negative bacteria and fungus were 28.2%, 59.8% and 12.0% respectively. For the details, Escherichia coli infection rate was the highest: 12.1%, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.1%), Enterobacter (8.4%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.4%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (6.3%) and Enterococci (6.6%). The distribution of G(+)- and G⁻ pathogens showed obvious change on end of 1990's and beginning of this century, but it was tending towards stability on recent years; the incidence of fungus was tending towards increase, which was related to wide application of strong broad-spectrum antibiotics. In conclusion, the patients with hematological diseases, as the high-risk group of nosocomial infection, should be monitored strictly. Infection is related to many factors, and the main factor is dysfunction of autoimmunity. The strategies should be explored to strengthen the immune protection and set up a reasonable scheme of antibiotics.
Floret, N; Bailly, P; Bertrand, X; Claude, B; Louis-Martinet, C; Picard, A; Tueffert, N; Talon, D
The aim of this study was to rank the risk of nosocomial infection (NI) according to patient type by analysing the results of annual prevalence studies carried out in Franche-Comté from 2001 to 2004. Patients (N=14,905) were divided into four categories according to the number of endogenous risk factors (age, immunodepression, MacCabe score). The overall prevalence of infection was 6.1% and varied according to the category of patient from 1.93% (no risk factors) to 15.2% (three risk factors). The frequencies of NI related to an invasive procedure and to cross-contamination with multi-drug-resistant (MDR) bacteria were 30.9% and 12.3%, respectively; these percentages did not depend on the type of patient. The prevalence of NI decreased over time for patients with two or three risk factors, but was stable for patients with no risk factors. More than 40% of NIs were potentially avoidable (related to invasive procedures or involving cross-transmission of an MDR bacterium) regardless of the category of patient. This study suggests that at least 30% of NIs could be avoided.
Nasim, V S; Al-Hakami, Ahmed; Bijle, Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed; Al-Manea, Sulthan Ahmed; Al-Shehri, Mohammed Dahman; Al-Malki, Saleh Mohammed
Background: This study evaluates cellular phones for potential risk of nosocomial infection amongst dental operators and auxiliary staff in a dental school. Materials and Methods: Each participant’s mobile phone was first cleaned with 70% isopropyl alcohol swab. Following the cleansing protocol, the partakers were asked to make a short phone call. The mobile phones were then washed aseptically by rotating damp cotton swabs with sterile normal saline. Bacterial growth was identified on sheep blood agar and McConkey’s agar plates. Sabouraud dextrose agar media was used for fungi species. Descriptive statistics was established with the data statistically explored with SPSS version 17.0. Results: About 50% of dental professionals had shown active bacterial and fungal growth in which 35% (n=35) were dental operators and 15% (n=15) were dental nurses. 53% Gram-positive organisms, 2% Gram-negative organisms, and 3% fungi were identified growths on cellular phones. Conclusion: Thus, it can be concluded that the cellular phones of dental operators as compared to auxiliaries can act as a potential source of nosocomial infection. PMID:25954071
H Moreno, Paulo Roberto; da Costa-Issa, Fabiana Inácio; Rajca-Ferreira, Agnieszka K; Pereira, Marcos A A; Kaneko, Telma M
The growing incidences of drug-resistant pathogens have increased the attention on several medicinal plants and their metabolites for antimicrobial properties. These pathogens are the main cause of nosocomial infections which led to an increasing mortality among hospitalized patients. Taking into consideration those factors, this paper reviews the state-of-the-art of the research on antibacterial agents from native Brazilian plant species related to nosocomial infections as well as the current methods used in the investigations of the antimicrobial activity and points out the differences in techniques employed by the authors. The antimicrobial assays most frequently used were broth microdilution, agar diffusion, agar dilution and bioautography. The broth microdilution method should be the method of choice for testing new antimicrobial agents from plant extracts or isolated compounds due to its advantages. At the moment, only a small part of the rich Brazilian flora has been investigated for antimicrobial activity, mostly with unfractionated extracts presenting a weak or moderate antibacterial activity. The combination of crude extract with conventional antibiotics represents a largely unexploited new form of chemotherapy with novel and multiple mechanisms of action that can overcome microbial resistance that needs to be further investigated. The antibacterial activity of essential oil vapours might also be an interesting alternative treatment of hospital environment due to their ability in preventing biofilm formation. However, in both alternatives more studies should be done on their mode of action and toxicological effects in order to optimize their use.
Wang, Q; Zhang, Y; Yao, X; Xian, H; Liu, Y; Li, H; Chen, H; Wang, X; Wang, R; Zhao, C; Cao, B; Wang, H
This study was aimed to determine the risk factors of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) nosocomial infections and assess the clinical outcomes. A case-case-control design was used to compare two groups of case patients with control patients from March 2010 to November 2014 in China. Risk factors for the acquisition of CRE infections and clinical outcomes were analyzed by univariable and multivariable analysis. A total of 94 patients with CRE infections, 93 patients with Carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CSE) infections, and 93 patients with organisms other than Enterobacteriaceae infections were enrolled in this study. Fifty-five isolates were detected as the carbapenemase gene. KPC-2 was the most common carbapenemase (65.5 %, 36/55), followed by NDM-1 (16.4 %, 9/55), IMP-4 (14.5 %, 8/55), NDM-5 (1.8 %, 1/55), and NDM-7 (1.8 %, 1/55). Multivariable analysis implicated previous use of third or fourth generation cephalosporins (odds ratio [OR], 4.557; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.971-10.539; P < 0.001) and carbapenems (OR, 4.058; 95 % CI, 1.753-9.397; P = 0.001) as independent risk factors associated with CRE infection. The in-hospital mortality of the CRE group was 57.4 %. In the population of CRE infection, presence of central venous catheters (OR, 4.464; 95 % CI, 1.332-14.925; P = 0.015) and receipt of immunosuppressors (OR, 7.246; 95 % CI, 1.217-43.478; P = 0.030) were independent risk factors for mortality. Appropriate definitive treatment (OR, 0.339; 95 % CI, 0.120-0.954; P = 0.040) was a protective factor for in-hospital death of CRE infection. Kaplan-Meier curves of the CRE group had the shortest survival time compared with the other two groups. Survival time of patients infected with Enterobacteriaceae with a high meropenem MIC (≥8 mg/L) was shorter than that of patients with a low meropenem MIC (2,4, and ≤ 1 mg/L). In conclusion, CRE nosocomial infections are associated with prior exposure
Nair, Girish B; Niederman, Michael S
Nosocomial pneumonia remains a significant cause of hospital-acquired infection, imposing substantial economic burden on the health care system worldwide. Various preventive strategies have been increasingly used to prevent the development of pneumonia. It is now recognized that patients with health care-associated pneumonia are a heterogeneous population and that not all are at risk for infection with nosocomial pneumonia pathogens, with some being infected with the same organisms as in community-acquired pneumonia. This review discusses the risk factors for nosocomial pneumonia, controversies in its diagnosis, and approaches to the treatment and prevention of nosocomial and health care-associated pneumonia.
Ghodhbane, Hanen; Elaidi, Sabrine; Sabatier, Jean-Marc; Achour, Sami; Benhmida, Jeannette; Regaya, Imed
Multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria are the prime mover of nosocomial infections. Some are naturally resistant to antibiotics, their genetic makes them insensitive to certain families of antibiotics and they transmit these resistors to their offspring. Moreover, when bacteria are subjected to antibiotics, they eventually develop resistance against drugs to which they were previously sensitive. In recent years, many bacteriocins active against gram-negative bacteria have been identified proving their efficacy in treating infections. While further investigation remains necessary before the possibilities for bacteriocins in clinical practice can be described more fully, this review provides an overview of bacteriocins acting on the most common infectious gram negative bacteria (Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli).
Cruz, Encarnacion; Cano, Juan Ramon; Benitez-Parejo, Nicolás; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Perea-Milla, Emilio; Guerado, Enrique
Surgery for the treatment of hip fractures is considered the gold standard even among nonagerians with a heavy comorbidity burden. Therefore, a study of an association between surgical complications and some variables in elderly individuals appears to be very important. We designed a transverse study in which we determined patient age at the time of development of a nosocomial infection (NI) in patients who underwent surgery to treat a hip fracture. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed by simple and multiple logistic regression. We found that age was a determinant in NI after surgical treatment for hip fracture. The older the patient was, the higher the risk of development of an NI after surgical treatment for hip fracture (operative hypothesis). However, the risk of infection changed depending on the treatment. No association with other variables was found.
Gervasi, G; Capanna, A; Mita, V; Zaratti, L; Franco, E
Rotavirus (RV) is worldwide considered as the most important viral agent of acute gastroenteritis in children less than 5 y. Since 2006, the availability of anti-RV vaccines has deeply modified the incidence and economic burden of RV infection. In Europe, some countries have introduced an anti-RV vaccination program in the last 10 y. Although community acquired RV (CARV) disease is the most studied condition of RV infection, recently some authors have highlighted the importance of nosocomial RV (nRV) disease as an emerging public health issue. The aim of this review is to summarize the epidemiology of both CARV and nRV, in order to discuss the difficulty of a clear evaluation of the burden of the disease in absence of comparable data. In particular, we focused our attention to European studies regarding nRV in terms of divergences related to definition, report of incidence rate and methodological issues.
Robledo, Iraida E.; Aquino, Edna E.; Vázquez, Guillermo J.
A 6-month, PCR-based, island-wide hospital surveillance study of beta-lactam resistance in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii was conducted in Puerto Rico. Of 10,507 isolates, 1,239 (12%) unique, multi-beta-lactam-resistant isolates from all geographical regions were identified. The KPC gene was detected in 61 E. coli, 333 K. pneumoniae, 99 P. aeruginosa, and 41 A. baumannii isolates, indicating the widespread dissemination of the KPC gene in clinically significant nosocomial isolates. PMID:21444702
Yang, Duo; Xie, Zeqiang; Xin, Xuli; Xue, Wenying; Zhang, Man
Mortality associated with infections due to carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-KP) is high and the infections need to be predicted early. The risk factors for CR-KP infection are heterogeneous. The aim of the present study was to construct a model allowing for the early prediction of CR-KP infection. Nosocomial infections due to K. pneumoniae were evaluated retrospectively over a 2-year period. The case cohort consisted of 370 inpatients with CR-KP infection. For each case enrolled, two matched controls with no CR-KP infection during their hospitalization were randomly selected. Matching involved month of admission, ward, as well as interval days. The Vitek 2 system was used for identification of isolates and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. General linear model with logistic regression was used to identify possible risk factors. The predicted power of the model was expressed as the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve. Age, male gender, with cardiovascular disease, hospital stay, recent admission to intensive care unit, indwelling urinary catheter, mechanical ventilation, recent β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitors, fourth-generation cephalosporins and/or carbapenems therapy were independent risk factors for CR-KP infection. Models predicting CR-KP infection developed by cumulative risk factors exhibited good power, with areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves of 0.902 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.883–0.920; P<0.001] and 0.899 (95% CI, 0.877–0.921; P<0.001) after filtering by age (≥70 years). The Yonden index was at the maximum when the cumulative risk factors were ≥3 in the two prediction models. The results show that the prediction model developed in the present study might be useful for controlling infections caused by CR-KP strains. PMID:27699021
Cerezer, Vinicius Godoy; Pasternak, Jacyr; Franzolin, Marcia Regina; Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto
Stenotrophomonas ssp. has a wide environmental distribution and is also found as an opportunistic pathogen, causing nosocomial or community-acquired infections. One species, S. maltophilia, presents multidrug resistance and has been associated with serious infections in pediatric and immunocompromised patients. Therefore, it is relevant to conduct resistance profile and phylogenetic studies in clinical isolates for identifying infection origins and isolates with augmented pathogenic potential. Here, multilocus sequence typing was performed for phylogenetic analysis of nosocomial isolates of Stenotrophomonas spp. and, environmental and clinical strains of S. maltophilia. Biochemical and multidrug resistance profiles of nosocomial and clinical strains were determined. The inferred phylogenetic profile showed high clonal variability, what correlates with the adaptability process of Stenotrophomonas to different habitats. Two clinical isolates subgroups of S. maltophilia sharing high phylogenetic homogeneity presented intergroup recombination, thus indicating the high permittivity to horizontal gene transfer, a mechanism involved in the acquisition of antibiotic resistance and expression of virulence factors. For most of the clinical strains, phylogenetic inference was made using only partial ppsA gene sequence. Therefore, the sequencing of just one specific fragment of this gene would allow, in many cases, determining whether the infection with S. maltophilia was nosocomial or community-acquired. PMID:24818127
Our objective was to determine the antimicrobial activities of previously published bacteriocins E50-52 and B602 against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other prominent nosocomial bacterial infections. methods: Several Russian hospitals were enlisted into the study from 2003 ...
Salgado Yepez, Estuardo; Bovera, Maria M; Rosenthal, Victor D; González Flores, Hugo A; Pazmiño, Leonardo; Valencia, Francisco; Alquinga, Nelly; Ramirez, Vanessa; Jara, Edgar; Lascano, Miguel; Delgado, Veronica; Cevallos, Cristian; Santacruz, Gasdali; Pelaéz, Cristian; Zaruma, Celso; Barahona Pinto, Diego
AIM To report the results of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) study conducted in Quito, Ecuador. METHODS A device-associated healthcare-acquired infection (DA-HAI) prospective surveillance study conducted from October 2013 to January 2015 in 2 adult intensive care units (ICUs) from 2 hospitals using the United States Centers for Disease Control/National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definitions and INICC methods. RESULTS We followed 776 ICU patients for 4818 bed-days. The central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rate was 6.5 per 1000 central line (CL)-days, the ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rate was 44.3 per 1000 mechanical ventilator (MV)-days, and the catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) rate was 5.7 per 1000 urinary catheter (UC)-days. CLABSI and CAUTI rates in our ICUs were similar to INICC rates [4.9 (CLABSI) and 5.3 (CAUTI)] and higher than NHSN rates [0.8 (CLABSI) and 1.3 (CAUTI)] - although device use ratios for CL and UC were higher than INICC and CDC/NSHN’s ratios. By contrast, despite the VAP rate was higher than INICC (16.5) and NHSN’s rates (1.1), MV DUR was lower in our ICUs. Resistance of A. baumannii to imipenem and meropenem was 75.0%, and of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to ciprofloxacin and piperacillin-tazobactam was higher than 72.7%, all them higher than CDC/NHSN rates. Excess length of stay was 7.4 d for patients with CLABSI, 4.8 for patients with VAP and 9.2 for patients CAUTI. Excess crude mortality in ICUs was 30.9% for CLABSI, 14.5% for VAP and 17.6% for CAUTI. CONCLUSION DA-HAI rates in our ICUs from Ecuador are higher than United States CDC/NSHN rates and similar to INICC international rates. PMID:28289522
Hughes, G; Paine, T; Thomas, D
Surveillance of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in England and Wales has, in the past, relied principally on aggregated statistical data submitted by all genitourinary medicine clinics to the Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, supplemented by various laboratory reporting systems. Although these systems provide comparatively robust surveillance data, they do not provide sufficient information on risk factors to target STI control and prevention programmes appropriately. Over recent years, substantial rises in STIs, the emergence of numerous outbreaks of STIs, and changes in gonococcal resistance patterns have necessitated the introduction of more sophisticated surveillance mechanisms. This article describes current STI surveillance systems in England and Wales, including new systems that have recently been introduced or are currently being developed to meet the need for enhanced STI surveillance data.
Agodi, A; Auxilia, F; Barchitta, M; Brusaferro, S; D'Alessandro, D; Montagna, M T; Orsi, G B; Pasquarella, C; Torregrossa, V; Suetens, C; Mura, I
The Italian Nosocomial Infections Surveillance in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) (SPIN-UTI) project of the Italian Study Group of Hospital Hygiene (GISIO - SItI) was undertaken to ensure standardisation of definitions, data collection and reporting procedures using the Hospital in Europe Link for Infection Control through Surveillance (HELICS)-ICU benchmark. Before starting surveillance, participant ICUs met in order to involve the key stakeholders in the project through participation in planning. Four electronic data forms for web-based data collection were designed. The six-month patient-based prospective survey was undertaken from November 2006 to May 2007, preceded by a one-month surveillance pilot study to assess the overall feasibility of the programme and to determine the time needed and resources for participant hospitals. The SPIN-UTI project included 49 ICUs, 3053 patients with length of stay >2 days and 35 498 patient-days. The cumulative incidence of infections was 19.8 per 100 patients and the incidence density was 17.1 per 1000 patient-days. The most frequently encountered infection type was pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most frequent infection-associated micro-organism, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii. Site-specific infection rates for pneumonia, bloodstream infections, central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections and urinary tract infections, stratified according to patient risk factors, were below the 75th centile reported by the HELICS network benchmark. The SPIN-UTI project showed that introduction of ongoing surveillance should be possible in many Italian hospitals. The study provided the opportunity to participate in the HELICS project using benchmark data for comparison and for better understanding of factors influencing risks.
Guerado, Enrique; Cano, Juan Ramon; Cruz, Encarnacion; Benitez-Parejo, Nicolás; Perea-Milla, Emilio
The association between mental disorders (MDs) and iatrogenic complications after hip fracture surgery has been poorly studied. Among iatrogenic complications, nosocomial infections (NIs) are a major factor in hip fracture surgery. The aim of this paper was to determine whether patients with a MD and a hip fracture develop more NIs after hip surgery than patients with no MD. We studied 912 patients who underwent surgery for a hip fracture (223 patients with a MD who underwent surgery for a hip fracture and 689 control patients without a MD who also underwent surgery for a hip fracture) and followed them after surgery. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed using simple and multiple logistic regression analysis (confidence interval, crude and adjusted odds ratios, and P value). We found that MDs, gender, and comorbidities were not associated with a higher risk of developing a NI after surgery for a hip fracture. Only age increases the risk of a NI. PMID:20628560
Rodríguez-García, Judith; Gamiño-Iriarte, Astrid; Rodea-Montero, Edel Rafael
Background Controversy exists as to whether obesity constitutes a risk-factor or a protective-factor for the development of nosocomial Infection (NI). According to the obesity-paradox, there is evidence that moderate obesity is a protective-factor. In Mexico few studies have focused on the nutritional status (NS) distribution in the hospital setting. Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate the distribution of NS and the prevalence of nosocomial infection NI among adult elective surgery (ES) patients and to compare the clinical and anthropometric characteristics and length of stays (LOS) between obese and non-obese patients and between patients with and without NI. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study with a sample (n = 82) adult ES patients (21–59 years old) who were recruited from a tertiary-care hospital. The prevalences of each NS category and NI were estimated, the assessments were compared between groups (Mann-Whitney, Chi-squared or the Fisher's-exact-test), and the association between preoperative risk-factors and NI was evaluated using odds ratios. Results The distribution of subjects by NS category was: underweight (3.66%), normal-weight (28.05%), overweight (35.36%), and obese (32.93%). The prevalence of NI was 14.63%. The LOS was longer (p<0.001) for the patients who developed NI. The percentages of NI were: 33.3% in underweight, 18.52% in obese, 17.39% in normal-weight, and 6.90% in overweight patients. Conclusion The prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult ES patients is high. The highest prevalence of NI occurred in the underweight and obese patients. The presence of NI considerably increased the LOS, resulting in higher medical care costs. PMID:25803860
Lomtadze, M; Chkhaidze, M; Mgeladze, E; Metreveli, I; Tsintsadze, A
Nosocomial infections still remain a serious problem in patients undergoing open heart surgery. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence, etiology and main risk factors of nosocomial infections (NI) following cardiac surgery in congenital heart diseases population. Retrospective case study was conducted. 387 patients with congenital heart disease (CHD), who underwent cardiac surgery from January 2007 to December 2008 were studied. The age of the most patients varied between 1 day to 15 years, 73 patients (18,8%) were older than 15 years. All 387 patients underwent cardiac surgery. The rate of NI was 16%. The most common infections were bloodstream infections (BSI) (7,75%) and respiratory tract infections (7%) respectively. The rate of NI was higher in patients under 1 year of age, after urgent surgery and urgent reoperation, long cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and aortic cross-clamp time, also in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation, massive haemotransfusion, with open heart bone after surgery, reintubation, hospitalization in another hospital during last three month. It was concluded that the most common nosocomial infection after cardiac surgery congenital heart diseases in Georgian population was blood stream infection. The main risk factors of NI in the same setting were age under 1 year, urgent surgery, urgent reoperation, long CPB and aortic cross-clamp time, long duration of mechanical ventilation, massive haemotransfusion, open heart bone after surgery, reintubation, hospitalization in another hospital during last three month.
Goudarzi, Mehdi; Fazeli, Maryam; Goudarzi, Hossein; Azad, Mehdi; Seyedjavadi, Sima Sadat
Background The incidence of nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus infection is increasing annually and becoming a true global challenge. The pattern of Staphylococcus aureus protein A (spa) types in different geographic regions is diverse. Objectives This study determined the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and different spa types in S. aureus clinical isolates. Materials and Methods During a six-month period, 90 S. aureus isolates were recovered from 320 clinical specimens. The in vitro susceptibility of various S. aureus isolates to 16 antibiotic discs was assessed using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Molecular typing was carried out with S. aureus protein A typing via polymerase chain reaction. Results The frequency of methicillin-resistant S. aureus in our study was 88.9%. Twenty-three (25.5%) isolates were positive for panton-valentine leukocidin encoding genes. S. aureus presented a high resistance rate to ampicillin (100%) and penicillin (100%). No resistance was observed to vancomycin, teicoplanin, or linezolid. The rates of resistance to the majority of antibiotics tested varied between 23.3% and 82.2%. The rate of multidrug resistance among these clinical isolates was 93.3%. The 90 S. aureus isolates were classified into five S. aureus protein A types: t037 (33.3%), t030 (22.2%), t790 (16.7%), t969 (11.1%), and t044 (7.7%). Eight (8.9%) isolates were not typable using the S. aureus protein A typing method. Conclusions We report a high methicillin-resistant S. aureus rate in our hospital. Additionally, t030 and t037 were the predominant spa-types among hospital-associated S. aureus. Our findings emphasize the need for continuous surveillance to prevent the dissemination of multidrug resistance among different S. aureus protein A types in Iran. PMID:27679706
Hasan, Zahra; Mahmood, Faisal; Jamil, Bushra; Atkinson, Barry; Mohammed, Murtaza; Samreen, Azra; Altaf, Lamia; Moatter, Tariq; Hewson, Roger
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in the Baluchistan province, Pakistan. Sporadic outbreaks of CCHF occur throughout the year especially in individuals in contact with infected livestock. Nosocomial transmission remains a risk due to difficulties in the diagnosis of CCHF and limited availability of facilities for the isolation of suspected patients. Rapid diagnosis of CCHF virus infection is required for early management of the disease and to prevent transmission. This study describes the case of a 43-year-old surgeon who contracted CCHF during a surgical procedure in Quetta, Baluchistan and who was transferred to a tertiary care facility at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi within 1 week of contracting the infection. Diagnosis of CCHF was made using a rapid real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for CCHF viral RNA. The patient had chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis D infection for which he had previously received a liver transplant. He proceeded to develop classic hemorrhagic manifestations and succumbed to the infection 14 days post-onset of disease. There was no further nosocomial transmission of the CCHF during the hospital treatment of the surgeon. Early diagnosis of CCHF enables rapid engagement of appropriate isolation, barrier nursing and infection control measures thus preventing nosocomial transmission of the virus.
Tekin, Recep; Dal, Tuba; Bozkurt, Fatma; Deveci, Ozcan; Palanc, Ylmaz; Arslan, Eyüp; Selçuk, Caferi Tayyar; Hoşoğlu, Salih
Acinetobacter baumannii infections in burn patients may lead to delays in wound healing, graft losses, and development of sepsis. Determining the risk factors for multidrug resistant A. baumannii (MDR-AB) infections is essential for infection control. In the present study, the authors aimed to evaluate risk factors for wound infections caused by A. baumannii in burn patients. The study was conducted at Dicle University Hospital Burn Center, from April 2011 to July 2012, to investigate the risk factors for MDR-AB infections. The data of both the case and control group patients and the result of wound cultures were recorded on a daily basis, on individual forms given for each patient, and analyzed. A total of 30 cases infected with MDR-AB, and 60 uninfected control patients, were included in the study. The mean age (±SD) was 7.7 ± 15.4 years in infected patients and 11.4 ± 16.5 years in uninfected patients. The mean total burn surface area was 13.5 ± 10.9% in uninfected patients and 34.7 ± 16.2% in infected patients. The mean total burn surface area, the abbreviated burn severity index, acute physiological and chronic health evaluation II score, day of admission to hospital, length of hospital stay, first excision day, prior usage of third-generation cephalosporins, and stay in intensive care unit of the infected patients were significantly higher (P < .001) than those of patients without infection. Univariate analysis found that high acute physiological and chronic health evaluation II score, first excision time of wound, invasive device usage, admission day to hospital, and prior usage of broad-spectrum antibiotics were risk factors for nosocomial infections. This study showed that multiple factors contribute to multidrug resistance in A. baumannii. A combination of an early diagnosis of wound infections, appropriate antimicrobial treatments, surgical debridement, and early wound closure may be effective in the management.
Schabrun, S; Chipchase, L
Nosocomial infections (NIs) result in significant financial and individual costs, with large numbers of patients acquiring infections annually. Healthcare equipment has been identified as a likely source of these infections, and research indicates that up to one-third of all NIs may be prevented by adequate cleaning of equipment. Thus, this systematic review aimed to determine levels of contamination on healthcare equipment, to identify viable cleaning protocols and to establish the methodological quality of current evidence. Published and unpublished studies from January 1972 to December 2004 were identified in eight major databases. Methodological quality was evaluated using the hierarchy of evidence and a quantitative critical appraisal tool. Data were extracted and analysed using five major outcome measures. Fifty studies were identified investigating a range of healthcare equipment, of which 23 were included in the review. Methodological quality ranged from 6.5 to 9.5 out of 14 for observational studies and from 6.5 to 9.5 out of 15 for repeated measures studies. The included studies reported that 86.8% of all sampled equipment was contaminated, with 70% alcohol reducing the levels of contamination on equipment by 82.1%. Healthcare equipment is a significant source of NI. High levels of contamination are present on a wide range of healthcare equipment. However, the majority of contamination and hence any risk of acquiring a NI can be reduced substantially by regular cleaning of equipment with 70% alcohol. Further research is required into the role of community healthcare equipment in NI.
Yasuda, T; Yoshimura, Y; Takada, H; Kawaguchi, S; Ito, M; Yamazaki, F; Iriyama, J; Ishigo, S; Asano, Y
Opportunistic infections caused by gram-negative rods (GNR), conventionally regarded as organisms with low or no pathogenicity, and intractable infections caused by various resistant organisms pose a great problem now. In view of this, we determined the bactericidal effects of 5 commonly used disinfectants using as the test strains Xanthomonas maltophilia and Serratia marcescens, chosen among other GNR since they often cause nosocomial infections. Regarding the bactericidal activities against X. maltophilia and S. marcescens, both sensitive strains and resistant strains were killed within 20 s of exposure to povidone-iodine and sodium hypochlorite. With chlorhexidine, 1 strain each of both species was not killed within 10 min of exposure at a concentration of 0.2%. Both sensitive strains and resistant strains of X. maltophilia were killed within 20 s of exposure to benzalkonium at 0.02%, while a concentration of 0.1% was required for benzalkonium to kill S. marcescens within 20 s. With Tego-51, both sensitive strains and resistant strains of X. maltophilia were killed within 20 s at 0.02%, while 1 strain of S. marcescens was not killed within 20 s at a concentration of 0.1%. In the use of disinfectants, comparative bactericidal effects of various disinfectants against clinical isolates should be taken into consideration.
Vatopoulos, A. C.; Kalapothaki, V.; Legakis, N. J.
The present article reports an evaluation of the national electronic network for the continuous monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in Greece. The network employs a common electronic code and data format and uses WHONET software. Our four years' experience with the network confirms its practicality. A total of 22 hospitals in Greece are currently using the software, of which 19 participate in the network. Analysis of the information obtained has greatly helped in identifying the main factors responsible for the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in the participating hospitals. The data collected have also helped to identify priorities for further investigation of the genetic and molecular mechanisms responsible for the emergence of resistance and facilitated development of hospital-based empirical therapy of infections. In conclusion, the implementation of national networks for the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance should be regarded as a priority. PMID:10444883
Lettau, L A
As a rule, both the standard of hygiene and sanitation prevalent in hospitals in the United States and the rarity of parasitic diseases compared to viral, bacterial, and fungal infections, reduce the hazard of nosocomial acquisition of parasites to relatively trivial levels. However, abetted by the resultant low index of suspicion on the part of clinical staff, certain parasitic microorganisms may at times cause significant morbidity and even mortality in both normal and immunocompromised patients, as summarized in this review. Also, the nosocomial acquisition of parasites may be somewhat underappreciated because the incubation period for clinical illness may be days to weeks and thus a hospital-acquired infection may not be recognized as such, particularly if the parasite is endemic locally. Parasitic diseases have been a much more significant problem in certain special facilities, such as custodial institutions for the mentally ill or retarded, where crowding, poor environmental sanitation, and low levels of personal hygiene have in the past allowed the rapid dissemination and endemic occurrence of a large variety of parasitic infections. It is likely that nosocomial transmission of parasites may be an even greater problem in some hospitals in the tropics, where strict hygienic standards are costly or otherwise more difficult to maintain, and where often an increased proportion of the patient population harbors one or more parasites. However, the exact magnitude of the problem in tropical hospitals is also more difficult to determine because nosocomial acquisition of a parasitic infection may not be distinguished easily versus exogenous infection or reactivation of latent infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of universal mass vaccination (UMV) against rotavirus (RV) on the hospitalization rates, nosocomial RV infections and RV-gastroenteritis (GE)-associated secondary blood stream infections (BSI). Methods The retrospective evaluation (2002–2009) by chart analysis included all clinically diagnosed and microbiologically confirmed RV-GE cases in a large tertiary care hospital in Austria. The pre-vaccination period (2002–2005) was compared with the recommended and early funded (2006–2007) and the funded (2008–2009) vaccination periods. Primary outcomes were RV-GE-associated hospitalizations, secondary outcomes nosocomial RV disease, secondary BSI and direct hospitalization costs for children and their accompanying persons. Results In 1,532 children with RV-GE, a significant reduction by 73.9% of hospitalized RV-GE cases per year could be observed between the pre-vaccination and the funded vaccination period, which was most pronounced in the age groups 0–11 months (by 87.8%), 6–10 years (by 84.2%) and 11–18 years (88.9%). In the funded vaccination period, a reduction by 71.9% of nosocomial RV-GE cases per year was found compared to the pre-vaccination period. Fatalities due to nosocomial RV-GE were only observed in the pre-vaccination period (3 cases). Direct costs of hospitalized, community-acquired RV-GE cases per year were reduced by 72.7% in the funded vaccination period. The reduction of direct costs for patients (by 86.9%) and accompanying persons (86.2%) was most pronounced in the age group 0–11 months. Conclusions UMV may have contributed to the significant decrease of RV-GE-associated hospitalizations, to a reduction in nosocomial RV infections and RV-associated morbidity due to secondary BSI and reduced direct hospitalization costs. The reduction in nosocomial cases is an important aspect considering severe disease courses in hospitalized patients with co-morbidities and death due to
We report the results of a 2-year, 7-center program of surveillance of deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) after cardiac surgery. DSWI was defined as the need for reoperation. Stratification data were abstracted from computerized files. The incidence of DSWI was 2.2% (198 of 8,816 cardiac surgery procedures). The risk factors identified were obesity, age, coronary artery bypass grafting, postoperative mechanical ventilation, and early surgical reexploration. The resource efficiency of this simplified surveillance method is discussed.
Barbuscia, M; Melita, G; Trovato, M; Minniti, C; Lemma, G; Gorgone, S
Every surgical act, especially in geriatric age, can be a relevant moment in the onset of nosocomial infections. This has a peculiar aspect in patient who undergo colo-rectal surgery, both in election and especially in emergency, in which the simple opening of intestines always involves a minimal contamination. In order to reduce the incidence of infections, and therefore the septic complications of this surgery, it is necessary to pay attention to the preparation of the surgical equipe, of the operating room, of the surgical instruments and, in election, to the careful preparation of the patient through a careful evaluation of the possible bio-umoral alterations, in order to correct them. The results of our experience allow us to say that the prevention of post-operatory sepsis find its main moment in the careful evaluation and eventual correction of the nutritional status, in the stimulation of the immune system, in the antibiotic prophylaxis both parenteral and topical, and, last but not least, in a correct surgical technique. All this is particularly important for patients affected by colo-rectal neoplastic and inflammatory diseases, for which the intestinal bacteria, more virulent in weak and fragile patients, often represent the source of contamination that can start a sepsis and then assume an important part in determining the final result of surgery.
Díaz, Emili; Martín-Loeches, Ignacio; Vallés, Jordi
The hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP) is one of the most common infections acquired among hospitalised patients. Within the HAP, the ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infection complication among patients with acute respiratory failure. The VAP and HAP are associated with increased mortality and increased hospital costs. The rise in HAP due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria also causes an increase in the incidence of inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy, with an associated increased risk of hospital mortality. It is very important to know the most common organisms responsible for these infections in each hospital and each Intensive Care Unit, as well as their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, in order to reduce the incidence of inappropriate antibiotic therapy and improve the prognosis of patients. Additionally, clinical strategies aimed at the prevention of HAP and VAP should be employed in hospital settings caring for patients at risk for these infections.
Valenti, W M; Hruska, J F; Menegus, M A; Freeburn, M J
This communication is the third in a four-part series on nosocomial viral infections from the Strong Memorial Hospital. This third article discusses guidelines for prevention and control of exanthematous viruses, gastroenteritis, viruses, adenoviruses and the picornaviruses other than rhinoviruses. Several uncommonly seen viruses, such as the virus of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and Marburg, Ebola, and Lassa fever viruses, also are reviewed briefly.
Gülmez, Dolunay; Sancak, Banu; Ercis, Serpil; Karakaya, Jale; Hasçelik, Gülşen
Infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are important health care problems since they are usually multidrug resistant. Although MRSA is isolated especially from nosocomial infections, community-acquired MRSA infections are increasing. Methicillin resistance is due to the expression of mecA gene, which is located on SCCmec gene cassette. Different SCCmec types can be detected in hospital-acquired and community-acquired (CA-) MRSA strains. CA-MRSA strains might harbour Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), an important virulence factor in skin and soft tissue infections. Strains carrying PVL has the ability to penetrate undamaged skin and cause more severe infections. The aim of this study was to detect SCCmec types and PVL gene in S.aureus strains isolated from skin and soft tissue infections and to compare with strains isolated from other infections in a university hospital in Ankara, Turkey. S.aureus strains isolated from skin and soft tissue infections (n= 285) and a control group consisting of 161 strains isolated from other infections (53 blood, 48 lower respiratory tract samples, 30 sterile body fluids, 30 genitourinary tract samples) chosen by stratification and random selection method, were included in the study. Among skin and soft tissue infection strains 46.7% were from the hospitalized patients and 48.4% of skin and soft tissue infection strains were from female patients. The mean age of the skin and soft tissue infection patients was 45.5 years. Among the control strains 60.9% were from the hospitalized patients and 41.6% of the control patients were female. The mean age of the control patients was 50.2 years. Strains were identified by the Phoenix system (Becton Dickinson, USA) and identification was confirmed by tube coagulase test. Methicillin resistance was determined by the Phoenix system which determines both oxacillin and cefoxitin minimum inhibitor concentrations and, confirmed by oxacillin agar screening and
Fanello, S; Bouchara, J P; Sauteron, M; Delbos, V; Parot, E; Marot-Leblond, A; Moalic, E; Le Flohicc, A M; Brangerd, B
The incidence of nosocomial yeast infections has increased markedly in recent decades, especially among the elderly. The present study was therefore initiated not only to determine the predictive value of oral colonization by yeasts for the onset of a nosocomial Candida infection in elderly hospitalized patients (> 65 years), but also to clarify the factors that promote infection and to establish a relationship between the intensity of oral carriage and the onset of yeast infection. During this prospective cohort study, 256 patients (156 women and 100 men with a mean age of 83 +/- 8 years) were surveyed for yeast colonization or infection. Samples were collected every 4 days from day 0 to day 16 from four sites in the mouth, and intrinsic and extrinsic factors that might promote infection were recorded for each patient. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis was performed on Candida albicans isolates from all infected patients. Poor nutritional status was observed in 81 % of the patients and hyposalivation in 41 %. The colonization level was 67 % on day 0 (59 % C. albicans) and a heavy carriage of yeasts (> 50 c.f.u.) was observed for 51 % of the patients. The incidence of nosocomial colonization reached 6.9 % on day 4 (6.1 % on day 8 and 2.7 % on day 12), and that of nosocomial infection was 3.7 % on day 4 (6.8 % on day 8, 11.3 % on day 12 and 19.2 % on day 16). Of the 35 patients infected, 57 % were suffering from oral candidiasis. The principal risk factors for colonization were a dental prosthesis, poor oral hygiene and the use of antibiotics. The risk factors for infection, in addition to those already mentioned for colonization, were endocrine disease, poor nutritional status, prolonged hospitalization and high colony counts. Genotyping revealed person-to-person transmission in two patients. Thus, this study demonstrates a significant association between oral colonization and the onset of yeast infections in elderly hospitalized patients. Therefore, oral samples
Ruf, B.; Schürmann, D.; Horbach, I.; Seidel, K.; Pohle, H. D.
From January 1983 until December 1985, 35 cases of sporadic nosocomial legionella pneumonia, all caused by Legionella pneumophila, were diagnosed in a university hospital. L. pneumophila serogroup (SG) 1 was cultured from 12 of the 35 cases and compared to corresponding L. pneumophila SG 1 isolates from water outlets in the patients' immediate environment by subtyping with monoclonal antibodies. The corresponding environmental isolates were identical to 9 out of 12 (75%) of those from the cases. However, even in the remaining three cases identical subtypes were found distributed throughout the hospital water supply. From the hospital water supply four different subtypes of L. pneumophila SG 1 were isolated, three of which were implicated in legionella pneumonia. Of 453 water samples taken during the study 298 (65.8%) were positive for legionellae. Species of Legionella other than L. pneumophila have not been isolated. This may explain the exclusiveness of L. pneumophila as the legionella pneumonia-causing agent. Our results suggest that the water supply system was the source of infection. PMID:3215293
Bouassida, Khaireddine; Jaidane, Mehdi; Bouallegue, Olfa; Tlili, Ghassen; Naija, Habiba; Mosbah, Ali Tahar
Introduction: Our goal was to investigate the prevalence and antibiogram pattern of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production among uropathogens using isolates from urine samples collected at the Department of Urology in the Sahloul Hospital, Tunisia We also aimed to identify the risk factors for nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs) in patients who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and the measures for infection control. Methods: Laboratory records of a five-year period from January 2004 to December 2008 were submitted for retrospective analysis to determine the incidence of ESBL infections. A total of 276 isolates were collected. A case-control study involving comparisons between two groups of patients who underwent TURP was performed to determine the risk factors for ESBL infection. Group 1, designated case subjects, included 51 patients with nosocomial UTI after TURP. Group 2, designated control subjects, consisted of 58 randomly selected patients who underwent TURP without nosocomial UTI in the same period. Factors suspected to be implicated in the emergence of ESBL infection were compared between the two groups in order to identify risk factors for infection. A univariate regression analysis was performed, followed by a multivariate one. Results: The annual prevalence of ESBL infection ranged from 1.3–2.5%. After performing univariate and multivariate regression analysis, the main risk factors for ESBL infections were identified as: use of antibiotics the year preceding the admission, duration of catheter use, and bladder washout (p=0.012, p=0.019, and p<0.001. Conclusions: Urologists have to perform a good hemostasis, especially in endoscopic resections, in order to avoid bladder irrigation and bladder washout and to reduce the time of bladder catheterization, which is a strong risk factor of nosocomial UTIs. PMID:27330585
Giannitsioti, E; Skiadas, I; Antoniadou, A; Tsiodras, S; Kanavos, K; Triantafyllidi, H; Giamarellou, H
Current epidemiological trends of infective endocarditis (IE) in Greece were investigated via a prospective cohort study of all cases of IE that fulfilled the Duke criteria during 2000-2004 in 14 tertiary and six general hospitals in the metropolitan area of Athens. Demographics, clinical data and outcome were compared for nosocomial IE (NIE) and community-acquired IE (CIE). NIE accounted for 42 (21.5%) and CIE for 153 (78.5%) of 195 cases. Intravenous drug use was associated exclusively with CIE, while co-morbidities (cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure requiring haemodialysis and malignancies) were more frequent in the NIE group (p <0.05). Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) predominated in the NIE group (p 0.006), and >50% of NIE cases had a history of vascular intervention. Coagulase-negative staphylococci and enterococci were more frequent in cases of NIE than in cases of CIE (26.2% vs. 5.2%, p <0.01, and 30.9% vs. 16.3%, p 0.05, respectively). Enterococci accounted for 19.5% of total IE cases and were the leading cause of NIE. Staphylococcus aureus IE was hospital-acquired in only 11.9% of cases. In-hospital mortality was higher for NIE than for CIE (39.5% vs. 18.6%, p 0.02). Cardiac failure (New York Heart Association grade III-IV; OR 13.3, 95% CI 4.9-36.1, p <0.001) and prosthetic valve endocarditis (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.3-10.6, p 0.01) were the most important predictors of mortality.
Boutiba-Ben Boubaker, I; Boukadida, J; Triki, O; Hannachi, N; Ben Redjeb, S
An outbreak of a multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa including imipenem resistance occurred in the urology intensive care unit at Charles Nicolle Hospital (Tunis). All isolates presented the same antibiotic resistance pattern and were only susceptible to colistin. The epidemic strain was detected in different sites of this unit. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis after enzymatic restriction using XbaI was performed in order to establish an epidemiologic link between these infections. Genotypic analysis showed two different patterns and the environmental source was identified in both cases. Although the same antibiotype was harbored by all the isolates, two outbreaks occurring in the same period were identified. The strengthening of hygiene measures allowed to stop the outbreak spreading. Since the hospital environment is the major source of Pseudomonas aeruginosa contamination, a continuous surveillance of the patients and the environmental sources is required for the implementation efficient control measures.
Hugonnet, Stéphane; Villaveces, Andrés; Pittet, Didier
The authors compared a case-crossover design, a case-time-control design, and a cohort design to evaluate the effect of nurse staffing level on the risk of nosocomial infections. They evaluated two strategies, conditional logistic regression and generalized estimating equation, to analyze the case-crossover study. The study was performed among critically ill patients in the medical intensive care unit of the University of Geneva Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland. Of 366 patients who stayed more than 7 days in the intensive care unit between 1999 and 2002, 144 developed an infection. The main reasons for admission were infectious (35.3%), cardiovascular (32.5%), and pulmonary (19.7%) conditions. A comparison of the three study designs showed that lower nurse staffing was associated with an approximately 50% increased risk of nosocomial infections. All analyses yielded similar estimates, except that the point estimate obtained by the conditional logistic regression used in the case-crossover design was biased away from unity; the generalized estimating equation yielded unbiased results and is the most appropriate technique for case-crossover designs. The case-crossover methodology in hospital epidemiology is a promising alternative to traditional approaches, but selection of the referent periods is challenging.
Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Farnoux, Caroline; Bidet, Philippe; Caro, Valérie; Aizenfisz, Sophie; Benhayoun, Mounir; Aujard, Yannick; Guiso, Nicole; Bingen, Edouard
We describe a case of nosocomial maternal transmission of Bordetella pertussis to a very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonate in whom treatment was unsuccessful. This case underscores the need for rapid and sensitive PCR diagnosis in VLBW neonates and in parents with clinical signs of pertussis and suggests that standard treatment may not be appropriate for VLBW neonates.
Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Farnoux, Caroline; Bidet, Philippe; Caro, Valérie; Aizenfisz, Sophie; Benhayoun, Mounir; Aujard, Yannick; Guiso, Nicole; Bingen, Edouard
We describe a case of nosocomial maternal transmission of Bordetella pertussis to a very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonate in whom treatment was unsuccessful. This case underscores the need for rapid and sensitive PCR diagnosis in VLBW neonates and in parents with clinical signs of pertussis and suggests that standard treatment may not be appropriate for VLBW neonates. PMID:17021121
Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Koksal, Iftihar; Akan, Özay Arıkan; Özgültekin, Asu; Kendirli, Tanil; Erben, Nurettin; Yalcin, Ata Nevzat; Ulusoy, Sercan; Sirmatel, Fatma; Ozdemir, Davut; Alp, Emine; Yıldızdaş, Dinçer; Esen, Saban; Ulger, Fatma; Dilek, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Hava; Yýlmaz, Gürdal; Kaya, Selçuk; Ulusoy, Hülya; Tulunay, Melek; Oral, Mehmet; Ünal, Necmettin; Turan, Güldem; Akgün, Nur; İnan, Asuman; Ince, Erdal; Karbuz, Adem; Çiftçi, Ergin; Taşyapar, Nevin; Güneş, Melek; Ozgunes, Ilhan; Usluer, Gaye; Turhan, Ozge; Gunay, Nurgul; Gumus, Eylul; Dursun, Oguz; Arda, Bilgin; Bacakoglu, Feza; Cengiz, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Leyla; Geyik, Mehmet Faruk; Şahin, Ahmet; Erdogan, Selvi; Kılıc, Aysegul Ulu; Horoz, Ozden Ozgur
Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Multidimensional Hand Hygiene Approach in Turkey and analyse predictors of poor hand hygiene compliance. Design: An observational, prospective, interventional, before-and-after study was conducted from August 2003 to August 2011 in 12 intensive care units (ICU) of 12 hospitals in 11 cities. The study was divided into a baseline and a follow-up period and included random 30-minute observations for hand hygiene compliance in ICU. The hand hygiene approach included administrative support, supplies availability, education and training, reminders in the workplace, process surveillance, and performance feedback. Results: We observed 21,145 opportunities for hand hygiene. Overall hand hygiene compliance increased from 28.8% to 91% (95% CI 87.6–93.0, p 0.0001). Multivariate and univariate analyses showed that several variables were significantly associated with poor hand hygiene compliance: males vs. females (39% vs. 48%; 95% CI 0.79–0.84, p 0.0001), ancillary staff vs. physicians (35% vs. 46%, 95% CI 0.73–0.78, p 0.0001), and adult vs. pediatric ICUs (42% vs. 74%, 95% CI 0.54–0.60, p 0.0001). Conclusions: Adherence to hand hygiene was significantly increased with the INICC Hand Hygiene Approach. Specific programmes should be directed to improve hand hygiene in variables found to be predictors of poor hand hygiene compliance.
Latifpour, Mohammad; Gholipour, Abolfazl; Damavandi, Mohammad Sadegh
Background Klebsiella pneumoniae is a family member of Enterobacteriaceae. Isolates of K. pneumoniae produce enzymes that cause decomposition of third generation cephalosporins. These enzymes are known as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Resistance of K. pneumoniae to beta-lactamase antibiotics is commonly mediated by beta-lactamase genes. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify the ESBL produced by K. pneumoniae isolates that cause community-acquired and nosocomial urinary tract infections within a one-year period (2013 to 2014) in Kashani and Hajar university hospitals of Shahrekord, Iran. Patients and Methods From 2013 to 2014, 150 strains of K. pneumoniae isolate from two different populations with nosocomial and community-acquired infections were collected. The strains were then investigated by double disk synergism and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results The study population of 150 patients with nosocomial and community-acquired infections were divided to two groups of 75 each. We found that 48 of the K. pneumoniae isolates in the patients with nosocomial infection and 39 isolates in those with community-acquired infections produced ESBL. The prevalence of TEM1, SHV1 and VEB1 in ESBL-producing isolates in nosocomial patients was 24%, 29.3% and 10.6%, and in community-acquired patients, 17.3%, 22.7% and 8%, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolate is of great concern; therefore, continuous investigation seems essential to monitor ESBL-producing bacteria in patients with nosocomial and community-acquired infections. PMID:27226874
Giovannini, A; Calistri, P; Conte, A; Savini, L; Nannini, D; Patta, C; Santucci, U; Caporale, V
The occurrence of bluetongue virus (BTV) in areas in which intensive animal production is practised and where there is extensive movement of animals may have a substantial impact on both animal trade and husbandry. This situation occurred in Italy after the detection of bluetongue (BT) in August 2000. In such situations, surveillance can be used to delineate with precision those areas in which the virus is circulating and, consequently, to enforce the appropriate animal movement restrictions. Furthermore, surveillance can provide the data required to assess the risk associated with animal movement and trade. A structured surveillance system for the detection of BTV has been in place in Italy since August 2001. The system is based on the periodical testing of unvaccinated sentinel cattle that are uniformly scattered throughout Italy in a grid of 400 km(2) cells. The initial number of sentinel sites and sentinel animals, together with the width of the restricted area generated by the finding of a single seroconversion in a sentinel animal, were based on conservative criteria. Animal movement was restricted in a 20 km radius buffer zone around any positive serological result. This buffer area extends about 1,257 km(2), equivalent to the area of three grid cells. After the commencement of the BT vaccination campaign in Italy, the sentinel surveillance system was the only way in which the effectiveness of vaccination and the incidence of infection in the non-immunised strata of ruminant animals could be estimated. Data collected over two years was used to assess the risks posed by the adoption of less conservative criteria for the delineation of infected areas and by the progressive relaxation of movement restrictions of vaccinated animals. In regard to the delineation of restricted areas, a new approach was tested and validated in the field, based on a Bayesian analysis of the positive and negative results obtained by the testing of sentinel animals from defined
Masterton, R G
The increase in antimicrobial resistance has led to predictions of doom in the international press and to depression in the medical community. It has focused attention upon measures for fighting resistance, foremost of which is susceptibility surveillance. Until recently, global efforts at surveillance have been largely uncoordinated and random. This scene is rapidly changing with the World Health Organization (WHO), among others, leading multidisciplinary, targeted initiatives. In terms of individual surveillance programmes, much has been learned about their design. The best of these, the Meropenem Yearly Susceptibility Test Information Collection (MYSTIC), SENTRY and the Alexander Project, involve well-defined patient and organism groups against key denominators, and use standardized, internationally recognized methods that are quality-controlled, explore susceptibility quantitatively and include investigation of resistance mechanisms. Results are rapidly returned to the user. Evidence shows that surveillance, when used to guide policies on antibiotic use and infection control, can be helpful in the fight to control the development and spread of resistance. Further work is required to demonstrate these benefits and quantify them fully.
The increase in antimicrobial resistance has led to predictions of doom in the international press and to depression in the medical community. It has focused attention upon measures for fighting resistance, foremost of which is susceptibility surveillance. Until recently, global efforts at surveillance have been largely uncoordinated and random. This scene is rapidly changing with the World Health Organization (WHO), among others, leading multidisciplinary, targeted initiatives. In terms of individual surveillance programmes, much has been learned about their design. The best of these, the Meropenem Yearly Susceptibility Test Information Collection (MYSTIC), SENTRY and the Alexander Project, involve well-defined patient and organism groups against key denominators, and use standardized, internationally recognized methods that are quality-controlled, explore susceptibility quantitatively and include investigation of resistance mechanisms. Results are rapidly returned to the user. Evidence shows that surveillance, when used to guide policies on antibiotic use and infection control, can be helpful in the fight to control the development and spread of resistance. Further work is required to demonstrate these benefits and quantify them fully.
Lakshmana Gowda, Krishnappa; John, James; Marie, Mohammed A M; Sangeetha, Gopalkrishnan; Bindurani, Shanta Range
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most common pathogens in nosocomial infections. Many studies have documented the role of quorum-sensing (QS) systems in antibiotic tolerance of P. aeruginosa. N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) serve as QS signalling molecules and can be a target for modulating bacterial pathogenicity. In this study, nosocomial isolates of P. aeruginosa were characterized for the presence of different types of QS signalling molecules. AHLs were solvent extracted and quantified by determination of β-galactosidase activity using the Escherichia coli MG4 reporter strain. Further characterization was performed by analytical thin layer chromatography coupled with detection using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136 biosensor strain. All P. aeruginosa isolates produced AHLs, but there were differences in the quantity and nature of AHLs. We identified AHLs belonging to C4-homoserine lactone (HSL), C6-HSL, C8-HSL, C10-HSL and C12-HSL. AHL profiling of P. aeruginosa isolates showed differences in the amounts and types of AHLs, suggesting differences in the virulence factors and the potential for infection. Our results may be investigated further using animal model systems.
This document updates and replaces CDC's previously published "Guideline for Prevention of Nosocomial Pneumonia" (Infect Control 1982;3:327-33, Respir Care 1983;28:221-32, and Am J Infect Control 1983;11:230-44). This revised guideline is designed to reduce the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia and is intended for use by personnel who are responsible for surveillance and control of infections in acute-care hospitals; the information may not be applicable in long-term-care facilities because of the unique characteristics of such settings. This revised guideline addresses common problems encountered by infection-control practitioners regarding the prevention and control of nosocomial pneumonia in U.S. hospitals. Sections on the prevention of bacterial pneumonia in mechanically ventilated and/or critically ill patients, care of respiratory-therapy devices, prevention of cross-contamination, and prevention of viral lower respiratory tract infections (e.g., respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] and influenza infections) have been expanded and updated. New sections on Legionnaires disease and pneumonia caused by Aspergillus sp. have been included. Lower respiratory tract infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is not addressed in this document. Part I, "An Overview of the Prevention of Nosocomial Pneumonia, 1994, provides the background information for the consensus recommendations of the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) in Part II, Recommendations for Prevention of Nosocomial Pneumonia." Pneumonia is the second most common nosocomial infection in the United States and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Most patients who have nosocomial pneumonia are infants, young children, and persons > 65 years of age; persons who have severe underlying disease, immunosuppression, depressed sensorium, and/or cardiopulmonary disease and persons who have had thoracoabdominal surgery. Although patients receiving mechanically
González, Lina; Ochoa, Jesus; Franco, Liliana; Arroyave, Marta; Restrepo, Eliana; Blair, Silvia; Maestre, Amanda
Three cases of nosocomial malaria are reported from patients of the Internal Medicine Ward of a tertiary University teaching hospital in Medellin, Colombia. Epidemiological research, based on entomological captures, medical records review and interviews of nursery staff about patient care practices potentially involving contact with blood, were carried out. Molecular characterization of Plasmodium falciparum was based on the amplification of MSP1, MSP2 and GLURP genes. This method enabled confirmation of the same P. falciparum genotype in all three patients as well as in a fourth one (index case). The presence of nosocomial malaria was confirmed and it was concluded that the most likely source of transmission was through multi-dose preparations of heparin applied to heparin locks. PMID:15703072
Naveda Romero, Omar E; Naveda Meléndez, Andrea F
Aunque la transfusión de hemoderivados es una práctica común, los efectos sobre el sistema inmune no han sido bien estudiados. Para determinar la asociación entre transfusión de glóbulos rojos (TGR) e infecciones nosocomiales, se realizó un estudio de cohorte prospectivo con niños críticamente enfermos, seguidos hasta su fallecimiento, transferencia o egreso. Las infecciones nosocomiales se consideraron postransfusionales si ocurrieron dentro de los 14 días después de la TGR. Se incluyeron 162 niños, 35 adquirieron infección nosocomial (21,6%) y 49 recibieron TGR (30,2%). Los niños con infección nosocomial recibieron más frecuentemente TGR (48,5% vs. 14,9%; OR 5,4; IC 95%: 2,4-12,6; p 〈 0,0001) y presentaron mayor mortalidad (45,7% vs. 10,2%; OR 7,4; IC 95%: 3,1-18,2; p 〈 0,0001). En la regresión logística binaria, la TGR se mantuvo asociada independientemente a infección nosocomial (OR 4,2; IC 95%: 2,1-20,2; p = 0,049). Conclusión: La TGR se asoció a un incremento del riesgo de adquirir infecciones nosocomiales.
Traub, W. H.; Craddock, M. E.; Raymond, E. A.; Fox, M.; McCall, C. E.
An outbreak of nosocomial urinary-tract infection was caused by a strain of Proteus rettgeri that fermented lactose overnight and was resistant to all antimicrobial drugs tested. The nonmotile isolates shared an O (somatic) antigen that differed from those of wild-type P. rettgeri. The organisms proved markedly serum-sensitive. In rats, the isolates elicited an acute interstitial nephritis with associated transient bacteriuria. Attempts to transfer the lac+ trait and drug-resistance markers to recipient strains of Escherichia coli K-12 failed; exposure of the isolates to acridine orange yielded small numbers of non-lactose-fermenting variants which, however, were still as drug-resistant as before. Epidemiological studies failed to uncover the source of this unique strain and appeared to indicate exogenous spread of infection. PMID:4940869
Solomon, S; Anuradha, S; Ganapathy, M; Jagadeeswari
The objective was to determine the time trends in the prevalence of HIV infection and to evaluate appropriate preventive intervention in different population groups. Sentinel surveillance of HIV-1 infection by anonymous unlinked technique was carried out in Tamilnadu from December 1989 to March 1993. The sentinel population monitored were attendees of STD clinics, blood donors and antenatal mothers. The results of HIV seropositivity were compared for each 6-month period. During the study period there was 10-fold rise of HIV seropositivity among STD patients (1% to 10%), 2-fold rise among antenatal attendees (0.37% to 0.76%), and 3-fold rise in blood donors (0.24% to 0.72%). There was a steady increase in the incidence of HIV infection among those with high risk behaviour (STD attendees) as well as in the general population. This information is of value in planning and evaluation of preventive and control programmes in India.
Koningstein, Maike; van der Bij, Akke K.; de Kraker, Marlieke E. A.; Monen, Jos C.; Muilwijk, Jan; de Greeff, Sabine C.; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; van Hall, Maurine A. Leverstein-
Background Complicated urinary tract infections (c-UTIs) are among the most common nosocomial infections and a substantial part of the antimicrobial agents used in hospitals is for the treatment of c-UTIs. Data from surveillance can be used to guide the empirical treatment choices of clinicians when treating c-UTIs. We therefore used nation-wide surveillance data to evaluate antimicrobial coverage of agents for the treatment of c-UTI in the Netherlands. Methods We included the first isolate per patient of urine samples of hospitalised patients collected by the Infectious Disease Surveillance Information System for Antibiotic Resistance (ISIS-AR) in 2012, and determined the probability of inadequate coverage for antimicrobial agents based on species distribution and susceptibility. Analyses were repeated for various patient groups and hospital settings. Results The most prevalent bacteria in 27,922 isolates of 23,357 patients were Escherichia coli (47%), Enterococcus spp. (14%), Proteus mirabilis (8%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (7%). For all species combined, the probability of inadequate coverage was <5% for amoxicillin or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combined with gentamicin and the carbapenems. When including gram-negative bacteria only, the probability of inadequate coverage was 4.0%, 2.7%, 2.3% and 1.7%, respectively, for amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, a second or a third generation cephalosporin in combination with gentamicin, and the carbapenems (0.4%). There were only small variations in results among different patient groups and hospital settings. Conclusions When excluding Enterococcus spp., considered as less virulent, and the carbapenems, considered as last-resort drugs, empirical treatment for c-UTI with the best chance of adequate coverage are one of the studied beta-lactam-gentamicin combinations. This study demonstrates the applicability of routine surveillance data for up-to-date clinical practice guidelines on empirical antimicrobial
Yang, Feifei; Zhang, Bingyan; Yu, Jie; Shao, Lingyun; Zhou, Pu; Zhu, Liping; Chen, Shu; Zhang, Wenhong; Weng, Xinhua; Zhang, Jiming; Huang, Yuxian
Limited research has been conducted on healthcare-associated infective endocarditis (HAIE), although it is of increasing importance. The aim of this study is to compare the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and prognosis of community-acquired IE (CA-IE) with HAIE and non-nosocomial healthcare-associated IE (NNHCA-IE). A retrospective, consecutive case-series analysis was organized and performed during the 20-year study period in Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China. A total of 154 patients were enrolled, including 126 (81.8%) who had CA-IE and 28 (18.2%) who had HAIE, among whom 20 (71.4%) had non-nosocomial IE. Patients with HAIE compared to patients with CA-IE had poorer clinical conditions (Charlson comorbidity index ≥2: 35.7% vs. 15.1%, P = 0.012; immunosuppressive therapy: 21.4% vs. 4.0%, P = 0.005), underwent more prosthetic valve replacement (35.7% vs. 7.1%, P <0.001), had less streptococcus infection (16.7% vs. 51.1%, P = 0.007) but more atypical bacterial infection (50.0% vs. 21.1%, P = 0.017) and poorer outcomes (17.9% vs. 4.0%, P = 0.019). It is noteworthy that the results were quite similar between the comparison of patients with NNHCA-IE and those with CA-IE. Overall, in-hospital mortality was 6.5%. The IE acquisition site and low serum albumin levels (odds ratio (OR): 0.8; P = 0.04) were significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality. Nosocomial IE patients had an 8.3-fold and NNHCA-IE patients had 6.5-fold increase in the risk of mortality compared to CA-IE patients. In conclusion, HAIE and NNHCA-IE have important epidemiological and prognostic implications. Because NNHCA-IE usually occurs in patients residing in the community, it is suggested that these patients should be identified and treated by the community primary care clinical staff as early as possible. PMID:26251828
Sow, A I
Nosocomial infections may be parasitic, mycosal or viral, but bacterial infections are more frequent. They are transmitted by hands or by oral route. This paper describes the main bacteria responsive of nosocomial infections, dominated by Staphylococcus, enterobacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The author relates natural and savage profiles of these bacterias, characterized by multiresistance due to large use of antibiotics. Knowledge of natural resistance and verification of aquired resistance permit to well lead probabilist antibiotherapy.
Sahu, Manoj Kumar; Siddharth, Bharat; Choudhury, Arin; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Singh, Sarvesh Pal; Menon, Ramesh; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Talwar, Sachin; Choudhary, Shiv; Airan, Balram
Background: Nosocomial infections (NIs) in the postoperative period not only increase morbidity and mortality, but also impose a significant economic burden on the health care infrastructure. This retrospective study was undertaken to (a) evaluate the incidence, characteristics, risk factors and outcomes of NIs and (b) identify common microorganisms responsible for infection and their antibiotic resistance profile in our Cardiac Surgical Intensive Care Unit (CSICU). Patients and Methods: After ethics committee approval, the CSICU records of all patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery between January 2013 and December 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. The incidence of NI, distribution of NI sites, types of microorganisms and their antibiotic resistance, length of CSICU stay, and patient-outcome were determined. Results: Three hundred and nineteen of 6864 patients (4.6%) developed NI after cardiac surgery. Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) accounted for most of the infections (44.2%) followed by surgical-site infection (SSI, 11.6%), bloodstream infection (BSI, 7.5%), urinary tract infection (UTI, 6.9%) and infections from combined sources (29.8%). Acinetobacter, Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus were the most frequent pathogens isolated in patients with LRTI, BSI, UTI, and SSI, respectively. The Gram-negative bacteria isolated from different sources were found to be highly resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Conclusion: The incidence of NI and sepsis-related mortality, in our CSICU, was 4.6% and 1.9%, respectively. Lower respiratory tract was the most common site of infection and Gram-negative bacilli, the most common pathogens after cardiac surgery. Antibiotic resistance was maximum with Acinetobacter spp. PMID:27052070
Dubberke, Erik R; Nyazee, Humaa A; Yokoe, Deborah S; Mayer, Jeanmarie; Stevenson, Kurt B; Mangino, Julie E; Khan, Yosef M; Fraser, Victoria J
Automated surveillance using electronically available data has been found to be accurate and save time. An automated Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) surveillance algorithm was validated at 4 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Epicenter hospitals. Electronic surveillance was highly sensitive, specific, and showed good to excellent agreement for hospital-onset; community-onset, study facility-associated; indeterminate; and recurrent CDI.
Russo, Matthew; McGavern, Dorian B.
The central nervous system (CNS) contains a sophisticated neural network that must be constantly surveyed in order to detect and mitigate a diverse array of challenges. The innate and adaptive immune systems actively participate in this surveillance, which is critical for the maintenance of CNS homeostasis and can facilitate the resolution of infections, degeneration, and tissue damage. Infections and sterile injuries represent two common challenges imposed on the CNS that require a prompt immune response. While the inducers of these two challenges differ in origin, the resultant responses orchestrated by the CNS share some overlapping features. Here, we review how the CNS immunologically discriminates between pathogens and sterile injuries, mobilizes an immune reaction, and, ultimately, regulates local and peripherally-derived immune cells to provide a supportive milieu for tissue repair. PMID:26431941
Patel, Priti R; Kallen, Alexander J; Arduino, Matthew J
Infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are particularly problematic, accounting for a substantial number of hospitalizations in these patients. Hospitalizations for BSI and other vascular access infections appear to have increased dramatically in hemodialysis patients since 1993. These infections frequently are related to central venous catheter (CVC) use for dialysis access. Regional initiatives that have shown successful decreases in catheter-related BSIs in hospitalized patients have generated interest in replicating this success in outpatient hemodialysis populations. Several interventions have been effective in preventing BSIs in the hemodialysis setting. Avoiding the use of CVCs in favor of access types with lower associated BSI risk is among the most important. When CVCs are used, adherence to evidence-based catheter insertion and maintenance practices can positively influence BSI rates. In addition, facility-level surveillance to detect BSIs and stimulate examination of vascular access use and care practices is essential to a comprehensive approach to prevention. This article describes the current epidemiology of BSIs in hemodialysis patients and effective prevention strategies to decrease the incidence of these devastating infections.
Pemán, Javier; Zaragoza, Rafael; Salavert, Miguel
Knowledge of the epidemiology of invasive fungal diseases caused by yeasts (Candida spp., especially) in health care settings allows the establishment of the levels necessary for its prevention. A first step is to identify groups of patients at high risk of nosocomial invasive fungal infections, establish accurate risk factors, observing the periods of greatest risk, and analyze the epidemiological profile in genera and species as well as the patterns of antifungal resistance. Secondly, mechanisms to avoid persistent exposure to potential fungal pathogens must be programed, protecting areas and recommending measures such as the control of the quality of the air and water, inside and outside the hospital, and other products or substances able to cause outbreaks. Finally, apart from the correct implementation of these measures, in selected patients at very high risk, the use of antifungal prophylaxis should be considered following the guidelines published.
Fakoorziba, M R; Eghbal, F; Hassanzadeh, J; Moemenbellah-Fard, M D
Although it has been difficult to prove the direct involvement of cockroaches (i.e. insects of the order Blattaria) in the transmission of pathogenic agents to humans, such insects often carry microorganisms that are important in nosocomial infections, and their medical importance in the spread of bacteria cannot be ruled out. In houses and institutions with poor standards of hygiene, heavy infestations with cockroaches, such as the peridomestic American cockroach (Periplaneta americana L.) and the domestic German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.), can occur. In the present study, cockroaches (126 B. germanica and 69 P. americana) were collected from four buildings (three public training hospitals and one house) in central Tehran, Iran. Each insect was processed, under sterile conditions, so that the bacteria on its external surfaces and in its alimentary tract and faecal pellets could be isolated and identified. The oldest and largest of the three hospitals sampled (a 1400-bed unit built 80 years ago) appeared to be the one most heavily infested with cockroaches, and cockroaches from this hospital accounted for most (65.4%) of the isolates of medically important bacteria made during the study. No significant difference was found between the percentages of P. americana and B. germanica carrying medically important bacteria (96.8% v. 93.6%; P>0.05). At least 25 different species of medically important bacteria were isolated and identified, and at least 22 were Gramnegative. The genus of enteric bacteria most frequently isolated from both cockroach species, at all four collection sites, was Klebsiella. The cockroaches from each hospital were much more likely to be found contaminated with medically important bacteria than those from the house. The hospital cockroaches were also more likely to be carrying medically important bacteria internally than externally (84.3% v. 64.1%; P<0.05). The implications of these and other recent results, for the control of cockroaches
Quantitative evaluation of infection control models in the prevention of nosocomial transmission of SARS virus to healthcare workers: implication to nosocomial viral infection control for healthcare workers.
Yen, Muh-Yong; Lu, Yun-Ching; Huang, Pi-Hsiang; Chen, Chen-Ming; Chen, Yee-Chun; Lin, Yusen E
Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk of acquiring emerging infections while caring for patients, as has been shown in the recent SARS and swine flu epidemics. Using SARS as an example, we determined the effectiveness of infection control measures (ICMs) by logistic regression and structural equation modelling (SEM), a quantitative methodology that can test a hypothetical model and validates causal relationships among ICMs. Logistic regression showed that installing hand wash stations in the emergency room (p = 0.012, odds ratio = 1.07) was the only ICM significantly associated with the protection of HCWs from acquiring the SARS virus. The structural equation modelling results showed that the most important contributing factor (highest proportion of effectiveness) was installation of a fever screening station outside the emergency department (51%). Other measures included traffic control in the emergency department (19%), availability of an outbreak standard operation protocol (12%), mandatory temperature screening (9%), establishing a hand washing setup at each hospital checkpoint (3%), adding simplified isolation rooms (3%), and a standardized patient transfer protocol (3%). Installation of fever screening stations outside of the hospital and implementing traffic control in the emergency department contributed to 70% of the effectiveness in the prevention of SARS transmission. Our approach can be applied to the evaluation of control measures for other epidemic infectious diseases, including swine flu and avian flu.
Nangino, Glaucio de Oliveira; de Oliveira, Cláudio Dornas; Correia, Paulo César; Machado, Noelle de Melo; Dias, Ana Thereza Barbosa
Objective Infections in intensive care units are often associated with a high morbidity and mortality in addition to high costs. An analysis of these aspects can assist in optimizing the allocation of relevant financial resources. Methods This retrospective study analyzed the hospital administration and quality in intensive care medical databases [Sistema de Gestão Hospitalar (SGH)] and RM Janus®. A cost analysis was performed by evaluating the medical products and materials used in direct medical care. The costs are reported in the Brazilian national currency (Real). The cost and length of stay analyses were performed for all the costs studied. The median was used to determine the costs involved. Costs were also adjusted by the patients' length of stay in the intensive care unit. Results In total, 974 individuals were analyzed, of which 51% were male, and the mean age was 57±18.24 years. There were 87 patients (8.9%) identified who had nosocomial infections associated with the intensive care unit. The median cost per admission and the length of stay for all the patients sampled were R$1.257,53 and 3 days, respectively. Compared to the patients without an infection, the patients with an infection had longer hospital stays (15 [11-25] versus 3 [2-6] days, p<0.01), increased costs per patient in the intensive care unit (median R$9.763,78 [5445.64 - 18,007.90] versus R$1.093,94 [416.14 - 2755.90], p<0.01) and increased costs per day of hospitalization in the intensive care unit (R$618,00 [407.81 - 838.69] versus R$359,00 [174.59 - 719.12], p<0.01). Conclusion Nosocomial infections associated with the intensive care unit were determinants of increased costs and longer hospital stays. However, the study design did not allow us to evaluate specific aspects of cause and effect. PMID:23917933
Sung, Ji Youn; Koo, Sun Hoe; Cho, Hye Hyun; Kwon, Kye Chul
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important microorganism responsible for a number of nosocomial outbreaks, in particular, in intensive care units (ICUs). We investigated a nosocomial infection caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Korea. A. baumannii isolates were characterized using Etest (AB Biodisk, Sweden), two multiplex PCR assays, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. PCR and PCR mapping experiments were performed for detecting and characterizing the determinants of antimicrobial resistance. Eight strains isolated from an NICU belonged to European (EU) clone II and revealed only one sequence type (ST), namely, ST357. All the isolates were susceptible to imipenem but were resistant to amikacin, gentamicin, ceftazidime, cefepime, and ciprofloxacin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a nosocomial infection in an NICU in Korea caused by ST357 MDR/carbapenem-susceptible A. baumannii strains. This result demonstrates that nosocomial outbreaks of MDR/carbapenem-susceptible strains as well as MDR/carbapenem-resistant isolates may occur in NICUs.
Background World Health Organization (WHO) targets for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance, including the notification of a minimum rate of AFP among children, are used to assess the adequacy of AFP surveillance for the detection of poliovirus infection. Sensitive surveillance for poliovirus infection in both developed and developing countries is essential to support global disease eradication efforts. We applied recently developed methods for the quantitative evaluation of disease surveillance systems to evaluate the sensitivity of AFP surveillance for poliovirus infection in Australia. Methods A scenario tree model which accounted for administrative region, age, population immunity, the likelihood of AFP, and the probability of notification and stool sampling was used to assess the sensitivity of AFP surveillance for wild poliovirus infection among children aged less than 15 years in Australia. The analysis was based on historical surveillance data collected between 2000 and 2005. We used a surveillance time period of one month, and evaluated the ability of the surveillance system to detect poliovirus infection at a prevalence of 1 case per 100 000 persons and 1 case per million persons. Results There was considerable variation in the sensitivity of AFP surveillance for poliovirus infection among Australian States and Territories. The estimated median sensitivity of AFP surveillance in Australia among children aged less than 15 years was 8.2% per month at a prevalence of 1 case per 100,000 population, and 0.9% per month at a prevalence of 1 case per million population. The probability that Australia is free from poliovirus infection given negative surveillance findings following 5 years of continuous surveillance was 96.9% at a prevalence of 1 case per 100,000 persons and 56.5% at a prevalence of 1 case per million persons. Conclusion Given the ongoing risk of poliovirus importation prior to global eradication, long term surveillance is required to provide
Glaser, Carol A.
Encephalitis is a devastating illness that commonly causes neurologic disability and has a case fatality rate >5% in the United States. An etiologic agent is identified in <50% of cases, making diagnosis challenging. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program (EIP) Encephalitis Project established syndromic surveillance for encephalitis in New York, California, and Tennessee, with the primary goal of increased identification of causative agents and secondary goals of improvements in treatment and outcome. The project represents the largest cohort of patients with encephalitis studied to date and has influenced case definition and diagnostic evaluation of this condition. Results of this project have provided insight into well-established causal pathogens and identified newer causes of infectious and autoimmune encephalitis. The recognition of a possible relationship between enterovirus D68 and acute flaccid paralysis with myelitis underscores the need for ongoing vigilance for emerging causes of neurologic disease. PMID:26295485
Walther, Birgit; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Stamm, Ivonne; Gehlen, Heidrun; Barton, Ann Kristin; Janssen, Traute; Wieler, Lothar H; Guenther, Sebastian
Enterobacteriaceae such as Escherichia coli are common commensals as well as opportunistic and obligate pathogens. They cause a broad spectrum of infectious diseases in various hosts, including hospital-associated infections. In recent years, the rise of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli in companion animals (dogs, cats and horses) has been striking. However, reports on nosocomial infections are mostly anecdotic. Here we report on the suspected nosocomial spread of both ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing multi-drug resistant E. coli isolates in three equine patients within an equine clinic. Unlike easy-to-clean hospitalization opportunities available for small animal settings like boxes and cages made of ceramic floor tiles or stainless steel, clinical settings for horses are challenging environments for infection control programs due to unavoidable extraneous material including at least hay and materials used for horse bedding. The development of practice-orientated recommendations is needed to improve the possibilities for infection control to prevent nosocomial infections with multi-drug resistant and other transmissible pathogens in equine clinical settings.
Dryden, Matthew; Andrasevic, Arjana Tambic; Bassetti, Matteo; Bouza, Emilio; Chastre, Jean; Baguneid, Mo; Esposito, Silvano; Giamarellou, Helen; Gyssens, Inge; Nathwani, Dilip; Unal, Serhat; Voss, Andreas; Wilcox, Mark
As a follow-up to our 2009 survey, in order to explore opinion and practice on the epidemiology and management of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Europe, we conducted a second survey to elicit current opinions on this topic, particularly around antibiotic choice, dose, duration and route of administration. We also aimed to further understand how the management of MRSA has evolved in Europe during the past 5 years. Members of an expert panel of infectious diseases specialists convened in London (UK) in January 2014 to identify and discuss key issues in the management of MRSA. Following this meeting, a survey was developed comprising 36 questions covering a wide range of topics on MRSA complicated skin and soft-tissue infection and nosocomial pneumonia management. The survey instrument, a web-based questionnaire, was sent to the International Society of Chemotherapy for distribution to registered European infection societies and their members. This article reports the survey results from the European respondents. At the time of the original survey, the epidemiology of MRSA varied significantly across Europe and there were differing views on best practice. The current findings suggest that the epidemiology of healthcare-associated MRSA in Europe is, if anything, even more polarised, whilst community-acquired MRSA has become much more common. However, there now appears to be a much greater knowledge of current treatment/management options, and antimicrobial stewardship has moved forward considerably in the 5 years since the last survey.
Castañeda-Martínez, Fernando Cain; Valdespino-Padilla, María Guadalupe
Introducción: las infecciones nosocomiales son un problema creciente, de gran repercusión social y económica que afecta a las instituciones hospitalarias. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de infecciones nosocomiales en hospital de segundo nivel. Métodos: estudio transversal, observacional, se calculó un tamaño de muestra para una proporción, se incluyeron pacientes hospitalizados con más de 48 horas de internamiento; se obtiene estadística descriptiva y prueba de hipótesis utilizando prueba exacta de Fisher, se utilizó el software SPSS versión 18. Resultados: se encontró una prevalencia de 9.52 %, con una edad media de 46.59 años; 64.3 % de los pacientes fueron del sexo femenino, 35.7 % masculinos, la prevalencia por servicio fue de 16.27 % en Medicina Interna, y 12.5 % en Cirugía. Conclusiones: 10 de cada 100 pacientes hospitalizados presentan infección nosocomial, comportamiento muy similar a lo reportado en la literatura médica.
Davoudi, Alireza; Najafi, Narges; Alian, Shahriar; Tayebi, Atefe; Ahangarkani, Fatemeh; Rouhi, Samaneh; Heydari, Amirhosein
Background: Patients who undergo cardiac surgery appear to be at increased risk for the development of Nosocomial infections (NIs). The development of antibiotic-resistant infections has been associated with significantly greater hospital mortality rates compared to similar infections caused by antibiotic-sensitive pathogens. Objectives: The purpose of this study is survey of Nis and antibiotic resistance patterns of causative bacteria among patients who underwent open heart surgery in the north of Iran during a 2-year period between September 2012 and September 2014. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we evaluated 187 patients that underwent open heart surgery with NIs. Demographic feature, clinical characteristics and risk factors of each infection were recorded. The antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using the Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method according to the standard protocol of Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Detection of Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria was performed by the double-disk synergy (DDS) test; also Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRSA) strains were identified by MRSA Screen Agar. The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS software (ver. 16) and, descriptive statistics were used. Results: Out Of total of 2253 hospitalized patients who underwent open heart surgery, 187(5.05%) patients had NIs. 51.9% of the patients were female. The rates of surgical site infection (SSI), respiratory tract infection, endocarditis, Urinary tract infection (UTI), blood Infection and mediastinitis were 27.80, 25.66%, 17.64, 17.11% 8.55% and 3.20% respectively. E.coli and S.aureus were the most causative agents of NIs. The rate of ESBL-producing bacteria was 14.28- 71.42% among enterobacteriaceae and the rate of MRSA was 54.2% among S.aureus strains. All isolated Acinetobacter.spp were Multi-drug resistance (MDR). Conclusions: We showed that the rate of NIs among these high-risk patients
Chacko, Binila; Thomas, Kurien; David, Thambu; Paul, Hema; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Peter, John Victor
AIM To study the impact of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) on cost and outcome from intensive care units (ICU) in India. METHODS Adult patients (> 18 years) admitted over 1-year, to a 24-bed medical critical care unit in India, were enrolled prospectively. Treatment cost and outcome data were collected. This cost data was merged with HAI data collected prospectively by the Hospital Infection Control Committee. Only infections occurring during ICU stay were included. The impact of HAI on treatment cost and mortality was assessed. RESULTS The mean (± SD) age of the cohort (n = 499) was 42.3 ± 16.5 years. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation-II score was 13.9 (95%CI: 13.3-14.5); 86% were ventilated. ICU and hospital length of stay were 7.8 ± 5.5 and 13.9 ± 10 d respectively. Hospital mortality was 27.9%. During ICU stay, 76 (15.3%) patients developed an infection (ventilator-associated pneumonia 50; bloodstream infection 35; urinary tract infections 3), translating to 19.7 infections/1000 ICU days. When compared with those who did not develop an infection, an infection occurring during ICU stay was associated with significantly higher treatment cost [median (inter-quartile range, IQR) INR 92893 (USD 1523) (IQR 57168-140286) vs INR 180469 (USD 2958) (IQR 140030-237525); P < 0.001 and longer duration of ICU (6.7 ± 4.5 d vs 13.4 ± 7.0 d; P < 0.01) and hospital stay (12.4 ± 8.2 d vs 21.8 ± 13.9 d; P < 0.001)]. However ICU acquired infections did not impact hospital mortality (31.6% vs 27.2%; P = 0.49). CONCLUSION An infection acquired during ICU stay was associated with doubling of treatment cost and prolonged hospitalization but did not significantly increase mortality. PMID:28224111
Sax, Hugo; Longtin, Yves; Alvarez-Ceyssat, Raymonde; Bonfillon, Chantal; Cavallero, Sabrina; Dayer, Pierre; Ginet, Claude; Herrault, Pascale
Although a large proportion of healthcare-associated infections are avoidable, healthcare workers do not always practice evidence-based preventive strategies. Marketing technologies might help to improve patient safety. This article presents the basic principles of marketing and its potential use to promote good infection control practices. The marketing mix (Product, Price, Place, and Promotion) should be taken into account to induce behaviour change. By placing the emphasis on the perceived "profits" for healthcare workers the approach might lose its moral aspect and gain in effectiveness. VigiGerme, a non-commercial registered trademark, applies social marketing techniques to infection control and prevention.
Matsumoto, S; Suenaga, H; Naito, K; Sawazaki, M; Hiramatsu, T; Agata, N
From April to August of 2000, Bacillus spp. were detected in the blood culture of 29 patients in a hospital in Japan. Of these patients, 19 had clinical signs of septicemia; positive culture in the remaining 10 patients was attributed to contamination with skin flora at the site of puncture. Of the 18 strains evaluated, 15 were Bacillus cereus, 2 were Bacillus subtilis, and one was Bacillus licheniformis. The only hospital death observed was that of a patient who had no clinical signs of septicemia at the time of blood sampling. That death is now considered attributable to the underlying neoplasm. The hospital committee for prevention of nosocomial infection concluded after a critical review of the patient records that the cause of septicemia in most cases had been contaminated intravenous lines. To control the situation, the committee recommended the use of a new skin disinfectant, and medical personnel were advised to avoid infusion pauses with interruption of intravenous lines and to replace the caps for the stopcocks with new ones each time the caps were removed. These measures were rigorously observed in addition to the conventional measures for preventing catheter sepsis, and the incidence of septicemia due to the Bacillus spp. declined dramatically thereafter.
Hernaiz, C; Picardo, A; Alos, J I; Gomez-Garces, J L
We present a case of Bacillus cereus bacteremia and catheter infection in an immunocompetent patient subjected to abdominal surgery, who recovered following central catheter removal and treatment with piperacillin/tazobactam.
A large aggregate collection of clinical isolates of aspergilli (n=218) from transplant patients with proven or probable Invasive Aspergillosis (IA) was available from the Transplant Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET), a six-year prospective surveillance study. With the objective ...
Caldeira, Silvia Maria; da Cunha, Antonio Ribeiro; Akazawa, Renata Tamie; Moreira, Rayana Gonçalves; de Souza, Lenice do Rosário; Fortaleza, Carlos Magno Castelo Branco
OBJECTIVE To evaluate if temperature and humidity influenced the etiology of bloodstream infections in a hospital from 2005 to 2010. METHODS The study had a case-referent design. Individual cases of bloodstream infections caused by specific groups or pathogens were compared with several references. In the first analysis, average temperature and humidity values for the seven days preceding collection of blood cultures were compared with an overall “seven-days moving average” for the study period. The second analysis included only patients with bloodstream infections. Several logistic regression models were used to compare different pathogens and groups with respect to the immediate weather parameters, adjusting for demographics, time, and unit of admission. RESULTS Higher temperatures and humidity were related to the recovery of bacteria as a whole (versus fungi) and of gram-negative bacilli. In the multivariable models, temperature was positively associated with the recovery of gram-negative bacilli (OR = 1.14; 95%CI 1.10;1.19) or Acinetobacter baumannii (OR = 1.26; 95%CI 1.16;1.37), even after adjustment for demographic and admission data. An inverse association was identified for humidity. CONCLUSIONS The study documented the impact of temperature and humidity on the incidence and etiology of bloodstream infections. The results correspond with those from ecological studies, indicating a higher incidence of gram-negative bacilli during warm seasons. These findings should guide policies directed at preventing and controlling healthcare-associated infections. PMID:25830871
Kidd-Ljunggren, K; Broman, E; Ekvall, H; Gustavsson, O
The source of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in two women (55 and 72 years old) was investigated. They displayed no risk factors for acquiring HBV infection, other than treatment with local anaesthetic injections some months previously. The HBV strains were sequenced and showed distinct homology to strains seen in Swedish intravenous drug users (IVDU). Prior to these patients' acute infection, an outbreak of HBV had occurred among IVDU in the same county. Analysis of the HBV strains from six of these IVDUs showed their core promoter, precore and pre-S sequences (679 nucleotides) to be identical to those from the two patients. Cross-contamination between samples was excluded and the most likely source of infection was thought to be multiple-dose vials of local anaesthetic that had been contaminated with the HBV strain circulating among the IVDU population in the community. We believe that multiple-dose vials have no place in modern healthcare and recommend sequence homology analysis as an alternative or additional way to trace a source of HBV infection.
Ichiyama, S; Ohta, M; Shimokata, K; Kato, N; Takeuchi, J
In this study, we have compared genomic DNA fingerprintings among isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Chromosomal fragments digested with SmaI were most suitable for the PFGE separation. SmaI cut genomic DNA into 15 to 20 fragments whose sizes ranged from about 30 to 1,500 kb. Thirty-one distinctive fragment patterns were identified in 111 infecting and colonizing MRSA isolates from six different hospitals in Japan. On the basis of the genomic typing by PFGE, we performed an epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of nosocomial MRSA infections among inpatients in Nagoya University Hospital. Ten types of chromosomal digestion were identified in the 20 strains isolated from 18 infected patients and 1 from colonized hospital personnel. According to the restriction patterns, we found that four types of these strains had caused epidemic infections among 13 patients in the outbreak. Two types (types 1 and 4) of the strains were involved in the death of five patients. The other infections were sporadic. The clarity and polymorphism of the chromosomal digestion patterns enabled us to discriminate between isolates which could not be differentiated by antibiogram or plasmid analysis. Classification of the genomic DNA fingerprinting patterns by PFGE is therefore proposed as a useful method for investigating the source, transmission, and spread of nosocomial MRSA infections. Images PMID:1757534
Benenson, Shmuel; Moses, Allon E; Cohen, Matan J; Brezis, Meir; Minster, Naomi; Schwartz, Carmela; Kandel, Leonid; Liebergall, Meir; Mattan, Yoav
Continuous surveillance of surgical-site infection (SSI) is labor intensive. We developed a semiautomatic surveillance system partly assisted by surgeons. Most patients who developed postdischarge SSI were readmitted, which allowed us to limit postdischarge surveillance to this group. This procedure significantly reduced workload while maintaining high sensitivity and specificity for SSI diagnosis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;1-4.
... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...
Ahmed, Shaaban H; Daef, Enas A; Badary, Mohammed S; Mahmoud, Mohammed A; Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A
Aim This study investigated the nosocomial blood stream infection (BSI) in the adult ICUs in Assiut university hospitals to evaluate the rate of infection in different ICUs, causative microorganisms, antimicrobial resistance, outcome of infection, risk factors, prevalence of extended spectrum B-lactamase producing organisms and molecular typing of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains to highlight the role of environment as a potential source of nosocomial BSI. Methods This study was conducted over a period of 12 months from January 2006 to December 2006. All Patients admitted to the different adult ICUs were monitored daily by attending physicians for subsequent development of nosocomial BSI. Blood cultures were collected from suspected patients to detect the causative organisms. After antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of ESBLs was conducted among gram negative isolates. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were tested by PCR to determine the most common group of B-lactamase genes responsible for resistance. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from infected patients and those isolated from the environment were typed by RAPD technique to investigate the role of environment in transmission of infection. Results The study included 2095 patients who were admitted to different ICUs at Assiut University Hospitals from January 2006 to December 2006. Blood samples were collected from infected patients for blood cultures. The colonies were identified and antibiotic sensitivities were performed. This study showed that the rate of nosocomial BSI was 75 per 1000 ICU admissions with the highest percentages in Trauma ICU (17%). Out of 159 patients with primary bloodstream infection, 61 patients died representing a crude mortality rate of 38%. Analysis of the organisms causing BSI showed that Gram positive organisms were reported in 69.1% (n = 121); MRSA was the most prevalent (18.9%), followed by methicillin resistant coagulase negative Staphylococci (16%). Gram negative bacilli
Verani, Jennifer R; McCracken, John; Arvelo, Wences; Estevez, Alejandra; Lopez, Maria Renee; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Bernart, Chris; Moscoso, Fabiola; Gray, Jennifer; Olsen, Sonja J; Lindblade, Kim A
Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are an important cause of illness and death worldwide, yet data on the etiology of ARI and the population-level burden in developing countries are limited. Surveillance for ARI was conducted at two hospitals in Guatemala. Patients admitted with at least one sign of acute infection and one sign or symptom of respiratory illness met the criteria for a case of hospitalized ARI. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction for adenovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1,2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B viruses, human metapneumovirus, Chlamydia pneumioniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Urine specimens were tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen. Blood culture and chest radiograph were done at the discretion of the treating physician. Between November 2007 and December 2011, 3,964 case-patients were enrolled. While cases occurred among all age groups, 2,396 (60.4%) cases occurred in children <5 years old and 463 (11.7%) among adults ≥65 years old. Viruses were found in 52.6% of all case-patients and 71.8% of those aged <1 year old; the most frequently detected was respiratory syncytial virus, affecting 26.4% of case-patients. Urine antigen testing for Streptococcus pneumoniae performed for case-patients ≥15 years old was positive in 15.1% of those tested. Among 2,364 (59.6%) of case-patients with a radiograph, 907 (40.0%) had findings suggestive of bacterial pneumonia. Overall, 230 (5.9%) case-patients died during the hospitalization. Using population denominators, the observed hospitalized ARI incidence was 128 cases per 100,000, with the highest rates seen among children <1 year old (1,703 per 100,000), followed by adults ≥65 years old (292 per 100,000). These data, which demonstrate a substantial burden of hospitalized ARI in Guatemala due to a variety of pathogens, can help guide public health policies aimed at reducing the burden of illness and death due to
Roberts, Rhonda Sue; Foppa, Ivo M
Since the introduction of West Nile Virus (WNV) to the United States in 1999, the efficacy of dead bird surveillance for the prediction of human and veterinary WNV infection has been an issue of debate. We utilized South Carolina's Department of Health and Environmental Control surveillance data from 2003 to determine whether dead bird surveillance accurately predicts equine WNV infection on a county level. We adjusted for human population density as a potential confounder of an association between WNV-positive dead bird counts and mammalian WNV risk. We found a strong positive association between avian risk of WNV death and subsequent equine mortality due to WNV in South Carolina even after adjusting for human population density. Sensitivity of dead bird surveillance as a predictor of future equine WNV risk was far superior to mosquito surveillance (95% vs. 9.5%, respectively). A Poisson regression model of the equine WNV rate as a function of WNV-positive dead bird rate, adjusting for population density and taking into account effect modification by population density shows a good fit with the data. Unlike most previous studies, we control for potential confounding of the dead, WNVpositive bird-equine WNV infection association by human population density. Yet, the positive association between dead bird surveillance and equine WNV risk remains strong and statistically significant, indicating that dead bird surveillance remains a valuable tool of WNV surveillance.
O'Brien, Thomas F.; Stelling, John
Summary: Microbial surveillance systems have varied in their source of support; type of laboratory reporting (patient care or reference); inclusiveness of reports filed; extent of microbial typing; whether single hospital, multihospital, or multicountry; proportion of total medical centers participating; and types, levels, integration across levels, and automation of analyses performed. These surveillance systems variably support the diagnosis and treatment of patients, local or regional infection control, local or national policies and guidelines, laboratory capacity building, sentinel surveillance, and patient safety. Overall, however, only a small fraction of available data are under any surveillance, and very few data are fully integrated and analyzed. Advancing informatics and genomics can make microbial surveillance far more efficient and effective at preventing infections and improving their outcomes. The world's microbiology laboratories should upload their reports each day to programs that detect events, trends, and epidemics in communities, hospitals, countries, and the world. PMID:21482726
Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) outbreaks were reported as early as the 1940s in the United States. Nearly 80 years later, EKC remains a major eye health concern in the US and worldwide. Of particular concern is that a significant number of EKC cluster outbreaks in the US are healthcare acquired infections (HAIs) at ophthalmology offices. Therefore, immediate attention to enhancing best practices of standardization and universal precautions in ophthalmology is paramount.
Seck, Abdoulaye; Dia, Mouhamadou Lamine; Timbiné, Lassina Gadi; Niang, Aïssatou Ameth; Ndiaye, El Hadji Momar; Sonko, Mouhamadou Abdoulaye; Wane, Abdoul Aziz; Bercion, Raymond; Ndiaye, Ousmane; Cissé, Moussa Fafa; Gassama-Sow, Amy
Nosocomial infections are very common in African hospitals, particularly in neonatal units. These infections are most often caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp and Staphylococcus spp. Salmonella strains are rarely involved in nosocomial infections. Here, we report the first description of S. Grumpensis in neonatal infections in Senegal. Seventeen Salmonella strains were isolated from hospitalized infants’ stool samples. The following resistance phenotype was described in strains: AMXRTICRCFR FOXRCFXRCTXRCAZRIMPSATMRNARNORRCIPRTMRGMRTERSXTR. All isolates were susceptible to imipenem, 15 out of 17 produced an extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL). blaOXA-1, blaSHV-1, blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M1 genes were detected in strains 8, 13, 5 and 8, respectively. blaCTX-M1 sequencing revealed the presence of blaCTX-M-109. Thirteen of the 17 Salmonella Grumpensis strains were analyzed by PFGE. These 13 isolates belonged to a single pulsotype and were genotypically identical. This is the first report of neonatal S. Grumpensis infections in Senegal, and the first report of blaCTX-M-109 in the genus Salmonella. PMID:27355480
Dahmardehei, Mostafa; Alinejad, Faranak; Ansari, Fereshteh; Bahramian, Mahnaz; Barati, Mitra
Background and Objectives: Infection is the most common cause of death among burnt patients and infection control decrease the rate of mortality. The use of sticky mat can control contamination by preventing the entrance microorganisms into the hospital wards. This study was designed to evaluate the sticky mats effect in reduction of microorganism’s entry by personnel shoes to burn intensive care unit (BICU). Materials and Methods: This is a simple cross sectional study. We tested outer soles of personnel’s shoes with swap and cultured them before and after sticky mat contact in the entrance of BICU. Results were analyzed with IBM SPSS version 22 software. McNemar and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks tests were used. Results: We analyzed 60 outer soles of the shoes before and after contact with sticky mats. Coagulase negative Staphylococci, Gram positive bacilli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii were isolated before contact from 57 (95%), 32 (53%), 4 (6.7%) and 3 (5%) cases, respectively. Coagulase negative Staphylococci, Gram positive bacilli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated after contact from 36 (60%), 30 (50%), 16 (26.6%), 2 (3.3%) and 3 (5%) cases, respectively. No Acinetobacter was isolated after contact with sticky mat. Total isolated colonies before and after contact with sticky mats were 2573 and 830, respectively. There were significant statistically differences between the colony counts of coagulase ngative staphylococci, Gram positive bacilli, and Staphylococci aureus before and after contact with sticky mats (P. < 0.001). Conclusion: Regarding to statistical analysis, the effect of mat in removing the microorganisms was 56%. It confirms the effectiveness of sticky mat controlling the infection and reducing the amount of hospital contamination. PMID:27928489
Wang, Lei; Ruan, Shigui
In this work, we investigate the role of environmental contamination on the clinical epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospitals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium that causes infections in different parts of the body. It is tougher to treat than most strains of Staphylococcus aureus or staph, because it is resistant to some commonly used antibiotics. Both deterministic and stochastic models are constructed to describe the transmission characteristics of MRSA in hospital setting. The deterministic epidemic model includes five compartments: colonized and uncolonized patients, contaminated and uncontaminated health care workers (HCWs), and bacterial load in environment. The basic reproduction number R 0 is calculated, and its numerical and sensitivity analysis has been performed to study the asymptotic behavior of the model, and to help identify factors responsible for observed patterns of infections. A stochastic epidemic model with stochastic simulations is also presented to supply a comprehensive analysis of its behavior. Data collected from Beijing Tongren Hospital will be used in the numerical simulations of our model. The results can be used to provide theoretical guidance for designing efficient control measures, such as increasing the hand hygiene compliance of HCWs and disinfection rate of environment, and decreasing the transmission rate between environment and patients and HCWs.
Mayhall, C G; Lamb, V A; Bitar, C M; Miller, K B; Furse, E Y; Kirkpatrick, B V; Markowitz, S M; Veazey, J M; Macrina, F L
Sequential outbreaks of infection due to gentamicin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (GRKP) types 30 and 19 occurred in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at the Medical College of Virginia in 1977 and 1978. The extensive epidemiologic investigation carried out included a case-control study, careful review of aseptic technique, and cultures from nursery staff and environment. The gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of the patients were the reservoirs for GRKP, and the epidemic strain was transmitted by hands of personnel. The case-control study showed a significant relationship between acquisition of GRKP by patients and oropharyngeal and GI instrumentation, including use of bag resuscitation, oropharyngeal suctioning, and use of nasogastric feeding tubes. The findings of the case-control study were supported by observation of the patient care techniques practiced by NICU staff. Institution of control measures based on results of the epidemiologic investigation of the first outbreak rapidly brought the second outbreak under control, even though cohorting or use of routine isolation was not possible. Whereas GI colonization and hand transmission have been described previously in outbreaks of K. pneumoniae infections in NICUs, this study is the first to document the mode of inoculation of patients' GI tracts by contaminated hands of personnel.
Safran, E; Pittet, D; Borst, F; Thurler, G; Schulthess, P; Rebouillat, L; Lagana, M; Berney, J P; Berthoud, M; Copin, P
The Centre Informatique of Geneva University Hospital is developing, in the environment of its hospital information system, DIOGENE, a computerized alert system for surveillance of hospital infections. This hospital information system is based on an open distributed architecture and a relational database system, and covers many medical applications. This environment allows the development of alerts useful for detecting patients at risk. The alerts offer to clinicians a mean to control their efficacy in patient care. They are a new application of telematics for surveillance in clinical epidemiology, and are a tool for quality assurance. Two examples of alerts established for hospital infection control activities are presented. The first alert systematically detects all cases of patients colonized by or infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The second alert helps to organize prospective surveillance of bloodstream infections in order to identify some risk factors for infection and propose preventive measures.
... the aforementioned committee: Times and Dates: 9 a.m.-5 p.m., June 16, 2011. 9 a.m.-12 p.m., June 17... surveillance, prevention, and control of infections (e.g., nosocomial infections), antimicrobial resistance... intensive care units (NICU); draft guidelines for infection control in healthcare personnel;...
Goshi, S; Taneike, I; Nakagawa, S; Kojio, S; Tamura, Y; Ohara, T; Ozaki, K; Tsukada, H; Aoki, Y; Asakura, H; Gejyo, F; Itoh, M; Yamamoto, T
Ceftazidime-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes was isolated from blood cultures of three patients with fever. DNA analysis using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ribosomal RNA gene restriction digest pattern analysis revealed that the strains were clonally similar to each other with a 79.3-96.0% homology. The same strain of E. aerogenes was isolated from a three-way stopcock connected to the indwelling catheter in one of the patients at a concentration of 45 cfu/mL. A similar strain was also isolated from the urine of one other patient on the same floor. The data suggest that E. aerogenes caused septicaemia via low bacterial contamination of a three-way stopcock in a peripheral drip intravenous infusion system in at least one patient, and that the outbreak of E. aerogenes infections was due to clonally-related strains.
The hospital environment is both a reservoir and source of infection for the hospital patient. Several areas around the patient should be considered: air, toilet water coming into contact with the patient, staff and medical devices, food, surfaces, and instruments contacting the patient's skin and mucosa, and sterile solutions. There are pathogens classically associated with each mode of transmission and environmental reservoir, but multi-resistant microorganisms have also been recently been associated with environmental acquisition. Protocols are currently available for the prevention of some classic environmental pathogens, as well as recommendations for the prevention of contamination in some procedures. However, these situations do not cover all forms of transmission, and most investigations of reservoirs or environmental sources are restricted to outbreak situations.
Haley, Clinton C; Mittal, Deepa; Laviolette, Amanda; Jannapureddy, Sai; Parvez, Najma; Haley, Robert W
Identifying methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization or infection present at admission has become important in reducing subsequent nosocomial transmission, but the most efficient surveillance methods remain to be defined. We performed anterior nares surveillance cultures of all patients upon admission to and discharge from the general internal medicine floor in our community hospital over a 7-week period, and patients completed a questionnaire on MRSA risk factors. Of the 401 patients, 41 (10.2%) had MRSA upon admission. Of the 48 risk measures analyzed, 10 were significantly associated with admission MRSA, and 7 of these were independently associated in stepwise logistic regression analysis. Factor analysis identified eight latent variables that contained most of the predictive information in the 48 risk measures. Repeat logistic regression analysis including the latent variables revealed three independent risk measures for admission MRSA: a nursing home stay (relative risk [RR], 6.18; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.56 to 10.72; P < 0.0001), prior MRSA infection (RR, 3.97; 95% CI, 1.94 to 8.12; P = 0.0002), and the third latent variable (factor 3; RR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.56 to 6.31; P = 0.0013), representing the combined effects of homelessness, jail stay, promiscuity, intravenous drug use, and other drug use. Multivariable models had greater sensitivity at detecting admission MRSA than any single risk measure and allowed detection of 78% to 90% of admission MRSA from admission surveillance cultures on 46% to 58% of admissions. If confirmed in additional studies, multivariable questionnaire screening at admission might identify a subset of admissions for surveillance cultures that would more efficiently identify most admission MRSA.
Ulger, Fatma; Dilek, Ahmet; Esen, Saban; Sunbul, Mustafa; Leblebicioglu, Hakan
Mobile communication devices help accelerate in-hospital flow of medical information, information sharing and querying, and contribute to communications in the event of emergencies through their application and access to wireless media technology. Healthcare-associated infections remain a leading and high-cost problem of global health systems despite improvements in modern therapies. The objective of this article was to review different studies on the relationship between mobile phones (MPs) and bacterial cross-contamination and report common findings. Thirty-nine studies published between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed. Of these, 19 (48.7%) identified coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), and 26 (66.7%) identified Staphylococcus aureus; frequency of growth varied. The use of MPs by healthcare workers increases the risk of repetitive cyclic contamination between the hands and face (e.g., nose, ears, and lips), and differences in personal hygiene and behaviors can further contribute to the risks. MPs are rarely cleaned after handling. They may transmit microorganisms, including multiple resistant strains, after contact with patients, and can be a source of bacterial cross-contamination. To prevent bacterial contamination of MPs, hand-washing guidelines must be followed and technical standards for prevention strategies should be developed.
Seibert, Gabriela; Hörner, Rosmari; Meneghetti, Bettina Holzschuh; Righi, Roselene Alves; Forno, Nara Lucia Frasson Dal; Salla, Adenilde
Objective To analyze the profile of patients with microorganisms resistant to carbapenems, and the prevalence of the enzyme Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase in interobacteriaceae. Methods Retrospective descriptive study. From the isolation in bacteriological tests ordered by clinicians, we described the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with enterobacteria resistants to carbapenems at a university hospital, between March and October 2013. Results We included 47 isolated patients in this study, all exhibiting resistance to carbapenems, including 9 patients who were confirmed as infected/colonized with K. pneumoniae carbapenemase. Isolation in tracheal aspirates (12; 25.5%) predominated. The resistance to ertapenem, meropenem, and imipenem was 91.5%, 83.0% and 80.0%, respectively. Aminoglycosides was the class of antimicrobials that showed the highest sensitivity, 91.5% being sensitive to amikacin and 57.4% to gentamicin. Conclusion The K. pneumoniae carbapenemase was an important agent in graun isotaling in hospital intection. The limited therapeutic options emphasize the need for rapid laboratory detection, as well as the implementation of measures to prevent and control the spread of these pathogens. PMID:25295446
Sanagou, M; Leder, K; Cheng, A C; Pilcher, D; Reid, C M; Wolfe, R
To identify hospital-level factors associated with post-cardiac surgical pneumonia for assessing their impact on standardized infection rates (SIRs), we studied 43 691 patients in a cardiac surgery registry (2001-2011) in 16 hospitals. In a logistic regression model for pneumonia following cardiac surgery, associations with hospital characteristics were quantified with adjustment for patient characteristics while allowing for clustering of patients by hospital. Pneumonia rates varied from 0·7% to 12·4% across hospitals. Seventy percent of variability in the pneumonia rate was attributable to differences in hospitals in their long-term rates with the remainder attributable to within-hospital differences in rates over time. After adjusting for patient characteristics, the pneumonia rate was found to be higher in hospitals with more registered nurses (RNs)/100 intensive-care unit (ICU) admissions [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1·2, P = 0·006] and more RNs/available ICU beds (aOR 1·4, P < 0·001). Other hospital characteristics had no significant association with pneumonia. SIRs calculated on the basis of patient characteristics alone differed substantially from the same rates calculated on the basis of patient characteristics and the hospital characteristic of RNs/100 ICU admissions. Since SIRs using patient case-mix information are important for comparing rates between hospitals, the additional allowance for hospital characteristics can impact significantly on how hospitals compare.
Brossette, Stephen E.; Sprague, Alan P.; Hardin, J. Michael; Waites, Ken B.; Jones, Warren T.; Moser, Stephen A.
Abstract Objectives: The authors consider the problem of identifying new, unexpected, and interesting patterns in hospital infection control and public health surveillance data and present a new data analysis process and system based on association rules to address this problem. Design: The authors first illustrate the need for automated pattern discovery and data mining in hospital infection control and public health surveillance. Next, they define association rules, explain how those rules can be used in surveillance, and present a novel process and system—the Data Mining Surveillance System (DMSS)—that utilize association rules to identify new and interesting patterns in surveillance data. Results: Experimental results were obtained using DMSS to analyze Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection control data collected over one year (1996) at University of Alabama at Birmingham Hospital. Experiments using one-, three-, and six-month time partitions yielded 34, 57, and 28 statistically significant events, respectively. Although not all statistically significant events are clinically significant, a subset of events generated in each analysis indicated potentially significant shifts in the occurrence of infection or antimicrobial resistance patterns of P. aeruginosa. Conclusion: The new process and system are efficient and effective in identifying new, unexpected, and interesting patterns in surveillance data. The clinical relevance and utility of this process await the results of prospective studies currently in progress. PMID:9670134
with its expansive network of renown international researchers, continues to strive for surveillance products of benefit for force health protection...to DOD and US Army requirements and delivers life saving products including knowledge, technology, and medical materiel that sustain the combat...deployed veterinary personnel to screen for highly pathogenic avian influenza in animals by validating the National Veterinary Service Laboratory avian
Limón, Enrique; Pujol, Miquel; Gudiol, Francesc
The main objective of this study was to validate the structure of the infection control team (ICT) in the hospitals adhered to VINCat program and secondary objective was to establish the consistency of resources of each center with the requirements established by the program. Qualitative research consisting of an ethnographic study using participant observation during the years 2008-2010. The centers were stratified in three groups by complexity and beds. The instrument was a semistructured interview to members of the ICT. The transcription of the interview was sent to informants for validation. In November 2010 a questionnaire regarding human resources and number hours dedicated to the ICT was sent. During 2008-2010, 65 centers had been adhered to VINCat program. In 2010, the ICT of Group I hospitals had a mean of two physician, one in full-time and one nurse for every 230 beds. In Group II, one physician part-time and one nurse per 180 beds and in Group III a physician and a nurse for every 98 beds, both part-time. In 2010, all hospitals had a structured ICT, an operative infection committee, and a hospital member representing the center at the program as well as enough electronic resources. The hospitals participating in the program have now VINCat an adequate surveillance structure and meet the minimum technical and human resources required to provide high-quality data. However human resources are not guaranteed.
Corzo-Leon, Dora E.; Alvarado-Matute, Tito; Colombo, Arnaldo L.; Cornejo-Juarez, Patricia; Cortes, Jorge; Echevarria, Juan I.; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Macias, Alejandro E.; Nucci, Marcio; Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Ponce-de-Leon, Alfredo; Queiroz-Telles, Flavio; Santolaya, Maria E.; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Tiraboschi, Iris N.; Zurita, Jeannete; Sifuentes-Osornio, Jose
Introduction Larger populations at risk, broader use of antibiotics and longer hospital stays have impacted on the incidence of Candida sp. bloodstream infections (CBSI). Objective To determine clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of patients with CBSI in two tertiary care reference medical institutions in Mexico City. Design Prospective and observational laboratory-based surveillance study conducted from 07/2008 to 06/2010. Methods All patients with CBSI were included. Identification and antifungal susceptibility were performed using CLSI M27-A3 standard procedures. Frequencies, Mann-Whitney U test or T test were used as needed. Risk factors were determined with multivariable analysis and binary logistic regression analysis. Results CBSI represented 3.8% of nosocomial bloodstream infections. Cumulative incidence was 2.8 per 1000 discharges (incidence rate: 0.38 per 1000 patient-days). C. albicans was the predominant species (46%), followed by C. tropicalis (26%). C. glabrata was isolated from patients with diabetes (50%), and elderly patients. Sixty-four patients (86%) received antifungals. Amphotericin-B deoxycholate (AmBD) was the most commonly used agent (66%). Overall mortality rate reached 46%, and risk factors for death were APACHE II score ≥16 (OR = 6.94, CI95% = 2.34–20.58, p<0.0001), and liver disease (OR = 186.11, CI95% = 7.61–4550.20, p = 0.001). Full susceptibility to fluconazole, AmBD and echinocandins among C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis was observed. Conclusions The cumulative incidence rate in these centers was higher than other reports from tertiary care hospitals from Latin America. Knowledge of local epidemiologic patterns permits the design of more specific strategies for prevention and preemptive therapy of CBSI. PMID:24830654
Stone, Nimalie D; Ashraf, Muhammad S; Calder, Jennifer; Crnich, Christopher J; Crossley, Kent; Drinka, Paul J; Gould, Carolyn V; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Loeb, Mark; Maccannell, Taranisia; Malani, Preeti N; Mody, Lona; Mylotte, Joseph M; Nicolle, Lindsay E; Roghmann, Mary-Claire; Schweon, Steven J; Simor, Andrew E; Smith, Philip W; Stevenson, Kurt B; Bradley, Suzanne F
(See the commentary by Moro, on pages 978-980 .) Infection surveillance definitions for long-term care facilities (ie, the McGeer Criteria) have not been updated since 1991. An expert consensus panel modified these definitions on the basis of a structured review of the literature. Significant changes were made to the criteria defining urinary tract and respiratory tract infections. New definitions were added for norovirus gastroenteritis and Clostridum difficile infections.
Stone, Nimalie D.; Ashraf, Muhammad S.; Calder, Jennifer; Crnich, Christopher J.; Crossley, Kent; Drinka, Paul J.; Gould, Carolyn V.; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Loeb, Mark; MacCannell, Taranisia; Malani, Preeti N.; Mody, Lona; Mylotte, Joseph M.; Nicolle, Lindsay E.; Roghmann, Mary-Claire; Schweon, Steven J.; Simor, Andrew E.; Smith, Philip W.; Stevenson, Kurt B.; Bradley, Suzanne F.
(See the commentary by Moro, on pages 978–980.) Infection surveillance definitions for long-term care facilities (ie, the McGeer Criteria) have not been updated since 1991. An expert consensus panel modified these definitions on the basis of a structured review of the literature. Significant changes were made to the criteria defining urinary tract and respiratory tract infections. New definitions were added for norovirus gastroenteritis and Clostridum difficile infections. PMID:22961014
Frössling, Jenny; Wahlström, Helene; Agren, Estelle Carina Constance; Cameron, Angus; Lindberg, Ann; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna
Previous investigations suggest that the prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in Swedish cattle is low and all recent cases have been linked to imported animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surveillance system for MAP infection in Swedish cattle and to estimate the probability that the Swedish cattle population is free from this infection. Calculations of surveillance sensitivities and probability of freedom were made using stochastic scenario-tree modelling, which allows inclusion of information from several different sources, of complex surveillance data including results from non-representative sampling, as well as of documentations of differences in risk of being infected. The surveillance components included in the model were: (1) clinical surveillance, (2) fallen stock investigations, (3) the national surveillance programme (mainly beef herds), (4) a survey involving dairy herds and (5) a risk-based survey targeting herds with imported cattle. Previous or current presence of imported animals and participation in the on-going control programme was specified for each tested herd, in order to adjust for differences in risk. Calculations were made for each year from the start of 2005 to the end of 2008, and this formed the basis for a final estimate covering the whole study period and predictions of future probabilities of freedom from MAP. Results show that when applying a design prevalence of one animal in 0.1% of the herds, the probability of freedom at the end of 2008 was 0.63. At the design prevalence of one animal in 0.5% of herds, the estimated probability is >95% and it is demonstrated that the prevalence of MAP in Swedish cattle is below this level or absent. In order to increase the annual surveillance sensitivity in the future and thereby improve the probability of freedom, new surveillance activities or an intensification of current ones are needed.
Maseda, Emilio; Mensa, José; Valía, Juan-Carlos; Gomez-Herreras, José-Ignacio; Ramasco, Fernando; Samso, Enric; Chiveli, Miguel-Angel; Pereira, Jorge; González, Rafael; Aguilar, Gerardo; Tamayo, Gonzalo; Ojeda, Nazario; Rico, Jesús; Giménez, María-José; Aguilar, Lorenzo
ICUs are areas where resistance problems are the largest, and these constitute a major problem for the intensivist's clinical practice. Main resistance phenotypes among nosocomial microbiota are (i) vancomycin-resistance/heteroresistance and tolerance in grampositives (MRSA, enterococci) and (ii) efflux pumps/enzymatic resistance mechanisms (ESBLs, AmpC, metallo-betalactamases) in gramnegatives. These phenotypes are found at different rates in pathogens causing respiratory (nosocomial pneumonia/ventilator-associated pneumonia), bloodstream (primary bacteremia/catheter-associated bacteremia), urinary, intraabdominal and surgical wound infections and endocarditis in the ICU. New antibiotics are available to overcome non-susceptibility in grampositives; however, accumulation of resistance traits in gramnegatives has led to multidrug resistance, a worrisome problem nowadays. This article reviews microorganism/infection risk factors for multidrug resistance, suggesting adequate empirical treatments. Drugs, patient and environmental factors all play a role in the decision to prescribe/recommend antibiotic regimens in the specific ICU patient, implying that intensivists should be familiar with available drugs, environmental epidemiology and patient factors.
Maseda, Emilio; Mensa, José; Valía, Juan-Carlos; Gomez-Herreras, Jose-Ignacio; Ramasco, Fernando; Samso, Enric; Chiveli, Miguel-Angel; Pereira, Jorge; González, Rafael; Aguilar, Gerardo; Tamayo, Gonzalo; Ojeda, Nazario; Rico, Jesús; Gimenez, María José; Aguilar, Lorenzo
ICUs are areas where resistance problems are the largest, and they constitutes a major problem for the intensivist's clinical practice. Main resistance phenotypes among nosocomial microbiota are: i) vancomycin-resistance/heteroresistance and tolerance in grampositives (MRSA, enterococci) and ii) efflux pumps/enzymatic resistance mechanisms (ESBLs, AmpC, metallobetalactamases) in gramnegatives. These phenotypes are found at different rates in pathogens causing respiratory (nosocomial pneumonia/ventilator-associated pneumonia), bloodstream (primary bacteremia/catheter-associated bacteremia), urinary, intraabdominal and surgical wound infections and endocarditis in the ICU. New antibiotics are available to overcome non-susceptibility in grampositives; however, accumulation of resistance traits in gramnegatives has lead to multidrug resistance, a worrisome problem nowadays. This article reviews by microorganism/infection risk factors for multidrug resistance, suggesting adequate empirical treatments. Drugs, patient and environmental factors all play a role in the decision to prescribe/recommend antibiotic regimens in the specific ICU patient, implying that intensivists should be familiar with available drugs, environmental epidemiology and patient factors.
Buetti, Niccolò; Atkinson, Andrew; Marschall, Jonas; Kronenberg, Andreas
Background Bloodstream infections are often associated with significant mortality and morbidity. We aimed to investigate changes in the epidemiology of bloodstream infections in Switzerland between 2008 and 2014. Methods Data on bloodstream infections were obtained from the Swiss antibiotic resistance surveillance system (ANRESIS). Results The incidence of bloodstream infections increased throughout the study period, especially among elderly patients and those receiving care in emergency departments and university hospitals. Escherichia coli was the predominant pathogen, with Enterococci exhibiting the most prominent increase over the study period. Conclusions The described trends may impact morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs associated with bloodstream infections. PMID:28325858
Liakopoulos, A; Oikonomou, O; Wareham, D W
Providencia stuartii is frequently associated with nosocomial outbreaks and displays intrinsic resistance to many commonly used antimicrobials. We report here the draft genome sequence of a P. stuartii strain carrying acquired resistance genes conferring panresistance to cephalosporins (blaSHV-5 and blaVEB-1), carbapenems (blaVIM-1), and aminoglycosides (rmtB) involved in an outbreak in Greek hospitals.
Liakopoulos, A.; Oikonomou, O.
ABSTRACT Providencia stuartii is frequently associated with nosocomial outbreaks and displays intrinsic resistance to many commonly used antimicrobials. We report here the draft genome sequence of a P. stuartii strain carrying acquired resistance genes conferring panresistance to cephalosporins (blaSHV-5 and blaVEB-1), carbapenems (blaVIM-1), and aminoglycosides (rmtB) involved in an outbreak in Greek hospitals. PMID:28336597
Aitken, Celia; Jeffries, Donald J.
Viruses are important causes of nosocomial infection, but the fact that hospital outbreaks often result from introduction(s) from community-based epidemics, together with the need to initiate specific laboratory testing, means that there are usually insufficient data to allow the monitoring of trends in incidences. The most important defenses against nosocomial transmission of viruses are detailed and continuing education of staff and strict adherence to infection control policies. Protocols must be available to assist in the management of patients with suspected or confirmed viral infection in the health care setting. In this review, we present details on general measures to prevent the spread of viral infection in hospitals and other health care environments. These include principles of accommodation of infected patients and approaches to good hygiene and patient management. They provide detail on individual viral diseases accompanied in each case with specific information on control of the infection and, where appropriate, details of preventive and therapeutic measures. The important areas of nosocomial infection due to blood-borne viruses have been extensively reviewed previously and are summarized here briefly, with citation of selected review articles. Human prion diseases, which present management problems very different from those of viral infection, are not included. PMID:11432812
Desai, N; Honeywell, K; Casewell, M W
An important part of the Infection Control Nurse's activity in the UK is the laboratory-based surveillance of patients with infections that are known to be transmissible, i.e. of 'alert' organisms. We have replaced a manual 'T-card' system in which relevant patient information, microbiology and nursing notes are held on all patients yielding 'alert' organisms. The programme is menu driven, requires minimal coding and runs on a microprocessor with a hard disc. The programme enables surveillance patient information to be entered, edited, archived and recorded. Instant retrieval on screen or hard copy includes summarized or full displays of all patients on all wards, sorted by wards, organism, date or risk category. Archived data may be retrieved within minutes and this avoids having to interrogate the whole laboratory database overnight. To illustrate an additional use of the data stored, we analysed the surveillance activities of the Control of Infection Nurse for one year. Of 203 laboratory diagnoses requiring patient surveillance, 30% were viral infections, of which more than two-thirds were caused by hepatitis B virus; of the 142 bacterial isolates, 27% were multiply antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, 25% Pseudomonas spp, 12% Salmonella spp., 9% methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 7% Group A streptococci and 8% meningococci. These isolates resulted in only four outbreaks involving nine patients or staff. This information has proved useful for auditing the nurse's activity and provides evidence for the cost-effectiveness of infection control.
Morgand, Marjolaine; Vimont, Sophie; Bleibtreu, Alexandre; Boyd, Anders; Thien, Hoang Vu; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Denamur, Erick; Arlet, Guillaume
Infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli are an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in children. We compared 58 epidemiologically unrelated ESBL-producing E. coli strains that caused infections. They were isolated between 2008 and 2012 in two Parisian pediatric hospitals and grouped according to their origin into either community-acquired (CA) (n=37) or nosocomially acquired (NA) (n=21) strains. Molecular characteristics of the ESBLs, phylogenetic traits of the strains including their belonging to clone O25b-ST131, prevalence of associated virulence genes, growth capacities in different media, metabolic phenotype and biofilm formation abilities were studied. ESBL type, associated resistance and distribution of phylogenetic groups were similar in the CA and NA groups. More than 60% of the B2 phylogroup strains in both groups belonged to the ST131 clone. Interestingly, CA strains possessed more genes encoding virulence factors and the distribution of these genes differed significantly between the two groups: fyuA, hlyC, papC and papGII were more frequent in the CA group, whereas iroN was more frequent in the NA group. CA strains also showed enhanced growth capacities in Luria Bertani rich medium. They tended to produce more biofilm but the difference was not significant. This study confirms the wide spread of clone ST131 among infected children, regardless of whether their infections were community- or nosocomially acquired. It highlights genotypic and phenotypic differences according to the origin of the strains that could indicate adaptability of these multi-resistant bacteria to specific environmental and host factors.
Hsu, Heather E.; Shenoy, Erica S.; Kelbaugh, Douglas; Ware, Winston; Lee, Hang; Zakroysky, Pearl; Hooper, David C.; Walensky, Rochelle P.
Objective To develop an electronic surveillance tool for catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) and assess its performance. Methods The study was conducted at a 947-bed tertiary care center. Subjects included adults aged ≥18 years, admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) between January 10 and June 30, 2012 with an indwelling urinary catheter during their admission. We identified CAUTIs using four methods: (1) Traditional Surveillance (TS): manual chart review by Infection Control Practitioners, (2) an Electronic Surveillance (ES) tool, (3) Augmented Electronic Surveillance (AES): ES with chart review on a subset of cases, and (4) Reference Standard (RS): A subset of CAUTIs originally ascertained by TS or ES, confirmed by review. We assessed performance characteristics to RS for reviewed cases. Results We identified 417 candidate CAUTIs in 308 patients; 175 (42.0%) of these candidate CAUTIs were selected for review, yielding 32 confirmed CAUTI in 22 patients (RS). Compared with RS, the sensitivities of TS, ES, and AES were 43.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 26.4–62.3%), 100.0% (95% CI: 89.1–100.0%), and 100.0% (89.1–100.0%). Specificities were 82.5% (95% CI: 75.3–88.4%), 2.8% (95% CI: 0.8–7.0%), and 100.0% (95% CI: 97.5–100.0%). Discussion Traditional methods of CAUTI surveillance are error-prone and resource-intensive. We developed a highly sensitive electronic surveillance tool. Conclusion Electronic CAUTI surveillance offers a streamlined approach to improve reliability and resource burden of surveillance. PMID:25840717
Langley, Gayle; Besser, John; Iwamoto, Martha; Lessa, Fernanda C; Cronquist, Alicia; Skoff, Tami H; Chaves, Sandra; Boxrud, Dave; Pinner, Robert W; Harrison, Lee H
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program (EIP) network conducts population-based surveillance for pathogens of public health importance. Central to obtaining estimates of disease burden and tracking microbiological characteristics of these infections is accurate laboratory detection of pathogens. The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) in clinical settings presents both opportunities and challenges to EIP surveillance. Because CIDTs offer better sensitivity than culture and are relatively easy to perform, their use could potentially improve estimates of disease burden. However, changes in clinical testing practices, use of tests with different sensitivities and specificities, and changes to case definitions make it challenging to monitor trends. Isolates are still needed for performing strain typing, antimicrobial resistance testing, and identifying other molecular characteristics of organisms. In this article, we outline current and future EIP activities to address issues associated with adoption of CIDTs, which may apply to other public health surveillance.
Kanj, SS; Kanafani, ZA; Sidani, N; Alamuddin, L; Zahreddine, N; Rosenthal, VD
Objectives: To determine the rates of device-associated healthcare-associated infections (DA-HAI), microbiological profile, bacterial resistance, length of stay (LOS), excess mortality and hand hygiene compliance in one intensive care unit (ICU) of a hospital member of the International Infection Control Consortium (INICC) in Beirut, Lebanon. Materials and Methods: An open label, prospective cohort, active DA-HAI surveillance study was conducted on adults admitted to a tertiary-care ICU in Lebanon from November 2007 to March 2010. The protocol and methodology implemented were developed by INICC. Data collection was performed in the participating ICUs. Data uploading and analyses were conducted at INICC headquarters on proprietary software. DA-HAI rates were recorded by applying the definitions of the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We analyzed the DA-HAI, mechanical ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLA-BSI), and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) rates, microorganism profile, excess LOS, excess mortality, and hand hygiene compliance. Results: A total of 666 patients hospitalized for 5,506 days acquired 65 DA-HAIs, an overall rate of 9.8% [(95% confidence interval (CI) 7.6–12.3], and 11.8 (95% CI 9.1–15.0) DA-HAIs per 1000 ICU-days. The CLA-BSI rate was 5.2 (95% CI 2.8–8.7) per 1000 catheter-days; the VAP rate was 8.1 (95% CI 5.5–11.7) per 1000 ventilator-days; and the CAUTI rate was 4.1 (95% CI 2.6–6.2) per 1000 catheter-days. LOS of patients was 7.3 days for those without DA-HAI, 13.8 days for those with CLA-BSI, 18.8 days for those with VAP. Excess mortality was 40.9% [relative risk (RR) 3.14; P 0.004] for CLA-BSI. Mortality of VAP and CAUTI was not significantly different from patients without DA-HAI. Escherichia coli was the most common isolated microorganism. Overall hand hygiene compliance was 84.9% (95% CI 82
Orsi, G B; Raponi, M; Sticca, G; Branca, L; Scalise, E; Franchi, C; Venditti, M; Fara, G M
The A.A. carried out a survey on hospital acquired infection (HAI) in the intensive care units (ICU) of five roman hospitals. The study monitored the following site-specific infection rates: pneumonia (PNE), blood stream infections (BSI), urinary tract infections (UTI), surgical site infections (SSI). According to CDC definitions all patients developing infection 48 hours or more after ward admission were included. Furthermore risk factors (i.e. age, sex, SAPS II), invasive procedures (i.e. endotracheal intubation, vascular and urinary catheterisation), microbiological isolates and their antibiotic susceptibility were screened. The overall 503 patients characteristics (i.e., age, length of stay, case-mix...) showed the wards as general ICU's. Although the SAPS II score was similar, mortality (18.2%-42.9%) and general infection rates (15.4%-40.4%) among the five ICU's were considerably variable (p < 0.05), as HAI episodes distribution by type: PNE (37-88%), BSI (6-42%), UTI (6-24%), SSI (3-7%) (p < 0.05). Also device-associated infection rates such as Ventilator-associated PNE (11.6-24.6@1000), Vascular catheter-associated BSI (3.4-19.2@1000). Urinary catheter-associated UTI (2.6-14.0@1000) and invasive procedures management were different. Among the infected patients the most commonly isolated microorganisms were P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus spp., which presented a considerable antibiotic resistance. The study showed: 1) sampling (i.e. blood cultures, tracheal aspirate and urine samples) and laboratory methodology indispensable for a correct HAI diagnosis were not standardized in the five ICU's; 2) hospital infection control policy was not carried out in all ICU's. The study showed a lack of standardization which limits the comparability of the general roman ICU's.
Concentrations of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, and the immature-to-total neutrophil ratio in the blood of neonates with nosocomial infections: Gram-negative bacilli vs coagulase-negative staphylococci.
This study was undertaken to determine whether concentrations of procalcitonin in the blood of neonates with nosocomial infections depend on the type of pathogen. Qualification for the study group was based on the clinical signs of infection. We found that infections with Gram-positive (chiefly coagulase-negative staphylococci) and Gram-negative bacteria are accompanied by elevated concentrations of procalcitonin. In the case of Gram-positive bacteria, other laboratory signs of infection studied by us (concentration of C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, immature-to-total neutrophil ratio) were not discriminatory, confirming the diagnostic usefulness of procalcitonin measurements in nosocomial infections of the neonate with Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria.
Janus, Lydia M; Bleich, Andre
Parvoviruses of mice, minute virus of mice (MVM) and mouse parvovirus (MPV), are challenging pathogens to eradicate from laboratory animal facilities. Due to the impediment on rodent-based research, recent studies have focused on the assessment of re-derivation techniques and parvoviral potential to induce persistent infections. Summarizing recent data, this review gives an overview on studies associated with parvoviral impact on research, diagnostic methods, parvoviral persistence and re-derivation techniques, demonstrating the complex nature of parvovirus infection in mice and unfolding the challenge of controlling parvovirus infections in laboratory animal facilities.
Motoa, Gabriel; Vallejo, Marta; Blanco, Víctor M; Correa, Adriana; de la Cadena, Elsa; Villegas, María Virginia
Introduction: Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) are a challenge for patient safety in the hospitals. Infection control committees (ICC) should follow CDC definitions when monitoring HAI. The handmade method of epidemiological surveillance (ES) may affect the sensitivity and specificity of the monitoring system, while electronic surveillance can improve the performance, quality and traceability of recorded information. Objective: To assess the implementation of a strategy for electronic surveillance of HAI, Bacterial Resistance and Antimicrobial Consumption by the ICC of 23 high-complexity clinics and hospitals in Colombia, during the period 2012-2013. Methods: An observational study evaluating the introduction of electronic tools in the ICC was performed; we evaluated the structure and operation of the ICC, the degree of incorporation of the software HAI Solutions and the adherence to record the required information. Results: Thirty-eight percent of hospitals (8/23) had active surveillance strategies with standard criteria of the CDC, and 87% of institutions adhered to the module of identification of cases using the HAI Solutions software. In contrast, compliance with the diligence of the risk factors for device-associated HAIs was 33%. Conclusions: The introduction of ES could achieve greater adherence to a model of active surveillance, standardized and prospective, helping to improve the validity and quality of the recorded information. PMID:26309340
Rigby, Heather; Fernandez, Conrad V; Langley, Joanne; Mailman, Tim; Crooks, Bruce; Higgins, Ann
BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at a high risk for late bloodstream infection (BSI). Controversy exists regarding the benefit of surveillance blood cultures in this immunosuppressed population. Despite the common use of this practice, the practical value is not well established in non-neutropenic children following HSCT. METHODS: At the IWK Health Centre (Halifax, Nova Scotia), weekly surveillance blood cultures from central lines are drawn from children following HSCT until the line is removed. A retrospective chart review was performed to determine the utility and cost of this practice. Eligible participants were non-neutropenic HSCT recipients with central venous access lines. The cost of laboratory investigations, nursing time, hospital stay and interventions for positive surveillance cultures was calculated. RESULTS: Forty-three HSCTs were performed in 41 children. Donors were allogenic in 33 cases (77%) and autologous in 10 cases (23%). There were 316 patient contacts for surveillance cultures (mean seven per patient) and 577 central line lumens sampled. Three of 43 patients (7%) had clinically significant positive surveillance blood cultures. Bacteria isolated were Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=2) and Corynebacterium jeikeium (n=1). All follow-up cultures before initiation of antimicrobial therapy were sterile. All three patients were admitted for antimicrobial therapy if they were not already hospitalized and/or had an uncomplicated course. The estimated total cost of BSI surveillance and management of asymptomatic infection over six years was $27,989. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that BSI surveillance in children following HSCT engraftment has a very low yield and significant cost. It is unclear whether it contributes to improved patient outcomes. PMID:18923737
Chew, S K; Snodgrass, I
The first case of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was detected in Singapore in 1985 and the first case of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 1986. Since then, the number of infections had increased. By the end of 1993, there were 222 residents with HIV infection, including 75 cases of AIDS. In view of the rapidly increasing magnitude of HIV infection, a microcomputer-based surveillance system was designed and developed in 1992 to better monitor epidemiological trends of HIV infection in Singapore. OBJECTIVE--The objective was to define a composite model of a successful HIV and AIDS registry that included: (a) patient data forms, (b) patient's contact data forms, (c) data analysis, and (d) report generation. METHODOLOGY--An IBM-compatible desk-top microcomputer was used for the project. The main software used for computer programming and data analysis were DBase IV (Version 1.5) and Epi Info (Version 5.0), respectively. Security features were incorporated into the programme to ensure confidentiality of information and that only authorized personnel could gain access to the programme. MAIN FINDINGS--The system functioned as the National HIV Notification Registry and was able to track notifications, analyse data and enabled prompt dissemination of information. The system was also linked to another database system for tuberculosis to enhance surveillance of both HIV infection and tuberculosis. CONCLUSION--The authors believe that this system would enhance surveillance and provide timely information for national AIDS control programmes. However, the effectiveness of this computer-based surveillance system is dependent on an established notification structure with notifications of sufficient completeness for both HIV infection and AIDS.
Pharmacodynamic comparisons of antimicrobials against nosocomial isolates of escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, acinetobacter baumannii and pseudomonas aeruginosa from the MYSTIC surveillance program: the OPTAMA Program, South America 2002.
Kiffer, Carlos R V; Mendes, Caio; Kuti, Joseph L; Nicolau, David P
The OPTAMA (Optimizing Pharmacodynamic Target Attainment using the MYSTIC [Meropenem Yearly Susceptibility Test Information Collection] Antibiogram) Program provides insight into the appropriate antibiotic options for empiric therapy for common nosocomial pathogens. In this report, South America is represented by Brazil, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela. A 5000-subject Monte Carlo Simulation estimated pharmacodynamic target attainment for meropenem, imipenem, ceftazidime, cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam, and ciprofloxacin against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pharmacokinetic parameter variability was derived from existing healthy volunteer data, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data came from the 2002 MYSTIC program. Piperacillin/tazobactam and ciprofloxacin displayed the lowest target attainment against all bacterial species (14% to 24% for A. baumannii, 26% to 37% for P. aeruginosa, and 48% to 66% for the Enterobacteriaceae). Overall, the carbapenems had the highest probabilities of attainment against the Enterobacteriaceae (98% to 100%) and A. baumannii (73% to 74%), whereas cefepime obtained the greatest target attainment against P. aeruginosa (65%). Because no single regimen had high target attainment against A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa, the use of combination therapy to treat these pathogens in South America may be justified. Because of the lack of agreement with percent susceptibility for certain antimicrobial regimens, the use of pharmacodynamic target attainment may be a more accurate predictor of microbiologic success.
Shears, P; O'Dempsey, T J D
The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, primarily affecting Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia, has exceeded all previous Ebola outbreaks in the number of cases and in international response. There have been 20 significant outbreaks of Ebola virus disease in Sub-Saharan Africa prior to the 2014 outbreak, the largest being that in Uganda in 2000, with 425 cases and a mortality of 53%. Since the first outbreaks in Sudan and Zaire in 1976, transmission within health facilities has been of major concern, affecting healthcare workers and acting as amplifiers of spread into the community. The lack of resources for infection control and personal protective equipment are the main reasons for nosocomial transmission. Local strategies to improve infection control, and a greater understanding of local community views on the disease, have helped to bring outbreaks under control. Recommendations from previous outbreaks include improved disease surveillance to enable more rapid health responses, the wider availability of personal protective equipment, and greater international preparedness.
Ganova-Raeva, Lilia M; Dimitrova, Zoya E; Campo, David S; Khudyakov, Yury
Detection of genotypes and drug resistance mutations are important molecular tools assisting in clinical management of patients with chronic hepatitis B and C. Together with methods for assessment of genetic heterogeneity and relatedness of viral strains, they form the foundation of molecular surveillance. Currently, all these methods are based mainly on DNA sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis. Mass spectrometry (MS) emerged recently as a rapid, cost-effective, reproducible and accurate alternative approach. MS-based molecular assays are highly amenable to automation and provide a suitable platform for routine application to the surveillance of HBV and HCV infections.
Walther, Birgit; Janssen, Traute; Gehlen, Heidrun; Vincze, Szilvia; Borchers, Kerstin; Wieler, Lothar H; Barton, Ann Kristin; Lübke-Becker, Antina
With the rising importance of nosocomial infections in equine hospitals, increased efforts with regard to biosecurity and infection control are necessary. This even more since nosocomial infections are often associated with multi-drug resistant pathogens. Consequently, the implementation of targeted prevention programs is essential. Since nosocomial infections are usually multifactorial events, realization of only a single measure is rarely effective to overcome nosocomial spread in clinical practice. Equine patients may be colonized at admission with multi-drug resistant pathogens such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and/or extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing (ESBL-) Enterobacteriaceae. Regardless of their individual resistance properties, these bacteria are common and usually unnoticed colonizers of either the nasopharynx or the intestinal tract. Also viral diseases caused by equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and EHV-4 may reach a clinic by patients which are latently infected or in the incubation period. To prevent nosocomal outbreaks, achieve an interruption in the infection chain and to eradicate infectious agents from the hospital environment, a professional hospital management is necessary. This should be adapted to both the wide range of pathogens causing nosocomial infections and the individual needs of equine patients. Amongst others, this approach includes a risk classification of equine patients at admission and information/enlightenment of the animal owners at discharge. An efficient management of inpatients, a targeted hygiene management and clear responsibilities with respect to biosecurity together with a surveillance of nosocomial infections form the cornerstone of infection control in equine hospitals.
Cailes, Benjamin; Vergnano, Stefania; Kortsalioudaki, Christina; Heath, Paul; Sharland, Mike
Neonatal sepsis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in premature or low birth weight babies. Hospital-acquired blood stream infections represent a significant and largely preventable cause of disease in this population. Neonatal units have been identified as a common site for the development and transmission of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens, a significant issue in modern medicine. Neonatal surveillance programmes collect prospective data on infection rates and may be used to optimise therapy, benchmark practice and develop quality improvement programmes. Despite this, the number of networks is relatively few and these are largely concentrated in resource-rich nations. Furthermore, surveillance definitions may vary between programmes impairing our ability to draw comparisons between them. Better harmonisation is required between networks to ensure that they achieve their potential as a valuable tool for benchmarking of hospital-acquired infection rates between units.
Zeigheimat, Farzaneh; Ebadi, Abbas; Rahmati-Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Ghadamgahi, Fahimeh
Background: Health-care acquired infections are significant given the risks and costs they impose. All previous studies indicate a poor level of knowledge and performance among the nurses in hospital infections; as such, educating nurses can play an important role in infection control. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of the health belief model (HBM) in making nurses adopting health-care behaviors needed to control nosocomial infections (Nis). Materials and Methods: The participants of the study were 135 nurses from two hospitals in Mashhad, Iran. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The questionnaire consisted of seven parts. The intervention group received four 45 min educational programs, both in individual and collective forms. After a 2-month interval, a post-test was conducted to see whether any difference has been resulted. Results: There was a significant relationship between knowledge (P = 0.001), perceived threat (P = 0.004), perceived benefits (P = 0.001), and practices (P = 0.001) in comparing to control and experimental groups after intervention. For the experimental and control groups, the most frequent cues to action at the preintervention stage were, respectively, related to the period of studying at university and in-service classes. Conclusion: According to this study, HBM-based education can increase knowledge, perceived threat, and perceived benefits of nurses. Additionally, it can reduce perceived barriers and improve the control of NIs among nurses. PMID:27500176
Gurycová, D; Kopcok, M
Out of 548 serologically investigated dogs from Bratislava and other regions of Slovakia and Moravia, antibodies to F. tularensis were found in 16.4% (Tabs. I, II). In all the investigated groups of dogs from the region of Bratislava the highest seroprevalence by F. tularensis was recorded in watch dogs kept on farms and in cooperatives--37.5% and in rambling dogs--20.7% (Tab. I). The highest seropositivity was found in one to three year old dogs--22.2% (Tab. III). A similar degree of seroprevalence was also observed in one to three years old police dogs which came from the endemic region of tularemia--West Slovakia (19.3%) and East Slovakia (25.6%)--Tab. IV. These facts indicate the persistence of active natural foci in these regions. Serological investigations of the relatively great number of dogs from different regions of Slovakia showed that the presence of F. tularensis antibodies in this animal species, mainly in the watch dogs group, can be taken as a convenient marker or indicator of the existence of active natural foci of tularemia and as a suitable component for surveillance of this diseases.
Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Takemoto, Hiroyuki; Sakamaki, Tetsuya; Tokuyama, Nahoko; Hart, John; Hart, Terese; Dupain, Jef; Cobden, Amy; Mulavwa, Mbangi; Kawamoto, Yoshi; Kaneko, Akihisa; Enomoto, Yuki; Sato, Eiji; Kooriyama, Takanori; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Suzuki, Juri; Saito, Akatsuki; Okamoto, Munehiro; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Furuichi, Takeshi; Akari, Hirofumi
Lymphocryptovirus (LCV) is one of the major gena in the herpesvirus family and is widely disseminated among primates. LCVs of human and rhesus macaques are shown to be causative agents of a number of malignant diseases including lymphoma and carcinoma. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) are highly endangered and the least studied species of the great apes. Considering the potential pathogenicity of the LCV that might threaten the fate of wild bonobos, population-based epidemiological information in terms of LCV prevalence in different location of Bonobo’s habitats will help propose improved conservation strategies for the bonobos. However, such data are not available yet because it is very difficult to collect blood samples in the wild and thus virtually impossible to conduct sero-epidemiological study on the wild ape. In order to overcome this issue, we focused on evaluating anti-LCV IgA in the feces of bonobos, which are available in a non-invasive manner. Preliminary study showed that anti-LCV IgA but not IgG was efficiently and reproducibly detected in the feces of captive chimpanzees. It is noteworthy that the fecal IgA-positive individuals were seropositive for both anti-LCV IgG and IgA and that the IgA antibodies in both sera and feces were also detectable by Western blotting assay. These results indicate that the detection of fecal anti-LCV IgA is likely a reliable and feasible for epidemiological surveillance of LCV prevalence in the great apes. We then applied this method and found that 31% of wild bonobos tested were positive for anti-LCV IgA antibody in the feces. Notably, the positivity rates varied extensively among their sampled populations. In conclusion, our results in this study demonstrate that LCV is highly disseminated among wild bonobos while the prevalence is remarkably diverse in their population-dependent manner. PMID:27570523
Abat, Cédric; Chaudet, Hervé; Colson, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier
Infectious diseases are a major threat to humanity, and accurate surveillance is essential. We describe how to implement a laboratory data-based surveillance system in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Two historical Microsoft Excel databases were implemented. The data were then sorted and used to execute the following 2 surveillance systems in Excel: the Bacterial real-time Laboratory-based Surveillance System (BALYSES) for monitoring the number of patients infected with bacterial species isolated at least once in our laboratory during the study periodl and the Marseille Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System (MARSS), which surveys the primary β-lactam resistance phenotypes for 15 selected bacterial species. The first historical database contained 174,853 identifications of bacteria, and the second contained 12,062 results of antibiotic susceptibility testing. From May 21, 2013, through June 4, 2014, BALYSES and MARSS enabled the detection of 52 abnormal events for 24 bacterial species, leading to 19 official reports. This system is currently being refined and improved.
Abat, Cédric; Chaudet, Hervé; Colson, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc
Infectious diseases are a major threat to humanity, and accurate surveillance is essential. We describe how to implement a laboratory data–based surveillance system in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Two historical Microsoft Excel databases were implemented. The data were then sorted and used to execute the following 2 surveillance systems in Excel: the Bacterial real-time Laboratory-based Surveillance System (BALYSES) for monitoring the number of patients infected with bacterial species isolated at least once in our laboratory during the study periodl and the Marseille Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System (MARSS), which surveys the primary β-lactam resistance phenotypes for 15 selected bacterial species. The first historical database contained 174,853 identifications of bacteria, and the second contained 12,062 results of antibiotic susceptibility testing. From May 21, 2013, through June 4, 2014, BALYSES and MARSS enabled the detection of 52 abnormal events for 24 bacterial species, leading to 19 official reports. This system is currently being refined and improved. PMID:26196165
Fang, Shisong; Bai, Tian; Yang, Lei; Wang, Xin; Peng, Bo; Liu, Hui; Geng, Yijie; Zhang, Renli; Ma, Hanwu; Zhu, Wenfei; Wang, Dayan; Cheng, Jinquan; Shu, Yuelong
Sporadic human infections with the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N6) virus have been reported in different provinces in China since April 2014. From June 2015 to January 2016, routine live poultry market (LPM) surveillance was conducted in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province. H5N6 viruses were not detected until November 2015. The H5N6 virus-positive rate increased markedly beginning in December 2015, and viruses were detected in LPMs in all districts of the city. Coincidently, two human cases with histories of poultry exposure developed symptoms and were diagnosed as H5N6-positive in Shenzhen during late December 2015 and early January 2016. Similar viruses were identified in environmental samples collected in the LPMs and the patients. In contrast to previously reported H5N6 viruses, viruses with six internal genes derived from the H9N2 or H7N9 viruses were detected in the present study. The increased H5N6 virus-positive rate in the LPMs and the subsequent human infections demonstrated that sustained LPM surveillance for avian influenza viruses provides an early warning for human infections. Interventions, such as LPM closures, should be immediately implemented to reduce the risk of human infection with the H5N6 virus when the virus is widely detected during LPM surveillance. PMID:27485495
Dondero, T J; Pappaioanou, M; Curran, J W
A comprehensive, multifaceted approach to HIV surveillance is needed to provide the information necessary for public health management and policy. Because HIV infection is not readily or uniformly ascertained, survey methods and sentinel surveillance approaches must be used. At least some of the surveys must be blinded, that is, anonymous and unlinked to identifiable persons, to avoid the uninterpretable impact of self-selection bias that could lead to both significant underestimates and occasional overestimates of HIV prevalence. Other surveys must be nonblinded, with careful interviews of volunteer participants to evaluate risk factors for HIV infection. These various surveys must continue over time to evaluate trends in infection. A comprehensive family of complementary HIV surveys and studies and a national household-based HIV seroprevalence survey have been undertaken by the Public Health Service in collaboration with other Federal agencies, State and local health departments, blood collection agencies, and medical research institutions. These projects focus on accessible segments of the general population, childbearing women, persons at high risk for HIV, and persons in special settings such as prisons and colleges. This comprehensive surveillance approach will help monitor the levels and trends of HIV infection in the United States and help prioritize, target, and evaluate HIV prevention activities. PMID:3131809
Fang, Shisong; Bai, Tian; Yang, Lei; Wang, Xin; Peng, Bo; Liu, Hui; Geng, Yijie; Zhang, Renli; Ma, Hanwu; Zhu, Wenfei; Wang, Dayan; Cheng, Jinquan; Shu, Yuelong
Sporadic human infections with the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A (H5N6) virus have been reported in different provinces in China since April 2014. From June 2015 to January 2016, routine live poultry market (LPM) surveillance was conducted in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province. H5N6 viruses were not detected until November 2015. The H5N6 virus-positive rate increased markedly beginning in December 2015, and viruses were detected in LPMs in all districts of the city. Coincidently, two human cases with histories of poultry exposure developed symptoms and were diagnosed as H5N6-positive in Shenzhen during late December 2015 and early January 2016. Similar viruses were identified in environmental samples collected in the LPMs and the patients. In contrast to previously reported H5N6 viruses, viruses with six internal genes derived from the H9N2 or H7N9 viruses were detected in the present study. The increased H5N6 virus-positive rate in the LPMs and the subsequent human infections demonstrated that sustained LPM surveillance for avian influenza viruses provides an early warning for human infections. Interventions, such as LPM closures, should be immediately implemented to reduce the risk of human infection with the H5N6 virus when the virus is widely detected during LPM surveillance.
Surveillance is a key component of the French plan for prevention of healthcare-associated infection (HAI) and has progressively evolved in the past decades. We describe the development and current organisation of surveillance of HAI in France and summarise key achievements and results. Surveillance of HAI is under the auspice of the national institute for public health surveillance through a central coordinating structure, the Reseau d alerte, d investigation et de surveillance des infections nosocomiales (RAISIN), which consists of five regional coordinating structures, two national advisory committees of the Ministry of Health and public health agencies. Surveillance includes the performance of national prevalence surveys every five years (latest in 2006), specific surveillance networks to follow trends and characterise HAI that are national priority, and mandatory reporting of HAI that meet specific criteria for alert purposes. RAISIN prioritises activities, defines technical specifications of surveillance systems, coordinates their implementation, and supports response to alerts, emergences or outbreaks of HAI. We demonstrate that the French surveillance program of HAI has become comprehensive and contributes to evaluating the impact of control and prevention of HAI. Data from RAISIN indicate a general decrease in the risk of HAI in acute care in France. They show a decrease in HAI during recent years, particularly of those related to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for which a drop of 38% was documented between 2001 and 2006. RAISIN is also integrated into European surveillance of HAI coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Control.
Garbe, P.L.; Davis, B.J.; Weisfeld, J.S.; Markowitz, L.; Miner, P. Garrity, F.; Barbaree, J.M.; Reingold, A.L.
Investigation of a recent outbreak of nosocomial legionnaires' disease - initially thought to be due to the documented presence of Legionella pneumophila in the hospital potable water - showed that aerosols from one or more cooling towers were the actual source of infection. From June 27 to Aug 25, 1983, nosocomial legionnaires' disease developed in 15 persons at a hospital in Rhode Island. Twelve (80%) of 15 case-patients occupied rooms in building 1, unit B, compared with eight (28%) of 29 control patients (odds ratio = 10.8; 95% confidence interval = 1.4 to 85.6). Subsequent investigation demonstrated that water in a cooling tower located 100 ft upwind of unit B was heavily contaminated with L. pneumophila, serogroup 1, subgroup 1, 2, 4, 5. The same strain was isolated from nine of the patients and from the make-up water for the tower. Active surveillance during the ten months following decontamination of the cooling tower identified no additional cases of nosocomial legionnaires' disease, although the hospital potable water had not been treated. While recommendations have been made for controlling nosocomial legionnaires' disease by heating or hyperchlorination of hospital potable water, this outbreak demonstrates the importance of an adequate epidemiologic-environmental investigation in choosing the appropriate control strategy.
Chretien, Jean-Paul; Glass, Jonathan S; Coldren, Rodney C; Noah, Donald L; Hyer, Randall N; Gaydos, Joel C; Malone, Joseph L
The Department of Defense (DoD) Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (DoD-GEIS) identifies and addresses DoD vulnerabilities to emerging infections through a global network of partners. Following the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 26, 2004, DoD-GEIS facilitated the DoD medical response and coordination with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization. DoD-GEIS partners in Southeast Asia (U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit 2, Jakarta, Indonesia; and Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand) rapidly conducted health assessments and established surveillance for communicable diseases that threatened survivors. Preexisting collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health Organization, and host countries was critical for the DoD-GEIS tsunami response.
to be causal. Respiratory illnesses caused by viruses in the family Coronaviridae have long been recognized.2-13 Two species known to cause human ...tested positive for influenza A, 2 (13%) for coronavirus OC43, 2 (13%) for respiratory syncytial virus , 1 (6%) rhinovirus, 9 and 4 (25%) were...NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER SURVEILLANCE FOR RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS , INCLUDING SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME (SARS), IN COBRA
Napoli, Christian; Iannetti, Simona; Rizzo, Caterina; Bella, Antonino; Di Sabatino, Daria; Bruno, Rossana; Sauro, Francesca; Martini, Vanessa; Santucci, Vincenzo Ugo; Declich, Silvia; Calistri, Paolo
The epidemiology of West Nile disease (WND) is influenced by multiple ecological factors and, therefore, integrated surveillance systems are needed for early detecting the infection and activating consequent control actions. As different animal species have different importance in the maintenance and in the spread of the infection, a multispecies surveillance approach is required. An integrated and comprehensive surveillance system is in place in Italy aiming at early detecting the virus introduction, monitoring the possible infection spread, and implementing preventive measures for human health. This paper describes the integrated surveillance system for WND in Italy, which incorporates data from veterinary and human side in order to evaluate the burden of infection in animals and humans and provide the public health authorities at regional and national levels with the information needed for a fine tune response.
Napoli, Christian; Di Sabatino, Daria; Martini, Vanessa; Santucci, Vincenzo Ugo; Declich, Silvia
The epidemiology of West Nile disease (WND) is influenced by multiple ecological factors and, therefore, integrated surveillance systems are needed for early detecting the infection and activating consequent control actions. As different animal species have different importance in the maintenance and in the spread of the infection, a multispecies surveillance approach is required. An integrated and comprehensive surveillance system is in place in Italy aiming at early detecting the virus introduction, monitoring the possible infection spread, and implementing preventive measures for human health. This paper describes the integrated surveillance system for WND in Italy, which incorporates data from veterinary and human side in order to evaluate the burden of infection in animals and humans and provide the public health authorities at regional and national levels with the information needed for a fine tune response. PMID:25874224
Marchesi, I; Bargellini, A; Cencetti, S; Concetti, S; Marchegiano, P; Cauteruccio, L; Casolari, C; Borella, P
In an university hospital of about 900 beds, a clinical surveillance was activated to detect cases of Legionnaires' disease in patients affected by community and/or nosocomial-acquired pneumonia. In the hospital Legionella spp was detected in the hot water distribution system and various disinfecting and control procedures were adopted to reduce contamination. Contemporary, the clinical surveillance began with the systematic detection of Legionella urinary antigen among recovered pneumonia, seroconversion as confirmation test and the collection of respiratory secretions or other biological materials to isolate the microorganism in patients positive to the urinary antigen. From September 2003 to May 2005, 486 pneumonia were followed, 98 of which considered of nosocomial origin. In total, 15 cases of community-acquired Legionnaires' disease were detected by the urinary test, whereas no cases of nosocomial origin were found. The characteristics of the detected cases are described in comparison with the other pneumonia and the surveillance cost was evaluated. The systematic clinical surveillance for Legionella infections is feasible with limit costs, allows to detect community-acquired cases otherwise unknown and to ascertain the absence/presence of nosocomial-acquired pneumonia, irrespective of the environment contamination.
Johnson, Laura R; Gould, L Hannah; Dunn, John R; Berkelman, Ruth; Mahon, Barbara E
Salmonella species cause an estimated 1.2 million infections per year in the United States, making it one of the most commonly reported enteric pathogens. In addition, Salmonella is an important cause of travel-associated diarrhea and enteric fever, a systemic illness commonly associated with Salmonella serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A. We reviewed cases of Salmonella infection reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), a sentinel surveillance network, from 2004 to 2008. We compared travelers with Salmonella infection to nontravelers with Salmonella infection with respect to demographics, clinical characteristics, and serotypes. Among 23,712 case-patients with known travel status, 11% had traveled internationally in the 7 days before illness. Travelers with Salmonella infection tended to be older (median age, 30 years) than nontravelers (median age, 24 years; p<0.0001), but were similar with respect to gender. The most common destinations reported were Mexico (38% of travel-associated infections), India (9%), Jamaica (7%), the Dominican Republic (4%), China (3%), and the Bahamas (2%). The proportions of travelers with Salmonella infection hospitalized and with invasive disease were inversely related to the income level of the destination (p<0.0001). The most commonly reported serotypes, regardless of travel status, were Enteritidis (19% of cases), Typhimurium (14%), Newport (9%), and Javiana (5%). Among infections caused by these four serotypes, 22%, 6%, 5%, and 4%, respectively, were associated with travel. A high index of clinical suspicion for Salmonella infection is appropriate when evaluating recent travelers, especially those who visited Africa, Asia, or Latin America.
Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Fleßa, Steffen; Jakisch, Ralf; Assadian, Ojan; Kramer, Axel
In the care of patients, the prevention of nosocomial infections is crucial. For it to be successful, cross-sectoral, interface-oriented hygiene quality management is necessary. The goal is to apply the HACCP (Hazard Assessment and Critical Control Points) concept to hospital hygiene, in order to create a multi-dimensional hygiene control system based on hygiene indicators that will overcome the limitations of a procedurally non-integrated and non-cross-sectoral view of hygiene. Three critical risk dimensions can be identified for the implementation of three-dimensional quality control of hygiene in clinical routine: the constitution of the person concerned, the surrounding physical structures and technical equipment, and the medical procedures. In these dimensions, the establishment of indicators and threshold values enables a comprehensive assessment of hygiene quality. Thus, the cross-sectoral evaluation of the quality of structure, processes and results is decisive for the success of integrated infection prophylaxis. This study lays the foundation for hygiene indicator requirements and develops initial concepts for evaluating quality management in hygiene. PMID:22558049
Krapivina, I V; Galeeva, E V; Veshutova, N S; Ivanov, D V; Sidorenko, S V
Profiles and mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics of isolates of Gram-negative microorganisms, which are causative agents of infections in Intensive Care Unit of hospital surgery department, were studied. Two hundred and ten clinical isolates were studied: Pseudomonas aeruginosa--86 strains (40.9%), Acinetobacter baummanii--45 strains (21.4%), Klebsiella pneumoniae--52 strains (24.8%), Escherichia coli--23 strains (11%), Enterobacter spp.--4 strains (1.9%). Profiles of antibiotic resistance were studied by the method of serial microdilutions; detection of most widespread and clinically significant genes of beta-lactamases of Gram-negative bacteria was performed by polymerase chain reaction. Carbapenems and cefoperazone/sulbactam were the most active antibiotics. Local features of distribution of beta-lactamase coding genes (TEM, SHV, CTX) in K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates were revealed. Eleven strains of P. aeruginosa resistant to carbapenems and possessing genetic determinants of VIM-group, which codes metallo-beta-lactamases, were isolated. Obtained data allows to assess the parameters of resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and to reveal the main mechanisms of such resistance in etiologic agents of nosocomial infections, that, in its turn, allows to choose preparations for etiotropic therapy.
Domingo, D; Limia, A; Alarcón, T; Sanz, J C; Del Rey, M C; López-Brea, M
We report a case of nosocomial septicemia in a 79-year-old patient caused by Serratia plymuthica with no evident focus of infection. The patient was treated with gentamicin (40 mg every 8 h) during 10 days; clinical resolution of the infection was obtained after the 10-day treatment period. PMID:8150981
Onorato, I M; O'Brien, T R; Schable, C A; Spruill, C; Holmberg, S D
OBJECTIVES. We conducted sentinel surveillance in persons practicing behaviors known to transmit retroviruses to determine the US presence and extent of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2). METHODS. Sentinel surveillance for HIV-2 was conducted by testing 31,533 anonymous blood specimens from patients at sexually transmitted disease clinics, injecting drug users at treatment centers, and clients at HIV counseling and testing sites in 14 US cities where West African immigrants often settle. Specimens were tested by HIV-1 and HIV-2 whole virus and synthetic peptide enzyme immunoassay and confirmed by HIV-1 and HIV-2 Western blots. RESULTS. Nearly 10% of 31,533 sera were positive for HIV-1. Two heterosexual Black male sexually transmitted disease patients were infected with HIV-2. One of the HIV-2 positive specimens did not cross-react on HIV-1 enzyme immunoassay screening. One client had antibodies consistent with malarial infection in West Africa; the other, who had syphilis, did not have antibodies to malaria or to any of 20 arboviruses present in Africa. CONCLUSIONS. Clinics serving clients from HIV-2 endemic areas should test persons practicing risk behaviors for both HIV-1 and HIV-2. Sentinel surveillance for HIV-2 serves as an early warning system for the possible spread of this virus in the United States. PMID:8460726
Chusri, Sarunyou; Silpapojakul, Kachornsakdi; McNeil, Edward; Singkhamanan, Kamonnut; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi
Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) infection is one of the most important healthcare associated diseases worldwide. Although antibiotic use is recognized as a risk factor for CRAB infection, the impact of antibiotic class and length of use on CRAB infection is still unclear. A case-control study was conducted in adult intensive care units and general wards of Songklanagarind Hospital, a tertiary-care hospital in southern Thailand, to investigate the effect of different antibiotic exposure and the duration of use on the risk of developing CRAB infection. Cases were defined as patients with carbapenem-susceptible A. baumannii (CSAB) or CRAB infection. Controls were randomly selected from patients and matched 1:1 with cases using ward and date of admission. Multinomial logistic regression was used to compute relative risk ratios (RRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for CRAB infection. Of 197 cases with A. baumannii infection, there were 139 with CRAB infection and 58 with CSAB infection. Compared to the control group, use of fluoroquinolones, broad-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems for more than three days increased the risk of CRAB infection with RRR (95% CI) of 81.2 (38.1-862.7), 31.3 (9.9-98.7) and 112.1 (7.1-1770.6), respectively. The RRR (95% CI) for one to three day treatment of fluoroquinolones, broad-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems were 5.4 (0.8-38.7), 6.2 (0.1-353.2) and 63.3 (15.6-256.9), respectively. Long-term use of certain antibiotics and even short term use of carbapenems increased the risk of CRAB infection. In this setting, use of these antibiotics, especially carbapenems, should be limited to reduce CRAB infection.
Engelhard, D; Elishoov, H; Strauss, N; Naparstek, E; Nagler, A; Simhon, A; Raveh, D; Slavin, S; Or, R
The purpose of this study was to examine coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) patients with central vein catheters by investigating incidence, clinical relevance, risk factors, methicillin resistance, clinical impact of initial empiric antimicrobial therapy without vancomycin, and management of documented catheter-related infections. A 5-year prospective study was conducted with daily evaluation of 242 BMT patients during hospitalization, including clinical assessment and blood culture via the Hickman/Broviac catheter. If fever or infected appearance occurred, peripheral blood cultures or exit site cultures, respectively, were done. Results showed a septicemia incidence of 7.0%, including in 6 patients following colonization, in 1 patient with tunnel infection, in 1 patient with thrombophlebitis, in 1 patient with exit site infection, and in 8 patients with septicemia of unknown origin. Total colonization incidence was 7%, with colonization only in 11 patients who had 16 episodes; incidence of exit site infection was 3.7%. Age > or = 18 years was the only identified risk factor for developing staphylococcal infection (P = 0.03). Despite a methicillin resistance rate of 45% and omission of vancomycin from the routine initial empiric antimicrobial regimen, the clinical course of coagulase-negative staphylococcal infections was relatively benign. A single patient, who experienced marrow rejection, died on day +31 with septicemia and only one patient experienced microbiological failure with recurrent colonization. Bacteria grown in both aerobic and anaerobic bottles were more likely true bacteremia than contaminant (P = 0.03). We conclude that the hazard of coagulase-negative staphylococcal infection does not mandate inclusion of a glycopeptide in the initial empiric antimicrobial regimen in BMT patients, even during febrile neutropenia. Hickman/Broviac-related staphylococcal infections, except for tunnel infection or
Baumbach, Joan; Cieslak, Paul R.
Despite high coverage with pertussis-containing vaccines, pertussis remains endemic to the United States. There have been increases in reported cases in recent years, punctuated by striking epidemics and shifting epidemiology, both of which raise questions about current policies regarding its prevention and control. Limited data on pertussis reported through the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System have proved insufficient to answer these questions. To address shortcomings of national pertussis data, the Emerging Infections Program at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched Enhanced Pertussis Surveillance (EPS), which is characterized by systematic case ascertainment, augmented data collection, and collection of Bordetella pertussis isolates. Data collected through EPS have been instrumental in understanding the rapidly evolving epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of pertussis and have contributed essential information regarding pertussis vaccines. EPS also serves as a platform for conducting critical and timely evaluations of pertussis prevention and control strategies, including targeting of vaccinations and antimicrobial prophylaxis. PMID:26291475
Skoff, Tami H; Baumbach, Joan; Cieslak, Paul R
Despite high coverage with pertussis-containing vaccines, pertussis remains endemic to the United States. There have been increases in reported cases in recent years, punctuated by striking epidemics and shifting epidemiology, both of which raise questions about current policies regarding its prevention and control. Limited data on pertussis reported through the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System have proved insufficient to answer these questions. To address shortcomings of national pertussis data, the Emerging Infections Program at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched Enhanced Pertussis Surveillance (EPS), which is characterized by systematic case ascertainment, augmented data collection, and collection of Bordetella pertussis isolates. Data collected through EPS have been instrumental in understanding the rapidly evolving epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of pertussis and have contributed essential information regarding pertussis vaccines. EPS also serves as a platform for conducting critical and timely evaluations of pertussis prevention and control strategies, including targeting of vaccinations and antimicrobial prophylaxis.
Control and eventual elimination of human parasitic diseases in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) requires novel approaches, particularly in the areas of diagnostics, mathematical modelling, monitoring, evaluation, surveillance and public health response. A comprehensive effort, involving the collaboration of 188 scientists (>85% from P.R. China) from 48 different institutions and universities (80% from P.R. China), covers this collection of 29 articles published in Parasites & Vectors. The research mainly stems from a research project entitled “Surveillance and diagnostic tools for major parasitic diseases in P.R. China” (grant no. 2008ZX10004-011) and highlights the frontiers of research in parasitology. The majority of articles in this thematic series deals with the most important parasitic diseases in P.R. China, emphasizing Schistosoma japonicum, Plasmodium vivax and Clonorchis sinensis plus some parasites of emerging importance such as Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Significant achievements have been made through the collaborative research programme in the following three fields: (i) development of strategies for the national control programme; (ii) updating the surveillance data of parasitic infections both in human and animals; and (iii) improvement of existing, and development of novel, diagnostic tools to detect parasitic infections. The progress is considerable and warrants broad validation efforts. Combined with the development of improved tools for diagnosis and surveillance, integrated and multi-pronged control strategies should now pave the way for elimination of parasitic diseases in P.R. China. Experiences and lessons learned can stimulate control and elimination efforts of parasitic diseases in other parts of the world. PMID:23036110
Chen, Jun-Hu; Wang, Hen; Chen, Jia-Xu; Bergquist, Robert; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong
Control and eventual elimination of human parasitic diseases in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) requires novel approaches, particularly in the areas of diagnostics, mathematical modelling, monitoring, evaluation, surveillance and public health response. A comprehensive effort, involving the collaboration of 188 scientists (>85% from P.R. China) from 48 different institutions and universities (80% from P.R. China), covers this collection of 29 articles published in Parasites & Vectors. The research mainly stems from a research project entitled "Surveillance and diagnostic tools for major parasitic diseases in P.R. China" (grant no. 2008ZX10004-011) and highlights the frontiers of research in parasitology. The majority of articles in this thematic series deals with the most important parasitic diseases in P.R. China, emphasizing Schistosoma japonicum, Plasmodium vivax and Clonorchis sinensis plus some parasites of emerging importance such as Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Significant achievements have been made through the collaborative research programme in the following three fields: (i) development of strategies for the national control programme; (ii) updating the surveillance data of parasitic infections both in human and animals; and (iii) improvement of existing, and development of novel, diagnostic tools to detect parasitic infections. The progress is considerable and warrants broad validation efforts. Combined with the development of improved tools for diagnosis and surveillance, integrated and multi-pronged control strategies should now pave the way for elimination of parasitic diseases in P.R. China. Experiences and lessons learned can stimulate control and elimination efforts of parasitic diseases in other parts of the world.
Mizuno, Yasuhiro; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Kishi, Yukiko; Kodama, Yuko; Murashige, Naoko; Yuji, Koichiro; Matsumura, Tomoko; Kami, Masahiro
It is unclear how changes in the content and number of news reports over time affect the impressions made in the minds of newspaper readers. This study targeted news reports in major newspapers regarding an incident of mass nosocomial Serratia infection that occurred at one clinic. The trends in the total number of articles and total number of characters contained in the articles were congruent, with a peak on the day after the incident was disclosed and a rapid decrease thereafter. The numbers of articles and characters that appeared during the first 3 days corresponded to 45 and 51% of those that appeared during the entire study period. On day 9, it was published that Serratia liquefaciens propagated on medical instruments, and both the number of articles and the number of characters increased by approximately 40% in comparison to those published on the day after the initial report of the incident. The individual articles were deemed to be medically accurate; however, the main problem was that only part of the specific medical issue had been emphasized because of a poor balance in the number of news reports on this topic.
Zhang, Li; Fu, Yongfeng; Jing, Wenwen; Xu, Qing; Zhao, Wang; Feng, Meng; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Sui, Guodong; Cheng, Xunjia
Cryptosporidiosis has been reported to be associated with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome, which greatly reduces the quality of life and shortens the life expectancy of HIV-infected patients. In order to properly treat the infected patients, accurate and automatic diagnostic tools need to be developed. In this study, a novel microfluidic immunochip system was presented for the surveillance and the rapid detection of Cryptosporidium infection in 190 HIV-infected patients from Guangxi, China, using the P23 antigen of Cryptosporidium. The procedure of detection can be completed within 10 min with 2 μl sample consumption. The system also was evaluated using the standard ELISA method. Among 190 HIV-infected individuals, the rate of P23 positivity was 13.7%. Seropositivity in HIV-infected individuals was higher in female patients. The seropositivity to P23 was higher in HIV-infected individuals with high viral load, although the difference was statistically insignificant. Significantly higher Cryptosporidium seropositivity was observed in HIV-infected individuals with a CD4+ T-cell count of <200 cells/μl than in those with ≥200 cells/μl. Our results also demonstrate that a lower CD4+ T-cell count may reflect an increased accumulated risk for cryptosporidiosis. The detection system was further validated using the standard ELISA method and good correlation between the two methods was found (r = 0.80). Under the same sensitivity, this new microfluidic chip device had a specificity of 98.2%. This developed system may provide a powerful platform for the fast screening of Cryptospordium infection in HIV-infected patients. PMID:25945140
Pontón, J; Cabañes, F J
The current importance of nosocomial aspergillosis has prompted this symposium to review the most important issues in the field: taxonomy and identification of species involved, clinical presentations, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and molecular epidemiology applied to the detection of outbreaks of nosocomial aspergillosis.
Goff, Jennifer; Rowe, Aaron; Brownstein, John S.; Chunara, Rumi
Participatory systems for surveillance of acute respiratory infection give real-time information about infections circulating in the community, yet to-date are limited to self-reported syndromic information only and lacking methods of linking symptom reports to infection types. We developed the GoViral platform to evaluate whether a cohort of lay volunteers could, and would find it useful to, contribute self-reported symptoms online and to compare specimen types for self-collected diagnostic information of sufficient quality for respiratory infection surveillance. Volunteers were recruited, given a kit (collection materials and customized instructions), instructed to report their symptoms weekly, and when sick with cold or flu-like symptoms, requested to collect specimens (saliva and nasal swab). We compared specimen types for respiratory virus detection sensitivity (via polymerase-chain-reaction) and ease of collection. Participants were surveyed to determine receptivity to participating when sick, to receiving information on the type of pathogen causing their infection and types circulating near them. Between December 1 2013 and March 1 2014, 295 participants enrolled in the study and received a kit. Of those who reported symptoms, half (71) collected and sent specimens for analysis. Participants submitted kits on average 2.30 days (95 CI: 1.65 to 2.96) after symptoms began. We found good concordance between nasal and saliva specimens for multiple pathogens, with few discrepancies. Individuals report that saliva collection is easiest and report that receiving information about what pathogen they, and those near them, have is valued and can shape public health behaviors. Community-submitted specimens can be used for the detection of acute respiratory infection with individuals showing receptivity for participating and interest in a real-time picture of respiratory pathogens near them. PMID:26075141
Goff, Jennifer; Rowe, Aaron; Brownstein, John S; Chunara, Rumi
Participatory systems for surveillance of acute respiratory infection give real-time information about infections circulating in the community, yet to-date are limited to self-reported syndromic information only and lacking methods of linking symptom reports to infection types. We developed the GoViral platform to evaluate whether a cohort of lay volunteers could, and would find it useful to, contribute self-reported symptoms online and to compare specimen types for self-collected diagnostic information of sufficient quality for respiratory infection surveillance. Volunteers were recruited, given a kit (collection materials and customized instructions), instructed to report their symptoms weekly, and when sick with cold or flu-like symptoms, requested to collect specimens (saliva and nasal swab). We compared specimen types for respiratory virus detection sensitivity (via polymerase-chain-reaction) and ease of collection. Participants were surveyed to determine receptivity to participating when sick, to receiving information on the type of pathogen causing their infection and types circulating near them. Between December 1 2013 and March 1 2014, 295 participants enrolled in the study and received a kit. Of those who reported symptoms, half (71) collected and sent specimens for analysis. Participants submitted kits on average 2.30 days (95 CI: 1.65 to 2.96) after symptoms began. We found good concordance between nasal and saliva specimens for multiple pathogens, with few discrepancies. Individuals report that saliva collection is easiest and report that receiving information about what pathogen they, and those near them, have is valued and can shape public health behaviors. Community-submitted specimens can be used for the detection of acute respiratory infection with individuals showing receptivity for participating and interest in a real-time picture of respiratory pathogens near them.
Milan, Potic B; Ivan, Ignjatovic M
The objective is to evaluate resistance between community-acquired urinary tract infections (CAUTI), nosocomialy-acquired urinary tract infections (NAUTI), and empirical therapy adequacy. E. coli is the predominant pathogen of both CAUTI and NAUTI, followed by Klebsiella spp. in NAUTI and Pseudomonas spp. in catheter-associated urinary tract infections. The highest level of general resistance was found among isolates of NAUTI and catheter-associated UTI followed by CAUTI isolates. Absolute or high level resistance for commonly used empirical antimicrobial therapy was found in catheter-associated UTI and NAUTI while resistance among CAUTI was respectable. Patients with NAUTI as well as patients with catheter-associated urinary tract infections have similar resistance and similar microorganisms isolated as a causative agents, and should not be empirically treated unless the clinical emergency requests.
Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L; Córdoba, Susana; Melhem, Marcia C; Szeszs, María W; Castañeda, Elizabeth; Martínez, Gerardo; Gabastou, Jean-Marc
This article describes the general objectives of the Regional Laboratory Network for Surveillance of Invasive Fungal Infections and Antifungal Susceptibility in Latin America. Formation of the Network was coordinated by the Essential Medicines, Vaccines, and Health Technologies Unit of the Pan American Health Organization, with the technical and financial support of the National Center for Microbiology of the Carlos III Health Institute (Spain), and the technical support of the Microbiology Department of the Dr. C. Malbrán National Institute on Infectious Diseases (Argentina) and the Microbiology Unit of the Parasitology Service of the Adolfo Lutz Institute (Brazil). The Network's principle objectives are epidemiological surveillance of invasive fungal infections through detection of antifungal resistance and identification of emergent, invasive fungal infections; establishment of norms and common protocols for early diagnosis of mycoses; and strengthening coordination, communications, and transference mechanisms among countries. The Network must be gradually implemented and must include staff training, a systematic process for sharing technology, evaluation of diagnostic techniques, identification of fungal species, and standardized tests for antifungal susceptibility.
Kotzen, Mollie; Sell, Jessica; Mathes, Robert W; Dentinger, Catherine; Lee, Lillian; Schiff, Corinne; Weiss, Don
In response to two isolated cases of Mycobacterium chelonae infections in tattoo recipients where tap water was used to dilute ink, the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted an investigation using Emergency Department (ED) syndromic surveillance to assess whether an outbreak was occuring. ED visits with chief complaints containing the key word "tattoo" from November 1, 2012 to March 18, 2013 were selected for study. NYC laboratories were also contacted and asked to report skin or soft tissue cultures in tattoo recipients that were positive for non-tuberculosis mycobacterial infection (NTM). Thirty-one TREDV were identified and 14 (45%) were interviewed to determine if a NTM was the cause for the visit. One ED visit met the case definition and was referred to a dermatologist. This individual was negative for NTM. No tattoo-associated NTM cases were reported by NYC laboratories. ED syndromic surveillance was utilized to investigate a non-reportable condition for which no other data source existed. The results were reassuring that an outbreak of NTM in tattoo recipients was not occurring. In response to concerns about potential NTM infections, the department sent a letter to all licensed tattoo artists advising them not to dilute tattoo ink with tap water.
van Mourik, Maaike S M; van Duijn, Pleun Joppe; Moons, Karel G M; Bonten, Marc J M; Lee, Grace M
Objective Measuring the incidence of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) is of increasing importance in current healthcare delivery systems. Administrative data algorithms, including (combinations of) diagnosis codes, are commonly used to determine the occurrence of HAI, either to support within-hospital surveillance programmes or as free-standing quality indicators. We conducted a systematic review evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of administrative data for the detection of HAI. Methods Systematic search of Medline, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane for relevant studies (1995–2013). Methodological quality assessment was performed using QUADAS-2 criteria; diagnostic accuracy estimates were stratified by HAI type and key study characteristics. Results 57 studies were included, the majority aiming to detect surgical site or bloodstream infections. Study designs were very diverse regarding the specification of their administrative data algorithm (code selections, follow-up) and definitions of HAI presence. One-third of studies had important methodological limitations including differential or incomplete HAI ascertainment or lack of blinding of assessors. Observed sensitivity and positive predictive values of administrative data algorithms for HAI detection were very heterogeneous and generally modest at best, both for within-hospital algorithms and for formal quality indicators; accuracy was particularly poor for the identification of device-associated HAI such as central line associated bloodstream infections. The large heterogeneity in study designs across the included studies precluded formal calculation of summary diagnostic accuracy estimates in most instances. Conclusions Administrative data had limited and highly variable accuracy for the detection of HAI, and their judicious use for internal surveillance efforts and external quality assessment is recommended. If hospitals and policymakers choose to rely on administrative data for HAI surveillance, continued
Mumtaz, S; Bishop, L A; Wright, A L; Kanfoudi, L; Duckworth, G; Fraser, G G
Although meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is recognized as an important cause of hospital and community healthcare-associated morbidity, and colonization as a precursor to infection, few studies have attempted to assess the burden of both colonization and infection across acute healthcare providers within a defined health economy. This study describes the prevalence and incidence of MRSA colonization and infection in acute London hospital Trusts participating in a voluntary surveillance programme in 2000-2001. Hospital infection control staff completed a weekly return including details on incident and prevalent colonizations, bacteraemias and other significant infections due to MRSA. Incidence and prevalence rates were calculated for hospitals with sufficient participation across both years. Colonizations accounted for 79% of incident MRSA cases reported; 4% were bacteraemias, and 17% other significant infections. There was no change in incidence of colonization of hospital patients between 2000 and 2001. By contrast, there was an unexplained 49% increase in prevalence of colonizations over this period. For any given month, prevalent colonizations outnumbered incident colonizations at least twofold. This MRSA surveillance programme was unusual for prospective ascertainment of incident and prevalent cases of both colonization and infection within an English regional health economy. Consistent with other studies, the incidence and prevalence of colonization substantially exceeded infection. Given the small contribution of bacteraemias to the overall MRSA burden, and the surveillance, screening and control interventions of recent years, it may be appropriate to review the present reliance on bacteraemia surveillance.
Nowroozi, Jamileh; Akhavan Sepahi, Abbas; Tahmasebinejad Kamarposhti, Lida; Razavipour, Roya; Mazhar, Flor
Background: Acinetobacter baumannii plays an important role in some types of nosocomial infections as an opportunist microorganism which increases levels of resistance to antibacterial drugs and disinfectants. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the resistance and sensitivity of A. baumannii to different antibiotics and evaluate the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Ciprofloxacin and Tetracycline; in addition to Surfanios, Citron and Aniosyme DD1 disinfectants, and also to detect the presence of gyrA, parC and tetB gene bands in the isolates. Materials and Methods: In this study, 65 A. baumannii isolates were collected from the hospitalized patients in NIOC hospital (National Iranian Oil Company hospital) of Tehran, Iran during 2010-2011. The pattern of sensitivity to antibiotics was determined using CSLI disk diffusion and MIC methods. Furthermore, resistance of isolates to the common disinfectants (Surfanios Citron and Aniosyme DD1) was determined in different hospital wards. Presence of gyrA, parC and tetB gene bands was also detected by PCR method. Results: Frequency of Acinetobacter resistance to Amikacin, Ciprofloxacin, co-Trimoxazole, Ceftazidime and Ceftriaxone was 100% in the isolates reviewed in this study. The frequency of resistance to Gentamicin and Tetracycline were 86.1% in the isolates. The MIC of Ciprofloxacin in all (100%) of isolates was 32-64 μg/mL which showed the resistance to Ciprofloxacin In 86.1% of cases the Gentamicin and Tetracycline MIC were ≥ 16 μg/mL and in 13.9% of isolates the Gentamicin and Tetracycline MIC were 4 μg/mL, these results showed the resistance and sensitivity to the Gentamicin and Tetracycline, respectively. Additionally, all (100%) of the A. baumannii isolates were resistant to disinfectant concentrations, which were used with the methods recommended by manufacturers (0.5%). In 100% of the isolates parC and gyrA genes bands were detected, and tetB gene was also detected in 86.1% of
Zhao, Naizhuo; Cao, Guofeng; Vanos, Jennifer K; Vecellio, Daniel J
The environmental drivers and mechanisms of influenza dynamics remain unclear. The recent development of influenza surveillance--particularly the emergence of digital epidemiology--provides an opportunity to further understand this puzzle as an area within applied human biometeorology. This paper investigates the short-term weather effects on human influenza activity at a synoptic scale during cold seasons. Using 10 years (2005-2014) of municipal level influenza surveillance data (an adjustment of the Google Flu Trends estimation from the Centers for Disease Control's virologic surveillance data) and daily spatial synoptic classification weather types, we explore and compare the effects of weather exposure on the influenza infection incidences in 79 cities across the USA. We find that during the cold seasons the presence of the polar [i.e., dry polar (DP) and moist polar (MP)] weather types is significantly associated with increasing influenza likelihood in 62 and 68% of the studied cities, respectively, while the presence of tropical [i.e., dry tropical (DT) and moist tropical (MT)] weather types is associated with a significantly decreasing occurrence of influenza in 56 and 43% of the cities, respectively. The MP and the DP weather types exhibit similar close positive correlations with influenza infection incidences, indicating that both cold-dry and cold-moist air provide favorable conditions for the occurrence of influenza in the cold seasons. Additionally, when tropical weather types are present, the humid (MT) and the dry (DT) weather types have similar strong impacts to inhibit the occurrence of influenza. These findings suggest that temperature is a more dominating atmospheric factor than moisture that impacts the occurrences of influenza in cold seasons.
Zhao, Naizhuo; Cao, Guofeng; Vanos, Jennifer K.; Vecellio, Daniel J.
The environmental drivers and mechanisms of influenza dynamics remain unclear. The recent development of influenza surveillance-particularly the emergence of digital epidemiology-provides an opportunity to further understand this puzzle as an area within applied human biometeorology. This paper investigates the short-term weather effects on human influenza activity at a synoptic scale during cold seasons. Using 10 years (2005-2014) of municipal level influenza surveillance data (an adjustment of the Google Flu Trends estimation from the Centers for Disease Control's virologic surveillance data) and daily spatial synoptic classification weather types, we explore and compare the effects of weather exposure on the influenza infection incidences in 79 cities across the USA. We find that during the cold seasons the presence of the polar [i.e., dry polar (DP) and moist polar (MP)] weather types is significantly associated with increasing influenza likelihood in 62 and 68% of the studied cities, respectively, while the presence of tropical [i.e., dry tropical (DT) and moist tropical (MT)] weather types is associated with a significantly decreasing occurrence of influenza in 56 and 43% of the cities, respectively. The MP and the DP weather types exhibit similar close positive correlations with influenza infection incidences, indicating that both cold-dry and cold-moist air provide favorable conditions for the occurrence of influenza in the cold seasons. Additionally, when tropical weather types are present, the humid (MT) and the dry (DT) weather types have similar strong impacts to inhibit the occurrence of influenza. These findings suggest that temperature is a more dominating atmospheric factor than moisture that impacts the occurrences of influenza in cold seasons.
Burwen, D R; Seawright, M F
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends periodic tuberculin skin testing of healthcare workers with potential exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, many healthcare facilities have neither a system to identify workers due for their skin test nor a means of analyzing aggregate data. To illustrate some of the complexities involved in tuberculin skin test (TST) tracking and analysis, and how these might be addressed, this report describes a software package called staffTRAK-TB, developed by the CDC to facilitate surveillance of tuberculosis infection in healthcare workers. staffTRAK-TB records data for each healthcare worker, including demographic information, occupation, work location, multiple TST results, and results of evaluations to determine if clinically active tuberculosis is present. Programmed reports include lists of workers due and overdue for skin tests, and skin test conversion rates by occupation or worksite. Standardization of types of occupations and locations allows data from multiple facilities to be aggregated and compared. Data transfer to the CDC can be performed via floppy diskettes. staffTRAK-TB illustrates important issues in software structure, standardization of occupation and work-location information, relevant data items, and reports and analyses that would be useful in practice. Developing software that adequately addresses the epidemiological issues is complex, and the lessons learned may serve as a model for hospital epidemiologists, infection control personnel, occupational health personnel, and computer programmers considering software development in this area or trying to optimize their facility's TST surveillance.
Rosselló-Urgell, J; Vaqué-Rafart, J; Armadans-Gil, L L; Vaquero-Puerta, J L; Elorza-Ricart, J M; Quintas-Fernández, J C; Hidalgo-Pardo, O; Arévalo-Alonso, J M
In a national prevalence survey setting, we studied whether the day of week selected for data collection, and the number of days needed to complete the survey, were associated with the prevalence of hospital-acquired infection (HAI). The EPINE (Estudio de Prevalencia de las Infecciones Nosocomiales en España) database (1990-2002) was analysed for the purposes of the study. Adjusting for the admission day in the week, the number of intrinsic risk factors, the number of extrinsic risk factors and the prevalence length of stay, a 'weekend effect' was confirmed in this study. The day of the week selected for data collection was related to the presence of infection in the surveyed patients, showing for the period of Saturday-Monday a higher prevalence of patients with HAI (adjusted OR 1.08, 95%CI 1.05-1.10). There was a crude positive trend between number of weeks and prevalence, but the number of days involved in data collection was finally not associated with the prevalence of HAI, once adjustment for hospital size was made. The percentage of repeated records increased linearly with hospital size, and the frequency of infections was higher within this group (OR 2.8, 95%CI 2.6-3.0). The results of this study highlight the need for encouraging hospitals to shorten the time spent in obtaining a prevalence survey. If it is impossible to carry out the survey within the limits of one day, data collection should then be limited to that period of the week, Tuesday to Friday.
Senok, A; Ehricht, R; Monecke, S; Al-Saedan, R; Somily, A
Changes in the molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continue to be reported. This study was carried out to characterize MRSA isolates in Saudi Arabia. MRSA isolates causing nosocomial infections (n = 117) obtained from 2009-2015 at a tertiary-care facility in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were studied. Molecular characterization of isolates was carried out using the StaphyType DNA microarray (Alere Technologies, Jena, Germany). Fourteen clonal complexes (CC) were identified, with the most common being CC80 (n = 35), CC6 (n = 15), CC5 (n = 13) and CC22 (n = 12). With the exception of nine ST239 MRSA-III isolates, all others were of community-associated MRSA lineages. The following strains are identified for the first time in Saudi Arabia: ST8-MRSA-IV [PVL(+)/ACME(+)], USA300 (n = 1); ST72-MRSA-IV USA700 (n = 1); CC5-MRSA-IV, [PVL(+)/edinA(+)], WA MRSA-121 (n = 1); CC5-MRSA-V+SCCfus, WA MRSA-14/109 (n = 2), CC97-MRSA-IV, WA MRSA-54/63; CC2250/2277-MRSA-IV and WA MRSA-114. CC15-MRSA (n = 3) was identified for the first time in clinical infection in Saudi Arabia. None of the isolates harboured vancomycin resistance genes, while genes for resistance to mupirocin and quaternary ammonium compounds were found in one and nine isolates respectively. Fifty-seven isolates (48.7%) were positive for Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes. While the staphylokinase (sak) and staphylococcal complement inhibitor (scn) genes were present in over 95% of the isolates, only 37.6% had the chemotaxis-inhibiting protein (chp) gene. Increasing occurrence of community-acquired MRSA lineages plus emergence of pandemic and rare MRSA strains is occurring in our setting. Strict infection control practices are important to limit the dissemination of these MRSA strains.
Zueva, L P; Aslanov, B I; Akimkin, V G
One of the actual problems of contemporary healthcare are healthcare associated infections (HAI). An important aspect of study of HAI problem is the study of evolution of hospital strains causing HAI. The knowledge accumulated to date in the field of bacteria genetics gives evidence on the significant role of phages in the mechanism of virulence obtaining by pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms. The studies of the authors of this article show that bacteriophages may play a significant role in the formation of virulent properties in hospital conditions that in different hospitals with participation of phages form virulent and antibiotic resistant hospital strains of HAI causative agents. At the same time bacteriophages are effective means for HAI therapy and prophylaxis. Under the condition of mass and irrational use of antibiotics, HAI causative agents form multiple resistance to the existing antibacterial preparations. In this regard bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents become especially actual. To date in Russian and foreign literature considerable material has been accumulated that shows high effectiveness of bacteriophages under the conditions of rational use. The aim of this review is to evaluate contemporary achievements in the field of study of bacteriophage role in evolution of hospital strains and therapy and prophylaxis of healthcare associated infections.
Training is a key component of building capacity for public health surveillance and response, but has often been difficult to quantify. During fiscal 2009, the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Division of Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) supported 18 partner organizations in conducting 123 training initiatives in 40 countries for 3,130 U.S. military, civilian and host-country personnel. The training assisted with supporting compliance with International Health Regulations, IHR (2005). Training activities in pandemic preparedness, outbreak investigation and response, emerging infectious disease (EID) surveillance and pathogen diagnostic techniques were expanded significantly. By engaging local health and other government officials and civilian institutions, the U.S. military’s role as a key stakeholder in global public health has been strengthened and has contributed to EID-related surveillance, research and capacity-building initiatives specified elsewhere in this issue. Public health and emerging infections surveillance training accomplished by AFHSC-GEIS and its Department of Defense (DoD) partners during fiscal 2009 will be tabulated and described. PMID:21388565
Pfeiler, Susanne; Khandagale, Avinash B.; Magenau, Astrid; Nichols, Maryana; Heijnen, Harry F. G.; Rinninger, Franz; Ziegler, Tilman; Seveau, Stephanie; Schubert, Sören; Zahler, Stefan; Verschoor, Admar; Latz, Eicke; Massberg, Steffen; Gaus, Katharina; Engelmann, Bernd
The mechanisms protecting from immunopathology during acute bacterial infections are incompletely known. We found that in response to apoptotic immune cells and live or dead Listeria monocytogenes scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI), an anti-atherogenic lipid exchange mediator, activated internalization mechanisms with characteristics of macropinocytosis and, assisted by Golgi fragmentation, initiated autophagic responses. This was supported by scavenger receptor-induced local increases in membrane cholesterol concentrations which generated lipid domains particularly in cell extensions and the Golgi. SR-BI was a key driver of beclin-1-dependent autophagy during acute bacterial infection of the liver and spleen. Autophagy regulated tissue infiltration of neutrophils, suppressed accumulation of Ly6C+ (inflammatory) macrophages, and prevented hepatocyte necrosis in the core of infectious foci. Perifocal levels of Ly6C+ macrophages and Ly6C− macrophages were unaffected, indicating predominant regulation of the focus core. SR-BI-triggered autophagy promoted co-elimination of apoptotic immune cells and dead bacteria but barely influenced bacterial sequestration and survival or inflammasome activation, thus exclusively counteracting damage inflicted by immune responses. Hence, SR-BI- and autophagy promote a surveillance pathway that partially responds to products of antimicrobial defenses and selectively prevents immunity-induced damage during acute infection. Our findings suggest that control of infection-associated immunopathology can be based on a unified defense operation. PMID:27694929
Lampah, Daniel A.; Simpson, Julie A.; Kenangalem, Enny; Sugiarto, Paulus; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Poespoprodjo, Jeanne Rini; Price, Ric N.
Background Plasmodium malariae is a slow-growing parasite with a wide geographic distribution. Although generally regarded as a benign cause of malaria, it has been associated with nephrotic syndrome, particularly in young children, and can persist in the host for years. Morbidity associated with P. malariae infection has received relatively little attention, and the risk of P. malariae-associated nephrotic syndrome is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We used data from a very large hospital-based surveillance system incorporating information on clinical diagnoses, blood cell parameters and treatment to describe the demographic distribution, morbidity and mortality associated with P. malariae infection in southern Papua, Indonesia. Between April 2004 and December 2013 there were 1,054,674 patient presentations to Mitra Masyarakat Hospital of which 196,380 (18.6%) were associated with malaria and 5,097 were with P. malariae infection (constituting 2.6% of all malaria cases). The proportion of malaria cases attributable to P. malariae increased with age from 0.9% for patients under one year old to 3.1% for patients older than 15 years. Overall, 8.5% of patients with P. malariae infection required admission to hospital and the median length of stay for these patients was 2.5 days (Interquartile Range: 2.0–4.0 days). Patients with P. malariae infection had a lower mean hemoglobin concentration (9.0g/dL) than patients with P. falciparum (9.5g/dL), P. vivax (9.6g/dL) and mixed species infections (9.3g/dL). There were four cases of nephrotic syndrome recorded in patients with P. malariae infection, three of which were in children younger than 5 years old, giving a risk in this age group of 0.47% (95% Confidence Interval; 0.10% to 1.4%). Overall, 2.4% (n = 16) of patients hospitalized with P. malariae infection subsequently died in hospital, similar to the proportions for the other endemic Plasmodium species (range: 0% for P. ovale to 1.6% for P. falciparum
Morgan, M; Black, J; Bone, F; Fry, C; Harris, S; Hogg, S; Holmes, A; Hughes, S; Looker, N; McIlvenny, G; Nixon, J; Nolan, J; Noone, A; Reilly, J; Richards, J; Smyth, E; Howard, A
The UK Department of Health established the Healthcare-associated Infection (HAI) Surveillance Steering Group in 2000 to develop a strategy for implementing a national programme for HAI surveillance in National Health Service trusts. A subgroup of this committee examined the surveillance of surgical site infections following orthopaedic surgery. This group oversaw a pilot scheme that was set up in 12 hospitals around the UK to explore the feasibility of implementing a system of surveillance that engaged clinical staff in its operation, provided a process for continuous data collection and could be maintained as part of routine hospital operation over time. A minimum data set was established by the subgroup, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definitions of infection were used. By March 2003, the surveillance had been undertaken continuously in 11 sites for one to two years, depending on the date of implementation. Only one hospital had ceased data collection. The information was collected mainly by clinical staff, with support and co-ordination usually provided by infection control teams. Data on more than 5400 procedures were available for analysis for four core procedures: arthroplasty of the hip and knee; hemi-arthroplasty of the hip; and internal fixation of trochanteric fractures of the femur. The data set permitted the calculation of risk-adjusted rates, allowing comparisons between hospitals and within a hospital over time. The methodology enhanced clinical ownership of the surveillance process, re-inforced infection control as the responsibility of all staff, and provided timely feedback and local data analysis. The use of CDC definitions permitted international comparisons of the data.
Uduman, S A; Farrukh, A S; Nath, K N R; Zuhair, M Y H; Ifrah, A; Khawla, A D; Sunita, P
We report an outbreak of Serratia marcescens infection in a special-care baby unit (SCBU) of a university-affiliated community hospital in the United Arab Emirates. The outbreak involved 36 infants and lasted for 20 weeks. Seven of the colonized infants developed invasive illnesses in the form of bacteraemia (four cases), bacteraemic meningitis (two) and clinical sepsis (one). Three other term infants had purulent conjunctivitis. There were five deaths with an overall mortality of 14%. S. marcescens was cultured from airflow samples from the air conditioning (AC) which was the reservoir of infection in this outbreak. Elimination of the nosocomial source and outbreak containment were eventually achieved by specialized robotic cleaning of the entire AC duct system of the SCBU. Strict adherence to the infection control policies was reinforced to prevent transmission of cross-infection.
Wagenlehner, Florian; Tandogdu, Zafer; Bartoletti, Riccardo; Cai, Tommaso; Cek, Mete; Kulchavenya, Ekaterina; Köves, Béla; Naber, Kurt; Perepanova, Tamara; Tenke, Peter; Wullt, Björn; Bogenhard, Florian; Johansen, Truls Erik Bjerklund
The Global Prevalence of Infections in Urology (GPIU) study is a worldwide-performed point prevalence study intended to create surveillance data on antibiotic resistance, type of urogenital infections, risk factors and data on antibiotic consumption, specifically in patients at urological departments with healthcare-associated urogenital infections (HAUTI). Investigators registered data through a web-based application (http://gpiu.esiu.org/). Data collection includes the practice and characteristics of the hospital and urology ward. On a certain day in November, each year, all urological patients present in the urological department at 8:00 a.m. are screened for HAUTI encompassing their full hospital course from admission to discharge. Apart from the GPIU main study, several side studies are taking place, dealing with transurethral resection of the prostate, prostate biopsy, as well as urosepsis. The GPIU study has been annually performed since 2003. Eight-hundred fifty-six urology units from 70 countries have participated so far, including 27,542 patients. A proxy for antibiotic consumption is reflected by the application rates used for antibiotic prophylaxis for urological interventions. Resistance rates of most uropathogens against antibiotics were high, especially with a note of multidrug resistance. The severity of HAUTI is also increasing, 25% being urosepsis in recent years. PMID:26797640
Janiec, J; Evans, M R; Thomas, D R; Davies, G H; Lewis, H
Laboratory data are the cornerstone in surveillance of infectious disease. We investigated whether changes in reported incidence of Campylobacter and Salmonella infection might be explained by changes in stool sampling rates. Data were extracted from a national database on 585 843 patient stool samples tested by microbiology laboratories in Wales between 1998 and 2008. Salmonella incidence fell from 43 to 19 episodes/100 000 population but Campylobacter incidence after declining from 111/100 000 in 1998 to 84/100 000 in 2003 rose to 119/100 000 in 2008. The proportion of the population sampled rose from 2·0% in 1998 to 2·8% in 2008, mostly due to increases in samples from hospital patients and older adults. The proportion of positive samples declined for both Salmonella and Campylobacter from 3·1% to 1·1% and from 8·9% to 7·5%, respectively. The decline in Salmonella incidence is so substantial that it is not masked even by increased stool sampling, but the recent rise in Campylobacter incidence may be a surveillance artefact largely due to the increase in stool sampling in older people.
Ferraro, Federica; Piselli, Pierluca; Pittalis, Silvia; Ruscitti, Luca E; Cimaglia, Claudia; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Puro, Vincenzo
Surgical site infections (SSI) after caesarean section (CS) represent a substantial health system concern. Surveying SSI has been associated with a reduction in SSI incidence. We report the findings of three (2008, 2011 and 2013) regional active SSI surveillances after CS in community hospital of the Latium region determining the incidence of SSI. Each CS was surveyed for SSI occurrence by trained staff up to 30 post-operative days, and association of SSI with relevant characteristics was assessed using binomial logistic regression. A total of 3,685 CS were included in the study. A complete 30 day post-operation follow-up was achieved in over 94% of procedures. Overall 145 SSI were observed (3.9% cumulative incidence) of which 131 (90.3%) were superficial and 14 (9.7%) complex (deep or organ/space) SSI; overall 129 SSI (of which 89.9% superficial) were diagnosed post-discharge. Only higher NNIS score was significantly associated with SSI occurrence in the regression analysis. Our work provides the first regional data on CS-associated SSI incidence, highlighting the need for a post-discharge surveillance which should assure 30 days post-operation to not miss data on complex SSI, as well as being less labour intensive.
Samore, M.; Lichtenberg, D.; Saubermann, L.; Kawachi, C.; Carmeli, Y.
We describe the benefits of a relational database of hospital clinical data (Clinical Data Repository; CDR) for an infection control program. The CDR consists of > 40 Sybase tables, and is directly accessible for ad hoc queries by members of the infection control unit who have been granted privileges for access by the Information Systems Department. The data elements and functional requirements most useful for surveillance of nosocomial infections, antibiotic use, and resistant organisms are characterized. Specific applications of the CDR are presented, including the use of automated definitions of nosocomial infection, graphical monitoring of resistant organisms with quality control limits, and prospective detection of inappropriate antibiotic use. Hospital surveillance and quality improvement activities are significantly benefited by the availability of a querable set of tables containing diverse clinical data. PMID:9357588
Camann, D.E.; Moore, B.E.; Harding, H.J.; Sorber, C.A.
The Lubbock Infection Surveillance Study (LISS) investigated possible adverse effects on human health from slow-rate land application of municipal wastewater. Extensive air sampling was conducted to characterize the irrigation site as a source of infectious microbial aerosols. Spray irrigation of poor-quality waste water received directly from the treatment plant significantly elevated air densities of fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, mycobacteria, and coliphage above ambient background levels for at least 200 m downwind. Enteroviruses were repeatedly recovered at 44 to 60 m downwind at a higher level (geometric mean = 0.05 pfu/m3) than observed at other waste water aerosol sites in the U.S. and in Israel. Waste water storage in reservoirs reduced downwind air densities of indicator organisms by two orders of magnitude.
Lee, Kyungwon; Yong, Dongeun; Jeong, Seok Hoon
Pathogenic bacteria have increasingly been resisting to antimicrobial therapy. Recently, resistance problem has been relatively much worsened in Gram-negative bacilli. Acinetobacter spp. are typical nosocomial pathogens causing infections and high mortality, almost exclusively in compromised hospital patients. Acinetobacter spp. are intrinsically less susceptible to antibiotics than Enterobacteriaceae, and have propensity to acquire resistance. A surveillance study in Korea in 2009 showed that resistance rates of Acinetobacter spp. were very high: to fluoroquinolone 67%, to amikacin 48%, to ceftazidime 66% and to imipenem 51%. Carbapenem resistance was mostly due to OXA type carbapenemase production in A. baumannii isolates, whereas it was due to metallo-β-lactamase production in non-baumannii Acinetobacter isolates. Colistin-resistant isolates were rare but started to be isolated in Korea. Currently, the infection caused by multidrug-resistant A. baumannii is among the most difficult ones to treat. Analysis at tertiary care hospital in 2010 showed that among the 1,085 isolates of Acinetobacter spp., 14.9% and 41.8% were resistant to seven, and to all eight antimicrobial agents tested, respectively. It is known to be difficult to prevent Acinetobacter spp. infection in hospitalized patients, because the organisms are ubiquitous in hospital environment. Efforts to control resistant bacteria in Korea by hospitals, relevant scientific societies and government agencies have only partially been successful. We need concerted multidisciplinary efforts to preserve the efficacy of currently available antimicrobial agents, by following the principles of antimicrobial stewardship. PMID:22028150
Moore, Dorothy L
Young children readily transmit and acquire nosocomial infections. Children are also vulnerable to endogenous infections as a result of the breakdown of their normal defences by disease, invasive procedures or therapy. The increasing acuity of illness in hospitalized children and therapeutic advances have resulted in a patient population that is increasingly at higher risk for nosocomial infections. Antibiotic resistance has emerged as a problem in some paediatric hospitals, usually in intensive care and oncology units. Infection rates are the highest in neonatal and paediatric intensive care units (where bloodstream infections are the most frequent), and are usually associated with intravascular devices. On general paediatric wards, respiratory and gastrointestinal infections predominate, reflecting the occurrence in the community. The surveillance of nosocomial infections identifies priorities for infection control activities and permits evaluation of interventions. The prevention of transmission between patients and to personnel requires that certain measures be taken with all patients, and that additional precautions be taken with some infections, based on the route of transmission. The prevention of transmission from personnel involves ensuring that personnel are appropriately immunized and counselled about working with infections. The prevention of nosocomial infection also involves control of visitors, appropriate management of invasive procedures and devices, sterilization and disinfection of equipment, provision of a clean environment and adequate staffing. Severely immunocompromised children require extra protection, including ventilation systems that reduce the risk of exposure to filamentous fungi. Infection control in paediatrics is an evolving field that must adapt to changes in the paediatric patient population and in health care technology. PMID:20084127
Nasal Colonization with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Military Personnel in a Developing Country - Development of a Skin and Soft Tissue Infection Surveillance System in the Peruvian Air Force
and soft tissue infection surveillance system in the Peruvian Air Force by Joan Neyra, MD, MPH Dissertation...and soft tissue infection surveillance system in the Peruvian Air Force” is appropriately acknowledged and, beyond brief excerpts, is with the... infection surveillance system in the Peruvian Air Force: Joan Neyra, MD, MPH, 2015 Thesis directed by: David L. Blazes, MD, MPH, Professor
Brotherton, Julia M L; Kaldor, John M; Garland, Suzanne M
This paper describes a possible multifaceted approach to human papillomavirus (HPV) related surveillance in Australia following implementation of a national HPV vaccination program. We describe eight main components: monitoring of vaccine coverage, vaccine safety, type-specific HPV infection surveillance, cervical cytology (Pap screening) coverage and screen detected lesion prevalence, cervical cancer incidence and mortality, genital wart incidence, incidence of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HPV and HPV vaccination. Australia is well placed to monitor the impact of its HPV vaccination program as well as to measure vaccine effectiveness with existing HPV vaccines, cervical screening and cancer registries.
Anderson, Emma C; Ingle, Suzanne Marie; Muir, Peter; Beck, Charles; Finn, Adam; Leeming, John Peter; Cabral, Christie; Kesten, Joanna May; Hay, Alastair D
Introduction Paediatric respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are common reasons for primary care consultations and antibiotic prescribing. Locally relevant syndromic and microbiological surveillance information has the potential to improve the care of children with RTIs by normalising illness (parents) and reducing uncertainty (clinicians). Currently, most RTI studies are conducted at the point of healthcare service consultation, leaving the community burden, microbiology, symptom duration and proportion consulting largely unknown. This study seeks to establish the feasibility of (mainly online) participant recruitment and retention, and the acceptability/comparability of parent versus nurse-collected microbiological sampling, to inform the design of a future surveillance intervention study. Evidence regarding consultation rates and symptom duration is also sought. Methods and analysis A community-based, feasibility prospective inception cohort study, recruiting children aged ≥3 months and <16 years and their parents via general practitioner surgery invitation letter, aiming to collect data on 300 incident RTIs by July 2016. Following informed consent, parents provide baseline (demographic) data online, and respond to weekly emails to confirm the absence/presence of new RTI symptoms. Once symptomatic, parents provide daily data online (RTI symptoms, school/day-care attendance, time off work, health service use, medication), and a research nurse visits to collect clinical examination data and microbiological (nasal and saliva) swabs. Parents are invited to provide symptomatic (at nurse visit, but without nurse assistance) and asymptomatic (alone) swabs on recovery. A review of primary care medical notes will gather medical history, health service utilisation, referral and antibiotic prescribing rates. Feasibility will be assessed using recruitment and retention rates, data completeness; and acceptability by quantitative survey and qualitative interviews
Nogueira Junior, Cassimiro; Mello, Débora Silva de; Padoveze, Maria Clara; Boszczowski, Icaro; Levin, Anna Sara; Lacerda, Rubia Aparecida
Surveillance systems for healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are essential for planning actions in prevention and control. Important models have been deployed in recent decades in different countries. This study aims to present the historical and operational characteristics of these systems and discuss the challenges for Brazil. Various models around the world have drawn on the experience of the United States, which pioneered this process. In Brazil, several initiatives have been launched, but the country still lacks a full national information system on HAI, thus indicating the need to promote action strategies, strengthen the role of States in communication between the Federal and local levels, pursue a national plan to organize surveillance teams with the necessary technological infrastructure, besides updating the relevant legislation for dealing with these challenges. Such measures are essential in the Brazilian context for the unified surveillance of HAI, aimed at healthcare safety and quality.
Ben Othman, A.; Zribi, M.; Masmoudi, A.; Abdellatif, S.; Ben Lakhal, S.; Fendri, C.
Acinetobacter baumannii is often implicated in hospital outbreaks in Tunisia. It’s a significant opportunistic pathogen associated with serious underlying diseases such as pneumoniae, meningitis and urinary tract infections. The aim of our study was to evaluate its degree of endemicity and its antibiotic resistance evolution essentially in the unit care where its isolation was predominant (57%). This study used 3 methods: antibiotyping, RAPD using 2 primers VIL 1, VIL5 and PFGE with ApaI restriction enzyme. The presence of integron1 and 2 was also studied. Antibiotyping showed that 92% of patients were resistant of all ß- lactams (except Imipenem) and that the resistance to Imipenem occurred in 47% of cases. RAPD profiles obtained with the 2 arbitrarily primers VIL1 and VIL5 gave respectively 5 and 4groups and PFGE fingerprinting patterns revealed 22 different pulsotypes. Integron 1 was present in 25% of unrelated strains and type 2 integron was not detected in any of the studied strains. Among 204 strains, multiple and heterogeneous groups were detected with the genomic studies. In addition, any correlation was obtained with the antibiotyping results. These findings demonstrate the endemic status of A. baumannii in our hospital and the persistence of a large number of multiresistant strains in the unit’s care. When outbreaks of A. baumannii occur, it’s essential to develop restricted hygiene procedures and a serious surveillance of critical units such as ICU for very ill patients. PMID:24031648
Rohart, Florian; Milinovich, Gabriel J.; Avril, Simon M. R.; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh; Tong, Shilu; Hu, Wenbiao
Effective disease surveillance is critical to the functioning of health systems. Traditional approaches are, however, limited in their ability to deliver timely information. Internet-based surveillance systems are a promising approach that may circumvent many of the limitations of traditional health surveillance systems and provide more intelligence on cases of infection, including cases from those that do not use the healthcare system. Infectious disease surveillance systems built on Internet search metrics have been shown to produce accurate estimates of disease weeks before traditional systems and are an economically attractive approach to surveillance; they are, however, also prone to error under certain circumstances. This study sought to explore previously unmodeled diseases by investigating the link between Google Trends search metrics and Australian weekly notification data. We propose using four alternative disease modelling strategies based on linear models that studied the length of the training period used for model construction, determined the most appropriate lag for search metrics, used wavelet transformation for denoising data and enabled the identification of key search queries for each disease. Out of the twenty-four diseases assessed with Australian data, our nowcasting results highlighted promise for two diseases of international concern, Ross River virus and pneumococcal disease. PMID:27994231
Simon, Arne; Furtwängler, Rhoikos; Graf, Norbert; Laws, Hans Jürgen; Voigt, Sebastian; Piening, Brar; Geffers, Christine; Agyeman, Philipp; Ammann, Roland A.
Pediatric patients receiving conventional chemotherapy for malignant disease face an increased risk of bloodstream infection (BSI). Since BSI may represent an acute life-threatening event in patients with profound immunosuppression, and show further negative impact on quality of life and anticancer treatment, the prevention of BSI is of paramount importance to improve and guarantee patients’ safety during intensive treatment. The great majority of all pediatric cancer patients (about 85%) have a long-term central venous access catheter in use (type Broviac or Port; CVAD). Referring to the current surveillance definitions a significant proportion of all BSI in pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia is categorized as CVAD-associated BSI. This state of the art review summarizes the epidemiology and the distinct pathogen profile of BSI in pediatric cancer patients from the perspective of infection surveillance. Problems in executing the current surveillance definition in this patient population are discussed and a new concept for the surveillance of BSI in pediatric cancer patients is outlined. PMID:27274442
Aragon, Daleen; Sole, Mary Lou; Brown, Scott
Nosocomial infections are a major health problem for hospitalized patients and their families. Since the 1800s, hand hygiene has been recognized as the single best method to prevent the spread of pathogens and nosocomial infections. Despite this fact, many healthcare workers do not adhere to hand hygiene policies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a guideline for hand hygiene practices in 2002. Multifaceted approaches to improve hand hygiene have been shown to increase compliance among healthcare workers and subsequently reduce infections. A performance improvement project was initiated to implement this guideline and other strategies to prevent nosocomial infection. This article summarizes the performance improvement processes and the preliminary outcomes on adherence to infection prevention policies related to hand hygiene and isolation practices. Clinically and statistically significant increases were noted for hand hygiene prior to patient care and in wearing masks when indicated. Nurses and patient care technicians had the greatest increases in compliance. Increases in hand hygiene after patient contact and wearing of gown and gloves were also noted, but results were not statistically significant. Nosocomial infection rates from antibiotic-resistant organisms decreased in the first surveillance, but rates increased during the 1-year surveillance. Consumption of alcohol-based foam disinfectant doubled from baseline. Findings are consistent with other published studies. The project will continue with further reinforcement and education over the second year.
Xavier, Maria da Penha Trindade Pinheiro; Carvalho Costa, Filipe Aníbal; Rocha, Mônica Simões; de Andrade, Juliana da Silva Ribeiro; Diniz, Fernanda Kreischer Bandeira; de Andrade, Thais Ramos; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Volotão, Eduardo de Mello
Human astrovirus (HAstV) represents the third most common virus associated with acute diarrhea (AD). This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HAstV infection in Brazilian children under 5 years of age with AD, investigate the presence of recently described HAstV strains, through extensive laboratory-based surveillance of enteric viral agents in three Brazilian coastal regions between 2005 and 2011. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the overall HAstV detection rate reached 7.1% (207/2.913) with percentage varying according to the geographic region: 3.9% (36/921) in the northeast, 7.9% in the south (71/903) and 9.2% in the southeast (100/1.089) (p < 0.001). HAstV were detected in cases of all age groups. Detection rates were slightly higher during the spring. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a 320-bp ORF2 fragment revealed that HAstV-1 was the predominant genotype throughout the seven years of the study. The novel AstV-MLB1 was detected in two children with AD from a subset of 200 samples tested, demonstrating the circulation of this virus both the in northeastern and southeastern regions of Brazil. These results provide additional epidemiological and molecular data on HAstV circulation in three Brazilian coastal regions, highlighting its potential to cause infantile AD. PMID:26274322
Agarwal, Shanu; Abell, Virginia; File, Thomas M
Nosocomial Legionnaire's disease is most frequently associated with presence of the organism in hospital water systems. Patients are often susceptible as a result of age, underlying comorbidities, or immunosuppression. Prevention focuses on reducing the reservoir within water systems and includes super heating, ultraviolent light, chlorination, silver-copper ionization, and distal filtration. This article reviews the epidemiology of health care-associated Legionnaire's disease, reviews characteristics of several health care-associated outbreaks, and discusses strategies to prevent health care-associated infection.
Buetti, Niccolò; Marschall, Jonas; Atkinson, Andrew; Kronenberg, Andreas
OBJECTIVE To characterize the epidemiology of bloodstream infections in Switzerland, comparing selected pathogens in community and university hospitals. DESIGN Observational, retrospective, multicenter laboratory surveillance study. METHODS Data on bloodstream infections from 2008 through 2014 were obtained from the Swiss infection surveillance system, which is part of the Swiss Centre for Antibiotic Resistance (ANRESIS). We compared pathogen prevalences across 26 acute care hospitals. A subanalysis for community-acquired and hospital-acquired bloodstream infections in community and university hospitals was performed. RESULTS A total of 42,802 bloodstream infection episodes were analyzed. The most common etiologies were Escherichia coli (28.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (12.4%), and polymicrobial bloodstream infections (11.4%). The proportion of E. coli increased from 27.5% in 2008 to 29.6% in 2014 (P = .04). E. coli and S. aureus were more commonly reported in community than university hospitals (34.3% vs 22.7%, P<.001 and 13.9% vs 11.1%, P<.001, respectively). Fifty percent of episodes were community-acquired, with E. coli again being more common in community hospitals (41.0% vs 32.4%, P<.001). The proportion of E. coli in community-acquired bloodstream infections increased in community hospitals only. Community-acquired polymicrobial infections (9.9% vs 5.6%, P<.001) and community-acquired coagulase-negative staphylococci (6.7% vs 3.4%, P<0.001) were more prevalent in university hospitals. CONCLUSIONS The role of E. coli as predominant pathogen in bloodstream infections has become more pronounced. There are distinct patterns in community and university hospitals, potentially influencing empirical antibiotic treatment. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:1060-1067.
The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) has the mission of performing surveillance for emerging infectious diseases that could affect the United States (U.S.) military. This mission is accomplished by orchestrating a global portfolio of surveillance projects, capacity-building efforts, outbreak investigations and training exercises. In 2009, this portfolio involved 39 funded partners, impacting 92 countries. This article discusses the current biosurveillance landscape, programmatic details of organization and implementation, and key contributions to force health protection and global public health in 2009. PMID:21388562
Russell, Kevin L; Rubenstein, Jennifer; Burke, Ronald L; Vest, Kelly G; Johns, Matthew C; Sanchez, Jose L; Meyer, William; Fukuda, Mark M; Blazes, David L
The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) has the mission of performing surveillance for emerging infectious diseases that could affect the United States (U.S.) military. This mission is accomplished by orchestrating a global portfolio of surveillance projects, capacity-building efforts, outbreak investigations and training exercises. In 2009, this portfolio involved 39 funded partners, impacting 92 countries. This article discusses the current biosurveillance landscape, programmatic details of organization and implementation, and key contributions to force health protection and global public health in 2009.
Rath, Shakti; Dubey, Debasmita; Sahu, Mahesh C.; Padhy, Rabindra N
Objective To record nosocomial and community-acquired accounts of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains, isolated from clinical samples of a teaching hospital by surveillance, over a period of 39 months (November 2009-January 2013). Methods Clinical samples from nosocomial sources, i.e., wards and cabins, intensive care unit (ICU) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and community (outpatient department, OPD) sources of the hospital, were used for isolating strains of E. coli, which were subjected for testing for production of ‘extended spectrum beta-lactamase’-(ESBL) enzyme as well as determining antibiotic sensitivity pattern with 23 antibiotics. Results Of the total 1642 (100%) isolates, 810 (49.33%) strains were from OPD and 832 (50.66%) were from hospital settings. Occurrence of infectious E. coli strains increased in a mathematical progression in community sources, but in nosocomial infections, such values remained almost constant in each quarter. A total of 395 (24.05%) ESBL strains were isolated from the total 810 isolates of community; of the total of 464 (28.25%) isolates of wards and cabins, 199 (12.11%) were ESBL strains; and among the total of 368 (22.41%) isolates of ICU and NICU, ESBLs were 170 (10.35%); the total nosocomial ESBL isolates, 369 (22.47%) were from the nosocomial total of 832 (50.66%) isolates. Statistically, it was confirmed that ESBL strains were equally distributed in community or hospital units. Antibiogram of 23 antibiotics revealed progressive increases of drug-resistance against each antibiotic with the maximum resistance values were recorded against gentamicin: 92% and 79%, oxacillin: 94% and 69%, ceftriaxone: 85% and 58%, and norfloxacin 97% and 69% resistance, in nosocomial and community isolates, respectively. Conclusions This study revealed the daunting state of occurrence of multidrug resistant E. coli and its infection dynamics in both community and hospital settings.
Alary, M; Joly, J R; Parent, R; Fauvel, M; Dionne, M
OBJECTIVE: To measure the HIV seroprevalence rate in a surrogate sample of the general population in the province of Quebec, using a network of sentinel hospitals. DESIGN: Anonymous unlinked sentinel surveillance study. SETTING: Outpatient surgery units in 19 acute care hospitals throughout Quebec. PARTICIPANTS: All patients attending the outpatient surgery units from November 1990 to October 1992. A total of 61,547 plasma samples were obtained from leftover blood samples collected for cell counts. Fifty samples were excluded because of an insufficient amount of plasma and one because of an indeterminate result. INTERVENTION: HIV antibody testing with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; positive results confirmed with radioimmunoprecipitation assay. OUTCOME MEASURES: HIV antibody status, sex, year of birth and area of residence. RESULTS: The crude seroprevalence rate among the subjects aged 15 years or more was 0.4 per 1000 population (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2 to 0.7) among the women and 3.6 per 1000 population (95% CI 2.8 to 4.4) among the men (p < 0.001). The rate after adjustment for age, sex and geographic distribution of the study population was 2.3 per 1000 population (95% CI 1.9 to 2.7). The seroprevalence rate among the male patients in the City of Montreal was much higher than the rates elsewhere in the province. It increased progressively during each of the four 6-month intervals of the study: 8.1, 8.7, 13.9 and 18.3 per 1000 respectively (chi 2 linear trend = 4.76; p = 0.029). No similar trends were observed outside Montreal for the male patients. There were too few seropositive female patients to draw any solid conclusion. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the possible drawbacks of a nonrandomized sampling scheme, this study suggests that in the male population the HIV seroprevalence rate is increasing in Montreal and is stable in all other areas of the province. The continued surveillance of HIV infection through anonymous unlinked studies is useful to
In October 2004, the WHO launched the World Alliance for Patient Safety. In 2006, the Council of Europe adopted a recommendation on the management of patient safety and prevention of adverse events in healthcare to acknowledge that patients can expect each EU health system to secure a systematic approach to ensuring patient safety. This review is a compilation of broadly accepted instruments for the prevention and control of healthcare-associated infections and resistance to antibiotics in Europe. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria do not stop at the exit of a hospital. The implementation of the various elements of a whole bundle of recommended prevention and control measures in the context of interacting healthcare institutions including long-term care, rehabilitation facilities, ambulatory care practices, and home care, is therefore facilitated by the establishment of regional networks and the integration of prevention and control strategies into disease management programmes. In order to increase efficiency of prevention and control measures, there is a need for the careful design of interventional studies to figure out the most efficient single or bundle of preventive measures. In addition, methods for the discovery of clusters on the basis of routinely obtained data should be improved.
Aavitsland, P; Nilsen, O; Lystad, A
Several European countries are considering implementing surveillance systems for HIV infection, but questions remain regarding patient confidentiality. The population-based HIV/AIDS surveillance system in Norway integrates anonymous HIV case reports from laboratories and clinicians and named AIDS case reports. This evaluation includes a description of the system, evidence of system attributes, estimation of resources for system operations, and documentation of the system's usefulness. HIV case reports provide a far better picture of the epidemic than AIDS reports. The median delay between positive HIV test and reporting was 30 days (interquartile range 18-49 days). Completeness of demographic and epidemiologic information in the surveillance database ranges from 60 to 100%. Information on pre-AIDS mortality and emigration is incomplete. The system cost euro 25,200 in 1999. Results are published every week and used for planning of health care and prevention. We conclude that the Norwegian surveillance system with anonymous reporting of HIV cases is simple, inexpensive and flexible, and capable of providing a representative and timely overview that guides prevention. The system fulfils its objectives while respecting confidentiality and adhering to ethical principles. A similar system may be considered in other countries.
Scallan, Elaine; Crim, Stacy M.; Runkle, Arthur; Henao, Olga L.; Mahon, Barbara E.; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Griffin, Patricia M.
Background A growing segment of the population—adults aged ≥65 years—is more susceptible than younger adults to certain enteric (including foodborne) infections and experience more severe disease. Materials and Methods Using data on laboratory-confirmed infections from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), we describe trends in the incidence of Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes, and nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in adults aged ≥65 years over time and by age group and sex. We used data from FoodNet and other sources to estimate the total number of illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths in the United States caused by these infections each year using a statistical model to adjust for underdiagnosis (taking into account medical care-seeking, stool sample submission, laboratory practices, and test sensitivity). Results From 1996 to 2012, 4 pathogens caused 21,405 laboratory-confirmed infections among older adults residing in the FoodNet surveillance area; 49.3% were hospitalized, and 2.6% died. The average annual rate of infection was highest for Salmonella (12.8/100,000) and Campylobacter (12.1/100,000). Salmonella and Listeria led as causes of death. Among older adults, rates of laboratory-confirmed infection and the percentage of patients who were hospitalized and who died generally increased with age. A notable exception was the rate of Campylobacter infections, which decreased with increasing age. Adjusting for underdiagnosis, we estimated that these pathogens caused about 226,000 illnesses (~600/100,000) annually among U.S. adults aged ≥65 years, resulting in ~9700 hospitalizations and ~500 deaths. Conclusion Campylobacter, E. coli O157, Listeria, and Salmonella are major contributors to illness in older adults, highlighting the value of effective and targeted intervention. PMID:26067228
Salas, Natalie Mariam; Klein, Nicole
Abstract Mycobacterium goodii, a rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacterium, is an emerging pathogen in nosocomial infections. Its inherent resistance patterns make it a challenging organism to treat, and delays in identification can lead to poor outcomes. We present a case of cardiac device pocket infection with M. goodii, complicated by both antibiotic resistance and drug reactions that highlight the challenges faced by clinicians trying to eradicate these infections. We also present a brief review of the English literature surrounding this disease, including a table of all reported cases of M. goodii infections and their outcomes to act as guide for clinicians formulating treatment plans for these infections. A clear understanding of diagnostic methods and treatment caveats is essential to curing infections caused by these organisms.
Paradzik, Maja Tomić; Levojević, Bozana; Gabrić, Antonija
Urinary tract infections (UTI) following catheterization are the most common hospital-acquired infections, with their frequency amounting to 30-40% of all hospital infections. Major percentage of this kind of infectious episodes can be prevented via active and continual education of health care workers (HCW), implementation of transparent protocols concerning installation and attendance of urinary catheters and regular control of catheterized patients through surveillance lists. This research shows the importance of a fore-mentioned activities, demonstrating a significant decrease of UTI following catheterization at the Department of Urology in Slavonski Brod General Hospital during two periods. After the aforementioned procedures were conducted, a statistically significant discrepancy in the decrease of the UTI incidence following catheterization was identified, from 20.4% to 11.7%, i.e. chi2 = 17.5; p < 0.01, and accordingly, significant decrease of the number of hospital bed-days, i.e. chi2 = 16.62; p < 0.0, while total consumption of antibiotics at the Department was not reduced, despite the decrease in the number of UTI. The most common uropathogens, with no significant difference in both periods, were E. coli (29.7%), Enterococcus spp (20%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.8%). Strict implementation and close surveillance of the recommended preventive measures are an important factor in reducing the number of hospital infections.
Fontela, Patricia S.; Quach, Caroline; Buckeridge, David; Pai, Madukhar; Platt, Robert W.
Introduction Several national and regional central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) surveillance programs do not require continuous hospital participation. We evaluated the effect of different hospital participation requirements on the validity of annual CLABSI incidence rate benchmarks for intensive care units (ICUs). Methods We estimated the annual pooled CLABSI incidence rates for both a real regional (<100 ICUs) and a simulated national (600 ICUs) surveillance program, which were used as a reference for the simulations. We simulated scenarios where the annual surveillance participation was randomly or non-randomly reduced. Each scenario's annual pooled CLABSI incidence rate was estimated and compared to the reference rates in terms of validity, bias, and proportion of simulation iterations that presented valid estimates (ideal if≥90%). Results All random scenarios generated valid CLABSI incidence rates estimates (bias −0.37 to 0.07 CLABSI/1000 CVC-days), while non-random scenarios presented a wide range of valid estimates (0 to 100%) and higher bias (−2.18 to 1.27 CLABSI/1000 CVC-days). In random scenarios, the higher the number of participating ICUs, the shorter the participation required to generate ≥90% valid replicates. While participation requirements in a countrywide program ranged from 3 to 13 surveillance blocks (1 block = 28 days), requirements for a regional program ranged from 9 to 13 blocks. Conclusions Based on the results of our model of national CLABSI reporting, the shortening of participation requirements may be suitable for nationwide ICU CLABSI surveillance programs if participation months are randomly chosen. However, our regional models showed that regional programs should opt for continuous participation to avoid biased benchmarks. PMID:22586480
Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Christensen, Jette; Stryhn, Henrik; Hurnik, Daniel
Freedom from infection modeling, using scenario trees, has become an established methodology and is well described in the literature. However, standards for organizing and reporting the surveillance information incorporated into such models are less developed. Canada has been routinely testing for Trichinella spiralis in market hogs in federally inspected slaughter plants since the late 1990s. By way of presenting our work on T. spiralis in Canadian hogs, we propose that information in surveillance models be organized in distinct categories, each with specific parameters and values that are thoroughly described and justified. The proposed categories are: (1) definitions for the objectives, (2) initial time period, (3) inputs, (4) data, (5) model settings, (6) outputs, and (7) validation. Having a standardized manner of reporting such studies will facilitate their validation and expedite their evaluation by experts in the field and their use in trade negotiations.
Kawai, Yasuhiro; Kubo, Mika; Akaike, Hiroto; Kato, Atsushi; Nishizawa, Yoko; Saito, Aki; Kondo, Eisuke; Teranishi, Hideto; Wakabayashi, Tokio; Ogita, Satoko; Tanaka, Takaaki; Kawasaki, Kozo; Nakano, Takashi; Terada, Kihei; Ouchi, Kazunobu
We conducted nationwide surveillance to investigate regional differences in macrolide-resistant (MR) Mycoplasma pneumoniae strains in Japan. The prevalence of MR M. pneumoniae in pediatric patients gradually increased between 2008 and 2012. Although regional differences were observed, high levels of MR genes were detected in all seven surveillance areas throughout Japan and ranged in prevalence from 50% to 93%. These regional differences were closely related to the previous administration of macrolides. PMID:23716043
Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) with Apergillus pose a serious threat to those most severely immune suppressed patients. Outbreaks of nosocomial aspergillosis have occurred mainly among neutropenic patients, but with several important exceptions. HAI due to aspergillosi has occurred in association with environmental disturbances including but not limited to: hospital construction, maintenance, demolition and renovation; contaminated fireproofing materials; air filters in hospital ventilation systems, and via contaminated carpeting. It behooves those in the practice of patient care to prevent these situations before they occur, as opposed to dealing with them once they happen. The framework of the six links in the infectious disease process will be used to examine healthcare-associated invasive aspergillosis: causative agent, portal of entry, susceptible host, portal of exit, reservoir and mode of transmission. Two particular interventions: the Protective Environment (PE), and the Infection Control Risk Assessment (ICRA), will be outlined. Building construction projects and the number of neutropenic patients are likely to continue to increase. Therefore, future directions need to focus on reducing the susceptibility of the susceptible host and reducing the exposure to Aspergillus from environmental sources. In addition, recently released guidelines with control measures aimed at reducing environmental exposure to Aspergillus need to be further studied.
Guzman-Herrador, B; Vold, L; Nygard, K
The Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases (MSIS) includes variables related to travel for clinicians to fill when notifying travel-associated infections. We measured the completeness and validated the travel-history information for salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis, giardiasis and shigellosis reported in 2009-2010. Of all 8,978 selected infections in MSIS, 8,122 (91%) were reported with place of infection of which 5,236 (65%) were notified as acquired abroad, including 5,017 with symptoms. Of these, 2,972 (59%) notifications had information on both date of arrival in Norway and date of symptom onset, so time between travel and illness onset could be assessed. Taking in account the incubation period, of the 1,435 infections reported as travel-associated and for which symptom onset occurred after return to Norway, 1,404 (98%) would have indeed been acquired abroad. We found a high level of completeness for the variable 'place of infection'. Our evaluation suggests that the validity of this information is high. However, incomplete data in the variables 'return date to Norway' and 'date of symptoms onset', only allowed assessment of the biological plausibility of being infected abroad for 59% of the cases. We encourage clinicians to report more complete travel information. High quality information on travel-associated gastrointestinal infections is crucial for understanding trends in domestic and imported cases and evaluating implemented control measures.
Reese, Sara M; Thompson, Meredyth; Price, Connie S; Young, Heather L
Nosocomial respiratory infections cause significant morbidity and mortality, especially among the extremely susceptible neonatal population. Human rhinovirus C is a common viral respiratory illness that causes significant complications in children <2 years old. We describe a nosocomial outbreak of human rhinovirus C in a level II-III neonatal intensive care unit in an urban public safety net hospital.
Filia, Antonietta; Bella, Antonino; Cadeddu, Giovanna; Milia, Maria Rafaela; Del Manso, Martina; Rota, Maria Cristina; Magurano, Fabio; Nicoletti, Loredana; Declich, Silvia
We report a measles outbreak in Sardinia, Italy, that originated in a cruise ship passenger. The outbreak showed extensive nosocomial transmission (44 of 80 cases). To minimize nosocomial transmission, health care facilities should ensure that susceptible health care workers are vaccinated against measles and should implement effective infection control procedures.
Bella, Antonino; Cadeddu, Giovanna; Milia, Maria Rafaela; Del Manso, Martina; Rota, Maria Cristina; Magurano, Fabio; Nicoletti, Loredana; Declich, Silvia
We report a measles outbreak in Sardinia, Italy, that originated in a cruise ship passenger. The outbreak showed extensive nosocomial transmission (44 of 80 cases). To minimize nosocomial transmission, health care facilities should ensure that susceptible health care workers are vaccinated against measles and should implement effective infection control procedures. PMID:26196266
Foodborne diseases are an important public health problem in the United States. The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network* (FoodNet) conducts surveillance in 10 U.S. sites for all laboratory-confirmed infections caused by selected pathogens transmitted commonly through food to quantify them and monitor their incidence. This report summarizes 2012 preliminary surveillance data and describes trends since 1996. A total of 19,531 infections, 4,563 hospitalizations, and 68 deaths associated with foodborne diseases were reported in 2012. For most infections, incidence was highest among children aged <5 years; the percentage of persons hospitalized and the percentage who died were highest among persons aged ≥65 years. In 2012, compared with the 2006-2008 period, the overall incidence of infection† was unchanged, and the estimated incidence of infections caused by Campylobacter and Vibrio increased. These findings highlight the need for targeted action to address food safety gaps.
Eshima, Nobuoki; Tokumaru, Osamu; Hara, Shohei; Bacal, Kira; Korematsu, Seigo; Karukaya, Shigeru; Uruma, Kiyo; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Matsuishi, Toyojiro
Background To prevent and control infectious diseases, it is important to understand how sex and age influence morbidity rates, but consistent clear descriptions of differences in the reported incidence of infectious diseases in terms of sex and age are sparse. Methods and Findings Data from the Japanese surveillance system for infectious diseases from 2000 to 2009 were used in the analysis of seven viral and four bacterial infectious diseases with relatively large impact on the Japanese community. The male-to-female morbidity (MFM) ratios in different age groups were estimated to compare incidence rates of symptomatic reported infection between the sexes at different ages. MFM ratios were >1 for five viral infections out of seven in childhood, i.e. male children were more frequently reported as infected than females with pharyngoconjunctival fever, herpangina, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, mumps, and varicella. More males were also reported to be infected with erythema infectiosum and exanthema subitum, but only in children 1 year of age. By contrast, in adulthood the MFM ratios decreased to <1 for all of the viral infections above except varicella, i.e. adult women were more frequently reported to be infected than men. Sex- and age-related differences in reported morbidity were also documented for bacterial infections. Reported morbidity for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection was higher in adult females and females were reportedly more infected with mycoplasma pneumonia than males in all age groups up to 70 years. Conclusions Sex-related differences in reported morbidity for viral and bacterial infections were documented among different age groups. Changes in MFM ratios with age may reflect differences between the sexes in underlying development processes, including those affecting the immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems, or differences in reporting rates. PMID:22848753
Ramirez Mendoza, Jessica Y; Daneman, Nick; Elias, Mary N; Amuah, Joseph E; Bush, Kathryn; Couris, Chantal M; Leeb, Kira
BACKGROUND In Canadian hospitals, clinical information is coded according to national coding standards and is routinely collected as administrative data. Administrative data may complement active surveillance programs by providing in-hospital MRSA infection data in a standardized and efficient manner, but only if infections are accurately captured. OBJECTIVE To assess the accuracy of administrative data regarding in-hospital bloodstream infections (BSIs) and all-body-site infections due to MRSA. METHODS A retrospective study of all (adult and pediatric) in-hospital MRSA infections was conducted by comparing administrative data against surveillance data from 217 acute Canadian hospitals (124 in Ontario, 93 in Alberta) over a 12-month period. Hospital-associated MRSA BSI cases in Ontario, and for all-body-site MRSA infections in Alberta were identified. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to compare the number of hospital-level MRSA cases within administrative versus surveillance datasets. The correlation of all-body-site MRSA infections versus MRSA BSIs was also assessed using the Ontario administrative data. RESULTS Strong correlations between hospital-level MRSA cases in administrative and surveillance datasets were identified for Ontario (r=0.79; 95% CI, 0.72-0.85) and Alberta (r=0.92; 95% CI, 0.88-0.94). A strong correlation between all-body-site and bloodstream-only MRSA infection rates was identified across Ontario hospitals (r=0.95; P<.0001; 95% CI, 0.93-0.96). CONCLUSIONS This study provides good evidence of the comparability of administrative and surveillance datasets in identifying in-hospital MRSA infections. With standard definitions, administrative data can provide estimates of in-hospital infections for monitoring and/or comparisons across hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:436-443.
Adam, Heather J; Louie, Lisa; Watt, Christine; Gravel, Denise; Bryce, Elizabeth; Loeb, Mark; Matlow, Anne; McGeer, Allison; Mulvey, Michael R; Simor, Andrew E
We describe the epidemiology of heterogeneously resistant Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) identified in Canadian hospitals between 1995 and 2006. hVISA isolates were confirmed by the population analysis profiling-area under the curve method. Only 25 hVISA isolates (1.3% of all isolates) were detected. hVISA isolates were more likely to have been health care associated (odds ratio [OR], 5.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9 to 14.2) and to have been recovered from patients hospitalized in central Canada (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.2 to 7.4). There has been no evidence of vancomycin "MIC creep" in Canadian strains of methicillin (meticillin)-resistant S. aureus, and hVISA strains are currently uncommon.
Coria-Jiménez, V R; Villa-Tanaka, L; Ortíz-Torres, C
A nosocomial infection outbreak occurred in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría (INP) in México City, during the months of March, April and May in 1988 Serratia marcescens was isolated as the etiological agent for this epidemic. Up to date, the source of contamination, the spreading and the pathogenic mechanisms which were involved in this outbreak remain unknown. In order to study the dynamics of the bacterial population involved in this outbreak, all strains of nosocomial S. marcescens isolated during 1988 were collected and studied. Eighty nosocomial strains were analysed. For this purpose we used four different markers: antibiotic susceptibility, presence of plasmids, exoenzyme production and pigment synthesis from a precursor. Using these markers, we were able to establish that five subpopulations of bacteria were present during the ICU outbreak, and that one of these subpopulations, VIII-A, was the most frequently isolated. A short time after this outbreak, we obtained S. marcescens isolates with similar properties which proceeded from other hospital units, suggesting intrahospital dissemination of the strain in question. We believe that, eventually, this study will allow us to establish bacterial spreading models within our institution.
Krasinski, K; LaCouture, R; Holzman, R S; Waithe, E; Bonk, S; Hanna, B
To limit nosocomial spread of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, a longitudinal intervention trial was instituted. Nasal secretions or washes were screened for RSV antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and patients were assigned to an RSV-infected or an RSV-uninfected cohort. The baseline (preintervention) rate of 7.17 nosocomial cases of RSV per 1000 patient-days of care was used for comparison. Despite continued infections in the community after screening was initiated, there were no cases of RSV infection in 1880 patient-days of care for 3 months (p = 0.039). During the fourth month, an RSV-infected child was erroneously assigned to the RSV-uninfected cohort, and three nosocomial cases occurred--5.33/1000 patient-days of care (p = 0.286). Overall, there were three nosocomial RSV infections in 2443 patient-days of care in the 1987 season after screening was introduced--1.23/1000 patient-days of care (p = 0.026). In the subsequent RSV season, there was one nosocomial case--0.461/1000 patient-days of care for 3 months (p = 0.0074). During the same period, nosocomial cases of RSV were observed in the pediatric and neonatal intensive care units, where assignment to a cohort was not possible. We conclude that entry into a cohort at the time of admission, on the basis of prospective RSV screening by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, effectively reduces nosocomial transmission of RSV.
Sabino, R; Sampaio, P; Rosado, L; Videira, Z; Grenouillet, F; Pais, C
Candida parapsilosis emerged as an important opportunistic pathogen, causing candidaemia worldwide. Nosocomial outbreaks triggered by this species have been frequently described, particularly in cancer patients. For a better understanding of its epidemiology, several typing methods are used and microsatellite analysis has been reported as highly discriminant. The main objective of this work was to study C. parapsilosis isolates by application of microsatellite genotyping to distinguish epidemiologically related strains, compare clinical and environmental isolates and determine possible routes of dispersion of the isolates in the hospital setting. A total of 129 C. parapsilosis isolates from different origins, including hospital environment and hands of healthcare workers, were genotyped using four microsatellite markers. The isolates were recovered from different health institutions. Analysis of C. parapsilosis isolates from hospital environment showed great genotypic diversity; however, the same or very similar genotypes were also found. The same multilocus genotype was shared by isolates recovered from the hand of a healthcare worker, from the hospital environment and from patients of the same healthcare institution, suggesting that these could be possible routes of transmission and that infections due to C. parapsilosis may be mainly related with exogenous transmission to the patient. Examination of sequential isolates from the same patients showed that colonizing and bloodstream isolates had the same multilocus genotype in the majority of cases. We demonstrate that this typing method is able to distinguish clonal clusters from genetically unrelated genotypes and can be a valuable tool to support epidemiologic investigations in the hospital setting.
were detected from both the cases and controls. 69% of the total pathogens were protozoan , 14% viral, 15% bacterial and 2% helminth. Shigella spp... protozoan parasite among all surveillance sites. In the literature, it is classified as non-pathogenic, but it has been detected enough that the
Rocky Mountain spotted fever , Mediterranean spotted fever , scrub typhus, ehrlichiosis, and trench...seroposi- tivity in the military include age, home state with Rocky Mountain spotted fever incidence at least as high as the aggregated US incidence...surveillance of arthropod-trans- mitted diseases. Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever are reportable medical events for Navy and Marine
Medus, Carlota; Smith, Kirk E; Bender, Jeffrey B; Leano, Fe; Hedberg, Craig W
The frequency of Salmonella-infected food workers identified through routine surveillance from 1997 to 2004 in Minnesota was determined in order to evaluate the impact of surveillance on the detection of outbreaks in restaurants and to quantify the duration of Salmonella shedding in stool. Of 4,976 culture-confirmed Salmonella cases reported to the Minnesota Department of Health, 110 (2.2%) were identified as food workers; this was less than one-half the number expected based on the incidence of Salmonella in the general population. Twenty food workers (18%) were associated with outbreaks. Twelve were involved in nine independent outbreaks at the restaurants where they worked. The identification of the index food worker in six of these outbreaks was critical to the initiation of outbreak investigations that revealed much larger problems. Among food workers who submitted specimens until at least one negative result was obtained (n = 69), the median duration of shedding was 22 days (range, 1 to 359 days). Among the four most common serotypes (Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Heidelberg, and Newport) the median duration of shedding was significantly longer for Salmonella Newport (80 days; P = 0.02) and for Salmonella Enteritidis (32 days; P = 0.04) than for Salmonella Heidelberg (8 days). Food workers should be considered an important source of Salmonella transmission, and those identified through surveillance should raise a high index of suspicion of a possible outbreak at their place of work. Food service managers need to be alert to Salmonella-like illnesses among food workers to facilitate prevention and control efforts, including exclusion of infected food workers or restriction of their duties.
Oki, Tomoharu; Ishiki, Aiko; Shimanuki, Masaaki; Fuchimukai, Toru; Chosa, Toru; Chida, Shoichi; Nakamura, Yasuhide; Shima, Hiroji; Kanno, Michihiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Ishiki, Mikihito; Urabe, Daisaku
Abstract Problem On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake produced a catastrophic tsunami that devastated the city of Rikuzen-Takata and left it without an effective health infrastructure and at increased risk of outbreaks of disease. Approach On 2 May 2011, a disease-surveillance team was formed of volunteers who were clinicians or members of Rikuzen-Takata’s municipal government. The team’s main goal was to detect the early signs of disease outbreaks. Local setting Seven weeks after the tsunami, 16 support teams were providing primary health care in Rikuzen-Takata but the chain of command between them was poor and 70% of the city’s surviving citizens remained in evacuation centres. The communication tools that were available were generally inadequate. Relevant changes The surveillance team collected data from the city’s clinics by using a simple reporting form that could be completed without adding greatly to the workloads of clinicians. The summary findings were reported daily to clinics. The team also collaborated with public health nurses in rebuilding communication networks. Public health nurses alerted evacuation centres to epidemics of communicable disease. Lessons learnt Modern health-care systems are highly vulnerable to the loss of advanced technological tools. The initiation – or re-establishment – of disease surveillance following a natural disaster can therefore prove challenging even in a developed country. Surveillance should be promptly initiated after a disaster by (i) developing a surveillance system that is tailored to the local setting, (ii) establishing a support team network, and (iii) integrating the resources that remain – or soon become – locally available. PMID:24115802
Padoveze, M C; Assis, D B; Freire, M P; Madalosso, G; Ferreira, S A; Valente, M G; Fortaleza, C M C B
Governmental programmes should be developed to collect and analyse data on healthcare associated infections (HAIs). This study describes the healthcare setting and both the implementation and preliminary results of the Programme for Surveillance of Healthcare Associated Infections in the State of São Paulo (PSHAISP), Brazil, from 2004 to 2006. Characterisation of the healthcare settings was carried out using a national database. The PSHAISP was implemented using components for acute care hospitals (ACH) or long term care facilities (LTCF). The components for surveillance in ACHs were surgical unit, intensive care unit and high risk nursery. The infections included in the surveillance were surgical site infection in clean surgery, pneumonia, urinary tract infection and device-associated bloodstream infections. Regarding the LTCF component, pneumonia, scabies and gastroenteritis in all inpatients were reported. In the first year of the programme there were 457 participating healthcare settings, representing 51.1% of the hospitals registered in the national database. Data obtained in this study are the initial results and have already been used for education in both surveillance and the prevention of HAI. The results of the PSHAISP show that it is feasible to collect data from a large number of hospitals. This will assist the State of São Paulo in assessing the impact of interventions and in resource allocation.
Cuttell, Leigh; Corley, Sean W; Gray, Christian P; Vanderlinde, Paul B; Jackson, Louise A; Traub, Rebecca J
Trichinella nematodes are the causative agent of trichinellosis, a meat-borne zoonosis acquired by consuming undercooked, infected meat. Although most human infections are sourced from the domestic environment, the majority of Trichinella parasites circulate in the natural environment in carnivorous and scavenging wildlife. Surveillance using reliable and accurate diagnostic tools to detect Trichinella parasites in wildlife hosts is necessary to evaluate the prevalence and risk of transmission from wildlife to humans. Real-time PCR assays have previously been developed for the detection of European Trichinella species in commercial pork and wild fox muscle samples. We have expanded on the use of real-time PCR in Trichinella detection by developing an improved extraction method and SYBR green assay that detects all known Trichinella species in muscle samples from a greater variety of wildlife. We simulated low-level Trichinella infections in wild pig, fox, saltwater crocodile, wild cat and a native Australian marsupial using Trichinella pseudospiralis or Trichinella papuae ethanol-fixed larvae. Trichinella-specific primers targeted a conserved region of the small subunit of the ribosomal RNA and were tested for specificity against host and other parasite genomic DNAs. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was at least 100 fg using pure genomic T. pseudospiralis DNA serially diluted in water. The diagnostic sensitivity of the assay was evaluated by spiking 10 g of each host muscle with T. pseudospiralis or T. papuae larvae at representative infections of 1.0, 0.5 and 0.1 larvae per gram, and shown to detect larvae at the lowest infection rate. A field sample evaluation on naturally infected muscle samples of wild pigs and Tasmanian devils showed complete agreement with the EU reference artificial digestion method (k-value=1.00). Positive amplification of mouse tissue experimentally infected with T. spiralis indicated the assay could also be used on encapsulated
Revised surveillance case definitions for HIV infection among adults, adolescents, and children aged <18 months and for HIV infection and AIDS among children aged 18 months to <13 years--United States, 2008.
Schneider, Eileen; Whitmore, Suzanne; Glynn, Kathleen M; Dominguez, Kenneth; Mitsch, Andrew; McKenna, Matthew T
For adults and adolescents (i.e., persons aged >/=13 years), the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection classification system and the surveillance case definitions for HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have been revised and combined into a single case definition for HIV infection. In addition, the HIV infection case definition for children aged <13 years and the AIDS case definition for children aged 18 months to <13 years have been revised. No changes have been made to the HIV infection classification system, the 24 AIDS-defining conditions for children aged <13 years, or the AIDS case definition for children aged <18 months. These case definitions are intended for public health surveillance only and not as a guide for clinical diagnosis. Public health surveillance data are used primarily for monitoring the HIV epidemic and for planning on a population level, not for making clinical decisions for individual patients. CDC and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists recommend that all states and territories conduct case surveillance of HIV infection and AIDS using the 2008 surveillance case definitions, effective immediately.
Ho Dang Trung, Nghia; Le Thi Phuong, Tu; Wolbers, Marcel; Nguyen Van Minh, Hoang; Nguyen Thanh, Vinh; Van, Minh Pham; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Le Van, Tan; Song, Diep To; Le Thi, Phuong; Thi Phuong, Thao Nguyen; Van, Cong Bui; Tang, Vu; Ngoc Anh, Tuan Hoang; Nguyen, Dong; Trung, Tien Phan; Thi Nam, Lien Nguyen; Kiem, Hao Tran; Thi Thanh, Tam Nguyen; Campbell, James; Caws, Maxine; Day, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno D.; Van Vinh, Chau Nguyen; Van Doorn, H. Rogier; Tinh, Hien Tran; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance
Background Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date most data has come from patients admitted to tertiary referral hospitals in Asia and there is limited aetiological data at the provincial hospital level where most patients are seen. Methods We conducted a prospective Provincial Hospital-based descriptive surveillance study in adults and children at thirteen hospitals in central and southern Viet Nam between August 2007– April 2010. The pathogens of CNS infection were confirmed in CSF and blood samples by using classical microbiology, molecular diagnostics and serology. Results We recruited 1241 patients with clinically suspected infection of the CNS. An aetiological agent was identified in 640/1241 (52%) of the patients. The most common pathogens were Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in patients older than 14 years of age (147/617, 24%) and Japanese encephalitis virus in patients less than 14 years old (142/624, 23%). Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed in 34/617 (6%) adult patients and 11/624 (2%) paediatric patients. The acute case fatality rate (CFR) during hospital admission was 73/617 (12%) in adults and to 42/624 (7%) in children. Conclusions Zoonotic bacterial and viral pathogens are the most common causes of CNS infection in adults and children in Viet Nam. PMID:22662232
Garay, S M; Plottel, C S
This review provides an overview of the risk of nosocomial infection in the "AIDS era." Airborne spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from affected patients has re-emerged as a hazard to hospital personnel. The risk of acquiring clinical illness due to Pneumocystis carinii or cytomegalovirus is, in contrast, a function of the immunocompetence of the health care worker. Methods of transmission as well as the epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-related infection in the health care worker will be discussed. The increase in the number of immunocompromised patients (AIDS and non-AIDS) requires careful attention to infection control methodology with respect to the cleansing of the fiberoptic bronchoscope, the intensive care unit's respiratory equipment (such as mechanical ventilators and nebulizers), and the pulmonary function laboratory.
Patel, Priti R; Thompson, Nicola D; Kallen, Alexander J; Arduino, Matthew J
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common chronic blood-borne infection in the United States; the prevalence in maintenance hemodialysis patients substantially exceeds that in the general population. In hemodialysis patients, HCV infection has been associated with increased occurrence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and increased mortality. Injection drug use and receipt of blood transfusions before 1992 has accounted for most prevalent HCV infections in the United States. However, HCV transmission among patients undergoing hemodialysis has been documented frequently. Outbreak investigations have implicated lapses in infection control practices as the cause of HCV infections. Preventing these infections is an emerging priority for renal care providers, public health agencies, and regulators. Adherence to recommended infection control practices is effective in preventing HCV transmission in hemodialysis facilities. In addition, adoption of routine screening to facilitate the detection of incident HCV infections and hemodialysis-related transmission is an essential component of patient safety and infection prevention efforts. This article describes the current epidemiology of HCV infection in US maintenance hemodialysis patients and prevention practices to decrease its incidence and transmission.
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization and Risk of Subsequent Infection in Critically Ill Children: Importance of Preventing Nosocomial Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Transmission
Goldner, Brian W.; Ross, Tracy; Shepard, John W.; Carroll, Karen C.
Background. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization is a predictor of subsequent infection in hospitalized adults. The risk of subsequent MRSA infections in hospitalized children colonized with MRSA is unknown. Methods. Children admitted to an academic medical center’s pediatric intensive care unit between March 2007 and March 2010 were included in the study. Anterior naris swabs were cultured to identify children with MRSA colonization at admission. Laboratory databases were queried and National Healthcare Safety Network definitions applied to identify patients with MRSA infections during their hospitalization or after discharge. Results. The MRSA admission prevalence among 3140 children was 4.9%. Overall, 56 children (1.8%) developed an MRSA infection, including 13 (8.5%) colonized on admission and 43 (1.4%) not colonized on admission (relative risk [RR], 5.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.4–10.1). Of those, 10 children (0.3%) developed an MRSA infection during their hospitalization, including 3 of 153 children (1.9%) colonized on admission and 7 of 2987 children (0.2%) not colonized on admission (RR, 8.4; 95% CI, 2.7–25.8). African-Americans and those with public health insurance were more likely to get a subsequent infection (P < .01 and P = .03, respectively). We found that 15 children acquired MRSA colonization in the pediatric intensive care unit, and 7 (47%) developed a subsequent MRSA infection. Conclusions. MRSA colonization is a risk factor for subsequent MRSA infection in children. Although MRSA colonized children may have lower risks of subsequent infection than adults, children who acquire MRSA in the hospital have similarly high rates of infection. Preventing transmission of MRSA in hospitalized children should remain a priority. PMID:21878424
Cappuccio, Javier; Dibarbora, Marina; Lozada, Inés; Quiroga, Alejandra; Olivera, Valeria; Dángelo, Marta; Pérez, Estefanía; Barrales, Hernán; Perfumo, Carlos; Pereda, Ariel; Pérez, Daniel R
Swine farms provide a dynamic environment for the evolution of influenza A viruses (IAVs). The present report shows the results of a surveillance effort of IAV infection in one commercial swine farm in Argentina. Two cross-sectional serological and virological studies (n=480) were carried out in 2011 and 2012. Virus shedding was detected in nasal samples from pigs from ages 7, 21 and 42-days old. More than 90% of sows and gilts but less than 40% of 21-days old piglets had antibodies against IAV. In addition, IAV was detected in 8/17 nasal swabs and 10/15 lung samples taken from necropsied pigs. A subset of these samples was further processed for virus isolation resulting in 6 viruses of the H1N2 subtype (δ2 cluster). Pathological studies revealed an association between suppurative bronchopneumonia and necrotizing bronchiolitis with IAV positive samples. Statistical analyses showed that the degree of lesions in bronchi, bronchiole, and alveoli was higher in lungs positive to IAV. The results of this study depict the relevance of continuing long-term active surveillance of IAV in swine populations to establish IAV evolution relevant to swine and humans.
Gunawardena, Sharmini; Gunawardena, Nipul K.; Kahathuduwa, Ganga; Karunaweera, Nadira D.; de Silva, Nilanthi R.; Ranasinghe, Udaya B.; Samarasekara, Sandhya D.; Nagodavithana, Kumara C.; Rao, Ramakrishna U.; Rebollo, Maria P.; Weil, Gary J.
We explored the practicality of integrating surveillance for soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH, assessed by Kato-Katz) with transmission assessment surveys for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in two evaluation units (EUs) in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka (population 2.3 million). The surveys were performed 6 years after five annual rounds of mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole. Each transmission assessment survey tested children (N = 1,462 inland EU; 1,642 coastal EU) sampled from 30 primary schools. Low filarial antigenemia rates (0% and 0.1% for the inland and coastal EUs) suggest that LF transmission is very low in this district. The STH rates and stool sample participation rates were 0.8% and 61% (inland) and 2.8% and 58% (coastal). Most STH detected were low or moderate intensity Trichuris trichiura infections. The added cost of including STH testing was ∼$5,000 per EU. These results suggest that it is feasible to integrate school-based surveillance for STH and LF. PMID:24493672
Harris, Christine M.; Li, Jianmin; Hall, H. Irene; Lee, Adria; Zell, Elizabeth; Harrison, Lee H.; Petit, Susan; Farley, Monica M.; Lynfield, Ruth; Miller, Lisa; Nichols, Megin; Reingold, Arthur; Schaffner, William; Thomas, Ann; MacNeil, Jessica R.; Clark, Thomas A.; Cohn, Amanda C.
Background. Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is an established risk factor for several bacterial infections, the association between HIV infection and meningococcal disease remains unclear. Methods. Expanded chart reviews were completed on persons with meningococcal disease and HIV infection reported from 2000 through 2008 from 9 US sites participating in an active population-based surveillance system for meningococcal disease. The incidence of meningococcal disease among patients meeting Centers for Disease Control and Prevention acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) surveillance criteria was estimated using data from the National HIV Surveillance System for the participating sites. Results. Thirty-three cases of meningococcal disease in individuals with HIV infection were reported from participating sites, representing 2.0% of all reported meningococcal disease cases. Most (75.8%) persons with HIV infection were adult males aged 25 to 64 years old. Among all meningococcal disease cases aged 25 to 64 years old, case fatality ratios were similar among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons (13.3% vs 10.6%; P = .6). The cumulative, mean incidence of meningococcal disease among patients aged 25 to 64 years old with HIV infection ever classified as AIDS was 3.5 cases per 100000 person years (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1–5.6), compared with 0.3 cases per 100000 person years (95% CI, 0.3–0.3) for persons of the same age group not reported to have AIDS (relative risk = 12.9; 95% CI, 7.9–20.9). Conclusions. Individuals with HIV infection meeting the AIDS surveillance case definition have a higher incidence of meningococcal disease compared with the general adult population. PMID:28018927
Guzmán-Blanco, Manuel; Labarca, Jaime A; Villegas, Maria Virginia; Gotuzzo, Eduardo
To review the epidemiology of nosocomial extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Latin America, a systematic search of the biomedical literature (PubMed) was performed for articles published since 2005. Rates of nosocomial infections caused by extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Latin America have increased since 2005. Up to 32% of Escherichia coli and up to 58% of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates are extended spectrum β-lactamase-positive, rates that are higher than in other world regions. From a region-wide perspective, 11-25% of E. coli isolates and 45-53% of K. pneumoniae isolates were nonsusceptible to third-generation cephalosporins. At the country level, there was a wide range in Enterobacteriaceae resistance rates to third-generation cephalosporins, with especially high rates of resistance to E. coli in Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico, and high resistance rates to Klebsiella spp. in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Guatemala, Honduras, and Paraguay. Susceptibility of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae to cefepime, fluoroquinolones, ampicillin/sulbactam, aminoglycosides, and piperacillin/tazobactam has also been compromised, leaving the carbapenems, tigecycline, and colistin as the only antibiotics with >90% susceptibility rates. There is a steady increase in the prevalence and types of extended spectrum β-lactamases produced by Enterobacteriaceae isolates in Latin American hospitals (particularly CTX-Ms), suggesting endemic conditions overlaid by clonal outbreaks. Appropriate treatment decisions and infection control strategies informed by surveillance of regional and local susceptibilities and mechanisms of resistance are required to mitigate this major public health concern.
Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna; Pancer, Katarzyna; Krogulska, Bozena; Matuszewska, Renata
The aim of the paper is to describe the criteria used for identification of first and so far the only one outbreak of hospital bacterial infections due to L. pneumophila. The infected persons were patients hospitalized at ophthalmic ward for more than 10 days. Four patients were found ill among 27 hospitalized (15%) at ophthalmic ward and 3 of them died (75%) in spite treatment in intensive care unit. The source of infection was found in the hospital hot water system. It was shown that L. pneumophila sg 1 and sg 2-14 were settled in the tanks and pipelines of hot water installations. The high number of L. pneumophila sg I and sg 2-14 colony forming units (> 10 000 cfu /100 ml) were found in the water specimens taken from the hospital water system, showing the high risk of Legionella infection for patients. Cleaning and disinfection of hot water system was repeated three times using composition every time modified as stronger mechanical, thermal and chemical methods. Complete elimination of Legionella from hot water system was achieved after cutting off deadlegs of water and replacement of both old hot water reservoirs with new ones. Collected experience served for preparation of guidelines for control and prevention of Legionella infections in hospital buildings, published on National Institute of Hygiene web site A month later Polish Ministry of Health published the Directives concerning the quality of drinking water to which the control of Legionella infection has been included.
Background/Introduction. Large mammals such as domestic cattle and red deer have been reported to align themselves with the magnetic North Pole. Since chronic wasting disease (CWD) affects the behavior of infected cervids, it may be possible to estimate the infection rate, at a herd level, by det...
Kadolsky, Ulrich D.; Yates, Andrew J.
What effect does the spatial distribution of infected cells have on the efficiency of their removal by immune cells, such as cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)? If infected cells spread in clusters, CTL may initially be slow to locate them but subsequently kill more rapidly than in diffuse infections. We address this question using stochastic, spatially explicit models of CTL interacting with different patterns of infection. Rather than the effector : target ratio, we show that the relevant quantity is the ratio of a CTL's expected time to locate its next target (search time) to the average time it spends conjugated with a target that it is killing (handling time). For inefficient (slow) CTL, when the search time is always limiting, the critical density of CTL (that required to control 50% of infections, C*) is independent of the spatial distribution and derives from simple mass-action kinetics. For more efficient CTL such that handling time becomes limiting, mass-action underestimates C*, and the more clustered an infection the greater is C*. If CTL migrate chemotactically towards targets the converse holds—C* falls, and clustered infections are controlled most efficiently. Real infections are likely to spread patchily; this combined with even weak chemotaxis means that sterilizing immunity may be achieved with substantially lower numbers of CTL than standard models predict. PMID:26150655
CARDINAL, MARTA V.; CASTAÑERA, MÓNICA B.; LAURICELLA, MARTA A.; CECERE, MARÍA C.; CEBALLOS, LEONARDO A.; VAZQUEZ-PROKOPEC, GONZALO M.; KITRON, URIEL; GÜRTLER, RICARDO E.
Domestic dogs were used as natural sentinels to assess prospectively the long-term impact of selective, community-based spraying with pyrethroid insecticides after community-wide spraying on transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in rural villages under surveillance between 1992 and 2002. In 2000 and 2002 light infestations by Triatoma infestans were recorded, and 523 dogs and cats were examined serologically or by xenodiagnosis. The prevalence of T. cruzi infection in dogs decreased from 65% at baseline to 8.9% and 4.7% at 7.5 and 10 years after sustained vector surveil-lance, respectively. The average annual force of infection dropped 260-fold from 72.7 per 100 dog-years at baseline to <0.3% in 2002, as determined prospectively and retrospectively from the age-prevalence curve of native dogs born during surveillance. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that prevalent cases in dogs in 2000 and 2002 were associated positively and significantly with the peak number of T. infestans caught in domestic areas at the dog's compound during its lifetime. The sustained decline in T. cruzi infections in dogs and cats is the result of selective, community-based insecticide spraying that kept the abundance of infected T. infestans at marginal levels, fast host population turnover, and low immigration rates from areas with active transmission. PMID:17038707
Shaban-Nejad, Arash; Mamiya, Hiroshi; Riazanov, Alexandre; Forster, Alan J; Baker, Christopher J O; Tamblyn, Robyn; Buckeridge, David L
We propose an integrated semantic web framework consisting of formal ontologies, web services, a reasoner and a rule engine that together recommend appropriate level of patient-care based on the defined semantic rules and guidelines. The classification of healthcare-associated infections within the HAIKU (Hospital Acquired Infections - Knowledge in Use) framework enables hospitals to consistently follow the standards along with their routine clinical practice and diagnosis coding to improve quality of care and patient safety. The HAI ontology (HAIO) groups over thousands of codes into a consistent hierarchy of concepts, along with relationships and axioms to capture knowledge on hospital-associated infections and complications with focus on the big four types, surgical site infections (SSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI); hospital-acquired pneumonia, and blood stream infection. By employing statistical inferencing in our study we use a set of heuristics to define the rule axioms to improve the SSI case detection. We also demonstrate how the occurrence of an SSI is identified using semantic e-triggers. The e-triggers will be used to improve our risk assessment of post-operative surgical site infections (SSIs) for patients undergoing certain type of surgeries (e.g., coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG)).
Eastwood, Keith; Webb, Cameron; Durrheim, David
Introduction Barmah Forest virus (BFV) is a mosquito-borne virus causing epidemic polyarthritis in Australia. This study used case follow-up of cases from the surveillance system to demonstrate that routinely collected BFV notification data were an unreliable indicator of the true location of exposure. Methods BFV notifications from June 2001 to May 2011 were extracted from the New South Wales (NSW) Notifiable Conditions Information Management System to study case distribution. Disease cluster analysis was performed using spatial scan statistics. Exposure history data were collected from cases notified in 2010 and 2011 to accurately determine travel to high-risk areas. Results Cluster analysis using address data identified an area of increased BFV disease incidence in the mid-north coast of NSW contiguous with estuarine wetlands. When travel to this area was investigated, 96.7% (29/30) cases reported having visited coastal regions within four weeks of developing symptoms. Discussion Along the central NSW coastline, extensive wetlands occur in close proximity to populated areas. These wetlands provide ideal breeding habitats for a range of mosquito species implicated in the transmission of BFV. This is the first study to fully assess case exposure with findings suggesting that sporadic cases of BFV in people living further away from the coast do not reflect alternative exposure sites but are likely to result from travel to coastal regions. Spatial analysis by case address alone may lead to inaccurate understandings of the true distribution of arboviral diseases. Subsequently, this information has important implications for the collection of mosquito-borne disease surveillance information and public health response strategies. PMID:23908926
Szabó, Rita; Böröcz, Karolina
As a result of the age-related changes, more elders live in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Due to their susceptibility, infections and excess use of antimicrobials are common. The aim was to estimate the burden of infections and antimicrobial use in Hungarian LTCFs in order to increase the attention given to the prevention. European-wide point prevalence survey was conducted between April and May 2013. For each resident who had a signs and symptoms of an infection and/or treated with an antibacterial for systemic use a resident questionnaire was completed. Descriptive statistics were used to present the data. In total, 91 LTCFs with 11,823 residents were selected in this survey. The 252 residents had a sign/symptom of an infection (2.1%) and 156 received antimicrobial (1.3%). Skin and soft tissues (36.5%) was the most frequent infection. However, antimicrobials were mostly prescribed for respiratory tract infections (40.4%). The most common therapeutic antimicrobial agent (97.5%) belonged to the quinolone antibacterials (34.2%). Our results emphasise the need for targeted improvement of antimicrobial use including: reducing the use of quinolone antibacterials in order to prevent the spread of Clostridium difficile and other antimicrobial resistant microorganisms among institutionalized residents.
The surveillance of HCV infections is now a must in the clinical management of hemodialysis patients. The natural history of HCV has shown acute hepatitis to be a constant feature although rarely symptomatic. Progression to chronicity occurs in 90% of the cases with detectable viremia in 80% of the cases. The long-term impact of the liver disease in chronic hemodialyzed patients remains to be defined. HCV is responsible for more than 90% of the non-A, non-B hepatitis case diagnosed among hemodialyzed patients. The transmission is either transfusional or nosocomial. Following recent transfusion safety regulations, the nosocomial risk became the predominant residual risk. Thus, all efforts should target HCV eradication. In the absence of specific prophylaxis, this can only be achieved by enforcement of very stringent precautions.
Sullivan, P S; Hanson, D L; Chu, S Y; Jones, J L; Ciesielski, C A
Thrombocytopenia in persons infected with HIV is prevalent and has numerous causes. To study the occurrence, associations, and effect on survival of thrombocytopenia in HIV-infected persons, we used surveillance data from a longitudinal survey of the medical records of 30,214 HIV-infected patients who received medical care from January 1990 through August 1996 in more than 100 medical clinics in 10 U.S. cities. Thrombocytopenia was defined as a physician diagnosis of thrombocytopenia or a platelet count of < 50,000 platelets/ microliter. Analysis of associations of thrombocytopenia was conducted using logistic regression. In HIV+ patients, the 1-year incidence [corrected] of thrombocytopenia was 8.7% in persons with one or more AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses (clinical AIDS), 3.1% in patients with a CD4 count < 200 cells/mm3 but not clinical AIDS (immunologic AIDS), and 1.7% in persons without clinical or immunologic AIDS. The incidence of thrombocytopenia was associated with clinical AIDS (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.2; 99% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-3.0), immunologic AIDS (AOR 1.5, CI 1.0-2.1), history of injecting drug use (AOR 1.4, CI 1.0-1.9), anemia (AOR 5.0, CI 3.8-6.7), lymphoma (AOR 3.7, CI 1.3-10.6), and black race (AOR 0.7, CI 0.5-0.9). After controlling for anemia, clinical AIDS, CD4 count, neutropenia, antiretroviral therapy, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis, thrombocytopenia was significantly associated with decreased survival (risk ratio 1.7; 95% CI, 1.6-1.8). Thrombocytopenia in HIV-infected persons is an important clinical condition associated with shorter survival.
Weber, D J; Rutala, W A
Americans are increasingly exposed to exotic zoonotic diseases through travel, contact with exotic pets, occupational exposure, and leisure pursuits. Appropriate isolation precautions are required to prevent nosocomial transmission of rare zoonotic diseases for which person-to-person transmission has been documented. This minireview provides guidelines for the isolation of patients and management of staff exposed to the following infectious diseases with documented person-to-person transmission: Andes hantavirus disease, anthrax, B virus infection, hemorrhagic fevers (due to Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Argentine hemorrhagic fever, and Bolivian hemorrhagic fever viruses), monkeypox, plague, Q fever, and rabies. Several of these infections may also be encountered as bioterrorism hazards (i.e., anthrax, hemorrhagic fever viruses, plague, and Q fever). Adherence to recommended isolation precautions will allow for proper patient care while protecting the health care workers who provide care to patients with known or suspected zoonotic infections capable of nosocomial transmission.
[Prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections: established and new aspects for the clinical routine : Revised recommendations on "prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections" of the commission for hospital hygiene and infection prevention at the Robert Koch Institute].
Baier, C; Chaberny, Iris F
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are one of the most common healthcare-associated infections (HAI) in Germany and are of particular relevance for intensive and standard care units. The revised guidelines of the commission for hospital hygiene and infection prevention (KRINKO) provide an update on prevention of CAUTI. The guidelines consider and evaluate the new literature published after the initial publication in 1999. The KRINKO recommendations should be implemented to protect patients from such infections, especially as CAUTIs are one of the most preventable types of HAI. In this respect tailor-made infection prevention bundles seem to be most effective and continuous infection surveillance procedures are of particular importance. Thus, a comparison with the reference data provided by the (German) National Reference Center for surveillance of nosocomial infections is possible. This article explains the recommendations for prevention measures included in the new KRINKO guidelines.
Liu, Jinming; Zhu, Chunxia; Shi, Yaojun; Li, Hao; Wang, Lanpin; Qin, Shangtian; Kang, Saie; Huang, Yanpin; Jin, Yamei; Lin, Jiaojiao
Background Schistosomiasis japonica is prevalent in Asian countries and it remains a major public health problem in China. The major endemic foci are the marsh and lake regions of southern China, particularly the Dongting Lake region bordering Hunan and Hubei provinces, and the Poyang Lake region in Jiangxi province. Domestic ruminants, especially bovines, have long been considered to play a major role in the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum to humans. Methods and Findings A miracidial hatching technique was used to investigate the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in domestic ruminants and field feces collected from two towns located to the south and east of Dongting Lake, Hunan province, between 2005 and 2010. The overall prevalence of infection was not significantly reduced from 4.93% in 2005 to 3.64% in 2008, after which it was maintained at this level. Bovines comprised 23.5–58.2% of the total infected ruminants, while goats comprised 41.8–76.5%. Infection rates in cattle and goats were significantly higher than those found in buffalo in most study years. The prevalence in buffalo younger than three years was significantly higher than that in those aged over three years. All the positive field samples of feces were derived from bovines in Nandashan. In Matang Town, 61.22% of the positive field feces were from bovines, while the rest were from goats. The positive rates for field feces were approximately the same in April and November/October. Conclusions The present study found that bovines and goats are major sources of S. japonicum infection in the Dongting lake region and there was age-related resistance in buffalo. Both bovines and goats should be treated equally when controlling S. japonicum infections in the Dongting lake region. It is essential to conduct an additional mass treatment in late March or early April, in addition to the original treatment scheme. PMID:22359638
Chhapola, Viswas; Brar, Rekha
Nosocomial infections are a significant problem in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and hand hygiene (HH) has been stated as an effective mean to prevent spread of infections. The aim of study was to assess the baseline compliance HH practices and to evaluate the impact of hand washing educational programme on infection rate in a NICU. Continuous surveillance of nosocomial infections was done. A total of 15,797 and 12 ,29 opportunities for HH were observed in pre-intervention and postintervention phases, respectively. Compliance of health-care workers for all HH opportunities combined was 46% before intervention and improved significantly to 69% in postintervention (RR 1.49, CI 1.46-1.52, P < 0.0001). Compliance for nurses and doctors was similar. Nosocomial sepsis rate showed a significant decline from 96 per 1000 patient-days in pre-intervention to 47 per 1000 patient-days in postintervention phase (RR 0.44, CI 0.33-0.58, P < 0.0001). We conclude that effective HH practices can serve as an economical and effective nosocomial infection control approach especially important in developing nations.
Pneumonia is the second most common nosocomial infection in the United States and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Most patients with nosocomial pneumonia are those with extremes of age, severe underlying disease, immunosuppression, depressed sensorium, and cardiopulmonary disease, and those who have had thoracoabdominal surgery. Although patients with mechanically assisted ventilation do not comprise a major proportion of patients with nosocomial pneumonia, they have the highest risk of developing the infection. Most bacterial nosocomial pneumonias occur by aspiration of bacteria colonizing the oropharynx or upper gastrointestinal tract of the patient. Intubation and mechanical ventilation greatly increase the risk of nosocomial bacterial pneumonia because they alter first-line patient defenses. Pneumonias due to Legionella spp., Aspergillus spp., and influenza virus are often caused by inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection usually follows viral inoculation of the conjunctivae or nasal mucosa by contaminated hands. Traditional preventive measures for nosocomial pneumonia include decreasing aspiration by the patient, preventing cross-contamination or colonization via hands of personnel, appropriate disinfection or sterilization or respiratory therapy devices, use of available vaccines to protect against particular infections, and education of hospital staff and patients. New measures under investigation involve reducing oropharyngeal and gastric colonization by pathogenic microorganisms.
Cadot, L; Segondy, M; Foulongne, V
The establishment of Aedes albopictus in southern France, a recognized competent vector for several arboviruses, represents a new threat for the local transmission and spread of what were until recently considered as tropical diseases. A preparedness and response plan, based on vigilance of both clinicians and laboratories, has introduced significant changes in guidelines and behaviour regarding patients' care specifically during the activity period of mosquitoes. In the present study, we report the results of a 1-year activity in arboviral infection diagnosis. A total of 141 patients were included in this retrospective study. The number of suspected imported and autochthonous cases was 69 and 72, respectively. A diagnosis of arboviral infection was confirmed for 15 (21·7%) suspected imported cases, with identification of 13 dengue viruses, one chikungunya virus and one Zika virus. No autochthonous cases were detected. This report illustrates the increase in requests for arboviral infection diagnosis and confirms the challenge with identifying autochthonous arboviral infection cases in many unspecific febrile syndromes.
[Effectiveness and difficulty of education on nosocomial infection control for pre-clinical practice in the clinic, so-called inclusive clinical practice phase I, for students in the Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University].
Sunakawa, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki
It has been planned to give pre-clinical practice in the clinic, so-called inclusive clinical practice phase I, for fifth-grade students in the School of Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, to give them the clinical training needed to perform dental practice and clinical practicum for comprehensive patient care, namely inclusive clinical practice phase II. This study analyzed the educative efficiency of the class on nosocomial infection control (NIC) by comparing achievements pre- and post-test, and discussed appropriate education planning on the NIC for dental students. Sixty-two fifth-grade students in the 2007 academic year sat the pre- and post-tests; the mean score and standard deviation of these tests were 5.30 +/- 1.26 (n = 56) and 8.59 +/- 1.18 (n = 59), respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between them (paired t-test, p < 0.01). Another finding was that students with high scores in the post-test did not necessarily achieve high ratings in the pre-test. It is suggested that the introduction of pre- and post-tests and the clarification of main points in the class as a theme of NIC could be a useful tool for increasing the comprehension of students on the theme. Since students at lower grades will attend clinical practice in the university hospital, it is thought that students should be given NIC training early in the clinical course, and the current curriculum should be improved to increase the opportunity for students to study this important issue.
Fukui, Daisuke; Bando, Gen; Furuya, Koji; Yamaguchi, Masanori; Nakaoka, Yuji; Kosuge, Masao; Murata, Koichi
An outbreak of encephalitozoonosis occurred in a rabbit colony at a zoo in Japan. Throughout the two years after the onset, all 42 rabbits were investigated clinically, pathologically and serologically for prevention and control of the disease. Eleven rabbits (11/42, 26.2%) showed clinical symptoms. Of 38 rabbits examined to detect specific antibodies against Encephalitozoon cuniculi, 71.1% (n=27) were found seropositive; 20 out of 30 clinically healthy rabbits (except for 8 clinical cases) were seropositive. The infection rate was 76.2% (32/42), including 5 pathologically diagnosed cases. The results of serological survey revealed that asymptomatic infection was widespread, even among clinically healthy rabbits. However, encephalitozoonosis was not found by pathological examination in any other species of animals kept in the same area within the zoo. Isolation and elimination of the rabbits with suspected infection based on the results of serological examination were carried out immediately; however, encephalitozoonosis continued to occur sporadically. Therefore, all the remaining rabbits were finally slaughtered. Then, the facility was closed, and all the equipment was disinfected. After a two-month interval, founder rabbits were introduced from encephalitozoonosis-free rabbitries for new colony formation. Since then, encephalitozoonosis has not been seen in any animals at the zoo. In this study, biosecurity countermeasures including staff education, epidemiological surveillance and application of an "all-out and all-in" system for rabbit colony establishment based on serological examination were successfully accomplished with regard to animal hygiene and public health for the eradication of E. cuniculi.
Meijerink, Hinta; Lamagni, Theresa; Eriksen, Hanne Merete; Elgohari, Suzanne; Harrington, Pauline; Kacelnik, Oliver
OBJECTIVE To assess whether differences in surveillance methods or underlying populations significantly influence internationally reported national SSI rates by comparing surveillance data from 2 countries. DESIGN Retrospective cohort. SETTING England and Norway. METHODS We assessed the population under surveillance and surveillance methodology to compare SSI rates in 2 countries (September 2012-January 2015) for 4 surgical categories: coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), colon surgery, cholecystectomy, and hip prosthesis (HPRO). We compared the inpatient SSI incidence using logistic regression, adjusting for the following known risk factors: sex, age, ASA score, wound class, postoperative hospital days, and operation duration. Subsequently, we restricted further analyses to the procedures reported by both countries. RESULTS There were important differences in case definitions for superficial infection, so we restricted our analyses to deep incisional and organ-space SSIs. For CABG, the crude odds ratio (OR) for England compared to Norway was 2.4 (95% CI, 1.4-4.4), whereas adjusted OR (aOR) lost significance (aOR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.57-2.0). For colon surgery the decreased odds (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.56-0.81) remained significant after adjustment (aOR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.34-0.51). We found no associations for cholecystectomy. For HPRO, the crude OR suggested no significant difference (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.72-2.1), whereas the aOR was significantly lower in England (aOR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.25-0.81). Including only the subset of procedures reported by both countries yielded comparable results. CONCLUSION Differences in case definitions and population under surveillance in the English and Norwegian SSI surveillance systems affected SSI estimates, making the comparison of crude rates unreliable. Standardized definitions and adjustment for established risk factors are essential for European comparisons to guide related public health actions. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:162-171.
Gubbay, JB; Al-Rezqi, A; Hawkes, M; Williams, L; Richardson, SE; Matlow, A
OBJECTIVE: To describe the viral etiology and epidemiology of nosocomial viral gastroenteritis (NVG) at a tertiary care pediatric hospital and identify any changes over the past two decades. METHODS: Retrospective review of all patients with laboratory-confirmed NVG at The Hospital for Sick Children (Toronto, Ontario), from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2005. RESULTS: One hundred forty-two episodes of NVG were found among 133 patients, occurring in 0.48 of 100 admissions. The median age was two years; 42% were <1 year of age and 41% were immunocompromised. The most commonly detected pathogen was torovirus (67% of episodes), followed by rotavirus (19%) and adenovirus (9%). Seventy-five cases (53%) were epidemiologically linked in 32 separate clusters (median cluster size two, range two to four). The NVG rate fell from 0.63 of 100 to 0.22 of 100 admissions after March 2005 (P<0.001) when enhanced infection control precautions were instituted in response to an outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. CONCLUSIONS: Torovirus remains the most commonly identified cause of NVG at The Hospital for Sick Children. Most NVG cases were epidemiologically linked, and a significant reduction in cases occurred after the institution of enhanced infection control practices following an outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. Improved education and surveillance for NVG should lead to further reduction in this problem. PMID:23730313
pharyngeal swabs: 6% human metapneumonia, 2% adeno viruses . 2% parainfluenza 3%, 34% parainfluenza 1, 8% rhino virus , 2% Corona virus OC 43, 2% RSV B and 2...Silvanos Mukunzi, Denis Mwala and David C. Schnabel. Human parainfluenza virus infections in kenya: epidemiologic aspects. Africa Influenza...characterize respiratory viruses causing influenza-like illness in Kenya, determine etiologies of diarrheal illnesses and the antimicrobial resistance patterns
Andonova, Maria; Urumova, Valentina
The present review aims to provide insight into the complex interactions between the host and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-an opportunistic microbial agent causing skin infections. Heat, humidity and skin pH are among the factors beneficial for the development of this Gram-negative agent. To cause infection, Pseudomonas aeruginosa should first overcome the primary mechanisms of defense including the cell elements and humoral factors of the skin, as well as non-specific responses-phagocytosis, inflammation, acute phase response. All they are analysed with emphasis on the fact that their detailed understanding would help revealing their potential and allow for their efficient control. The microorganism, being more alterable and more flexible than the host, uses stealth strategies and modes of life. The review goes over the arsenal of virulence factors, used by Pseudomonas aeruginosa to attack the host defense mechanisms. The bacterial pathogenic strategies for invasion, resulting in collapse of skin defense are analysed. Several novel therapeutic approached to Pseudomonas aeruginosa skin infections are briefly reviewed.
Cardinal, Marta V; Castañera, Mónica B; Lauricella, Marta A; Cecere, María C; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M; Kitron, Uriel; Gürtler, Ricardo E
Domestic dogs were used as natural sentinels to assess prospectively the long-term impact of selective, community-based spraying with pyrethroid insecticides after community-wide spraying on transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in rural villages under surveillance between 1992 and 2002. In 2000 and 2002 light infestations by Triatoma infestans were recorded, and 523 dogs and cats were examined serologically or by xenodiagnosis. The prevalence of T. cruzi infection in dogs decreased from 65% at baseline to 8.9% and 4.7% at 7.5 and 10 years after sustained vector surveillance, respectively. The average annual force of infection dropped 260-fold from 72.7 per 100 dog-years at baseline to <0.3% in 2002, as determined prospectively and retrospectively from the age-prevalence curve of native dogs born during surveillance. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that prevalent cases in dogs in 2000 and 2002 were associated positively and significantly with the peak number of T. infestans caught in domestic areas at the dog's compound during its lifetime. The sustained decline in T. cruzi infections in dogs and cats is the result of selective, community-based insecticide spraying that kept the abundance of infected T. infestans at marginal levels, fast host population turnover, and low immigration rates from areas with active transmission.
Administration Jennifer Bondarenko, Steve Gubenia Composition/Printing Deborah Ford, Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine ISBN...Montano, A. Laguna-Torres, L. Suarez, J. Sanchez, P. Campos , C. Gallardo, C. Mosquera, M. Villafane, N. Aguayo, M.M. Avila, M. Weissenbacher, E. Ramirez, R...Microbiol Infect Dis 54:263-6. 10. Henry , K.M., J. Jiang, P.J. Rozmajzl, A.F. Azad, K.R. Macaluso, and A.L. Richards. 2006. Development of quantitative
Tsoucalas, Gregory; Laios, Konstantinos; Karamanou, Marianna; Sgantzos, Markos; Androutsos, George
Daniel Mollière, was a French anatomist and surgeon, born in Lyon, who succeeded in his short life in making his mark in surgery. He was a prolific writer who left a series of medical treatises and a committed surgeon who was responsible for various significant innovative apparatuses in the medical sper. As he lived in an era when the role of microbe had already been recognized, he was among the first to use antisepsis and install extreme measures against microbes, both in the air and on the skin'. Fountains with fresh clean water, carbonic acid, cross ventilation, medical blouses, combined with Valette's apparatus for the dressing of amputations, were some of his precautions to reduce surgical infections and post-operative mortality.
Tevell, S; Hellmark, B; Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, Å; Söderquist, B
Further knowledge about the clinical and microbiological characteristics of prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) caused by different coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) may facilitate interpretation of microbiological findings and improve treatment algorithms. Staphylococcus capitis is a CoNS with documented potential for both human disease and nosocomial spread. As data on orthopaedic infections are scarce, our aim was to describe the clinical and microbiological characteristics of PJIs caused by S. capitis. This retrospective cohort study included three centres and 21 patients with significant growth of S. capitis during revision surgery for PJI between 2005 and 2014. Clinical data were extracted and further microbiological characterisation of the S. capitis isolates was performed. Multidrug-resistant (≥3 antibiotic groups) S. capitis was detected in 28.6 % of isolates, methicillin resistance in 38.1 % and fluoroquinolone resistance in 14.3 %; no isolates were rifampin-resistant. Heterogeneous glycopeptide-intermediate resistance was detected in 38.1 %. Biofilm-forming ability was common. All episodes were either early post-interventional or chronic, and there were no haematogenous infections. Ten patients experienced monomicrobial infections. Among patients available for evaluation, 86 % of chronic infections and 70 % of early post-interventional infections achieved clinical cure; 90 % of monomicrobial infections remained infection-free. Genetic fingerprinting with repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR; DiversiLab®) displayed clustering of isolates, suggesting that nosocomial spread might be present. Staphylococcus capitis has the potential to cause PJIs, with infection most likely being contracted during surgery or in the early postoperative period. As S. capitis might be an emerging nosocomial pathogen, surveillance of the prevalence of PJIs caused by S. capitis could be recommended.
RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b . ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI...made in 2009 to enhance or establish hospi- tal-based febrile illness surveillance platforms in Azer- baijan, Bolivia, Cambodia, Ecuador , Georgia...Pseudomonas aeruginosa (one), E. coli (one), Salmonella typhi (three), Salmonella paratyphi A (four), leptospirosis (37), hepatitis A virus (four), hepatitis C
Rojas, Jhon J; Ochoa, Veronica J; Ocampo, Saul A; Muñoz, John F
Background The antimicrobial activity and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Bixa orellana L., Cecropia peltata L., Cinchona officinalis L., Gliricidia sepium H.B. & K, Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, Justicia secunda Vahl., Piper pulchrum C.DC, P. paniculata L. and Spilanthes americana Hieron were evaluated against five bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus β hemolític, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli), and one yeast (Candida albicans). These plants are used in Colombian folk medicine to treat infections of microbial origin. Methods Plants were collected by farmers and traditional healers. The ethanol, hexane and water extracts were obtained by standard methods. The antimicrobial activity was found by using a modified agar well diffusion method. All microorganisms were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). MIC was determined in the plant extracts that showed some efficacy against the tested microorganisms. Gentamycin sulfate (1.0 μg/ml), clindamycin (0.3 μg/ml) and nystatin (1.0 μg/ml) were used as positive controls. Results The water extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed a higher activity against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli than gentamycin sulfate. Similarly, the ethanol extracts of all species were active against Staphylococcus aureus except for Justicia secunda. Furthermore, Bixa orellana L, Justicia secunda Vahl. and Piper pulchrum C.DC presented the lowest MICs against Escherichia coli (0.8, 0.6 and 0.6 μg/ml, respectively) compared to gentamycin sulfate (0.9 8g/ml). Likewise, Justicia secunda and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed an analogous MIC against Candida albicans (0.5 and 0.6 μg/ml, respectively) compared to nystatin (0.6 μg/ml). Bixa orellana L, exhibited a better MIC against Bacillus cereus (0.2 μg/ml) than gentamycin sulfate (0.5 μg/ml). Conclusion This in vitro study corroborated the
Background A prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) was previously performed in the Piemonte region in 2000. In the decade following the survey, many studies were performed at both the regional and hospital levels, and training courses were developed to address issues highlighted by the survey. In 2010, a second regional prevalence study was performed. The aim of this paper is to present the results of the second prevalence study and discuss them within the context of the HAI prevention and control programmes that have been implemented in the decade since the original survey was conducted. Methods The study involved all public hospitals in the Piemonte region. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the main risk factors associated with HAIs, including both overall and site-specific infections. Results A total of 7841 patients were enrolled: 6.8% were affected by at least one HAI. The highest prevalence of HAIs was found in intensive care units (18.0%, 95% CI 14.0-22.6), while UTIs presented the highest relative frequency (26.7%), followed by respiratory tract infections (21.9%). The age of the patient, hospital size and urinary and central venous catheter status were significantly associated with HAIs. Conclusions The study results showed an increase in HAI prevalence, despite prevention and control efforts, as well as training implemented after the first regional survey. Nevertheless, these data are consistent with the current literature. Furthermore, despite its limits, the prevalence approach remains an important means for involving healthcare workers, emphasising HAIs and revealing critical problems that need be addressed. PMID:24899239
Sahagún Pareja, J; Castillo, F J; Andrés, R; Capilla, S; Mayordomo, J I; Pitart, C; Tres, A
The evolution of the flora and its resistance to different antimicrobials in neutropenic patients submitted to high-dose chemotherapy with autologous blood stem-cell transplantation, and the relation of these findings to the etiology of the infections the patients developed was studied in order to evaluate the suitability of the chemoprophylaxis and the empirical antibiotic therapy used. Forty-one patients were analyzed in a period of 28 months. The chemoprophylaxis used was levofloxacin, fluconazole and acyclovir. The empirical sequential treatment was an initial administration of cefepime, followed by teicoplanin and amikacin. Cultures were done of nasal and pharyngeal smears, Hickman catheter and stools, 1 day before chemoprophylaxis started and then on days 5 and 9. In the case of fever, three sets of blood cultures and urine cultures were done and samples from areas related to the clinical condition were analyzed. Levofloxacin induced the selection of resistant strains or species in the flora and in the infectious agents. Fluconazole also selected resistant species in the flora. Seventeen infections were documented in eleven patients, produced by Gram-positive bacteria in thirteen cases (81.25%) and by Gram-negative bacteria in three (18.75%). The coagulase negative staphylococci and Enterococcus faecalis were the most frequent agents of infection. We identified on nine occasions the same microorganism in the flora and in the pathological product; this suggests its endogenous origin and supports the use of prospective cultures of the flora, monitoring the sensibility of the microorganisms isolated to the antimicrobials used in chemoprophylaxis and empirical treatment.
Patyi, Márta; Sejben, István; Cserni, Gábor; Sántha, Beáta; Gaál, Zoltán; Pongrácz, Júlia; Oberna, Ferenc
In polymorbid or anaemic patients who receive preoperative radiotherapy or undergo long duration surgery involving potentially infectious sites, perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP) that is effective against normal oral bacterial flora is mandatory and plays an important role in preventing postoperative infection. In a four-year retrospective analysis, the incidence, outcome, and the efficacy of PAP were evaluated in patients treated at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Otorhinolaryngology at Kecskemét Hospital. The results were compared with data from the literature to determine if the use of PAP was adequate at the Department.During the study period (between 01/09/2007 and 31/01/2011) 108 patients were evaluated. The mean duration of prophylactic antibiotic treatment was 8.3 ± 5.2 days, with cefotaxime+metronidazole being the most commonly used combination. Surgical site infection occurred in 8 patients (7.5%) in the clean-contaminated category.Our results showed that the perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis administered at our Department was efficient and effective against the oral bacterial flora of patients. Its use is recommended in head and neck microsurgery. To avoid development of antibiotic resistance and to reduce costs, it seems that the duration of antibiotic regimen for primary surgery can be reduced from 8.3 ± 5.2 days to 3 days.
Lledó, Lourdes; Gegúndez, María Isabel; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Álamo, Rufino; Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Nuncio, María Sofia; Saz, José Vicente
This paper reports a 17-year seroepidemiological surveillance study of Borrelia burgdorferi infection, performed with the aim of improving our knowledge of the epidemiology of this pathogen. Serum samples (1,179) from patients (623, stratified with respect to age, sex, season, area of residence and occupation) bitten by ticks in two regions of northern Spain were IFA-tested for B. burgdorferi antibodies. Positive results were confirmed by western blotting. Antibodies specific for B. burgdorferi were found in 13.3% of the patients; 7.8% were IgM positive, 9.6% were IgG positive, and 4.33% were both IgM and IgG positive. Five species of ticks were identified in the seropositive patients: Dermacentor marginatus (41.17% of such patients) Dermacentor reticulatus (11.76%), Rhiphicephalus sanguineus (17.64%), Rhiphicephalus turanicus (5.88%) and Ixodes ricinus (23.52%). B. burgdorferi DNA was sought by PCR in ticks when available. One tick, a D. reticulatus male, was found carrying the pathogen. The seroprevalence found was similar to the previously demonstrated in similar studies in Spain and other European countries.
Lledó, Lourdes; Gegúndez, María Isabel; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Álamo, Rufino; Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Nuncio, María Sofia; Saz, José Vicente
This paper reports a 17-year seroepidemiological surveillance study of Borrelia burgdorferi infection, performed with the aim of improving our knowledge of the epidemiology of this pathogen. Serum samples (1,179) from patients (623, stratified with respect to age, sex, season, area of residence and occupation) bitten by ticks in two regions of northern Spain were IFA-tested for B. burgdorferi antibodies. Positive results were confirmed by western blotting. Antibodies specific for B. burgdorferi were found in 13.3% of the patients; 7.8% were IgM positive, 9.6% were IgG positive, and 4.33% were both IgM and IgG positive. Five species of ticks were identified in the seropositive patients: Dermacentor marginatus (41.17% of such patients) Dermacentor reticulatus (11.76%), Rhiphicephalus sanguineus (17.64%), Rhiphicephalus turanicus (5.88%) and Ixodes ricinus (23.52%). B. burgdorferi DNA was sought by PCR in ticks when available. One tick, a D. reticulatus male, was found carrying the pathogen. The seroprevalence found was similar to the previously demonstrated in similar studies in Spain and other European countries. PMID:24487455
Boffin, N; Moreels, S; Deblonde, J; Van Casteren, V
Objectives To describe and explore data from the surveillance of chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhoea and genital warts by the Belgian Network of Sentinel General Practices (SGP) over the first 2 years (2013 and 2014) and to estimate the incidence of these 4 sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A special focus is put on data quality. Design Retrospective observational study. Setting General practices from the nationwide representative SGP network. Outcome measures Agreement between data distributions by year, agreement between SGP-based incidence and incidence based on mandatory notification, missingness of patient age or gender and incompleteness of sexual risk history of patients. Results 306 new STI episodes were reported from 298 patients, corresponding with an episode-based incidence of 91.9/100 000 (95% CI 81.9 to 102.8) general practice patients, with almost half of it due to chlamydia. The incidence of chlamydia in men was significantly higher in 2014 than in 2013. Population characteristics were similarly distributed in 2013 and 2014. The SGP-based incidence of gonorrhoea and syphilis in Flanders were in agreement with the incidence based on mandatory notification of cases. Patient age or gender was missing from 35 episodes (11.4%). Independent determinants of missingness of patient age or gender were the Flemish region (OR 3.46; 95% CI 1.02 to 11.73) and genital warts infection (OR 2.23; 95% CI 1.07 to 4.63). An incomplete sexual risk history was reported for 54.6% STI episodes. The odds for an incomplete sexual history were higher for older patients (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.76) and for patients infected with syphilis, gonorrhoea or co-infection(s) (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.83). Conclusions Incompleteness of reports about patients with STI sexual risk histories is important from the perspective of quality of data and of quality of care. Together with the low rates of both HIV testing and discussion of partner notification, this suggests that a
Drobeniuc, Jan; Greene-Montfort, Tracy; Le, Ngoc-Thao; Mixson-Hayden, Tonya R; Ganova-Raeva, Lilia; Dong, Chen; Novak, Ryan T; Sharapov, Umid M; Tohme, Rania A; Teshale, Eyasu; Kamili, Saleem; Teo, Chong-Gee
To investigate characteristics of hepatitis E cases in the United States, we tested samples from persons seronegative for acute hepatitis A and B whose clinical specimens were referred to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention during June 2005-March 2012 for hepatitis E virus (HEV) testing. We found that 26 (17%) of 154 persons tested had hepatitis E. Of these, 15 had not recently traveled abroad (nontravelers), and 11 had (travelers). Compared with travelers, nontravelers were older (median 61 vs. 32 years of age) and more likely to be anicteric (53% vs. 8%); the nontraveler group also had fewer persons of South Asian ethnicity (7% vs. 73%) and more solid-organ transplant recipients (47% vs. 0). HEV genotype 3 was characterized from 8 nontravelers and genotypes 1 or 4 from 4 travelers. Clinicians should consider HEV infection in the differential diagnosis of hepatitis, regardless of patient travel history.
Buetti, N; Atkinson, A; Kottanattu, L; Bielicki, J; Marschall, J; Kronenberg, A
We characterize the epidemiology of pediatric bloodstream infections (BSIs) in Switzerland. We analyzed pathogen distribution and resistance patterns in monomicrobial and polymicrobial BSIs in children from 2008 to 2014 using data from the Swiss antibiotic resistance centre (ANRESIS). A confirmatory statistical analysis was performed comparing pathogens and resistance across 20 acute care hospitals. We identified 3,067 bacteremia episodes, of which 1,823 (59 %) were considered true BSI episodes. Overall, S. aureus (16.5 %, 300) was the most frequent pathogen, followed by E. coli (15.1 %, 276), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS, 12.9 %, 235), S. pneumoniae (11.1 %, 202) and non-E. coli Enterobacteriaceae (8.7 %, 159). S. aureus and E. coli showed similar frequencies in all of the variables analyzed (e.g., hospital acquisition, hospital type, medical specialty). The proportion of these microorganisms did not change over time, resistance rates remained low (4.3 % methicillin resistance in S. aureus; 7.3 % third-/fourth-generation cephalosporin resistance in E. coli), and no significant resistance trends were observed. We observed a 50 % increase of CoNS BSIs from 2008 (9.8 %, 27) to 2014 (15.2 %, 46, p value for trend = 0.03). S. pneumoniae decreased from 17.5 % (48) to 6.6 % (20) during that timeframe (p for trend = 0.007). S. aureus and E. coli remained the most significant pathogens among pediatric BSIs in Switzerland, exhibiting low resistance rates. CoNS accounted for a greater proportion of BSIs over time. The decrease in bacteremic pneumococcal infections can likely be attributed to the introduction of the 13-valent conjugate vaccine in 2011.
Hospital-acquired infections occur at an alarmingly high frequency, possibly affecting as many as 1 in 10 patients, resulting in a staggering morbidity and an annual mortality of many tens of thousands of patients. Appropriate hand hygiene is highly effective and represents the simplest approach that we have to preventing nosocomial infections. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality has targeted hand-washing compliance as a top research agenda item for patient safety. Recent research has identified inadequate hand washing and contaminated anesthesia workstation issues as likely contributors to nosocomial infections, finding aseptic practices highly variable among providers. It is vital that all healthcare providers, including anesthesia providers, appreciate the role of inadequate hand hygiene in nosocomial infection and meticulously follow the mandates of the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists and other professional healthcare organizations.
Background The application of serological methods in HIV/AIDS routine surveillance systems to identify persons with recently acquired HIV infection has been proposed as a tool which may provide an accurate description of the current transmission patterns of HIV. Using the information about recent infection it is possible to estimate HIV incidence, according to the model proposed by Karon et al. in 2008, that accounts for the effect of testing practices on the number of persons detected as recently infected. Methods We used data from HIV/AIDS surveillance in the period 2004-2008 to identify newly diagnosed persons. These were classified with recent/non-recent infection on the basis of an avidity index result, or laboratory evidence of recently acquired infection (i.e., previous documented negative HIV test within 6 months; or presence of HIV RNA or p24 antigen with simultaneous negative/indeterminate HIV antibody test). Multiple imputation was used to impute missing information. The incidence estimate was obtained as the number of persons detected as recently infected divided by the estimated probability of detection. Estimates were stratified by calendar year, transmission category, gender and nationality. Results During the period considered 3,633 new HIV diagnoses were reported to the regional surveillance system. Applying the model, we estimated that in 2004-2008 there were 5,465 new infections (95%CI: 4,538-6,461); stratifying by transmission category, the estimated number of infections was 2,599 among heterosexual contacts, 2,208 among men-who-have-sex-with-men, and 763 among injecting-drug-users. In 2008 there were 952 (625-1,229) new HIV infections (incidence of 19.9 per 100,000 person-years). In 2008, for men-who-have-sex-with-men (691 per 100,000 person-years) and injecting drug users (577 per 100,000 person-years) the incidence remained comparatively high with respect to the general population, although a decreasing pattern during 2004-2008 was observed
Behzadi, Payam; Behzadi, Elham
Introduction Urinary tract candidiasis is known as the most frequent nosocomial fungal infection worldwide. Candida albicans is the most common cause of nosocomial fungal urinary tract infections; however, a rapid change in the distribution of Candida species is undergoing. Simultaneously, the increase of urinary tract candidiasis has led to the appearance of antifungal resistant Candida species. In this review, we have an in depth look into Candida albicans uropathogenesis and distribution of the three most frequent Candida species contributing to urinary tract candidiasis in different countries around the world. Material and methods For writing this review, Google Scholar –a scholarly search engine– (http://scholar.google.com/) and PubMed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) were used. The most recently published original articles and reviews of literature relating to the first three Candida species causing urinary tract infections in different countries and the pathogenicity of Candida albicans were selected and studied. Results Although some studies show rapid changes in the uropathogenesis of Candida species causing urinary tract infections in some countries, Candida albicans is still the most important cause of candidal urinary tract infections. Conclusions Despite the ranking of Candida albicans as the dominant species for urinary tract candidiasis, specific changes have occurred in some countries. At this time, it is important to continue the surveillance related to Candida species causing urinary tract infections to prevent, control and treat urinary tract candidiasis in future. PMID:25914847
Introduction The preventive impact of hospital-acquired infection (HAI) surveillance is difficult to assess. Our objective was to investigate the effect of HAI surveillance disruption on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) incidence. Methods A quasi-experimental study with an intervention group and a control group was conducted between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2010 in two intensive care units (ICUs) of a university hospital that participated in a national HAI surveillance network. Surveillance was interrupted during the year 2007 in unit A (intervention group) and was continuous in unit B (control group). Period 1 (pre-test period) comprised patients hospitalized during 2004 to 2006, and period 2 (post-test period) involved patients hospitalized during 2008 to 2010. Patients hospitalized ≥48 hours and intubated during their stay were included. Multivariate Poisson regression was fitted to ascertain the influence of surveillance disruption. Results A total of 2,771 patients, accounting for 19,848 intubation-days at risk, were studied; 307 had VAP. The VAP attack rate increased in unit A from 7.8% during period 1 to 17.1% during period 2 (P <0.001); in unit B, it was 7.2% and 11.2% for the two periods respectively (P = 0.17). Adjusted VAP incidence rose in unit A after surveillance disruption (incidence rate ratio = 2.17, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 4.47, P = 0.036), independently of VAP trend; no change was observed in unit B. All-cause mortality and length of stay increased (P = 0.028 and P = 0.038, respectively) in unit A between periods 1 and 2. In unit B, no change in mortality was observed (P = 0.22), while length of stay decreased between periods 1 and 2 (P = 0.002). Conclusions VAP incidence, length of stay and all-cause mortality rose after HAI surveillance disruption in ICU, which suggests a specific effect of HAI surveillance on VAP prevention and reinforces the role of data feedback and counselling as a mechanism to facilitate performance
Ip, Dennis KM; Liao, Qiaohong; Wu, Peng; Gao, Zhancheng; Cao, Bin; Feng, Luzhao; Xu, Xiaoling; Jiang, Hui; Li, Ming; Bao, Jing; Zheng, Jiandong; Zhang, Qian; Chang, Zhaorui; Li, Yu; Liu, Fengfeng; Ni, Michael Y; Wu, Joseph T; Cowling, Benjamin J; Yang, Weizhong
Objective To characterise the complete case series of influenza A/H7N9 infections as of 27 May 2013, detected by China’s national sentinel surveillance system for influenza-like illness. Design Case series. Setting Outpatient clinics and emergency departments of 554 sentinel hospitals across 31 provinces in mainland China. Cases Infected individuals were identified through cross-referencing people who had laboratory confirmed A/H7N9 infection with people detected by the sentinel surveillance system for influenza-like illness, where patients meeting the World Health Organization’s definition of influenza-like illness undergo weekly surveillance, and 10-15 nasopharyngeal swabs are collected each week from a subset of patients with influenza-like illness in each hospital for virological testing. We extracted relevant epidemiological data from public health investigations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at the local, provincial, and national level; and clinical and laboratory data from chart review. Main outcome measure Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory profiles of the case series. Results Of 130 people with laboratory confirmed A/H7N9 infection as of 27 May 2013, five (4%) were detected through the sentinel surveillance system for influenza-like illness. Mean age was 13 years (range 2-26), and none had any underlying medical conditions. Exposure history, geographical location, and timing of symptom onset of these five patients were otherwise similar to the general cohort of laboratory confirmed cases so far. Only two of the five patients needed hospitalisation, and all five had mild or moderate disease with an uneventful course of recovery. Conclusion Our findings support the existence of a “clinical iceberg” phenomenon in influenza A/H7N9 infections, and reinforce the need for vigilance to the diverse presentation that can be associated with A/H7N9 infection. At the public health level, indirect evidence suggests a substantial
Austin, Daren J.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Weinstein, Robert A.; Slaughter, Sarah; Anderson, Roy M.
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) recently have emerged as a nosocomial pathogen especially in intensive-care units (ICUs) worldwide. Transmission via the hands of health-care workers is an important determinant of spread and persistence in a VRE-endemic ICU. We describe the transmission of nosocomial pathogens by using a micro-epidemiological framework based on the transmission dynamics of vector-borne diseases. By using the concept of a basic reproductive number, R0, defined as the average number of secondary cases generated by one primary case, we show quantitatively how infection control measures such as hand washing, cohorting, and antibiotic restriction affect nosocomial cross-transmission. By using detailed molecular epidemiological surveillance and compliance monitoring, we found that the estimated basic reproductive number for VRE during a study at the Cook County Hospital, Chicago, was approximately 3–4 without infection control and 0.7 when infection control measures were included. The impact of infection control was to reduce the prevalence from a predicted 79% to an observed 36%. Hand washing and staff cohorting are the most powerful control measures although their efficacy depends on the magnitude of R0. Under the circumstances tested, endemicity of VRE was stabilized despite infection control measures, by the constant introduction of colonized patients. Multiple stochastic simulations of the model revealed excellent agreement with observed pattern. In conjunction with detailed microbiological surveillance, a mathematical framework provides a precise template to describe the colonization dynamics of VRE in ICUs and impact of infection control measures. Our analyses suggest that compliance for hand washing significantly in excess of reported levels, or the cohorting of nursing staff, are needed to prevent nosocomial transmission of VRE in endemic settings. PMID:10359812
Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Hamasuna, Ryoichi; Uehara, Shinya; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Shingo; Hayami, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Minamitani, Shinichi; Kadota, Jun-ichi; Iwata, Satoshi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Watanabe, Akira; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Sato, Junko; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Egawa, Shin; Deguchi, Takashi; Matsumoto, Minori; Tanaka, Kazushi; Arakawa, Soichi; Fujisawa, Masato; Kumon, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Kanao; Matsubara, Akio; Wakeda, Hironobu; Amemoto, Yoshinosuke; Onodera, Shoichi; Goto, Hirokazu; Komeda, Hisao; Yamashita, Masuo; Takenaka, Tadasu; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Tsugawa, Masaya; Takahashi, Yoshito; Maeda, Hiroshi; Onishi, Hiroyuki; Ishitoya, Satoshi; Nishimura, Kazuo; Mitsumori, Kenji; Ito, Toru; Togo, Yoshikazu; Nakamura, Ichiro; Ito, Noriyuki; Kanamaru, Sojun; Hirose, Takaoki; Muranaka, Takashi; Yamada, Daisuke; Ishihara, Satoshi; Oka, Hiroya; Inatomi, Hisato; Matsui, Takashi; Kobuke, Makoto; Kunishima, Yasuharu; Kimura, Takahiro; Ichikawa, Takaharu; Kagara, Ichiro; Matsukawa, Masanori; Takahashi, Koichi; Mita, Koji; Kato, Masao; Okumura, Kazuhiro; Kawanishi, Hiroaki; Hashimura, Takayuki; Aoyama, Teruyoshi; Shigeta, Masanobu; Koda, Shuntaro; Taguchi, Keisuke; Matsuda, Yohei
To investigate antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of various bacterial pathogens isolated from complicated urinary tract infection (UTI) cases, the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, the Japanese Association of Infectious Disease, and the Japanese Society of Clinical Microbiology conducted the second nationwide surveillance from January to September 2011. With the cooperation of 42 medical institutions throughout Japan, 1036 strains belonging to 8 clinically relevant bacterial species were collected. Among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain, the vancomycin (VCM) MIC for 5.5% (3/55) of the strains was 2 μg/mL. Ampicillin, VCM, and linezolid were relatively active against 209 Enterococcus faecalis strains. The proportion of fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant strains was >20%. The MIC90 of FQs against the 382 Escherichia coli strains was 2-64 mg/L and the proportion resistant to FQs was approximately 30%. However, susceptibility of E. coli to sitafloxacin was still high (MIC90 = 2 mg/L). Fifty-eight (15.2%) of 382 E. coli, 6 (4.5%) of 132 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1 (2.4%) of 41 Klebsiella oxytoca and 4 (6.8%) of 59 Proteus mirabilis strains were suspected of producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. Of 93 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, the proportions resistant to imipenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin were 21.5%, 4.3%, and 20.4%, respectively. Four strains (4.3%) were found to be multidrug-resistant. In complicated UTI cases, all of MRSA and E. faecalis were susceptible to all anti-MRSA agents. Sitafloxacin was active against other FQ-resistant E. coli strains. The isolation of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing and multidrug-resistant strains increased.
Boyce, J M; Opal, S M; Potter-Bynoe, G; LaForge, R G; Zervos, M J; Furtado, G; Victor, G; Medeiros, A A
Between 1986 and 1988, the incidence of ampicillin-resistant enterococci increased sevenfold at a university-affiliated hospital. Forty-three patients acquired nosocomial infections with ampicillin-resistant enterococci, most of which were also resistant to mezlocillin, piperacillin, and imipenem. An analysis of plasmid and chromosomal DNAs of isolates revealed that the increase was due to an epidemic of 19 nosocomial infections that yielded closely related strains of Enterococcus faecium and to a significant increase in the incidence of nonepidemic, largely unrelated strains of ampicillin-resistant enterococci. The nonepidemic strains were identified as E. faecium, E. raffinosus, E. durans, and E. gallinarum. A logistic regression analysis revealed that patients with nonepidemic resistant strains were 16 times more likely than controls to have received preceding therapy with imipenem. In our institution, the increase in the incidence of ampicillin-resistant enterococci appears to be due to the selection of various strains of resistant enterococci by the use of imipenem and to the nosocomial transmission of E. faecium and E. raffinosus. Images PMID:1510390
Heitman, Kristen Nichols; Dahlgren, F. Scott; Drexler, Naomi A.; Massung, Robert F.; Behravesh, Casey Barton
Human ehrlichiosis is a potentially fatal disease caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii. Cases of ehrlichiosis are reported to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through two national surveillance systems: Nationally Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) and Case Report Forms. During 2008–2012, 4,613 cases of E. chaffeensis infections were reported through NNDSS. The incidence rate (IR) was 3.2 cases per million person-years (PYs). The hospitalization rate (HR) was 57% and the case fatality rate (CFR) was 1%. Children aged < 5 years had the highest CFR of 4%. During 2008–2012, 55 cases of E. ewingii infection were reported through NNDSS. The national IR was 0.04 cases per million PY. The HR was 77%; no deaths were reported. Immunosuppressive conditions were reported by 26% of cases. The overall rate for ehrlichiosis has increased 4-fold since 2000. Although previous literature suggests E. ewingii primarily affects those who are immunocompromised, this report shows most cases occurred among immunocompetent patients. This is the first report to show children aged < 5 years with ehrlichiosis have an increased CFR, relative to older patients. Ongoing surveillance and reporting of tick-borne diseases are critical to inform public health practice and guide disease treatment and prevention efforts. PMID:26621561
Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Polanco-González, Carlos; Samaniego-Mendoza, José Lino; Buhse, Thomas
Las infecciones nosocomiales presentan un gran reto para la medicina hospitalaria, en general, y para las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos, en particular. Su elevada prevalencia, la gran morbilidad y mortalidad asociadas, el incremento de la estancia hospitalaria y, en consecuencia, los costos de la atención médica han hecho que los programas de vigilancia, control y prevención de infecciones nosocomiales sean una parte toral de los protocolos de seguridad para el paciente y un indicador de calidad de la atención médica.
Higdon, Melissa; Kaewpan, Anek; Makprasert, Sirirat; Yuenprakhon, Somkhit; Tawisaid, Kittisak; Dejsirilert, Surang; Whistler, Toni; Baggett, Henry C.
Community-acquired bloodstream infections cause substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, but microbiology capacity and surveillance limitations have challenged good descriptions of pathogen distribution in many regions, including Southeast Asia. Active surveillance for bloodstream infections has been conducted in two rural Thailand provinces for >7 years. Blood specimens were divided into two culture bottles, one optimized for aerobic growth (F bottle) and a second for enhanced growth of mycobacteria (MB bottle), and processed with the BactT/Alert 3D system. Because the routine use of MB culture bottles is resource intensive (expensive and requires prolonged incubation), we assessed the added yield of MB bottles by comparing the proportion of pathogens detected by MB versus that by F bottles from 2005 to 2012. Of 63,066 blood cultures, 7,296 (12%) were positive for at least one pathogen; the most common pathogens were Escherichia coli (28%), Burkholderia pseudomallei (11%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (9%), and Staphylococcus aureus (6%). Two bottles improved the yield overall, but the added yield attributable to the MB bottles was limited to a few pathogens. In addition to the detection of mycobacteria and some fungi, MB bottles improved the detection of B. pseudomallei (27% [MB] versus 8% [F]; P < 0.0001), with added benefit if therapy was initiated prior to the blood culture. The targeted use of MB bottles is warranted for patients at risk for mycobacterial and fungal infections and for infection with B. pseudomallei, a common cause of septicemia in Thailand. PMID:25588650
Maleki Ravasan, Naseh; Shayeghi, Mansoureh; Najibi, Babak; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali
Myiasis, the invasion of live human tissue by larva of Diptera, is reported in the nasal cavity of a 5.5-year-old Iranian girl. She was referred from Golestan Province to the Shaheed Rajaei Heart Center in Tehran. In the 41th day after admission, a live parasite was found in her nasal secretions suction identified presumably as a second instar larvae of a facultative myiasis, Woholfartia nuba (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), on the basis of mtDNA-COI and morphological characteristics. Since presence of the larva was recorded after hospitalization, by definition, this infestation is considered a nosocomial myiasis. PMID:23378974
Rees, J R; Pinner, R W; Hajjeh, R A; Brandt, M E; Reingold, A L
Population-based active laboratory surveillance for invasive mycotic infections was conducted during 1992 and 1993 in three California counties: Alameda, Contra Costa, and San Francisco (population, 2.94 million). The cumulative incidence of invasive mycotic infections was 178.3 per million per year. Invasive mycoses were most commonly caused by Candida (72.8 per million per year), Cryptococcus (65.5), Coccidioides (15.3), Aspergillus (12.4), and Histoplasma (7.1). The clinical significance of other, less common fungi was determined by detailed chart review. The cumulative incidence was determined for zygomycosis (1.7 per million per year), hyalohyphomycosis (1.2), and phaeohyphomycosis (1.0). The most common underlying conditions were human immunodeficiency virus infection (47.4%), nonhematologic malignancy (14.7%), diabetes mellitus (9.9%), and chronic lung disease (9.3%). This represents the first population-based epidemiological assessment of invasive mycoses in the United States.
Heisey, Dennis M.; Jennelle, Christopher S.; Russell, Robin E.; Walsh, Daniel P.
There are numerous situations in which it is important to determine whether a particular disease of interest is present in a free-ranging wildlife population. However adequate disease surveillance can be labor-intensive and expensive and thus there is substantial motivation to conduct it as efficiently as possible. Surveillance is often based on the assumption of a simple random sample, but this can almost always be improved upon if there is auxiliary information available about disease risk factors. We present a Bayesian approach to disease surveillance when auxiliary risk information is available which will usually allow for substantial improvements over simple random sampling. Others have employed risk weights in surveillance, but this can result in overly optimistic statements regarding freedom from disease due to not accounting for the uncertainty in the auxiliary information; our approach remedies this. We compare our Bayesian approach to a published example of risk weights applied to chronic wasting disease in deer in Colorado, and we also present calculations to examine when uncertainty in the auxiliary information has a serious impact on the risk weights approach. Our approach allows “apples-to-apples” comparisons of surveillance efficiencies between units where heterogeneous samples were collected
Savage, E J; Mohammed, H; Leong, G; Duffell, S; Hughes, G
A new electronic surveillance system for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was introduced in England in 2009. The genitourinary medicine clinic activity dataset (GUMCAD) is a mandatory, disaggregated, pseudo-anonymised data return submitted by all STI clinics across England. The dataset includes information on all STI diagnoses made and services provided alongside demographic characteristics for every patient attendance at a clinic. The new system enables the timely analysis and publication of routine STI data, detailed analyses of risk groups and longitudinal analyses of clinic attendees. The system offers flexibility so new codes can be introduced to help monitor outbreaks or unusual STI activity. From January 2009 to December 2013 inclusive, over twenty-five million records from a total of 6,668,648 patients of STI clinics have been submitted. This article describes the successful implementation of this new surveillance system and the types of epidemiological outputs and analyses that GUMCAD enables. The challenges faced are discussed and forthcoming developments in STI surveillance in England are described.
Wilson, Mark L.; Wilkins, Melinda J.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Boulton, Matthew L.
Objectives. We compared 3 methods for classifying methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections as health care associated or community associated for use in public health surveillance. Methods. We analyzed data on MRSA infections reported to the Michigan Department of Community Health from October 1, 2004, to December 31, 2005. Patient demographics, risk factors, infection information, and susceptibility were collected for 2151 cases. We classified each case by the health care risk factor, infection-type, and susceptibility pattern methods and compared the results of the 3 methods. Results. Demographic, clinical, and microbiological variables yielded similar health care–associated and community-associated distributions when classified by risk factor and infection type. When 2 methods yielded the same classifications, the overall distribution was similar to classification by 3 methods. No specific combination of 2 methods was superior. Conclusions. MRSA categorization by 2 methods is more accurate than it is by a single method. The health care risk factor and infection-type methods yield comparable classification results. Accuracy is increased by using more variables; however, further research is needed to identify the optimal combination. PMID:20634456
Background Availability of a patient data management system (PDMS) has created the opportunity to develop trigger-based electronic surveillance systems (ESSs). The aim was to evaluate a semi-automated trigger-based ESS for the detection of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSIs) in the intensive care. Methods Prospective comparison of surveillance was based on a semi-automated ESS with and without trigger. Components of the VAP/CLABSI definition served as triggers. These included the use of VAP/CLABSI-related antibiotics, the presence of mechanical ventilation or an intravenous central line, and the presence of specific clinical symptoms. Triggers were automatically fired by the PDMS. Chest X-rays and microbiology culture results were checked only on patient days with a positive trigger signal from the ESS. In traditional screening, no triggers were used; therefore, chest X-rays and culture results had to be screened for all patient days of all included patients. Patients with pneumonia at admission were excluded. Results A total of 553 patients were screened for VAP and CLABSI. The incidence of VAP was 3.3/1,000 ventilation days (13 VAP/3,927 mechanical ventilation days), and the incidence of CLABSI was 1.7/1,000 central line days (24 CLABSI/13.887 central line days). For VAP, the trigger-based screening had a sensitivity of 92.3%, a specificity of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 99.8% compared to traditional screening of all patients. For CLABSI, sensitivity was 91.3%, specificity 100%, and negative predictive value 99.6%. Conclusions Pre-selection of patients to be checked for signs and symptoms of VAP and CLABSI by a computer-generated automated trigger system was time saving but slightly less accurate than conventional surveillance. However, this after-the-fact surveillance was mainly designed as a quality indicator over time rather than for precise determination of infection rates. Therefore
Central Line–Associated Infections as Defined by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ Hospital-Acquired Condition versus Standard Infection Control Surveillance: Why Hospital Compare Seems Conflicted
Moehring, Rebekah W.; Staheli, Russell; Miller, Becky A.; Chen, Luke Francis; Sexton, Daniel John; Anderson, Deverick John
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the concordance of case-finding methods for central line–associated infection as defined by Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) hospital-acquired condition (HAC) compared with traditional infection control (IC) methods. SETTING One tertiary care and 2 community hospitals in North Carolina. PATIENTS Adult and pediatric hospitalized patients determined to have central line infection by either case-finding method. METHODS We performed a retrospective comparative analysis of infection detected using HAC versus standard IC central line–associated bloodstream infection surveillance from October 1, 2007, through December 31, 2009. One billing and 2 IC databases were queried and matched to determine the number and concordance of cases identified by each method. Manual review of 25 cases from each discordant category was performed. Sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated using IC as criterion standard. RESULTS A total of 1,505 cases were identified: 844 by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9), and 798 by IC. A total of 204 cases (24%) identified by ICD-9 were deemed not present at hospital admission by coders. Only 112 cases (13%) were concordant. HAC sensitivity was 14% and PPV was 55% compared with IC. Concordance was low regardless of hospital type. Primary reasons for discordance included differences in surveillance and clinical definitions, clinical uncertainty, and poor documentation. CONCLUSIONS The case-finding method used by CMS HAC and the methods used for traditional IC surveillance frequently do not agree. This can lead to conflicting results when these 2 measures are used as hospital quality metrics. PMID:23388357
Cleton, N B; van Maanen, K; Bergervoet, S A; Bon, N; Beck, C; Godeke, G-J; Lecollinet, S; Bowen, R; Lelli, D; Nowotny, N; Koopmans, M P G; Reusken, C B E M
The genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae includes some of the most important examples of emerging zoonotic arboviruses that are rapidly spreading across the globe. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are mosquito-borne members of the JEV serological group. Although most infections in humans are asymptomatic or present with mild flu-like symptoms, clinical manifestations of JEV, WNV, SLEV, USUV and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) can include severe neurological disease and death. In horses, infection with WNV and JEV can lead to severe neurological disease and death, while USUV, SLEV and TBEV infections are mainly asymptomatic, however, and induce antibody responses. Horses often serve as sentinels to monitor active virus circulation in serological surveillance programmes specifically for WNV, USUV and JEV. Here, we developed and validated a NS1-antigen protein microarray for the serological differential diagnosis of flavivirus infections in horses using sera of experimentally and naturally infected symptomatic as well as asymptomatic horses. Using samples from experimentally infected horses, an IgG and IgM specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 95% for WNV and 100% for JEV was achieved with a cut-off titre of 1 : 20 based on ROC calculation. In field settings, the microarray identified 93-100% of IgG-positive horses with recent WNV infections and 87% of TBEV IgG-positive horses. WNV IgM sensitivity was 80%. Differentiation between closely related flaviviruses by the NS1-antigen protein microarray is possible, even though we identified some instances of cross-reactivity among antibodies. However, the assay is not able to differentiate between naturally infected horses and animals vaccinated with an inactivated WNV whole-virus vaccine. We showed that the NS1-microarray can potentially be used for diagnosing and distinguishing flavivirus infections in horses and for public
Biellik, R. J.; Clements, C. J.
As a result of the highly contagious nature of measles before the onset of rash, nosocomial transmission will remain a threat until the disease is eradicated. However, a number of strategies can minimize its nosocomial spread. It is therefore vital to maximize awareness among health care staff that an individual with measles can enter a health facility at any time and that a continual risk of the nosocomial transmission of measles exists. The present review makes two groups of recommendations: those which are generally applicable to all countries, and certain additional recommendations which may be suitable only for industrialized countries. PMID:9342896
le Sage, François Vié; Pereira, Bruno; Cohen, Robert; Levy, Corinne; Archimbaud, Christine; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Bailly, Jean-Luc; Henquell, Cécile
The clinical impact of enteroviruses associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is unknown outside Asia, and the prevalence of enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) in particular might be underestimated. To investigate the prevalence of enterovirus serotypes and the clinical presentations associated with HFMD in France, we conducted prospective ambulatory clinic–based surveillance of children during April 2014–March 2015. Throat or buccal swabs were collected from children with HFMD and tested for the enterovirus genome. Physical examinations were recorded on a standardized form. An enterovirus infection was detected in 523 (79.3%) of 659 children tested. Two epidemic waves occurred, dominated by coxsackievirus (CV) A6, which was detected in 53.9% of enterovirus-infected children. CV-A6 was more frequently related to atypical HFMD manifestations (eruptions extended to limbs and face). Early awareness and documentation of HFMD outbreaks can be achieved by syndromic surveillance of HFMD by ambulatory pediatricians and rapid enterovirus testing and genotyping. PMID:27767012
Zhou, Yuejiao; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Chen; Tan, Guangjie; Stanton, Bonita; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Cui, Yan
To examine the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections by demographic characteristics and identify the subgroups of female sex workers (FSW) who are at a higher risk of the infections. Secondary analysis of the 2010 National Sentinel Surveillance (NSS) data was conducted in the current study. A total of 12,622 FSW recruited from 35 NSS sites in Guangxi, China were included in the analysis. FSW were tested for HIV, syphilis, and HCV. The overall prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and HCV infections were 1.0, 6.1, and 1.0%, respectively. The prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections was significantly higher among women who were 40 years of age or older, worked in small commercial sex venues or on the street, were divorced or widowed, or had no formal schooling. A very high HIV infection prevalence (8.2%) was observed among a small number of cross-border foreign FSW (n=49). The prevalence of HCV infection did not differ by most of the demographic characteristics. Living in other provinces or being a Zhuang-ethnic served as protective factors for HCV. The multivariable analyses confirmed the bivariate results suggesting higher prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections among FSW who were older, divorced or widowed, or had no formal schooling. Future HIV intervention prevention efforts among FSW need to pay particular attention to these women in order to effectively curtail the infections among this most-at-risk population as well as to prevent the further spread of HIV and syphilis to other populations.
[Spreading and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance of microorganisms, producing beta-lactamases. Molecular mechanisms of resistance to beta-lactams of Klebsiella spp. strains, isolated in cases of nosocomial infections].
Ivanov, D V; Egorov, A M
Antibiotic sensivity of nosocomial Klebsiella spp. strains (n = 212), isolated from patients treated in 30 medical centers of 15 various regions of Russia was investigated. The Klebsiella genus was represented by the following species: Klebsiella pneumoniae ss. pneumoniae--182 (85.8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae ss. ozaenae--1 (0.5%), Klebsiella oxytoca--29 (13.7%) isolates. The most active antibacterial agents against the investigated strains were carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem). Among 3rd generation cephalosporine the lowest MICs were observed for ceftazidime/clavulanic acid (MIC50--0.25 microg/ml, MIC90--64 microg/ml) and cefoperazone/sulbactam (MIC50--16 microg/ml, MIC90--64 microg/ml). Beta-lactamase genes (TEM, SHV, CTX) were detected in 42 Klebsiella pneumoniae ss. pneumoniae strains by PCR. Alone or in various combinations TEM type beta-lactamases have been found in 16 (38.1%) isolates, SHV--in 29 (69%), and CTX--in 27 (64.3%). Combinations of 2 different determinants were detected in 23.8% of the isolates, 3--in 26.2%. There were not isolates producing MBL class B among resistant to carbapenems nosocomial Klebsiella spp. strains.
Lwin, May Oo; Yung, Chee Fu; Yap, Peiling; Jayasundar, Karthikayen; Sheldenkar, Anita; Subasinghe, Kosala; Foo, Schubert; Jayasinghe, Udeepa Gayantha; Xu, Huarong; Chai, Siaw Ching; Kurlye, Ashwin; Chen, Jie; Ang, Brenda Sze Peng
Singapore is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases and faces a constant risk of pandemic outbreaks as a major travel and health hub for Southeast Asia. With an increasing penetration of smart phone usage in this region, Singapore's pandemic preparedness framework can be strengthened by applying a mobile-based approach to health surveillance and control, and improving upon existing ideas by addressing gaps, such as a lack of health communication. FluMob is a digitally integrated syndromic surveillance system designed to assist health authorities in obtaining real-time epidemiological and surveillance data from health-care workers (HCWs) within Singapore, by allowing them to report influenza incidence using smartphones. The system, integrating a fully responsive web-based interface and a mobile interface, is made available to HCW using various types of mobile devices and web browsers. Real-time data generated from FluMob will be complementary to current health-care- and laboratory-based systems. This paper describes the development of FluMob, as well as challenges faced in the creation of the system.
Lwin, May Oo; Yung, Chee Fu; Yap, Peiling; Jayasundar, Karthikayen; Sheldenkar, Anita; Subasinghe, Kosala; Foo, Schubert; Jayasinghe, Udeepa Gayantha; Xu, Huarong; Chai, Siaw Ching; Kurlye, Ashwin; Chen, Jie; Ang, Brenda Sze Peng
Singapore is a hotspot for emerging infectious diseases and faces a constant risk of pandemic outbreaks as a major travel and health hub for Southeast Asia. With an increasing penetration of smart phone usage in this region, Singapore’s pandemic preparedness framework can be strengthened by applying a mobile-based approach to health surveillance and control, and improving upon existing ideas by addressing gaps, such as a lack of health communication. FluMob is a digitally integrated syndromic surveillance system designed to assist health authorities in obtaining real-time epidemiological and surveillance data from health-care workers (HCWs) within Singapore, by allowing them to report influenza incidence using smartphones. The system, integrating a fully responsive web-based interface and a mobile interface, is made available to HCW using various types of mobile devices and web browsers. Real-time data generated from FluMob will be complementary to current health-care- and laboratory-based systems. This paper describes the development of FluMob, as well as challenges faced in the creation of the system. PMID:28367433
Detection and diagnosis of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in animals requires a laboratory test since disease from IAV presents no pathognomonic signs. Diagnosis and surveillance of animal influenza focuses on the detection of virus or type specific antibodies. Whether one targets the virus or ...
Wallace, Lalena; Daugherty, Sean C; Nagaraj, Sushma; Johnson, J Kristie; Harris, Anthony D; Rasko, David A
Despite the increasing prevalence of the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii, little is known about which genomic components contribute to clinical presentation of this important pathogen. Most whole-genome comparisons of A. baumannii have focused on specific genomic regions associated with phenotypes in a limited number of genomes. In this work, we describe the results of a whole-genome comparative analysis of 254 surveillance isolates of Acinetobacter species, 203 of which were A. baumannii, isolated from perianal swabs and sputum samples collected as part of an infection control active surveillance program at the University of Maryland Medical Center. The collection of surveillance isolates includes both carbapenem-susceptible and -resistant isolates. Based on the whole-genome phylogeny, the A. baumannii isolates collected belong to two major phylogenomic lineages. Results from multilocus sequence typing indicated that one of the major phylogenetic groups of A. baumannii was comprised solely of strains from the international clonal lineage 2. The genomic content of the A. baumannii isolates was examined using large-scale BLAST score ratio analysis to identify genes that are associated with carbapenem-susceptible and -resistant isolates, as well as genes potentially associated with the source of isolation. This analysis revealed a number of genes that were exclusive or at greater frequency in each of these classifications. This study is the most comprehensive genomic comparison of Acinetobacter isolates from a surveillance study to date and provides important information that will contribute to our understanding of the success of A. baumannii as a human pathogen.
Núñez-Núñez, María; Navarro, María Dolores; Gkolia, Panagiota; Babu Rajendran, Nithya; del Toro, María Dolores; Voss, Andreas; Sharland, Mike; Sifakis, Frangiscos; Tacconelli, Evelina; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús
Introduction The worldwide spread of antimicrobial resistance is now recognised as a global public health threat. Owing to the geographical heterogeneity, complexity and continuously evolving dynamics of resistant organisms and genes, surveillance is a key tool for understanding, measuring and informing actions in the fight against this problem. To date there is no harmonisation of key indicators or of methodologies used to obtain them. Methods and analysis The main objective of this project is to systematically review and analyse the current publicly available surveillance activities on antimicrobial resistance and healthcare-associated infections in Europe. Eligible activities are those endorsed by regional, national or transnational health organisations and scientific societies providing data on a periodic basis. Grey and peer-reviewed literature will be searched with no language restrictions. Three independent reviewers will perform a two-step selection process using a previously piloted, tailored electronic data extraction form. Descriptive summaries and tables of all relevant findings will be performed and reported according to PRISMA guidelines. Ethics and dissemination We did not seek ethical approval for this study because the data to be collected are not linked to individuals. Data will be presented at international conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number CRD42016033867. PMID:28348192
Marra, Alexandre Rodrigues
ABSTRACT Several initiatives took place in recent years in relation to nosocomial infection control in order to increase patient safety. Some of these initiatives will be commented in this brief review. PMID:27074240
Mamishi, Setareh; Pourakbari, Babak; Teymuri, Mostafa; Babamahmoodi, Abdolreza; Mahmoudi, Shima
Nosocomial, or hospital-acquired, infections are considered the most common complications affecting hospitalized patients. According to results obtained from studies conducted in the Children Medical Center Hospital, a teaching children's hospital and a tertiary care referral unit in Tehran, Iran, improvements in infection control practices in our hospital seem necessary. The aim of this study was to identify risk management and review potential hospital hazards that may pose a threat to the health as well as safety and welfare of patients in an Iranian referral hospital. Barriers to compliance and poor design of facilities, impractical guidelines and policies, lack of a framework for risk management, failure to apply behavioral-change theory, and insufficient obligation and enforcement by infection control personnel highlight the need of management systems in infection control in our hospital. In addition, surveillance and early reporting of infections, evaluation of risk-based interventions, and production of evidence-based guidelines in our country are recommended. PMID:25379367
Tschudin-Sutter, Sarah; Lucet, Jean-Christophe; Mutters, Nico T; Tacconelli, Evelina; Zahar, Jean Ralph; Harbarth, Stephan
Contact precautions have been recommended for hospitalized patients colonized or infected with extendend-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli. Despite such recommendations, a steady, worldwide increase of ESBL-E. coli has been reported. We discuss arguments in favor and against contact precautions for ESBL- E.coli-carriers.Healthcare settings with high ESBL-E.coli colonization pressure, extended hospital stay and close contact between vulnerable patients may serve as amplification platform further accelerating transmission. However, the evidence base for justifying the implementation of contact precautions for all ESBL-E.coli carriers remains weak.Until more high-level evidence is available, we support the attitude that hospitals and countries should carefully evaluate their decision on whether to implement contact precautions for ESBL-E.coli carriers. It is likely that a large majority of patients and wards do not need to rely on contact precautions for preventing nosocomial ESBL-E.coli transmission in non-epidemic settings, without harming patient-safety, providing sufficient compliance with standard precautions and ongoing surveillance.
Mølbak, Kåre; Simonsen, Jacob; Jørgensen, Charlotte S; Krogfelt, Karen A; Falkenhorst, Gerhard; Ethelberg, Steen; Takkinen, Johanna; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe
We developed a model that enabled a back-calculation of the annual salmonellosis seroincidence from measurements of Salmonella antibodies and applied this model to 9677 serum samples collected from populations in 13 European countries. We found a 10-fold difference in the seroincidence, which was lowest in Sweden (0.06 infections per person-year), Finland (0.07), and Denmark (0.08) and highest in Spain (0.61), followed by Poland (0.55). These numbers were not correlated with the reported national incidence of Salmonella infections in humans but were correlated with prevalence data of Salmonella in laying hens (P < .001), broilers (P < .001), and slaughter pigs (P = .03). Seroincidence also correlated with Swedish data on the country-specific risk of travel-associated Salmonella infections (P = .001). Estimates based on seroepidemiological methods are well suited to measure the force of transmission of Salmonella to human populations, in particular relevant for assessments where data include notifications from areas, states or countries with diverse characteristics of the Salmonella surveillance.
Nugent, G.; Yockney, I. J.; Whitford, E. J.; Cross, M. L.
In New Zealand, wild pigs acquire Mycobacterium bovis infection by scavenging tuberculous carrion, primarily carcasses of the main disease maintenance host, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). We investigated the utility of captive-reared, purpose-released pigs as sentinels for tuberculosis (TB) following lethal possum control and subsequent population recovery. Within 2-3 years of possum control by intensive poisoning, TB prevalence and the incidence rate of M. bovis infection in released sentinel pigs were lower than in an adjacent area where possums had not been poisoned. Unexpectedly, TB did not decline to near zero levels among pigs in the poisoned area, a fact which reflected an unanticipated rapid increase in the apparent abundance of possums. Monitoring infection levels among resident wild pigs confirmed that TB prevalence, while reduced due to possum control, persisted in the poisoned area at >20% among pigs born 2-3 years after poisoning, while remaining >60% among resident wild pigs in the nonpoisoned area. When fitted with radio-tracking devices, purpose-released pigs provided precise spatial TB surveillance information and facilitated effective killing of wild pigs when employed as “Judas” animals to help locate residents. Sentinel pigs offer value for monitoring disease trends in New Zealand, as TB levels in possums decline nationally due to large-scale possum control. PMID:24804148
Pfaller, M. A.; Diekema, D. J.; Jones, R. N.; Messer, S. A.; Hollis, R. J.
From 1 January 1997 through 31 December 2000, 2,047 bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to Candida spp. were reported from hospitals in the United States, Canada, Latin America, and Europe participating in the SENTRY Antifungal Surveillance Program. Among individuals in four age groups (≤1, 2 to 15, 16 to 64, and ≥65 years) Candida albicans was the most common species, causing 60, 55, 55, and 50% of infections, respectively. C. glabrata caused 17 to 23% of BSIs in those ages 16 to 64 and ≥65 years, whereas it caused only 3% of BSIs in the individuals in the two younger age groups (P < 0.001). C. parapsilosis (which caused 21 to 24% of BSIs) and C. tropicalis (which caused 7 to 10% of BSIs) were more common than C. glabrata in individuals ages ≤1 year and 2 to 15 years. Isolates of Candida spp. showed a trend of decreasing susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B with increasing patient age (P ≤ 0.01). None of the C. glabrata isolates from individuals ≤1 year old were resistant to fluconazole, whereas they made up 5 to 9% of isolates from individuals ages 16 to 64 and ≥65 years. Isolates of C. tropicalis from patients ≤1 year old were more susceptible to flucytosine (MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited [MIC90], 0.5 μg/ml; 0% resistant isolates) than those from patients ≥65 years old (MIC90, 32 μg/ml; 11% resistant isolates). The investigational triazoles posaconazole, ravuconazole, and voriconazole were all highly active against all species of Candida from individuals in all age groups. These data demonstrate differences in the species distributions of pathogens and differences in antifungal resistance among isolates from individuals in the pediatric and adult age groups. Ongoing surveillance will enhance efforts to limit the extent of antifungal resistance in individuals in various age groups. PMID:11880404
Knight, Rod; Falasinnu, Titilola; Oliffe, John L; Gilbert, Mark; Small, Will; Goldenberg, Shira; Shoveller, Jean
Objectives Surveillance data frequently indicate that young men and women experience high—yet considerably different—reported rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including bacterial infections such as chlamydia. We examined how several sex-based (eg, biological) and gender-based (eg, sociocultural) factors may interact to influence STI surveillance data trends. Methods Employing ethno-epidemiological techniques, we analysed cross-sectional qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2013 about young people's experiences accessing STI testing services in five communities in British Columbia, Canada. These data included 250 semistructured interviews with young men and women aged 15–24 years, as well as 39 clinicians who provided STI testing services. Results The findings highlight how young women are socially and medically encouraged to regularly test, while young men are rarely offered similar opportunities. Instead, young men tend to seek out testing services: (1) at the beginning or end of a sexual relationship; (2) after a high-risk sexual encounter; (3) after experiencing symptoms; or (4) based on concerns about ‘abnormal’ sexual anatomy. Our results illustrate how institutions and individuals align with stereotypical gender norms regarding sexual health responsibilities, STI testing and STI treatments. While these patterns reflect social phenomena, they also appear to intersect with sex-based, biological experiences of symptomatology in ways that might help to further explain systematic differences between young men's and women's patterns of testing for STIs. Conclusions The results point to the importance of taking a social and biological view to understanding the factors that contribute to the gap between young men's and women's routine engagement in STI care. PMID:27566628
Curran, John M; Ellis, Trevor M; Robertson, Ian D
The virological surveillance of 3582 wild waterfowl in northern Australia from 2004 to 2009 for avian influenza virus (AIV) found an apparent prevalence (AP) of 1% (31 of 2989 cloacal swabs; 95% CI: 0.71%-1.47%) using a Taqman Type A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test and no viral isolations from 593 swabs tested by the embryonating chicken egg culture method. From serological testing using a nucleoprotein competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for AIV antibody, 1131 of 3645 sera had ≥ 40% inhibition, indicating an apparent seroprevalence of 31% (95% CI: 29.5%-32.6%). This value suggests that the low AP from virological testing does not reflect the dynamics of AIV infection in these populations. Spatiotemporal and species variations in seroprevalence were found at wetland sampling sites, with consistently higher values at Kununurra in Western Australia (AP = 39%, 95% CI: 36.9%-41.4%) compared to other locations. At Kununurra, seroprevalence values had a two-year cyclical periodicity and suggest this location is a hotspot of AIV activity. From hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing using multiple subtype antigens, the highest AP of HI reactions were to H6 and H5 subtypes. The phenomenon of cyclic periodicity in NP seroprevalence at Kununurra is hypothesized as being related to the prevalent H6 subtype that may have either become predominant or cycled back into a mostly AIV naïve flock. The inclusion of serological testing provided insight into the dynamics of AIV infection in wild birds such as species risk profiles and spatiotemporal patterns, important epidemiological information for a risk-based approach to surveillance.
Patton, Monica E.; Kidd, Sarah; Llata, Eloisa; Stenger, Mark; Braxton, Jim; Asbel, Lenore; Bernstein, Kyle; Gratzer, Beau; Jespersen, Megan; Kerani, Roxanne; Mettenbrink, Christie; Mohamed, Mukhtar; Pathela, Preeti; Schumacher, Christina; Stirland, Ali; Stover, Jeff; Tabidze, Irina; Kirkcaldy, Robert D.; Weinstock, Hillard
Background Gonorrhea (GC) and chlamydia (CT) are the most commonly reported notifiable diseases in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that men who have sex with men (MSM) be screened for urogenital GC/CT, rectal GC/CT, and pharyngeal GC. We describe extragenital GC/CT testing and infections among MSM attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. Methods The STD Surveillance Network collects patient data from 42 STD clinics. We assessed the proportion of MSM attending these clinics during July 2011–June 2012 who were tested and positive for extragenital GC/CT at their most recent visit or in the preceding 12 months and the number of extragenital infections that would have remained undetected with urethral screening alone. Results Of 21 994 MSM, 83.9% were tested for urogenital GC, 65.9% for pharyngeal GC, 50.4% for rectal GC, 81.4% for urogenital CT, 31.7% for pharyngeal CT, and 45.9% for rectal CT. Of MSM tested, 11.1% tested positive for urogenital GC, 7.9% for pharyngeal GC, 10.2% for rectal GC, 8.4% for urogenital CT, 2.9% for pharyngeal CT, and 14.1% for rectal CT. More than 70% of extragenital GC infections and 85% of extragenital CT infections were associated with negative urethral tests at the same visit and would not have been detected with urethral screening alone. Conclusions Extragenital GC/CT was common among MSM attending STD clinics, but many MSM were not tested. Most extragenital infections would not have been identified, and likely would have remained untreated, with urethral screening alone. Efforts are needed to facilitate implementation of extragenital GC/CT screening recommendations for MSM. PMID:24647015
Tong, Qun-Bo; Chen, Rui; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Guo-Jing; Kumagai, Takashi; Furushima-Shimogawara, Rieko; Lou, Di; Yang, Kun; Wen, Li-Yong; Lu, Shao-Hong; Ohta, Nobuo; Zhou, Xiao-Nong
Although schistosomiasis remains a serious health problem worldwide, significant achievements in schistosomiasis control has been made in the People's Republic of China. The disease has been eliminated in five out of 12 endemic provinces, and the prevalence in remaining endemic areas is very low and is heading toward elimination. A rapid and sensitive method for monitoring the distribution of infected Oncomelania hupensis is urgently required. We applied a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting 28S rDNA for the rapid and effective detection of Schistosoma japonicum DNA in infected and prepatent infected O. hupensis snails. The detection limit of the LAMP method was 100 fg of S. japonicum genomic DNA. To promote the application of the approach in the field, the LAMP assay was used to detect infection in pooled samples of field-collected snails. In the pooled sample detection, snails were collected from 28 endemic areas, and 50 snails from each area were pooled based on the maximum pool size estimation, crushed together and DNA was extracted from each pooled sample as template for the LAMP assay. Based on the formula for detection from pooled samples, the proportion of positive pooled samples and the positive proportion of O. hupensis detected by LAMP of Xima village reached 66.67% and 1.33%, while those of Heini, Hongjia, Yangjiang and Huangshan villages were 33.33% and 0.67%, and those of Tuanzhou and Suliao villages were 16.67% and 0.33%, respectively. The remaining 21 monitoring field sites gave negative results. A risk map for the transmission of schistosomiasis was constructed using ArcMap, based on the positive proportion of O. hupensis infected with S. japonicum, as detected by the LAMP assay, which will form a guide for surveillance and response strategies in high risk areas.
Background Prospective typing of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STM) by multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) can assist in identifying clusters of STM cases that might otherwise have gone unrecognised, as well as sources of sporadic and outbreak cases. This paper describes the dynamics of human STM infection in a prospective study of STM MLVA typing for public health surveillance. Methods During a three-year period between August 2007 and September 2010 all confirmed STM isolates were fingerprinted using MLVA as part of the New South Wales (NSW) state public health surveillance program. Results A total of 4,920 STM isolates were typed and a subset of 4,377 human isolates was included in the analysis. The STM spectrum was dominated by a small number of phage types, including DT170 (44.6% of all isolates), DT135 (13.9%), DT9 (10.8%), DT44 (4.5%) and DT126 (4.5%). There was a difference in the discriminatory power of MLVA types within endemic phage types: Simpson's index of diversity ranged from 0.109 and 0.113 for DTs 9 and 135 to 0.172 and 0.269 for DTs 170 and 44, respectively. 66 distinct STM clusters were observed ranging in size from 5 to 180 cases and in duration from 4 weeks to 25 weeks. 43 clusters had novel MLVA types and 23 represented recurrences of previously recorded MLVA types. The diversity of the STM population remained relatively constant over time. The gradual increase in the number of STM cases during the study was not related to significant changes in the number of clusters or their size. 667 different MLVA types or patterns were observed. Conclusions Prospective MLVA typing of STM allows the detection of community outbreaks and demonstrates the sustained level of STM diversity that accompanies the increasing incidence of human STM infections. The monitoring of novel and persistent MLVA types offers a new benchmark for STM surveillance. A part of this study was presented at the MEEGID × (Molecular Epidemiology
International Surveillance of Bloodstream Infections Due to Candida Species: Frequency of Occurrence and In Vitro Susceptibilities to Fluconazole, Ravuconazole, and Voriconazole of Isolates Collected from 1997 through 1999 in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program
Pfaller, M. A.; Diekema, D. J.; Jones, R. N.; Sader, H. S.; Fluit, A. C.; Hollis, R. J.; Messer, S. A.
A surveillance program (SENTRY) of bloodstream infections (BSI) in the United States, Canada, Latin America, and Europe from 1997 through 1999 detected 1,184 episodes of candidemia in 71 medical centers (32 in the United States, 23 in Europe, 9 in Latin America, and 7 in Canada). Overall, 55% of the yeast BSIs were due to Candida albicans, followed by Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis (15%), Candida tropicalis (9%), and miscellaneous Candida spp. (6%). In the United States, 45% of candidemias were due to non-C. albicans species. C. glabrata (21%) was the most common non-C. albicans species in the United States, and the proportion of non-C. albicans BSIs was highest in Latin America (55%). C. albicans accounted for 60% of BSI in Canada and 58% in Europe. C. parapsilosis was the most common non-C. albicans species in Latin America (25%), Canada (16%), and Europe (17%). Isolates of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis were all highly susceptible to fluconazole (97 to 100% at ≤8 μg/ml). Likewise, 97 to 100% of these species were inhibited by ≤1 μg/ml of ravuconazole (concentration at which 50% were inhibited [MIC50], 0.007 to 0.03 μg/ml) or voriconazole (MIC50, 0.007 to 0.06 μg/ml). Both ravuconazole and voriconazole were significantly more active than fluconazole against C. glabrata (MIC90s of 0.5 to 1.0 μg/ml versus 16 to 32 μg/ml, respectively). A trend of increased susceptibility of C. glabrata to fluconazole was noted over the three-year period. The percentage of C. glabrata isolates susceptible to fluconazole increased from 48% in 1997 to 84% in 1999, and MIC50s decreased from 16 to 4 μg/ml. A similar trend was documented in both the Americas (57 to 84% susceptible) and Europe (22 to 80% susceptible). Some geographic differences in susceptibility to triazole were observed with Canadian isolates generally more susceptible than isolates from the United States and Europe. These observations suggest susceptibility patterns and trends
Ceballos, L A; Cardinal, M V; Vazquez-Prokopec, G M; Lauricella, M A; Orozco, M M; Cortinas, R; Schijman, A G; Levin, M J; Kitron, U; Gürtler, R E
Long-term variations in the dynamics and intensity of sylvatic transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi were investigated around eight rural villages in the semiarid Argentine Chaco in 2002-2004 and compared to data collected locally in 1984-1991. Of 501 wild mammals from 13 identified species examined by xenodiagnosis, only 3 (7.9%) of 38 Didelphis albiventris opossums and 1 (1.1%) of 91 Conepatus chinga skunks were infected by T. cruzi. The period prevalence in opossums was four-fold lower in 2002-2004 than in 1984-1991 (32-36%). The infection prevalence of skunks also decreased five-fold from 4.1-5.6% in 1984-1991 to 1.1% in 2002-2004. Infection in opossums increased with age and from summer to spring in both study periods. The force of infection per 100 opossum-months after weaning declined more than six-fold from 8.2 in 1988-1991 to 1.2 in 2002-2004. Opossums were mainly infected by T. cruzi lineage I and secondarily by lineage IId in 1984-1991, and only by T. cruzi I in 2002-2004; skunks were infected by T. cruzi IId in 1984-1991 and by IIc in 2002-2004. The striking decline of T. cruzi infection in opossums and skunks occurred in parallel to community-wide insecticide spraying followed by selective sprays leading to very low densities of infected Triatoma infestans in domestic and peridomestic habitats since 1992; to massive deforestation around one of the villages or selective extraction of older trees, and apparent reductions in opossum abundance jointly with increases in foxes and skunks. These factors may underlie the dramatic decrease of T. cruzi infection in wild reservoir hosts.
Ceballos, L.A.; Cardinal, M.V.; Vazquez-Prokopec, G.M.; Lauricella, M.A.; Orozco, M.M.; Cortinas, R.; Schijman, A.G.; Levin, M.J.; Kitron, U.; Gürtler, R.E.
Long-term variations in the dynamics and intensity of sylvatic transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi were investigated around eight rural villages in the semiarid Argentine Chaco in 2002–2004 and compared to data collected locally in 1984–1991. Of 501 wild mammals from 13 identified species examined by xenodiagnosis, only 3 (7.9%) of 38 Didelphis albiventris opossums and 1 (1.1%) of 91 Conepatus chinga skunks were infected by T. cruzi. The period prevalence in opossums was four-fold lower in 2002–2004 than in 1984–1991 (32–36%). The infection prevalence of skunks also decreased five-fold from 4.1–5.6% in 1984–1991 to 1.1% in 2002–2004. Infection in opossums increased with age and from summer to spring in both study periods. The force of infection per 100 opossum-months after weaning declined more than six-fold from 8.2 in 1988–1991 to 1.2 in 2002–2004. Opossums were mainly infected by T. cruzi lineage I and secondarily by lineage IId in 1984–1991, and only by T. cruzi I in 2002–2004; skunks were infected by T. cruzi IId in 1984–1991 and by IIc in 2002–2004. The striking decline of T. cruzi infection in opossums and skunks occurred in parallel to community-wide insecticide spraying followed by selective sprays leading to very low densities of infected Triatoma infestans in domestic and peridomestic habitats since 1992; to massive deforestation around one of the villages or selective extraction of older trees, and apparent reductions in opossum abundance jointly with increases in foxes and skunks. These factors may underlie the dramatic decrease of T. cruzi infection in wild reservoir hosts. PMID:16839513
Vilela, Maria Carolina Nunes; Ferreira, Gustavo Zanna; Santos, Paulo Sérgio da Silva; de Rezende, Nathalie Pepe Medeiros
To perform a systematic review of the literature on the control of oral biofilms and the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia, in addition to assessing and classifying studies as to the grade of recommendation and level of evidence. The review was based on PubMed, LILACS, and Scopus databases, from January 1st, 2000 until December 31st, 2012. Studies evaluating oral hygiene care related to nosocomial infections in patients hospitalized in intensive care units were selected according to the inclusion criteria. Full published articles available in English, Spanish, or Portuguese, which approached chemical or mechanical oral hygiene techniques in preventing pneumonia, interventions performed, and their results were included. After analysis, the articles were classified according to level of evidence and grade of recommendation according to the criteria of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. A total of 297 abstracts were found, 14 of which were full articles that met our criteria. Most articles included a study group with chlorhexidine users and a control group with placebo users for oral hygiene in the prevention of pneumonia. All articles were classified as B in the level of evidence, and 12 articles were classified as 2B and two articles as 2C in grade of recommendation. It was observed that the control of oral biofilm reduces the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia, but the fact that most articles had an intermediate grade of recommendation makes clear the need to conduct randomized controlled trials with minimal bias to establish future guidelines for oral hygiene in intensive care units. PMID:25946053
Zhao, Jin; Xing, Yubin; Liu, Wei; Ni, Wentao; Wei, Chuanqi; Wang, Rui; Liu, Yunxi; Liu, Youning
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a common nosocomial pathogen that causes high morbidity and mortality. Because of its inherent extended antibiotic resistance, therapeutic options for S. maltophilia are limited, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT) is the only first-line antimicrobial recommended. However, with the spread of dihydropteroate synthase (sul1 and sul2) genes, global emergence of SXT resistance has been reported. There is an urgent need to develop a rapid and sensitive but cost-efficient method to monitor the dissemination of sul genes. In this study, we developed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for sul1 and sul2 using real-time turbidity and hydroxy naphthol blue coloration methods. The assays could quickly detect sul genes with high sensitivity and specificity. The LAMP detection limit was 0.74 pg/reaction of extracted genomic DNA for sul1 and 2.6 pg/reaction for sul2, which were both 10-fold more sensitive than the corresponding traditional PCR assays. Additionally, the LAMP assays could positively amplify DNA from sul1-producing strains, but not from the negative controls. We then used the LAMP assays to investigate the dissemination of sul genes among S. maltophilia isolates from patients in three hospitals in Beijing, China. Among 450 non-duplicated samples collected during 2012–2014, 56 (12.4%) strains were SXT-resistant. All these SXT-resistant strains were positive for sul genes, with 35 (62.5%) carrying sul1, 17 (30.4%) carrying sul2, and 4 (7.1%) carrying both sul1 and sul2, which indicated that sul genes were the predominant resistance mechanism. Of 394 SXT-susceptible strains, 16 were also sul-positive. To provide epidemiological data for the appropriate choice of antimicrobials for treatment of sul-positive S. maltophilia, we further tested the susceptibility to 18 antimicrobials. Among these, sul-positive strains showed the highest susceptibility to tetracycline derivatives, especially minocycline (MIC50/MIC90, 0
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A genomic virulence reference map of Enterococcus faecalis reveals an important contribution of phage03-like elements in nosocomial genetic lineages to pathogenicity in a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model.
La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Snipen, Lars-Gustav; Murray, Barbara E; Willems, Rob J L; Gilmore, Michael S; Diep, Dzung B; Nes, Ingolf F; Brede, Dag Anders
In the present study, the commensal and pathogenic host-microbe interaction of Enterococcus faecalis was explored using a Caenorhabditis elegans model system. The virulence of 28 E. faecalis isolates representing 24 multilocus sequence types (MLSTs), including human commensal and clinical isolates as well as isolates from animals and of insect origin, was investigated using C. elegans strain glp-4 (bn2ts); sek-1 (km4). This revealed that 6 E. faecalis isolates behaved in a commensal manner with no nematocidal effect, while the remaining strains showed a time to 50% lethality ranging from 47 to 120 h. Principal component analysis showed that the difference in nematocidal activity explained 94% of the variance in the data. Assessment of known virulence traits revealed that gelatinase and cytolysin production accounted for 40.8% and 36.5% of the observed pathogenicity, respectively. However, coproduction of gelatinase and cytolysin did not increase virulence additively, accounting for 50.6% of the pathogenicity and therefore indicating a significant (26.7%) saturation effect. We employed a comparative genomic analysis approach using the 28 isolates comprising a collection of 82,356 annotated coding sequences (CDS) to identify 2,325 patterns of presence or absence among the investigated strains. Univariate statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) established that individual patterns positively correlated (n = 61) with virulence. The patterns were investigated to identify potential new virulence traits, among which we found five patterns consisting of the phage03-like gene clusters. Strains harboring phage03 showed, on average, 17% higher killing of C. elegans (P = 4.4e(-6)). The phage03 gene cluster was also present in gelatinase-and-cytolysin-negative strain E. faecalis JH2-2. Deletion of this phage element from the JH2-2 clinical strain rendered the mutant apathogenic in C. elegans, and a similar mutant of the nosocomial V583 isolate showed significantly attenuated
Potential Utility in Developing Countries Syndromic surveillance offers a useful adjunct to diagnosis- based surveillance of emerging infections in...influenza-like illness caused by multiple epidemic-prone tropical infections, could indicate outbreaks requiring laboratory- based investigation and...countries. Computer- based automation of routine data analysis is helpful because, with multiple reporting units and reportable events, the number of
Lina, B; Valette, M; Foray, S; Luciani, J; Stagnara, J; See, D M; Aymard, M
Nasal swab from patients with acute flu-like illness were evaluated for the presence of respiratory viruses in the Rhone-Alpes region of France from 1 October 1994 through 2 May 1995. The relative frequencies and seasonal distributions of the specific viruses were assessed. In addition, virus type was correlated with specific clinical signs and symptoms. During the study, 962 samples were collected by 75 medical practitioners participating in the Groupe Regional d'Observation de la Grippe surveillance network. One or more viruses were detected from 348 samples (36.1%), including 108 respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), 64 influenza virus A type H3N2, 47 influenza virus B, 64 coronavirus, 35 rhinovirus, 22 adenovirus, 5 enterovirus, and 3 parainfluenza-fluenza strains. There were 16 mixed infections. RSV infections peaked in the early winter, and influenza viruses A and B infections peaked during the late winter and early spring. There were two peaks of coronavirus infections (late fall and late winter). Other viruses were detected at lower levels throughout the study period. Patients from whom adenovirus was isolated were significantly more likely to have a fever of > 39.5 degrees C than were patients with other detectable viruses (P < 0.001). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between influenza and cough (P < 0.01) and RSV and bronchiolitis (P < .001). Thus, the current study defined the overall and relative frequencies of respiratory virus detection from nasal swab specimens in patients with an acute flu-like illness in the Rhone-Alpes region of France during a 7-month period. Correlation with clinical signs and symptoms and provisional conclusions regarding seasonality were also determined. PMID:8940439
Alvarez, M; Lopez Ponga, B; Rayon, C; Garcia Gala, J; Roson Porto, M C; Gonzalez, M; Martinez-Suarez, J V; Rodriguez-Tudela, J L
Four cases of fatal disseminated Scedosporium prolificans (inflatum) infection occurring in neutropenic patients are reported. Because of hospital renovation, the patients were cared for in a temporary hematologic facility. S. prolificans (inflatum) was isolated from blood cultures of these four patients, two of whom underwent full necropsy, and revealed abundant vegetative hyphae and ovoid conida with truncate bases in many organs. In vitro susceptibility testing of fungal strains showed all isolates to be resistant to amphotericin B, flucytosine, miconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and itraconazole, with MICs greater than 16 micrograms/ml. The reported infections, two in each of two rooms, occurred over a period of 1 month, with very similar clinical outcomes. Circumstancial evidence suggested a nosocomial outbreak, but the environmental samples collected from the rooms, corridors, and adjacent areas did not yield S. prolificans (inflatum). Nevertheless, circumstantial evidence suggested a nosocomial outbreak of S. prolificans (inflatum) infection. PMID:8586719
Nosocomial pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. The risk is especially high in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) particularly in infants with mechanically assisted ventilation. During the 5-year period of the study, 160 infants with problems including prematurity (60.6%), respiratory distress (55.6%) and birth asphyxia (45.0%) were admitted to the NICU. One hundred and thirty-three infants (83.1%) received mechanical ventilation. Nosocomial pneumonia was found in 65 infants (40.6%) or 88.3 cases per 1,000 ventilator-days. Low birth weight, prematurity, respiratory distress and hyperbilirubinemia were found more significantly in the pneumonia group. They underwent more manipulations such as the placement of an umbilical catheter and orogastric tube. Infants with pneumonia received mechanical ventilation at a higher percentage and for a longer period than those without pneumonia (96.9% vs 73.7%, odds ratio = 11.2, p = 0.000) with a mean duration of 11.7 and 3.5 days respectively (p = 0.000). The etiologic organisms recovered from hemoculture were Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus 44.0 per cent, Enterobacter spp. 16.0 per cent, Klebsiella pneumoniae 16.0 per cent, coagulase-negative staphylococci 12.0 per cent. There was no concordance of the bacteriologic results in endotracheal aspirate culture and hemoculture in each infant. Leukocytosis and granulocytosis as well as blood gas values could not differentiate the presence of pneumonia. The mean hospital stay for the infants with pneumonia was longer (23.0 days vs 6.4 days, p = 0.000). Nosocomial pneumonia did not only prolong hospital stay but also contributed to mortality. Twenty-seven (41.5%) of the infants with pneumonia died, compared with 46 (48.4%) of the other group without pneumonia (p = 0.422). The risk of nosocomial pneumonia can be reduced by using infection control measures, including meticulous hand washing and gloving during respiratory
Davies, Richard F.; Morin, Jason; Bhatia, Ramanjot S.; de Bruijn, Lambertus
Objective Our objective was to conduct surveillance of nosocomial infections directly from multiple EMR data streams in a large multi-location Canadian health care facility. The system developed automatically triggers bed-day-level-location-aware reports and detects and tracks the incidents of nosocomial infections in hospital by ward. Introduction Hospital acquired infections are a major cause of morbidity, mortality and increased resource utilization. CDC estimates that in the US alone, over 2 million patients are affected by nosocomial infections costing approximately $34.7 billion to $45 billion annually (1). The existing process of detection and reporting relies on time consuming manual processing of records and generation of alerts based on disparate definitions that are not comparable across institutions or even physicians. Methods A multi-stakeholder team consisting of experts from medicine, infection control, epidemiology, privacy, computing, artificial intelligence, data fusion and public health conducted a proof of concept from four complete years of admission records of all patients at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute. Figure 1 lists the data elements investigated. Our system uses an open source enterprise bus ‘Mirth Connect’ to receive and store data in HL7 format. The processing of information is handled by individual components and alerts are pushed back to respective locations. The free text components were classified using natural language processing. Negation detection was performed using NegEx (2). Data-fusion algorithms were used to merge information to make it meaningful and allow complex syndrome definitions to be mapped onto the data. Results The system monitors: Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP), Central Line Infections (CLI), Methicillin Resistant Staph Aureus (MRSA), Clostridium difficile (C. Diff) and Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE). 21452 hospital admissions occurred in 17670 unique patients over four years. There
Grigis, A; Farina, C; Moioli, F; Parea, M; Cirillo, D M; Goglio, A; Marchiaro, G
During the 1989 calendar year, P. aeruginosa caused clinical infections in 0.46% of patients admitted to Ospedali Riuniti (a general hospital), Bergamo, Italy. Strains (n = 267) of P. aeruginosa were collected during this period, and epidemiological characteristics were studied. The mean prevalence of P. aeruginosa infection in inpatients was 1.1% (range 0.06-7.3), whereas outpatients showed a significantly lower prevalence of infection (0.05%). Strains were recovered from inpatients of surgical wards (n = 126; 47.2%), and outpatients (n = 15; 5.6%). Males were more often affected than females (2.7:1). Infection of the urinary tract was the most common (34.1%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also involved in lower respiratory tract infections (18.7%) and septicaemia (17.6%). Four typing methods were performed, i.e. serotyping, antibiotyping, pyocin typing, and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA). Serotypes O:11 and O:6 were endemic in the hospital. Some serotypes correlated with specific clinical wards. Pyocin typing was an unreliable epidemiological tool. However, antibiotyping showed the presence of some epidemic clusters, probably related to the antibiotic consumption of the patients. REA suggested the circulation of edemic P. aeruginosa strains in both the obstetrics and neurosurgery wards.
Ray, K; Mahajan, M; Misra, R S
A total of 17,824 sera were screened for the presence of HIV 1 + 2 antibodies by Enzyme Immuno Assay (EIA) to determine (i) seroprevalence of HIV infection in hospital high risk groups (ii) time trend of HIV seroprevalence in STD clinic attendees (both STD patients and non STD patients), over a period of six years, (iii) relationship of the STD's with HIV seropositivity (iv) clinical profile and epidemiological characteristics of the AIDS cases. A progressive increase in the HIV seropositive STD patients showing a five fold rise over six years was seen. Most gave history of multipartner sex especially with female CSW's. The most common STD associated with HIV seropositivity was Syphilis followed by Chancroid and Gonorrhoea. All had HIV-1 infection. The AIDS cases (20) presented mainly with tuberculosis, both pulmonary and extrapulmonary. The mode of infection, both in the HIV seropositive and AIDS cases, was mainly heterosexual relationship followed by blood transfusion. In a few cases, infection was perinatally transmitted. In the limited number of HIV positive contacts studied, seven were confirmed as Western Blot positive. HIV infection, although a later introduction in Delhi compared to the coastal cities, has shown a clear increasing trend in the STD patients.
Lu, Xinli; Kang, Xianjiang; Chen, Suliang; Zhao, Hongru; Liu, Yongjian; Zhao, Cuiying; Zhang, Yuqi; Li, Jingyun; Cui, Ze; Wang, Xianfeng
For this study, 50 HIV-1 plasma samples of recently infected men who have sex with men (MSM) were amplified and sequenced. Multiple subtypes were identified by phylogenetic analyses of HIV-1 gag, env, and pol gene regions, including CRF01_AE (56.0%), CRF07_BC (30.0%), subtype B (12.0%), and unique recombinant forms (URFs, 6.0%). CRF01_AE was the most frequent genotype in the epidemic. Three recombination patterns of URFs were identified: 01BC, 01B, and 01C. The rate of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutation (M46L) was 2.08% (1/48). URFs and TDR first identified in this study suggest that HIV-1 prevalence is more and more complicated, and HIV-1 drug-resistant strains have begun to spread among at risk populations in Hebei. Our findings can provide vital information for an efficient surveillance system and strategic HIV prevention and control measures in China by revealing the evolutionary status and HIV-1 TDR of HIV-1 strains among recently infected MSM in Hebei Province.
Buss, Bryan F; Connolly, Susan
Though historically confined to hospital settings, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has received increasing attention in the wider community, particularly among athletes. A 2007-2008 investigation in Nebraska concluded that MRSA skin infections were an emerging problem among the state's student athletes. Statewide surveillance was subsequently conducted during 4 school years (2008-2012) to estimate incidence of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) consistent with MRSA among student athletes. High school athletic officials completed Internet-based surveys following winter and fall sport seasons. Over 3 school years, incidence estimates per 10,000 athletes decreased substantially from 20.9 (2008-2009) to 11.3 (2010-2011) among football players and from 60.8 (2008-2009) to 28.1 (2010-2011) among wrestlers. Following the 2011-2012 sport seasons, however, incidence estimates increased to 16.6 per 10,000 football players and 43.3 per 10,000 wrestlers. School nurses should support school officials to prioritize prevention and control efforts for SSTI, including MRSA.
Mandell, L A
In order to understand the role of trovafloxacin in the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia, the nature and characteristics of this infection have to be first reviewed. During the first part of this revision the principal aspects of the epidemiology are reviewed, some concepts which take part in the pathogenia of the illness and the immunology of these patients are analysed and the microbiological characteristics of nosocomial pneumonia are evaluated. In the second part of the revision the bacterial resistance to the main groups of antibiotics is considered, listing the different mechanisms used by the bacteria to develop this resistance. They are: production of enzymes which inactivate the antibiotic, access reduction of the drug to the target site, increase of the antibiotic efflux or changes in the target site. Current controversies concerning diagnostic methods and some controversial issues regarding this pathology are here discussed. Finally, the proposed