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Sample records for notes cholecystectomy comparison

  1. Safety Outcomes of NOTES Cholecystectomy Versus Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Cheng; Ling, Yan; Ma, Chi; Ma, Xiaochun; Fan, Wei; Niu, Weibo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is an endoscopic technique whereby surgical interventions can be performed with a flexible endoscope passed through a natural orifice (mouth, vulva, urethra, anus) then through a transluminal opening of the stomach, vagina, bladder, or colon. Although in the early stage of research and development, NOTES has been clinically applied across the globe, above all the transvaginal cholecystectomy is among the most frequently performed procedures. In the existing 2 types of transvaginal routes, the hybrid NOTES cholecystectomy (NC) is more likely to be accepted. However, there has been controversy regarding the safety outcomes of hybrid NC in comparison with classical laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). The primary objective of this meta-analysis is to compare the characteristics between NC and classical LC. Materials and Methods: A meta-analysis of eligible studies comparing NC with classical LC was performed to evaluate the safety outcomes including wound complications, other postoperative complications and intraoperative conversion between the 2 groups. Results: Pooling 3 randomized controlled trials (n=157) and 7 nonrandomized trial (n=593) demonstrated that the rates of wound complications and other postoperative complications in NC group did not significantly differ from those of classical LC group [wound complications: ratio difference (RD)=−0.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.04to 0.01, P=0.23; other postoperative complication: RD=−0.01; 95% CI, −0.03 to 0.02; P=0.6]. The intraoperative conversion rate in NC groups was higher than that of LC groups (RD=0.03; 95% CI, 0.01-0.06; P=0.02). Conclusions: There is no significate difference between the safety of NC and laparoscope cholecystectomy. NC is associated with a higher rate of intraoperative conversion when compared with LC. It is worthy of further promotion and validation in clinical settings. PMID:27557339

  2. Graphic and haptic simulation for transvaginal cholecystectomy training in NOTES.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jun J; Ahn, Woojin; Dargar, Saurabh; Halic, Tansel; Li, Bai C; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Roberts, Kurt; Schwaitzberg, Steven; De, Suvranu

    2016-04-01

    Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) provides an emerging surgical technique which usually needs a long learning curve for surgeons. Virtual reality (VR) medical simulators with vision and haptic feedback can usually offer an efficient and cost-effective alternative without risk to the traditional training approaches. Under this motivation, we developed the first virtual reality simulator for transvaginal cholecystectomy in NOTES (VTEST™). This VR-based surgical simulator aims to simulate the hybrid NOTES of cholecystectomy. We use a 6DOF haptic device and a tracking sensor to construct the core hardware component of simulator. For software, an innovative approach based on the inner-spheres is presented to deform the organs in real time. To handle the frequent collision between soft tissue and surgical instruments, an adaptive collision detection method based on GPU is designed and implemented. To give a realistic visual performance of gallbladder fat tissue removal by cautery hook, a multi-layer hexahedral model is presented to simulate the electric dissection of fat tissue. From the experimental results, trainees can operate in real time with high degree of stability and fidelity. A preliminary study was also performed to evaluate the realism and the usefulness of this hybrid NOTES simulator. This prototyped simulation system has been verified by surgeons through a pilot study. Some items of its visual performance and the utility were rated fairly high by the participants during testing. It exhibits the potential to improve the surgical skills of trainee and effectively shorten their learning curve. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A retrospective comparison of robotic cholecystectomy versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy: operative outcomes and cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Strosberg, David S; Nguyen, Michelle C; Muscarella, Peter; Narula, Vimal K

    2017-03-01

    Robotic-assisted surgery is gaining popularity in general surgery. Our objective was to evaluate and compare operative outcomes and total costs for robotic cholecystectomy (RC) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). A retrospective review was performed for all patients who underwent single-procedure RC and LC from January 2011 to July 2015 by a single surgeon at a large academic medical center. Demographics, diagnosis, perioperative variables, postoperative complications, 30-day readmissions, and operative and hospital costs were collected and analyzed between those patient groups. A total of 237 patients underwent RC or LC, and comprised the study population. Ninety-seven patients (40.9 %) underwent LC, and 140 patients (50.1 %) underwent RC. Patients who underwent RC had a higher body mass index (p = 0.03), lower rates of coronary artery disease (p < 0.01), and higher rates of chronic cholecystitis (p < 0.01). There were lower rates of intraoperative cholangiography (p < 0.01) and conversion to an open procedure (p < 0.01), however longer operative times (p < 0.01) for patients in the RC group. There were no bile duct injuries in either group, no difference in bile leak rates (p = 0.65), or need for reoperation (p = 1.000). Cost analysis of outpatient-only procedures, excluding cases with conversion to open or use of intraoperative cholangiography, demonstrated higher total charges (p < 0.01) and cost (p < 0.01) and lower revenue (p < 0.01) for RC compared to LC, with no difference in total payments (p = 0.34). Robotic cholecystectomy appears to be safe although costlier in comparison with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Further studies are needed to understand the long-term implications of robotic technology, the cost to the health care system, and its role in minimally invasive surgery.

  4. Development of a Virtual Reality Simulator for Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) Cholecystectomy Procedure.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Woojin; Dargar, Saurabh; Halic, Tansel; Lee, Jason; Li, Baichun; Pan, Junjun; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Roberts, Kurt; De, Suvranu

    2014-01-01

    The first virtual-reality-based simulator for Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) is developed called the Virtual Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery Trainer (VTESTTM). VTESTTM aims to simulate hybrid NOTES cholecystectomy procedure using a rigid scope inserted through the vaginal port. The hardware interface is designed for accurate motion tracking of the scope and laparoscopic instruments to reproduce the unique hand-eye coordination. The haptic-enabled multimodal interactive simulation includes exposing the Calot's triangle and detaching the gall bladder while performing electrosurgery. The developed VTESTTM was demonstrated and validated at NOSCAR 2013.

  5. Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a cost comparison.

    PubMed

    Love, Katie M; Durham, Christopher A; Meara, Michael P; Mays, Ashley C; Bower, Curtis E

    2011-05-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) should not cost more or less than traditional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Retrospective cost data were collected from the accounting records of a single institution. A direct comparison of LC and SILC was conducted. Data on the SILC cases converted to LC were included. The total operating room (OR) cost (actual cost to the hospital for equipment, time, and personnel) and the total OR charges (total derived from the OR cost plus a margin to cover overhead costs beyond material costs) were examined. The total hospital charges (OR charges plus hospital charges accrued in the perioperative period) also were included. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data, with p values less than 0.05 considered statistically significant. Over a period of 19 months, 116 cases of minimally invasive cholecystectomy were evaluated. Of the 116 patients, 48 underwent LC during the first half of that period, and 68 patients underwent SILC during the second half of that period. Nine of the single-incision procedures were converted to traditional LC, for a 13% conversion rate. The groups were well matched from a demographics standpoint, with no significant differences in age, gender, body mass index (BMI), diagnoses, American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) class, or payment. Comparison of all attempted SILCs, including those converted, with all LCs showed no significant difference in cost category totals. A significant difference among all cost variables was found when SILCs were compared with SILCs that required conversion to LC. A significant difference among the cost variables also was found when LCs were compared with converted SILCs. The cost for SILC did not differ significantly from that for LC when standard materials were used and the duration of the procedure was considered. Converted cases were significantly more expensive than completed SILC and LC cases.

  6. Hybrid NOTES transvaginal cholecystectomy: operative and long-term results after 18 cases.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Raffaele; Forgione, Antonello; Sansonna, Fabio; Ferrari, Giovanni Carlo; Di Lernia, Stefano; Magistro, Carmelo

    2010-03-01

    Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a novel technique that aims at reducing or abolishing skin incisions and potentially also postoperative pain. The purpose of this study was to analyse operative and long-term results of a series of hybrid transvaginal cholecystectomy. Between July 2007 and May 2009, transvaginal NOTES cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis was performed by a hybrid technique in 18 women (mean age 54 years), including four women with a body mass index >30 kg/m(2). Dissection was conducted in the first four cases by a round-tip unipolar electrode (UE) introduced through the operative channel of the endoscope coming from the vagina and in the last 14 cases by a ultrasonic scalpel (US) introduced through a 5-mm abdominal port. The short-term outcomes and the long-term results of the two methods were compared. The transvaginal approach entailed no intraoperative complication and no conversion. The overall mean duration of procedures was 75 min (range 40-190). In the first four cases (UE), the operating time was 148 min (range 140-190), whilst in the last 14 (US), it was considerably shorter, 53 min (range 40-60, p < 0.01). We experienced one biliary leak in the UE group, whilst morbidity with US was nil (p < 0.005). The biliary leak healed in 7 days with nasobiliary drainage. No other complications were encountered in either group. The mean follow-up was 12 months (range 1-22), and none of the patients has complained of dyspareunia or other colpotomy-related complications so far. Until specifically designed endoscopic tools are available for NOTES, the hybrid technique with US dissection conducted through a 5-mm port should be preferred in transvaginal cholecystectomy in order to shorten the duration of surgery and make this approach effective, safe and reproducible. After a mean follow-up of 1 year, none of our patients has complained of any problem related to transvaginal approach.

  7. Transrectal rigid-hybrid NOTES cholecystectomy can be performed without peritoneal contamination: a controlled porcine survival study.

    PubMed

    Müller, Philip C; Senft, Jonas D; Gath, Philip; Steinemann, Daniel C; Nickel, Felix; Billeter, Adrian T; Müller-Stich, Beat P; Linke, Georg R

    2018-01-01

    The risk of infectious complications due to peritoneal contamination is a major concern and inhibits the widespread use of transrectal NOTES. A standardized rectal washout with a reversible colon occlusion device in situ has previously shown potential in reducing peritoneal contamination. The aim of this study was to compare the peritoneal contamination rate and inflammatory reaction for transrectal cholecystectomy after ideal rectal preparation (trCCE) and standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy (lapCCE) in a porcine survival experiment. Twenty pigs were randomized to trCCE (n = 10) or lapCCE (n = 10). Before trCCE, rectal washout was performed with saline solution. A colon occlusion device was then inserted and a second washout with povidone-iodine was performed. The perioperative course and the inflammatory reaction (leukocytes, C-reactive protein) were compared. At necropsy, 14 days after surgery the abdominal cavity was screened for infectious complications and peritoneal swabs were obtained for comparison of peritoneal contamination. Peritoneal contamination was lower after trCCE than after lapCCE (0/10 vs. 6/10; p = 0.003). No infectious complications were found at necropsy in either group and postoperative complications did not differ (p = 1.0). Immediately after the procedure, leukocytes were higher after lapCCE (17.0 ± 2.7 vs. 14.6 ± 2.3; p = 0.047). Leukocytes and C-reactive protein showed no difference in the further postoperative course. Intraoperative complications and total operation time (trCCE 114 ± 32 vs. 111 ± 27 min; p = 0.921) did not differ, but wound closure took longer for trCCE (31.5 ± 19 vs. 13 ± 5 min; p = 0.002). After standardized rectal washout with a colon occlusion device in situ, trCCE was associated without peritoneal contamination and without access-related infectious complications. Based on the findings of this study, a randomized controlled clinical study comparing clinical outcomes of trCCE with

  8. Prospective randomized clinical trial comparing laparoscopic cholecystectomy and hybrid natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) (NCT00835250).

    PubMed

    Noguera, José F; Cuadrado, Angel; Dolz, Carlos; Olea, José M; García, Juan C

    2012-12-01

    Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a technique still in experimental development whose safety and effectiveness call for assessment through clinical trials. In this paper we present a three-arm, noninferiority, prospective randomized clinical trial of 1 year duration comparing the vaginal and transumbilical approaches for transluminal endoscopic surgery with the conventional laparoscopic approach for elective cholecystectomy. Sixty female patients between the ages of 18 and 65 years who were eligible for elective cholecystectomy were randomized in a ratio of 1:1:1 to receive hybrid transvaginal NOTES (TV group), hybrid transumbilical NOTES (TU group) or conventional laparoscopy (CL group). The main study variable was parietal complications (wound infection, bleeding, and eventration). The analysis was by intention to treat, and losses were not replaced. Cholecystectomy was successfully performed on 94% of the patients. One patient in the TU group was reconverted to CL owing to difficulty in maneuvering the endoscope. After a minimum follow-up period of 1 year, no differences were noted in the rate of parietal complications. Postoperative pain, length of hospital stay, and time off from work were similar in the three groups. No patient developed dyspareunia. Surgical time was longer among cases in which a flexible endoscope was used (CL, 47.04 min; TV, 64.85 min; TU, 59.80 min). NOTES approaches using the flexible endoscope are not inferior in safety or effectiveness to conventional laparoscopy. The transumbilical approach with flexible endoscope is as effective and safe as the transvaginal approach and is a promising, single-incision approach.

  9. Advantages and Disadvantages of 1-Incision, 2-Incision, 3-Incision, and 4-Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Workflow Comparison Study.

    PubMed

    Bartnicka, Joanna; Zietkiewicz, Agnieszka A; Kowalski, Grzegorz J

    2016-08-01

    A comparison of 1-port, 2-port, 3-port, and 4-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy techniques from the point of view of workflow criteria was made to both identify specific workflow components that can cause surgical disturbances and indicate good and bad practices. As a case study, laparoscopic cholecystectomies, including manual tasks and interactions within teamwork members, were video-recorded and analyzed on the basis of specially encoded workflow information. The parameters for comparison were defined as follows: surgery time, tool and hand activeness, operator's passive work, collisions, and operator interventions. It was found that 1-port cholecystectomy is the worst technique because of nonergonomic body position, technical complexity, organizational anomalies, and operational dynamism. The differences between laparoscopic techniques are closely linked to the costs of the medical procedures. Hence, knowledge about the surgical workflow can be used for both planning surgical procedures and balancing the expenses associated with surgery.

  10. Comparison of economic and environmental impacts between disposable and reusable instruments used for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Adler, S; Scherrer, M; Rückauer, K D; Daschner, F D

    2005-02-01

    The economic and environmental effects were compared between disposable and reusable instruments used for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Special consideration was given to the processing of reusable instruments in the Miele G 7736 CD MCU washer disinfector and the resultant cost of sterilization. The instruments frequently used in their disposable form were identified with the help of surgeons. Thus, of all the instruments used for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the disposable and reusable versions of trocars, scissors, and Veress cannula were compared. For the case examined in this study, the performance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy with disposable instruments was 19 times more expensive that for reusable instruments. The higher cost of using disposable instruments is primarily attributable to the purchase price of the instruments. The processing of reusable instruments has little significance in terms of cost, whereas the cost for disposing of disposable instruments is the least significant factor. The number of laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed per year does not substantially influence cost. In the authors' opinion, assessment of the environmental consequences shows that reusable instruments are environmentally advantageous. Considering the upward pressure of costs in hospitals, disposable instruments should be used for laparoscopic cholecystectomy only if they offer clear advantages over reusable instruments.

  11. Day versus night laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis: A comparison of outcomes and cost.

    PubMed

    Siada, Sammy S; Schaetzel, Shaina S; Chen, Allen K; Hoang, Huy D; Wilder, Fatima G; Dirks, Rachel C; Kaups, Krista L; Davis, James W

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested higher complication and conversion to open rates for nighttime laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and recommend against the practice. We hypothesize that patients undergoing night LC for acute cholecystitis have decreased hospital length of stay and cost with no difference in complication and conversion rates. A retrospective review of patients with acute cholecystitis who underwent LC from October 2011 through June 2015 was performed. Complication rates, length of stay, and cost of hospitalization were compared between patients undergoing day cholecystectomy and night cholecystectomy. Complication rates and costs did not differ between the day and night groups. Length of stay was shorter in the night group (2.4 vs 2.8 days, p = 0.002). Performing LC for acute cholecystitis during night-time hours does not increase risk of complications and decreases length of stay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of closed and open methods of pneumoperitonium in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Mohammad; Khan, Ishtiaq Ali; Naveed, Danish; Khattak, Irfanuddin; Zafar, Arshad; Wazir, Muhammad Salim; Khan, Asif Nawaz; Zia-ur-Rehman

    2008-01-01

    Pneumoperitonium is the first step in laparoscopic surgery including cholecystectomy. Two commonly used methods to create pneumoperitonium are closed and open technique. Both have advantages and disadvantages. The current study was designed to compare these two techniques in terms of safety and time required to complete the procedure. This was a randomized controlled prospective study conducted at Department of Surgery, Ayub Hospital Complex Abbottabad, from 1st June 2007 to 31st May 2008. Randomization was done into two groups randomly using sealed envelopes containing the questionnaire. Seventy envelopes were kept in the cupboard, containing 35 proformas for group A and 35 for group B. An envelope was randomly fetched and opened upon selection of the patient after taking the informed consent. Pneumoperitonium was created by closed technique in group A, and by open technique in group B. Time required for successful pneumoperitonium was calculated in each group. Failure to induce pneumoperitonium was determined for each technique. Time required to close the wounds at completion, total operating time and injuries sustained during induction of pneumoperitonium were compared in both techniques. Out of the total 70 patients included in study, 35 were in group A and 35 in group B. Mean time required for successful pneumoperitonium was 9.17 minutes in group A and 8.11 minutes in group B. Total operating time ranged from 55 minutes to 130 minutes in group A and from 45 minutes to 110 minutes in group B. Mean of total operating time was 78.34 and 67 minutes in group A and B respectively. Mean time needed to close the wound was 9.88 minutes in group A and 4.97 minutes in group B. Failure of technique was noted in three patients in group A while no failure was experienced in group B. In two cases in group A minor complications during creation of pneumoperitonium were observed while in group B no complication occurred. No patient died in the study. We concluded from this

  13. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using abdominal wall retraction. Hemodynamics and gas exchange, a comparison with conventional pneumoperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Meijer, D W; Rademaker, B P; Schlooz, S; Bemelman, W A; de Wit, L T; Bannenberg, J J; Stijnen, T; Gouma, D F

    1997-06-01

    Disadvantages related to CO2 pneumoperitoneum have led to development of the abdominal wall retractor (AWR), a device designed to facilitate laparoscopic surgery without conventional pneumoperitoneum (15 mmHg CO2). We investigated the effects of the AWR on hemodynamics and gas exchange in humans. We also investigated whether the use of an AWR imposed extra technical difficulties for the surgeon. A pilot study revealed that cholecystectomy without low-pressure pneumoperitoneum was technically impossible. A prospective randomized controlled trial: Twenty patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated into group 1: AWR with low-pressure pneumoperitoneum (5 mmHg), or group 2: conventional pneumoperitoneum (15 mmHg). Surgery using the AWR lasted longer, 72 +/- 16 min (mean +/- SD) vs 50 +/- 18 min compared with standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There were no differences between the groups with respect to hemodynamic parameters, although a small reduction of the cardiac output was observed using conventional pneumoperitoneum (from 3.9 +/- 0.7 to 3. 2 +/- 1.1 l/min) and an increase during AWR (from 4.2 +/- 0.9 to 5.2 +/- 1.5 l/min). Peak inspiratory pressures were significantly higher during conventional pneumoperitoneum compared to AWR. A slight decrease in pH accompanied by an increase in CO2 developed during pneumoperitoneum and during the use of the AWR. In both groups arterial PO2 decreased. The results indicate that the view was impaired during use of the AWR and therefore its use was difficult and time-consuming. Possible advantages of this devices' effects on hemodynamics and ventilatory parameters could not be confirmed in this study.

  14. A comparison of robotic single-incision and traditional single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Monica; Lescouflair, Tariq; Kimball, Randall; Daoud, Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    Surgeons continually strive to improve technology and patient care. One remarkable demonstration of this is the development of laparoscopic surgery. Once this proved to be a safe and reliable surgical approach, robotics seemed a logical progression of surgical technology. The aim of this project was to evaluate the utility of robotics in the context of single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC). A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of robotic single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (RSILC) and traditional SILC performed by a single surgeon at our institution from July 2010 to August 2013 was queried. All consecutive patients undergoing RSILC and SILC during this time period were included. Primary outcomes include conversion rate and operative time. Secondary outcomes include length of stay, duration of narcotic use, time to independent performance of daily activities and cost. Categorical variables were evaluated using Chi-square analysis and continuous variables using t test or Wilcoxon's rank test. Thirty-eight patients underwent RSILC and 44 underwent SILC. BMI was higher in the RSILC group, and the number of patients with prior abdominal surgeries was higher in the SILC group. Otherwise, demographics were similar between the two groups. There was no difference in conversion rate between RSILC and SILC (8 vs 11 %, p = 0.60). Mean operative time for RSILC was significantly greater compared with SILC (98 vs 68 min, p < 0.0001). RSILC was associated with a longer duration of narcotic use (2.3 vs 1.7 days, p = 0.0019) and time to independent performance of daily activities (4 vs 2.3 days, p < 0.0001). Total cost is greater in RSILC ($8961 vs $5379, p < 0.0001). While RSILC can be safely performed, it is associated with longer operative times and greater cost.

  15. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anaesthesia: A prospective, randomised study

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Sangeeta; Chauhan, Ashutosh; Chaterjee, Pallab; Alam, Mohammed T

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: Spinal anaesthesia has been reported as an alternative to general anaesthesia for performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). AIMS: Study aimed to evaluate efficacy, safety and cost benefit of conducting laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anaesthesia (SA) in comparison to general anaesthesia(GA) SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A prospective, randomised study conducted over a two year period at an urban, non teaching hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients meeting inclusion criteria e randomised into two groups. Group A and Group B received general and spinal anaesthesia by standardised techniques. Both groups underwent standard four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Mean anaesthesia time, pneumoperitoneum time and surgery time defined primary outcome measures. Intraoperative events and post operative pain score were secondary outcome measure. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The Student t test, Pearson′s chi-square test and Fisher exact test. RESULTS: Out of 235 cases enrolled in the study, 114 cases in Group A and 110 in Group B analysed. Mean anaesthesia time appeared to be more in the GA group (49.45 vs. 40.64, P = 0.02) while pneumoperitoneum time and corresponding the total surgery time was slightly longer in the SA group. 27/117 cases who received SA experienced intraoperative events, four significant enough to convert to GA. No postoperative complications noted in either group. Pain relief significantly more in SA group in immediate post operative period (06 and 12 hours) but same as GA group at time of discharge (24 hours). No late postoperative complication or readmission noted in either group. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy done under spinal anaesthesia as a routine anaesthesia of choice is feasible and safe. Spinal anaesthesia can be recommended to be the anaesthesia technique of choice for conducting laparoscopic cholecystectomy in hospital setups in developing countries where cost factor is a major factor. PMID:23741111

  16. Comparison of Intraabdominal and Trocar Site Local Anaesthetic Infiltration on Postoperative Analgesia After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Altuntaş, Gülsüm; Akkaya, Ömer Taylan; Özkan, Derya; Sayın, Mehmet Murat; Balas, Şener; Özlü, Elif

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the efficacy of local anaesthetic infiltration to trocar wounds and intraperitoneally on postoperative pain as a part of a multimodal analgesia method after laparoscopic cholecystectomies. The study was performed on 90 ASA I-III patients aged between 20 and 70 years who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All patients had the same general anaesthesia drug regimen. Patients were randomized into three groups by a closed envelope method: group I (n=30), trocar site local anaesthetic infiltration (20 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine); group II (n=30), intraperitoneal local anaesthetic instillation (20 mL of 0.5%) and group III (n=30), saline infiltration both trocar sites and intraperitoneally. Postoperative i.v. patient controlled analgesia was initiated for 24 h. In total, 4 mg of i.v. ondansetron was administered to all patients. Visual analogue scale (VAS), nausea and vomiting and shoulder pain were evaluated at 1., 2., 4., 8., 12., 24. hours. An i.v. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (50 mg of dexketoprofen) as a rescue analgesic was given if the VAS was ≥5. There were no statistical significant differences between the clinical and demographic properties among the three groups (p≥0.005). During all periods, VAS in group I was significantly lower than that in groups II and III (p<0.001). Among the groups, although there was no significant difference in nausea and vomiting (p=0.058), there was a significant difference in shoulder pain. Group III (p<0.05) had more frequent shoulder pain than groups I and II. The total morphine consumption was higher in groups II and III (p<0.001 vs p<0.001) than in group I. The requirement for a rescue analgesic was significantly higher in group III (p<0.05). Trocar site local anaesthetic infiltration is more effective for postoperative analgesia, easier to apply and safer than other analgesia methods. Morphine consumption is lesser and side effects are fewer; therefore, this method can be

  17. The cost of ignoring acute cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Garner, J P; Sood, S K; Robinson, J; Barber, W; Ravi, K

    2009-01-01

    Biliary symptoms whilst awaiting elective cholecystectomy are common, resulting in hospital admission, further investigation and increased hospital costs. Immediate cholecystectomy during the first admission is safe and effective, even when performed laparoscopically, but acute laparoscopic cholecystectomy has only recently become increasingly commonplace in the UK. This study was designed to quantify this problem in our hospital and its cost implications. The case notes of all patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy in our hospital between January 2004 and June 2005 were examined for details of hospital admissions with biliary symptoms or complications whilst waiting for elective cholecystectomy. Additional bed occupancy and radiological investigations were recorded and these costs to the trust calculated. We compared the potential tariff income to the hospital trust for the actual management of these patients and if a policy of acute laparoscopic cholecystectomy on first admission were in place. In the 18-month study period, 259 patients (202 females) underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Of these, 147 presented as out-patients and only 11% required hospital admission because of biliary symptoms whilst waiting for elective surgery. There were 112 patients who initially presented acutely and were managed conservatively. Twenty-four patients were re-admitted 37 times, which utilised 231 hospital bed-days and repeat investigations costing over 40,000 pounds. There would have been a marginal increase in tariff income if a policy of acute laparoscopic cholecystectomy had been in place. Adoption of a policy of acute laparoscopic cholecystectomy on the index admission would result in substantial cost savings to the trust, reduce elective cholecystectomy waiting times and increase tariff income.

  18. [Cost-effectiveness of laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Roosevelt; Valenzuela, José Ignacio; Olaya, Sandra Catalina; Quintero, Gustavo; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Pinzón, Carlos Eduardo; López, Catalina; Ramírez, Juan Camilo

    2011-01-01

    Cholecystectomy has been the subject of several clinical and cost comparison studies. The results of open or laparoscopy cholecystectomy were compared in terms of cost and effectiveness from the perspective of health care institutions and from that of the patients. The cost-effectiveness study was undertaken at two university hospitals in Bogotá, Colombia. The approach was to select the type of cholecystectomy retrospectively and then assess the result prospectively. The cost analysis used the combined approach of micro-costs and daily average cost. Patient resource consumption was gathered from the time of surgery room entry to time of discharge. A sample of 376 patients with cholelithiasis/cystitis (May 2005-June 2006) was selected--156 underwent open cholecystectomy and 220 underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The following data were tabulated: (1) frequency of complications and mortality, post-surgical hospital stay, (2) reincorporation to daily activities, (3) surgery duration, (4) direct medical costs, (5) costs to the patient, and (6) mean and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Frequency of complications was 13.5% for open cholecystectomy and 6.4% for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p=0.02); hospital stay was longer in open cholecystectomy than in laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p=0.003) as well as the reincorporation to daily activities reported by the patients (p<0.001). The duration of open cholecystectomy was 22 min longer than laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p<0.001). The average cost of laparoscopic cholecystectomy was lower than open cholecystectomy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy was more cost-effective than open cholecystectomy (US$ 995 vs. US$ 1,048, respectively). The patient out-of-pocket expenses were greater in open cholecystectomy compared to laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p=0.015). Mortality was zero. The open laparoscopy procedure was associated with longer hospital stays, where as the cholecystectomy procedure required a longer surgical

  19. Endoscopic sphincterotomy and interval cholecystectomy are reasonable alternatives to index cholecystectomy in severe acute gallstone pancreatitis (GSP).

    PubMed

    Sanjay, Pandanaboyana; Yeeting, Sim; Whigham, Carole; Judson, Hannah; Polignano, Francesco M; Tait, Iain S

    2008-08-01

    UK guidelines for gallstone pancreatitis (GSP) advocate definitive treatment during the index admission, or within 2 weeks of discharge. However, this target may not always be achievable. This study reviewed current management of GSP in a university hospital and evaluated the risk associated with interval cholecystectomy. All patients that presented with GSP over a 4-year period (2002-2005) were stratified for disease severity (APACHE II). Patient demographics, time to definitive therapy [index cholecystectomy; endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES); Interval cholecystectomy], and readmission rates were analysed retrospectively. 100 patients admitted with GSP. Disease severity was mild in 54 patients and severe in 46 patients. Twenty-two patients unsuitable for surgery underwent ES as definitive treatment with no readmissions. Seventy-eight patients underwent cholecystectomy, of which 40 (58%) had an index cholecystectomy, and 38 (42%) an interval cholecystectomy. Only 10 patients with severe GSP had an index cholecystectomy, whilst 30 were readmitted for Interval cholecystectomy (p = 0.04). The median APACHE score was 4 [standard deviation (SD) 3.8] for index cholecystectomy and 8 (SD 2.6) for Interval cholecystectomy (p < 0.05). Median time (range) to surgery was 7.5 (2-30) days for index cholecystectomy and 63 (13-210) days for Interval cholecystectomy. Fifty percent (19/38) of patients with GSP had ES prior to discharge for interval cholecystectomy. Two (5%) patients were readmitted: with acute cholecystitis (n = 1) and acute pancreatitis (n = 1) , whilst awaiting interval cholecystectomy. No mortality was noted in the Index or Interval group. This study demonstrates that overall 62% (22 endoscopic sphincterotomy and 40 index cholecystectomy) of patients with GSP have definitive therapy during the Index admission. However, surgery was deferred in the majority (n = 30) of patients with severe GSP, and 19/30 underwent ES prior to discharge. ES and interval

  20. Comparison between analgesic effect of bupivacaine thoracic epidural and ketamine infusion plus wound infiltration with local anesthetics in open cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Megahed, Nagwa Ahmed Ebrahim; Ellakany, Mohamed; Elatter, Ahmed Mohammed Ibrahim; Moustafa Teima, Mohamed Ahmed Ali

    2014-01-01

    Neuraxial blocks result in sympathetic block, sensory analgesia and motor block. Continuous epidural anesthesia through a catheter offers several options for perioperative analgesia. Local anesthetic boluses or infusions can provide profound analgesia. Although the role of low-dose ketamine (<2 mg/kg intramuscular, <1 mg/kg intravenous [IV] or ≤ 20 μg/kg/min by IV infusion) in the treatment of post-operative pain is controversial, perioperative administration of a small dose of ketamine may be valuable to a multimodal analgesic regimen. A local anesthetic can be used for wound infiltration intra-operative to minimized the surgical pain. A prospective randomized study was performed in which 40 patients scheduled for elective open cholecystectomy under general anesthesia admitted to the Medical Research Institute were included and further subdivided into two groups, group A, received thoracic epidural catheter at T7-8, activation was done 20 min before induction of anesthesia with plain bupivacaine at a concentration of 0.25% at a volume of 1 ml/segment aiming to block sensory supply from T4-L2, then received continuous thoracic epidural infusion intra and postoperatively with plain bupivacaine at a concentration of 0.125% at a rate of 5 ml/h for 24 h, group B received 0.3 mg/kg bolus of ketamine at the time of induction then 0.1 mg/kg/h ketamine IV infusion during surgery followed by wound infiltration with 15 ml of plain bupivacaine 0.5% at the time of skin closure. Bupivacaine thoracic epidural analgesia had better control on heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure than ketamine infusion plus wound infiltration with local anesthetic in patients undergoing open cholecystectomy. Thoracic epidural analgesia had better control on hemodynamic changes intra-and postoperatively than ketamine infusion with local wound infiltration in open cholecystectomy.

  1. Comparison of Postoperative Pain and Residual Gas Between Restrictive and Liberal Fluid Therapy in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lei; Wang, Yulan; Du, Boxiang; Song, Jie; Ji, Fuhai

    2017-10-01

    Different fluid regimens are used in the clinical management of perioperative fluid therapy, but there still is the argument about which fluid regimen is better for patients. This study was mainly designed to compare different fluid regimens on postoperative pain and residual gas in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A total of 100 patients were equally randomized to receive restrictive fluid infusion (n=50) with lactated Ringer (LR) solution 5 mL/kg/h or liberal fluid infusion (n=50), with 30 mL/kg/h lactated Ringer solution. Postoperative pain was evaluated at 1, 6, and 24 hours after surgery using a visual analog scale (VAS). Postoperative subdiaphragmatic residual gas was monitored by x-ray at 24 hours after surgery. Patients in the restrictive group had significantly higher VAS pain scores at 6 hours after surgery than those in the liberal group (P=0.009). The incidence of subdiaphragmatic residual gas in the restrictive group was higher than in the liberal group (P=0.045). Patients who had residual gas had higher VAS pain scores than those with no residual gas in the restrictive group at 6 hours after surgery (P=0.02). Patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy with restrictive fluid therapy may suffer more severe postoperative pain than those receiving liberal fluid therapy. It suggests that the higher incidence of subdiaphragmatic residual gas may have occurred with restrictive fluid therapy.

  2. Rates of Surgical Site Infection in Cholecystectomy: Comparison between a University Teaching Hospital, Madrid Region, Spain, and USA Rates.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Caravaca, Gil; Gil-Yonte, Pablo; Del-Moral-Luque, Juan Antonio; Lucas, Warren Covelé; Fernández-Cebrián, José María; Durán-Poveda, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    There are many factors that can influence surgical site infections (SSI) in cholecystectomies. Incidence of cholecystectomy SSI was studied and compared with the incidence in Madrid Region, Spain, and the United States. A prospective cohort study was conducted which included all patients who underwent gallbladder surgery for 5 consecutive years, at the Alcorcón Foundation University Teaching Hospital. SSI incidence rate was calculated. An association between risk factors and SSI incidence was assessed with the relative risk (RR). Infection rates were compared to those in the Madrid Region and to the overall Spanish and United States rates using the standardized infection ratio (SIR). The study included 1532 patients. Cumulative overall SSI was 1.96% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-2.7). The SIR was 0.89 with respect to the Madrid Region, 0.77 with respect to Spain's rate, and 1.77 with respect to the United States' rate. A laparoscopic route protected against infection (RR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.2-0.9). Razor shaving in surgical preparation, duration of surgery, and neoplasm increased SSI incidence. SSI incidence rates among cholecystectomized patients at our hospital are higher than rates in the United States. A laparoscopic route protected against SSI. Copyright: © 2017 SecretarÍa de Salud

  3. Comparison of Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme and Laryngeal Mask Airway Proseal with respect to oropharyngeal leak pressure during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Beleña, José M; Núñez, Mónica; Anta, Diego; Carnero, Maria; Gracia, José L; Ayala, José L; Alvarez, Raquel; Yuste, Javier

    2013-03-01

    A comparison of the efficacy and safety of the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) Supreme (LMAS) versus the LMA Proseal (LMAP) in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. To compare the LMAS with LMAP in terms of ventilatory efficacy, airway leak pressure (airway protection), ease-of-use and complications. Prospective, single-blind, randomised, controlled study. The Hospital del Sureste and Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, between May 2009 and March 2011. The Hospital del Sureste is a secondary hospital and Hospital Ramon y Cajal is a tertiary hospital. Patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were studied following informed consent. Inclusion criteria were American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I to III and age 18 or more. Exclusion criteria were BMI more than 40 kg m, symptomatic hiatus hernia or severe gastro-oesophageal reflux. Anaesthesiologists experienced in the use of LMAP and LMAS participated in the trial. One hundred twenty-two patients were randomly allocated to LMAS or LMAP. Our primary outcome measure was the oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP). Secondary outcomes were the time and number of attempts for insertion, ease of insertion of the drain tube, adequacy of ventilation and the incidence of complication. Patients were interviewed postoperatively to evaluate the presence of sore throat, dysphagia or dysphonia. Two patients were excluded when surgery changed from laparoscopic to open. A total of 120 patients were finally included in the analysis. The mean OLP in the LMAP group was significantly higher than that in the LMAS group (30.7 ± 6.2 versus 26.8 ± 4.1 cmH2O;P < 0.01). This was consistent with a higher maximum tidal volume achieved with the LMAP compared to the LMAS (511 ± 68 versus 475 ± 55 ml; P = 0.04). The success rate of the first attempt insertion was higher for the LMAS group than the LMAP group (96.7 and 71.2%, respectively; P < 0.01). The time taken for insertion, ease of

  4. Noted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunberg, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Considering how much attention people lavish on the technologies of writing--scroll, codex, print, screen--it's striking how little they pay to the technologies for digesting and regurgitating it. One way or another, there's no sector of the modern world that is not saturated with note-taking--the bureaucracy, the liberal professions, the…

  5. Visualisation of Rouviere's Sulcus during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Thapa, P B; Maharjan, D K; Tamang, T Y; Shrestha, S K

    2015-01-01

    Safe dissection of Calot's Triangle is important during the performance of laparascopic cholucystectomy. The purpose of the study is to determine the frequency of demonstrable Rouviere's sulcus in patients with symptomatic gall stones and its role in safe dissection in Calot's triangle. This is a prospective descriptive study design done in Department of surgery, Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital from Jan 2013 to Jan 2015. Patients who were posted for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included. During laparoscopy, Rouviere's sulcus was noted in the operative note and classified according to following: Type I: Open type was defined as a cleft in which the right hepatic pedicle was visualized and the sulcus was opened throughout its length. Type II: if the sulcus was open only at its lateral end. Type III If the sulcus was open only at its medial end. Type IV: Fused type was defined as one in which the pedicle was not visualized.  A total of 200 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy during period of 2 years. Out of which Rouviere's sulcus was visualized in 150 patients (75 %).Type I (open type) was commoner in 54%, type II in 12%, Type III in 9% and type IV (fused type) in 25%. Rouviere's Sulcus is an important extra biliary land mark for safe dissection of Calot's triangle during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.  Rouviere's Sulcus, Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, Bile duct injury.

  6. The First Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    Prof Dr Med Erich Mühe of Böblingen, Germany, performed the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy on September 12, 1985. The German Surgical Society rejected Mühe in 1986 after he reported that he had performed the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy, yet in 1992 he received their highest award, the German Surgical Society Anniversary Award. In 1990 in Atlanta, at the Society of American Gastrointestinal Surgeons (SAGES) Convention, Perissat, Berci, Cuschieri, Dubois, and Mouret were recognized by SAGES for performing early laparoscopic cholecystectomies, but Mühe was not. However, in 1999 he was recognized by SAGES for having performed the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy–sAGES invited Mühe to present the Storz Lecture. In Mühe's presentation, titled “The First Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy,” which he gave in March 1999 in San Antonio, Texas, he described the first procedure. Finally, Mühe had received the worldwide acclaim that he deserved for his pioneering work. One purpose of this article is to trace the development of the basic instruments used in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The other purpose is to give Mühe the recognition he deserves for being the developer of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy procedure. PMID:11304004

  7. A Comparison of Suicide Note Writers with Suicides Who Did Not Leave Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callanan, Valerie J.; Davis, Mark S.

    2009-01-01

    There is disagreement in the suicide literature on the value of suicide notes as a data source, particularly regarding the extent to which suicide decedents who write notes differ from those who do not. Using 10 years of suicide cases from Summit County, Ohio, these two groups were compared on 40 variables including sociodemographic…

  8. Multimedia article: Transvaginal laparoscopic cholecystectomy: laparoscopically assisted.

    PubMed

    Bessler, Marc; Stevens, Peter D; Milone, Luca; Hogle, Nancy J; Durak, Evren; Fowler, Dennis

    2008-07-01

    Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is considered the new frontier for minimally invasive surgery. NOTES procedures such as peritoneoscopy, splenectomy, and cholecystectomy in animal models have been described. The aim of our experiment was to determine the feasibility and technical aspects of a new endoluminal surgical procedure. After approval from Columbia's IACUC, a transvaginal laparoscopically assisted endoscopic cholecystectomy was performed on four 30 kg Yorkshire pigs. The first step was to insert a 1.5 cm endoscope into the vagina under direct laparoscopic vision. Then the gallbladder was reached and, with the help of a laparoscopic grasper to hold up the gallbladder, the operation was performed. At the end of the procedure the gallbladder was snared out through the vagina attached to the endoscope. There were no intraoperative complications such as bleeding, common bile duct or endo-abdominal organ damage. Total operative time ranged between 110 and 155 min. Based on our experience in the porcine model, we believe that a transvaginal endoscopic cholecystectomy is feasible in humans.

  9. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in pregnancy. A case report.

    PubMed

    Williams, J K; Rosemurgy, A S; Albrink, M H; Parsons, M T; Stock, S

    1995-03-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed on a pregnant woman at 18 weeks of gestation without complications. Considering the risk/benefit ratio, laparoscopic cholecystectomy in pregnant women is preferable to conventional cholecystectomy.

  10. Laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Hodgett, Steven E; Hernandez, Jonathan M; Morton, Connor A; Ross, Sharona B; Albrink, Michael; Rosemurgy, Alexander S

    2009-02-01

    The journey from conventional "open" operations to truly "minimally invasive" operations naturally includes progression from operations involving multiple trocars and multiple incisions to operations involving access through the umbilicus alone. Laparoscopic operations through the umbilicus alone, laparoendoscopic single site surgery (LESS), offer improved cosmesis and hopes for less pain and improved recovery. This study was undertaken to evaluate our initial experience with LESS cholecystectomy and to compare our initial experience to concurrent outcomes with more conventional multiport, multi-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All patients referred for cholecystectomy over a 6-month period were offered LESS. Outcomes, including blood loss, operative time, complications, and length of stay were recorded. Outcomes with our first LESS cholecystectomies were compared to an uncontrolled group of concurrent patients undergoing multiport, multi-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy at the same hospital by the same surgeon. Twenty-nine patients of median age 50 years undergoing LESS cholecystectomy from November 2007 until May 2008 were compared to 29* patients, median age 48 years, undergoing standard multiport, multiple-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy over the same time period. Median operative time for patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy was 72 min and was not different from that of patients undergoing multiport, multi-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p = 0.81). Median length of hospital stay was 1.0 day for patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy and was not different from patients undergoing standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p = 0.46). Operative estimated blood loss was less than 100 cc for all patients. No patients undergoing attempted LESS cholecystectomy had conversions to "open" operations; two patients had an additional trocar(s) placed distant from the umbilicus to aid in exposure. Three patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy had

  11. [Robotic laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Langer, D; Pudil, J; Ryska, M

    2006-09-01

    Laparoscopic approach profusely utilized in many surgical fields was enhanced by da Vinci robotic surgical system in range of surgery wards, imprimis in the United States today. There was multispecialized robotic centre program initiated in the Central Military Hospital in Prague in December 2005. Within the scope of implementing the da Vinci robotic system to clinical practice we executed robotic-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We have accomplished elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy using the da Vinci robotic surgical system. Operating working group (two doctors, two scrub nurses) had completed certificated foreign training. Both of the surgeons have many years experience of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Operator controlled instruments from the surgeon's console, assistant placed clips on ends of cystic duct and cystic artery from auxiliary port after capnoperitoneum installation. We evacuated gallbladder in plastic bag from abdominal cavity in place of original paraumbilical port. We were exploiting three working arms in all our cases, holding surgical camera, electrocautery hook and Cadiere forceps. We had been observing procedure time, technical complications connected with robotic system, length of hospital stay and complication incidence rate. We managed to finish all operations in laparoscopic way. Group of our patients formed 11 male patients (35.5%) and 20 women (64.5%), mean aged 52.5 years in range of 27 77 years. The average operation procedure lasted 100 minutes, in the group of last 11 patients only 69 minutes. We recorded paraumbilical wound infections in 3 (9.7 %) patients. We had not experienced any technical problems with robotic surgical system. Length of hospital stay was 3 days. Considering our initial experience with robotic lasparoscopic cholecystectomy we evaluate da Vinci robotic surgical system to be safe and sophisticated operating manipulator which however does not substitute the surgeon key-role of controlling position and

  12. [Actual status of laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Chousleb Mizrahi, Elias; Chousleb Kalach, Alberto; Shuchleib Chaba, Samuel

    2004-08-01

    Since the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 1988, the management of gall-bladder disease has changed importantly. This technique was rapidly popularized in the U.S. as well as in Europe. Multiple studies have proved its feasibility, safeness and great advantages. Analyze usefulness and recent advances of endoscopic surgery in the management of gallbladder disease. We did a review of the recent medical literature to determine the actual status of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the most common surgical procedure performed in the digestive tract. During the year 2001, 1,100,000 cholecystectomies were done in the U.S., 85% were done laparoscopically. In Mexico cholecystectomy in government hospitals is done laparoscopically in 50% of the cases, while in private hospitals it reaches 90%. There are multiple prospective controlled studies showing superiority of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in times of recovery, costs, return to normal activity, pain, morbidity, esthetics among other advantages. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the gold standard for the treatment of the great majority of cases of gallbladder disease, nevertheless in developing countries open cholecystectomy is still done frequently.

  13. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for a left-sided gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Mazen E; Radzio, Agnes; Krikhely, Merab; Leitman, I Michael

    2013-09-21

    Cholecystectomy is a common procedure. Abnormalities in the anatomy of the biliary system are common but an abnormal location of the gallbladder is much rarer. Despite frequent pre-operative imaging, the aberrant location of the gallbladder is commonly discovered at surgery. This article presents a case of a patient with the gallbladder located to the left of the falciform ligament in the absence of situs inversus totalis that presented with right upper quadrant pain. A laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed and it was noted that the cystic duct originated from the right side. The presence of a left sided gall bladder is often associated with various biliary, portal venous and other anomalies that might lead to intra-operative injuries. The spectrum of unusual positions and anatomical gallbladder abnormalities is reviewed in order to facilitate elective and emergent cholecystectomy as well as other hepatobiliary procedures. With proper identification of the anatomy, minimally invasive approaches are still considered safe.

  14. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for a left-sided gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Iskandar, Mazen E; Radzio, Agnes; Krikhely, Merab; Leitman, I Michael

    2013-01-01

    Cholecystectomy is a common procedure. Abnormalities in the anatomy of the biliary system are common but an abnormal location of the gallbladder is much rarer. Despite frequent pre-operative imaging, the aberrant location of the gallbladder is commonly discovered at surgery. This article presents a case of a patient with the gallbladder located to the left of the falciform ligament in the absence of situs inversus totalis that presented with right upper quadrant pain. A laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed and it was noted that the cystic duct originated from the right side. The presence of a left sided gall bladder is often associated with various biliary, portal venous and other anomalies that might lead to intra-operative injuries. The spectrum of unusual positions and anatomical gallbladder abnormalities is reviewed in order to facilitate elective and emergent cholecystectomy as well as other hepatobiliary procedures. With proper identification of the anatomy, minimally invasive approaches are still considered safe. PMID:24124340

  15. True left-sided gallbladder: A case report and comparison with the literature for the different techniques of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for such anomalies.

    PubMed

    Saafan, Tamer; Hu, James Yi; Mahfouz, Ahmed-Emad; Abdelaal, Abdelrahman

    2018-01-01

    True left-sided gallbladder (LSG) is a rare finding that may present with symptoms similar to those of a normally positioned gallbladder. Moreover, it may be missed by preoperative imaging studies such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or endoscopic ultrasound. True left-sided gallbladder is a surgical challenge and surgical technique may need to be modified for the completion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In this case report, we present a case of true left-sided gallbladder that produced right-sided abdominal symptoms. Ultrasound of the abdomen failed to show the left-sided position of the gallbladder. MRI showed the gallbladder located to the left of the ligamentum teres underneath segment III of the liver. Intraoperatively, the gallbladder was grasped and retracted to the right under the falciform ligament and it was removed using classical right-sided ports with no modification to the technique. No complications were encountered intraoperatively or postoperatively. True LSG is a rare anomaly that may present with right-sided symptoms like normally positioned gallbladder. It may be missed in preoperative imaging studies and can be discovered only intraoperatively. Modification of laparoscopic ports, change in patient's position and/or surgeon's position, or conversion to open cholecystectomy may be needed for safe removal of the gallbladder. Classical technique of laparoscopic cholecystectomy is feasible for left-sided gallbladder. However, if the anatomy is not clear, modifications of the surgical technique may be necessary for the safe dissection of the gallbladder. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. [Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in transplant patients].

    PubMed

    Coelho, Júlio Cezar Uili; Contieri, Fabiana L C; de Freitas, Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira; da Silva, Fernanda Cristina; Kozak, Vanessa Nascimento; da Silva Junior, Alzemir Santos

    2010-02-01

    This study reviews our experience with laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the treatment of cholelithiasis in transplant patients. Demographic data, medications used, and operative and postoperative data of all transplant recipients who were subjected to laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis at our hospital were obtained. A total of 15 transplant patients (13 renal transplantation and 2 bone marrow transplantation) underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All patients were admitted to the hospital on the day of the operation. The immunosuppressive regimen was not modified during hospitalization. Clinical presentation of cholelithiasis was biliary colicky (n=12), acute cholecystitis (n=2), and jaundice (n=1). The operation was uneventful in all patients. Postoperative complications were nausea and vomiting in 2 patients, prolonged tracheal intubation in 1, wound infection in 1 and large superficial hematoma in 1 patient. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated to a low morbidity and mortality and good postoperative outcome in transplant patients with uncomplicated cholecystitis.

  17. Does the cost of robotic cholecystectomy translate to a financial burden?

    PubMed

    Rosemurgy, Alexander; Ryan, Carrie; Klein, Richard; Sukharamwala, Prashant; Wood, Thomas; Ross, Sharona

    2015-08-01

    Robotic application to cholecystectomy has dramatically increased, though its impact on cost of care and reimbursement has not been elucidated. We undertook this study to evaluate and compare cost of care and reimbursement with robotic versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The charges and reimbursement of all robotic and laparoscopic cholecystectomies at one hospital undertaken from June 2012 to June 2013 were determined. Operative duration is defined as time into and time out of the operating room. Data are presented as median data. Comparisons were undertaken using the Mann-Whitney U-test with significance accepted at p ≤ 0.05. Robotic cholecystectomy took longer (47 min longer) and had greater charges ($8,182.57 greater) than laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p < 0.05 for each). However, revenue, earnings before depreciation, interest, and taxes (EBDIT), and Net Income were not impacted by approach. Relative to laparoscopic cholecystectomy, robotic cholecystectomy takes longer and has greater charges. Revenue, EBDIT, and Net Income are similar after either approach; this indicates that costs with either approach are similar. Notably, this is possible because much of hospital-based costs are determined by cost allocation and not cost accounting. Thus, the cost of longer operations and costs inherent to the robotic approach for cholecystectomy do not translate to a perceived financial burden.

  18. Transvaginal laparoscopically assisted endoscopic cholecystectomy: preliminary clinical results for a series of 43 cases in China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jun; Song, Wei; Yan, Ming; Fan, Wei; Niu, Weibo; Liu, Enyu; Peng, Cheng; Lin, Pengfei; Li, Peng; Khan, Abdul Qadir

    2011-04-01

    Transvaginal cholecystectomy has been performed successfully at several research institutions worldwide using natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) techniques. However, it is a growing new surgical concept in China. Several technical challenges hinder the safe clinical application of NOTES. This study investigated transvaginal endoscopic cholecystectomy performed with the assistance of a single umbilical trocar and achieved helpful initial clinical experience. From May 2009 to April 2010, a total of 43 transvaginal human cholecystectomies were performed. A single umbilical trocar was used for safe access and laparoscopic assistance during the operation. After the gallbladder had been removed through the vagina, the colpotomy was closed with absorbable stitches under direct vision. In addition, Student's t-test was performed for two samples to estimate the superiority of NOTES over a conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) operation. The procedure was successfully completed for all the patients. No intra- or post-operative complications occurred. The patients recovered promptly after surgery, and all were satisfied with ideal cosmetic outcomes. The postoperative pain, hospital stay, and cost of hospitalization with NOTES were much less than with conventional LC operations. Although endoscopic instruments specifically designed for NOTES are not available, the addition of an umbilical trocar is an optimal way to allow safe performance of NOTES procedures in an easily reproducible manner. The authors' initial experience demonstrates that this hybrid technique is potentially feasible and effective for reducing postoperative pain and recovery times while improving the cosmetic results of transvaginal cholecystectomy.

  19. Techniques of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Nomenclature and selection.

    PubMed

    Haribhakti, Sanjiv P; Mistry, Jitendra H

    2015-01-01

    There are more than 50 different techniques of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) available in literature mainly due to modifications by surgeons in aim to improve postoperative outcome and cosmesis. These modifications include reduction in port size and/or number than what is used in standard LC. There is no uniform nomenclature to describe these different techniques so that it is not possible to compare the outcomes of different techniques. We brief the advantages and disadvantages of each of these techniques and suggest the situation where particular technique would be useful. We also propose a nomenclature which is easy to remember and apply, so that any future comparison will be possible between the techniques.

  20. Pseudoaneurysm following laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Madanur, Mansoor Ahmed; Battula, Narendra; Sethi, Harsheet; Deshpande, Rahul; Heaton, Nigel; Rela, Mohamed

    2007-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the operation of choice for removal of the gallbladder. Unrecognized bile duct injuries present with biliary peritonitis and systemic sepsis. Bile has been shown to cause damage to the vascular wall and therefore delay the healing of injured arteries leading to pseudoaneurysm formation. Failure to deal with bile leak and secondary infection may result in pseudoaneurysm formation. This study was to report the incidence and outcomes of pseudoaneurysm in patients with bile leak following LC referred to our hospital. A retrospective analysis of our prospectively maintained liver database using key words pseudoaneurysm, bile leak and bile duct injury following laparoscopic cholecystectomy from January 2000 to December 2005 was performed. A total of 86 cases were referred with bile duct injury and bile leak following LC and of these, 4 patients (4.5%) developed hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm (HAP) presenting with haemobilia in 3 and massive intra-abdominal bleed in 1. Selective visceral angiography confirmed pseudoaneurysm of the right hepatic artery in 2 cases, cystic artery stump in one and an intact but ectatic hepatic artery with surgical clips closely applied to the right hepatic artery at the origin of the cystic artery in the fourth case. Effective hemostasis was achieved in 3 patients with coil embolization and the fourth patient required emergency laparotomy for severe bleeding and hemodynamic instability due to a ruptured right hepatic artery. Of the 3 patients treated with coil embolization, 2 developed late strictures of the common hepatic duct (CHD) requiring hepatico-jejunostomy and one developed a stricture of left hepatic duct. All the 4 patients are alive at a median follow up of 17 months (range 1 to 65) with normal liver function tests. HAP is a rare and potentially life-threatening complication of LC. Biloma and subsequent infection are reported to be associated with pseudoaneurysm formation. Late duct stricture is

  1. Comparison of the efficacy of ondansetron and granisetron to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Si-Jia; Xiong, Xian-Ze; Lin, Yi-Xin; Cheng, Nan-Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Our purpose was to assess the prophylactic antiemetic effects of ondansetron versus granisetron for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, Foreign Medical Journal Full-Text Service, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Whole Article Database, Chinese Biomedical Database, and the Google Scholar. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for dichotomous data. The χ(2) test and I(2) value were used to assess heterogeneity. The merged early incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in ondansetron group (42.9%) was higher than granisetron group (34.3%) (RR = 1.25, 95% CI, 0.82-1.92, P=0.31, I(2) = 48%). The merged total incidence of PONV in ondansetron group (38.7%) was higher than granisetron group (34.2%) (RR = 1.13, 95% CI, 0.82-1.56, P = 0.46, I(2) = 39%), although these differences were not statistically significant. Ondansetron is equivalent to granisetron for preventing early and total incidence of PONV after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  2. The "right" way is not always popular: comparison of surgeons' perceptions during laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis among experts from Japan, Korea and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hibi, Taizo; Iwashita, Yukio; Ohyama, Tetsuji; Honda, Goro; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takada, Tadahiro; Han, Ho-Seong; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Shinya, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Umezawa, Akiko; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Choi, In-Seok; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Chen, Kuo-Hsin; Miura, Fumihiko; Watanabe, Manabu; Abe, Yuta; Misawa, Takeyuki; Nagakawa, Yuichi; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Jang, Jin-Young; Yu, Hee Chul; Ahn, Keun Soo; Kim, Song Cheol; Song, In Sang; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yun, Sung Su; Choi, Seong Ho; Jan, Yi-Yin; Sheen-Chen, Shyr-Ming; Shan, Yan-Shen; Ker, Chen-Guo; Chan, De-Chuan; Wu, Cheng-Chung; Toyota, Naoyuki; Higuchi, Ryota; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Yutaka; Ito, Masahiro; Norimizu, Shinji; Yamada, Shigetoshi; Matsumura, Naoki; Shindoh, Junichi; Sunagawa, Hiroki; Gocho, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Rikiyama, Toshiki; Sata, Naohiro; Kano, Nobuyasu; Kitano, Seigo; Tokumura, Hiromi; Yamashita, Yuichi; Watanabe, Goro; Nakagawa, Kunitoshi; Kimura, Taizo; Yamakawa, Tatsuo; Wakabayashi, Go; Endo, Itaru; Miyazaki, Masaru; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2017-01-01

    Generally, surgeons' perceptions of surgical safety are based on experience and institutional policy. Our recent pilot survey demonstrated that the acceptable duration of surgery and criteria for open conversion during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) vary among workplaces. A web-based survey was distributed to 554 expert LC surgeons in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. The questionnaire covered LC experience, safety measures and recognition of landmarks, decision-making regarding conversion to open/partial cholecystectomy and the implications of this decision. Overall responses were compared among nations, and then stratified by LC experience level (lifetime cases 200-499, 500-999, and ≥1,000). The response rate was 92.6% (513/554); 67 surgeons with ≤199 LCs were excluded, and responses from 446 surgeons were analyzed. We observed significant differences among nations on almost all questions. Differences that remained after stratification by LC experience were on questions related to acceptable duration of surgery, adoption rates of intraoperative cholangiography, the "critical view of safety" technique, identification of Rouvière's sulcus, recognition of the SS-Inner layer theory, and intraoperative judgment to abandon conventional LC. Even among experts, surgeons' perceptions during LC are workplace-dependent. A novel grading system of surgical difficulty and standardized LC procedures are paramount to generate high-level evidence. © 2016 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  3. Hybrid natural orifice transluminal endoscopic cholecystectomy: prospective human series.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado-Garcia, Angel; Noguera, Jose F; Olea-Martinez, Jose M; Morales, Rafael; Dolz, Carlos; Lozano, Luis; Vicens, Jose-Carlos; Pujol, Juan José

    2011-01-01

    Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) makes it possible to perform intraperitoneal surgical procedures with a minimal number of access points in the abdominal wall. Currently, it is not possible to perform these interventions without the help of abdominal wall entryways, so these procedures are hybrids fusing minilaparoscopy and transluminal endoscopic surgery. This report presents a prospective clinical series of 25 patients who underwent transvaginal hybrid cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis. The study comprised a clinical series of 25 consecutive nonrandomized women who underwent a fusion transvaginal NOTES and minilaparoscopy procedure with two trocars for cholelithiasis: one 5-mm umbilical trocar and one 3-mm trocar in the upper left quadrant. The study had no control group. The scheduled surgical intervention was performed for all 25 women. No intraoperative complications occurred. One patient had mild hematuria that resolved in less than 12 h, but no other complications occurred during an average follow-up period of 140 days. Of the 25 women, 20 were discharged in 24 h, and 5 were discharged less than 12 h after the procedure. Hybrid transvaginal cholecystectomy, combining NOTES and minilaparoscopy, is a good surgical model for minimally invasive surgery. It can be performed in surgical settings where laparoscopy is practiced regularly using the instruments normally used for endoscopy and laparoscopic surgery. Due to the reproducibility of the intervention and the ease of vaginal closure, hybrid transvaginal cholecystectomy will permit further development of NOTES in the future.

  4. Comparison of 0.25% Ropivacaine for Intraperitoneal Instillation v/s Rectus Sheath Block for Postoperative Pain Relief Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Naithani, Udita; Singariya, Geeta; Gupta, Sunanda

    2016-01-01

    Introduction As Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (LC) is not a totally pain free procedure, with the pain being most intense on the day of surgery and on the following day. Various techniques are available for postoperative pain relief like intraperitoneal instillation of local anaesthetics and rectus sheath block (RSB)which may provide effective pain relief. Aim To compare the efficacy of preemptive administration (initiated before the surgical procedure) of intraperitoneal instillation and rectus sheath block using ropivacaine for postoperative analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods A total of 75 selected patients were randomly assigned to three equal groups as Group R, who received bilateral RSB with 0.25 % ropivacaine 15 ml on either side; Group I, who received intraperitoneal instillation of 0.25% ropivacaine 50 ml and Group C (Control group), who received only rescue analgesic on pain. These were compared regarding postoperative analgesia in terms of Visual Analog Scale (0-10 cm), Prince Henry Hospital Pain Score (0-3), time to first dose of rescue analgesic (tramadol), total rescue analgesic consumption in 48 hours, patient satisfaction scores (1-7) and adverse effects. Results The time to first rescue analgesic was significantly longer in Group R (16.16±4.73h) and Group I (7.84±1.34h) as compared to Group C (1.72±0.67h), p<0.001. Mean tramadol consumption in 48h for each patient was significantly less in Group R (148±54.92mg) and Group I (202±33.78mg) as compared to Group C (298±22.73mg) p<0.001. Postoperative pain scores were also significantly less in Group R and Group I as compared to Group C during first 6 hours, p<0.05. The difference in above parameters was also significant between Group R and Group I, p<0.05. Thus order of postoperative analgesia effect was: Group R > Group I > Group C. Rescue analgesic requirement showed a 32.21% reduction in Group I and 50.33% reduction in Group R as compared to Group C. Patient

  5. [Ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy by minilaparoscopy versus traditional multiport ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Prospective randomized trial].

    PubMed

    Planells Roig, Manuel; Arnal Bertomeu, Consuelo; Garcia Espinosa, Rafael; Cervera Delgado, Maria; Carrau Giner, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    Difference analysis of ambulatorization rate, pain, analgesic requirements and daily activities recovery in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy with standard multiport access (CLMP) versus a minilaparoscopic, 3mm size, technique. Prospective randomized trial of 40 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Comparison criteria included predictive ultrasound factors of difficult cholecystectomy, previous history of complicated biliary disease and demographics. Results are analyzed in terms of ambulatorization rate, pain, analgesic requirements, postoperative recovery, technical difficulty, hemorrhage intensity, overnight stay, readmission rate and total or partial conversion. Both procedures were similar in surgery time, technical score and hemorrhage score. MLC was associated with similar ambulatorization rate, 85%, and over-night stay 15%, with only 15% partial conversion rate. MLC showed less postoperative pain (P=.026), less analgesic consumption (P=.006) and similar DAR (P=.879). MLC is similar to CLMP in terms of ambulatorization with less postoperative pain and analgesic requirements without differences in postoperative recovery. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Splanchnic and renal deterioration during and after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a comparison of the carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum and the abdominal wall lift method.

    PubMed

    Koivusalo, A M; Kellokumpu, I; Ristkari, S; Lindgren, L

    1997-10-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum together with an increased intraabdominal pressure (IAP) induces a hemodynamic stress response, diminishes urine output, and may compromise splanchnic perfusion. A new retractor method may be less traumatic. Accordingly, 30 ASA physical status I or II patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated to a CO2 pneumoperitoneum (IAP 12-13 mm Hg) (control) or to a gasless abdominal wall lift method (retractor) group. Anesthesia and intravascular fluids were standardized. Direct mean arterial pressure (MAP), urine output, urine-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (U-NAG), arterial blood gases, gastric mucosal PCO2, and intramucosal pH (pHi) were measured. Normoventilation was instituted in all patients. MAP increased (P < 0.001) only with CO2 pneumoperitoneum. Minute volume of ventilation had to be increased by 35% with CO2 insufflation. PaCO2 was significantly higher (P < 0.05) for 3 h postoperatively in the control group. Diuresis was less (P < 0.01) and U-NAG levels (P < 0.01) higher in the control group. The pHi decreased after induction of pneumoperitoneum up to three hours postoperatively and remained intact in the retractor group. We conclude that the retractor method for laparoscopic cholecystectomy ensures stable hemodynamics, prevents respiratory acidosis, and provides protection against biochemical effects, which reveal the renal and splanchic ischemia caused by CO2 insufflation. A mechanical retractor method (gasless) was compared with conventional CO2 pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic cholestectomy. The gasless method ensured stable hemodynamics, prevented respiratory acidosis, and provided protection against the renal and splanchnic ischemia seen with CO2 pneumoperitoneum.

  7. Therapy of umbilical hernia during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Zoricić, Ivan; Vukusić, Darko; Rasić, Zarko; Schwarz, Dragan; Sever, Marko

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to show our experience with umbilical hernia herniorrhaphy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, both in the same act. During last 10 years we operated 89 patients with cholecystitis and pre-existing umbilical hernia. In 61 of them we performed standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy and additional sutures of abdominal wall, and in 28 patients we performed in the same act laparoscopic cholecystectomy and herniorrhaphy of umbilical hernia. We observed incidence of postoperative herniation, and compared patients recovery after herniorrhaphy combined with laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the same act, and patients after standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy and additional sutures of abdominal wall. Patients, who had in the same time umbilical hernia herniorrhaphy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, shown better postoperative recovery and lower incidence of postoperative umbilical hernias then patients with standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy and additional abdominal wall sutures.

  8. Comparison between the combination of gabapentin, ketamine, lornoxicam, and local ropivacaine and each of these drugs alone for pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Kotsovolis, Georgios; Karakoulas, Konstantinos; Grosomanidis, Vasileios; Tziris, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    The main purpose of the study was to test whether the combination of gabapentin (600 mg 4 hours before surgery, 600 mg after 24 hours), ketamine (0.3 mg/kg before anesthesia), lornoxicam (8 mg before anesthesia and 8 mg/12 hours), and local ropivacaine (5 mL 7.5% at insertion sites) provides superior analgesia to each of these drugs alone in the first 24 hours after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The secondary purpose was to examine whether this combination has less opioid-related side effects. This was a 2-center randomized placebo-controlled trial. One hundred forty-eight patients, between 18 and 70 years of age, were randomly assigned to 6 groups (28 in each group) with the use of computer software: A(gabapentin/ketamine/lornoxicam/ropivacaine); B(gabapentin/placebo/placebo/placebo); C (placebo/ketamine/placebo/placebo); D (placebo/placebo/lornoxicam/placebo); E (placebo/placebo/placebo/ropivacaine); and F (placebo/placebo/placebo/placebo). Only the principal investigator was aware of patients' allocation and provided drugs and placebo in covered prefilled syringes. The primary outcome of the study was the 24-hour morphine consumption. Secondary outcomes were frequency of opioid-related side effects (nausea, vomiting, sedation, pruritus, and dysuria). Only groups A (6.4 mg), B (9.46 mg), and D (9.36 mg) had lower morphine consumption than control group (20.29 mg) (P < 0.001, P = 0.01, and P = 0.008, respectively). Group A was not different from B and D (P = 0.92, P = 0.93). The only difference was in episodes of nausea between groups A (n = 5) and the control group (n = 12) (P = 0.018). The combination of gabapentin, ketamine, lornoxicam, and local ropivacaine does not provide superior analgesia than gabapentin alone or lornoxicam alone after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The combination reduces only the frequency of postoperative nausea, but larger studies are needed for safer results. © 2014 World Institute of Pain.

  9. Recovery after uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Bisgaard, Thue; Klarskov, Birthe; Kehlet, Henrik; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2002-11-01

    After laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the duration of convalescence is 2 to 3 weeks with an unclear pathogenesis. This study was undertaken to analyze postoperative recovery after uncomplicated elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Twenty-four consecutive unselected employed patients were followed up prospectively from 1 week before to 1 week after outpatient laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Daily computerized monitoring of physical motor activity and sleep duration and night sleep fragmentation (actigraphy), subjective sleep quality, pulmonary function, pain, and fatigue were registered. Treadmill exercise performance (preoperatively and at postoperative days 2 and 8) and nocturnal pulse oximetry at the patients' homes (preoperatively and postoperative nights 1-3) were completed. Median age was 41 years (range, 21-56). Compared with preoperatively, levels of physical motor activity, fatigue, and pain scores were normalized 2 days after operation. Subjective sleep quality was significantly worsened on the first postoperative night, and sleep duration was significantly increased on the first 2 postoperative nights. There were no significant perioperative changes in actigraphy night sleep fragmentation, incidence of self-reported awakenings or nightmares/distressing dreams, exercise performance, or nocturnal oxygenation. Pulmonary peak flow measurements were normalized the day after operation. After uncomplicated outpatient laparoscopic cholecystectomy, there is no pathophysiologic basis for recommending a postoperative convalescence of more than 2 to 3 days in otherwise healthy younger patients.

  10. Clonidine versus nitroglycerin infusion in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Manjaree; Mishra, Shashi Prakash; Mathur, Sharad Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery offers the advantages of minimally invasive surgery; however, pneumoperitoneum and the patient's position induce pathophysiological changes that may complicate anesthetic management. We studied the effect of clonidine and nitroglycerin on heart rate and blood pressure, if any, in association with these drugs or the procedure, as well as the effect of these drugs, if any, on end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure and intraocular pressure. Sixty patients (minimum age of 20 years and maximum age of 65 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists class I or II) undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized into 3 groups and given an infusion of clonidine (group I), nitroglycerin (group II), or normal saline solution (group III) after induction and before creation of pneumoperitoneum. We observed and recorded the following parameters: heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure, and intraocular pressure. The mean and standard deviation of the parameters studied during the observation period were calculated for the 3 treatment groups and compared by use of analysis of variance tests. Intragroup comparison was performed with the paired t test. The critical value of P, indicating the probability of a significant difference, was taken as < .05 for comparisons. Statistically significant differences in heart rate were observed among the various groups, whereas comparisons of mean arterial pressure, intraocular pressure, and end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure showed statistically significant differences only between groups I and III and between groups II and III. We found clonidine to be more effective than nitroglycerin at preventing changes in hemodynamic parameters and intraocular pressure induced by carbon dioxide insufflation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It was also found not to cause hypotension severe enough to stop the infusion and warrant treatment.

  11. Clonidine Versus Nitroglycerin Infusion in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Manjaree; Mishra, Shashi Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic surgery offers the advantages of minimally invasive surgery; however, pneumoperitoneum and the patient's position induce pathophysiological changes that may complicate anesthetic management. We studied the effect of clonidine and nitroglycerin on heart rate and blood pressure, if any, in association with these drugs or the procedure, as well as the effect of these drugs, if any, on end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure and intraocular pressure. Methods: Sixty patients (minimum age of 20 years and maximum age of 65 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists class I or II) undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized into 3 groups and given an infusion of clonidine (group I), nitroglycerin (group II), or normal saline solution (group III) after induction and before creation of pneumoperitoneum. We observed and recorded the following parameters: heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure, and intraocular pressure. The mean and standard deviation of the parameters studied during the observation period were calculated for the 3 treatment groups and compared by use of analysis of variance tests. Intragroup comparison was performed with the paired t test. The critical value of P, indicating the probability of a significant difference, was taken as < .05 for comparisons. Results: Statistically significant differences in heart rate were observed among the various groups, whereas comparisons of mean arterial pressure, intraocular pressure, and end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure showed statistically significant differences only between groups I and III and between groups II and III. Conclusion: We found clonidine to be more effective than nitroglycerin at preventing changes in hemodynamic parameters and intraocular pressure induced by carbon dioxide insufflation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It was also found not to cause hypotension severe enough to stop the infusion and warrant treatment

  12. Comparison between lornoxicam quick-release and parecoxib for post-operative analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A prospective randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kouroukli, Irene; Zompolas, Vasilios; Tsekoura, Vasiliki; Papazoglou, Ioannis; Louizos, Antonis; Panaretou, Venetiana

    2013-10-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are valuable for post-operative pain as they reduce the use of opioids. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and traditional NSAIDs can be used. This is a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to study the efficacy and the safety of the oral administration of lornoxicam quick release tablets versus intravenously administered parecoxib for the management of pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). One hundred and eight patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II, were randomized to either group A (n = 36): Lornoxicam quick-release 8 mg PO, group B (n = 36): Parecoxib 40 mg intravenous (IV) or group C (n = 36) placebo, for post-operative analgesia, 30 min before the operation and 12 and 24 h post-operatively. All patients received a standard dose of meperidine 1 mg/kg intramuscularly before the incision and post-operatively as rescue analgesia, when visual analog scale (VAS) pain score was <4. Pain at rest and on movement was assessed at 20 min, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h post-operatively. Total meperidine administration and adverse events were also recorded. There were significantly lower VAS pain scores at 20 min, 3, 6, 12 and 18 h at rest or with movement in the lornoxicam quick release and parecoxib groups compared with the placebo group. The number of patients requiring rescue analgesia (meperidine) was significantly higher in the placebo group (P = 0.001). The average dose of meperidine administered was significantly higher in the placebo group, both at 20 min (P = 0.013/0.007) and 24 h (P = 0.037/0.023) post-operatively. VAS scores and meperidine requirements were similar in patients who received lornoxicam or parecoxib. Parecoxib 40 mg IV and lornoxicam quick-release 8 mg PO every 12 h are equivalent adjuvant analgesics with a greater efficacy than placebo for post-operative analgesia in patients undergoing LC.

  13. Techniques of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Nomenclature and selection

    PubMed Central

    Haribhakti, Sanjiv P.; Mistry, Jitendra H.

    2015-01-01

    There are more than 50 different techniques of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) available in literature mainly due to modifications by surgeons in aim to improve postoperative outcome and cosmesis. These modifications include reduction in port size and/or number than what is used in standard LC. There is no uniform nomenclature to describe these different techniques so that it is not possible to compare the outcomes of different techniques. We brief the advantages and disadvantages of each of these techniques and suggest the situation where particular technique would be useful. We also propose a nomenclature which is easy to remember and apply, so that any future comparison will be possible between the techniques. PMID:25883450

  14. Open cholecystectomy in the laparoscopic era.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, P J; Paterson, H M; Parks, R W; Garden, O J

    2007-11-01

    As techniques in laparoscopic cholecystectomy have improved, surgeon experience of open cholecystectomy may be limited. This study examined the current indications for and techniques used in primary open cholecystectomy. Some 3100 consecutive patients undergoing elective or emergency cholecystectomy over a 5-year interval were identified from a prospective surgical audit database. Demographic, diagnostic and procedural data were examined. There were 123 (4.0 per cent) primary and 219 (7.4 per cent) converted open cholecystectomies. Some 48.0 and 45.6 per cent of patients in the primary open cholecystectomy and converted groups respectively were men, compared with 24.0 per cent of 2758 who had a successful laparoscopic procedure. Primary open cholecystectomy was employed principally for previous upper abdominal open surgery (22.7 per cent) and emergency operation for general peritonitis (19.5 per cent). The fundus-first approach was employed in 53.7 per cent of primary open procedures and 53.0 per cent of conversions, with subtotal excision in 4.9 and 13.2 per cent respectively. Primary open cholecystectomy remains a common procedure in the treatment of gallbladder disease despite the success of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Successful outcome in difficult cases requires familiarity with specific techniques, exposure to which may be limited in current training programmes. Copyright (c) 2007 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.

  15. Bile duct injury during cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, V K

    2015-08-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the treatment of choice for gallstones, but is associated with increased risk of bile duct injury (BDI bile duct injury). If the BDI is detected during LC can be addressed immediately, if available hepatobiliary surgeon, but the easiest and safest procedure for the general surgeon is placing drains into subhepatic region and the transfer of acute BDI to controlled external biliary fistula (external Biliary fistula EBF). Most BDI is diagnosed when the postoperative period, when there is biliary leak. Therapy is a percutaneous catheter drainage and endoscopic stenting in the bile duct; early repair is not recommended. Repair in the form hepatico-jejunostomy (HJ) should be performed hepatobiliary surgeon at intervals of 46 weeks after it closes EBF. BDI is a frequent cause medico-legal actions and a substantial burden on health care costs. Most BDI can be avoided by adherence to the principles of safe cholecystectomy.

  16. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus small incision cholecystectomy in symptomatic gallstones disease.

    PubMed

    Mehrvarz, Shaban; Mohebi, Hassan Ali; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein

    2012-10-01

    To compare the results and outcomes of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with the small incision cholecystectomy (SIC). Observational study. Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from February 2008 to March 2009. Patients with symptomatic gallstones that were referred and enrolled in the study for LC or SIC. Operation, anaesthesia, analgesics and postoperative care were standardized. The patients were assessed for operation time, postoperative pain, nausea, vomiting, hospital stay, return to work time and complications in the postoperative period on day 1, 1 week, 1 month and 6 months, postoperatively. Of 144 patients, 81 underwent LC and 63 underwent SIC. Both groups were matched for age, gender, BMI, clinical findings and ASA grading. The mean duration of operation was 74 and 62 minutes in the LC and SIC groups, respectively (p = 0.0059). Duration of hospital stay and return to regular activities were shorter after LC compared to SIC. Pain scores, nausea and vomiting were the same in both groups, although the frequency of intra-operative complications were greater in LC compared to SIC. Outcome and complications of SIC were comparable with those of LC.

  17. Comparison of case note review methods for evaluating quality and safety in health care.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, A; Coster, J E; Cooper, K L; McIntosh, A; Walters, S J; Bath, P A; Pearson, M; Young, T A; Rantell, K; Campbell, M J; Ratcliffe, J

    2010-02-01

    To determine which of two methods of case note review--holistic (implicit) and criterion-based (explicit)--provides the most useful and reliable information for quality and safety of care, and the level of agreement within and between groups of health-care professionals when they use the two methods to review the same record. To explore the process-outcome relationship between holistic and criterion-based quality-of-care measures and hospital-level outcome indicators. Case notes of patients at randomly selected hospitals in England. In the first part of the study, retrospective multiple reviews of 684 case notes were undertaken at nine acute hospitals using both holistic and criterion-based review methods. Quality-of-care measures included evidence-based review criteria and a quality-of-care rating scale. Textual commentary on the quality of care was provided as a component of holistic review. Review teams comprised combinations of: doctors (n = 16), specialist nurses (n = 10) and clinically trained audit staff (n = 3) and non-clinical audit staff (n = 9). In the second part of the study, process (quality and safety) of care data were collected from the case notes of 1565 people with either chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or heart failure in 20 hospitals. Doctors collected criterion-based data from case notes and used implicit review methods to derive textual comments on the quality of care provided and score the care overall. Data were analysed for intrarater consistency, inter-rater reliability between pairs of staff using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and completeness of criterion data capture, and comparisons were made within and between staff groups and between review methods. To explore the process-outcome relationship, a range of publicly available health-care indicator data were used as proxy outcomes in a multilevel analysis. Overall, 1473 holistic and 1389 criterion-based reviews were undertaken in the first part of the study

  18. Systemic Inflammatory Response After Natural Orifice Translumenal Surgery: Transvaginal Cholecystectomy in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Joe K. M.; Tong, Daniel K. H.; HO, David W. Y.; Luk, John; Law, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We analyzed circulating TNF-α and IL-6 to determine systemic inflammatory responses associated with transvaginal cholecystectomy in a porcine model. Methods: Six female pigs were used for a survival study after transvaginal cholecystectomy (NOTES group) using endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) instruments and a single-channel endoscope. Blood was drawn preoperatively and 24 hours and 48 hours postoperatively. Four pigs were used as controls. In addition, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed in 2 pigs for laparoscopic control. Results: In all 6 pigs in the NOTES group, no major intraoperative complications occurred. No significant differences were found between control, laparoscopic, and NOTES groups in terms of preoperative IL-6 level (P=0.897) and at 24 hours (P=0.790), and 48 hours postoperatively (P=0.945). Similarly, there was no significant difference in mean preoperative (P=0.349) and mean day 2 postoperative TNF-α levels (P=0.11). But a significant increase in day 1 postoperative TNF-α levels in the laparoscopic group compared with that in the control and NOTES groups was observed (P=0.049). One limitation of our study is that the sample size was relatively small. Conclusion: NOTES is safe in animal models in terms of anatomical and cellular level changes with minimal systemic inflammatory host responses elicited. Further study needs to be carried out in humans before NOTES can be recommended for routine use. PMID:19366533

  19. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in cirrhotic patients: the role of subtotal cholecystectomy and its variants.

    PubMed

    Palanivelu, Chinnasamy; Rajan, Pidigu Seshiyer; Jani, Kalpesh; Shetty, Alangar Roshan; Sendhilkumar, Karuppasamy; Senthilnathan, Palanisamy; Parthasarthi, Ramakrishnan

    2006-08-01

    Open cholecystectomy is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy may offer a better option because of the magnification available and the availability of newer instruments like the ultrasonic shears. We present our experience of 265 laparoscopic cholecystectomies and attempt to identify the difficulties encountered in this group of patients. Between 1991 and 2005, 265 cirrhotic patients of Child-Pugh Classification A and B, with symptomatic gallstones, were subjected to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We describe here our tailored approach and our techniques of subtotal cholecystectomy. Features of acute cholecystitis were present in 35.1% of the patients, and 64.9% presented with chronic cholecystitis. In 81.5% of the patients, the diagnosis of cirrhosis was established preoperatively. In 8.3% of the patients, a fundus first method was adopted when the hilum could not be approached despite additional ports. Modified subtotal cholecystectomy was performed in a total of 206 patients. Mean operative time in the subtotal cholecystectomy group was 72 minutes; in the standard group, it was 41 minutes. There was no mortality. In 15% of patients, postoperative deterioration in liver function occurred. Worsening of ascites, port site infection, port site bleeding, intraoperative hemorrhage, bilious drainage, and stone formation in the remnant were the other complications encountered. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe and effective treatment for calculous cholecystitis in cirrhotic patients. Appropriate modification of subtotal cholecystectomy should be practiced, depending on the risk factors present, to avoid complications.

  20. Who did the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Craig A; Adams, David B

    2011-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has served as the igniting spark in the laparoscopic surgery explosion; however, it is unclear who created the spark. The question remains: Who did the first LC? PMID:22022097

  1. Anesthetic complications in dogs undergoing hepatic surgery: cholecystectomy versus non-cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Burns, Brigid R; Hofmeister, Erik H; Brainard, Benjamin M

    2014-03-01

    To determine if dogs that undergo laparotomy for cholecystectomy suffer from a greater number or magnitude of perianesthetic complications, including hypotension, hypothermia, longer recovery time, and lower survival rate, than dogs that undergo laparotomy for hepatic surgery without cholecystectomy. Retrospective cohort study. One hundred and three dogs, anesthetised between January 2007 and October 2011. The variables collected from the medical record included age, weight, gender, surgical procedure, pre-operative bloodwork, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status, emergency status, total bilirubin concentration, anesthetic agents administered, body temperature nadir, final body temperature, hypotension, duration of hypotension, blood pressure nadir, intraoperative drugs, anesthesia duration, surgery duration, time to extubation, final diagnosis, days spent in the intensive care unit (ICU), total bill, survival to discharge, and survival to follow-up. No significant difference in body temperature nadir, final temperature, presence of hypotension, duration of hypotension, blood pressure nadir, the use of inotropes, or final outcome was found between dogs undergoing cholecystectomy and dogs undergoing exploratory laparotomy for other hepatic disease. Dogs that had cholecystectomy had longer anesthesia durations and longer surgery durations than dogs that did not have cholecystectomy. No significant differences existed for temperature nadir (34.8 versus 35.3°C; non-cholecystectomy versus cholecystectomy), final temperature (35.6 versus 35.9°C), time to extubation (30 versus 49 minutes), duration of hypotension (27 versus 21 minutes), or MAP nadir (56 versus 55 mmHg). Hypotension occurred in 66% and 74% and inotropes were used in 64% and 53%, for non-cholecystectomy and cholecystectomy patients, respectively. Dogs that underwent cholecystectomies did not suffer a greater number of anesthesia complications than did dogs undergoing hepatic surgery without

  2. Endogenous gas gangrene after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Zelić, M; Kunisek, L; Mendrila, D; Gudelj, M; Abram, M; Uravić, M

    2011-01-01

    Clostridial gas gangrene of the abdominal wall is rare, and it is usually associated with organ perforation, immunosuppression or gastrointestinal malignancies. In this paper we present a case of fulminant, endogenous gas gangrene in a 58-year old diabetic female with arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis, following uneventful laparoscopic cholecystectomy. She developed gas gangrene of the abdominal wall 12-hours after cholecystectomy and died 24-hours after the onset of the first symptoms, in spite of treatment.

  3. [Ultrasound dissection in laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Horstmann, R; Kern, M; Joosten, U; Hohlbach, G

    1993-01-01

    An ultrasound dissector especially developed for laparoscopic surgery was used during laparoscopic cholecystectomy on 34 patients. The ultrasound power, the volume of suction and irrigation could be determined individually at the generator and activated during the operation with a foot pedal. With the dissector it was possible to fragmentate, emulgate and aspirate simultaneously fat tissue as well as infected edematous structures. The cystic artery and cystic duct, small vessels, lymphatic and connective tissue were not damaged. Therefore this system seems to be excellent for the preparation of Calot's trigonum and blunt dissection of the gallbladder out of its bed, particularly in fatty, acute or chronic infected tissue. No complications were observed within the peri- and postoperative period.

  4. Towards scar-free surgery: An analysis of the increasing complexity from laparoscopic surgery to NOTES

    PubMed Central

    Chellali, Amine; Schwaitzberg, Steven D.; Jones, Daniel B.; Romanelli, John; Miller, Amie; Rattner, David; Roberts, Kurt E.; Cao, Caroline G.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background NOTES is an emerging technique for performing surgical procedures, such as cholecystectomy. Debate about its real benefit over the traditional laparoscopic technique is on-going. There have been several clinical studies comparing NOTES to conventional laparoscopic surgery. However, no work has been done to compare these techniques from a Human Factors perspective. This study presents a systematic analysis describing and comparing different existing NOTES methods to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods Videos of endoscopic/laparoscopic views from fifteen live cholecystectomies were analyzed to conduct a detailed task analysis of the NOTES technique. A hierarchical task analysis of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and several hybrid transvaginal NOTES cholecystectomies was performed and validated by expert surgeons. To identify similarities and differences between these techniques, their hierarchical decomposition trees were compared. Finally, a timeline analysis was conducted to compare the steps and substeps. Results At least three variations of the NOTES technique were used for cholecystectomy. Differences between the observed techniques at the substep level of hierarchy and on the instruments being used were found. The timeline analysis showed an increase in time to perform some surgical steps and substeps in NOTES compared to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Conclusion As pure NOTES is extremely difficult given the current state of development in instrumentation design, most surgeons utilize different hybrid methods – combination of endoscopic and laparoscopic instruments/optics. Results of our hierarchical task analysis yielded an identification of three different hybrid methods to perform cholecystectomy with significant variability amongst them. The varying degrees to which laparoscopic instruments are utilized to assist in NOTES methods appear to introduce different technical issues and additional tasks leading to an increase in the surgical time. The

  5. Laparoscopic Versus Open Cholecystectomy: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis at Rwanda Military Hospital.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Allison; Costas-Chavarri, Ainhoa; Gakwaya, Mussa R; Lule, Joseph; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; Meara, John G; Shrime, Mark G

    2017-05-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is first-line treatment for uncomplicated gallstone disease in high-income countries due to benefits such as shorter hospital stays, reduced morbidity, more rapid return to work, and lower mortality as well-being considered cost-effective. However, there persists a lack of uptake in low- and middle-income countries. Thus, there is a need to evaluate laparoscopic cholecystectomy in comparison with an open approach in these settings. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to evaluate laparoscopic and open cholecystectomies at Rwanda Military Hospital (RMH), a tertiary care referral hospital in Rwanda. Sensitivity and threshold analyses were performed to determine the robustness of the results. The laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy costs and effectiveness values were $2664.47 with 0.87 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and $2058.72 with 0.75 QALYs, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for laparoscopic over open cholecystectomy was $4946.18. Results are sensitive to the initial laparoscopic equipment investment and number of cases performed annually but robust to other parameters. The laparoscopic intervention is more cost-effective with investment costs less than $91,979, greater than 65 cases annually, or at willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds greater than $3975/QALY. At RMH, while laparoscopic cholecystectomy may be a more effective approach, it is also more expensive given the low caseload and high investment costs. At commonly accepted WTP thresholds, it is not cost-effective. However, as investment costs decrease and/or case volume increases, the laparoscopic approach may become favorable. Countries and hospitals should aspire to develop innovative, low-cost options in high volume to combat these barriers and provide laparoscopic surgery.

  6. [Photographic documentation during safe laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Bolívar-Rodríguez, Martín A; Pamanes-Lozano, Adrián; Matus-Rojas, Jaime; Cázarez-Aguilar, Marcel A; Fierro-López, Rodolfo

    2018-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the most frequent procedure for the general surgeon. Biliary injury is a concern that must be addressed with the purpose of lowering the rate. The critical view of safety (CVS) is a target of dissection that impulses safety during the procedure. Determine by an ambispective analysis the safety during dissection of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in Hospital Civil de Culiacán (México). Descriptive, ambispective, observational, cross-sectional. Patients admitted to the operating room for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy were scored with Doublet photography rating criteria from January 1 st 2015 to January 31, 2017. 321 patients were evaluated, 77.9% were female and 22.1% male. The mean age was 45.57 ± 16.17 years. 65.4% had admission diagnosis of cholelithiasis, 24.3% acute cholecystitis, 5.9% chronic cholecystitis, 3.7% hydrocolecist and 0.6% pyocolecist. Surgeries were scored with Doublet photography. The CVS was obtained in 41.4% of the procedures with a statistical significance between a HPB surgeon and a general surgery resident (p ≤ 0.05). Recording Doublet photography provides a reliable CVS dissection criterion. It can be easily reproduced during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The identification of cystic structures adds to the culture of safety during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Copyright: © 2018 Permanyer.

  7. Evaluation of Protocol Uniformity Concerning Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Richard H. M.; van Eijk, Daan J.; Lange, Johan F.

    2008-01-01

    Background Iatrogenic bile duct injury remains a current complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. One uniform and standardized protocol, based on the “critical view of safety” concept of Strasberg, should reduce the incidence of this complication. Furthermore, owing to the rapid development of minimally invasive surgery, technicians are becoming more frequently involved. To improve communication between the operating team and technicians, standardized actions should also be defined. The aim of this study was to compare existing protocols for laparoscopic cholecystectomy from various Dutch hospitals. Methods Fifteen Dutch hospitals were contacted for evaluation of their protocols for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All evaluated protocols were divided into six steps and were compared accordingly. Results In total, 13 hospitals responded—5 academic hospitals, 5 teaching hospitals, 3 community hospitals—of which 10 protocols were usable for comparison. Concerning the trocar positions, only minor differences were found. The concept of “critical view of safety” was represented in just one protocol. Furthermore, the order of clipping and cutting the cystic artery and duct differed. Descriptions of instruments and apparatus were also inconsistent. Conclusions Present protocols differ too much to define a universal procedure among surgeons in The Netherlands. The authors propose one (inter)national standardized protocol, including standardized actions. This uniform standardized protocol has to be officially released and recommended by national scientific associations (e.g., the Dutch Society of Surgery) or international societies (e.g., European Association for Endoscopic Surgery and Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons). The aim is to improve patient safety and professional communication, which are necessary for new developments. PMID:18224485

  8. ‘Extreme’ vasculobiliary injuries: association with fundus-down cholecystectomy in severely inflamed gallbladders

    PubMed Central

    Strasberg, Steven M; Gouma, Dirk J

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Extreme vasculobiliary injuries usually involve major hepatic arteries and portal veins. They are rare, but have severe consequences, including rapid infarction of the liver. The pathogenesis of these injuries is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of injury through an analysis of clinical records, particularly the operative notes of the index procedure. Methods Biliary injury databases in two institutions were searched for data on extreme vasculobiliary injuries. Operative notes for the index procedure (cholecystectomy) were requested from the primary institutions. These notes and the treatment records of the tertiary centres to which the patients had been referred were examined. Radiographs from the primary institutions, when available, as well as those from the tertiary centres, were studied. Results Eight patients with extreme vasculobiliary injuries were found. Most had the following features in common. The operation had been started laparoscopically and converted to an open procedure because of severe chronic or acute inflammation. Fundus-down cholecystectomy had been attempted. Severe bleeding had been encountered as a result of injury to a major portal vein and hepatic artery. Four patients have required right hepatectomy and one had required an orthotopic liver transplant. Four of the eight patients have died and one remains under treatment. Conclusions Extreme vasculobiliary injuries tend to occur when fundus-down cholecystectomy is performed in the presence of severe inflammation. Contractive inflammation thickens and shortens the cystic plate, making separation of the gallbladder from the liver hazardous. PMID:22151444

  9. Suicide Notes from India and the United States: A Thematic Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenaars, Antoon A.; Girdhar, Shalina; Dogra, T. D.; Wenckstern, Susanne; Leenaars, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is a global concern, hence, cross-cultural research ought to be important; yet, there is a paucity of cross-cultural study in suicidology. This study sought to investigate suicide notes drawn from India and the United States, as these countries have similar suicide rates but markedly different cultures. A thematic or theoretical-conceptual…

  10. Complications of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Our Experience from a Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Radunovic, Miodrag; Lazovic, Ranko; Popovic, Natasa; Magdelinic, Milorad; Bulajic, Milutin; Radunovic, Lenka; Vukovic, Marko; Radunovic, Miroslav

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intraoperative and postoperative complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, as well as the frequency of conversions. Medical records of 740 patients who had laparoscopic cholecystectomy were analysed retrospectively. We evaluated patients for the presence of potential risk factors that could predict the development of complications such as age, gender, body mass index, white blood cell count and C-reactive protein (CRP), gallbladder ultrasonographic findings, and pathohistological analysis of removed gallbladders. The correlation between these risk factors was also analysed. There were 97 (13.1%) intraoperative complications (IOC). Iatrogenic perforations of a gallbladder were the most common complication - 39 patients (5.27%). Among the postoperative complications (POC), the most common ones were bleeding from abdominal cavity 27 (3.64%), biliary duct leaks 14 (1.89%), and infection of the surgical wound 7 patients (0.94%). There were 29 conversions (3.91%). The presence of more than one complication was more common in males (OR = 2.95, CI 95%, 1.42-4.23, p < 0.001). An especially high incidence of complications was noted in patients with elevated white blood cell count (OR = 3.98, CI 95% 1.68-16.92, p < 0.01), and CRP (OR = 2.42, CI 95% 1.23-12.54, p < 0.01). The increased incidence of complications was noted in patients with ultrasonographic finding of gallbladder empyema and increased thickness of the gallbladder wall > 3 mm (OR = 4.63, CI 95% 1.56-17.33, p < 0.001), as well as in patients with acute cholecystitis that was confirmed by pathohistological analysis (OR = 1.75, CI 95% 2.39-16.46, p < 0.001). Adopting laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a new technique for treatment of cholelithiasis, introduced a new spectrum of complications. Major biliary and vascular complications are life threatening, while minor complications cause patient discomfort and prolongation of the hospital stay. It is important recognising

  11. Complications of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Our Experience from a Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Radunovic, Miodrag; Lazovic, Ranko; Popovic, Natasa; Magdelinic, Milorad; Bulajic, Milutin; Radunovic, Lenka; Vukovic, Marko; Radunovic, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intraoperative and postoperative complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, as well as the frequency of conversions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical records of 740 patients who had laparoscopic cholecystectomy were analysed retrospectively. We evaluated patients for the presence of potential risk factors that could predict the development of complications such as age, gender, body mass index, white blood cell count and C-reactive protein (CRP), gallbladder ultrasonographic findings, and pathohistological analysis of removed gallbladders. The correlation between these risk factors was also analysed. RESULTS: There were 97 (13.1%) intraoperative complications (IOC). Iatrogenic perforations of a gallbladder were the most common complication - 39 patients (5.27%). Among the postoperative complications (POC), the most common ones were bleeding from abdominal cavity 27 (3.64%), biliary duct leaks 14 (1.89%), and infection of the surgical wound 7 patients (0.94%). There were 29 conversions (3.91%). The presence of more than one complication was more common in males (OR = 2.95, CI 95%, 1.42-4.23, p < 0.001). An especially high incidence of complications was noted in patients with elevated white blood cell count (OR = 3.98, CI 95% 1.68-16.92, p < 0.01), and CRP (OR = 2.42, CI 95% 1.23-12.54, p < 0.01). The increased incidence of complications was noted in patients with ultrasonographic finding of gallbladder empyema and increased thickness of the gallbladder wall > 3 mm (OR = 4.63, CI 95% 1.56-17.33, p < 0.001), as well as in patients with acute cholecystitis that was confirmed by pathohistological analysis (OR = 1.75, CI 95% 2.39-16.46, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Adopting laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a new technique for treatment of cholelithiasis, introduced a new spectrum of complications. Major biliary and vascular complications are life threatening, while minor complications cause patient discomfort and prolongation of

  12. Environmental effects of dredging. Documentation of the efqual module for ADDAMS: Comparison of predicted effluent water quality with standards. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    Palermo, M.R.; Schroeder, P.R.

    This technical note describes a technique for comparison of the predicted quality of effluent discharged from confined dredged material disposal areas with applicable water quality standards. This note also serves as documentation of a computer program called EFQUAL written for that purpose as part of the Automated Dredging and Disposal Alternatives Management System (ADDAMS).

  13. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Acute Cholecystitis in Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Euler de Medeiros Ázaro; Galvão, Thales Delmondes; Ettinger, João Eduardo Marques de Menezes; Silva Reis, Jadson Murilo; Lima, Marcos; Fahel, Edvaldo

    2006-01-01

    Background: Acute cholecystitis is the major complication of biliary lithiasis, for which laparoscopic treatment has been established as the standard therapy. With longer life expectancy, acute cholecystitis has often been seen in elderly patients (>65 years old) and is often accompanied by comorbity and severe complications. We sought to compare the outcome of laparoscopic treatment for acute cholecystitis with special focus on comparison between elderly and nonelderly patients. Method: This study was a prospective analysis of 190 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to acute cholecystitis or chronic acute cholecystitis, comparing elderly and nonelderly patients. Results: Of 190 patients, 39 (21%) were elderly (>65 years old) and 151 (79%) were not elderly (≤65 years), with conversion rates of 10.3% and 6.6% (P=0.49), respectively. The incidence of postoperative complications in elderly and nonelderly patients were the following, respectively: atelectasis 5.1% and 2.0% (P=0.27); respiratory infection 5.1% and 2.7% (P=0.6); bile leakage 5.1% and 2.0% (P=0.27), and intraabdominal abscess 1 case (0.7%) and no incidence (P=1). Conclusion: According to our data, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe and efficient procedure for the treatment of acute cholecystitis in patients older than 65 years of age. PMID:17575761

  14. Laparoscopic completion cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration for retained gallbladder after single-incision cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Kroh, Matthew; Chalikonda, Sricharan; Chand, Bipan; Walsh, R Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Recent enthusiasm in the surgical community for less invasive surgical approaches has resulted in widespread application of single-incision techniques. This has been most commonly applied in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in general surgery. Cosmesis appears to be improved, but other advantages remain to be seen. Feasibility has been demonstrated, but there is little description in the current literature regarding complications. We report the case of a patient who previously underwent single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease. After a brief symptom-free interval, she developed acute pancreatitis. At evaluation, imaging results of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography demonstrated a retained gallbladder with cholelithiasis. The patient was subsequently referred to our hospital, where she underwent further evaluation and surgical intervention. Our patient underwent 4-port laparoscopic remnant cholecystectomy with transcystic common bile duct exploration. Operative exploration demonstrated a large remnant gallbladder and a partially obstructed cystic duct with many stones. Transcystic exploration with balloon extraction resulted in duct clearance. The procedure took 75 minutes, with minimal blood loss. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. Final pathology results demonstrated a remnant gallbladder with cholelithiasis and cholecystitis. This report is the first in the literature to describe successful laparoscopic remnant cholecystectomy and transcystic common bile duct exploration after previous single-port cholecystectomy. Although inadvertent partial cholecystectomy is not unique to this technique, single-port laparoscopic procedures may result in different and significant complications.

  15. Comparison of operative notes with real-time observation of adhesiolysis-related complications during surgery.

    PubMed

    ten Broek, R P G; van den Beukel, B A W; van Goor, H

    2013-02-01

    The operative report contains critical information for patient care, serves an educational purpose and is an important source for surgical research. Recent studies demonstrate that operative reports are unstructured and lack vital components. The accuracy of the operative notes has never been assessed. The aim of this study was to analyse the accuracy of operative reports by comparing notes with intraoperative observer-derived findings regarding adhesions and adhesiolysis-related complications. The incidence of adhesions and adhesiolysis-induced injury were scored from the reports by a researcher blinded to operative findings obtained prospectively by direct observation. In addition, factors influencing correct reporting were analysed, including sex, surgical experience, delay in dictation, and the gradual introduction of a new report template with a focus on describing operative findings rather than actions taken. A total of 755 consecutive operative reports were analysed. Sensitivity and specificity for the incidence of adhesions was 85·1 and 72·4 per cent respectively. Six of 43 inadvertent enterotomies, and 17 of 48 other organ injuries, had not been reported. All missed bowel injuries were found in reports written in the old template. A median delay in dictating of 3 (range 1-226) working days was found for 56 reports (7·4 per cent). Documentation of inadvertent enterotomies was missing more often in delayed reports (2 of 3 versus 4 of 40 reports dictated with no delay; P = 0·022). The sensitivity and specificity of operative reports noting adhesions and adhesiolysis were low. One in seven enterotomies was not reported. Effort should be put into teaching timely, meaningful, structured and accurate reporting of surgical procedures. Copyright © 2012 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Prophylactic Antibiotics for Elective Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Smith, J Patrick; Samra, Navdeep S; Ballard, David H; Moss, Jonathan B; Griffen, Forrest D

    2018-04-01

    Surgical site infections with elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy are less frequent and less severe, leading some to suggest that prophylactic antibiotics (PA) are no longer indicated. We compared the incidence of surgical site infections before and after an institutional practice change of withholding PA for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Between May 7, 2013, and March 11, 2015, no PA were given to patients selected for elective cholecystectomy by two surgeons at a single center. The only patients excluded were those who received antibiotics before surgery for any reason. All others, including those at high risk for infection, were included. The incidence and severity of infections were compared with historical controls treated with prophylaxis by the same two surgeons from November 6, 2011, to January 13, 2013. There were 268 patients in the study group and 119 patients in the control group. Infection occurred in 3.0 per cent in the study group compared with 0.9 per cent in the controls (P = 0.29). All infections were mild except one. Based on these data, the routine use of PA for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not supported.

  17. The era of ultrasonography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Onders, Raymond P; Hallowell, Peter T

    2005-03-01

    The use of ultrasound cholangiography during cholecystectomy has been well described. This study was undertaken to assess the use of the umbilical port exclusively for ultrasound and to assess its employment on the use of fluoroscopy resources. In addition, we also looked at the increased use of ultrasound from 2000 to 2004. The use of imaging techniques during all cholecystectomies was analyzed from January 2000 to July 2001 for one surgeon and compared with that surgeon's present use from January 2004 to June 2004. Patient demographics, intraoperative finding, and postoperative results were reviewed. During the first study period, ultrasound was used in 29% of 189 laparoscopic cholecystectomies. During 2004, ultrasound was used in 77% of 66 laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Throughout both periods, fluoroscopy was only used during 6 laparoscopic common bile duct explorations (2.4% of all cases). There were no false-positive or -negative ultrasounds, and there were no bile duct injuries. As experience with ultrasound cholangiography increases, there is little indication for fluoroscopic cholangiography except for rare questions concerning anatomy and during therapeutic maneuvers for common bile duct stones.

  18. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an analysis of 777 cases.

    PubMed

    Perissat, J; Collet, D; Edye, M; Magne, E; Belliard, R; Desplantez, J

    1992-11-01

    Born in secret in 1987 and developed in an atmosphere of scepticism throughout 1988, laparoscopic cholecystectomy triumphed in 1989 and 1990, causing a veritable revolution in the world of general surgery. The 777 consecutive cases that are reported in this chapter reflect the spirit of these various periods. From conservatively restrictive, our indications widened to include 90% of gallstone cases. For us the sclero-atrophic gallbladder still constitutes the greatest endoscopic challenge and should be reserved for the most experienced operators. The rates for mortality (0.1%) and complications (3.3%), which include three common bile duct injuries (0.4%), are comparable to, if not better than, those for traditional cholecystectomy. The quality of recovery is markedly better: near absence of pain, short hospitalization, return to normal physical activity within 10 days, rapid return to work and preservation of the abdominal musculature in sportspeople. These advantages are unavailable to the 5.5% of patients for whom an intraoperative conversion to an open procedure is necessary. Their recovery is that of traditional cholecystectomy, which itself is far from being poor. The large multicentre studies, such as those carried out in France and Belgium recently, reporting 3708 cases, have reached identical conclusions. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is set to become the gold standard for treatment of gallstones and is the first step towards surgical techniques of the 21st century which will be performed within the musculocutaneous envelope of the intact human body.

  19. Laparoendoscopic single site cholecystectomy: the first 100 patients.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Jonathan M; Morton, Connor A; Ross, Sharona; Albrink, Michael; Rosemurgy, Alexander S

    2009-08-01

    Laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) surgery promises improved cosmesis and possibly less pain. However, given the small series reported to date, true estimates of the advantages and possible disadvantages of LESS surgery remain unknown. This study was undertaken to evaluate the first 100 patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy at our institution. Patients referred for cholecystectomy since November 2007 were considered for LESS cholecystectomy. Outcomes, including blood loss, operative time, complications, and length of stay, were recorded. Outcomes are compared with an uncontrolled concurrent group of patients undergoing multi-incision laparoscopic (i.e., conventional) cholecystectomy. One hundred patients with a median age of 44 years underwent LESS cholecystectomy; 30 patients with a median age of 46 years underwent conventional cholecystectomy over the same time period. Median operative time (70 vs 66 minutes, P = 0.67, Mann-Whitney) and hospital length of stay (1 vs 1 day, P = 0.81, Mann-Whitney) were not different for patients undergoing LESS or multi-incision cholecystectomies, respectively. Five patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy had postoperative complications: cystic duct stump leak (one), pain control issues (three), and urinary retention (one). LESS cholecystectomy is a safe and effective alternative to conventional cholecystectomy. It can be undertaken without added operative time and provides patients with minimal, if any, scarring.

  20. Timing of cholecystectomy in biliary pancreatitis treatment.

    PubMed

    Demir, Uygar; Yazıcı, Pınar; Bostancı, Özgür; Kaya, Cemal; Köksal, Hakan; Işıl, Gürhan; Bozdağ, Emre; Mihmanlı, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Gallstone pancreatitis constitutes 40% of all cases with pancreatitis while it constitutes up to 90% of cases with acute pancreatitis. The treatment modality in this patient population is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to compare the results of early and late cholecystectomy for patients with biliary pancreatitis. Patients treated with a diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis in our clinics between January 2000 and December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: Group A, patients who underwent cholecystectomy during the first pancreatitis attack, Group B, patients who underwent an interval cholecystectomy at least 8 weeks after the first pancreatitis episode. The demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, number of episodes, length of hospital stay, morbidity and mortality data were recorded. All data were evaluated with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 13.0 for windows and p <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. During the last 12 years, a total of 91 patients with surgical treatment for acute biliary pancreatitis were included into the study. There were 62 female and 29 male patients, with a mean age of 57.9±14.6 years (range: 21-89). A concomitant acute cholecystitis was present in 46.2% of the patients. Group A and B included 48 and 43 patients, respectively. The length of hospital stay was significantly higher in group B (9.4 vs. 6.8 days) (p<0,05). More than half of the patients in Group B were readmitted to the hospital for various reasons. No significant difference was observed between the two groups, one patient died due to heart failure in the postoperative period in group B. In-hospital cholecystectomy after remission of acute pancreatitis is feasible. It will not only result in lower recurrence and complication rates but also shorten length of hospital stay. We recommend performing cholecystectomy during the course of the first episode in patients with acute

  1. Comparison of one stage laparoscopic cholecystectomy combined with intra-operative endoscopic sphincterotomy versus two-stage pre-operative endoscopic sphincterotomy followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy for the management of pre-operatively diagnosed patients with common bile duct stones: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chester; Ocampo, Omar; Ong, Raymund; Tan, Kim Shi

    2018-02-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for symptomatic gallstone disease is one of the most common surgical procedures. Concomitant common bile duct (CBD) stones are detected with an incidence of 4-20% and the ideal management is still controversial. The frequent practice is to perform endoscopic sphincterotomy pre-operatively (POES) followed by LC, to allow subsequent laparoscopic or open exploration if POES fails. However, POES has shown different drawbacks such as need for two hospital admissions, need of two anesthesia inductions, higher rate of pancreatitis, and longer hospital stay. Hence, an intra-operative endoscopic sphincerotomy (IOES) has been proposed. To compare the 1 stage laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) combined with IOES versus 2-stage POES followed by LC for the management of pre-operatively known cholecystocholedocholithiasis. The search terms bile duct stones/calculi, ERCP, endoscopic sphincterotomy, laparoendoscopic rendezvous (LERV), and laparoscopic ductal clearance/choledochotomy/exploration were used. A comprehensive hand-based search of reference lists of published articles and review articles was performed to ensure inclusion of all possible studies and exclude duplicates. RCTs comparing 1 stage LC combined with IOES versus 2-stage POES followed by LC for the management of pre-operatively known cholecystocholedocholithiasis in adults. Three reviewers assessed trial quality and extracted the data. Data were entered in revman version 5.3. The trials were grouped according to the outcome measure assessed such as success rate of CBD stone clearance, incidence of pancreatitis, overall morbidity, and length of hospital stay. A total of 629 patients in 5 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The success rate of CBD clearance (IOES = 93%, POES = 92%) was the same in both groups (OR 1.34; 95% CI 0.45-0.97; p = 0.60). Findings showed that IOES was associated with less pancreatitis (0.6%) than POES (4.4%) (OR 0.19; 95% CI 0.06-0.67; p = 0.01; I 2

  2. Does Cholecystectomy Increase the Esophageal Alkaline Reflux? Evaluation by Impedance-pH Technique.

    PubMed

    Uyanikoglu, Ahmet; Akyuz, Filiz; Ermis, Fatih; Arici, Serpil; Bas, Gurhan; Cakirca, Mustafa; Baran, Bulent; Mungan, Zeynel

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the reflux patterns in patients with galbladder stone and the change of reflux patterns after cholecystectomy in such patients. Fourteen patients with cholecystolithiasis and a control group including 10 healthy control subjects were enrolled in this prospective study. Demographical findings, reflux symptom score scale and 24-hour impedance pH values of the 14 cholecystolithiasis cases and the control group were evaluated. The impedance pH study was repeated 3 months after cholecystectomy. Age, gender, and BMI were not different between the two groups. Total and supine weakly alkaline reflux time (%) (1.0 vs 22.5, P = 0.028; 201.85 vs 9.65, P = 0.012), the longest episodes of total, upright and supine weakly alkaline reflux mediums (11 vs 2, P = 0.025; 8.5 vs 1.0, P = 0.035; 3 vs 0, P = 0.027), total and supine weakly alkaline reflux time in minutes (287.35 vs 75.10, P = 0.022; 62.5 vs 1.4, P = 0.017), the number of alkaline reflux episodes (162.5 vs 72.5, P = 0.022) were decreased with statistical significance. No statistically significant difference was found in the comparison of symptoms between the subjects in the control group and the patients with cholecystolithiasis, in preoperative, postoperative and postcholecystectomy status. Significant reflux symptoms did not occur after cholecystectomy. Post cholecystectomy weakly alkaline reflux was decreased, but it was determined that acid reflux increased after cholecystectomy by impedance pH-metry in the study group.

  3. A Note on Rocket Performance Comparison Through Impulse and Thrust Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, N. V.

    Comparison of rocket motor systems is important when generating data to be used in making design decisions. In order to present meaningful comparisons, non-dimensional numbers related to performance are beneficial, as they remove effects of scale. Traditionally thrust coefficients and C* have been used to quantify the aerodynamic and chemical performance of a system respectively. However, it is argued here that in fact the thrust coefficient does not fully account for aerodynamic performance, as the impact of non-uniform flow at the throat is not accounted for. This discharge coefficient is usually allocated to the chemical efficiency through a correction to C*. However, this causes a coupling between chemical and aerodynamic efficiencies which may lead to poor design decisions. Through the use of a specific impulse coefficient, this risk is avoided, and furthermore comparison of unconventional nozzles becomes more straightforward. It is admitted, however, that this has no actual impact on real motor performance, being more in the way of a tidier `accounting' system.

  4. Wound infiltration with local anaesthetic agents for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Loizides, Sofronis; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Nagendran, Myura; Rossi, Michele; Guerrini, Gian Piero; Davidson, Brian R

    2014-03-12

    wound infiltration versus inactive control. One of the 19 trials compared local anaesthetic wound infiltration with two inactive controls, normal saline and no intervention. Two of the 19 trials had four arms comparing local anaesthetic wound infiltration with inactive controls in the presence and absence of co-interventions to decrease pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Four of the 19 trials had three or more arms that could be included for the comparison of local anaesthetic wound infiltration versus inactive control and different methods of local anaesthetic wound infiltration. The remaining two trials compared different methods of local anaesthetic wound infiltration.Most trials included only low anaesthetic risk people undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Seventeen trials randomised a total of 1095 participants to local anaesthetic wound infiltration (587 participants) versus no local anaesthetic wound infiltration (508 participants). Various anaesthetic agents were used but bupivacaine was the commonest local anaesthetic used. There was no mortality in either group in the seven trials that reported mortality (0/280 (0%) in local anaesthetic infiltration group versus 0/259 (0%) in control group). The effect of local anaesthetic on the proportion of people who developed serious adverse events was imprecise and compatible with increase or no difference in serious adverse events (seven trials; 539 participants; 2/280 (0.8%) in local anaesthetic group versus 1/259 (0.4%) in control; RR 2.00; 95% CI 0.19 to 21.59; very low quality evidence). None of the serious adverse events were related to local anaesthetic wound infiltration. None of the trials reported patient quality of life. The proportion of participants who were discharged as day surgery patients was higher in the local anaesthetic infiltration group than in the no local anaesthetic infiltration group (one trial; 97 participants; 33/50 (66.0%) in the local anaesthetic group versus 20/47 (42

  5. Fingermark visualisation on uncirculated £5 (Bank of England) polymer notes: Initial process comparison studies.

    PubMed

    Downham, Rory P; Brewer, Eleigh R; King, Roberto S P; Luscombe, Aoife M; Sears, Vaughn G

    2017-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a range of fingermark visualisation processes on brand new, uncirculated, £5 polymer banknotes (and their test note predecessors), as produced by the Bank of England (BoE). In the main study of this paper, a total of 14 individual processes were investigated on BoE £5 polymer banknotes, which included both 'Category A' processes (as recommended in the Home Office Fingermark Visualisation Manual) as well as recently developed processes, including fpNatural ® 2 powder (cuprorivaite) from Foster+Freeman and a vacuum metal deposition sequence that evaporates silver followed by zinc. Results from this preliminary investigation indicate that fpNatural ® 2, multimetal deposition, Wet Powder ™ Black, iron oxide powder suspension and black magnetic powder are the most effective processes on these uncirculated £5 BoE polymer banknotes, when viewed under "primary viewing" conditions (white light or fluorescence). Additional fingermarks were visualised on the polymer banknotes following the subsequent use of reflected infrared imaging and lifting techniques, and with the benefit of these techniques taken into consideration, the aforementioned processes remained amongst the most effective overall. This work provides initial insight into fingermark visualisation strategies for BoE £5 polymer banknotes, and the need for further studies in order to generate mature operational guidance is emphasised. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Minilaparotomy vs. laparoscopic cholecystectomy: results of a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Mendoza, José Dolores; Villagrán-Murillo, Francisco Javier; González-Ojeda, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Currently, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered the gold standard for treatment of gallstones with advantages in regard to postoperative pain, hospital stay, early return to activities of daily living and acceptable cosmetic results. Open cholecystectomy in the form of minilaparotomy may be an effective alternative for the management of symptomatic cholelithiasis. We undertook this study to compare the results of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and minilaparotomy cholecystectomy techniques. methods: We conducted a randomized clinical trial between January 2009 and December 2009. We included patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis divided into two groups: group A--minilaparotomy and group B--laparoscopic cholecystectomy. End-point variables were age, gender, pre- and postoperative diagnosis, operative time, conversion or extension, hospital stay, complications and pain. Statistical analysis included Fisher's exact test, χ(2) test and Student t test. There were 88 patients with cholelithiasis: 37 men and 51 women. Mean age was 45.65 years. There were 45 patients in Group A and 43 patients in Group B. Mean operative time was 79.02 min for minilaparotomy and 86.04 min for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p = 0.33). Average hospital stay was 2.75 days for minilaparotomy and of 2.02 days for laparoscopy (p = 0.60). Complications of minilaparotomy were demonstrated in 6.6% of patients and for laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 16.3% of patients (p = 0.16). There were three extensions and five conversions. Minilaparotomy cholecystectomy has results similar to laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  7. [Laparoscopic cholecystectomy with transgastric gallbladder extraction].

    PubMed

    Jurczak, Florent

    2011-11-01

    To describe and evaluate a new cholecystectomy technique combining classical dissection with currently available mini-instrumentation (3 and 5 mm) and gallbladder removal through a short gastrotomy. After a feasibility study, we set up a protocol for this procedure using instrumentation currently available on the market. We performed 106 procedures, including 99 in a prospective study between January 2008 and July 2010. Cholecystectomy was performed with the described technique in 99 of 106 eligible patients (22 males and 77 females, mean age 45.8 years (range 18-77); median BMI 26.4 kg/m2 (range 22-36)). Forty-eight patients had at least one gallstone larger than 10 mm. There were no postoperative gastric complications and recovery was always rapid. This procedure is technically feasible, safe and reproducible. The results are good, with minimal abdominal wall trauma. Normal physical activity can be resumed rapidly with no risk of incisional hernia.

  8. Traumatic Gallbladder Rupture Treated by Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Egawa, Noriyuki; Ueda, Junji; Hiraki, Masatsugu; Ide, Takao; Inoue, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuichiro; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gallbladder rupture due to blunt abdominal injury is rare. There are few reports of traumatic gallbladder injury, and it is commonly associated with other concomitant visceral injuries. Therefore, it is difficult to diagnose traumatic gallbladder rupture preoperatively when it is caused by blunt abdominal injury. We report a patient who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy after an exact preoperative diagnosis of traumatic gallbladder rupture. A 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to blunt abdominal trauma. The day after admission, abdominal pain and ascites increased and a muscular defense sign appeared. Percutaneous drainage of the ascites was performed, and the aspirated fluid was bloody and almost pure bile. He was diagnosed with gallbladder rupture by the cholangiography using the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography technique. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed safely, and he promptly recovered. If accumulated fluids contain bile, endoscopic cholangiography is useful not only to diagnose gallbladder injury but also to determine the therapeutic strategy. PMID:27462188

  9. [Laparascopic cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis].

    PubMed

    Tokin, A N; Chistiakov, A A; Mamalygina, L A; Zheliabin, D G; Osokin, G Iu

    2008-01-01

    Experience of diagnostics and treatment of 758 patients with acute cholecystitis was summarized. Authors attach the main importance to evaluation of ultrasound data and functional condition of respiratory and cardio-vascular sistem choosing the method of surgical treatment. Sparse use of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in treatment of acute cholecystitis compared with chronic may be explouned by presence of complications in patients which make problems in differentiation of tubular structures during the operation. Authors offered to use ultrasound dissection for clear identification of tubular structures and argon coagulation for hemostasis and safe mobilization of gall bladder. Stick to suggested tactics authors practically doubled the amount of performed laparoscopic cholecystectomies reducing at the same time the frequency of complications.

  10. Transvaginal cholecystectomy versus single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus four-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Daniel; Shariff, Amir H; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Duffy, Andrew J; Bell, Robert L; Roberts, Kurt E

    2012-10-01

    This report describes the first prospective cohort study comparing transvaginal cholecystectomies (TVC) with single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomies (SILC) and four-port laparoscopic cholecystectomies (4PLC). Between May 2009 and August 2010, 14 patients underwent a TVC. These patients were compared with patients who underwent SILC (22 patients) or 4PLC (11 patients) in a concurrent, randomized, controlled trial. Demographic data, operative time, numerical pain scales, complications, and return to work were recorded. Mean age (TVC: 33.5 ± 3.0 year; SILC: 38.4 ± 3.3 year; 4PLC: 35.5 ± 4.1 year; p = 0.58) and mean BMI (TVC: 28.8 ± 1.5 kg/m(2); SILC: 31.8 ± 1 kg/m(2); 4PLC: 31.4 ± 2.2 kg/m(2); p = 0.35) were not statistically significant. However, mean operative time (TVC: 67 ± 3.9 min; SILC: 48.9 ± 2.6 min; 4PLC: 42.3 ± 3.9 min; p < 0.001) was significantly longer for TVC. Numerical pain scales showed significantly lower pain scores on POD 1 and 3 for TVC compared with SILC and 4PLC (TVC: 4.1 ± 0.5 and 2.9 ± 0.7; SILC: 6.1 ± 0.5 and 5.3 ± 0.5; 4PLC: 5.7 ± 0.4 and 4.7 ± 0.3; p = 0.02) with equilibration of pain scores by days 14 and 30. Return to work (TVC: 6.4 ± 1.5 days; SILC: 13.1 ± 1.3 days; 4PLC: 14.1 ± 1.4 days; p < 0.001) also was significantly faster for patients in the TVC group. One conversion in the TVC group to a 4PLC was necessary due to adhesions within the pelvis. One dislodged IUD was seen and immediately replaced in the TVC group. One hernia was observed in the SILC group. Transvaginal cholecystectomy is a safe and well-tolerated procedure with statistically significantly less pain at 1 and 3 days after surgery, with a faster return to work but longer operative times compared with single incision and four-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  11. Telesurgical laparoscopic cholecystectomy between two countries.

    PubMed

    Cheah, W K; Lee, B; Lenzi, J E; Goh, P M

    2000-11-01

    Telesurgery is a form of operative videoconferencing in which a remotely located surgeon observes a procedure through a camera and provides visual and auditory feedback to the operative site. With the use of more robotic devices in laparoscopic surgery, various forms of telesurgery have been tried. We describe the first two international telesurgical, telementored, robot-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed in the world, between the Johns Hopkins Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, and the National University Hospital, Singapore.

  12. [Bile duct lesions in laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Siewert, J R; Ungeheuer, A; Feussner, H

    1994-09-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is both resulting in a slightly higher incidence of biliary lesions and a change of prevalence of the type of lesions. Damage to the biliary system occurs in 4 different types: The most severe case is the lesion with a structural defect of the hepatic or common bile duct with (IVa) or without (IVb) vascular injury. Tangential lesions without structural loss of the duct should be denominated as type III (IIIa with additional lesion to the vessels, type IIIb without). Type II comprehends late strictures without obvious intraoperative trauma to the duct. Type I includes immediate biliary fistulae of usually good prognosis. The increasing prevalence of structural defects of the bile ducts appears to be a peculiarity of laparoscopic cholecystectomy necessitating highly demanding operative repair. In the majority of cases, hepatico-jejunostomy or even intraparenchymatous anastomoses are required. Adaptation of well proven principles of open surgery is the best prevention of biliary lesions in laparoscopic cholecystectomy as well as the readiness to convert early to the open procedure.

  13. IRCAD recommendation on safe laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Claudius; Wakabayashi, Go; Asbun, Horacio J; Dallemagne, Bernard; Demartines, Nicolas; Diana, Michele; Fuks, David; Giménez, Mariano Eduardo; Goumard, Claire; Kaneko, Hironori; Memeo, Riccardo; Resende, Alexandre; Scatton, Olivier; Schneck, Anne-Sophie; Soubrane, Olivier; Tanabe, Minoru; van den Bos, Jacqueline; Weiss, Helmut; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Marescaux, Jacques; Pessaux, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    An expert recommendation conference was conducted to identify factors associated with adverse events during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with the goal of deriving expert recommendations for the reduction of biliary and vascular injury. Nineteen hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) surgeons from high-volume surgery centers in six countries comprised the Research Institute Against Cancer of the Digestive System (IRCAD) Recommendations Group. Systematic search of PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase was conducted. Using nominal group technique, structured group meetings were held to identify key items for safer LC. Consensus was achieved when 80% of respondents ranked an item as 1 or 2 (Likert scale 1-4). Seventy-one IRCAD HPB course participants assessed the expert recommendations which were compared to responses of 37 general surgery course participants. The IRCAD recommendations were structured in seven statements. The key topics included exposure of the operative field, appropriate use of energy device and establishment of the critical view of safety (CVS), systematic preoperative imaging, cholangiogram and alternative techniques, role of partial and dome-down (fundus-first) cholecystectomy. Highest consensus was achieved on the importance of the CVS as well as dome-down technique and partial cholecystectomy as alternative techniques. The put forward IRCAD recommendations may help to promote safe surgical practice of LC and initiate specific training to avoid adverse events. © 2017 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  14. Trans-umbilical endoscopic cholecystectomy with a water-jet hybrid-knife: A pilot animal study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Sheng-Jun; Shi, Hong; Swar, Gyanendra; Wang, Hai-Xia; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Yong-Guang

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility and safety of Natural orifice trans-umbilical endoscopic cholecystectomy with a water-jet hybrid-knife in a non-survival porcine model. METHODS: Pure natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) cholecystectomy was performed on three non-survival pigs, by transumbilical approach, using a water-jet hybrid-knife. Under general anesthesia, the following steps detailed the procedure: (1) incision of the umbilicus followed by the passage of a double-channel flexible endsocope through an overtube into the peritoneal cavity; (2) establishment of pneumoperitoneum; (3) abdominal exploration; (4) endoscopic cholecystectomy: dissection of the gallbladder performed using water jet equipment, ligation of the cystic artery and duct conducted using nylon loops; and (5) necropsy with macroscopic evaluation. RESULTS: Transumbilical endoscopic cholecystectomy was successfully completed in the first and third pig, with minor bleedings. The dissection times were 137 and 42 min, respectively. The total operation times were 167 and 69 min, respectively. And the lengths of resected specimen were 6.5 and 6.1 cm, respectively. Instillation of the fluid into the gallbladder bed produced edematous, distended tissue making separation safe and easy. Reliable ligation using double nylon loops insured the safety of cutting between the loops. There were no intraoperative complications or hemodynamic instability. Uncontrolled introperative bleeding occurred in the second case, leading to the operation failure. CONCLUSION: Pure NOTES trans-umbilical cholecystectomy with a water-jet hybrid-knife appears to be feasible and safe. Further investigation of this technique with long-term follow-up in animals is needed to confirm the preliminary observation. PMID:24187461

  15. Trans-umbilical endoscopic cholecystectomy with a water-jet hybrid-knife: a pilot animal study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Sheng-Jun; Shi, Hong; Swar, Gyanendra; Wang, Hai-Xia; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Yong-Guang

    2013-10-28

    To investigate the feasibility and safety of Natural orifice trans-umbilical endoscopic cholecystectomy with a water-jet hybrid-knife in a non-survival porcine model. Pure natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) cholecystectomy was performed on three non-survival pigs, by transumbilical approach, using a water-jet hybrid-knife. Under general anesthesia, the following steps detailed the procedure: (1) incision of the umbilicus followed by the passage of a double-channel flexible endoscope through an overtube into the peritoneal cavity; (2) establishment of pneumoperitoneum; (3) abdominal exploration; (4) endoscopic cholecystectomy: dissection of the gallbladder performed using water jet equipment, ligation of the cystic artery and duct conducted using nylon loops; and (5) necropsy with macroscopic evaluation. Transumbilical endoscopic cholecystectomy was successfully completed in the first and third pig, with minor bleedings. The dissection times were 137 and 42 min, respectively. The total operation times were 167 and 69 min, respectively. And the lengths of resected specimen were 6.5 and 6.1 cm, respectively. Instillation of the fluid into the gallbladder bed produced edematous, distended tissue making separation safe and easy. Reliable ligation using double nylon loops insured the safety of cutting between the loops. There were no intraoperative complications or hemodynamic instability. Uncontrolled introperative bleeding occurred in the second case, leading to the operation failure. Pure NOTES trans-umbilical cholecystectomy with a water-jet hybrid-knife appears to be feasible and safe. Further investigation of this technique with long-term follow-up in animals is needed to confirm the preliminary observation.

  16. Asian-Chinese patient perceptions of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Anthony Yuen Bun; Ng, Enders Kwok Wai; Chock, Alana; Swanstrom, Lee; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Chiu, Philip Wai Yan

    2014-05-01

    Patient and physician perceptions of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) have been reported for the Western population. However, whether Asian-Chinese patients share the same perspectives as compared to the Western population is unknown. This was a cross-sectional survey carried out in the surgical outpatient's clinic at the Prince of Wales Hospital between June and September 2011. Patients were provided with an information leaflet and asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their perceptions of and preferences for NOTES cholecystectomy. Female patients attending the clinic were given an additional questionnaire regarding attitudes towards transvaginal surgery. Two hundred patients were recruited to complete the questionnaire(s) and the male to female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and fourteen patients (57%) preferred to undergo NOTES cholecystectomy for cosmetic reasons (P=0.009). Oral and anal routes were both acceptable for NOTES accesses in males and females. Forty-one percent of the female patients would consider transvaginal NOTES. Of these patients, significantly more patients indicated that the reason for choosing transvaginal NOTES was to minimize the risk of hernia (P=0.016) and to reduce pain associated with the procedure (P=0.017). The risk of complications (84.5%) and the cost of the procedure (58%) were considered the most important aspects when choosing a surgical approach by Asian-Chinese patients. Asian-Chinese preferred NOTES mainly for cosmetic reasons. However, the transvaginal route was less acceptable to females. Significant differences in patient perception on NOTES were observed between Asian-Chinese and Western patients. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  17. Technical note: Comparison of methane ebullition modelling approaches used in terrestrial wetland models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltola, Olli; Raivonen, Maarit; Li, Xuefei; Vesala, Timo

    2018-02-01

    Emission via bubbling, i.e. ebullition, is one of the main methane (CH4) emission pathways from wetlands to the atmosphere. Direct measurement of gas bubble formation, growth and release in the peat-water matrix is challenging and in consequence these processes are relatively unknown and are coarsely represented in current wetland CH4 emission models. In this study we aimed to evaluate three ebullition modelling approaches and their effect on model performance. This was achieved by implementing the three approaches in one process-based CH4 emission model. All the approaches were based on some kind of threshold: either on CH4 pore water concentration (ECT), pressure (EPT) or free-phase gas volume (EBG) threshold. The model was run using 4 years of data from a boreal sedge fen and the results were compared with eddy covariance measurements of CH4 fluxes.

    Modelled annual CH4 emissions were largely unaffected by the different ebullition modelling approaches; however, temporal variability in CH4 emissions varied an order of magnitude between the approaches. Hence the ebullition modelling approach drives the temporal variability in modelled CH4 emissions and therefore significantly impacts, for instance, high-frequency (daily scale) model comparison and calibration against measurements. The modelling approach based on the most recent knowledge of the ebullition process (volume threshold, EBG) agreed the best with the measured fluxes (R2 = 0.63) and hence produced the most reasonable results, although there was a scale mismatch between the measurements (ecosystem scale with heterogeneous ebullition locations) and model results (single horizontally homogeneous peat column). The approach should be favoured over the two other more widely used ebullition modelling approaches and researchers are encouraged to implement it into their CH4 emission models.

  18. Timing of cholecystectomy in biliary pancreatitis treatment

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Uygar; Yazıcı, Pınar; Bostancı, Özgür; Kaya, Cemal; Köksal, Hakan; Işıl, Gürhan; Bozdağ, Emre; Mihmanlı, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Gallstone pancreatitis constitutes 40% of all cases with pancreatitis while it constitutes up to 90% of cases with acute pancreatitis. The treatment modality in this patient population is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to compare the results of early and late cholecystectomy for patients with biliary pancreatitis. Material and Methods: Patients treated with a diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis in our clinics between January 2000 and December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: Group A, patients who underwent cholecystectomy during the first pancreatitis attack, Group B, patients who underwent an interval cholecystectomy at least 8 weeks after the first pancreatitis episode. The demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, number of episodes, length of hospital stay, morbidity and mortality data were recorded. All data were evaluated with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 13.0 for windows and p <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: During the last 12 years, a total of 91 patients with surgical treatment for acute biliary pancreatitis were included into the study. There were 62 female and 29 male patients, with a mean age of 57.9±14.6 years (range: 21–89). A concomitant acute cholecystitis was present in 46.2% of the patients. Group A and B included 48 and 43 patients, respectively. The length of hospital stay was significantly higher in group B (9.4 vs. 6.8 days) (p<0,05). More than half of the patients in Group B were readmitted to the hospital for various reasons. No significant difference was observed between the two groups, one patient died due to heart failure in the postoperative period in group B. Conclusion: In-hospital cholecystectomy after remission of acute pancreatitis is feasible. It will not only result in lower recurrence and complication rates but also shorten length of hospital stay. We recommend performing cholecystectomy during the

  19. Single-site robotic cholecystectomy and robotics training: should we start in the junior years?

    PubMed

    Ayabe, Reed I; Parrish, Aaron B; Dauphine, Christine E; Hari, Danielle M; Ozao-Choy, Junko J

    2018-04-01

    It has become increasingly important to expose surgical residents to robotic surgery as its applications continue to expand. Single-site robotic cholecystectomy (SSRC) is an excellent introductory case to robotics. Resident involvement in SSRC is known to be feasible. Here, we sought to determine whether it is safe to introduce SSRC to junior residents. A total of 98 SSRC cases were performed by general surgery residents between August 2015 and August 2016. Cases were divided into groups based on resident level: second- and third-years (juniors) versus fourth- and fifth-years (seniors). Patient age, gender, race, body mass index, and comorbidities were recorded. The number of prior laparoscopic cholecystectomies completed by participating residents was noted. Outcomes including operative time, console time, rate of conversion to open cholecystectomy, and complication rate were compared between groups. Juniors performed 54 SSRC cases, whereas seniors performed 44. There were no significant differences in patient age, gender, race, body mass index, or comorbidities between the two groups. Juniors had less experience with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There was no significant difference in mean operative time (92.7 min versus 98.0 min, P = 0.254), console time (48.7 min versus 50.8 min, P = 0.639), or complication rate (3.7% versus 2.3%, P = 0.68) between juniors and seniors. SSRC is an excellent way to introduce general surgery residents to robotics. This study shows that with attending supervision, SSRC is feasible and safe for both junior and senior residents with very low complication rates and no adverse effect on operative time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Robotic Cholecystectomy Using the Newly Developed Korean Robotic Surgical System, Revo-i: A Preclinical Experiment in a Porcine Model.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang Moo; Chong, Jae Uk; Lim, Jin Hong; Park, Dong Won; Park, Sung Jun; Gim, Suhyeon; Ye, Hye Jin; Kim, Se Hoon; Lee, Woo Jung

    2017-09-01

    One Korean company recently successfully produced a robotic surgical system prototype called Revo-i (MSR-5000). We, therefore, conducted a preclinical study for robotic cholecystectomy using Revo-i, and this is a report of the first case of robotic cholecystectomy performed using the Revo-i system in a preclinical porcine model. Revo-i consists of a surgeon console (MSRC-5000), operation cart (MSRO-5000) and vision cart (MSRV-5000), and a 40 kg-healthy female porcine was prepared for robotic cholecystectomy with general anesthesia. The primary end point was the safe completion of these procedures using Revo-i: The total operation time was 88 minutes. The dissection time was defined as the time from the initial dissection of the Calot area to the time to complete gallbladder detachment from the liver bed: The dissection time required 14 minutes. The surgical console time was 45 minutes. There was no gallbladder perforation or significant bleeding noted during the procedure. The porcine survived for two weeks postoperatively without any complications. Like the da Vinci surgical system, the Revo-i provides a three-dimensional operative view and allows for angulated instrument motion (forceps, needle-holders, clip-appliers, scissors, bipolar energy, and hook monopolar energy), facilitating an effective laparoscopic procedure. Our experience suggests that robotic cholecystectomy can be safely completed in a porcine model using Revo-i. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017.

  1. Chyle leak following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a rare complication

    PubMed Central

    Gogalniceanu, Petrut; Purkayastha, Sanjay; Spalding, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    Gallstone disease is a highly prevalent condition which is commonly and safely treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We present the third reported case of chyle leakage following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the setting of acute cholecystitis. The report reviews current literature on the prevalence, diagnosis and management of this condition. PMID:20699054

  2. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in Situs Inversus Totalis

    PubMed Central

    S, Mahesh Shetty; BB, Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Situs inversus totalis is a rare condition where the organs in the body is placed in the opposite side. When such patient presents with the diseases of the intra abdominal organs the diagnosis is challenging and the operative procedure to be performed will be difficult. This may require the anticipation of variations in anatomy, ergonomic changes required during surgery and mastery over the operative skills in reversed anatomy. Cholelithiasis in situs inversus totalis is one such situation. Herein we report a case of situs inversus totalis who underwent successful laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallbladder calculi. PMID:25177601

  3. +Gz-induced post-cholecystectomy syndrome in rabbit model by using a telemetric method

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yalin; Zhao, Gang; Li, Yifeng; Wen, Dongqing; Zhang, Hui; He, Xiaojun; Zhen, Yuying; Zhang, Hongyi

    2015-01-01

    Aviation-related mechanism may exist in the post-cholecystectomy syndrome (PCS) of aircrew patients. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis on vivo rabbit model and to explore the mechanism by using a novel telemetric method. We constructed a bile duct-to-intestinal bridge bypass on 30 rabbits, with a telemetry implant attached to the Oddi’s sphincter. Then a telemetric recording system was used to record the biliary pressure fluctuation through the subcutaneous bridge and the changes of electromyography of the Oddi’s sphincter under different +Gz acceleration. Self-control comparison was made before and after cholecystectomy. The fully implantable device was very well accepted by rabbits and the data could reflect the real experimental environment simultaneously. Biliary pressure in common bile duct increased accordingly with +Gz acceleration increased, but bile secretion didn’t change. Although +Gz acceleration could increase the frequency of burst of spike potentials in the Oddi’s sphincter, the frequency didn’t change with the +Gz acceleration increased, and the spike activity didn’t change obviously before cholecystectomy. After cholecystectomy, the biliary pressure in common bile duct remained high in 12 rabbits (40%) under +Gz exposure, and the pressure value didn’t change as the +Gz acceleration increased. The long-time changes in electromyography of the Oddi’s sphincter were observed in the same 12 rabbits, with symptoms of PCS developed in 9 of them. +Gz exposure is an important external factor leading to the biliary physiology disorder, and it may induce PCS in some aircrew patients with individual susceptibility, which means gallbladder maybe a dominant factor in regulating the biliary physiology in theses aircrew patients. PMID:26064268

  4. Pharmacological interventions for prevention or treatment of postoperative pain in people undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Vaughan, Jessica; Toon, Clare D; Davidson, Brian R

    2014-03-28

    preventing pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There were considerable differences in the pharmacological agents used and the methods of administration. The estimated effects of the intervention on the proportion of participants who were discharged as day-surgery, the length of hospital stay, or the time taken to return to work were imprecise in all the comparisons in which these outcomes were reported (very low quality evidence). There was no mortality in any of the groups in the two trials that reported mortality (183 participants, very low quality evidence). Differences in serious morbidity outcomes between the groups were imprecise across all the comparisons (very low quality evidence). None of the trials reported patient quality of life or time taken to return to normal activity. The pain at 4 to 8 hours was generally reduced by about 1 to 2 cm on the visual analogue scale of 1 to 10 cm in the comparisons involving the different pharmacological agents and inactive controls (low or very low quality evidence). The pain at 9 to 24 hours was generally reduced by about 0.5 cm (a modest reduction) on the visual analogue scale of 1 to 10 cm in the comparisons involving the different pharmacological agents and inactive controls (low or very low quality evidence). There is evidence of very low quality that different pharmacological agents including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioid analgesics, and anticonvulsant analgesics reduce pain scores in people at low anaesthetic risk undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, the decision to use these drugs has to weigh the clinically small reduction in pain against uncertain evidence of serious adverse events associated with many of these agents. Further randomised clinical trials of low risk of systematic and random errors are necessary. Such trials should include important clinical outcomes such as quality of life and time to return to work in their assessment.

  5. Increased Risk of Depressive Disorder following Cholecystectomy for Gallstones.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Chen, Chao-Hung; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Cha-Ze

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies indicate a possible association between depression and cholecystectomy, but no study has compared the risk of post-operative depressive disorders (DD) after cholecystectomy. This retrospective follow-up study aimed to examine the relationship between cholecystectomy and the risk of DD in patients with gallstones in a population-based database. Using ambulatory care data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, 6755 patients who received a first-time principal diagnosis of gallstones at the emergency room (ER) were identified. Among them, 1197 underwent cholecystectomy. Each patient was then individually followed-up for two years to identify those who were later diagnosed with DD. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to estimate the risk of developing DD between patients with gallstone who did and those who did not undergo cholecystectomy. Of 6755 patients with gallstones, 173 (2.56%) were diagnosed with DD during the two-year follow-up. Among patients who did and those who did not undergo cholecystectomy, 3.51% and 2.36% later developed depressive disorder, respectively. After adjusting for the patient's sex, age and geographic location, the hazard ratio (HR) of DD within two years of gallstone diagnosis was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.02-2.04) for patients who underwent cholecystectomy compared to those who did not. Females, but not males, had a higher the adjusted HR of DD (1.61; 95% CI, 1.08-2.41) for patients who underwent cholecystectomy compared to those who did not. There is an association between cholecystectomy and subsequent risk of DD among females, but not in males.

  6. Digital assist: A comparison of two note-taking methods (traditional vs. digital pen) for students with emotional behavioral disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rody, Carlotta A.

    High school biology classes traditionally follow a lecture format to disseminate content and new terminology. With the inclusive practices of No Child Left Behind, the Common Core State Standards, and end-of-course exam requirement for high school diplomas, classes include a large range of achievement levels and abilities. Teachers assume, often incorrectly, that students come to class prepared to listen and take notes. In a standard diploma, high school biology class in a separate school for students with emotional and behavioral disorders, five students participated in a single-subject, alternating treatment design study that compared the use of regular pens and digital pens to take notes during 21 lecture sessions. Behavior measures were threefold between the two interventions: (a) quantity of notes taken per minute during lectures, (b) quantity of notes or notations taken during review pauses, and (c) percent of correct responses on the daily comprehension quizzes. The study's data indicated that two students were inclined to take more lecture notes when using the digital pen. Two students took more notes with the regular pen. One student demonstrated no difference in her performance with either pen type. Both female students took more notes per minute, on average, than the three males regardless of pen type. During the review pause, three of the five students only added notes or notations to their notes when using the regular pen. The remaining two students did not add to their notes. Quiz scores differed in favor of the regular pen. All five participants earned higher scores on quizzes given during regular pen sessions. However, the differences were minor, and recommendations are made for specific training in note-taking, the pause strategy, and digital pen fluency which may produce different results for both note-taking and quiz scores.

  7. Effects of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on lung function: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bablekos, George D; Michaelides, Stylianos A; Analitis, Antonis; Charalabopoulos, Konstantinos A

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To present and integrate findings of studies investigating the effects of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on various aspects of lung function. METHODS: We extensively reviewed literature of the past 24 years concerning the effects of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in comparison to the open procedure on many aspects of lung function including spirometric values, arterial blood gases, respiratory muscle performance and aspects of breathing control, by critically analyzing physiopathologic interpretations and clinically important conclusions. A total of thirty-four articles were used to extract information for the meta-analysis concerning the impact of the laparoscopic procedure on lung function and respiratory physiopathology. The quality of the literature reviewed was evaluated by the number of their citations and the total impact factor of the corresponding journals. A fixed and random effect meta-analysis was used to estimate the pooled standardized mean difference of studied parameters for laparoscopic (LC) and open (OC) procedures. A crude comparison of the two methods using all available information was performed testing the postoperative values expressed as percentages of the preoperative ones using the Mann-Whitney two-sample test. RESULTS: Most of the relevant studies have investigated and compared changes in spirometric parameters.The median percentage and interquartile range (IQR) of preoperative values in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced expiratory flow (FEF) at 25%-75% of FVC (FEF25%-75%) expressed as percentage of their preoperative values 24 h after LC and OC were respectively as follows: [77.6 (73.0, 80.0) L vs 55.4 (50.0, 64.0) L, P < 0.001; 76.0 (72.3, 81.0) L vs 52.5 (50.0, 56.7) L, P < 0.001; and 78.8 (68.8, 80.9) L/s vs 60.0 (36.1, 66.1) L/s, P = 0.005]. Concerning arterial blood gases, partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2 (kPa)] at 24 or 48 h after surgical treatment showed reductions that were significantly

  8. The effects of cholelithiasis and cholecystectomy on gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Köksoy, F N; Bulut, T; Köse, H; Soybir, G; Yalçin, O; Aker, Y

    In this clinical study, four groups, each consisting of 12 patients are established to determine how gastric emptying is influenced in cholelithiasis with accompanied flatulent dyspepsia and the relationship of symptoms and gastric emptying after cholecystectomy. 1. group: healthy people, 2. group: patients with dyspeptic cholelithiasis, 3. group: patients who have no dyspepsia after cholecystectomy, 4. group: patients whose dyspepsia is continued after cholecystectomy. Groups are compared according to solid phase gastric emptying scintigraphies performed with Tc 99m sulfur colloid bound with scrambled eggs. Gastric emptying delayed in second (p < 0.001) and fourth (p < 0.005) groups postprandially and not differed in the third group (p > 0.005). These results demonstrate that dyspepsia, in cholelithiasis and persisting after cholecystectomy have a close relation with delay in gastric emptying.

  9. Effects of cholelithiasis and cholecystectomy on gastric emptying.

    PubMed

    Köksoy, F N; Bulut, T; Köse, H; Soybir, G; Yalçin, O; Aker, Y

    1994-06-01

    In this prospective, clinical study, four groups, each consisting of 12 patients were established to determine how gastric emptying is influenced in cholelithiasis with accompanied flatulent dyspepsia and the relationship of symptoms and gastric emptying after cholecystectomy: group 1--healthy people; group 2--patients with dyspeptic cholelithiasis; group 3--patients with no dyspepsia after cholecystectomy; group 4--patients with dyspepsia after cholecystectomy. Groups are compared according to solid phase gastric emptying scintigraphies performed with Tc 99m sulphur colloid bound with scrambled eggs. Gastric emptying delayed in groups 2 (P < 0.001) and 4 (P < 0.005) postprandially and did not differ in the group 3 (P > 0.005). These results demonstrate that dyspepsia, in cholelithiasis and persisting after cholecystectomy, has a close relation with delay in gastric emptying.

  10. Meta-analysis of warmed versus standard temperature CO2 insufflation for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Hakeem, Abdul R; Birks, Theodore; Azeem, Qasim; Di Franco, Filippo; Gergely, Szabolcs; Harris, Adrian M

    2016-06-01

    There is conflicting evidence for the use of warmed, humidified carbon dioxide (CO2) for creating pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Few studies have reported less post-operative pain and analgesic requirement when warmed CO2 was used. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to analyse the literature on the use of warmed CO2 in comparison to standard temperature CO2 during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Systematic review and meta-analysis carried out in line with the PRISMA guidelines. Primary outcomes of interest were post-operative pain at 6 h, day 1 and day 2 following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Secondary outcomes were analgesic usage and drop in intra-operative core body temperature. Standard Mean Difference (SMD) was calculated for continuous variables. Six randomised controlled trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria (n = 369). There was no significant difference in post-operative pain at 6 h [3 RCTs; SMD = -0.66 (-1.33, 0.02) (Z = 1.89) (P = 0.06)], day 1 [4 RCTs; SMD = -0.51 (-1.47, 0.44) (Z = 1.05) (P = 0.29)] and day 2 [2 RCTs; SMD = -0.96 (-2.30, 0.37) (Z = 1.42) (P = 0.16)] between the warmed CO2 and standard CO2 group. There was no difference in analgesic usage between the two groups, but pooled analysis was not possible. Two RCTs reported significant drop in intra-operative core body temperature, but there were no adverse events related to this. This review showed no difference in post-operative pain and analgesic requirements between the warmed and standard CO2 insufflation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Currently there is not enough high quality evidence to suggest routine usage of warmed CO2 for creating pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Copyright © 2015 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spinal anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Thoracic vs. Lumbar Technique

    PubMed Central

    Imbelloni, Luiz Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Aims: In our group, after a study showing that spinal anesthesia is safe when compared with general anesthesia, spinal anesthesia has been the technique of choice for this procedure. This is a prospective study with all patients undergoing LC under spinal anesthesia in our department since 2007. Settings and Design: Prospective observational. Materials and Methods: From 2007 to 2011, 369 patients with symptoms of colelithiasis, laparoscopic cholecystectomy were operated under spinal anesthesia with pneumoperitoneum and low pressure CO2. We compared 15 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine and lumbar puncture with 10 or 7.5 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine thoracic puncture, all with 25 μg fentanyl until the sensory level reached T3. Intraoperative parameters, post-operative pain, complications, recovery, patient satisfaction, and cost were compared between both groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Means were compared by ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test, the percentages of the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test when appropriate. Time of motor and sensory block in spinal anesthesia group was compared by paired t test or Mann-Whitney test. Differences were considered significant when P ≤ 0.05, and for comparisons of mean pain visual scale, we employed the Bonferroni correction applied to be considered significant only with P ≤ 0.0125 Results: All procedures were completed under spinal anesthesia. The use of lidocaine 1% was successful in the prevention of shoulder pain in 329 (89%) patients. There were significant differences in time to reach T3, obtaining 15 mg > 10 mg = 7.5 mg. There is a positive correlation between the dose and the incidence of hypotension. The lowest doses gave a decrease of 52.2% in the incidence of hypotension. There was a positive correlation between the dose and duration of sensory and motor block. Sensory block was almost twice the motor block at all doses. With low doses, 60% of patients went from table to stretcher. Satisfaction occurred in 99% of

  12. Health-related quality of life outcomes after cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Carraro, Amedeo; Mazloum, Dania El; Bihl, Florian

    2011-12-07

    Gallbladder diseases are very common in developed countries. Complicated gallstone disease represents the most frequent of biliary disorders for which surgery is regularly advocated. As regards, cholecystectomy represents a common abdominal surgical intervention; it can be performed as either an elective intervention or emergency surgery, in the case of gangrene, perforation, peritonitis or sepsis. Nowadays, the laparoscopic approach is preferred over open laparotomy. Globally, numerous cholecystectomies are performed daily; however, little evidence exists regarding assessment of post-surgical quality of life (QOL) following these interventions. To assess post-cholecystectomy QOL, in fact, documentation of high quality care has been subject to extended discussions, and the use of patient-reported outcome satisfaction for quality improvement has been advocated for several years. However, there has been little research published regarding QOL outcomes following cholecystectomy; in addition, much of the current literature lacks systematic data on patient-centered outcomes. Then, although several tools have been used to measure QOL after cholecystectomy, difficulty remains in selecting meaningful parameters in order to obtain reproducible data to reflect postoperative QOL. The aim of this study was to review the impact of surgery for gallbladder diseases on QOL. This review includes Medline searches of current literature on QOL following cholecystectomy. Most studies demonstrated that symptomatic patients profited more from surgery than patients receiving an elective intervention. Thus, the gain in QOL depends on the general conditions before surgery, and patients without symptoms profit less or may even have a reduction in QOL.

  13. Indocyanine-green-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Kinshuk; Melvin, James; Chang, Shufang; Park, Kyoungjin; Yilmaz, Alper; Melvin, Scott; Xu, Ronald X.

    2012-11-01

    We encapsulate indocyanine green (ICG) in poly[(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-co-PEG] diblock (PLGA-PEG) microballoons for real-time fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging of biliary anatomy. ICG-loaded microballoons show superior fluorescence characteristics and slower degradation in comparison with pure ICG. The use of ICG-loaded microballoons in biliary imaging is demonstrated in both biliary-simulating phantoms and an ex vivo tissue model. The biliary-simulating phantoms are prepared by embedding ICG-loaded microballoons in agar gel and imaged by a fluorescence imaging module in a Da Vinci surgical robot. The ex vivo model consists of liver, gallbladder, common bile duct, and part of the duodenum freshly dissected from a domestic swine. After ICG-loaded microballoons are injected into the gallbladder, the biliary structure is imaged by both hyperspectral and fluorescence imaging modalities. Advanced spectral analysis and image processing algorithms are developed to classify the tissue types and identify the biliary anatomy. While fluorescence imaging provides dynamic information of movement and flow in the surgical region of interest, data from hyperspectral imaging allow for rapid identification of the bile duct and safe exclusion of any contaminant fluorescence from tissue not part of the biliary anatomy. Our experiments demonstrate the technical feasibility of using ICG-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy.

  14. Gallbladder perforation during elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Altuntas, Yunus Emre; Oncel, Mustafa; Haksal, Mustafa; Kement, Metin; Gundogdu, Ersin; Aksakal, Nihat; Gezen, Fazli Cem

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to reveal the risk factors and outcomes of gallbladder perforation (GP) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: Videotapes of all patients who underwent an elective cholecystectomy at our department were retrospectively analyzed, and the patients were divided into two groups based on the presence of GP. The possible risk factors and early outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 664 patients [524 (78.9%) females, 49.7±13.4 years of age] were observed, and GP occurred in 240 (36.1%) patients, mostly while dissecting the gallbladder from its bed (n=197, 82.1%). GP was not recorded in the operation notes in 177 (73.8%) cases. Among the studied parameters, there was no significant risk factor for GP, except preoperatively elevated alanine transaminase level (p=0.005), but the sensitivity and specificity of this measure in predicting GP were 14.2% and 7.4%, respectively. The two groups had similar outcomes, but the operation time (35.4±17.5 vs 41.4±18.7 min, p=0.000) and incidence of drain use (25% vs 45.8%, p=0.000) increased in the GP group. CONCLUSION: The present study reveals that GP occurs in 36.1% of patients who undergo laparoscopic elective cholecystectomy, but it may not be recorded in most cases. We did not find any reliable risk factor that increases the possibility of GP. GP causes an increase in the operation time and incidence of drain use; however, the other outcomes were found to be similar in patients with GP and those without. PMID:29607432

  15. Apparatus Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presents four notes that report new equipment and techniques of interest to physics teachers. These notes deal with collosions of atoms in solids, determining the viscosity of a liquid, measuring the speed of sound and demonstrating Doppler effect. (HM)

  16. Suicide notes.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, I; Farmer, R; Catalan, J

    1993-07-01

    Detailed case reports of incidents of suicide and attempted suicide on the London Underground railway system between 1985 and 1989 were examined for the presence of suicide notes. The incidence of note-leaving was 15%. Notes provided little insight into the causes of suicide as subjectively perceived, or strategies for suicide prevention.

  17. Success of elective cholecystectomy treatment plans after emergency department visit.

    PubMed

    Bingener, Juliane; Thomsen, Kristine M; McConico, Andrea; Hess, Erik P; Habermann, Elizabeth B

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation between patients with acute cholecystitis and patients with severe biliary colic can be challenging. Patients with undiagnosed acute cholecystitis can incur repeat emergency department (ED) visits, which is resource intensive. Billing records from 2000-2013 of all adults who visited the ED in the 30 d preceding their cholecystectomy were analyzed. Patients who were discharged from the ED and underwent elective cholecystectomy were compared with those who were discharged and returned to the ED within 30 d. T-tests, chi-square tests, and multivariable analysis were used as appropriate. From 2000-2013, 3138 patients (34%) presented to the ED within 30 d before surgery, 63% were women, mean age 51 y, and of those 1625 were directly admitted from the ED for cholecystectomy, whereas 1513 patients left the ED to return for an elective cholecystectomy. Patients who were discharged were younger (mean age 49 versus 54 y, P < 0.001) and had shorter ED stays (5.9 versus 7.2 h, P < 0.001) than the patients admitted immediately. Of the discharged patients, 303 (20%) returned to the ED within 30 d to undergo urgent cholecystectomy. Compared with patients with successful elective cholecystectomy after the ED visit, those who failed the pathway were more likely to have an American Society of Anesthesiologists score ≥3 and were <40 or ≥60 compared with the successful group. One in five patients failed the elective cholecystectomy pathway after ED discharge, leading to additional patient distress and use of resources. Further risk factor assessment may help design efficient care pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cholecystectomy Reduces Recurrent Pancreatitis and Improves Survival After Endoscopic Sphincterotomy.

    PubMed

    Young, Shih-Hao; Peng, Yen-Ling; Lin, Xi-Hsuan; Chen, Yung-Tai; Luo, Jiing-Chyuan; Wang, Yen-Po; Hou, Ming-Chih; Lee, Fa-Yauh

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether cholecystectomy can decrease the recurrent pancreatitis in the elderly patients who received endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) and successful clearance of bile duct (BD) stones after gallstone-related acute pancreatitis. We analyzed data from National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. Elderly patients (age ≧70 years old) who had gallstone-related acute pancreatitis and underwent successful EST with BD stones clearance were eligible for enrollment. This nationwide, population-based, propensity score (PS)-matched cohort study involved two cohorts: (1) patients who underwent cholecystectomy after ERCP with BD stone clearance as study group and (2) those who adopted wait-and-see strategy (without cholecystectomy) after ERCP with BD stone clearance as control group. The primary and secondary endpoints were recurrent acute pancreatitis and all-cause mortality, respectively. During the study period, a total of 670 elderly patients (male 291, female 379) with a mean age of 79.1 was enrolled for analysis after PS matching. The incidence rate of recurrent acute pancreatitis was 12.39 per 1000 person-years in the cholecystectomy cohort and 23.94 per 1000 person-years in the PS-matched control cohort. The risk of recurrent acute pancreatitis was significantly lower in the cholecystectomy cohort (HR, 0.56; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.91; P = 0.021). The HR for all-cause mortality among the cholecystectomy cohort was 0.75 (95 % CI, 0.59-0.95; P = 0.016) compared with the control cohort. Cholecystectomy decreased the subsequent recurrent acute pancreatitis and the all-cause mortality in elderly patients with EST and clearance of BD stones after gallstone-related acute pancreatitis.

  19. Intra-Operative Predictors of difficult cholecystectomy and Conversion to Open Cholecystectomy - A New Scoring System.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nauman; Hassan, Maaz Ul; Tahira, Maham; Samad, Abdul; Rana, Hamad Naeem

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the intra-operative scoring system to predict difficult cholecystectomy and conversion to open surgery. This descriptive study was conducted from March 2016 to August, 2016 in the Department of Surgery, Shalimar Hospital. The study recruited 120 patients of either gender, age greater than 18 years and indicated for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Intra-operatively all patients were evaluated using the new scoring system. The scoring system included five aspects; appearance and adhesion of Gall Bladder (GB), distension or contracture degree of GB, ease in access, local or septic complications, and time required for cystic artery and duct identification. The scoring system ranges from 0 to 10, classified as score of <2 being considered easy, 2 to 4 moderate, 5-7 very difficult, and 8 to 10, extreme. Patient demographic data (i.e. age, gender), co-morbidities, intra-operative scores using the scoring system and conversion to open were recorded. The data was analysed using statistical analysis software SPSS (IBM). Among one hundred and twenty participants, sixty seven percent were females and the mean age (years) was 43.05 ± 14.16. Co-morbidities were present in twenty percent patients with eleven diagnosed with diabetes, six with hypertension and five with both hypertension and diabetes. The conversion rate to open surgery was 6.7%. The overall mean intra-operative scores were 3.52 ± 2.23; however significant difference was seen in mean operative score of converted to open and those not converted to open (8.00 ± 0.92 Vs. 3.20 V 1.92; p-value = 0.001). Among eight cases converted to open, three (37.5%) were in very difficult category while five (62.5%) were in extreme category. Moreover, age greater than 40 years and being diabetic were also the risk factors for conversion to open surgery. The new intra-operative scoring system is a valuable assessment tool to predict difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy and conversion parameters to open surgery and

  20. Risk and Cost-effectiveness of Surveillance Followed by Cholecystectomy for Gallbladder Polyps.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Vaux; Neal, Christopher P; Dennison, Ashely R; Garcea, Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To ascertain the best management options for patients presenting with gallbladder polyps. DESIGN Retrospective case-note analysis. SETTING Tertiary referral teaching hospital practice. PATIENTS Patients with ultrasonography-detected gallbladder polyps. INTERVENTIONS Ultrasonography surveillance or surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Demographic data and size and number of polyps were recorded as well as size increase and histological findings. Detection rates for potentially neoplastic and frankly neoplastic polyps were recorded and compared with complication rates from cholecystectomy. Cost-effectiveness of ultrasonography surveillance was examined. RESULTS Nine hundred eighty-six patients were identified and 467 patients underwent further follow-up. Only 6.6% of polyps exhibited an increase in size over the surveillance period. Polyps that subsequently progressed in size on surveillance had a significantly greater diameter at first presentation than those polyps that remained static (7 mm vs 5 mm, respectively) (P < .05). Only 3.7% of resected polyps had malignant or potentially malignant histology. Size greater than 10 mm and increase in size during surveillance predicted neoplastic potential. CONCLUSIONS A surveillance with or without selective surgery policy could potentially detect and prevent 5.4 gallbladder cancers per 1000 individuals per year with a cost saving of more than £130 000 (US $201 676) per year. Cancer prevention benefits would exceed the risk ratios from cholecystectomy complications. Polyps greater than 10 mm should be resected; those between 5 and 10 mm should be under ultrasonography surveillance.

  1. Is the loss of gallstones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy an underestimated complication?

    PubMed

    Gerlinzani, S; Tos, M; Gornati, R; Molteni, B; Poliziani, D; Taschieri, A M

    2000-04-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy entails an increased risk of gallbladder rupture and consequent loss of stones in the abdominal cavity. Herein we report the case of a 51-year-old male patient, who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy 2 years before presentation to our hospital. He had experienced tension sensation and epigastric pain since 4 months postoperatively. A well-defined epigastric mass, which was hard and painful on palpation, was detected and later confirmed by ultrasonography and CT scan. Explorative laparotomy revealed a mass in the area of the gastrocolic ligament,resulting from biliary gallstones in conjunction with a perimetral inflammatory reaction. A review of the literature showed that the incidence of gallbladder lesions during laparoscopy is 13-40%. In order to prevent this complication, meticulous isolation of the gallbladder, proper dissection of the cystic duct and artery, and careful extraction through the umbilical access are required. Ligation after the rupture or use of an endo-bag may be helpful. The loss of gallstones and their retention in the abdominal cavity should be noted in the description of the surgical procedure.

  2. Original single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute inflammation of the gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Kazunari; Watanabe, Goro; Matsuda, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Masaji

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety and feasibility of our original single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) for acute inflamed gallbladder (AIG). METHODS: One hundred and ten consecutive patients underwent original SILC for gallbladder disease without any selection criteria and 15 and 11 of these were diagnosed with acute cholecystitis and acute gallstone cholangitis, respectively. A retrospective review was performed not only between SILC for AIG and non-AIG, but also between SILC for AIG and traditional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TLC) for AIG in the same period. RESULTS: Comparison between SILC for AIG and non-AIG revealed that the operative time was longer in SILC for AIG (97.5 min vs 85.0 min, P = 0.03). The open conversion rate (2/26 vs 2/84, P = 0.24) and complication rate (1/26 vs 3/84, P = 1.00) showed no differences, but a need for additional trocars was more frequent in SILC for AIG (5/24 vs 3/82, P = 0.01). Comparison between SILC for AIG and TLC for AIG revealed no differences based on statistical analysis. CONCLUSION: Our original SILC technique was adequately safe and feasible for the treatment of acute cholecystitis and acute gallstone cholangitis. PMID:22408354

  3. Bactibilia and surgical site infection after open cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Mendoza, José Dolores; Alvarez-Mora, Moisés; Velázquez-Morales, César Augusto; Anaya-Prado, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Bactibilia is the presence of bacteria in gall bladder bile and may play a role in the appearance of septic complications. It has been related to increased rates of surgical site infection after cholecystectomy. In this study we investigated whether bactibilia correlates with the presence of surgical site infection after cholecystectomy. In this observational and descriptive study we investigated those patients operated by open cholecystectomy because of chronic cholecystitis. Patients had bile culture during surgery (January-December 2006). There were two study groups: patients with negative biliary culture (group 1) and patients with positive biliary culture (group 2). Variables were age, gender, biliary culture reports, abscess, cellulitis, seroma, and hematoma. Statistical analysis included Pearson chi(2) or Fisher's exact test. For independent variables, Student t-test was used. Eighty patients were included (n = 40 per group). There were 24 males (30%) and 56 females (70%) who had open cholecystectomy and had biliary culture. General morbidity was 42.50% and surgical site infection rate in general was 11.25%. There were two patients with abscesses and two patients with cellulitis in group 1. There were four patients with abscesses and one patient with cellulitis in group 2. There was no statistically significant difference when comparing surgical site infection in both groups. The presence of bacteria in gall bladder cultures does not correlate with the development of surgical site infection after open cholecystectomy.

  4. How Does Cholecystectomy Influence Recurrence of Idiopathic Acute Pancreatitis?

    PubMed

    Stevens, Claire L; Abbas, Saleh M; Watters, David A K

    2016-12-01

    Idiopathic acute pancreatitis is diagnosed in approximately 10-30 % of cases of acute pancreatitis. While there is evidence to suggest that the cause in many of these patients is microlithiasis, this fact has not been translated into a resource efficient treatment strategy that is proven to reduce recurrence rates. The aim of this study was to examine the value of prophylactic cholecystectomy following an episode of acute pancreatitis in patients with no history of alcohol abuse and no stones found on ultrasound. This was a retrospective study of 2236 patients who presented to a regional Australian hospital. Patients were included when diagnosed with acute pancreatitis with no confirmed cause. Recurrence of acute pancreatitis was compared between those that did and did not undergo cholecystectomy. One hundred ninety-five consecutive patients met the study definition of "idiopathic" acute pancreatitis. 33.8 % (66/195) underwent cholecystectomy. The patients who had cholecystectomy had a recurrence rate of 19.7 % (13/66) whereas, of those managed expectantly, 42.8 % (68/159) had at least one recurrence of acute pancreatitis (P = 0.001). Following an episode of acute pancreatitis with no identifiable cause, in patients fit for surgery, cholecystectomy should be considered to reduce the risk of recurrent episodes of pancreatitis.

  5. Post-cholecystectomy biliary strictures: not always benign.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajay; Behari, Anu; Sikora, Sadiq S; Kumar, Ashok; Saxena, Rajan; Kapoor, Vinay K

    2008-07-01

    Post-cholecystectomy malignant biliary obstruction masquerading as benign biliary stricture (BBS) has not been reported in the literature; it presents a diagnostic and management challenge. Of the 349 post-cholecystectomy BBS managed at a tertiary care hospital in northern India between 1989 and 2004, 11 patients were found to have biliary malignancy. Records of these 11 patients were analyzed retrospectively for the purpose of this study. Mean age of patients with malignant biliary strictures was significantly higher (52 vs 38 years, P = 0.000); they were more likely to have jaundice (100% vs 78%, P = 0.008) and pruritus (82% vs 48%, P = 0.03). Unlike most patients with BBS referred from elsewhere to us, they had had a smooth postoperative course uncomplicated by bile leak, had a longer cholecystectomy-presentation interval, and were more likely to have high strictures ((Bismuth type III/IV) 91% vs 49%, P = 0.008). Post-cholecystectomy biliary obstruction is not always benign. High bilirubin levels and hilar strictures, especially after an uneventful cholecystectomy, in a middle-aged patient should raise a suspicion of underlying missed malignancy.

  6. Respiratory system mechanics during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Rizzotti, L; Vassiliou, M; Amygdalou, A; Psarakis, Ch; Rasmussen, T R; Laopodis, V; Behrakis, P

    2002-04-01

    The influence of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) on the mechanical properties of the respiratory system (RS) was examined using multiple regression analysis (MRA). Measurements of airway pressure (PaO) and flow (V') were obtained from 32 patients at four distinct stages of the LC procedure: 1) Immediately before the application of pneumoperitoneum (PP) at supine position, 2) 5 min after the induction of PP at Trendelenburg position, 3) 5 min after the patients position at reverse Trendelenburg, and 4) 5 min after the end ofthe surgical procedure with the patient again in supine position. Evaluated parameters were the RS elastance (Ers), resistance (Rrs), impedance (Zrs), the angle theta indicating the balance between the elastic and resistive components of the impedance, as well as the end-expiratory elastic recoil pressure (EEP). Ers and Zrs increased considerably during PP and remained elevated immediately after abolishing PP Rrs, on the contrary, returned to pre-operative levels right after the operation. Change of body position from Trendelenburg (T) to reverseTrendelenburg (rT) mainly induced a significant change in theta, thus indicating an increased dominance of the elastic component of Zrs on changing fromT to rT. There was no evidence of increased End-Expiratory Pressure during PP

  7. Cholecystectomy: from Langenbuch to natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Soper, Nathaniel J

    2011-07-01

    Gallstones have led to pain and complications in humankind for millennia. Beginning in the 1880s, cholecystectomy, performed through a sizable abdominal incision, was the treatment of choice for symptomatic cholelithiasis. During the late 1980s pioneering surgeons first used laparoscopic techniques to remove the gallbladder. Although initially associated with a significantly increased rate of bile duct injury, the clinical advantages of laparoscopy compared to open operation became readily apparent, ushering in the "laparoscopic revolution." More recently, attempts at rendering cholecystectomy even less invasive--smaller or fewer incisions or eliminating abdominal incisions altogether--have been described, with limited clinical series reported. At the current time, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the gold standard for gallbladder removal, and any newer techniques must be demonstrated to result in superior outcomes for widespread adoption.

  8. Pattern Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Alan

    1980-01-01

    Looks at an alternative method to linear notes for organizing thoughts when preparing a talk or paper. This method displays the manner in which the relationships of a subject are organized and offers a format for displaying complex inter-dependencies in place of linear notes. (Author/MER)

  9. SUPRAPUBIC LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY: TECHNIQUE AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    PubMed Central

    SALES, Leonardo Adolpho S.; PINTO, João Odilo G.; QUEIROZ, Carlos Eduardo F.; CASTRO, Marcelo; DOURADO, Paulo Henrique F.; PINHEIRO, Fernando Antonio S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The minimally invasive abdominal surgery has evolved to reduce portals, culminating with a single incision and natural orifice operation. However, these methods are still expensive, difficult to implement and with questionable aesthetic results. Aim To present the standardization and preliminary results of a technique for performing laparoscopic suprapubic access by the principle which was called the Supra Pubic Endoscopic Surgery for cholecystectomy. Method The average body mass index of patients, the mean operative time, clinical data of the postoperative complications and quality of life were prospectively studied. The operation incisions consisted of: A) umbilical for instrumental dissection and clipping; B) in the right groin for handling and gallbladder gripping; C) suprapubic for the camera. With the patient in reverse Trendelenburg and left lateral decubitus, the operation flew by the camera trocar in C, proceeding with dissection and isolation of the biliary pedicle, identification of cystic duct and artery, with usual instrumentation. Transcystic intraoperative cholangiography was performed in all cases in which there were indications. The procedure was completed with clipping and sectioning of the cystic duct and artery, retrograde resection of the gallbladder and extracting it by the umbilical trocar incision under direct vision. Results Thirty patients undergone this surgical procedure between March and June 2012 and were evaluated. The mean age was 40.7 years and the indications were typical biliary colic in 18 cases (60 %), cholecystitis in five cases (16.6 %), biliary pancreatitis in one case (3.3%); polyp in three cases (10%) and obstructive jaundice at three cases (10%). The average body mass index was 27.8 (23.1-35.1) and surgical time ranged between 24 and 70 minutes. Conclusion The technique proved to be feasible and safe , with no significant complications, and satisfactory cosmetic results. PMID:24676293

  10. External validation of the Cairns Prediction Model (CPM) to predict conversion from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Alan Shiun Yew; Donohue, Peter O'; Gunnarsson, Ronny K; de Costa, Alan

    2018-03-14

    Valid and user-friendly prediction models for conversion to open cholecystectomy allow for proper planning prior to surgery. The Cairns Prediction Model (CPM) has been in use clinically in the original study site for the past three years, but has not been tested at other sites. A retrospective, single-centred study collected ultrasonic measurements and clinical variables alongside with conversion status from consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy from 2013 to 2016 in The Townsville Hospital, North Queensland, Australia. An area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to externally validate of the CPM. Conversion was necessary in 43 (4.2%) out of 1035 patients. External validation showed an area under the curve of 0.87 (95% CI 0.82-0.93, p = 1.1 × 10 -14 ). In comparison with most previously published models, which have an AUC of approximately 0.80 or less, the CPM has the highest AUC of all published prediction models both for internal and external validation. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Is mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy any better than the gold standard?: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Haris R; Abbas, Asad; Aleem, Salik; Lakhani, Miqdad R

    2017-01-01

    Mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy (MLC) has widened the horizons of modern laparoscopic surgery. Standard four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC), which has long been established as the "Gold Standard" for gall bladder diseases, is under reconsideration following the advent of further minimally-invasive procedures including MLC. Our study aims to provide a comparison between MLC and SLC and assesses whether MLC has any added benefits. Patients with symptomatic gall bladder disease undergoing MLC or SLC during the 2.5-month period were included in the study. Thirty-two patients underwent MLC while SLC was performed on 40 patients by the same surgeon. Data was collected prospectively and analysed retrospectively using a predesigned questionnaire. In our study, both the groups had similar age, body mass index (BMI) and gender distribution. No cases of MLC required insertion of additional ports. The mean operative time for MLC was 38.2 min (33-61 min), which is longer than SLC; but it was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in mean operative blood loss, postoperative pain, analgesia requirement and mobilization. Patients who underwent MLC were able to return to normal activity earlier than patients undergoing SLC (P < 0.01). Our experience suggests that MLC can safely be used as an alternative to SLC. Compared to SLC, it has the added benefit of an early return to work along with excellent cosmetic results. Further large scale trials are required to prove any additional benefit of MLC.

  12. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal-epidural anesthesia vs. general anaesthesia: a prospective randomised study.

    PubMed

    Donmez, Turgut; Erdem, Vuslat Muslu; Uzman, Sinan; Yildirim, Dogan; Avaroglu, Huseyin; Ferahman, Sina; Sunamak, Oguzhan

    2017-03-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is usually performed under the general anesthesia (GA). Aim of the study is to investigate the availability, safety and side effects of combined spinal/epidural anesthesia (CSEA) and comparison it with GA for LC. Forty-nine patients who have a LC plan were included into the study. The patients were randomly divided into GA (n = 25) and CSEA (n = 24) groups. Intraoperative and postoperative adverse events, postoperative pain levels were compared between groups. Anesthesia procedures and surgeries for all patients were successfully completed. After the organization of pneumoperitoneum in CSEA group, 3 patients suffered from shoulder pain (12.5%) and 4 patients suffered from abdominal discomfort (16.6%). All these complaints were recovered with IV fentanyl administration. Only 1 patient developed hypotension which is recovered with fluid replacement and no need to use vasopressor treatment. Postoperative shoulder pain was significantly less observed in CSEA group (25% vs . 60%). Incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) was less observed in CSEA group but not statistically significant (4.2% vs . 20%). In the group of CSEA, 3 patients suffered from urinary retention (12.5%) and 2 patients suffered from spinal headache (8.3%). All postoperative pain parameters except 6th hour, were less observed in CSEA group, less VAS scores and less need to analgesic treatment in CSEA group comparing with GA group. CSEA can be used safely for laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Less postoperative surgical field pain, shoulder pain and PONV are the advantages of CSEA compared to GA.

  13. Project Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents sixteen project notes developed by pupils of Chipping Norton School and Bristol Grammar School, in the United Kingdom. These Projects include eight biology A-level projects and eight Chemistry A-level projects. (HM)

  14. Blue Note

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2017-12-09

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  15. Blue Note

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Argonne's Murray Gibson is a physicist whose life's work includes finding patterns among atoms. The love of distinguishing patterns also drives Gibson as a musician and Blues enthusiast."Blue" notes are very harmonic notes that are missing from the equal temperament scale.The techniques of piano blues and jazz represent the melding of African and Western music into something totally new and exciting.

  16. The analysis of 146 patients with difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Bat, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is very commonly performed surgical intervention. Acute or chronic cholecystitis, adhesions due to previous upper abdomen surgeries, Mirrizi's syndrome and obesity are common clinical conditions that can be associated with difficult cholecystectomy. In this study, we evaluated and scored the patients with difficult surgical exploration during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All patients who underwent LC from 2010 to 2015 were retrospectively rewieved. According to intraoperative findings DLC cases were described and classified. Class I difficulty: Adhesion of omentum majus, transverse colon, duodenum to the fundus of the gallbladder. Class II difficulty: Adhesions in Calot's triangle and difficulty in dissection of cystic artery and cystic duct Class III difficulty: Difficulty in dissection of gallbladder bed (scleroathrophic gallbladder, hemorrhage from liver during dissection of gallbladder, chirotic liver). Class IV difficulty: Difficulty in exploration of gallbladder due to intraabdominal adhesions including technical problems. A total of 146 patients were operated with DLC. The most common difficulty type was Class I difficulty (88 patients/60.2%). Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was converted to laparotomy in 98 patients. Operation time was found to be related with conversion to open surgery (P<0.05). Wound infection rate was also statistically higher in conversion group (P<0.05). The opertion time was found to be longest with Class II difficulty. Conversion rate to open surgery was also highest with Class II difficulty group. Class II difficulty characterized by severe adhesions in calot's triangle is most serious problem among all DLC cases. They have longer operation time and higher conversion rate.

  17. [Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a patient with Steinert disease].

    PubMed

    Mercier, M F; Baghdadi, H; Frosini, C; Sielezneff, I; Sastre, B; Gouin, F

    1996-01-01

    Steinert's disease or myotonic myopathy is associated with chronic restrictive respiratory insufficiency. A case of a patient with Steinert's disease undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy, with a full recovery within three days is reported. It is concluded that laparoscopic surgery is a possible therapeutic tool in patients suffering from a myopathy.

  18. Laparoendoscopic single-site cholecystectomy vs three-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A large-scale retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuan; Jiang, Ze-Sheng; Xu, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Zhi; Xu, Ting-Cheng; Zhou, Chen-Jie; Qin, Jia-Sheng; He, Guo-Lin; Gao, Yi; Pan, Ming-Xin

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To perform a large-scale retrospective comparison of laparoendoscopic single-site cholecystectomy (LESSC) and three-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TPLC) in a single institution. METHODS: Data were collected from 366 patients undergoing LESSC between January 2005 and July 2008 and were compared with the data from 355 patients undergoing TPLC between August 2008 and November 2011 in our department. Patients with body mass index greater than 35 kg/m2, a history of major upper abdominal surgery, signs of acute cholecystitis, such as fever, right upper quadrant tenderness with or without Murphy’s sign, elevated white blood cell count, imaging findings suggestive of pericholecystic fluid, gallbladder wall thickening > 4 mm, and gallstones > 3 cm, were excluded to avoid bias. RESULTS: Altogether, 298 LESSC and 315 TPLC patients met the inclusion criteria. The groups were well matched with regard to demographic data. There were no significant differences in terms of postoperative complications (contusion: 19 vs 25 and hematoma at incision: 11 vs 19), hospital stay (mean ± SD, 1.4 ± 0.2 d vs 1.4 ± 0.7 d) and visual analogue pain score (mean ± SD, 8 h after surgery: 2.3 ± 1.4 vs 2.3 ± 1.3 and at day 1: 1.2 ± 0.4 vs 1.3 ± 1.2) between the LESSC and TPLC patients. Four patients required the addition of extra ports and 2 patients were converted to open surgery in the LESSC group, which was not significantly different when compared with TPLC patients converted to laparotomy (2 vs 2). LESSC resulted in a longer operating time (mean ± SD, 54.8 ± 11.0 min vs 33.5 ± 9.0 min), a higher incidence of intraoperative gallbladder perforation (56 vs 6) and higher operating cost (mean ± SD, 1933.7 ± 64.4 USD vs 1874.7 ± 46.2 USD) than TPLC. No significant differences in operating time (mean ± SD, 34.3 ± 6.0 min vs 32.7 ± 8.7 min) and total cost (mean ± SD, 1881.3 ± 32.8 USD vs 1876.2 ± 33.4 USD) were found when the last 100 cases in the two groups were

  19. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy and Incidental Carcinoma of the Extrahepatic Biliary Tree

    PubMed Central

    Raparelli, Luigi; Jover Navalon, Jose' Maria; Gomez, Ana Serantes; Azcoita, Mariano Moreno; Materia, Alberto; Basso, Nicola

    2002-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Gallbladder carcinoma is found in 0.2 % to 5% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy, and gallstones are found in 70% to 98% of patients with gallbladder carcinoma. Early diagnosis of carcinoma is difficult because of the absence of specific symptoms and the frequent association with chronic cholecystitis and gallstones. At present, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the gold standard for the surgical treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis and other benign gallbladder diseases. The aims of this study were to evaluate retrospectively the incidence of occasional and occult gallbladder carcinomas to ascertain the effect of laparoscopy on diagnosis and treatment of unexpected extrahepatic biliary tree carcinomas and to assess possible guidelines that can be taken into consideration when the problem is encountered. Methods: Clinical records of 3900 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were reviewed. Patients with occasional (intraoperative = Group A) or occult (postoperative = Group B) diagnosis of gallbladder or common bile duct carcinoma entered the study group. Follow-up data were obtained in June 2000. Results: A total of 14 patients (0.35%), 3 men and 11 women, mean age 60.8 years (range 37 to 73) with extra-hepatic biliary tree carcinoma were found. Occasional carcinomas occurred in 8 patients, occult carcinomas in 6. No deaths occurred in either group. The overall survival at mean follow-up of 30.5 months is 50%. Five patients are disease free, and 2 are alive with evidence of recurrence. Discussion: In 2 large series of unselected consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomy, only 14 unsuspected malignant tumors of the extrahepatic biliary tree were found (0.35%). The limits of the preoperative workup and the difficult diagnosis of biliary tract carcinoma during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, has led to the present retrospective study and several significant recommendations. PMID:12500833

  20. [PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS OF REHABILITATION OF PATIENTS AFTER CHOLECYSTECTOMY].

    PubMed

    Efendiyeva, M T; Abdurakhmanova, A Z

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of efficiency of liquid synbiotics and structure-resonance electric magnetic therapy (SRMT) among patients after cholecystectomy. 90 patients after cholecystectomy have been investigated (CE). Along with general clinical meth-ods of investigation, patients passed US investigation of abdomen, biochemical blood tests, bacteriological test of faeces, investigation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) by gas-liquid osteal chromatographic analysis. State of vegetative nervous system passed analysis according to variability of heart rhythm (VHR) by spectral analysis method using "Cardiac technic 4000 AD" cardiac monitor in frame of 24-hr ECG monitoring. Estimation of life quality (LQ) of patients after cholecystectomy has been conducted by "SF-36 Health status survey". Patients have been divided into 3 groups, comparable according to the main clinical and functional indicators. Patients of first group (30 people) passed correction of dysbiosis by liquid synbiotics. Patients of a second group (30 persons) passed complex treatment of SRMT and liquid synbiotics. Control group was composed by 30 patients after cholecystectomy who had been receiving diet therapy. In term of investigation 90% of patients have shown decrease of number and methabolic activity of microflora, change of activity of anaerobic microorganisms. Analysis of variability of heart rhythm have displayed relative prevalence of sympathetic modulation of a rhythm on the background of elevated ergotropic component of the total capacity of a spectrum; estimation of life quality (LQ) has shown that limitation of physical activity is a most considerable contribution to decrease of LQ among patients after cholecystectomy. After a course of liquid synbiotics and SMRT recovery and improvement of intestines and improvement of all indicator of life quality is observed.

  1. Analgesic Effect Of Bilateral Subcostal Tap Block After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Khan, Karima Karam; Khan, Robyna Irshad

    2018-01-01

    Pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is mild to moderate in intensity. Several modalities are employed for achieving safe and effective postoperative analgesia, the benefits of which adds to the early recovery of the patients. As a part of multimodal analgesia, various approaches of Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has been used for management of parietal and incisional components of pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This study was designed to compare the analgesic efficacy of two different approaches of ultrasound guided TAP block, i.e., Subcostal-TAP block technique with ultrasound guided Posterior-TAP block for postoperative pain management in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia. In this double blinded randomized controlled study, consecutive nonprobability sampling was done and a total of 126 patients admitted for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected. After induction of general anaesthesia, patients were randomized through draw method and received either ultrasound guided posterior TAP block with 0.375% bupivacaine (20ml volume) on each side of the abdomen or subcostal TAP block bilaterally with the same. Up to 24 hours postoperatively, static and dynamic numeric rating pain scores were assessed. We found statistically significant difference in mean static pain scores over 24 hours postoperatively in subcostal TAP group, suggesting improved analgesia. However, mean dynamic postoperative pain scores were comparable between the two groups. Whereas, patients in both groups were satisfied with pain management. Ultrasound guided subcostal TAP block provides better postoperative analgesia as compared to the Posterior TAP block in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Otherwise both of the approaches improve patient outcomes towards early recovery and discharge from hospital.

  2. Optimal timing of cholecystectomy in children with gallstone pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Badru, Faidah; Saxena, Saurabh; Breeden, Robert; Bourdillon, Maximillan; Fitzpatrick, Colleen; Chatoorgoon, Kaveer; Greenspon, Jose; Villalona, Gustavo

    2017-07-01

    Little data exist regarding the recurrence of pancreatitis in pediatric patients with gallstone pancreatitis awaiting cholecystectomy. This study evaluates the recurrence rate of pancreatitis after acute gallstone pancreatitis based on the timing of cholecystectomy in pediatric patients. A retrospective chart review of all patients admitted with gallstone pancreatitis from 2007 to 2015 was performed. Children were divided into the following five groups. Group 1 had surgery during the index admission. Group 2 had surgery within 2 wk of discharge. Group 3 had surgery between 2 and 6 wk postdischarge. Group 4 had surgery 6 wk after discharge, and group 5 patients had no surgery. The recurrence rates of pancreatitis were calculated for all groups. Forty-eight patients with gallstone pancreatitis were identified in this study. The 19 patients in group 1 had no recurrence of their pancreatitis. Of the remaining 29 patients, nine (31%) had recurrence of pancreatitis or required readmission for abdominal pain prior to their cholecystectomy. In group 2, two of the eight patients (25%) had recurrent pancreatitis. In group 3, three of eight patients (37.5%) developed recurrent pancreatitis. In group 4, three of five patients (60%), and in group 5, one of eight. No children in group 5 had demonstrable gallstones at presentation, only sludge in their gallbladder. Cholecystectomy during the index admission is associated with no recurrence or readmission for pancreatitis. Therefore, we recommend that cholecystectomy be performed after resolution of an episode of gallstone pancreatitis during index admission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Knowledge and opinions regarding Medicare reimbursement for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Madan, Atul K; Tichansky, David S; Barton, Ginny E; Taddeucci, Raymond J

    2007-11-01

    Medicare, via its fee schedule, determines amount of payment to physicians for services for its beneficiaries. Because many private insurance companies base their payment schedule on Medicare rates, it is important for physicians to know the rates of commonly performed procedures. In addition, it seems that public perception is that physicians receive substantial payments for procedures. This investigation explores patient, student, resident, and surgeon knowledge and opinion of Medicare reimbursements for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients, students, residents, and surgeons filled out an IRB-exempted survey. The survey included a written description of a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All participants were asked to give their thoughts of what Medicare currently reimburses for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy ($622) and what they thought Medicare should reimburse for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy for our geographic area. There were 105 participants (47 patients, 17 medical students, 33 surgical residents, and 8 attending surgeons) in the investigation. The reported mean reimbursements of what each group thought Medicare pays were patients, $9,396; students, $3,077; residents, $800; and surgeons, $711. The reported mean reimbursements of what each group thought Medicare should pay were patients, $8,067; students, $3,971; residents, $1,444; and surgeons, $1,600. The mean reimbursements were statistically different between all groups in both the amount Medicare currently pays and the amount Medicare should pay. Most of our participants overestimated what Medicare currently pays for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Even the mean amount reported in the attending surgeon group was greater than the actual payment. All groups felt Medicare should pay more than the current rate; however, only patients thought Medicare should pay less than they currently pay (probably because of the incorrect perception of the current fee schedule).

  4. Predicate Argument Structure Frames for Modeling Information in Operative Notes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Pakhomov, Serguei; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2015-01-01

    The rich information about surgical procedures contained in operative notes is a valuable data source for improving the clinical evidence base and clinical research. In this study, we propose a set of Predicate Argument Structure (PAS) frames for surgical action verbs to assist in the creation of an information extraction (IE) system to automatically extract details about the techniques, equipment, and operative steps from operative notes. We created PropBank style PAS frames for the 30 top surgical action verbs based on examination of randomly selected sample sentences from 3,000 Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy notes. To assess completeness of the PAS frames to represent usage of same action verbs, we evaluated the PAS frames created on sample sentences from operative notes of 6 other gastrointestinal surgical procedures. Our results showed that the PAS frames created with one type of surgery can successfully denote the usage of the same verbs in operative notes of broader surgical categories. PMID:23920664

  5. Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy vs. conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Garg, Pankaj; Thakur, Jai Deep; Garg, Mahak; Menon, Geetha R

    2012-08-01

    We analyzed different morbidity parameters between single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) and conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC). Pubmed, Ovid, Embase, SCI database, Cochrane, and Google Scholar were searched. The primary endpoints analyzed were cosmetic result and the postoperative pain (at 6 and 24 h) and the secondary endpoints were operating time, hospital stay, incidence of overall postoperative complications, wound-related complications, and port-site hernia. Six hundred fifty-nine patients (SILC-349, CLC-310) were analyzed from nine randomized controlled trials. The objective postoperative pain scores at 6 and 24 h and the hospital stay were similar in both groups. The total postoperative complications, wound-related problems, and port-site hernia formation, though higher in SILC, were also comparable in both groups. SILC had significantly favorable cosmetic scoring compared to CLC [weighted mean difference = 1.0, p = 0.0001]. The operating time was significantly longer in SILC [weighted mean difference = 15.63, p = 0.0001]. Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy does not confer any benefit in postoperative pain (6 and 24 h) and hospital stay as compared to conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy while having significantly better cosmetic results at the same time. Postoperative complications, though higher in SILC, were statistically similar in both the groups.

  6. Preoperative ultrasound measurements predict the feasibility of gallbladder extraction during transgastric natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Santos, Byron F; Auyang, Edward D; Hungness, Eric S; Desai, Kush R; Chan, Edward S; van Beek, Darren B; Wang, Edward C; Soper, Nathaniel J

    2011-04-01

    Extraction of a gallbladder through an endoscopic overtube during natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) transgastric cholecystectomy avoids potential injury to the esophagus. This study examined the rate of successful gallbladder specimen extraction through an overtube and hypothesized that preoperative ultrasound findings could predict successful specimen passage. Gallbladder specimens from patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were measured, and an attempt was made to pull the specimens through a commercially available overtube with an inner diameter of 16.7-mm. A radiologist blinded to the outcomes reviewed the available preoperative ultrasound measurements from these patients. Ultrasound dimensions including gallbladder length, width, and depth; wall thickness; common bile duct diameter; and size of the largest gallstone (LGS) were recorded. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine whether ultrasound findings and patient characteristics (age, body mass index [BMI], and sex) could predict the ability of a specimen to pass through the overtube. Of 57 patients, 44 (77%) who had preoperative ultrasounds available for electronic review were included in the final analysis. Gallstones were present in 35 (79%) of these 44 patients. Intraoperative gallbladder perforation occurred in 18 (41%) of the 44 patients, and 16 (36%) of the 44 gallbladders could be extracted through the overtube. Measurement of LGS was possible for 23 patients, and indeterminate gallstone size (IGS) was determined for 12 patients. The rate for passage of perforated versus intact gallbladders was similar (40% vs. 23%; p = 0.054). The LGS (odds ratio [OR], 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.33; p = 0.021) and IGS (OR, 22.97; 95% CI, 1.99-265.63; p = 0.025) predicted failed passage on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The passage rate was 80% for LGS smaller than 10 mm or no stones present, 18% for LGS 10 mm or larger, and 8% for

  7. Low pressure versus standard pressure pneumoperitoneum in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Vaughan, Jessica; Davidson, Brian R

    2014-03-18

    A pneumoperitoneum of 12 to 16 mm Hg is used for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Lower pressures are claimed to be safe and effective in decreasing cardiopulmonary complications and pain. To assess the benefits and harms of low pressure pneumoperitoneum compared with standard pressure pneumoperitoneum in people undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until February 2013 to identify randomised trials,using search strategies. We considered only randomised clinical trials, irrespective of language, blinding, or publication status for inclusion in the review. Two review authors independently identified trials and independently extracted data. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), mean difference (MD), or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using both fixed-effect and random-effects models with RevMan 5 based on available case analysis. A total of 1092 participants randomly assigned to the low pressure group (509 participants) and the standard pressure group (583 participants) in 21 trials provided information for this review on one or more outcomes. Three additional trials comparing low pressure pneumoperitoneum with standard pressure pneumoperitoneum (including 179 participants) provided no information for this review. Most of the trials included low anaesthetic risk participants undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. One trial including 140 participants was at low risk of bias. The remaining 20 trials were at high risk of bias. The overall quality of evidence was low or very low. No mortality was reported in either the low pressure group (0/199; 0%) or the standard pressure group (0/235; 0%) in eight trials that reported mortality. One participant experienced the outcome of serious adverse events (low pressure group 1/179, 0.6%; standard pressure group 0/215, 0%; seven trials

  8. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this issue's "Classroom Notes" section, the following papers are discussed: (1) "Constructing a line segment whose length is equal to the measure of a given angle" (W. Jacob and T. J. Osler); (2) "Generating functions for the powers of Fibonacci sequences" (D. Terrana and H. Chen); (3) "Evaluation of mean and variance integrals without…

  9. Apparatus Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This collection of notes describes (1) an optoelectronic apparatus for classroom demonstrations of mechanical laws, (2) a more efficient method for demonstrated nuclear chain reactions using electrically energized "traps" and ping-pong balls, and (3) an inexpensive demonstration for qualitative analysis of temperature-dependent resistance. (CS)

  10. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)

  11. Use of a simplified consent form to facilitate patient understanding of informed consent for laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Borello, Alessandro; Passera, Roberto; Surace, Alessandra; Marola, Silvia; Buccelli, Claudio; Niola, Massimo; Di Lorenzo, Pierpaolo; Amato, Maurizio; Di Domenico, Lorenza; Solej, Mario; Martino, Valter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Surgical informed consent forms can be complicated for patients to read and understand. We created a consent form with key information presented in bulleted texts and diagrams combined in a graphical format to facilitate the understanding of information during the verbal consent discussion. Methods This prospective, randomized study involved 70 adult patients awaiting cholecystectomy for gallstones. Consent was obtained after standard verbal explanation using either a graphically formatted (study group, n=33) or a standard text document (control group, n=37). Comprehension was evaluated with a 9-item multiple-choice questionnaire administered before surgery and factors affecting comprehension were analyzed. Results Comparison of questionnaire scores showed no effect of age, sex, time between consent and surgery, or document format on understanding of informed consent. Educational level was the only predictor of comprehension. Conclusions Simplified surgical consent documents meet the goals of health literacy and informed consent. Educational level appears to be a strong predictor of understanding. PMID:28352847

  12. Use of a simplified consent form to facilitate patient understanding of informed consent for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Borello, Alessandro; Ferrarese, Alessia; Passera, Roberto; Surace, Alessandra; Marola, Silvia; Buccelli, Claudio; Niola, Massimo; Di Lorenzo, Pierpaolo; Amato, Maurizio; Di Domenico, Lorenza; Solej, Mario; Martino, Valter

    2016-01-01

    Surgical informed consent forms can be complicated for patients to read and understand. We created a consent form with key information presented in bulleted texts and diagrams combined in a graphical format to facilitate the understanding of information during the verbal consent discussion. This prospective, randomized study involved 70 adult patients awaiting cholecystectomy for gallstones. Consent was obtained after standard verbal explanation using either a graphically formatted (study group, n=33) or a standard text document (control group, n=37). Comprehension was evaluated with a 9-item multiple-choice questionnaire administered before surgery and factors affecting comprehension were analyzed. Comparison of questionnaire scores showed no effect of age, sex, time between consent and surgery, or document format on understanding of informed consent. Educational level was the only predictor of comprehension. Simplified surgical consent documents meet the goals of health literacy and informed consent. Educational level appears to be a strong predictor of understanding.

  13. Technical note: Evaluation of urinary purine derivatives in comparison with duodenal purines for estimating rumen microbial protein supply in sheep.

    PubMed

    Kozloski, G V; Stefanello, C M; Oliveira, L; Filho, H M N Ribeiro; Klopfenstein, T J

    2017-02-01

    A data set of individual observations was compiled from digestibility trials to examine the relationship between the duodenal purine bases (PB) flow and urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion and the validity of different equations for estimating rumen microbial N (Nm) supply based on urinary PD in comparison with estimates based on duodenal PB. Trials (8 trials, = 185) were conducted with male sheep fitted with a duodenal T-type cannula, housed in metabolic cages, and fed forage alone or with supplements. The amount of PD excreted in urine was linearly related to the amount of PB flowing to the duodenum ( < 0.05). The intercept of the linear regression was 0.180 mmol/(d·kg), representing the endogenous excretion of PD, and the slope was lower than 1 ( < 0.05), indicating that only 0.43% of the PB in the duodenum was excreted as PD in urine. The Nm supply estimated by either approach was linearly related ( < 0.05) to the digestible OM intake. However, the Nm supply estimated through either of 3 published PD-based equations probably underestimated the Nm supply in sheep.

  14. Teaching Notes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    If you would like to contribute a teaching note for any of these sections please contact ped@iop.org. Contents: PHYSICS ON A SHOESTRING: Demonstrating resolution Magnetic tea patterns LET'S INVESTIGATE: Conducting foam TECHNICAL TRIMMINGS: Polarimeter Old experiments on air-tracks gain new fans MY WAY: Newton's laws ON THE MAP: The International School of Lusaka CURIOSITY: Inflation theory PHYSICS ON A SHOESTRING

  15. Minilaparoscopy-assisted transumbilical laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Lima, Geraldo José DE Souza; Leite, Rodrigo Fabiano Guedes; Abras, Gustavo Munayer; Pires, Livio José Suretti; Castro, Eduardo Godoy

    2016-01-01

    The role of laparoscopy in the modern surgery era is well established. With the prospect of being able to improve the already privileged current situation, new alternatives have been proposed, such as natural orifice endoscopic surgery (NOTES), the method for single transumbilical access (LESS - Laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery) and minilaparoscopy (MINI). The technique proposed by the authors uses a laparoscope with an operative channel like the flexible endoscope used in NOTES. All operative times are carried out through the umbilical trocar as in LESS, and assisted by a minilaparoscopy grasper. This new technic combines, and results from, the rationalization of technical particularities and synergy of these three approaches, seeking to join their advantages and minimize their disadvantages. RESUMO O papel da videolaparoscopia na era moderna da cirurgia encontra-se bem estabelecido. Com a perspectiva de ser possível melhorar a já privilegiada situação atual, novas alternativas têm sido propostas, como a cirurgia por orifícios naturais (NOTES), o método por acesso único transumbilical (LESS - Laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery) e a minilaparoscopia (MINI). A técnica proposta pelos autores utiliza-se de óptica com canal de trabalho como o endoscópio flexível do NOTES, executa-se todos os tempos operatórios pelo trocarte umbilical, como no LESS, e é assistido por pinça de minilaparoscopia. Esta nova técnica combina e resulta da racionalização de particularidades técnicas e do sinergismo destas três abordagens, buscando agregar suas vantagens e minimizar as suas desvantagens.

  16. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under epidural anesthesia: a clinical feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Huh, Jin; Kim, Duk Kyung; Gil, Jea Ryoung; Min, Sung Won; Han, Sun Sook

    2010-12-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has traditionally been performed under general anesthesia, however, owing in part to the advancement of surgical and anesthetic techniques, many laparoscopic cholecystectomies have been successfully performed under the spinal anesthetic technique. We hoped to determine the feasibility of segmental epidural anesthesia for LC. Twelve American Society of Anesthesiologists class I or II patients received an epidural block for LC. The level of epidural block and the satisfaction score of patients and the surgeon were checked to evaluate the efficacy of epidural block for LC. LC was performed successfully under epidural block, with the exception of 1 patient who required a conversion to general anesthesia owing to severe referred pain. There were no special postoperative complications, with the exception of one case of urinary retention. Epidural anesthesia might be applicable for LC. However, the incidence of intraoperative referred shoulder pain is high, and so careful patient recruitment and management of shoulder pain should be considered.

  17. Abdominal drainage following cholecystectomy: high, low, or no suction?

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, T. T.; Abel, P. D.; Collins, C. D.

    1983-01-01

    A prospective trial to assess the effect of suction in an abdominal drain following cholecystectomy was carried out. Three types of closed drainage system were compared: a simple tube drain, a low negative pressure drain, and a high negative pressure drain: 120 consecutive patients undergoing cholecystectomy were randomly allocated to one of the three drainage groups. There was no significant difference in postoperative pyrexia, wound infection, chest infection, or hospital stay. This study failed to demonstrate any clinically useful difference between high negative pressure, low negative pressure, and static drainage system were compared: a simple tube drain, a low negative used, suction is not necessary and a simple tube drain (greater than 6 mm internal diameter) is the most effective form of drainage. PMID:6614773

  18. The analysis of 146 patients with difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bat, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is very commonly performed surgical intervention. Acute or chronic cholecystitis, adhesions due to previous upper abdomen surgeries, Mirrizi’s syndrome and obesity are common clinical conditions that can be associated with difficult cholecystectomy. In this study, we evaluated and scored the patients with difficult surgical exploration during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Method: All patients who underwent LC from 2010 to 2015 were retrospectively rewieved. According to intraoperative findings DLC cases were described and classified. Class I difficulty: Adhesion of omentum majus, transverse colon, duodenum to the fundus of the gallbladder. Class II difficulty: Adhesions in Calot’s triangle and difficulty in dissection of cystic artery and cystic duct Class III difficulty: Difficulty in dissection of gallbladder bed (scleroathrophic gallbladder, hemorrhage from liver during dissection of gallbladder, chirotic liver). Class IV difficulty: Difficulty in exploration of gallbladder due to intraabdominal adhesions including technical problems. Results: A total of 146 patients were operated with DLC. The most common difficulty type was Class I difficulty (88 patients/60.2%). Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was converted to laparotomy in 98 patients. Operation time was found to be related with conversion to open surgery (P<0.05). Wound infection rate was also statistically higher in conversion group (P<0.05). The opertion time was found to be longest with Class II difficulty. Conversion rate to open surgery was also highest with Class II difficulty group. Conclusion: Class II difficulty characterized by severe adhesions in calot’s triangle is most serious problem among all DLC cases. They have longer operation time and higher conversion rate. PMID:26629124

  19. Hospital readmission after ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy: incidence and predictors.

    PubMed

    Rosero, Eric B; Joshi, Girish P

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the rate of 30-d hospital readmissions after ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The 2009 to 2011 State Ambulatory Surgery and Services and State Inpatient Databases from California, Florida, and New York were analyzed to evaluate the incidence of 30-d readmissions after laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed in outpatient settings. Hospital transfers and the principal diagnoses of hospital readmission were analyzed as secondary outcomes. Multilevel generalized mixed linear regression analyses with fixed and random effects were used to evaluate variables associated with increased likelihood of readmissions. A total of 230,745 encounters for ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed in 890 ambulatory facilities between 2009 and 2011 in the three states were analyzed. The rate of 30-d readmission was 20.2 per 1000 discharges. The rate of direct transfers from the ambulatory surgery center to an acute care hospital was 0.6 per 1000 discharges. The most common diagnoses of readmission were surgical complications, postoperative pain, infection, and nausea or vomiting. After adjusting for comorbidities, increasing age, male sex, non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, any nonprivate insurance type, diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, use of intraoperative cholangiography, and having the procedure performed on a weekend were significantly associated with increased odds of 30-d readmissions. This large-state data analysis reveals that the unplanned admission and readmission rates after laparoscopic cholecystectomy are very low. Some causes of readmission (e.g., pain, nausea, and vomiting) are modifiable by the intervention of surgeons and anesthesia providers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Warming up with endotrainer prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Troncoso-Bacelis, Alicia; Soto-Amaro, Jaime; Ramírez-Velázquez, Carlos

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe and effective treatment and remains the gold standard in patients with benign disease. However it presents difficulties such as: the limited movement range of the instruments, the loss of depth perception, haptic feedback and the fulcrum effect. Previous training can optimize surgical performance in patients to master basic skills. Assess the effectiveness of surgeons warming up with an endotrainer before performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Single-blind controlled clinical trial with 16 surgeons who performed 2 laparoscopic cholecystectomies, the first according to standard practice and the second with warm-up comprising 5 MISTELS system exercises. Patient and surgeon demographics were recorded, in addition to findings and complications during and after surgery for each procedured. We found a decrease in surgical time of 76.88 (±18.87) minutes in the group that did not warm up to prior to surgery compared with 72.81 (±35.5) minutes in the group with warm-up (p=0.0196). In addition, increased bleeding occurred in the procedures performed with warm-up 31.25 (±30.85) ml compared with the group that had no warm-up 23.94 (±15.9) (p=0.0146). Performing warm up on a MISTELS system endotrainer before performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy reduces the operating time of surgery for all surgeons. Surgery bleeding increases in operations performed by surgeons with less experience in laparoscopic surgery. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Gallstones, cholecystectomy, and risk of digestive system cancers.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Leticia; Freedman, Neal D; Engels, Eric A; Warren, Joan L; Castro, Felipe; Koshiol, Jill

    2014-03-15

    Gallstones and cholecystectomy may be related to digestive system cancer through inflammation, altered bile flux, and changes in metabolic hormone levels. Although gallstones are recognized causes of gallbladder cancer, associations with other cancers of the digestive system are poorly established. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database (1992-2005), which includes 17 cancer registries that cover approximately 26% of the US population, to identify first primary cancers (n = 236,850) occurring in persons aged ≥66 years and 100,000 cancer-free population-based controls frequency-matched by calendar year, age, and gender. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression analysis, adjusting for the matching factors. Gallstones and cholecystectomy were associated with increased risk of noncardia gastric cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 1.21 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11, 1.32) and OR = 1.26 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.40), respectively), small-intestine carcinoid (OR = 1.27 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.60) and OR = 1.78 (95% CI: 1.41, 2.25)), liver cancer (OR = 2.35 (95% CI: 2.18, 2.54) and OR = 1.26 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.41)), and pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.31) and OR = 1.23 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.33)). Colorectal cancer risk associated with gallstones and cholecystectomy decreased with increasing distance from the common bile duct (P-trend < 0.001). Hence, gallstones and cholecystectomy are associated with the risk of cancers occurring throughout the digestive tract.

  2. Role of Tranexamic Acid on Blood Loss in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Pandove, Paras Kumar; Singla, Rachan Lal; Mittal, Pallavi; Mahajan, Nikhil; Kumar, Ashwani

    2017-01-01

    Nonsurgical uses of tranexamic acid include the management of bleeding associated with leukemia, ocular bleeding, recurrent hemoptysis, menorrhagia, hereditary angioneurotic edema, and numerous other medical problems. However, there is hardly any documentation of the use of tranexamic acid in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of tranexamic acid in limiting blood loss in laparoscopic cholecystectomy and to evaluate the effect of blood loss on morbidity in terms of hospital stay and mortality of the patient. The study was conducted on sixty patients admitted with gallstones, candidates for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Thirty patients received an intravenous 20 mg/kg bolus dose of tranexamic acid at induction of anesthesia (Group A), and another thirty did not receive the aforementioned drug at induction (Group B). The two groups were compared, and the data collected were entered and tabulated using Microsoft Office Excel and analyzed using appropriate statistical tests. The mean postoperative hospital stay (2.4 vs. 2.63, P = 0.4147), drain fluid hemoglobin (Hb) (0.83 vs. 0.90, P = 0.2087), drain fluid hematocrit (0.2434 vs. 0.2627, P = 0.3787), mean drain output (85 vs. 87.23, P = 0.9271), mean pulse rate at the start of surgery (74.2 vs. 75, P > 0.999), mean pulse rate 24 h after surgery (75.9 vs. 76.4, P = 0.5775), and mean change in Hb (0.240 vs. 0.266, P = 0.2502) in both the groups were not significant. There is no active role of tranexamic acid in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  3. Early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy after percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage.

    PubMed

    Han, In Woong; Jang, Jin-Young; Kang, Mee Joo; Lee, Kyoung Bun; Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2012-03-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) is a procedure to resolve acute cholecystitis (AC). It may decrease the technical difficulty of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and thus may facilitate successful surgery when a patients' condition improves. However, the timing of LC after PTGBD remains controversial. From 2004 to 2010, cholecystectomy after PTGBD was performed in 67 patients with AC. Group I members underwent LC within 72 h of PTGBD (n = 21), whereas group II members underwent LC at more than 72 h after PTGBD (n = 46). The open conversion rate was similar in the two groups. The perioperative complication rate was higher in group I than in group II, but with marginal significance (19.0 vs. 4.3%; p = 0.07). Mean operative time was longer in group I than in group II (79.3 ± 25.3 vs. 53.7 ± 45.3 min; p = 0.02). However, overall hospital stay was shorter in group I than in group II, but with marginal significance (10.8 ± 4.5 vs. 14.7 ± 9.3 days; p = 0.08). Pros and cons were well balanced between the two groups. Decisions on the timing of cholecystectomy after PTGBD should be made based on considerations of patient condition, hospital facilities, and surgical experience.

  4. Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy with needle graspers.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Kinjiro; Sato, Norihiro; Akagawa, Shin; Hirano, Tatsuya; Koikawa, Kazuhiro; Horioka, Kohei; Ozono, Keigo; Fujiwara, Kenji; Tanaka, Masao; Sada, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) is a promising alternative to standard multi-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). However, generalization of SILC is still hampered by technical difficulties mainly associated with the lack of trocars used for retraction of the gallbladder. We therefore developed a modified method of SILC with the use of needle graspers (SILC-N) for optimal retraction and exposure. In addition to two trocars inserted through a single transumbilical incision, two needle ports were placed on the right subcostal and lateral abdominal wall, through which needle graspers were used for retraction of the gallbladder. Since December, 2009, 12 patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis were treated by SILC-N. SILC-N was successfully performed in all but one patient requiring a conversion to the 4-port LC with a mean operative time of 71.5 (48-107) minutes. None of the patients experienced intraoperative or postoperative complications. The transumbilical incision and pinholes for needle graspers were almost invisible on discharge. Our preliminary results suggest that SILC-N is a simple, safe and feasible technique of cholecystectomy offering similar postoperative recovery and better cosmetic outcome as compared to conventional LC.

  5. Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Daycare and Overnight Stay Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Salleh, A A M; Affirul, C A; Hairol, O; Zamri, Z; Azlanudin, A; Hilmi, M A; Razman, J

    2015-01-01

    This present study sought to review the feasibility and patients' satisfaction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy to be perform as daycare procedure. Sixty-two patients with symptomatic gallstones were recruited within a year. They were randomized into overnight stay and daycare groups. The outcomes and post-operative complications were analyzed. Fifty-eight patients were eligible for analysis and four patients were excluded because of conversion to open cholecystectomy. All patients in daycare group reported no fever but two patients in the overnight stay group complaint of post-operative fever (p=0.150). The mean pain score using Visual Analogue Score (VAS) in daycare group was 2.93 but in the overnight stay was recorded as 3.59 (p=0.98). Five patients had post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in daycare group compared to 2 patients in the overnight stay group (p=0.227). Patient's satisfaction were higher in the daycare group (p=0.160). All patients in daycare group were back at work within a week but in overnight stay, 11 patients had to stay off work for more than one week (p=0.01). Daycare laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and feasible. The satisfaction of daycare surgery is higher than overnight stay group. Patients' selection is an important aspect of its success.

  6. Consensus statement of the consortium for LESS cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Ross, Sharona; Rosemurgy, Alexander; Albrink, Michael; Choung, Edward; Dapri, Giovanni; Gallagher, Scott; Hernandez, Jonathan; Horgan, Santiago; Kelley, William; Kia, Michael; Marks, Jeffrey; Martinez, Jose; Mintz, Yoav; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Pryor, Aurora; Rattner, David; Rivas, Homero; Roberts, Kurt; Rubach, Eugene; Schwaitzberg, Steven; Swanstrom, Lee; Sweeney, John; Wilson, Erik; Zemon, Harry; Zundel, Natan

    2012-10-01

    Many surgeons attempting Laparo-Endoscopic Single Site (LESS) cholecystectomy have found the operation difficult, which is inconsistent with our experience. This article is an attempt to promote a standardized approach that we feel surgeons with laparoscopic skills can perform safely and efficiently. This is a four-trocar approach consistent with the four incisions utilized in conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy. After administration of general anesthesia, marcaine is injected at the umbilicus and a 12-mm vertical incision is made through the already existing anatomical scar of the umbilicus. A single four-trocar port is inserted. A 5-mm deflectable-tip laparoscope is placed through the trocar at the 8 o'clock position, a bariatric length rigid grasper is inserted through the trocar at the 4 o'clock position (to grasp the fundus), and a rigid bent grasper is placed through the 10-mm port (to grasp the infundibulum). This arrangement of the instruments promotes minimal internal and external instrument clashing with simultaneous optimization of the operative view. This orientation allows retraction of the gallbladder in a cephalad and lateral direction, development of a window between the gallbladder and the liver which promotes the "critical view" of the cystic duct and artery, and provides triangulation with excellent visualization of the operative field. The operation is concluded with diaphragmatic irrigation of marcaine solution to minimize postoperative pain. Standardization of LESS cholecystectomy will speed adoption, reduce intraoperative complications, and improve the efficiency and safety of the approach.

  7. Preoperative oral feeding reduces stress response after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Zelić, Marko; Štimac, Davor; Mendrila, Davor; Tokmadžić, Vlatka Sotošek; Fišić, Elizabeta; Uravić, Miljenko; Šustić, Alan

    2013-10-01

    Fasting period before surgery may change metabolic status of the patient and have influence on perioperative stress response. The aim of the study was to investigate effects of preoperative carbohydrate-rich beverage on stress response after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients admitted for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included into study and they were randomized into a group that was fed prior to surgery and in a group that was in the regime of nothing by mouth from the evening one day before surgery. Concentrations of C-reactive protein and cortisol, were measured before and subsequently up to 48 h postoperatively. Postoperative serum C-reactive protein increased significantly in both groups, but the increase was more evident in the group with fasting protocol both 24 and 48 hours postoperatively. In fed patients cortisol concentration measured in the afternoon immediately after the operation showed physiological decline. In patients with fasting protocol postoperative cortisol values rise above the values measured in the morning. Preoperative feeding has advantage over overnight fasting by reducing preoperative discomfort in patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In fed patients, smaller increase in C-reactive protein and better regulation of cortisol levels are an indicator of decreased perioperative stress response.

  8. Virtual reality simulator training of laparoscopic cholecystectomies - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ikonen, T S; Antikainen, T; Silvennoinen, M; Isojärvi, J; Mäkinen, E; Scheinin, T M

    2012-01-01

    Simulators are widely used in occupations where practice in authentic environments would involve high human or economic risks. Surgical procedures can be simulated by increasingly complex and expensive techniques. This review gives an update on computer-based virtual reality (VR) simulators in training for laparoscopic cholecystectomies. From leading databases (Medline, Cochrane, Embase), randomised or controlled trials and the latest systematic reviews were systematically searched and reviewed. Twelve randomised trials involving simulators were identified and analysed, as well as four controlled studies. Furthermore, seven studies comparing black boxes and simulators were included. The results indicated any kind of simulator training (black box, VR) to be beneficial at novice level. After VR training, novice surgeons seemed to be able to perform their first live cholecystectomies with fewer errors, and in one trial the positive effect remained during the first ten cholecystectomies. No clinical follow-up data were found. Optimal learning requires skills training to be conducted as part of a systematic training program. No data on the cost-benefit of simulators were found, the price of a VR simulator begins at EUR 60 000. Theoretical background to learning and limited research data support the use of simulators in the early phases of surgical training. The cost of buying and using simulators is justified if the risk of injuries and complications to patients can be reduced. Developing surgical skills requires repeated training. In order to achieve optimal learning a validated training program is needed.

  9. Magnesium sulphate attenuates arterial pressure increase during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Jee, D; Lee, D; Yun, S; Lee, C

    2009-10-01

    Magnesium is well known to inhibit catecholamine release and attenuate vasopressin-stimulated vasoconstriction. We investigated whether i.v. magnesium sulphate attenuates the haemodynamic stress responses to pneumoperitoneum by changing neurohumoral responses during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Thirty-two patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly assigned to two groups; a control group was given saline, and a magnesium group received magnesium sulphate 50 mg kg(-1) immediately before pneumoperitoneum. Arterial pressure, heart rate, serum magnesium, plasma renin activity (PRA), and catecholamine, cortisol, and vasopressin levels were measured. Systolic and diastolic arterial pressures were greater in the control group (P<0.05) than in the magnesium group at 10, 20, and 30 min post-pneumoperitoneum. Norepinephrine or epinephrine levels [pg ml(-1), mean (SD)] were higher in the control group than in the magnesium group at 5 [211 (37) vs 138 (18)] or 10 min [59 (19) vs 39 (9)] post-pneumoperitoneum, respectively (P<0.05). In the control group, vasopressin levels [pg ml(-1), mean (SD)] were higher compared with the magnesium group at 5 [64 (18) vs 35 (9), P<0.01] and 10 min [65 (18) vs 47 (11), P<0.05] post-pneumoperitoneum. There were no significant differences between the groups in PRA and cortisol levels. I.V. magnesium sulphate before pneumoperitoneum attenuates arterial pressure increases during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This attenuation is apparently related to reductions in the release of catecholamine, vasopressin, or both.

  10. Common Bile Duct Stricture After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Case Report

    PubMed

    Zoričić, Ivan; Soldo, Ivo; Simović, Ivan; Sever, Marko; Bakula, Branko; Grbavac, Martin; Marušić, Marinko; Soldo, Anamaria

    2017-03-01

    Despite progress in laparoscopic surgery and increasing surgical experience, the incidence of bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy fails to fall below 0.3%-0.6% and it is still higher than those recorded in the era of open cholecystectomy. Bile duct injuries belong to the most serious complications of abdominal surgery in general and often end up with liver transplantation as the only hope for cure. We present a case of a 78-year-old jaundiced male patient who sustained common hepatic duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy eight months earlier. Exploratory laparotomy, ERCP and MRCP revealed a metal clip placed just below hepatic duct confluence and causing stricture of bile duct with dilatation of bile ducts proximal to the level of stenosis (Strasberg classification type E3 injury). Repair of the injury was performed by creating termino-lateral hepaticojejunostomy between the right and left hepatic ducts and retrocolic Roux en-Y jejunal limb. By presenting this case, we wish to emphasize the importance of timely conversion and execution of intraoperative cholangiography in all cases when identification of the structures of Calot’s triangle is not clear enough. Successful treatment of bile duct injury is only possible with joint approach of radiologist, gastroenterologist and experienced hepatobiliary surgeon.

  11. Current Role of Minimally Invasive Radical Cholecystectomy for Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Manzoni, Alberto; Guerini, Francesca; Ramera, Marco; Aroldi, Francesca; Zaniboni, Alberto; Rosso, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Background. For Tis and T1a gallbladder cancer (GbC), laparoscopic cholecystectomy can provide similar survival outcomes compared to open cholecystectomy. However, for patients affected by resectable T1b or more advanced GbC, open approach radical cholecystectomy (RC), consisting in gallbladder liver bed resection or segment 4b-5 bisegmentectomy, with locoregional lymphadenectomy, is considered the gold standard while minimally invasive RC (MiRC) is skeptically considered. Aim. To analyze current literature on perioperative and oncologic outcomes of MiRC for patients affected by GbC. Methods. A Medline review of published articles until June 2016 concerning MiRC for GbC was performed. Results. Data relevant for this review were presented in 13 articles, including 152 patients undergoing an attempt of MiRC for GbC. No randomized clinical trial was found. The approach was laparoscopic in 147 patients and robotic in five. Conversion was required in 15 (10%) patients. Postoperative complications rate was 10% with no mortality. Long-term survival outcomes were reported by 11 studies, two of them showing similar oncologic results when comparing MiRC with matched open RC. Conclusions. Although randomized clinical trials are still lacking and only descriptive studies reporting on limited number of patients are available, current literature seems suggesting that when performed at highly specialized centers, MiRC for GbC is safe and feasible and has oncologic outcomes comparable to open RC. PMID:27885325

  12. Current Role of Minimally Invasive Radical Cholecystectomy for Gallbladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Manzoni, Alberto; Guerini, Francesca; Ramera, Marco; Bertocchi, Paola; Aroldi, Francesca; Zaniboni, Alberto; Rosso, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Background . For Tis and T1a gallbladder cancer (GbC), laparoscopic cholecystectomy can provide similar survival outcomes compared to open cholecystectomy. However, for patients affected by resectable T1b or more advanced GbC, open approach radical cholecystectomy (RC), consisting in gallbladder liver bed resection or segment 4b-5 bisegmentectomy, with locoregional lymphadenectomy, is considered the gold standard while minimally invasive RC (MiRC) is skeptically considered. Aim . To analyze current literature on perioperative and oncologic outcomes of MiRC for patients affected by GbC. Methods . A Medline review of published articles until June 2016 concerning MiRC for GbC was performed. Results . Data relevant for this review were presented in 13 articles, including 152 patients undergoing an attempt of MiRC for GbC. No randomized clinical trial was found. The approach was laparoscopic in 147 patients and robotic in five. Conversion was required in 15 (10%) patients. Postoperative complications rate was 10% with no mortality. Long-term survival outcomes were reported by 11 studies, two of them showing similar oncologic results when comparing MiRC with matched open RC. Conclusions . Although randomized clinical trials are still lacking and only descriptive studies reporting on limited number of patients are available, current literature seems suggesting that when performed at highly specialized centers, MiRC for GbC is safe and feasible and has oncologic outcomes comparable to open RC.

  13. Robotic single port cholecystectomy: current data and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Angelou, Anastasios; Skarmoutsos, Athanasios; Margonis, Georgios A; Moris, Demetrios; Tsigris, Christos; Pikoulis, Emmanouil

    2017-04-01

    Minimally invasive techniques are used more and more frequently. Since conventional laparoscopic approach has been the gold standard, surgeons in their effort to further reduce the invasiveness of conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy have adopted Single Incision approach. The widespread adoption of robotics has led to the inevitable hybridization of robotic technology with laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS). As a result, employment of the da Vinci surgical system may allow greater surgical maneuverability, improving ergonomics. A review of the English literature was conducted to evaluate all robotic single port cholecystectomy performed till today. Demographic data, operative parameters, postoperative outcomes and materials used for the operation were collected and assessed. A total of 12 studies, including 501 patients were analyzed. Demographics and clinical characteristics of the patients was heterogeneous, but in most studies a mean BMI <30 was recorded. Intraoperative metrics like operative time, estimated blood loss and conversion rate were comparable with those in multiport conventional laparoscopy. Robotic single port cholecystectomy is a safe and feasible alternative to conventional multiport laparoscopic or manual robotic approach. However, current data do not suggest a superiority of robotic SILC over other established methods.

  14. Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infection After Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, Katelin B.; Wallace, Anna E.; Mines, Daniel; Tian, Fang; Symons, William J.; Fraser, Victoria J.; Olsen, Margaret A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. There are limited data on risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) after open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. A retrospective cohort of commercially insured persons aged 18–64 years was assembled using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) procedure or Current Procedural Terminology, 4th edition codes for cholecystectomy from December 31, 2004 to December 31, 2010. Complex procedures and patients (eg, cancer, end-stage renal disease) and procedures with pre-existing infection were excluded. Surgical site infections within 90 days after cholecystectomy were identified by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify independent risk factors for SSI. Results. Surgical site infections were identified after 472 of 66566 (0.71%) cholecystectomies; incidence was higher after open (n = 51, 4.93%) versus laparoscopic procedures (n = 421, 0.64%; P < .001). Independent risk factors for SSI included male gender, preoperative chronic anemia, diabetes, drug abuse, malnutrition/weight loss, obesity, smoking-related diseases, previous Staphylococcus aureus infection, laparoscopic approach with acute cholecystitis/obstruction (hazards ratio [HR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27–1.96), open approach with (HR, 4.29; 95% CI, 2.45–7.52) or without acute cholecystitis/obstruction (HR, 4.04; 95% CI, 1.96–8.34), conversion to open approach with (HR, 4.71; 95% CI, 2.74–8.10) or without acute cholecystitis/obstruction (HR, 7.11; 95% CI, 3.87–13.08), bile duct exploration, postoperative chronic anemia, and postoperative pneumonia or urinary tract infection. Conclusions. Acute cholecystitis or obstruction was associated with significantly increased risk of SSI with laparoscopic but not open cholecystectomy. The risk of SSI was similar for planned open and converted procedures. These findings suggest that stratification by operative factors is

  15. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal-epidural anesthesia vs. general anaesthesia: a prospective randomised study

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Vuslat Muslu; Uzman, Sinan; Yildirim, Dogan; Avaroglu, Huseyin; Ferahman, Sina; Sunamak, Oguzhan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is usually performed under the general anesthesia (GA). Aim of the study is to investigate the availability, safety and side effects of combined spinal/epidural anesthesia (CSEA) and comparison it with GA for LC. Methods Forty-nine patients who have a LC plan were included into the study. The patients were randomly divided into GA (n = 25) and CSEA (n = 24) groups. Intraoperative and postoperative adverse events, postoperative pain levels were compared between groups. Results Anesthesia procedures and surgeries for all patients were successfully completed. After the organization of pneumoperitoneum in CSEA group, 3 patients suffered from shoulder pain (12.5%) and 4 patients suffered from abdominal discomfort (16.6%). All these complaints were recovered with IV fentanyl administration. Only 1 patient developed hypotension which is recovered with fluid replacement and no need to use vasopressor treatment. Postoperative shoulder pain was significantly less observed in CSEA group (25% vs. 60%). Incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) was less observed in CSEA group but not statistically significant (4.2% vs. 20%). In the group of CSEA, 3 patients suffered from urinary retention (12.5%) and 2 patients suffered from spinal headache (8.3%). All postoperative pain parameters except 6th hour, were less observed in CSEA group, less VAS scores and less need to analgesic treatment in CSEA group comparing with GA group. Conclusion CSEA can be used safely for laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Less postoperative surgical field pain, shoulder pain and PONV are the advantages of CSEA compared to GA. PMID:28289667

  16. Is mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy any better than the gold standard?: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Haris R.; Abbas, Asad; Aleem, Salik; Lakhani, Miqdad R.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy (MLC) has widened the horizons of modern laparoscopic surgery. Standard four port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SLC), which has long been established as the “Gold Standard” for gall bladder diseases, is under reconsideration following the advent of further minimally-invasive procedures including MLC. Our study aims to provide a comparison between MLC and SLC and assesses whether MLC has any added benefits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with symptomatic gall bladder disease undergoing MLC or SLC during the 2.5-month period were included in the study. Thirty-two patients underwent MLC while SLC was performed on 40 patients by the same surgeon. Data was collected prospectively and analysed retrospectively using a predesigned questionnaire. RESULTS: In our study, both the groups had similar age, body mass index (BMI) and gender distribution. No cases of MLC required insertion of additional ports. The mean operative time for MLC was 38.2 min (33-61 min), which is longer than SLC; but it was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in mean operative blood loss, postoperative pain, analgesia requirement and mobilization. Patients who underwent MLC were able to return to normal activity earlier than patients undergoing SLC (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Our experience suggests that MLC can safely be used as an alternative to SLC. Compared to SLC, it has the added benefit of an early return to work along with excellent cosmetic results. Further large scale trials are required to prove any additional benefit of MLC. PMID:27251827

  17. Research Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blubaugh, William L.

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes papers appearing in other journals: (1) "Assessing the Impact of Computer-Based Instruction"; (2) "Computers as Tutors: MENDEL as an Example"; (3) "Computers in the Education of Science Students: A Comparison of Universities and Colleges in Japan and the United States"; (4) "Differentiation and Integration in a CAI Format"; and (5)…

  18. Cholecystectomy or gallbladder in situ after endoscopic sphincterotomy and bile duct stone removal in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Lau, James Y W; Leow, Chon-Kar; Fung, Terence M K; Suen, Bing-Yee; Yu, Ly-Mee; Lai, Paul B S; Lam, Yuk-Hoi; Ng, Enders K W; Lau, Wan Yee; Chung, Sydney S C; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2006-01-01

    In patients with stones in their bile ducts and gallbladders, cholecystectomy is generally recommended after endoscopic sphincterotomy and clearance of bile duct stones. However, only approximately 10% of patients with gallbladders left in situ will return with further biliary complications. Expectant management is alternately advocated. In this study, we compared the treatment strategies of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and gallbladders left in situ. We randomized patients (>60 years of age) after endoscopic sphincterotomy and clearance of their bile duct stones to receive early laparoscopic cholecystectomy or expectant management. The primary outcome was further biliary complications. Other outcome measures included adverse events after cholecystectomy and late deaths from all causes. One hundred seventy-eight patients entered into the trial (89 in each group); 82 of 89 patients who were randomized to receive laparoscopic cholecystectomy underwent the procedure. Conversion to open surgery was needed in 16 of 82 patients (20%). Postoperative complications occurred in 8 patients (9%). Analysis was by intention to treat. With a median follow-up of approximately 5 years, 6 patients (7%) in the cholecystectomy group returned with further biliary events (cholangitis, n = 5; biliary pain, n = 1). Among those with gallbladders in situ, 21 (24%) returned with further biliary events (cholangitis, n = 13; acute cholecystitis, n = 5; biliary pain, n = 2; and jaundice, n = 1; log rank, P = .001). Late deaths were similar between groups (cholecystectomy, n = 19; gallbladder in situ, n = 11; P = .12). In the Chinese, cholecystectomy after endoscopic treatment of bile duct stones reduces recurrent biliary events and should be recommended.

  19. Optimal Timing for Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy After Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Friis, C; Rothman, J P; Burcharth, J; Rosenberg, J

    2018-06-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy is often used as definitive treatment for common bile duct stones. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal time interval between endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PubMed and Embase were searched for studies comparing different time delays between endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Observational studies and randomized controlled trials were included. Primary outcome was conversion rate from laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy and secondary outcomes were complications, mortality, operating time, and length of stay. A total of 14 studies with a total of 1930 patients were included. The pooled estimate revealed an increase from a 4.2% conversion rate when laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed within 24 h of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography to 7.6% for 24-72 h delay to 12.3% when performed within 2 weeks, to 12.3% for 2-6 weeks, and to a 14% conversion rate when operation was delayed more than 6 weeks. According to this systematic review, it is preferable to perform cholecystectomy within 24 h of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography to reduce conversion rate. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy does not increase mortality, perioperative complications, or length of stay and on the contrary it reduces the risk of reoccurrence and progression of disease in the delay between endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  20. Twenty years after Erich Muhe: Persisting controversies with the gold standard of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Jani, Kalpesh; Rajan, P S; Sendhilkumar, K; Palanivelu, C

    2006-06-01

    This review article is a tribute to the genius of Professor Erich Muhe, a man ahead of his times. We trace the development of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and detail the tribulations faced by Muhe. On the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy, we take another look at some of the controversies surrounding this gold standard in the management of gallbladder disease.

  1. Editors' note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, Carsten; Feller, Alex; Schmidt, Wolfgang; von der Lühe, Oskar

    2012-11-01

    This topical issue of Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes is a collection of reference articles covering the GREGOR solar telescope, its science capabilities, its subsystems, and its dedicated suite of instruments for high-resolution observations of the Sun. Because ground-based telescopes have life spans of several decades, it is only natural that they continuously reinvent themselves. Literally, the GREGOR telescope builds on the foundations of the venerable Gregory-Coudé Telescope (GCT) at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. Acknowledging the fact that new discoveries in observational solar physics are driven by larger apertures to collect more photons and to scrutinize the Sun in finer detail, the GCT was decommissioned and the building was made available to the GREGOR project.

  2. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under spinal anesthesia: comparative study between conventional-dose and low-dose hyperbaric bupivacaine

    PubMed Central

    Imbelloni, Luiz Eduardo; Sant’Anna, Raphael; Fornasari, Marcos; Fialho, José Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has the advantages of causing less postoperative pain and requiring a short hospital stay, and therefore is the treatment of choice for cholelithiasis. This study was designed to compare spinal anesthesia using hyperbaric bupivacaine given as a conventional dose by lumbar puncture or as a low-dose by thoracic puncture. Methods A total of 140 patients with symptomatic gallstone disease were randomized to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy with low-pressure CO2 pneumoperitoneum under spinal anesthesia using either conventional lumbar spinal anesthesia (hyperbaric bupivacaine 15 mg and fentanyl 20 mg) or low-dose thoracic spinal anesthesia (hyperbaric bupivacaine 7.5 mg and fentanyl 20 μg). Intraoperative parameters, postoperative pain, complications, recovery time, and patient satisfaction at follow-up were compared between the two treatment groups. Results All procedures were completed under spinal anesthesia, with no cases needing conversion to general anesthesia. Values for time for block to reach the T3 dermatomal level, duration of motor and sensory block, and hypotensive events were significantly lower with low-dose bupivacaine. Postoperative pain was higher for low-dose hyperbaric bupivacaine at 6 and 12 hours. All patients were discharged after 24 hours. Follow-up 1 week postoperatively showed all patients to be satisfied and to be keen advocates of spinal anesthesia. Conclusion Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed successfully under spinal anesthesia. A small dose of hyperbaric bupivacaine 7.5 mg and 20 μg fentanyl provides adequate spinal anesthesia for laparoscopy and, in comparison with hyperbaric bupivacaine 15% and fentanyl 20 μg, causes markedly less hypotension. The low-dose strategy may have an advantage in ambulatory patients because of the earlier recovery of motor and sensory function and earlier discharge. PMID:22915892

  3. Performing the Difficult Cholecystectomy Using Combined Endoscopic and Robotic Techniques: How I Do It.

    PubMed

    Magge, Deepa; Steve, Jennifer; Novak, Stephanie; Slivka, Adam; Hogg, Mellissa; Zureikat, Amer; Zeh, Herbert J

    2017-03-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the standard of care for cholelithiasis as well as cholecystitis. However, in the setting of Mirizzi syndrome or gangrenous cholecystitis where the critical view cannot be ascertained, subtotal cholecystectomy may be necessary. Using the robot-assisted approach, difficult cholecystectomies can be performed upfront without need for partial cholecystectomy. Even in the setting of Mirizzi syndrome where severe scarring and fibrosis are evident, definitive cholecystectomy and takedown of the cholechystocholedochal fistula can be performed in a safe and feasible fashion following successful endoscopic common bile duct stent placement. The purposes of this report are to review the history of Mirizzi syndrome as well as its traditional and novel treatment techniques and highlight technical pearls of the robotic approach to this diagnosis.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of same-admission versus interval cholecystectomy after mild gallstone pancreatitis in the PONCHO trial.

    PubMed

    da Costa, D W; Dijksman, L M; Bouwense, S A; Schepers, N J; Besselink, M G; van Santvoort, H C; Boerma, D; Gooszen, H G; Dijkgraaf, M G W

    2016-11-01

    Same-admission cholecystectomy is indicated after gallstone pancreatitis to reduce the risk of recurrent disease or other gallstone-related complications, but its impact on overall costs is unclear. This study analysed the cost-effectiveness of same-admission versus interval cholecystectomy after mild gallstone pancreatitis. In a multicentre RCT (Pancreatitis of biliary Origin: optimal timiNg of CHOlecystectomy; PONCHO) patients with mild gallstone pancreatitis were randomized before discharge to either cholecystectomy within 72 h (same-admission cholecystectomy) or cholecystectomy after 25-30 days (interval cholecystectomy). Healthcare use of all patients was recorded prospectively using clinical report forms. Unit costs of resources used were determined, and patients completed multiple Health and Labour Questionnaires to record pancreatitis-related absence from work. Cost-effectiveness analyses were performed from societal and healthcare perspectives, with the costs per readmission prevented as primary outcome with a time horizon of 6 months. All 264 trial participants were included in the present analysis, 128 randomized to same-admission cholecystectomy and 136 to interval cholecystectomy. Same-admission cholecystectomy reduced the risk of acute readmission for recurrent gallstone-related complications from 16·9 to 4·7 per cent (P = 0·002). Mean total costs from a societal perspective were €234 (95 per cent c.i. -1249 to 738) less per patient in the same-admission cholecystectomy group. Same-admission cholecystectomy was superior to interval cholecystectomy, with a societal incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of -€1918 to prevent one readmission for gallstone-related complications. In mild biliary pancreatitis, same-admission cholecystectomy was more effective and less costly than interval cholecystectomy. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Urgent and Elective Robotic Single-Site Cholecystectomy: Analysis and Learning Curve of 150 Consecutive Cases.

    PubMed

    Kubat, Eric; Hansen, Nathan; Nguyen, Huy; Wren, Sherry M; Eisenberg, Dan

    2016-03-01

    The use of robotic single-site cholecystectomy has increased exponentially. There are few reports describing the safety, efficacy, and operative learning curve of robotic single-site cholecystectomy either in the community setting or with nonelective surgery. We performed a retrospective review of a prospective database of our initial experience with robotic single-site cholecystectomy. Demographics and perioperative outcomes were evaluated for both urgent and elective cholecystectomy. Cumulative sum analysis was performed to determine the surgeon's learning curve. One hundred fifty patients underwent robotic single-site cholecystectomy. Seventy-four (49.3%) patients underwent urgent robotic single-site cholecystectomy, and 76 (50.7%) underwent elective robotic single-site cholecystectomy. Mean total operative time for robotic single-site cholecystectomy was 83.3 ± 2.7 minutes. Mean operative time for the urgent cohort was significantly longer than for the elective cohort (95.0 ± 4.4 versus 71.9 ± 2.6 minutes; P < .001). There was one conversion in the urgent cohort and none in the elective cohort. There was one bile duct injury (0.7%) in the urgent cohort. Perioperative complications occurred in 8.7% of patients, and most consisted of superficial surgical-site infections. There were no incisional hernias detected. The surgeon's learning curve, inclusive of urgent and elective cases, was 48 operations. Robotic single-site cholecystectomy can be performed safely and effectively in both elective and urgent cholecystectomy with a reasonable learning curve and acceptable perioperative outcomes.

  6. Editorial Note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, F.; Ommen Kloeke, E.

    2015-07-01

    With this editorial note we would like to update you on the performance of the International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation (JAG) and inform you about changes that have been made to the composition of the editorial team. Our Journal publishes original papers that apply earth observation data for the management of natural resources and the environment. Environmental issues include biodiversity, land degradation, industrial pollution and natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods and landslides. As such the scope is broad and ranges from conceptual and more fundamental work on earth observation and geospatial sciences to the more problem-solving type of work. When I took over the role of Editor-in-Chief in 2012, I together with the Publisher set myself the mission to position JAG in the top-3 of the remote sensing and GIS journals. To do so we strived at attracting high quality and high impact papers to the journal and to reduce the review turnover time to make JAG a more attractive medium for publications. What has been achieved? Have we reached our ambitions? We can say that: The submissions have increased over the years with over 23% for the last 12 months. Naturally not all may lead to more papers, but at least a portion of the additional submissions should lead to a growth in journal content and quality.

  7. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for biliary dyskinesia in children: frequency increasing.

    PubMed

    Lacher, Martin; Yannam, Govardhana R; Muensterer, Oliver J; Aprahamian, Charles J; Haricharan, Ramanath N; Perger, Lena; Bartle, Donna; Talathi, Sonia S; Beierle, Elizabeth A; Anderson, Scott A; Chen, Mike K; Harmon, Carroll M

    2013-08-01

    The treatment of children with biliary dyskinesia (BD) is controversial. As we recently observed an increasing frequency of referrals for BD in our institution the aim of the study was to re-evaluate the long-term outcome in children with BD. Children with laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for suspected BD between 8/2006 and 5/2011 were included. A pathologic ejection fraction (EF) was defined as <35%. The long-term effect of cholecystectomy was assessed via a Likert scale symptom questionnaire. 82 children (median age 13.5 years, mean BMI 25.8) were included. CCK-HIDA scan was pathologic in 74 children (90.2%). Mean EF was 16.4%. Histology revealed chronic cholecystitis in 48 (58.5%) children and was normal in 30 children (36.5%). The frequency of LC for suspected BD increased by a factor of 4.3 in the last 10 years. Long term follow-up showed that only 23/52 children (44.2%) were symptom-free after LC. Patients with chronic inflammation were more likely to have persistent symptoms (p=0.017). An EF<15% was associated with a resolution of symptoms (p=0.031). The frequency of LC for suspected BD in our institution has increased significantly during recent years. The long-term efficacy in our cohort was only 44.2%. We believe that laparoscopic cholecystectomy is likely helpful in patients with an EF<15%. However, in children with an EF of 15%-35%, based upon our data, we would highly recommend an appropriately thorough pre-op testing to exclude other gastrointestinal disorders prior to consideration of operative management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gallstone ileus one quarter of a century post cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Saedon, Mahmud; Gourgiotis, Stavros; Salemis, Nikolaos S; Majeed, Ali W; Zavos, Apostolos

    2008-01-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare but potentially serious complication of cholelithiasis. It is usually preceded by history of biliary symptoms. It usually occurs as a result of a large gallstone creating and passing through a cholecysto-enteric fistula. Most of the time, the stone will pass the GI tract without any problems, but large enough stones can cause obstruction. The two most common locations of impaction are the terminal ileum and the ileocaecal valve because of the anatomical small diameter and less active peristalsis. We present an unusual case of small bowel obstruction secondary to gallstone ileus 24 years after an open cholecystectomy.

  9. [Video-laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Results of 281 treated cases].

    PubMed

    Sammartino, P; De Cesare, A; Barillari, P; Bononi, M; Chirletti, P; Bovino, A; Atella, F; Cioè, I

    1995-01-01

    From March 1992 to September 1994, 281 patients were submitted to laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis. 27 patients were admitted with diagnosis of acute cholecystitis and in 17 patients common duct stones were discovered and managed by ERCP before laparoscopic procedure. Surgical procedure was the standard one described by Cox. The mean duration of the operation was 60 minutes and was significantly related to the surgeon's experience; the incedence of conversion to open procedure was 5.7%. There was no postoperative mortality; the total morbility rate was 2.8%, with 3 major complications, and 5 minor complications.

  10. Scope Notes for LISA Subject Headings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Glenda

    1992-01-01

    Reports on a study that examined scope notes added to subject headings in the Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA) Online User Manual. Types of messages conveyed by scope notes and word patterns within the notes are identified, and comparisons between the 1982 and 1987 editions of the manual are made. (16 references) (MES)

  11. Clinical strategies to aim an adequate safety profile for patients and effective training for surgical residents: The laparoscopic cholecystectomy model.

    PubMed

    Bresadola, Vittorio; Pravisani, Riccardo; Pighin, Marina; Seriau, Luca; Cherchi, Vittorio; Giuseppe, Sergio; Risaliti, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Training programs for resident surgeons represent a challenge for the mentoring activity. The aim of the present study is to investigate the impact of our training program for laparoscopic cholecystectomy on patient's safety and on the modulation of the residents' exposure to clinical scenario with different grades of complexity. This is a retrospective study based on a clinical series of laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed in a teaching hospital. Study population was grouped according to the expertise of the attending primary operator among resident surgeons. Four groups were identified: consultant (C), senior resident (SR); intermediate level resident (IR); junior resident (JR). The intraoperative and postoperative outcomes were confronted to evaluate the patient's safety profile. 447 patients were submitted to LC: 96 cases were operated by a C, 200 by SR, 112 by IR and 39 by JR. The mean operative time was the longest for the JR group. A statistically higher rate of conversion to open approach was registered in C and IR groups in comparison to JR and SR groups. However, in C and IR groups, patients had worse ASA score, higher BMI and more frequent past history of previous abdominal surgery, cholecystitis or pancreatitis. Overall, it was not registered any statistically significant difference among the groups in terms of length of hospital stay and prevalence of major postoperative complications. Applying an educational model based on both graduated levels of responsibility and modulated grade of clinical complexity can guarantee an high safety profile.

  12. Duodenal Ulcer Induced by Hem-o-Lok clip after Reduced Port Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Soga, Koichi; Kassai, Kyoichi; Itani, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    The patient was a 66-year-old woman who had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy (Lap-C) secondary to chronic cholecystitis status post endoscopic choledocholithotomy 13 months previously. During surgery, Hem-o-Lok clips were used to control the cystic duct and the cystic artery. Due to the presence of extensive adhesions of the cystic duct and surrounding tissue, the surgeons had difficulty in debriding the area. Thirteen months after Lap-C, the patient underwent a screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), which demonstrated clip appearance at the inferior wall of the first part of the duodenum. In the EGD, duodenal erosions and edema were observed around the clip. We appreciated that endoscopic clip removal would be difficult because of the presence of severe adhesions and inflammation of the duodenal bulb. On clinical examination of the patient, no major abnormalities or physical findings were noted. Therefore, we decided not to attempt to remove the clip. The patient was treated with an oral proton pump inhibitor to prevent extensive duodenal mucosal injury. Two months later, we repeated the EGD, which revealed that the clip was no longer present, and the duodenum was covered with normal mucosa surrounding the scar.

  13. Oesophageal stent placement to treat a massive iatrogenic duodenal defect after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Greenbaum, Alissa; Parasher, Gulshan; Demarest, Gerald; Auyang, Edward

    2017-05-05

    Iatrogenic duodenal injury occurring during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is managed surgically, though rarely a large, persistent fistula is refractory to surgical interventions. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman transferred to our centre following elective LC for a reported perforated duodenal ulcer. An uncontained leak was found to originate from a 1.5 cm duodenal defect, with no evidence of ulceration. A duodenostomy tube was placed. One month after abdominal closure, the patient continued to have a persistent, large duodenal fistula. A through-the-scope covered oesophageal stent was placed under endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance. Five weeks later, it was successfully retrieved and no subsequent extravasation of contrast from the duodenum was noted. Unrecognised iatrogenic duodenal injuries sustained during LC can be catastrophic. In cases of massive duodenal defects and high-output biliary fistula uncontrolled after surgical intervention, endoscopic-guided and fluoroscopic-guided placement of a fully covered oesophageal stent may be lifesaving. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Update on Instrumentations for Cholecystectomies Performed via Transvaginal Route: State of the Art and Future Prospectives.

    PubMed

    Pulvirenti, Elia; Toro, Adriana; Di Carlo, Isidoro

    2010-01-01

    Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) is an innovative approach in which a flexible endoscope enters the abdominal cavity via the transesophageal, transgastric, transcolonic, transvaginal or transvescical route, combining the technique of minimally invasive surgery with flexible endoscopy. Several groups have described different modifications by using flexible endoscopes with different levels of laparoscopic assistance. Transvaginal cholecystectomy (TVC) consists in accessing the abdominal cavity through a posterior colpotomy and using the vaginal incision as a visual or operative port. An increasing interest has arisen around the TVC; nevertheless, the most common and highlighted concern is about the lack of specific instruments dedicated to the vaginal access route. TVC should be distinguished between "pure", in which the entire operation is performed through the transvaginal route, and "hybrid", in which the colpotomy represents only a support to introduce instruments and the operation is performed mainly by the classic transabdominal-introduced instruments. Although this new technique seems very appealing for patients, on the other hand it is very challenging for the surgeon because of the difficulties related to the mode of access, the limited technology currently available and the risk of complications related to the organ utilized for access. In this brief review all the most recent advancements in the field of TVC's techniques and instrumentations are listed and discussed.

  15. Protocol for extended antibiotic therapy after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute calculous cholecystitis (Cholecystectomy Antibiotic Randomised Trial, CHART).

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Pablo; Campana, Juan Pablo; Dietrich, Agustín; Goransky, Jeremías; Glinka, Juan; Giunta, Diego; Barcan, Laura; Alvarez, Fernando; Mazza, Oscar; Sánchez Claria, Rodrigo; Palavecino, Martin; Arbues, Guillermo; Ardiles, Victoria; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Pekolj, Juan; de Santibañes, Martin

    2015-11-18

    Acute calculous cholecystitis represents one of the most common complications of cholelithiasis. While laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the standard treatment in mild and moderate forms, the need for antibiotic therapy after surgery remains undefined. The aim of the randomised controlled Cholecystectomy Antibiotic Randomised Trial (CHART) is therefore to assess if there are benefits in the use of postoperative antibiotics in patients with mild or moderate acute cholecystitis in whom a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed. A single-centre, double-blind, randomised trial. After screening for eligibility and informed consent, 300 patients admitted for acute calculus cholecystitis will be randomised into two groups of treatment, either receiving amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or placebo for 5 consecutive days. Postoperative evaluation will take place during the first 30 days. Postoperative infectious complications are the primary end point. Secondary end points are length of hospital stay, readmissions, need of reintervention (percutaneous or surgical reinterventions) and overall mortality. The results of this trial will provide strong evidence to either support or abandon the use of antibiotics after surgery, impacting directly in the incidence of adverse events associated with the use of antibiotics, the emergence of bacterial resistance and treatment costs. This study and informed consent sheets have been approved by the Research Projects Evaluating Committee (CEPI) of Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (protocol N° 2111). The results of the trial will be reported in a peer-reviewed publication. NCT02057679. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. The learning curve of laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) cholecystectomy: definable, short, and safe.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Jonathan; Ross, Sharona; Morton, Connor; McFarlin, Kellie; Dahal, Sujat; Golkar, Farhaad; Albrink, Michael; Rosemurgy, Alexander

    2010-11-01

    The applications of laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery, including cholecystectomy, are occurring quickly, although little is generally known about issues associated with the learning curve of this new technique including operative time, conversion rates, and safety. We prospectively followed all patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy, and compared operations undertaken at our institutions in cohorts of 25 patients with respect to operative times, conversion rates, and complications. One-hundred fifty patients of mean age 46 years underwent LESS cholecystectomy. No significant differences in operative times were demonstrable between any of the 25-patient cohorts operated on at our institution. A significant reduction in operative times (p < 0.001) after completion of 75 LESS procedures was, however, identified with the experience of a single surgeon. No significant reduction in the number of procedures requiring an additional trocar(s) or conversion to open operations was observed after completion of 25 LESS cholecystectomies. Complication rates were low, and not significantly different between any 25-patient cohorts. For surgeons proficient with multi-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the learning curve for LESS cholecystectomy begins near proficiency. Operative complications and conversions were infrequent and unchanged across successive 25-patient cohorts, and were similar to those reported for multi-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy after the learning curve. Copyright © 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of emergency versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute gallbladder pathology.

    PubMed

    Sutton, A J; Vohra, R S; Hollyman, M; Marriott, P J; Buja, A; Alderson, D; Pasquali, S; Griffiths, E A

    2017-01-01

    The optimal timing of cholecystectomy for patients admitted with acute gallbladder pathology is unclear. Some studies have shown that emergency cholecystectomy during the index admission can reduce length of hospital stay with similar rates of conversion to open surgery, complications and mortality compared with a 'delayed' operation following discharge. Others have reported that cholecystectomy during the index acute admission results in higher morbidity, extended length of stay and increased costs. This study examined the cost-effectiveness of emergency versus delayed cholecystectomy for acute benign gallbladder disease. Using data from a prospective population-based cohort study examining the outcomes of cholecystectomy in the UK and Ireland, a model-based cost-utility analysis was conducted from the perspective of the UK National Health Service, with a 1-year time horizon for costs and outcomes. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was used to investigate the impact of parameter uncertainty on the results obtained from the model. Emergency cholecystectomy was found to be less costly (£4570 versus £4720; €5484 versus €5664) and more effective (0·8868 versus 0·8662 QALYs) than delayed cholecystectomy. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that the emergency strategy is more than 60 per cent likely to be cost-effective across willingness-to-pay values for the QALY from £0 to £100 000 (€0-120 000). Emergency cholecystectomy is less costly and more effective than delayed cholecystectomy. This approach is likely to be beneficial to patients in terms of improved health outcomes and to the healthcare provider owing to the reduced costs. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Usefullness of the ultrasonically activated scalpel in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: our experience and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Minutolo, V; Gagliano, G; Rinzivillo, C; Li Destri, G; Carnazza, M; Minutolo, O

    2008-05-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) actually represents the most used and proper treatment for gallbladder lithiasis, because its many and known advantages in comparison with 'open' abdominal surgery. But there are some problems during and after LC due to the use of the electric scalpel and these have brought to the search of an alternative system of dissection and coagulation. The ultrasonically activated scalpel (Harmonic Scalpel, HS) allows to perform dissection and coagulation with a minimal thermal side effect for surrounding tissues, unlike the electrocoagulation. Furthermore, the use of the HS brings a series of advantages in comparison to the other electromagnetic forms of energy (electro-scalpel, laser). HS cuts and coagulates with the same effectiveness of the electro-scalpel but, unlike this, it doesn't introduce risks of wandering currents. Moreover, HS contributes to have a more clean and clear (smokes-free) field of operation and it reduces the operative time, the bleeding and the costs of the operation without an increase of the complications and of the percentages of 'open' conversion, and perhaps leads to a less negative influence on the postoperative systemic immune response. The Authors report their experience that confirm these observations, according also with results reported in a brief review of the recent scientific literature, and support wider diffusion and technical development of this ultrasonically-operating surgical team.

  19. Direct Gallbladder Indocyanine Green Injection Fluorescence Cholangiography During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Graves, Claire; Ely, Sora; Idowu, Olajire; Newton, Christopher; Kim, Sunghoon

    2017-10-01

    Intravenous injection of indocyanine green (ICG) is used to illuminate extrahepatic biliary anatomy. Fluorescence of biliary structures may lower surgical complications that can arise due to inadvertent injury to the common bile duct. We describe a method of injecting ICG directly into the gallbladder to define the cystic duct and common bile duct anatomy. A standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed using a laparoscope with near-infrared imaging capability. Before dissection, the gallbladder was punctured with a cholangiogram catheter or a pigtail catheter to aspirate the bile within the gallbladder. The aspirated bile is mixed with ICG solution, which is reinjected into the gallbladder to fluoresce the gallbladder, cystic duct, and common bile duct structures. Eleven patients underwent direct gallbladder ICG injection for fluorescence cholangiography during cholecystectomy. Direct gallbladder ICG injection clearly defined the extrahepatic biliary anatomy, including the cystic duct-common bile duct junction, by fluorescence. In addition, the dissection plane between the gallbladder and the liver is highlighted with the gallbladder ICG fluorescence. Direct gallbladder ICG injection provides immediate visualization of extrahepatic biliary structures and clarifies the dissection plane between the gallbladder and the liver bed.

  20. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in double gallbladder with dual pathology.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sumanta Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Double gallbladder is a rare embryological anomaly of clinical significance. Despite availability of modern imaging, only 50% of recently reported cases had preoperative diagnosis, which is desirable in every case to avoid serious operative complications. Double pathology in double gallbladder is extremely rare with only 3 reporting's available till date to the best of author's knowledge. With a preoperative diagnosis of double gallbladder, laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be safely and successfully performed with meticulous dissection, aided by operative cholangiogram. However in all such attempts a lower threshold should be kept for conversion to open surgery. Awareness about this anomaly amongst radiologists and surgeons is of crucial importance. Double gallbladder does not present with any specific symptom, neither it increases disease possibility in either lobe. Prophylactic cholecystectomy has no role in asymptomatic cases diagnosed accidentally. Author reports a case of a symptomatic young male with double gallbladder who presented with short history of dyspepsia, abdominal pain and fever. Definite preoperative diagnosis was reached with ultrasound scan and magnetic resonance cholangio pancreatography and subsequently dealt with laparoscopically. Calculous cholecystitis affected one lobe and acalculous empyema the other. While the 1st lobe drained though a cystic duct into common bile duct (CBD), the 2nd was without any communication with either CBD or its counterpart, thus remained as a blind vesicle.

  1. Effects of Combined Rocuronium and Cisatracurium in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Park, Woo Young; Lee, Kwang Ho; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Myeong Hoon; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Choi, Jong Bum

    2017-01-01

    Laparoscopic upper abdominal surgery can cause spontaneous respiration due to diaphragmatic stimulation and intra-abdominal CO 2 inflation. Therefore, sufficient muscle relaxation is necessary for a safe surgical environment. We investigated if the combination of rocuronium and cisatracurium can counteract the delayed onset of cisatracurium's action and delayed recovery of muscle relaxation and whether the dosage of rocuronium, which is metabolized hepatically, can be reduced. A total of 75 patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy with an American Society of Anesthesiology physical status I-II, in the age range of 20-60 years, and with a 20-30 kg/m 2 body mass index were included in the study. The patients were divided into the following groups: combination group (Group RC, rocuronium 0.3 mg/kg and cisatracurium 0.05 mg/kg), rocuronium group (Group R, rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg), and cisatracurium group (Group C, cisatracurium 0.1 mg/kg), and the onset, 25% duration, recovery index, and addition/time ratio were measured. Patients in Group RC exhibited a significantly different addition/time ratio compared with patients in the other two groups (p = 0.003). During laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the 95% effective dose of rocuronium in combination with cisatracurium is expected to provide a sufficient muscle relaxant effect.

  2. [Laparoscopic cholecystectomy with transgastric gallbladder extraction: a new therapeutic approach].

    PubMed

    Jurczak, F; Pousset, J-P; Raffaitin, P

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate a newly developed cholecystectomy technique which combines classical dissection with currently available mini-instrumentation (3 and 5 mm) and removal of the gallbladder through a short gastrotomy. After a feasibility study, we set up a protocol for this procedure using instrumentation currently available on the market. The resected gallbladder was removed through a short gastrotomy on the anterior gastric wall, thereby minimizing abdominal wall trauma and permitting the patient to resume physical activity more quickly with no risk of trocar herniation. Cholecystectomy was performed by the described technique in 18 of 23 eligible patients between April 2008 and August 2008. There were seven males and 11 females with a mean age of 48 (range: 28-77); median BMI was 30 kg/m2 (range: 22-36). Eleven patients had a gallstone larger than 12 mm. There were no postoperative complications and recovery was rapid for all patients in our study. This procedure is technically feasible, safe and reproducible; results are good with minimal trauma to the abdominal wall. Normal physical activity can be rapidly resumed with no risk of incisional hernia.

  3. Diagnosis of incidental gallbladder cancer after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: our experience

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gallbladder carcinoma is a rare high malignancy neoplasm. The incidence of intra or post-operative incidental gallbladder carcinoma diagnosis is estimated between 0,2 and 2,8%. Primary aim of our study is to evaluate incidental gallbladder carcinoma's incidence in our experience. Methods We retrospectively reviewed our Surgery Division's experience about the totality of laparoscopic cholecystectomies with post-operative histological evidence of incidental gallbladder cancer. We evaluated patients' characteristics, surgical related variables, histological response, surgivcal radicalization characteristics and surgical outcome. Results In the considered sample we observed 7 accidental gallbladder adenocarcinomas in post-operative histological examination. Pathological results were:1 pT1b N0 (G1), 2 pT2 N0 (G2), 2 pT2 N1 (G3b), 2 pT3 N1 (G3b) (Table 1). In 5 cases we performed neoplasm radicalization surgery with standard procedure revision. Two patients died before radicalization. Median global survival was 34 months. Conclusion With the increase of laparoscopic cholecystectomies both elective and urgent performed in our centre we observed also an increase of incidentally diagnosed gallbladder neoplasms. Early diagnosis, meticulous peri-operative study and accurate surgical strategy are essential factors to obtain good results in incidental gallbladder cancer. PMID:24268097

  4. A portable fluorescence microscopic imaging system for cholecystectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jian; Yang, Chaoyu; Gan, Qi; Ma, Rong; Zhang, Zeshu; Chang, Shufang; Shao, Pengfei; Zhang, Shiwu; Liu, Chenhai; Xu, Ronald

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we proposed a portable fluorescence microscopic imaging system to prevent iatrogenic biliary injuries from occurring during cholecystectomy due to misidentification of the cystic structures. The system consisted of a light source module, a CMOS camera, a Raspberry Pi computer and a 5 inch HDMI LCD. Specifically, the light source module was composed of 690 nm and 850 nm LEDs, allowing the CMOS camera to simultaneously acquire both fluorescence and background images. The system was controlled by Raspberry Pi using Python programming with the OpenCV library under Linux. We chose Indocyanine green(ICG) as a fluorescent contrast agent and then tested fluorescence intensities of the ICG aqueous solution at different concentration levels by our fluorescence microscopic system compared with the commercial Xenogen IVIS system. The spatial resolution of the proposed fluorescence microscopic imaging system was measured by a 1951 USAF resolution target and the dynamic response was evaluated quantitatively with an automatic displacement platform. Finally, we verified the technical feasibility of the proposed system in mouse models of bile duct, performing both correct and incorrect gallbladder resection. Our experiments showed that the proposed system can provide clear visualization of the confluence between the cystic duct and common bile duct or common hepatic duct, suggesting that this is a potential method for guiding cholecystectomy. The proposed portable system only cost a total of $300, potentially promoting its use in resource-limited settings.

  5. Evaluation of relative criteria for single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yoichi; Yamaki, So; Hirooka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tomohisa; Yanagimoto, Hiroaki; Satoi, Sohei; Kon, Masanori

    2018-05-01

    Although single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) has no advantage over conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), except for better cosmesis, few reports have discussed the criteria for SILC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of our criteria for SILC. During the study period, SILC was performed at our institution under the following criteria. The inclusion criteria were elective surgery, age of < 60 years, and body mass index of < 30 kg/m 2 . The exclusion criteria were a thick gallbladder wall, history of choledocholithiasis, previous abdominal surgery, and serious concomitant disease. We reviewed data regarding consecutive patients who underwent LC at our institution from November 2009 to March 2016. The data were assessed with respect to patient characteristics, operative data, and postoperative outcomes. A total of 1093 patients underwent elective LC, and 232 (21.2%) of these patients underwent SILC using our criteria. Fourteen patients (6.0%) who underwent SILC required extra ports. Among the patients aged < 60 years, 50.2% (232/462) underwent SILC. There were few adverse events, including intra- and postoperative complications, among the patients who underwent SILC. The above-mentioned criteria are safe, necessary, and sufficient for SILC over conventional LC. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  6. Post-cholecystectomy biliary injuries: one center experience.

    PubMed

    Fathy, Omar; Wahab, Mohamed Abdel; Hamdy, Emad; Elshoubary, Mohamed; Kandiel, Tharwat; Elraof, Ahmad Abd; Elhemaly, Mohamed; Salah, Tarek; Elhanafy, Ehab; Atef, Ehab; Sultan, Ahmad Mohamed; Elebiedy, Gamal; Anwar, Nabieh; Sultan, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Post-cholecystectomy bile duct injuries (BDIs) represent a challenge in diagnosis and management. From March 1995 to August 2009, 274 patients with post-cholecystectomy BDIs were managed at our center. All patients were subjected to laboratory tests, sonography, ERCP and MRCP. The management varied according to the type of injury. Seventy-one (25.9%) LC and 203 (74.1%) OC were performed; 8(2.9%) were detected intraoperatively; 270 patients were referred from other hospitals. From those discovered intraoperatively, 7 had hepatico-jejunostomy and one died from severe peritonitis; 11 (4%) presented with generalized and 112 (40.9%) with localized peritonitis. The leak site was the cystic duct (57 cases), accessory duct in the liver bed (5 cases), right hepatic duct (4 cases) and lateral tear in the CBD (12 cases). Endoscopic stenting was performed for all of them. The remaining 34 patients had a completely ligated distal duct and therefore had hepatico-jejunostomy Roux loop; 143 patients (52.2%) presented with early (79 cases) and late (64 cases) jaundice; 126 cases had hepatico-jejunostomy. The remaining 17 patients were treated by balloon dilatation. Endoscopic stenting can manage cases with cystic or accessory duct leak while, hepatico-jejunostomy Roux loop represents the golden procedure for management of transected or ligated CBD.

  7. [Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy: advantages and disadvantages].

    PubMed

    Alekberzade, A V; Lipnitsky, E M; Krylov, N N; Sundukov, I V; Badalov, D A

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the outcomes of single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Early and long-term postoperative period has been analyzed in 240 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LCE) including 120 cases of single-port technique and 120 cases of four-port technique. Both groups were compared in surgical time, pain syndrome severity (visual analog scale), need for analgesics, postoperative complications, hospital-stay, daily activity recovery and return to physical work, patients' satisfaction of surgical results and their aesthetic effect. It was revealed that single-port LCE is associated with lower severity of postoperative pain, quick recovery of daily activity and return to physical work, high satisfaction of surgical results and their aesthetic effect compared with four-port LCE. Disadvantages of single-port LCE include longer duration of surgery, high incidence of postoperative umbilical hernia. However hernia was predominantly observed during the period of surgical technique development. Further studies to standardize, evaluate the safety and benefits of single-port LCE are necessary.

  8. Gallbladder Nonvisualization in Cholecystectomy: A Factor for Conversion.

    PubMed

    Slack, Daniel R; Grisby, Shaunda; Dike, Uzoamaka Kimberly; Kohli, Harjeet

    2018-01-01

    Many risk factors have been identified in minimally invasive cholecystectomies that lead to higher complications and conversion rates. No study that we encountered looked at nonvisualization of the gallbladder (GB) during surgery as a risk factor. We hypothesized that nonvisualization was associated with an increased risk of complications and could be an early intraoperative identifier of a higher risk procedure. Recognizing this could allow surgeons to be aware of potential risks and to be more likely to convert to open for the safety of the patient. We looked at minimally invasive cholecystectomies performed at our institution from January 2015 through April 2016 and had the performing resident fill out a survey after the surgery. Outcomes were conversion rates, intraoperative complications, and blood loss and were analyzed via Pearson χ 2 test or Mann-Whitney U test. The primary outcome showed a conversion rate of 37% in nonvisualized GBs versus 0% in visualized ( P = .001). Secondary outcomes showed significant differences in GB perforations (74% vs 13%, P = .001), omental vessel bleeding (16% vs. 0%, P = .005), and EBL (46 mL vs 29 mL, P = .001). Intraoperative nonvisualization of the GB after adequate positioning caused significantly increased risk of intraoperative complications and conversion. This knowledge could be useful during intraoperative assessment, to decide whether a case should be continued as a minimally invasive procedure or converted early to help reduce risk to the patient. Further randomized controlled studies should be performed to further demonstrate the value of this assessment.

  9. Lactate and acid base changes during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Ibraheim, Osama A; Samarkandi, Abdulhamid H; Alshehry, Hassan; Faden, Awatif; Farouk, Eltinay Omar

    2006-02-01

    The observation of hemodynamic and metabolic impairment related to CO2 pneumoperitoneum and postoperative mesenteric ischemia reports following laparoscopic procedures have raised concern about local and systemic effects of increase intraabdominal pressure during laparoscopic procedures. The present study aims to evaluate the metabolic and acid base responses of using high pressure versus low pressure pneumoperitonium in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a prospective randomized clinical trial. 20 ASA I-II patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated to one of two study groups; high pressure pneumoperitoneum 12-14mmHg (HPP, n=10) versus low pressure pneumoperitoneum 6-8mmHg (LPP, n=10) undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Arterial blood gases and lactate levels were determined after induction of anesthesia (before pneumoperitonium), then after 10 min, then 30 min after insufflations and at the end of surgery and 1 hour postoperatively. Nurses in recovery unit reported pain assessment starting postoperatively until 3 hours on a 10mm VAS (0-10). Statistical significant was established at P<0.05. Bicarbonate was significantly (P>0.0412) lower in high pressure group at 30 min and 60 min after insufflations. In high pressure group lactate levels increased significantly as compared to low pressure group, (at 30 minutes after the establishment of abdominal pneumatic inflation P<0.006 and remained significantly increased (P<0.001) until the end of surgery and one hour thereafter) (P<0.001). The mean postoperative pain score during second hour (VAS) at HPP group was 7.4 +/- 1.17 which is significantly (P < or = 0.006) higher than pain score in LPP group 5.0 +/- 1.886. Shoulder tip pain was reported in 3 patients in the high pressure group and only one patient in the lower pressure group. High-pressure pneumoperitonium causes statistically significant elevation in the arterial lactate level intraoperatively until

  10. Comparison of accuracy of physical examination findings in initial progress notes between paper charts and a newly implemented electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Siddhartha; Kazanji, Noora; K C, Narayan; Paudel, Sudarshan; Falatko, John; Shoichet, Sandor; Maddens, Michael; Barnes, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    There have been several concerns about the quality of documentation in electronic health records (EHRs) when compared to paper charts. This study compares the accuracy of physical examination findings documentation between the two in initial progress notes. Initial progress notes from patients with 5 specific diagnoses with invariable physical findings admitted to Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, between August 2011 and July 2013 were randomly selected for this study. A total of 500 progress notes were retrospectively reviewed. The paper chart arm consisted of progress notes completed prior to the transition to an EHR on July 1, 2012. The remaining charts were placed in the EHR arm. The primary endpoints were accuracy, inaccuracy, and omission of information. Secondary endpoints were time of initiation of progress note, word count, number of systems documented, and accuracy based on level of training. The rate of inaccurate documentation was significantly higher in the EHRs compared to the paper charts (24.4% vs 4.4%). However, expected physical examination findings were more likely to be omitted in the paper notes compared to EHRs (41.2% vs 17.6%). Resident physicians had a smaller number of inaccuracies (5.3% vs 17.3%) and omissions (16.8% vs 33.9%) compared to attending physicians. During the initial phase of implementation of an EHR, inaccuracies were more common in progress notes in the EHR compared to the paper charts. Residents had a lower rate of inaccuracies and omissions compared to attending physicians. Further research is needed to identify training methods and incentives that can reduce inaccuracies in EHRs during initial implementation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Clostridial Gas Gangrene of the Abdominal Wall After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Case Report and Review.

    PubMed

    Harmsen, Annelieke M K; van Tol, Erik; Giannakopoulos, Georgios F; de Brauw, L Maurits

    2016-08-01

    Clostridial gas gangrene is a rare, yet severe, complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We present a case report of a 48-year-old man with obesity, coronary artery disease, and diabetes, who developed clostridial gas gangrene of the abdominal wall after an uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Although the diagnosis was missed initially, successful radical surgical debridement was performed and the patient survived. Pathogenesis, symptoms, prognostic factors, and the best treatment are discussed.

  12. Open cholecystectomy: Exposure and confidence of surgical trainees and new fellows.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Beth M; Lambrianides, Andreas L; Dulhunty, Joel M

    2018-03-01

    The laparoscopic approach to cholecystectomy has overtaken open procedures in terms of frequency, despite open procedures playing an important role in certain clinical situations. This study explored exposure and confidence of Australasian surgical trainees and new fellows in performing an open versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy. An online survey was disseminated via the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons to senior general surgery trainees (years 3-5 of surgical training) and new fellows (fellowship within the previous 5 years). The survey included questions regarding level of experience and confidence in performing an open cholecystectomy and converting from a laparoscopic to an open approach. A total of 135 participants responded; 58 (43%) were surgical trainees, 58 (43%) were fellows and 19 (14%) did not specify their level of training. Respondents who were involved in more than 20 open cholecystectomy procedures as an assistant or independent operator compared with those less exposed were more likely to feel confident to independently perform an elective open cholecystectomy (87.8% vs. 57.3%, P = 0.001), independently convert from a laparoscopic to open cholecystectomy (87.8% vs. 58.7%, P = 0.001) and independently perform an open cholecystectomy as a surgical consultant based on their level of exposure as a trainee (73.2% vs. 45.3%, P = 0.004). This study suggests the need to ensure surgical trainees are exposed to sufficient open cholecystectomies to enable confidence and skill with performing these procedures when indicated. Greater recognition of the need for exposure during training, including meaningful simulation, may assist. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Twenty years after Erich Muhe: Persisting controversies with the gold standard of laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Kalpesh; Rajan, P S; Sendhilkumar, K; Palanivelu, C

    2006-01-01

    This review article is a tribute to the genius of Professor Erich Muhe, a man ahead of his times. We trace the development of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and detail the tribulations faced by Muhe. On the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy, we take another look at some of the controversies surrounding this gold standard in the management of gallbladder disease PMID:21170235

  14. [Natural history of cholelithiasis and incidence of cholecystectomy in an urban and a Mapuche rural area].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ayuso, Rosa María; Hernández, Verónica; González, Berta; Carvacho, Claudia; Navarrete, Carlos; Alvarez, Manuel; González, Robinson; Marshall, Guillermo; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Nervi, Flavio

    2002-07-01

    Cholelithiasis is the second cause of hospital admissions in Chile. To study the prevalence of symptomatic gallstone disease and opportunity of cholecystectomy in La Florida, Santiago and among Mapuche Indians in Huapi Island. In the period 2000-2001, we contacted to 71% (1127 subjects) and to 61% (145 subjects) patients of La Florida and Huapi Island, respectively, that had previously participated in an epidemiological study on cholelithiasis in 1993. We defined symptomatic gallstone patients as those with a history of biliary colic. Each patient was subjected to gallbladder ultrasound. In 1993, 30-35% of gallstone patients were symptomatic (approximately 70% women). During the lapse 1993-2001, only 50% of subjects from La Florida and 25% of patients from Huapi Island were cholecystectomized (p < 0.05). Fifty percent of cholecystectomies were emergency operations. In 38 symptomatic Mapuche Indians from Huapi, cholecystectomy was indicated in 2001. After five months of the indication, only one of these subjects had been operated. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy represented 40% of all cholecystectomies performed in the National Health Service Hospitals. This study demonstrates an unacceptable high prevalence of symptomatic gallstone patients remaining non-operated in both the urban and rural communities. This reciprocally correlates with the high frequency of emergency cholecystectomies and the high incidence of gallbladder cancer among Chileans. This study contrasts negatively with the situation of Scotland, where 73.5% of cholecystectomies were laparoscopic in 1998-1999. To reach Scotland standards, the Chilean Public Health System should increase the number of cholecystectomies from 27,000 in 2001 to 57,510

  15. Parietal seeding of unsuspected gallbladder carcinoma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Marmorale, C; Scibé, R; Siquini, W; Massa, M; Brunelli, A; Landi, E

    1998-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (VALC) represents the treatment of choice for the symptomatic gallstones. However the occurrence of an adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder results a controindication for this surgical technique. We present a case of a 52 years old woman who underwent a VALC; histology revealed a gallbladder adenocarcinoma. For this reason the patient underwent a second operation that is right hepatic trisegmentectomy. Six months later the patient presented with a parietal recurrence at the extraction site of the gallbladder. We discuss the possible mechanism responsible for carcinomatous dissemination during laparoscopic surgery and we raccommend the use of some procedures in order to limit the risk and eventually to treat a neoplastic parietal seeding. These complications suggest the problem about the utility and the future played by video assisted laparoscopic surgery in the diagnosis and treatment of intraabdominal malignancies.

  16. Formal education of patients about to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Vaughan, Jessica; Davidson, Brian R

    2014-02-28

    Generally, before being operated on, patients will be given informal information by the healthcare providers involved in the care of the patients (doctors, nurses, ward clerks, or healthcare assistants). This information can also be provided formally in different formats including written information, formal lectures, or audio-visual recorded information. To compare the benefits and harms of formal preoperative patient education for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 2, 2013), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded to March 2013. We included only randomised clinical trials irrespective of language and publication status. Two review authors independently extracted the data. We planned to calculate the risk ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous outcomes, and mean difference (MD) or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% CI for continuous outcomes based on intention-to-treat analyses when data were available. A total of 431 participants undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomised to formal patient education (215 participants) versus standard care (216 participants) in four trials. The patient education included verbal education, multimedia DVD programme, computer-based multimedia programme, and Power Point presentation in the four trials. All the trials were of high risk of bias. One trial including 212 patients reported mortality. There was no mortality in either group in this trial. None of the trials reported surgery-related morbidity, quality of life, proportion of patients discharged as day-procedure laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the length of hospital stay, return to work, or the number of unplanned visits to the doctor. There were insufficient details to calculate the mean difference and 95% CI for the difference in pain scores at 9 to 24 hours (1 trial; 93 patients); and we did not identify clear evidence of

  17. MORTALITY OF URGENCY VERSUS ELECTIVE VIDEOLAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY FOR ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS.

    PubMed

    Felício, Saulo José Oliveira; Matos, Ediriomar Peixoto; Cerqueira, Antonio Maurício; Farias, Kurt Wolfgang Schindler Freire de; Silva, Ramon de Assis; Torres, Mateus de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Surgical approach is still controversial in patients with acute cholecystitis: to treat clinically the inflammatory process and operate electively later or to operate immediately on an emergency basis? To test the hypothesis that urgent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis has a higher mortality than elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. From the data available in Datasus, mortality was compared between patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis and in urgency. Calculations were made of the relative reduction in risk of death, absolute reduction of risk of death and number needed to treat. From 2009 to 2014 in Brazil, there were 250.439 laparoscopic cholecystectomy and 74.6% were electives. Mortality in the emergency group was 4.8 times higher compared to the elective group (0.0023% vs. 0.00048%). Despite the relative reduction in risk of death (RRR) was 83%, in the calculation of absolute risk was found 0.0018 and number needed to treat of 55,555. Despite the relative risk reduction for mortality was high comparing elective vs. urgent basis, the absolute risk reduction was minimal, since this outcome is very low in both groups, suggesting that mortality should not have much influence on surgical decision. Continua controversa a conduta nos pacientes com colecistite aguda: compensar o processo inflamatório e operar eletivamente ou operar imediatamente em caráter de urgência? Testar a hipótese de que a colecistectomia videolaparoscópica de urgência por colecistite aguda apresenta maior mortalidade que a colecistectomia videolaparoscópica eletiva. A partir dos dados disponíveis no Datasus, foi comparada a mortalidade entre os pacientes submetidos à colecistectomia videolaparoscópica eletiva por colelitíase e a de urgência. Foram realizados cálculos da redução relativa de risco de morte, redução absoluta do risco de morte e número necessário para tratar . De 2009 a 2014 no Brasil, foram realizadas

  18. [Iatrogenic bile duct injuries during the process of laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Qian, G; Wu, M; Zhang, Y

    1995-11-01

    Twelve patients with iatrogenic bile duct injuries occurred during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) were treated from June 1992 to May 1994. All the patients underwent re-operation and were cured. The causes and characteristics of the injuries were: (1) perforation of the common hepatic or common bile duct caused by dissecting hook (3 cases); (2) necrosis and perforation of the common hepatic duct due to diathermic injury (1 case); (3) clamping of the common hepatic duct by Ti clip (1 case); (4) secondary high bile duct stricture following a failed end-to-end anastomosis or hepatico-cholangio-jejunostomy of the amputated common hepatic duct (5 cases); (5) delayed high bile duct stricture (2 cases). It is emphasized that the severity of bile duct injuries by LC be should not overlooked, and more experience in this field be accumulated to avoid this serious complication.

  19. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a report of 409 consecutive cases and its future outlook.

    PubMed

    Kano, N; Yamakawa, T; Ishikawa, Y; Sakai, S; Honda, H; Kasugai, H; Tachibana, A

    1994-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted on 409 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy at Teikyo University Hospital between May, 1990 and October, 1992. The operation had to be converted to an open cholecystectomy in ten of these patients because of uncontrollable bleeding from the cystic artery in one, venous bleeding due to portal hypertension in one, extensive adhesions of the omentum and the duodenum to the gallbladder in two, extensive adhesions around the gallbladder in four, and extensive adhesions between the gallbladder and the common bile duct (CBD) in two. The time taken to complete the procedure ranged from 30 to 235 min, the average time being 81 min, and the postoperative hospital stay ranged from 3 to 56 days, the average stay being 6.5 days. Eleven patients developed complications intra- or postoperatively: bile duct injury which became manifest after the operation and required laparotomy in three patients; injury to the right hemidiaphragm resulting in a right pneumothorax in one; periumbilical subcutaneous emphysema in one; mild bile leaks which resolved in a few days in two; and a severe bile leak which resolved after 6 days in one. The indications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy have widened with experience and now, CBD stones and a history of previous gastrectomy are no longer contraindications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Thus, it seems that laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed as safely as a standard cholecystectomy, provided the patients are selected properly and appropriate caution is exercised.

  20. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Can Be Safely Performed in a Resource-Limited Setting: the First 49 Laparoscopic Cholecystectomies in Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Hind K.; Dulku, Kiren

    2008-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the gold standard for gallstone disease. Many studies have confirmed the safety and feasibility of LC and have shown that it is comparable regarding complications to open cholecystectomy (OC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of LC including safety, feasibility in a resource-poor setting like Yemen, and also to compare the outcomes of LC with those of OC. Methods: This was a prospective, nonrandomized, comparative study of 112 patients who were admitted to Alburaihy Hospital with a diagnosis of gallstone disease and underwent cholecystectomy from July 1998 to March 2004. Hospital stay, duration of operation, postoperative analgesia, and morbidity due to wound infection, bile leak, common bile duct (CBD) injury, missed CBD stone, bleeding, subphrenic abscess, and hernia were evaluated. Patients were followed up on an outpatient basis. Results: Forty-nine patients underwent LC and 63 patients underwent OC. The mean age of LC patients was 43.96 years and of OC patients was 44.63 years. The 2 groups were similar in terms of age (p=0.740) and sex (p=0.535). No significant difference was found in the incidence of acute cholecystitis between the 2 groups (p=0.000). The mean operative duration for LC was 39.88 minutes versus 56.76 minutes for OC (p=0.000), and the mean hospital stay was 1.63 and 5.38 days for LC and OC, respectively (p=0.000). A drain was used frequently in OC (p=0.000). LC patients needed less analgesia (p=0.000). The morbidity rate in LC was 12.2% versus 6.3% for OC, which was not statistically significant (p=0.394), (p>0.05). Wound infection and bile leak were more common with LC. No mortalities were reported in either group. Conclusion: An experienced surgeon can perform LC safely and successfully in a resource-limited setting. As in other studies, LC outcomes were better than OC outcomes. PMID:18402743

  1. Taxonomy of instructions given to residents in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuanyuan; Wong, Christopher; Park, Adrian; Mentis, Helena

    2016-03-01

    Although simulation-based training allows residents to become proficient in surgical skills outside the OR, residents still depend on senior surgeons' guidance in transferring skills accumulated from simulators into the operating room. This study aimed to identify and classify explicit instructions made by attending surgeons to their residents during laparoscopic surgery. Through these instructions, we examined the role gaze guidance plays in OR-based training. A total of ten laparoscopic cholecystectomy cases being performed by PGY4 residents were analyzed. The explicit directional instructions given by the mentoring attending surgeons to their residents were identified and classified into four categories based on their locations in the coordinate system. These categories were further combined into two classes, based on the target of instructions. The frequencies of instructions in the two classes were compared, and effect size was calculated. There were 1984 instructions identified in the ten cases. The instructions were categorized into instrument guidance (38.51%) and gaze guidance (61.49%). The instrument guidance focused on moving the instruments to perform surgical tasks, including directions to targets, instrument manipulation, and instrument interaction. The gaze guidance focused on achieving common ground during the operation, including target identification and target fixation. The frequency of gaze guidance is significantly higher than instrument guidance in a laparoscopic cholecystectomy (p < 0.001) with a large effect size (r = 0.6). Gaze guidance has become the main focus of OR-based training. The results show a tight connection between adopting expert gaze and performing surgical tasks and suggest that gaze training should be integrated into the simulation training.

  2. Fate of Dyspeptic or Colonic Symptoms After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gi Hyun; Lee, Hyo Deok; Kim, Min; Kim, Kyeongmin; Jeong, Yusook; Hong, Yong Joo; Kang, Eun Seok; Han, Joung-Ho; Choi, Jae-Woon; Park, Seon Mee

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Gallbladder diseases can give rise to dyspeptic or colonic symptoms in addition to biliary pain. Although most biliary pain shows improvement after cholecystectomy, the fates of dyspeptic or colonic symptoms still remain controversial. This study assessed whether nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms improved after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and identified the characteristics of patients who experienced continuing or exacerbated symptoms following surgery. Methods Sixty-five patients who underwent LC for uncomplicated gallbladder stones or gallbladder polyps were enrolled. The patients were surveyed on their dyspeptic or colonic symptoms before surgery and again at 3 and 6 months after surgery. Patients' mental sanity was also assessed using a psychological symptom score with the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised questionnaire. Results Forty-four (67.7%) patients showed one or more dyspeptic or colonic symptoms before surgery. Among these, 31 (47.7%) and 36 (55.4%) patients showed improvement at 3 and 6 months after surgery, respectively. However, 18.5% of patients showed continuing or exacerbated symptoms at 6 months after surgery. These patients did not differ with respect to gallstone or gallbladder polyps, but differed in frequency of gastritis. These patients reported lower postoperative satisfaction. Patients with abdominal symptoms showed higher psychological symptom scores than others. However, poor mental sanity was not related to the symptom exacerbation. Conclusions Elective LC improves dyspeptic or colonic symptoms. Approximately 19% of patients reported continuing or exacerbated symptoms following LC. Detailed history-taking regarding gastritis before surgery can be helpful in predicting patients’ outcome after LC. PMID:24840378

  3. Laparoscopic completion radical cholecystectomy for T2 gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Gumbs, Andrew A; Hoffman, John P

    2010-12-01

    The role of minimally invasive surgery in the surgical management of gallbladder cancer is a matter of controversy. Because of the authors' growing experience with laparoscopic liver and pancreatic surgery, they have begun offering patients laparoscopic completion partial hepatectomies of the gallbladder bed with laparoscopic hepatoduodenal lymphadenectomy. The video shows the steps needed to perform laparoscopic resection of the residual gallbladder bed, the hepatoduodenal lymph node nodes, and the residual cystic duct stump in a setting with a positive cystic stump margin. The skin and fascia around the previous extraction site are resected, and this site is used for specimen retrieval during the second operation. To date, three patients have undergone laparoscopic radical cholecystectomy with hepatoduodenal lymph node dissection for gallbladder cancer. The average number of lymph nodes retrieved was 3 (range, 1-6), and the average estimated blood loss was 117 ml (range, 50-200 ml). The average operative time was 227 min (range, 120-360 min), and the average hospital length of stay was 4 days (range, 3-5 days). No morbidity or mortality was observed during 90 days of follow-up for each patient. Although controversy exists as to the best surgical approach for gallbladder cancer diagnosed after routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the minimally invasive approach seems feasible and safe, even after previous hepatobiliary surgery. If the previous extraction site cannot be ascertained, all port sites can be excised locally. Larger studies are needed to determine whether the minimally invasive approach to postoperatively diagnosed early-stage gallbladder cancer has any drawbacks.

  4. Limited value of haptics in virtual reality laparoscopic cholecystectomy training.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jonathan R; Leonard, Anthony C; Doarn, Charles R; Roesch, Matt J; Broderick, Timothy J

    2011-04-01

    Haptics is an expensive addition to virtual reality (VR) simulators, and the added value to training has not been proven. This study evaluated the benefit of haptics in VR laparoscopic surgery training for novices. The Simbionix LapMentor II haptic VR simulator was used in the study. Randomly, 33 laparoscopic novice students were placed in one of three groups: control, haptics-trained, or nonhaptics-trained group. The control group performed nine basic laparoscopy tasks and four cholecystectomy procedural tasks one time with haptics engaged at the default setting. The haptics group was trained to proficiency in the basic tasks and then performed each of the procedural tasks one time with haptics engaged. The nonhaptics group used the same training protocol except that haptics was disengaged. The proficiency values used were previously published expert values. Each group was assessed in the performance of 10 laparoscopic cholecystectomies (alternating with and without haptics). Performance was measured via automatically collected simulator data. The three groups exhibited no differences in terms of sex, education level, hand dominance, video game experience, surgical experience, and nonsurgical simulator experience. The number of attempts required to reach proficiency did not differ between the haptics- and nonhaptics-training groups. The haptics and nonhaptics groups exhibited no difference in performance. Both training groups outperformed the control group in number of movements as well as path length of the left instrument. In addition, the nonhaptics group outperformed the control group in total time. Haptics does not improve the efficiency or effectiveness of LapMentor II VR laparoscopic surgery training. The limited benefit and the significant cost of haptics suggest that haptics should not be included routinely in VR laparoscopic surgery training.

  5. Simulation-Based Testing of Pager Interruptions During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Sujka, Joseph A; Safcsak, Karen; Bhullar, Indermeet S; Havron, William S

    2018-01-30

    To determine if pager interruptions affect operative time, safety, or complications and management of pager issues during a simulated laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Twelve surgery resident volunteers were tested on a Simbionix Lap Mentor II simulator. Each resident performed 6 randomized simulated laparoscopic cholecystectomies; 3 with pager interruptions (INT) and 3 without pager interruptions (NO-INT). The pager interruptions were sent in the form of standardized patient vignettes and timed to distract the resident during dissection of the critical view of safety and clipping of the cystic duct. The residents were graded on a pass/fail scale for eliciting appropriate patient history and management of the pager issue. Data was extracted from the simulator for the following endpoints: operative time, safety metrics, and incidence of operative complications. The Mann-Whitney U test and contingency table analysis were used to compare the 2 groups (INT vs. NO-INT). Level I trauma center; Simulation laboratory. Twelve general surgery residents. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in any of the operative endpoints as measured by the simulator. However, in the INT group, only 25% of the time did the surgery residents both adequately address the issue and provide effective patient management in response to the pager interruption. Pager interruptions did not affect operative time, safety, or complications during the simulated procedure. However, there were significant failures in the appropriate evaluations and management of pager issues. Consideration for diversion of patient care issues to fellow residents not operating to improve quality and safety of patient care outside the operating room requires further study. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Transjejunal Extraction of Gallbladder After Mini-Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in Patients with Previous Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: A Small Case Series.

    PubMed

    Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Tardu, Ali; Yagci, Mehmet Ali; Sumer, Fatih

    2015-07-01

    The length of incisions on the abdominal wall directly correlates with wound-related morbidities and patient comfort. Both mini-laparoscopy (only ≤5-mm trocars) and natural orifice specimen extraction avoid larger abdominal incisions. This study described a new natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES(®); American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy [Oak Brook, IL] and Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons [Los Angeles, CA]) cholecystectomy technique by combination of these two advanced laparoscopic techniques for cholelithiasis in patients who had prior laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) for obesity. Three patients (two males, one female; 39, 62, and 34 years old, respectively) were admitted with symptomatic cholelithiasis (multiple millimeter-sized gallstones), and all had previously had LRYGB. They were treated by mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy using three 5-mm trocars. The gallbladder was removed through the dilated efferent limb of the jejunum, 5 cm distal from the gastrojejunostomy. Transjejunal extraction was performed under endoscopic guidance. The gallbladder in the jejenum was passed through the anastomosis and extracted with an endoscopic snare by the transoral way. The enterotomy was closed intracorporeally. There was no conversion or additional trocar requirement. All the procedures were completed successfully without problems. Respective operating times were 95, 75, and 120 minutes. Only 1 patient required postoperative analgesic; the others did not. The patients started to get a liquid diet on the night of surgery and were discharged on Days 1, 1, and 2, respectively, with normal diet recommendations. There were no morbidities. Mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy is technically feasible in patients with previous LRYGB. Prior LRYGB was not an obstacle for transoral specimen extraction. The dilated efferent jejunal limb is a good alternative route for natural orifice specimen extraction. This

  7. Are Bibliographic Management Software Search Interfaces Reliable?: A Comparison between Search Results Obtained Using Database Interfaces and the EndNote Online Search Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgibbons, Megan; Meert, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    The use of bibliographic management software and its internal search interfaces is now pervasive among researchers. This study compares the results between searches conducted in academic databases' search interfaces versus the EndNote search interface. The results show mixed search reliability, depending on the database and type of search…

  8. Documentation of the runqual module for ADDAMS: Comparison of predicted runoff water quality with standards. Environmental effects of dredging. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, P.R.; Gibson, A.C.; Dardeau, E.A.

    This technical note has a twofold purpose: to describe a technique for comparing the predicted quality of surface runoff from confined dredged material disposal areas with applicable water quality standards and to document a computer program called RUNQUAL, written for that purpose as a part of the Automated Dredging and Disposal Alternatives Management System (ADDAMS).

  9. Fewer-than-four ports versus four ports for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Vaughan, Jessica; Rossi, Michele; Davidson, Brian R

    2014-02-20

    Traditionally, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed using two 10-mm ports and two 5-mm ports. Recently, a reduction in the number of ports has been suggested as a modification of the standard technique with a view to decreasing pain and improving cosmesis. The safety and effectiveness of using fewer-than-four ports has not yet been established. To assess the benefits (such as improvement in cosmesis and earlier return to activity) and harms (such as increased complications) of using fewer-than-four ports (fewer-than-four-ports laparoscopic cholecystectomy) versus four ports in people undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for any reason (symptomatic gallstones, acalculous cholecystitis, gallbladder polyp, or any other condition). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Issue 8, 2013), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform portal to September 2013. We included all randomised clinical trials comparing fewer-than-four ports versus four ports, that is, with standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy that is performed with two ports of at least 10-mm incision and two ports of at least 5-mm incision. Two review authors independently identified the trials and extracted the data. We analysed the data using both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models. For each outcome, we calculated the risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on intention-to-treat analysis, whenever possible. We found nine trials with 855 participants that randomised participants to fewer-than-four-ports laparoscopic cholecystectomy (n = 427) versus four-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (n = 428). Most trials included low anaesthetic risk participants undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Seven of the nine trials used a single port laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the remaining two trials used three-port laparoscopic

  10. Is it necessary to perform prophylactic cholecystectomy for asymptomatic subjects with gallbladder polyps and gallstones?

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Youn; Kim, Tae Sun; Kim, Hong Joo; Park, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Il; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the clinical characteristics of subjects with gallbladder polyps and cholelithiasis compared with those with gallbladder polyps only. Between August 1999 and December 2005, 176 subjects with gallbladder polyps and cholelithiasis (study group) by transabdominal ultrasonography performed during a medical check-up at our institution were recruited and compared with a control group of 185 subjects who had gallbladder polyps only. No significant difference in the mean interval change (delta) of polyp size during the follow-up period between the study and control groups (0.85 +/- 1.39 mm vs 0.84 +/- 1.58 mm, respectively, P = 0.927) was noted. A significantly higher proportion (9/176 [5.1%]) of examinees in the study group had attacks of acute cholecystitis compared with the control group (1/185 [0.5%], P < 0.01). By multivariate logistic regression analysis, gallbladder wall thickening on initial ultrasonography (odds ratio, 13.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-178.0; P = 0.046) and the interval increase in the size of the gallbladder polyps (odds ratio, 14.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-126.9; P = 0.014) were independent risk factors for cholecystectomy. No gallbladder cancer occurred during the follow-up period. There was no significant difference in delta polyp size between the examinees with gallbladder polyps and cholelithiasis and those with gallbladder polyps only. Hence, a small proportion of subjects with gallbladder polyps and cholelithiasis, such as those with thickened gallbladder walls and an interval increase in the size of the gallbladder polyps are candidates for prophylactic cholecytectomy.

  11. Routine Sub-hepatic Drainage versus No Drainage after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Open, Randomized, Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Muhammad

    2013-02-01

    Surgeons are still following the old habit of routine subhepatic drainage following laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). This study aims to compare the outcome of subhepatic drainage with no drainage after LC. This prospective study was conducted in two phases. Phase I was open, randomized controlled trial (RCT), conducted in Civil Hospital Karachi, from August 2004 to June 2005. Phase II was descriptive case series, conducted in author's practice hospitals of Karachi, from July 2005 to December 2009. In phase I, 170 patients with chronic calculous cholecystitis underwent LC. Patients were divided into two groups, subhepatic drainage (group A: 79 patients) or no drainage (group B: 76 patients). The rest 15 patients were excluded either due to conversion or elective subhepatic drainage. In phase II, 218 consecutive patients were enrolled, who underwent LC with no subhepatic drainage. Duration of operation, character, and amount of drain fluid (if placed), postoperative ultrasound for subhepatic collection, postoperative chest X-ray for the measurement of subdiaphragmatic air, postoperative pain, postoperative nausea/vomiting, duration of hospital stay, and preoperative or postoperative complications were noted and analyzed. Duration of operation and hospital stay was slightly longer in group A patients (P values 0.002 and 0.029, respectively); postoperative pain perception, nausea/vomiting, and postoperative complications were nearly same in both groups (P value 0.064, 0.078, and 0.003, respectively). Subhepatic fluid collection was more in group A (P = 0.002), whereas subdiaphragmatic air collection was more in group B (P = 0.003). Phase II results were nearly similar to group B patients in phase I. Routine subhepatic drainage after LC is not necessary in uncomplicated cases.

  12. Getting started with robotics in general surgery with cholecystectomy: the Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Shiva; Davies, Ward; Schlachta, Christopher M

    2009-10-01

    The value of robotics in general surgery may be for advanced minimally invasive procedures. Unlike other specialties, formal fellowship training opportunities for robotic general surgery are few. As a result, most surgeons currently develop robotic skills in practice. Our goal was to determine whether robotic cholecystectomy is a safe and effective bridge to advanced robotics in general surgery. Before performing advanced robotic procedures, 2 surgeons completed the Intuitive Surgical da Vinci training course and agreed to work together on all procedures. Clinical surgery began with da Vinci cholecystectomy with a plan to begin advanced procedures after at least 10 cholecystectomies. We performed a retrospective review of our pilot series of robotic cholecystectomies and compared them with contemporaneous laparoscopic controls. The primary outcome was safety, and the secondary outcome was learning curve. There were 16 procedures in the robotics arm and 20 in the laparoscopic arm. Two complications (da Vinci port-site hernia, transient elevation of liver enzymes) occurred in the robotic arm, whereas only 1 laparoscopic patient (slow to awaken from anesthetic) experienced a complication. None was significant. The mean time required to perform robotic cholecystectomy was significantly longer than laparoscopic surgery (91 v. 41 min, p < 0.001). The mean time to clear the operating room was significantly longer for robotic procedures (14 v. 11 min, p = 0.015). We observed a trend showing longer mean anesthesia time for robotic procedures (23 v. 15 min). Regarding learning curve, the mean operative time needed for the first 3 robotic procedures was longer than for the last 3 (101 v. 80 min); however, this difference was not significant. Since this experience, the team has confidently gone on to perform robotic biliary, pancreatic, gastresophageal, intestinal and colorectal operations. Robotic cholecystectomy can be performed reliably; however, owing to the significant

  13. Effect of socioeconomic inequalities on cholecystectomy outcomes: a 10-year population-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Yang, Nan-Ping; Chang, Nien-Tzu; Lai, K Robert; Lin, Kai-Biao; Chan, Chien-Lung

    2018-02-13

    Although numerous epidemiological studies on cholecystectomy have been conducted worldwide, only a few have considered the effect of socioeconomic inequalities on cholecystectomy outcomes. Specifically, few studies have focused on the low-income population (LIP). A nationwide prospective study based on the Taiwan National Health Insurance dataset was conducted during 2003-2012. The International Classification of ICD-9-CM procedure codes 51.2 and 51.21-51.24 were identified as the inclusion criteria for cholecystectomy. Temporal trends were analyzed using a joinpoint regression, and the hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) method was used as an analytical strategy to evaluate the group-level and individual-level factors. Interactions between age, gender and SES were also tested in HLM model. Analyses were conducted on 225,558 patients. The incidence rates were 167.81 (95% CI: 159.78-175.83) per 100,000 individuals per year for the LIP and 123.24 (95% CI: 116.37-130.12) per 100,000 individuals per year for the general population (GP). After cholecystectomy, LIP patients showed higher rates of 30-day mortality, in-hospital complications, and readmission for complications, but a lower rate of routine discharge than GP patients. The hospital costs and length of stay for LIP patients were higher than those for GP patients. The multilevel analysis using HLM revealed that adverse socioeconomic status significantly negatively affects the outcomes of patients undergoing cholecystectomy. Additionally, male sex, advanced age, and high Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) scores were associated with higher rates of in-hospital complications and 30-day mortality. We also observed that the 30-day mortality rates for patients who underwent cholecystectomy in regional hospitals and district hospitals were significantly higher than those of patients receiving care in a medical center. Patients with a disadvantaged finance status appeared to be more vulnerable to cholecystectomy surgery

  14. A randomized comparison of laparoscopic, flexible endoscopic, and wired and wireless magnetic cameras on ex vivo and in vivo NOTES surgical performance.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victoria C; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Swain, C Paul; Bergs, Richard; Paramo, Juan; Hogg, Deborah C; Fernandez, Raul; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A; Scott, Daniel J

    2013-08-01

    The influence of endoscopic video camera (VC) image quality on surgical performance has not been studied. Flexible endoscopes are used as substitutes for laparoscopes in natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), but their optics are originally designed for intralumenal use. Manipulable wired or wireless independent VCs might offer advantages for NOTES but are still under development. To measure the optical characteristics of 4 VC systems and to compare their impact on the performance of surgical suturing tasks. VC systems included a laparoscope (Storz 10 mm), a flexible endoscope (Olympus GIF 160), and 2 prototype deployable cameras (magnetic anchoring and guidance system [MAGS] Camera and PillCam). In a randomized fashion, the 4 systems were evaluated regarding standardized optical characteristics and surgical manipulations of previously validated ex vivo (fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery model) and in vivo (live porcine Nissen model) tasks; objective metrics (time and errors/precision) and combined surgeon (n = 2) performance were recorded. Subtle differences were detected for color tests, and field of view was variable (65°-115°). Suitable resolution was detected up to 10 cm for the laparoscope and MAGS camera but only at closer distances for the endoscope and PillCam. Compared with the laparoscope, surgical suturing performances were modestly lower for the MAGS camera and significantly lower for the endoscope (ex vivo) and PillCam (ex vivo and in vivo). This study documented distinct differences in VC systems that may be used for NOTES in terms of both optical characteristics and surgical performance. Additional work is warranted to optimize cameras for NOTES. Deployable systems may be especially well suited for this purpose.

  15. Open Oncology Notes: A Qualitative Study of Oncology Patients' Experiences Reading Their Cancer Care Notes.

    PubMed

    Kayastha, Neha; Pollak, Kathryn I; LeBlanc, Thomas W

    2018-04-01

    Electronic medical records increasingly allow patients access to clinician notes. Although most believe that open notes benefits patients, some suggest negative consequences. Little is known about the experiences of patients with cancer reading their medical notes; thus we aimed to describe this qualitatively. We interviewed 20 adults with metastatic or incurable cancer receiving cancer treatment. The semistructured qualitative interviews included four segments: assessing their overall experience reading notes, discussing how notes affected their cancer care experiences, reading a real note with the interviewer, and making suggestions for improvement. We used a constant comparison approach to analyze these qualitative data. We found four themes. Patients reported that notes resulted in the following: (1) increased comprehension; (2) ameliorated uncertainty, relieved anxiety, and facilitated control; (3) increased trust; and (4) for a subset of patients, increased anxiety. Patients described increased comprehension because notes refreshed their memory and clarified their understanding of visits. This helped mitigate the unfamiliarity of cancer, addressing uncertainty and relieving anxiety. Notes facilitated control, empowering patients to ask clinicians more questions. The transparency of notes also increased trust in clinicians. For a subset of patients, however, notes were emotionally difficult to read and raised concerns. Patients identified medical jargon and repetition in notes as areas for improvement. Most patients thought that reading notes improved their care experiences. A small subset of patients experienced increased distress. As reading notes becomes a routine part of the patient experience, physicians might want to elicit and address concerns that arise from notes, thereby further engaging patients in their care.

  16. Evolution of segmental anesthesia for Laparo-Endoscopic Single Site (LESS) cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Ross, S B; Mangar, D; Karlnoski, R; Patel, R S; Camporesi, E M; Barry, L K; Luberice, K; Sprenker, C J; Rosemurgy, A S

    2012-06-01

    Transumbilical Laparo-Endoscopic Single Site (LESS) surgery promises improved cosmesis, quick recovery, reduced postoperative pain and shorter length of hospital stay. Since only a simple umbilical incision is used, LESS surgery can be completed with segmental epidural anesthesia. This study describes the evolution of our technique of LESS cholecystectomy from a combination of spinal and epidural anesthesia to thoracic epidural alone and presents our experience with its safety, the observed morbidity, and the reported patient satisfaction. In August 2009, a prospective evaluation of LESS cholecystectomy with regional anesthesia was undertaken. We recruited patients with chronic cholecystitis or symptomatic cholelithasis. Blood loss, operative time, complications, and length of hospital stay were measured. Preoperatively and 14 days postoperatively, outcome and symptom resolution were scored. Fifteen consecutive patients underwent LESS cholecystectomy; first with combined spinal-epidural (CSE), and then with thoracic epidural anesthesia alone. Immediate postoperative pain and discomfort were well tolerated. VAS scores upon admission to PACU were 0.4 (1.7±2.2). At postoperative day 14, the patients scored high values for "Satisfaction", 10 (10±1.0) and "Cosmesis", 10 (9.3±1.5). LESS cholecystectomy with epidural anesthesia can be undertaken safely. Patient satisfaction and cosmesis are particularly prominent amongst our patients. Our experience supports further utilization of epidural anesthesia for selected patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy.

  17. Sealing of the cystic and appendix arteries with monopolar electrocautery during laparoscopic combined cholecystectomy and appendectomy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gui-Bao; Mao, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Chang-Ping; Cao, Jin-Lin

    2018-03-01

    The best method to ligate the arteries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy or appendectomy remains controversy. The aim of this study is to introduce a new approach during laparoscopic combined cholecystectomy and appendectomy using a monopolar electrocautery to seal the cystic and appendix arteries. We retrospectively reviewed data from 57 patients who underwent laparoscopic combined cholecystectomy and appendectomy between December 2006 and June 2016. Each laparoscopic combined cholecystectomy and appendectomy was performed by coagulating and sealing the cystic and appendix arteries. Absorbable clip or coils were then used to ligate the proximal of cystic duct and the stump of appendix. The other side of the cystic duct and appendix which subsequently were to be removed from abdomen were used titanium clips or silk ligature. Of the 57 patients, 3 patients (5.3%) were converted to open surgery due to severe abdominal adhesions or gallbladder perforation. The mean operative time was 56 minutes (range, 40-80 minutes). Mean blood loss was 12 mL (range, 5-120 mL), and the mean postoperative hospital stay was 3.0 days (range, 2-5 days). No postoperative bleeding, biliary leakage, infection, or mortality occurred. Monopolar electrocautery to seal the cystic and appendix arteries is a safe, effective, and economical surgical procedure during laparoscopic combined cholecystectomy and appendectomy. Further randomized controlled clinical trials are required to validate our findings.

  18. Sealing of the cystic and appendix arteries with monopolar electrocautery during laparoscopic combined cholecystectomy and appendectomy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gui-Bao; Mao, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Chang-Ping; Cao, Jin-Lin

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The best method to ligate the arteries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy or appendectomy remains controversy. The aim of this study is to introduce a new approach during laparoscopic combined cholecystectomy and appendectomy using a monopolar electrocautery to seal the cystic and appendix arteries. We retrospectively reviewed data from 57 patients who underwent laparoscopic combined cholecystectomy and appendectomy between December 2006 and June 2016. Each laparoscopic combined cholecystectomy and appendectomy was performed by coagulating and sealing the cystic and appendix arteries. Absorbable clip or coils were then used to ligate the proximal of cystic duct and the stump of appendix. The other side of the cystic duct and appendix which subsequently were to be removed from abdomen were used titanium clips or silk ligature. Of the 57 patients, 3 patients (5.3%) were converted to open surgery due to severe abdominal adhesions or gallbladder perforation. The mean operative time was 56 minutes (range, 40–80 minutes). Mean blood loss was 12 mL (range, 5–120 mL), and the mean postoperative hospital stay was 3.0 days (range, 2–5 days). No postoperative bleeding, biliary leakage, infection, or mortality occurred. Monopolar electrocautery to seal the cystic and appendix arteries is a safe, effective, and economical surgical procedure during laparoscopic combined cholecystectomy and appendectomy. Further randomized controlled clinical trials are required to validate our findings. PMID:29595660

  19. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for biliary dyskinesia in children provides durable symptom relief.

    PubMed

    Haricharan, Ramanath N; Proklova, Lyudmila V; Aprahamian, Charles J; Morgan, Traci L; Harmon, Carroll M; Barnhart, Douglas C; Saeed, Shehzad A

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in children with biliary dyskinesia. Reports of children with an abnormal cholecystokinin (CCK)-stimulated HIDA scan between January 2001 and July 2006 who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy were reviewed. Postoperatively, a 23-item Likert scale, symptom questionnaire was administered to parents. Sixty-four children with chronic abdominal pain and no gallstones on ultrasound had an abnormal CCK-HIDA scan. Twenty-three children (median age, 14 years; 16 girls), with mean (SD) ejection fraction of 17% (8), underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and were further analyzed. Preoperatively, these children had right upper quadrant/epigastric pain (78%), nausea (52%), vomiting (43%), and generalized abdominal pain (22%) lasting for a median of 3 months (range, 1 month to 2.5 years). Median postoperative follow-up was 2.7 years. Sixteen (70%) parents completed the questionnaire. Of those who responded, 63% indicated that their children had no abdominal pain, 87% had no vomiting, and 69% had no nausea in the month preceding the questionnaire. Overall, 67% of parents indicated that their children's symptoms were completely relieved after cholecystectomy, whereas 7% indicated that the symptoms were not relieved. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is effective in providing both short-term and long-term improvement of symptoms in children with biliary dyskinesia.

  20. Population-based cohort study of outcomes following cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to describe the management of benign gallbladder disease and identify characteristics associated with all-cause 30-day readmissions and complications in a prospective population-based cohort. Data were collected on consecutive patients undergoing cholecystectomy in acute UK and Irish hospitals between 1 March and 1 May 2014. Potential explanatory variables influencing all-cause 30-day readmissions and complications were analysed by means of multilevel, multivariable logistic regression modelling using a two-level hierarchical structure with patients (level 1) nested within hospitals (level 2). Data were collected on 8909 patients undergoing cholecystectomy from 167 hospitals. Some 1451 cholecystectomies (16·3 per cent) were performed as an emergency, 4165 (46·8 per cent) as elective operations, and 3293 patients (37·0 per cent) had had at least one previous emergency admission, but had surgery on a delayed basis. The readmission and complication rates at 30 days were 7·1 per cent (633 of 8909) and 10·8 per cent (962 of 8909) respectively. Both readmissions and complications were independently associated with increasing ASA fitness grade, duration of surgery, and increasing numbers of emergency admissions with gallbladder disease before cholecystectomy. No identifiable hospital characteristics were linked to readmissions and complications. Readmissions and complications following cholecystectomy are common and associated with patient and disease characteristics. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Cholecystectomy and Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRGs): patient classification and hospital reimbursement in 11 European countries.

    PubMed

    Paat-Ahi, Gerli; Aaviksoo, Ain; Swiderek, Maria

    2014-12-01

    As part of the EuroDRG project, researchers from eleven countries (i.e. Austria, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, and Spain) compared how their Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRG) systems deal with cholecystectomy patients. The study aims to assist surgeons and national authorities to optimize their DRG systems. National or regional databases were used to identify hospital cases with a procedure of cholecystectomy. DRG classification algorithms and indicators of resource consumption were compared for those DRGs that individually contained at least 1% of cases. Six standardised case vignettes were defined, and quasi prices according to national DRG-based hospital payment systems were ascertained and compared to an index case. European DRG systems vary widely: they classify cholecystectomy patients according to different sets of variables into diverging numbers of DRGs (between two DRGs in Austria and Poland to nine DRGs in England). The most complex DRG is valued at four times more resource intensive than the index case in Ireland but only 1.3 times more resource intensive than the index case in Austria. Large variations in the classification of cholecystectomy patients raise concerns whether all systems rely on the most appropriate classification variables. Surgeons, hospital managers and national DRG authorities should consider how other countries' DRG systems classify cholecystectomy patients in order to optimize their DRG systems and to ensure fair and appropriate reimbursement.

  2. Diffusion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy among general surgeons in the United States.

    PubMed

    Escarce, J J; Bloom, B S; Hillman, A L; Shea, J A; Schwartz, J S

    1995-03-01

    Introduced in 1989, laparoscopic cholecystectomy has rapidly become the treatment of choice for symptomatic gallstones. This study describes the diffusion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy among general surgeons; assesses the importance of various reasons for surgeons adopting the procedure; and examine the influence of surgeon, practice, and health care market characteristics on the timing of adoption. The data were obtained from a survey of a national sample of surgeons. Most surgeons (81%) adopted laparoscopic cholecystectomy by early 1992. More than three fourths of adopters identified the desire to keep up with the state-of-the-art and improved patient outcomes as very or extremely important reasons for adoption. Results of proportional hazards regression analysis indicate that individual surgeons' adoption behavior generally was consistent with expected utility maximization in an uncertain new technological environment. Of particular interest, fee-for-service payment and more competitive practice settings and markets were associated with earlier adoption. These findings suggest that the "technological imperative" and surgeons' perception of the relative clinical and financial advantages of laparoscopic cholecystectomy were important reasons for the rapid diffusion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Policies that accelerate current trends toward payment of physicians based on salary or capitation and promote the growth of multispecialty group practice could slow the diffusion of new physician-based product innovations in health care.

  3. Statin use and risk of cholecystectomy - A case-control analysis using Swiss claims data.

    PubMed

    Biétry, Fabienne A; Reich, Oliver; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Meier, Christoph R

    2016-12-01

    Using claims data from the Helsana Group, a large Swiss health insurance provider, we examined the association between statin use and the risk of cholecystectomy in a case-control analysis. We identified 2,200 cholecystectomy cases between 2013 and 2014 and matched 4 controls to each case on age, sex, index date and canton. We categorized statin users into current or past users (last prescription ≤ 180 or > 180 days before the index date, respectively) and classified medication use by duration based on number of prescriptions before the index date. We applied conditional logistic regression analyses to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and adjusted the analyses for history of cardiovascular diseases and for use of estrogens, fibrates and other lipid-lowering agents. The adjusted OR (aOR) for cholecystectomy was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.99) for current statin users compared to non-users. Long-term current statin use (5-19 prescriptions) was associated with a reduced OR (aOR 0.77, 95% CI: 0.65, 0.92). However, neither short-term current use nor past statin use affected the risk of cholecystectomy. The study supports the previously raised hypothesis that long-term statin use reduces the risk of cholecystectomy.

  4. A late unusual complication after an open cholecystectomy: Amputation neuroma of the CBD causing obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Sleiman, Youssef A; Hassoun, Ziad A; Nasser, Haydar A; Abs, Leila; Allouch, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Cholecystectomy is one of the most frequently done procedures in general surgery. There are few reports of amputation neuromas following this procedure. This presentation describes a case of obstructive jaundice due to amputation neuroma in a patient with a history of cholecystectomy. We report about a 53 y o lady who presented with obstructive jaundice, 8 years following open cholecystectomy. Paraclinical investigations were in favor of cholangicarcinoma, however the final pathology revealed an amputation neuroma of the CBD. Amputation neuromas are rarely seen in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. They are benign reparative lesions of the CBD following surgery or manipulation of the extra hepatic biliary tree. It is very difficult to diagnose them pre-operatively. Surgical resection is the first choice of treatment. Traumatic neuromas should always be among the differential diagnosis, when assessing a CBD mass in patients with a previous history of open cholecystectomy or surgery to the gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Cholecystectomy and Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRGs): patient classification and hospital reimbursement in 11 European countries

    PubMed Central

    Paat-Ahi, Gerli; Aaviksoo, Ain; Świderek, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: As part of the EuroDRG project, researchers from eleven countries (i.e. Austria, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, and Spain) compared how their Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRG) systems deal with cholecystectomy patients. The study aims to assist surgeons and national authorities to optimize their DRG systems. Methods: National or regional databases were used to identify hospital cases with a procedure of cholecystectomy. DRG classification algorithms and indicators of resource consumption were compared for those DRGs that individually contained at least 1% of cases. Six standardised case vignettes were defined, and quasi prices according to national DRG-based hospital payment systems were ascertained and compared to an index case. Results: European DRG systems vary widely: they classify cholecystectomy patients according to different sets of variables into diverging numbers of DRGs (between two DRGs in Austria and Poland to nine DRGs in England). The most complex DRG is valued at four times more resource intensive than the index case in Ireland but only 1.3 times more resource intensive than the index case in Austria. Conclusion: Large variations in the classification of cholecystectomy patients raise concerns whether all systems rely on the most appropriate classification variables. Surgeons, hospital managers and national DRG authorities should consider how other countries’ DRG systems classify cholecystectomy patients in order to optimize their DRG systems and to ensure fair and appropriate reimbursement. PMID:25489596

  6. Robotic cholecystectomy and resident education: the UC Davis experience.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Eric C; Gottlieb, Andrea H; Müller, Hans-Georg; Smith, William; Ali, Mohamed R; Vidovszky, Tamas J

    2014-06-01

    The popularity of robotic surgery highlights the need for strategies to integrate this technique into surgical education. We present 5 year data for robotic cholecystectomy (RC) as a model for training residents. Data were collected on all RC over 66 months. Duration for docking the robot (S2) and performing RC (S3), and surgical outcomes, were recorded. We used a linear mixed effects model to investigate learning curves. Thirty-eight trainees performed 160 RCs, with most performing more than four. One case was aborted due to haemodynamic instability, and two were converted to open surgery due to adhesions. There were no technical complications. The duration of S2 (mean = 6.2 ± 3.6 min) decreased considerably (p = 0.027). Trainees also demonstrated decrease in duration of S3 (mean = 38.4 ± 15.4 min), indicating improvement in technique (p = 0.008). RC is an effective model for teaching residents. Significant and reproducible improvement can be realized with low risk of adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under segmental thoracic spinal anaesthesia: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    van Zundert, A A J; Stultiens, G; Jakimowicz, J J; Peek, D; van der Ham, W G J M; Korsten, H H M; Wildsmith, J A W

    2007-05-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is normally performed under general anaesthesia, but regional techniques have been found beneficial, usually in the management of patients with major medical problems. Encouraged by such experience, we performed a feasibility study of segmental spinal anaesthesia in healthy patients. Twenty ASA I or II patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy received a segmental (T10 injection) spinal anaesthetic using 1 ml of bupivacaine 5 mg ml-1 mixed with 0.5 ml of sufentanil 5 microg ml-1. Other drugs were only given (systemically) to manage patient anxiety, pain, nausea, hypotension, or pruritus during or after surgery. The patients were reviewed 3 days postoperatively by telephone. The spinal anaesthetic was performed easily in all patients, although one complained of paraesthesiae which responded to slight needle withdrawal. The block was effective for surgery in all 20 patients, six experiencing some discomfort which was readily treated with small doses of fentanyl, but none requiring conversion to general anaesthesia. Two patients required midazolam for anxiety and two ephedrine for hypotension. Recovery was uneventful and without sequelae, only three patients (all for surgical reasons) not being discharged home on the day of operation. This preliminary study has shown that segmental spinal anaesthesia can be used successfully and effectively for laparoscopic surgery in healthy patients. However, the use of an anaesthetic technique involving needle insertion into the vertebral canal above the level of termination of the spinal cord requires great caution and should be restricted in application until much larger numbers of patients have been studied.

  8. Local anesthesia with ropivacaine for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Yin; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Lee, Hsiang-Lin; Wang, Shang-Yu; Tsai, Chun-Yi; Lin, Chih-Chung; Chao, Tzu-Chieh; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Jan, Yi-Yin

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of pain relief after infusion of ropivacaine at port sites at the end of surgery. METHODS: From October 2006 to September 2007, 72 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) were randomized into two groups of 36 patients. One group received ropivacaine infusion at the port sites at the end of LC and the other received normal saline. A visual analog scale was used to assess postoperative pain when the patient awakened in the operating room, 6 and 24 h after surgery, and before discharge. The amount of analgesics use was also recorded. The demographics, laboratory data, hospital stay, and perioperative complications were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There was no difference between the two groups preoperatively in terms of demographic and laboratory data. After surgery, similar operation time, blood loss, and no postoperative morbidity and mortality were observed in the two groups. However, a significantly lower pain score was observed in the patients undergoing LC with local anesthesia infusion at 1 h after LC and at discharge. Regarding analgesic use, the amount of meperidine used 1 h after LC and the total used during admission were lower in patients undergoing LC with local anesthesia infusion. This group also had a shorter hospital stay. CONCLUSION: Local anesthesia with ropivacaine at the port site in LC patients significantly decreased postoperative pain immediately. This explains the lower meperidine use and earlier discharge for these patients. PMID:19452582

  9. Protocol for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Is it rocket science?

    PubMed

    Hori, Tomohide; Oike, Fumitaka; Furuyama, Hiroaki; Machimoto, Takafumi; Kadokawa, Yoshio; Hata, Toshiyuki; Kato, Shigeru; Yasukawa, Daiki; Aisu, Yuki; Sasaki, Maho; Kimura, Yusuke; Takamatsu, Yuichiro; Naito, Masato; Nakauchi, Masaya; Tanaka, Takahiro; Gunji, Daigo; Nakamura, Kiyokuni; Sato, Kiyoko; Mizuno, Masahiro; Iida, Taku; Yagi, Shintaro; Uemoto, Shinji; Yoshimura, Tsunehiro

    2016-12-21

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) does not require advanced techniques, and its performance has therefore rapidly spread worldwide. However, the rate of biliary injuries has not decreased. The concept of the critical view of safety (CVS) was first documented two decades ago. Unexpected injuries are principally due to misidentification of human factors. The surgeon's assumption is a major cause of misidentification, and a high level of experience alone is not sufficient for successful LC. We herein describe tips and pitfalls of LC in detail and discuss various technical considerations. Finally, based on a review of important papers and our own experience, we summarize the following mandatory protocol for safe LC: (1) consideration that a high level of experience alone is not enough; (2) recognition of the plateau involving the common hepatic duct and hepatic hilum; (3) blunt dissection until CVS exposure; (4) Calot's triangle clearance in the overhead view; (5) Calot's triangle clearance in the view from underneath; (6) dissection of the posterior right side of Calot's triangle; (7) removal of the gallbladder body; and (8) positive CVS exposure. We believe that adherence to this protocol will ensure successful and beneficial LC worldwide, even in patients with inflammatory changes and rare anatomies.

  10. Preoperative ultrasonography and prediction of technical difficulties during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Daradkeh, S S; Suwan, Z; Abu-Khalaf, M

    1998-01-01

    A prospective study was carried out to investigate the value of preoperative ultrasound findings for predicting difficulties encountered during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Altogether 160 consecutive patients with symptomatic gallbladder (GB) disease (130 females, 30 males) referred to the Jordan University Hospital were recruited for the purpose of this study. All patients underwent detailed ultrasound examination 24 hours prior to LC. The overall difficulty score (ODS), as a dependent variable, was based on the following operative parameters: duration of surgery, bleeding, dissection of Calot's triangle, dissection of gallbladder wall, adhesions, spillage of bile, spillage of stone, and difficulty of gallbladder extraction. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the significance of the following preoperative ultrasound variables (independent) for predicting the variation in the ODS: size of the GB, number of GB stones, size of stones, location of GB stones, thickness of GB wall, common bile duct (CBD) diameter, and liver size. Only thickness of GB wall and CBD diameter were found to be significant predictors of the variation in the ODS (adjusted R2 = 0.25). We conclude that the preoperative ultrasound examination is of value for predicting difficulties encountered during LC, but it is not the sole predictor.

  11. Risk factors in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Kanakala, Venkatesh; Borowski, David W; Pellen, Michael G C; Dronamraju, Shridhar S; Woodcock, Sean A A; Seymour, Keith; Attwood, Stephen E A; Horgan, Liam F

    2011-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the operation of choice in the treatment of symptomatic gallstone disease. The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for LC, outcomes include operating time, length of stay, conversion rate, morbidity and mortality. All patients undergoing LC between 1998 and 2007 in a single district general hospital. Risk factors were examined using uni- and multivariate analysis. 2117 patients underwent LC, with 1706 (80.6%) patients operated on electively. Male patients were older, had more co-morbidity and more emergency surgery than females. The median post-operative hospital stay was one day, and was positively correlated with the complexity of surgery. Conversion rates were higher in male patients (OR 1.47, p = 0.047) than in females, and increased with co-morbidity. Emergency surgery (OR 1.75, p = 0.005), male gender (OR 1.68, p = 0.005), increasing co-morbidity and complexity of surgery were all positively associated with the incidence of complications (153/2117 [7.2%]), whereas only male gender was significantly associated with mortality (OR 5.71, p = 0.025). Adverse outcome from LC is particularly associated with male gender, but also the patient's co-morbidity, complexity and urgency of surgery. Risk-adjusted outcome analysis is desirable to ensure an informed consent process. Copyright © 2011 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Obesity Increases Operative Time in Children Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Pandian, T K; Ubl, Daniel S; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Moir, Christopher R; Ishitani, Michael B

    2017-03-01

    Few studies have assessed the impact of obesity on laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in pediatric patients. Children who underwent LC were identified from the 2012 to 2013 American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatrics data. Patient characteristics, operative details, and outcomes were compared. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to identify predictors of increased operative time (OT) and duration of anesthesia (DOAn). In total, 1757 patients were identified. Due to low rates of obesity in children <9 years old, analyses were limited to those 9-17 (n = 1611, 43% obese). Among obese children, 80.6% were girls. A higher proportion of obese patients had diabetes (3.0% versus 1.0%, P < .01) and contaminated or dirty/infected wounds (15.1% versus 9.4%, P < .01). Complication rates were low. The most frequent indications for surgery were cholelithiasis/biliary colic (34.3%), chronic cholecystitis (26.9%), and biliary dyskinesia (18.2%). On multivariable analysis, obesity was an independent predictor of OT >90 (odds ratio [OR] 2.02; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.55-2.63), and DOAn >140 minutes (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.42-2.43). Obesity is an independent risk factor for increased OT in children undergoing LC. Pediatric surgeons and anesthesiologists should be prepared for the technical and physiological challenges that obesity may pose in this patient population.

  13. One, Two, or Three Ports in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Justo-Janeiro, Jaime Manuel; Vincent, Gustavo Theurel; Vázquez de Lara, Fernando; de la Rosa Paredes, René; Orozco, Eduardo Prado; Vázquez de Lara, Luis G.

    2014-01-01

    Single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has been compared with 3- or 4-port LC. To our knowledge, there are no studies comparing the 3-, 2-, and 1-port techniques. Patients were randomized into 3 groups: LC 1-port using SILS, LC 2-port using a laparoscope with a working channel, and LC 3-port using the standard ports. Pain was evaluated at recovery, 4 hours, 24 hours, day 5, and day 8, using an analog visual scale. Homogenous groups in their demographic characteristics; all confirmed gallbladder lithiasis. At recovery, there was less pain in group 1 (P = 0.002); at 4 hours pain was similar in all groups (P = 0.899); at 24 hours there was less pain in groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.031); and at days 5 and 8 there was marginal (P = 0.053) and significant (P = 0.003) relevance. In terms of pain perception, LC performed through 1 port does not offer advantages when compared with 2 or 3 ports. More clinical trials are needed to confirm these data. PMID:25437581

  14. [Injuries of the extrahepatic bile ducts in laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Pătraşcu, Tr; Burcoş, Tr; Doran, H; Cristian, D; Brezean, I; Voiculescu, St; Catrina, E; Vereanu, I

    2006-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the "gold standard" for cholelithiasis. In laparoscopic technique, the incidence and the severity of injuries of the extrahepatic bile ducts are significantly higher (0-2,7%) than in open surgery (0,2-0,5%). The authors present a series of 18 patients with such lesions, operated between 1996 and 2005 in the surgical departments of 2 Clinical Hospitals: "Dr.I.Cantacuzino" and Coltea, from Bucharest. The injuries were: 2--of type A, 10--of type D and 6--of type E, according to Soper-Strasberg classification. There are analysed the causes and the circumstances in which these injuries have occurred, the clinical signs and imagistic findings and, most of all, their treatment. In complete transections of the common bile duct, a hepatico-jejuno-anastomosis using a Roux en Y-loop appears to be the best solution. It is emphasized the fact that an accurate diagnosis and surgical technique are essential for a favourable evolution. That's why these operations must be accomplished by experimented surgeons, from highly specialized departments.

  15. Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES): emerging trends and specifications for a virtual simulator.

    PubMed

    Schwaitzberg, Steven D; Dorozhkin, Denis; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Matthes, Kai; Jones, Daniel B; De, Suvranu

    2016-01-01

    A virtual translumenal endoscopic surgical trainer (VTEST) is being developed to accelerate the development of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) procedures and devices in a safe and risk-free environment. For a rapidly developing field such as NOTES, a needs analysis must be conducted regularly to discover emerging research trends and areas of potential high impact for a virtual simulator. This paper presents a survey-based study which follows a similar study conducted by this group in 2011 (Sankaranarayanan et al. in Surg Endosc 27:1607-1616, 2013). A 32-point questionnaire was distributed at the 2012 Natural Orifice Surgery Consortium for Assessment and Research annual meeting. These data were subsequently augmented by an identical online survey, targeted at the members of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons, and analyzed. Twenty-eight NOTES experts participated in the 2012 study. Cholecystectomy (CE) procedure remained the most commonly performed NOTES technique, with 18 positive responses (64%). In contrast to 2011, the popularity of the NOTES appendectomy (AE) was significantly lower, with only 2 (7%) instances (CE vs. AE, p < 0.001), while the number of peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM, PE) cases had increased significantly, with 11 (39%) positive responses, respectively (PE vs. AE, p = 0.013). Strong preference toward hybrid rather than pure NOTES techniques (82 vs. 11%, p < 0.001) was also expressed. Other responses were similar to those in the 2011 study, with the VTEST™ utility in developing and testing new techniques and instruments ranked particularly high. Based on the results of this study, a decision was made to focus exclusively on the transvaginal hybrid NOTES cholecystectomy procedure, including both rigid and flexible scope techniques. The importance of developing a virtual NOTES simulator was reaffirmed, with POEM identified as a

  16. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy under continuous spinal anesthesia in a patient with Steinert's disease.

    PubMed

    Correia, Mariana; dos Santos, Angela; Lages, Neusa; Correia, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Steinert's disease is an intrinsic disorder of the muscle with multisystem manifestations. Myotonia may affect any muscle group, is elicited by several factors and drugs used in general anesthesia like hypnotics, sedatives and opioids. Although some authors recommend the use of regional anesthesia or combined anesthesia with low doses of opioids, the safest anesthetic technique still has to be established. We performed a continuous spinal anesthesia in a patient with Steinert's disease undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy using 10mg of bupivacaine 0.5% and provided ventilatory support in the perioperative period. Continuous spinal anesthesia was safely used in Steinert's disease patients but is not described for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We reported a continuous spinal anesthesia as an appropriate technique for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and particularly valuable in Steinert's disease patients. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Gallbladder carcinoma late metastases and incisional hernia at umbilical port site after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Ciulla, A; Romeo, G; Genova, G; Tomasello, G; Agnello, G; Cstronovo, Gaetano

    2006-05-01

    A potentially serious complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the inadvertent dissemination of unsuspected gallbladder carcinoma. There are increasing reports of seeding of tumor at the trocar sites following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with unexpected or inapparent gallbladder carcinoma. Although the mechanism of the abdominal wall recurrence is still unclear, laparoscopic handling of the tumor, perforation of the gallbladder, and extraction of the specimen without an endobag may be risk factors for the spreading of malignant cells. The Authors report the case of late development of umbilical metastasis after laparoscopic cholecystectomy; the presence of an incisional hernia and the finding of a stone in subcutaneous tissue demonstrate the diffusion of tumor cells into subcutaneous tissue during the extraction of gallbladder. The patient underwent an excision of the metastases. She is disease free two years after surgical treatment.

  18. A Common Bile Duct Stone formed by Suture Material after Open Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kook-Hyun; Jang, Byung-Ik

    2007-01-01

    The use of non-absorbable suture materials for cystic duct ligation after cholecystectomy can expose patients to the risk of recurrent stone formation in the common bile duct (CBD). However, in Korea suture materials have rarely been found to act as a nidus for common bile duct calculus formation. Recently, we experienced a case in which suture material, that had migrated from a previous cholecystectomy site into the CBD, probably served as a nidus for common bile duct stone formation. The stone was confirmed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and removed successfully using a basket. The authors report a case of surgical suture migration and discuss its subsequent role as a stone forming nucleus within the CBD in a patient who underwent open cholecystectomy; and include a review of the literature. PMID:18309688

  19. Meta-analysis of the clinical application on gasless laparoscopic cholecystectomy in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Zhang, Guangyong; Zhong, Yong; Duan, Chongyang; Hu, Sanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We aim to perform systematic reviews of the clinical effects of the abdominal wall suspension technique in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in China. Methods: We retrieved databases of literature on randomized controlled trials involving abdominal wall suspension laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Then, we conducted screenings, extracted data, and performed quality assessment and meta-analysis. Results: We analyzed 611 patients. Our analysis showed that the abdominal wall suspension group compared to the traditional group had reduced length of hospital stay (SMD = -0.91, 95% CI = -1.76~-0.06, P = 0.04), had shortened postoperative first exhaust time (SMD = -0.65, 95% CI = -1.11~-0.20, P = 0.005), and had diminished incidence of postoperative complications (P < 0.001), which decreased the cost of hospitalization. Conclusions: Application of abdominal wall suspension endoscopic technique can significantly speed up the rehabilitation of laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients; therefore, it is worthy of further research and clinical application. PMID:25932097

  20. [Cholecystectomy in the elderly: early results of open versus laparoscopic approach].

    PubMed

    Régo, Ronaldo Elias Carnut; de Campos, Tércio; de Moricz, André; Silva, Rodrigo Altenfelder; Pacheco Júnior, Adhemar Monteiro

    2003-01-01

    The rise of elderly population is due to the improvement of life expectancy. The biliary lithiasis is the most common condition requiring intra-abdominal surgery. Half of these patients sustain associated diseases and frequently develops acute and complicated forms of cholelithiasis. Therefore, cholecystectomy is indicated for patients with chronic symptomatic disease. During a long period open cholecystectomy has been practiced, with low complications and mortality rates. Videolaparoscopy has been recently proposed as an option in these cases, however, few studies compared its advantages over open cholecystectomy for elderly patients. To access the early results of the surgical treatment for cholelithiasis in the elderly submitted to an open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy. retrospective study with 246 patients > 65 years old, who underwent elective cholecystectomy through a subcostal incision (group I) or laparoscopic approach (group II). We employed Student's t test and Spearman's correlation for statistical analysis, considering p < 0,05 as significant. A hundred and twenty patients were arranged in group I and 126 in group II. Associated diseases were present in 155 cases (63). There were no differences between the groups regarding both the distribution of comorbid conditions. Conversion was evaluated in 10 patients (8.3%). The mean operative time was 133 minutes in group I and 112 minutes in group II (p=0.001). The mean hospital stay in group I was 3,3 days and in group II was 3.2 days p=0.698. Thirteen patients in each group developed complications: group I (10.8%) and group II (10.3%) p=0,896. There was no statistis significance in complication rate related to gender, age, associated diseases and ASA when the both groups were compared. There were two deaths, both in group II, although the mortality rate was not statiscally significant between the groups (p=0.158). Both open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be practiced in the elderly with low and

  1. BASINS Technical Notes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has developed several technical notes that provide in depth information on a specific function in BASINS. Technical notes can be used to answer questions users may have, or to provide additional information on the application of features in BASINS.

  2. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in acute gallstone pancreatitis in index hospital admission: feasibility and safety.

    PubMed

    Sangrasi, Ahmed Khan; Syed, Bm; Memon, Amir Iqbal; Laghari, Abdul Aziz; Talpur, K Altaf Hussain; Qureshi, Jawaid Naeem

    2014-05-01

    Acute gallstone pancreatitis is quite common throughout the globe. Conventionally definitive cholecystectomy has been delayed in index hospital admission. Since the last decade timing of cholecystectomy is gradually shifting towards the earlier phase of disease and currently gallstone pancreatitis is being evaluated as a further indication for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There is also great concern regarding compliance of patients for definitive surgery due to poverty, ignorance and illiteracy in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a definitive treatment in patients with mild and resolving gall stone pancreatitis. This was a prospective study from July 2009 to June 2012. Patients were diagnosed by clinical examination, biochemical tests, ultrasonography and contrast enhanced CT. Patients with mild form of the disease (Ranson Score ≤3) and who showed clinical improvement were offered laparoscopic cholecystectomy in index hospital admission. Those who were unfit for surgery were referred for endoscopic sphincterotomy. Common bile duct stones were excluded preoperatively. A total of 38 patients were admitted with acute gallstone pancreatitis in the study period. The mean age of patients was 46.3 years with male to female ratio of 11/27. 22 (57.8%) patients were selected for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and procedure was completed successfully. Ten (26.3%) patients were referred for ERCP and endoscopic sphincterotomy and 11 (28.9%) were managed by conservative treatment and went without any definitive treatment. Mean duration of time from onset of symptoms and laparoscopic cholecystectomy was 7 days (range 4-10). Mean duration of operative time was 45 minutes and hospital stay was 7 days. There was no operative mortality. No major intra-operative or post-operative complication was recorded. two patients (9%) had minor complications. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be safely

  3. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in acute gallstone pancreatitis in index hospital admission: feasibility and safety

    PubMed Central

    Sangrasi, Ahmed Khan; Syed, BM; Memon, Amir Iqbal; Laghari, Abdul Aziz; Talpur, K. Altaf Hussain; Qureshi, Jawaid Naeem

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Acute gallstone pancreatitis is quite common throughout the globe. Conventionally definitive cholecystectomy has been delayed in index hospital admission. Since the last decade timing of cholecystectomy is gradually shifting towards the earlier phase of disease and currently gallstone pancreatitis is being evaluated as a further indication for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There is also great concern regarding compliance of patients for definitive surgery due to poverty, ignorance and illiteracy in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a definitive treatment in patients with mild and resolving gall stone pancreatitis. Methods: This was a prospective study from July 2009 to June 2012. Patients were diagnosed by clinical examination, biochemical tests, ultrasonography and contrast enhanced CT. Patients with mild form of the disease (Ranson Score ≤3) and who showed clinical improvement were offered laparoscopic cholecystectomy in index hospital admission. Those who were unfit for surgery were referred for endoscopic sphincterotomy. Common bile duct stones were excluded preoperatively. Results: A total of 38 patients were admitted with acute gallstone pancreatitis in the study period. The mean age of patients was 46.3 years with male to female ratio of 11/27. 22 (57.8%) patients were selected for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and procedure was completed successfully. Ten (26.3%) patients were referred for ERCP and endoscopic sphincterotomy and 11 (28.9%) were managed by conservative treatment and went without any definitive treatment. Mean duration of time from onset of symptoms and laparoscopic cholecystectomy was 7 days (range 4-10). Mean duration of operative time was 45 minutes and hospital stay was 7 days. There was no operative mortality. No major intra-operative or post-operative complication was recorded. two patients (9%) had minor complications

  4. Note Taking and Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Judith L.; Harris, Mary B.

    1974-01-01

    To study the effect of note taking and opportunity for review on subsequent recall, 88 college students were randomly assigned to five treatment groups utilizing different note taking and review combinations. No treatment effects were found, although quality of notes was positively correlated with free recall an multiple-choice measures.…

  5. Dexmedetomidine in Attenuation of Haemodynamic Response and Dose Sparing Effect on Opioid and Anaesthetic Agents in Patients undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy- A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhagat, Nandlal; Karim, Habib Md Reazaul; Hajong, Ranendra; Bhattacharyya, Prithwis; Singh, Manorama

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Perioperative procedures are stressful and lead to haemodynamic instability with potentially devastating consequences. Dexmedetomidine is found to have many of the desired characteristics that are required in perioperative period. Aim To evaluate the ability of pre and intraoperative dexmedetomidine to attenuate stress induced haemodynamic responses, quantifying the anaesthetic agents sparing as well as its cost-effectiveness in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Materials and Methods The present single blind randomized study was conducted with 120 ASA I and II consented patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups (i.e., group D and group N). Prior to induction, group D received 1 μg/kg of Dexmedetomidine and group N received Normal saline infusion over 20 minutes. Group D also received maintenance Dexmedetomidine intraoperatively. Bispectral index and minimum alveolar concentration monitoring was done in both the groups. Haemodynamic parameters were noted till 100 minutes post laryngoscopy. Opioid and anaesthetic agent consumptions were also noted and cost analysis was done. Medcalc–Version 12.5.0.0 software was used for statistics and p <0.05 was considered significant. Results Dexmedetomidine attenuated the stress induced haemodynamics responses and produced stable, relatively non fluctuating haemodynamics throughout. The Minimum Alveolar Concentration (MAC) requirement and the consumptions of Fentanyl and Isoflurane were significantly less in the Dexmedetomidine group (p<0.0001). However, despite anaesthetic dose sparing effect the anaesthetic technique was not cost-effective. Conclusion Dexmedetomidine is effective in attenuating haemodynamic responses in laparoscopic surgery and having dose sparing effect on Fentanyl, Propofol and Isoflurane. However, overall this technique is not cost-effective. PMID:28050479

  6. Safety of concomitant cholecystectomy at the time of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: analysis of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database.

    PubMed

    Dakour-Aridi, Hanaa N; El-Rayess, Hebah M; Abou-Abbass, Hussein; Abu-Gheida, Ibrahim; Habib, Robert H; Safadi, Bassem Y

    2017-06-01

    The indication and safety of concomitant cholecystectomy (CC) during bariatric surgical procedures are topics of controversy. Studies on the outcomes of CC with laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) are scarce. To assess the safety and 30-day surgical outcomes of CC with LSG. A retrospective analysis of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database 2010 to 2013. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used. Between 2010 and 2013, 21,137 patients underwent LSG; of those 422 (2.0%) underwent CC (LSG+CC), and the majority (20,715 [98%]) underwent LSG alone. Patients in both groups were similar in age, sex distribution, baseline weight, and body mass index. The average surgical time was significantly higher, by 33 minutes, in the LSG+CC cohort. No differences were noted between the groups with regard to overall 30-day mortality and length of hospital stay. CC increased the odds of any adverse event (5.7% versus 4.0%), but the difference did not reach statistical significance (odds ratio 1.49, P = .07). Two complications were noted to be significantly higher with LSG+CC, namely bleeding (P = .04) and pneumonia (P = .02). CC during LSG appears to be a safe procedure with slightly increased risk of bleeding and pneumonia compared with LSG alone. When factoring the potential risk and cost of further hospitalization for deferred cholecystectomy, these data support CC for established gallbladder disease. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Acceptance of Ambulatory Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in Central Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Widjaja, Sandra P; Fischer, Henning; Brunner, Alexander R; Honigmann, Philipp; Metzger, Jürg

    2017-11-01

    Currently, most patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in Switzerland are inpatients for 2-3 days. Due to a lack of available hospital beds, we asked whether day-case surgery would be an option for patients in central Switzerland. The questions of acceptability of outpatient LC and factors contributing to the acceptability thus arose. Hundred patients suffering from symptomatic cholecystolithiasis, capable of communicating in German, and between 18 and 65 years old, were included. Patients received a pre-operative questionnaire on medical history and social situation when informed consent on surgery and participation in the study was obtained. Exclusion criteria were patients suffering from acute cholecystitis or any type of cancer; having a BMI >40 kg/m 2 ; needing conversion to open cholecystectomy or an intraoperative drainage; and non-German speakers. Surgery was performed laparoscopically. Both surgeon and patient filled in a postoperative questionnaire. The surgeon's questionnaire listed medical and technical information, and the patients' questionnaire listed medical information, satisfaction with the treatment and willingness to be released on the same day. These data from both questionnaires were grouped into social and medical factors and analysed on their influence upon willingness to accept an ambulatory procedure. No outpatient follow-up apart from checking for readmission to our hospital within 1 month after discharge was performed. Of the 100 participants, one-third was male. More than two-thirds were Swiss citizens. Only one participant was ineligible for rapid release evaluation due to need of a drainage. Among the social factors contributing to the acceptability of ambulatory care, we found nationality to be relevant; Swiss citizens preferred an inpatient procedure, whereas non-Swiss citizens were significantly more willing to return home on the same day. Household size, sex and age did not correlate with a preference for

  8. Virtual Reality Training Versus Blended Learning of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, Felix; Brzoska, Julia A.; Gondan, Matthias; Rangnick, Henriette M.; Chu, Jackson; Kenngott, Hannes G.; Linke, Georg R.; Kadmon, Martina; Fischer, Lars; Müller-Stich, Beat P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study compared virtual reality (VR) training with low cost-blended learning (BL) in a structured training program. Training of laparoscopic skills outside the operating room is mandatory to reduce operative times and risks. Laparoscopy-naïve medical students were randomized in 2 groups stratified for sex. The BL group (n = 42) used E-learning for laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and practiced basic skills with box trainers. The VR group (n = 42) trained basic skills and LC on the LAP Mentor II (Simbionix, Cleveland, OH). Each group trained 3 × 4 hours followed by a knowledge test concerning LC. Blinded raters assessed the operative performance of cadaveric porcine LC using the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS). The LC was discontinued when it was not completed within 80 min. Students evaluated their training modality with questionnaires. The VR group completed the LC significantly faster and more often within 80 min than BL (45% v 21%, P = .02). The BL group scored higher than the VR group in the knowledge test (13.3 ± 1.3 vs 11.0 ± 1.7, P < 0.001). Both groups showed equal operative performance of LC in the OSATS score (49.4 ± 10.5 vs 49.7 ± 12.0, P = 0.90). Students generally liked training and felt well prepared for assisting in laparoscopic surgery. The efficiency of the training was judged higher by the VR group than by the BL group. VR and BL can both be applied for training the basics of LC. Multimodality training programs should be developed that combine the advantages of both approaches. PMID:25997044

  9. The impact of note taking style and note availability at retrieval on mock jurors' recall and recognition of trial information.

    PubMed

    Thorley, Craig; Baxter, Rebecca E; Lorek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Jurors forget critical trial information and what they do recall can be inaccurate. Jurors' recall of trial information can be enhanced by permitting them to take notes during a trial onto blank sheets of paper (henceforth called freestyle note taking). A recent innovation is the trial-ordered-notebook (TON) for jurors, which is a notebook containing headings outlining the trial proceedings and which has space beneath each heading for notes. In a direct comparison, TON note takers recalled more trial information than freestyle note takers. This study investigated whether or not note taking improves recall as a result of enhanced encoding or as a result of note access at retrieval. To assess this, mock jurors watched and freely recalled a trial video with one-fifth taking no notes, two-fifths taking freestyle notes and two-fifths using TONs. During retrieval, half of the freestyle and TON note takers could access their notes. Note taking enhanced recall, with the freestyle note takers and TON note takers without note access performing equally as well. Note taking therefore enhances encoding. Recall was greatest for the TON note takers with note access, suggesting a retrieval enhancement unique to this condition. The theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. [Natural orifice trans-luminal endoscopic surgery (notes)--a new era in general surgery].

    PubMed

    Elazary, Ram; Horgan, Santiago; Talamini, Mark A; Rivkind, Avraham I; Mintz, Yoav

    2008-10-01

    Four years ago, a new surgical technique was presented, the natural orifice trans-luminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). This technique provides an incisionless operation. The surgical devices are inserted into the peritoneal cavity through the gastrointestinal or the urogenital tracts. Today, a cholecystectomy can be performed using an advanced endoscope inserted through the stomach or the vagina. The advantages of NOTES are: reduced post operative pain, no hernias, no surgical wounds infections and better cosmetic results. The disadvantages are: difficulties in achieving safe enterotomy closure or a leak proof anastomosis, it necessitates performing more operations compared to open or laparoscopic operations in order to obtain the skills for performing these operations, and difficulties of acquiring satisfactory endoscopic vision due to lack of advanced technology. Several NOTES operations have already been performed in humans. However, many other surgical procedures were tested in laboratory animals. Development and improvement of surgical devices may promote this surgical modality in the future.

  11. Meta-Analysis of Drainage Versus No Drainage After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lucarelli, Pierino; Di Filippo, Annalisa; De Angelis, Francesco; Stipa, Francesco; Spaziani, Erasmo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Routine drainage after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is still controversial. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the role of drains in reducing complications in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: An electronic search of Medline, Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library database from January 1990 to June 2013 was performed to identify randomized clinical trials that compare prophylactic drainage with no drainage in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The odds ratio for qualitative variables and standardized mean difference for continuous variables were calculated. Results: Twelve randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis, involving 1939 patients randomized to a drain (960) versus no drain (979). The morbidity rate was lower in the no drain group (odds ratio, 1.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.26 to 3.10; P = .003). The wound infection rate was lower in the no drain group (odds ratio, 2.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.22 to 4.51; P = .01). Abdominal pain 24 hours after surgery was less severe in the no drain group (standardized mean difference, 2.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.27 to 3.34; P < .0001). No significant difference was present with respect to the presence and quantity of subhepatic fluid collection, shoulder tip pain, parenteral ketorolac consumption, nausea, vomiting, and hospital stay. Conclusion: This study was unable to prove that drains were useful in reducing complications in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:25516708

  12. [Perioperative management of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in children with homozygous sickle cell disease].

    PubMed

    Ndoye, M Diop; Bah, M Diao; Pape, I Ndiaye; Diouf, E; Kane, O; Bèye, M; Fall, B; Ka-Sall, B

    2008-09-01

    Sickle cell disease is a public health problem in Africa. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate per and post-operative complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in sickle cell children in Senegal. from January 1999 to December 2006, an anesthetic protocol was applied to 39 sickle cell children undergoing a cholecystectomy. Among them, 20 experienced laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All these 20 patients had previously suffered from sickle cell visceral complications and were classified as ASA II (11 cases) and as ASA III (9 cases). Blood transfusion program aimed at sustaining haemoglobin level between 10 and 12 g/dl was implemented. The preoperative monitoring and anesthesia management were the same for these patients. During perioperative period, the prevention of pain, hypovolemia, hypothermia and acidosis was achieved. The mean insufflation duration of laparoscopy was 23 min (17-60 min), the mean surgery duration was 55 min (40-110 min), and the mean anesthesia duration was 78 min (88-135 min). Postoperative complications occurred in 9 patients: acute chest syndrome (n=2), postoperative hemolysis (n=5), vaso-occlusive crisis (n=2). Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be carried out in sickle cell children affected with gallstones, provided that general anaesthetic rules were respected. An appropriate pre-, per- and postoperative anaesthesia is mandatory to reduce postoperative complications in children with sickle cell disease. Searching for early diagnosis of gallstones before occurrence of visceral complications should allow further optimal laparoscopic surgery.

  13. Likelihood of malignancy in gallbladder polyps and outcomes following cholecystectomy in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Eaton, John E; Thackeray, Erin W; Lindor, Keith D

    2012-03-01

    Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) have an increased risk for gallbladder cancer. We aimed to define the postoperative outcomes in PSC patients after cholecystectomy and determine if size of a gallbladder lesion on imaging predicts the presence of neoplasia. We conducted a retrospective review of patients with PSC who underwent cholecystectomy at Mayo Clinic between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2008. Patients with a prior history of a liver transplant or cholangiocarcinoma were excluded. A total of 57 patients were included in our primary analysis during the early postoperative period. The most common indication for undergoing a cholecystectomy was the presence of a gallbladder polyp or mass. The sensitivity and specificity of a gallbladder lesion of 0.80 cm and the presence of gallbladder neoplasia was 100% (95% confidence interval (CI) 77-100%) and 70% (95% CI 35-93%), respectively. Of the patients, 23 (40%) had an early postoperative complication. The Child-Pugh score was the only predictor of postoperative outcomes in the multivariate model (odds ratio 1.78, 95% CI 1.11-3.12, P=0.02). Cholecystectomy in patients with PSC is associated with a high morbidity. Gallbladder polyps <0.80 cm are unlikely to be malignant and observation of these small polyps should be considered. A higher Child-Pugh score was associated with early postoperative complications.

  14. The emerging role for robotics in cholecystectomy: the dawn of a new era?

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Jessica A.

    2018-01-01

    Though laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) was highly criticized in its early stages, it quickly grew to become a new standard of care and has revolutionized the field of general surgery. Now emerging robotic technology is making its way into the minimally invasive arena. Robotic cholecystectomy (RC) is often disparaged as a costly technology that can lead to increased operative times with outcomes that are quite similar to LC. However, this perspective is skewed as many existing studies were performed in the early phase of learning for this procedure. RC can be performed in a cost-effective manner as the volume of robotic procedures increases. In addition, improved visualization and capability to perform fluorescence cholangiography can improve the safety profile of cholecystectomy to a level that has not yet been achieved with conventional laparoscopy. Advanced simulation technology for robotic surgery, and newer single-site robotic platforms have the potential to further revolutionize this technology and lead to improved patient satisfaction. In this review, we will present current data, trends, and controversies in robotic-assisted cholecystectomy. PMID:29531940

  15. Short-term outcome of total clipless laparoscopic cholecystectomy for complicated gallbladder stones in cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Mohamed I; Hassouna, Ehab M

    2018-03-01

    Cirrhotic patients have been known to be more affected with gallstones than their non-cirrhotic counterparts; since laparoscopy was introduced, it has been generally approved as the standard approach for cholecystectomies with the exception of end-stage cirrhosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of clipless laparoscopic cholecystectomy using the harmonic scalpel in complicated cholelithiasis in cirrhotic patients. This prospective study was conducted on 62 cirrhotic patients presenting to the Gastrointestinal Surgery Unit in Alexandria Main University Hospital with complicated gallstones between March 2013 and March 2016. Both intraoperative time and blood loss were calculated in addition to rates of conversion to open cholecystectomy, morbidity and mortality. Most of our cases were females with a ratio of 1.7:1, with a mean age of 45.21 years, ranging from 25 to 65 years. The most common cause of cirrhotic liver was hepatitis C in 45.1% of patients. Among the 62 patients included in the study, 56 patients (90.3%) were presenting with acute cholecystitis and six patients were operated at the onset of acute biliary pancreatitis. The mean operative time was 72.9 min with mean blood loss 45.45 mL. The study concluded safety of total clipless laparoscopic cholecystectomy using a harmonic scalpel in Child A and B type cirrhotic patients, who presented with complicated gallstones. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  16. The impact of routine histopathological examination on cholecystectomy specimens from an Asian demographic.

    PubMed

    Chin, K F; Mohammad, A A; Khoo, Y Y; Krishnasamy, T

    2012-04-01

    Most gallbladder carcinoma cases are suspected pre-operatively or intra-operatively. In Malaysia histopathological examination of cholecystectomy specimens has become routine practice. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of routine histological examinations on cholecystectomy specimens from an Asian demographic, which may differ from a Caucasian demographic. A retrospective study was performed of all histopathology reports for cholecystectomies (laparoscopic and open) undertaken over a period of 12 years (1997-2008) in a single teaching hospital. A total of 1,375 gallbladder specimens were sent for histopathological analysis, with 7 (0.5%) being reported as malignant while only three (0.2%) were found to contain primary gallbladder carcinoma. Other premalignant findings included two specimens with dysplastic changes of the mucosa and one tubulovillous adenoma with a dysplastic epithelium. From the ten malignant and premalignant specimens, seven were diagnosed pre-operatively, two were suspected intra-operatively and one was diagnosed with dysplastic changes on the histopathology report post-operatively. This study supports earlier research carried out in the UK and the demographic difference does not affect the impact of the histology examination on cholecystectomy specimens in diagnosing this disease. A selective policy is recommended in Malaysia.

  17. Operative Outcome and Patient Satisfaction in Early and Delayed Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Acute Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Hokkam, Emad N.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is usually associated with reduced hospital stay, sick leave, and health care expenditures. Early diagnosis and treatment of acute cholecystitis reduce both mortality and morbidity and the accurate diagnosis requires specific diagnostic criteria of clinical data and imaging studies. Objectives. To compare early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy regarding the operative outcome and patient satisfaction. Patients and Methods. Patients with acute cholecystitis were divided into two groups, early (A) and delayed (B) cholecystectomy. Diagnosis of acute cholecystitis was confirmed by clinical examination, laboratory data, and ultrasound study. The primary end point was operative and postoperative outcome and the secondary was patient's satisfaction. Results. The number of readmissions in delayed treatment group B was three times in 10% of patients, twice in 23.3%, and once in 66.7% while the number of readmissions was once only in patients in group A and the mean total hospital stays were higher in group B than in group A. The overall patient's satisfaction was 92.66 ± 6.8 in group A compared with 75.34 ± 12.85 in group B. Conclusion. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy resulted in significant reduction in length of hospital stay and accepted rate of operative complications and conversion rates when compared with delayed techniques. PMID:25197568

  18. Cholecystectomy after breast reconstruction with a pedicled autologous tram flap. Types of surgical access

    PubMed Central

    Kostro, Justyna; Jankau, Jerzy; Bigda, Justyna; Skorek, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The number of breast reconstruction procedures has been increasing in recent years. One of the suggested treatment methods is breast reconstruction with a pedicled skin and muscle TRAM flap (transverse rectus abdominis muscle – TRAM). Surgical incisions performed during a cholecystectomy procedure may be located in the areas significant for flap survival. The aim of this paper is to present anatomical changes in abdominal walls secondary to pedicled skin and muscle (TRAM) flap breast reconstruction, which influence the planned access in cholecystectomy procedures. The authors present 2 cases of cholecystectomy performed due to cholelithiasis in female patients with a history of TRAM flap breast reconstruction procedures. The first patient underwent a traditional method of surgery 14 days after the reconstruction due to acute cholecystitis. The second patient underwent a laparoscopy due to cholelithiasis 7 years after the TRAM procedure. In both cases an abdominal ultrasound scan was performed prior to the operation, and surgical access was determined following consultation with a plastic surgeon. The patient who had undergone traditional cholecystectomy developed an infection of the postoperative wound. The wound was treated with antibiotics, vacuum therapy and skin grafting. After 7 weeks complete postoperative wound healing and correct healing of the TRAM flap were achieved. The patient who had undergone laparoscopy was discharged home on the second postoperative day without any complications. In order to plan a safe surgical access, it is necessary to know the changes in the anatomy of abdominal walls following a pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction procedure. PMID:25337177

  19. Risk factors for an additional port in single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Araki, Kenichiro; Shirabe, Ken; Watanabe, Akira; Kubo, Norio; Sasaki, Shigeru; Suzuki, Hideki; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Although single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy is now widely performed in patients with cholecystitis, some cases require an additional port to complete the procedure. In this study, we focused on risk factor of additional port in this surgery. We performed single-incision cholecystectomy in 75 patients with acute cholecystitis or after cholecystitis between 2010 and 2014 at Gunma University Hospital. Surgical indications followed the TG13 guidelines. Our standard procedure for single-incision cholecystectomy routinely uses two needlescopic devices. We used logistic regression analysis to identify the risk factors associated with use of an additional full-size port (5 or 10 mm). Surgical outcome was acceptable without biliary injury. Nine patients (12.0%) required an additional port, and one patient (1.3%) required conversion to open cholecystectomy because of severe adhesions around the cystic duct and common bile duct. In multivariate analysis, high C-reactive protein (CRP) values (>7.0 mg/dl) during cholecystitis attacks were significantly correlated with the need for an additional port (P = 0.009), with a sensitivity of 55.6%, specificity of 98.5%, and accuracy of 93.3%. This study indicated that the severe inflammation indicated by high CRP values during cholecystitis attacks predicts the need for an additional port. J. Med. Invest. 64: 245-249, August, 2017.

  20. Damage-control laparoscopic partial cholecystectomy with an endoscopic linear stapler.

    PubMed

    Özçınar, Beyza; Memişoğlu, Ecem; Gök, Ali Fuat Kaan; Ağcaoğlu, Orhan; Yanar, Fatih; İlhan, Mehmet; Yanar, Hakan Teoman; Günay, Kayıhan

    2017-01-01

    Several damage-control procedures have been described in the literature in case of severe Calot's triangle inflammation and fibrosis. In this report, we describe patients who underwent laparoscopic partial cholecystectomy using an endoscopic linear stapler. Five patients with acute cholecystitis underwent laparoscopic partial cholecystectomy in our clinic between January - December 2011. All patients had severe fibrosis and inflammation of Calot's triangle. The anterior and posterior walls of the gallbladder were totally resected if possible. The gallbladder was transected at its neck or Hartmann's pouch, leaving a remnant gallbladder pouch behind. Five patients had laparoscopic partial cholecystectomy with an endoscopic linear stapler. The main symptom of all patients on admission to the emergency room was abdominal pain. The mean time for the surgical procedure was 140 minutes (range, 120-180 minutes). Inflammation and fibrosis of Calot's triangle was detected in all patients during surgery and a phlegmonous gallbladder was detected in one patient. Surgical drains were used in all patients and no biliary leakage was detected. Remnant common bile duct calculi were detected in one patient and this patient underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography one month after surgery. When a reliable view of Calot's triangle cannot be obtained due to severe inflammation and fibrosis during laparoscopy, laparoscopic partial cholecystectomy seems to be a safe and feasible alternative to open surgery with an acceptable morbidity rate.

  1. ["Cholethorax" revealing injury to the common bile duct after celioscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Lehur, P A; Guiberteau-Canfrère, V; Bury, A; Cloarec, D; Le Borgne, J

    1992-01-01

    The case-report describes the unusual formation of a bilious pleural effusion or "cholethorax" revealing a common bile duct injury secondary to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Pleural drainage led to a diagnostic ERCP. Subsequently a Roux en Y hepatico-jejunostomy allowed a satisfactory outcome.

  2. Shortened preoperative fasting for prevention of complications associated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Duo; Zhu, Xuejiao; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Liqing

    2017-02-01

    Objective Routine fasting (12 h) is always applied before laparoscopic cholecystectomy, but prolonged preoperative fasting causes thirst, hunger, and irritability as well as dehydration, low blood glucose, insulin resistance and other adverse reactions. We assessed the safety and efficacy of a shortened preoperative fasting period in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to 20 November 2015 and selected controlled trials with a shortened fasting time before laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We assessed the results by performing a meta-analysis using a variety of outcome measures and investigated the heterogeneity by subgroup analysis. Results Eleven trials were included. Forest plots showed that a shortened fasting time reduced the operative risk and patient discomfort. A shortened fasting time also reduced postoperative nausea and vomiting as well as operative vomiting. With respect to glucose metabolism, a shortened fasting time significantly reduced abnormalities in the ratio of insulin sensitivity. The C-reactive protein concentration was also reduced by a shortened fasting time. Conclusions A shortened preoperative fasting time increases patients' postoperative comfort, improves insulin resistance, and reduces stress responses. This evidence supports the clinical application of a shortened fasting time before laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  3. Technical Note: New ground-based FTIR measurements at Ile de La Réunion: observations, error analysis, and comparisons with independent data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senten, C.; de Mazière, M.; Dils, B.; Hermans, C.; Kruglanski, M.; Neefs, E.; Scolas, F.; Vandaele, A. C.; Vanhaelewyn, G.; Vigouroux, C.; Carleer, M.; Coheur, P. F.; Fally, S.; Barret, B.; Baray, J. L.; Delmas, R.; Leveau, J.; Metzger, J. M.; Mahieu, E.; Boone, C.; Walker, K. A.; Bernath, P. F.; Strong, K.

    2008-07-01

    Ground-based high spectral resolution Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) solar absorption spectroscopy is a powerful remote sensing technique to obtain information on the total column abundances and on the vertical distribution of various constituents in the atmosphere. This work presents results from two FTIR measurement campaigns in 2002 and 2004, held at Ile de La Réunion (21° S, 55° E). These campaigns represent the first FTIR observations carried out at a southern (sub)tropical site. They serve the initiation of regular, long-term FTIR monitoring at this site in the near future. To demonstrate the capabilities of the FTIR measurements at this location for tropospheric and stratospheric monitoring, a detailed report is given on the retrieval strategy, information content and corresponding full error budget evaluation for ozone (O3), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), ethane (C2H6), hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and nitric acid (HNO3) total and partial column retrievals. Moreover, we have made a thorough comparison of the capabilities at sea level altitude (St.-Denis) and at 2200 m a.s.l. (Maïdo). It is proved that the performances of the technique are such that the atmospheric variability can be observed, at both locations and in distinct altitude layers. Comparisons with literature and with correlative data from ozone sonde and satellite (i.e., ACE-FTS, HALOE and MOPITT) measurements are given to confirm the results. Despite the short time series available at present, we have been able to detect the seasonal variation of CO in the biomass burning season, as well as the impact of particular biomass burning events in Africa and Madagascar on the atmospheric composition above Ile de La Réunion. We also show that differential measurements between St.-Denis and Maïdo provide useful information about the concentrations in the boundary layer.

  4. Technical Note: A treatment plan comparison between dynamic collimation and a fixed aperture during spot scanning proton therapy for brain treatment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Blake; Gelover, Edgar; Moignier, Alexandra; Wang, Dongxu; Flynn, Ryan T.; Lin, Liyong; Kirk, Maura; Solberg, Tim; Hyer, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively assess the advantages of energy-layer specific dynamic collimation system (DCS) versus a per-field fixed aperture for spot scanning proton therapy (SSPT). Methods: Five brain cancer patients previously planned and treated with SSPT were replanned using an in-house treatment planning system capable of modeling collimated and uncollimated proton beamlets. The uncollimated plans, which served as a baseline for comparison, reproduced the target coverage and organ-at-risk sparing of the clinically delivered plans. The collimator opening for the fixed aperture-based plans was determined from the combined cross sections of the target in the beam’s eye view over all energy layers which included an additional margin equivalent to the maximum beamlet displacement for the respective energy of that energy layer. The DCS-based plans were created by selecting appropriate collimator positions for each row of beam spots during a Raster-style scanning pattern which were optimized to maximize the dose contributions to the target and limited the dose delivered to adjacent normal tissue. Results: The reduction of mean dose to normal tissue adjacent to the target, as defined by a 10 mm ring surrounding the target, averaged 13.65% (range: 11.8%–16.9%) and 5.18% (2.9%–7.1%) for the DCS and fixed aperture plans, respectively. The conformity index, as defined by the ratio of the volume of the 50% isodose line to the target volume, yielded an average improvement of 21.35% (19.4%–22.6%) and 8.38% (4.7%–12.0%) for the DCS and fixed aperture plans, respectively. Conclusions: The ability of the DCS to provide collimation to each energy layer yielded better conformity in comparison to fixed aperture plans. PMID:27487886

  5. Technical Note: A treatment plan comparison between dynamic collimation and a fixed aperture during spot scanning proton therapy for brain treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Blake, E-mail: bsmith34@wisc.edu; Gelover,

    Purpose: To quantitatively assess the advantages of energy-layer specific dynamic collimation system (DCS) versus a per-field fixed aperture for spot scanning proton therapy (SSPT). Methods: Five brain cancer patients previously planned and treated with SSPT were replanned using an in-house treatment planning system capable of modeling collimated and uncollimated proton beamlets. The uncollimated plans, which served as a baseline for comparison, reproduced the target coverage and organ-at-risk sparing of the clinically delivered plans. The collimator opening for the fixed aperture-based plans was determined from the combined cross sections of the target in the beam’s eye view over all energy layersmore » which included an additional margin equivalent to the maximum beamlet displacement for the respective energy of that energy layer. The DCS-based plans were created by selecting appropriate collimator positions for each row of beam spots during a Raster-style scanning pattern which were optimized to maximize the dose contributions to the target and limited the dose delivered to adjacent normal tissue. Results: The reduction of mean dose to normal tissue adjacent to the target, as defined by a 10 mm ring surrounding the target, averaged 13.65% (range: 11.8%–16.9%) and 5.18% (2.9%–7.1%) for the DCS and fixed aperture plans, respectively. The conformity index, as defined by the ratio of the volume of the 50% isodose line to the target volume, yielded an average improvement of 21.35% (19.4%–22.6%) and 8.38% (4.7%–12.0%) for the DCS and fixed aperture plans, respectively. Conclusions: The ability of the DCS to provide collimation to each energy layer yielded better conformity in comparison to fixed aperture plans.« less

  6. Getting started with robotics in general surgery with cholecystectomy: the Canadian experience

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, Shiva; Davies, Ward; Schlachta, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    Background The value of robotics in general surgery may be for advanced minimally invasive procedures. Unlike other specialties, formal fellowship training opportunities for robotic general surgery are few. As a result, most surgeons currently develop robotic skills in practice. Our goal was to determine whether robotic cholecystectomy is a safe and effective bridge to advanced robotics in general surgery. Methods Before performing advanced robotic procedures, 2 surgeons completed the Intuitive Surgical da Vinci training course and agreed to work together on all procedures. Clinical surgery began with da Vinci cholecystectomy with a plan to begin advanced procedures after at least 10 cholecystectomies. We performed a retrospective review of our pilot series of robotic cholecystectomies and compared them with contemporaneous laparoscopic controls. The primary outcome was safety, and the secondary outcome was learning curve. Results There were 16 procedures in the robotics arm and 20 in the laparoscopic arm. Two complications (da Vinci port-site hernia, transient elevation of liver enzymes) occurred in the robotic arm, whereas only 1 laparoscopic patient (slow to awaken from anesthetic) experienced a complication. None was significant. The mean time required to perform robotic cholecystectomy was significantly longer than laparoscopic surgery (91 v. 41 min, p < 0.001). The mean time to clear the operating room was significantly longer for robotic procedures (14 v. 11 min, p = 0.015). We observed a trend showing longer mean anesthesia time for robotic procedures (23 v. 15 min). Regarding learning curve, the mean operative time needed for the first 3 robotic procedures was longer than for the last 3 (101 v. 80 min); however, this difference was not significant. Since this experience, the team has confidently gone on to perform robotic biliary, pancreatic, gastresophageal, intestinal and colorectal operations. Conclusion Robotic cholecystectomy can be performed reliably

  7. Percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy and delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy in critically ill patients with acute calculus cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Spira, Ram M; Nissan, Aviran; Zamir, Oded; Cohen, Tzeela; Fields, Scott I; Freund, Herbert R

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate therapy for acute cholecystitis is cholecystectomy. However, in critically ill elderly patients the mortality of emergency cholecystectomy may reach up to 30%. Open cholecystostomy performed under local anesthesia was considered to be the procedure of choice for treatment of acute cholecystitis in high-risk patients. In recent years, ultrasound- or computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy (PTHC) replaced open cholecystostomy for the treatment of acute cholecystitis in critically ill patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the results of a 5-year protocol using PTHC followed by delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for the treatment of acute cholecystitis in critically ill patients. We reviewed the charts of 55 patients who underwent PTHC at the Hadassah University Hospital Mount Scopus during the years 1994 to 1999. The main indications for PTHC among this group of severely sick and high-risk patients was biliary sepsis and septic shock in 23 patients (42%); and severe comorbidities in 32 patients (58%). The median age was 74 (32 to 98) years, 33 were female and 22 male. Successful biliary drainage by PTHC was achieved in 54 of 55 (98%) of the patients. The majority of the patients (31 of 55) were drained transhepaticlly under CT guidance. The rest, (24 of 55) were drained using ultrasound guidance followed by cholecystography for verification. Complications included hepatic bleeding that required surgical intervention in 1 patient and dislodgment of the catheter in 9 patients that was reinserted in 2 patients. Three patients died of multisystem organ failure 12 to 50 days following the procedure. The remaining 52 patients recovered well with a mean hospital stay of 15.5 plus minus 11.4 days. Thirty-one patients were able to undergo delayed surgery: 28 underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy of whom 4 (14%) were converted to open cholecystectomy. This was compared with a 1.9% conversion rate in 1

  8. 1. On note taking.

    PubMed

    Plaut, Alfred B J

    2005-02-01

    In this paper the author explores the theoretical and technical issues relating to taking notes of analytic sessions, using an introspective approach. The paper discusses the lack of a consistent approach to note taking amongst analysts and sets out to demonstrate that systematic note taking can be helpful to the analyst. The author describes his discovery that an initial phase where as much data was recorded as possible did not prove to be reliably helpful in clinical work and initially actively interfered with recall in subsequent sessions. The impact of the nature of the analytic session itself and the focus of the analyst's interest on recall is discussed. The author then describes how he modified his note taking technique to classify information from sessions into four categories which enabled the analyst to select which information to record in notes. The characteristics of memory and its constructive nature are discussed in relation to the problems that arise in making accurate notes of analytic sessions.

  9. Needs analysis for developing a virtual-reality NOTES simulator.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Matthes, Kai; Nemani, Arun; Ahn, Woojin; Kato, Masayuki; Jones, Daniel B; Schwaitzberg, Steven; De, Suvranu

    2013-05-01

    INTRODUCTION AND STUDY AIM: Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is an emerging surgical technique that requires a cautious adoption approach to ensure patient safety. High-fidelity virtual-reality-based simulators allow development of new surgical procedures and tools and train medical personnel without risk to human patients. As part of a project funded by the National Institutes of Health, we are developing the virtual transluminal endoscopic surgery trainer (VTEST) for this purpose. The objective of this study is to conduct a structured needs analysis to identify the design parameters for such a virtual-reality-based simulator for NOTES. A 30-point questionnaire was distributed at the 2011 National Orifice Surgery Consortium for Assessment and Research meeting to obtain responses from experts. Ordinal logistic regression and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used for analysis. A total of 22 NOTES experts participated in the study. Cholecystectomy (CE, 68 %) followed by appendectomy (AE, 63 %) (CE vs AE, p = 0.0521) was selected as the first choice for simulation. Flexible (FL, 47 %) and hybrid (HY, 47 %) approaches were equally favorable compared with rigid (RI, 6 %) with p < 0.001 for both FL versus RI and HY versus RI. The transvaginal approach was preferred 3 to 1 to the transgastric. Most participants preferred two-channel (2C) scopes (65 %) compared with single (1C) or three (3C) or more channels with p < 0.001 for both 2C versus 1C and 2C versus 3C. The importance of force feedback and the utility of a virtual NOTES simulator in training and testing new tools for NOTES were rated very high by the participants. Our study reinforces the importance of developing a virtual NOTES simulator and clearly presents expert preferences. The results of this analysis will direct our initial development of the VTEST platform.

  10. Expert Intraoperative Judgment and Decision-Making: Defining the Cognitive Competencies for Safe Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Madani, Amin; Watanabe, Yusuke; Feldman, Liane S; Vassiliou, Melina C; Barkun, Jeffrey S; Fried, Gerald M; Aggarwal, Rajesh

    2015-11-01

    Bile duct injuries from laparoscopic cholecystectomy remain a significant source of morbidity and are often the result of intraoperative errors in perception, judgment, and decision-making. This qualitative study aimed to define and characterize higher-order cognitive competencies required to safely perform a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Hierarchical and cognitive task analyses for establishing a critical view of safety during laparoscopic cholecystectomy were performed using qualitative methods to map the thoughts and practices that characterize expert performance. Experts with more than 5 years of experience, and who have performed at least 100 laparoscopic cholecystectomies, participated in semi-structured interviews and field observations. Verbal data were transcribed verbatim, supplemented with content from published literature, coded, thematically analyzed using grounded-theory by 2 independent reviewers, and synthesized into a list of items. A conceptual framework was created based on 10 interviews with experts, 9 procedures, and 18 literary sources. Experts included 6 minimally invasive surgeons, 2 hepato-pancreatico-biliary surgeons, and 2 acute care general surgeons (median years in practice, 11 [range 8 to 14]). One hundred eight cognitive elements (35 [32%] related to situation awareness, 47 [44%] involving decision-making, and 26 [24%] action-oriented subtasks) and 75 potential errors were identified and categorized into 6 general themes and 14 procedural tasks. Of the 75 potential errors, root causes were mapped to errors in situation awareness (24 [32%]), decision-making (49 [65%]), or either one (61 [81%]). This study defines the competencies that are essential to establishing a critical view of safety and avoiding bile duct injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This framework may serve as the basis for instructional design, assessment tools, and quality-control metrics to prevent injuries and promote a culture of patient safety. Copyright

  11. Cholecystectomy for Prevention of Recurrence after Endoscopic Clearance of Bile Duct Stones in Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Myung Eun; Chung, Moon Jae; Lee, Dong Jun; Oh, Tak Geun; Park, Jeong Youp; Bang, Seungmin; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young; Chung, Jae Bock

    2016-01-01

    Cholecystectomy in patients with an intact gallbladder after endoscopic removal of stones from the common bile duct (CBD) remains controversial. We conducted a case-control study to determine the risk of recurrent CBD stones and the benefit of cholecystectomy for prevention of recurrence after endoscopic removal of stones from the CBD in Korean patients. A total of 317 patients who underwent endoscopic CBD stone extraction between 2006 and 2012 were included. Possible risk factors for the recurrence of CBD stones including previous cholecystectomy history, bile duct diameter, stone size, number of stones, stone composition, and the presence of a periampullary diverticulum were analyzed. The mean duration of follow-up after CBD stone extraction was 25.4±22.0 months. A CBD diameter of 15 mm or larger [odds ratio (OR), 1.930; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.098 to 3.391; p=0.022] and the presence of a periampullary diverticulum (OR, 1.859; 95% CI, 1.014 to 3.408; p=0.045) were independent predictive factors for CBD stone recurrence. Seventeen patients (26.6%) in the recurrence group underwent elective cholecystectomy soon after endoscopic extraction of CBD stones, compared to 88 (34.8%) in the non-recurrence group; the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.212). A CBD diameter of 15 mm or larger and the presence of a periampullary diverticulum were found to be potential predictive factors for recurrence after endoscopic extraction of CBD stones. Elective cholecystectomy after clearance of CBD stones did not reduce the incidence of recurrent CBD stones in Korean patients.

  12. Inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of cholecystectomy in women but not in men.

    PubMed

    Nordenvall, Caroline; Oskarsson, Viktor; Wolk, Alicja

    2015-06-01

    There is conflicting epidemiologic evidence on whether coffee consumption reduces the risk of gallstone disease. We examined the association between coffee consumption and risk of cholecystectomy (as a proxy for symptomatic gallstone disease) in a prospective cohort study. We collected data from 30,989 women (born 1914-1948) and 40,936 men (born 1918-1952) from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men. Baseline information on coffee consumption was collected by using a food-frequency questionnaire; subjects were followed up for procedures of cholecystectomy from 1998 through 2011 by linkage to the Swedish Patient Register. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by using Cox proportional hazard models. During a total follow-up period of 905,933 person-years, we identified 1057 women and 962 men who had undergone a cholecystectomy. After adjustment for potential confounders, the HR of cholecystectomy was 0.58 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44-0.78) for women who drank ≥6 cups of coffee/day compared with women who drank <2 cups/day. In contrast, there was no association in men (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.75-1.24). Because of this sex difference, we examined and found evidence of effect modification by menopausal status and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (Pinteraction = .026). An inverse association was observed only in women who were premenopausal (HR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.05-0.55) or used HRT (HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.28-0.70). We observed an inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of cholecystectomy in women who were premenopausal or used HRT but not in other women or in men. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Two-Trocar Cholecystectomy by Strategic Laparoscopy for Improved Cosmesis (SLIC)

    PubMed Central

    Mirhaidari, Shayda; Pozsgay, Mark; Standerwick, Andrew; Bohon, Ashley; Zografakis, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Until the advent of single-incision laparoscopic surgery, few advances were aimed at improving cosmesis with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Criticisms of the single-incision laparoscopic surgery technique include a larger incision and increased incidence of wound-related complications. We present our initial experience with a novel technique aimed at performing strategic laparoscopy for improved cosmesis (SLIC) for cholecystectomy. Methods: Twenty-five patients with biliary symptoms were selected for SLIC cholecystectomy. Access to the abdomen was obtained with a 5-mm optical trocar in the left upper quadrant and a 5-mm trocar in the umbilicus. Retraction was performed by a transabdominal suture in the dome of the gallbladder and a needlescopic grasper. Age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, body mass index, operative time, length of stay, pathology results, and short-term complications at follow-up were prospectively recorded. Results: The 25 female patients had a mean age of 34.3 years and mean body mass index of 24 kg/m2. American Society of Anesthesiologists scores ranged from 1 to 3. The mean operative time was 51.3 minutes. Pathology revealed chronic cholecystitis in all patients. All procedures were performed on an outpatient basis. The only complication was one ultrasonography-documented deep vein thrombosis. All 25 planned SLIC cholecystectomies were successfully completed. Conclusions: SLIC cholecystectomy is feasible and safe. This technique decreases the cumulative incision length, as well as the number of incisions, leading to very desirable cosmetic results in patients with a favorable body habitus and surgical history. PMID:24398200

  14. A note on notes: note taking and containment.

    PubMed

    Levine, Howard B

    2007-07-01

    In extreme situations of massive projective identification, both the analyst and the patient may come to share a fantasy or belief that his or her own psychic reality will be annihilated if the psychic reality of the other is accepted or adopted (Britton 1998). In the example of' Dr. M and his patient, the paradoxical dilemma around note taking had highly specific transference meanings; it was not simply an instance of the generalized human response of distracted attention that Freud (1912) had spoken of, nor was it the destabilization of analytic functioning that I tried to describe in my work with Mr. L. Whether such meanings will always exist in these situations remains a matter to be determined by further clinical experience. In reopening a dialogue about note taking during sessions, I have attempted to move the discussion away from categorical injunctions about what analysis should or should not do, and instead to foster a more nuanced, dynamic, and pair-specific consideration of the analyst's functioning in the immediate context of the analytic relationship. There is, of course, a wide variety of listening styles among analysts, and each analyst's mental functioning may be affected differently by each patient whom the analyst sees. I have raised many questions in the hopes of stimulating an expanded discussion that will allow us to share our experiences and perhaps reach additional conclusions. Further consideration may lead us to decide whether note taking may have very different meanings for other analysts and analyst-patient pairs, and whether it may serve useful functions in addition to the one that I have described.

  15. Technical Note: New ground-based FTIR measurements at Ile de La Réunion: observations, error analysis, and comparisons with independent data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senten, C.; de Mazière, M.; Dils, B.; Hermans, C.; Kruglanski, M.; Neefs, E.; Scolas, F.; Vandaele, A. C.; Vanhaelewyn, G.; Vigouroux, C.; Carleer, M.; Coheur, P. F.; Fally, S.; Barret, B.; Baray, J. L.; Delmas, R.; Leveau, J.; Metzger, J. M.; Mahieu, E.; Boone, C.; Walker, K. A.; Bernath, P. F.; Strong, K.

    2008-01-01

    Ground-based high spectral resolution Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) solar absorption spectroscopy is a powerful remote sensing technique to obtain information on the total column abundances and on the vertical distribution of various constituents in the atmosphere. This work presents results from two short-term FTIR measurement campaigns in 2002 and 2004, held at the (sub)tropical site Ile de La Réunion (21°S, 55°E). These campaigns represent the first FTIR observations carried out at this site. The results include total column amounts from the surface up to 100 km of ozone (O3), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), ethane (C2H6), hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and nitric acid (HNO3), as well as some vertical profile information for the first four mentioned trace gases. The data are characterised in terms of the vertical information content and associated error budget. In the 2004 time series, the seasonal increase of the CO concentration was observed by the end of October, along with a sudden rise that has been attributed to biomass burning events in southern Africa and Madagascar. This attribution was based on trajectory modeling. In the same period, other biomass burning gases such as C2H6 also show an enhancement in their total column amounts which is highly correlated with the increase of the CO total columns. The observed total column values for CO are consistent with correlative data from MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere). Comparisons between our ground-based FTIR observations and space-borne observations from ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Fourier Transform Spectrometer) and HALOE (Halogen Occultation Experiment) confirm the feasibility of the FTIR measurements at Ile de La Réunion.

  16. On that Note...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Harry

    1988-01-01

    Provides suggestions for note-taking from books, lectures, visual presentations, and laboratory experiments to enhance student knowledge, memory, and length of attention span during instruction. Describes topical and structural outlines, visual mapping, charting, three-column note-taking, and concept mapping. Benefits and application of…

  17. Sticky-Note Murals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Ian

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a sticky-note mural project that originated from his desire to incorporate contemporary materials into his assignments as well as to inspire collaboration between students. The process takes much more than sticking sticky notes to the wall. It takes critical thinking skills and teamwork to design and complete…

  18. NMC OFFICE NOTE 124

    Science.gov Websites

    surface reports in the NMC observational files. This revision represents the final update to NMC/NCEP Office Note Number 124. This format for representing meteorological surface observational data at NMC observational data format at NCEP. An accurate version of this Office Note is still necessary for historical

  19. Anatomical Network Comparison of Human Upper and Lower, Newborn and Adult, and Normal and Abnormal Limbs, with Notes on Development, Pathology and Limb Serial Homology vs. Homoplasy

    PubMed Central

    Diogo, Rui; Esteve-Altava, Borja; Smith, Christopher; Boughner, Julia C.; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

    2015-01-01

    How do the various anatomical parts (modules) of the animal body evolve into very different integrated forms (integration) yet still function properly without decreasing the individual’s survival? This long-standing question remains unanswered for multiple reasons, including lack of consensus about conceptual definitions and approaches, as well as a reasonable bias toward the study of hard tissues over soft tissues. A major difficulty concerns the non-trivial technical hurdles of addressing this problem, specifically the lack of quantitative tools to quantify and compare variation across multiple disparate anatomical parts and tissue types. In this paper we apply for the first time a powerful new quantitative tool, Anatomical Network Analysis (AnNA), to examine and compare in detail the musculoskeletal modularity and integration of normal and abnormal human upper and lower limbs. In contrast to other morphological methods, the strength of AnNA is that it allows efficient and direct empirical comparisons among body parts with even vastly different architectures (e.g. upper and lower limbs) and diverse or complex tissue composition (e.g. bones, cartilages and muscles), by quantifying the spatial organization of these parts—their topological patterns relative to each other—using tools borrowed from network theory. Our results reveal similarities between the skeletal networks of the normal newborn/adult upper limb vs. lower limb, with exception to the shoulder vs. pelvis. However, when muscles are included, the overall musculoskeletal network organization of the upper limb is strikingly different from that of the lower limb, particularly that of the more proximal structures of each limb. Importantly, the obtained data provide further evidence to be added to the vast amount of paleontological, gross anatomical, developmental, molecular and embryological data recently obtained that contradicts the long-standing dogma that the upper and lower limbs are serial

  20. Anatomical Network Comparison of Human Upper and Lower, Newborn and Adult, and Normal and Abnormal Limbs, with Notes on Development, Pathology and Limb Serial Homology vs. Homoplasy.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Rui; Esteve-Altava, Borja; Smith, Christopher; Boughner, Julia C; Rasskin-Gutman, Diego

    2015-01-01

    How do the various anatomical parts (modules) of the animal body evolve into very different integrated forms (integration) yet still function properly without decreasing the individual's survival? This long-standing question remains unanswered for multiple reasons, including lack of consensus about conceptual definitions and approaches, as well as a reasonable bias toward the study of hard tissues over soft tissues. A major difficulty concerns the non-trivial technical hurdles of addressing this problem, specifically the lack of quantitative tools to quantify and compare variation across multiple disparate anatomical parts and tissue types. In this paper we apply for the first time a powerful new quantitative tool, Anatomical Network Analysis (AnNA), to examine and compare in detail the musculoskeletal modularity and integration of normal and abnormal human upper and lower limbs. In contrast to other morphological methods, the strength of AnNA is that it allows efficient and direct empirical comparisons among body parts with even vastly different architectures (e.g. upper and lower limbs) and diverse or complex tissue composition (e.g. bones, cartilages and muscles), by quantifying the spatial organization of these parts-their topological patterns relative to each other-using tools borrowed from network theory. Our results reveal similarities between the skeletal networks of the normal newborn/adult upper limb vs. lower limb, with exception to the shoulder vs. pelvis. However, when muscles are included, the overall musculoskeletal network organization of the upper limb is strikingly different from that of the lower limb, particularly that of the more proximal structures of each limb. Importantly, the obtained data provide further evidence to be added to the vast amount of paleontological, gross anatomical, developmental, molecular and embryological data recently obtained that contradicts the long-standing dogma that the upper and lower limbs are serial homologues

  1. Acute cholecystitis: comparing clinical outcomes with TG13 severity and intended laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy in difficult operative cases.

    PubMed

    Gerard, Justin; Luu, Minh B; Poirier, Jennifer; Deziel, Daniel J

    2018-03-09

    The revised Tokyo Guidelines include criteria for determining the severity of acute cholecystitis with treatment algorithms based on severity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of the revised Tokyo Guidelines severity grade to clinical outcomes of cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. We identified 66 patients with acute cholecystitis from a prior study of difficult cholecystectomy cases. We examined the relationship between severity grade and multiple variables related to perioperative and postoperative outcomes. A more severe revised Tokyo Guidelines grade was associated with a higher number of complications (p = 0.03) and a higher severity of complications (p = 0.01). Severity grade did not predict operative time, estimated blood loss, intensive care unit admission or length of stay. Compared to planned open cholecystectomy, intended laparoscopic cholecystectomy was associated with significantly fewer total and Clavien-Dindo grade 3 complications, fewer intensive care unit admissions, and shorter length of stay (p values range from 0.03 to < 0.0001). In technically difficult operations for acute cholecystitis, the revised Tokyo guidelines severity grade correlates with the number and severity of complications. However, intended performance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy rather than open cholecystectomy in difficult operations predicts broader beneficial outcomes than severity grade.

  2. Delay in treatment of biliary disease during pregnancy increases morbidity and can be avoided with safe laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Muench, J; Albrink, M; Serafini, F; Rosemurgy, A; Carey, L; Murr, M M

    2001-06-01

    Recent reports indicate that laparoscopic cholecystectomy in pregnancy is safe. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether delays in definitive treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis increase morbidity. We reviewed the records of 16 women who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy during pregnancy between 1992 and 1999. Mean age was 24 +/- 5 years (mean +/- standard error). Symptom onset was during the first trimester in nine patients, second trimester in six patients, and third trimester in one patient. Patients had abdominal pain (93%), nausea (93%), emesis (80%), and fever (66%) for a median of 45 days (range 1-195 days) before cholecystectomy. Nine of 11 women who underwent cholecystectomy more than 5 weeks after onset of symptoms experienced recurrent attacks necessitating 15 hospital admissions and four emergency room visits. Moreover four women who developed symptoms in the first and second trimesters but whose operations were delayed to the third trimester had 11 hospital admissions and four emergency room visits; three of those four (75%) women developed premature contractions necessitating tocolytics. Cholecystectomy was completed laparoscopically in 14 women. There was no hospital infant or maternal mortality or morbidity. We recommend prompt laparoscopic cholecystectomy in pregnant women with symptomatic biliary disease because it is safe and it reduces hospital admissions and frequency of premature labor.

  3. NOTES: a review of the technical problems encountered and their solutions.

    PubMed

    Mintz, Yoav; Horgan, Santiago; Cullen, John; Stuart, David; Falor, Eric; Talamini, Mark A

    2008-08-01

    Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is currently investigated and developed worldwide. In the past few years, multiple groups have confronted this challenge. Many technical problems are encountered in this technique due to the currently available tools for this approach. Some of the unique technical problems in NOTES include: blindly performed primary incisions; uncontrolled pneumoperitoneal pressure; no support for the endoscope in the abdominal cavity; inadequate vision; insufficient illumination; limited retraction and exposure; and the complexity of suturing and performing a safe anastomosis. In this paper, we review the problems encountered in NOTES and provide possible temporary solutions. Acute and survival studies were performed on 15 farm pigs. The hybrid technique approach (i.e., endoscopic surgery with the aid of laparoscopic vision) was performed in all cases. Procedures performed included liver biopsies, bilateral tubal ligation, oophprectomy, cholecystectomy, splenectomy and small bowel resection, and anastomosis. All attempted procedures were successfully performed. New methods and techniques were developed to overcome the technical problems. Closure of the gastrotomy was achieved by T-bar sutures and by stapler closure of the stomach incision. Small bowel anastomosis was achieved by the dual-lumen NOTES technique. The hybrid technique serves as a temporary approach to aid in developing the NOTES technique. A rectal or vaginal port of entry enables and facilitates gastrointestinal NOTES by using available laparoscopic instruments. The common operations performed today in the laparoscopic fashion could be probably performed in the NOTES approach. The safety of these procedures, however, is yet to be determined.

  4. LUVOIR Tech Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Shaklan, Stuart; Roberge, Aki; Rioux, Norman; Feinberg, Lee; Werner, Michael; Rauscher, Bernard; Mandell, Avi; France, Kevin; Schiminovich, David

    2016-01-01

    We present nine "tech notes" prepared by the Large UV/Optical/Infrared (LUVOIR) Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT), Study Office, and Technology Working Group. These tech notes are intended to highlight technical challenges that represent boundaries in the trade space for developing the LUVOIR architecture that may impact the science objectives being developed by the STDT. These tech notes are intended to be high-level discussions of the technical challenges and will serve as starting points for more in-depth analysis as the LUVOIR study progresses.

  5. Gallstones, a cholecystectomy, chronic pancreatitis, and the risk of subsequent pancreatic cancer in diabetic patients: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hsueh-Chou; Tsai, I-Ju; Chen, Pei-Chun; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Chou, Jen-Wei; Peng, Cheng-Yuan; Lai, Shih-Wei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Lyu, Shu-Yu; Morisky, Donald E

    2013-06-01

    The causal association between diabetes and pancreatic cancer remains unclear in Asian populations. This study examined whether gallstones, a cholecystectomy, chronic pancreatitis and the treatment of antidiabetic agents affect the risk of subsequent pancreatic cancer for patients with diabetes in a Taiwanese population. Using claims data from the universal health insurance program in Taiwan, 449,685 newly diagnosed diabetic cases among insured people from 2000 to 2003 were identified as the case group. The comparison group, matched for gender, age, and the index year of the diabetes cohort, consisted of 325,729 persons without diabetes. Pancreatic cancer incidence was measured in both groups until the end of 2008. Other risk factors associated with this cancer were also measured. The incidence of pancreatic cancer in the diabetic cohort was 2-fold greater than that in the comparison group (1.46 vs. 0.71 per 10,000 person-years) with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.75 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.45-2.10]. The risk slightly increased for diabetic patients with gallstones, cholecystitis, and a cholecystectomy (HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.18-3.11), but greatly increased for those with comorbidity of chronic pancreatitis (HR 22.9, 95% CI 12.6-41.4). Pancreatic cancer risk also increased significantly for those patients who used more insulin for treating diabetes (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.40-3.45). Our data suggest that the risk of pancreatic cancer is moderately increased in patients with diabetes, especially those using insulin therapy. The risk is greatly increased for diabetic patients with chronic pancreatitis.

  6. Notes on Linguistics, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notes on Linguistics, 1998

    1998-01-01

    The four issues of the journal of language research and linguistic theory include these articles: "Notes on Determiners in Chamicuro" (Steve Parker); Lingualinks Field Manual Development" (Larry Hayashi); "Comments from an International Linguistics Consultant: Thumbnail Sketch" (Austin Hale); "Carlalinks…

  7. Research notes : November 1995.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-11-01

    The research notes need ideas for research. The research problems should associate with work and how things might be improved. The ideas must be related to transportation, must apply to more than one location and must be cost effective.

  8. Robot assistant versus human or another robot assistant in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Samraj, Kumarakrishnan; Fusai, Giuseppe; Davidson, Brian R

    2012-09-12

    The role of a robotic assistant in laparoscopic cholecystectomy is controversial. While some trials have shown distinct advantages of a robotic assistant over a human assistant others have not, and it is unclear which robotic assistant is best. The aims of this review are to assess the benefits and harms of a robot assistant versus human assistant or versus another robot assistant in laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and to assess whether the robot can substitute the human assistant. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded (until February 2012) for identifying the randomised clinical trials. Only randomised clinical trials (irrespective of language, blinding, or publication status) comparing robot assistants versus human assistants in laparoscopic cholecystectomy were considered for the review. Randomised clinical trials comparing different types of robot assistants were also considered for the review. Two authors independently identified the trials for inclusion and independently extracted the data. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) using the fixed-effect and the random-effects models based on intention-to-treat analysis, when possible, using Review Manager 5. We included six trials with 560 patients. One trial involving 129 patients did not state the number of patients randomised to the two groups. In the remaining five trials 431 patients were randomised, 212 to the robot assistant group and 219 to the human assistant group. All the trials were at high risk of bias. Mortality and morbidity were reported in only one trial with 40 patients. There was no mortality or morbidity in either group. Mortality and morbidity were not reported in the remaining trials. Quality of life or the proportion of patients who were discharged as day-patient laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients were not reported in any

  9. Homemade specimen retrieval bag for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A solution in the time of fiscal crisis.

    PubMed

    Stavrou, George; Fotiadis, Kyriakos; Panagiotou, Dimitrios; Faitatzidou, Afroditi; Kotzampassi, Katerina

    2015-05-01

    Due to the current economic crisis in Greece, major cutbacks on healthcare costs have been imposed, resulting in a shortage of surgical supplies, including laparoscopic materials. In an attempt to reduce costs, we developed a homemade specimen retrieval bag for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We used the polyethylene bag containing the catheter of a Redon drainage set. The bag was cut in half and pleated longitudinally; then, the gallbladder was placed in the bag and removed through the umbilicus with a grasping forceps. From September 2011 to June 2012, we used our homemade bag on 85 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. No rupture, accidental opening, or bile leak was observed. The learning curve was found to be five cases. Our homemade specimen retrieval bag seems to be a safe, effective, and easy tool for tissue extraction. Further studies need to be conducted to evaluate its full potential. © 2015 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Application of indocyanine green-fluorescence imaging to full-thickness cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Morita, Kiyomi; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Tani, Keigo; Harada, Nobuhiro; Shimizu, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Takemura, Nobuyuki; Kaneko, Junichi; Aoki, Taku; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-05-01

    Fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) has recently been applied to laparoscopic surgery to identify cancerous tissues, lymph nodes, and vascular anatomy. Here we report the application of ICG-fluorescence imaging to visualize the boundary between the liver and subserosal tissues of the gallbladder during laparoscopic full-thickness cholecystectomy. A patient with a potentially malignant gallbladder lesion was administered 2.5-mg intravenous ICG just before laparoscopic full-thickness cholecystectomy. Intraoperative fluorescence imaging enabled the real-time delineation of both extrahepatic bile duct anatomy and hepatic parenchyma throughout the procedure, which resulted in complete removal of subserosal tissues between liver and gallbladder. Safe and feasible ICG-fluorescence imaging can be widely applied to laparoscopic hepatobiliary surgery by utilizing a biliary excretion property of ICG. © 2014 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Benchtop and animal validation of a portable fluorescence microscopic imaging system for potential use in cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jian; Liu, Guanghui; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Shiwu; Shao, Pengfei; Smith, Zachary J; Liu, Chenhai; Xu, Ronald X

    2018-02-01

    We propose a portable fluorescence microscopic imaging system (PFMS) for intraoperative display of biliary structure and prevention of iatrogenic injuries during cholecystectomy. The system consists of a light source module, a camera module, and a Raspberry Pi computer with an LCD. Indocyanine green (ICG) is used as a fluorescent contrast agent for experimental validation of the system. Fluorescence intensities of the ICG aqueous solution at different concentration levels are acquired by our PFMS and compared with those of a commercial Xenogen IVIS system. We study the fluorescence detection depth by superposing different thicknesses of chicken breast on an ICG-loaded agar phantom. We verify the technical feasibility for identifying potential iatrogenic injury in cholecystectomy using a rat model in vivo. The proposed PFMS system is portable, inexpensive, and suitable for deployment in resource-limited settings. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  12. Benchtop and animal validation of a portable fluorescence microscopic imaging system for potential use in cholecystectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Jian; Liu, Guanghui; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Shiwu; Shao, Pengfei; Smith, Zachary J.; Liu, Chenhai; Xu, Ronald X.

    2018-02-01

    We propose a portable fluorescence microscopic imaging system (PFMS) for intraoperative display of biliary structure and prevention of iatrogenic injuries during cholecystectomy. The system consists of a light source module, a camera module, and a Raspberry Pi computer with an LCD. Indocyanine green (ICG) is used as a fluorescent contrast agent for experimental validation of the system. Fluorescence intensities of the ICG aqueous solution at different concentration levels are acquired by our PFMS and compared with those of a commercial Xenogen IVIS system. We study the fluorescence detection depth by superposing different thicknesses of chicken breast on an ICG-loaded agar phantom. We verify the technical feasibility for identifying potential iatrogenic injury in cholecystectomy using a rat model in vivo. The proposed PFMS system is portable, inexpensive, and suitable for deployment in resource-limited settings.

  13. Segmental spinal anaesthesia for cholecystectomy in a patient with severe lung disease.

    PubMed

    van Zundert, A A J; Stultiens, G; Jakimowicz, J J; van den Borne, B E E M; van der Ham, W G J M; Wildsmith, J A W

    2006-04-01

    Occasionally patients awaiting heart or lung transplant because of terminal disease require other types of surgery, but present significant challenges to the anaesthetist because of impaired organ function. Regional anaesthesia may have much to offer such patients and we here report one who underwent successfully a laparoscopic cholecystectomy under segmental subarachnoid (spinal) anaesthesia performed at the low thoracic level. The anatomical and physiological consequences of such a technique are discussed.

  14. [Malpractice in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Results of cases recently considered by the Expert Commission].

    PubMed

    Kienzle, H F

    1999-01-01

    The Expert Commission for medical malpractice which is part of the Medical Chamber of Nordrhein received about 60 applications in connection with laparoscopic cholecystectomy; as of August 1998 5 complaints were let off and 11 of them are still being considered. So far 44 complaints have been considered and in 25 of them medical malpractice has been established. The medical malpractice detected laparoscopic cholecystectomy cases were mainly bile duct injuries of which 13 required a biliodigestive anastomosis for reconstruction, four cases required and end-to-end anastomosis and in one case a T-tube drainage was needed. The youngest one of these patients was 21 years old, the oldest one was 61 years old. Four times the bile duct injury was not considered as malpractice, because it could be intraoperatively made out and immediately treated. Trocar injuries were twice a cause for malpractice and once it was not. Each of the following cases was also recognized as a malpractice. One lost gallstone one dislocated Roedersnare, one electric injury, one delayed reintervention and one insufficient information. The following cases were decided as non-malpractice: in two cases a slipped clip, in five cases subhepatical hematoma/abscess, in three cases a secondary bleeding, once a lesion of the splenic capsule and finally a running sore with subsequent incisional hernia. Three courses of treatment with consequence of death also contained mistakes: one electric injury of the bowel, one bile duct lesion and one information rebuke. The bile duct injury is the most considerable risk for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and implies also a high risk for the future health. The experienced surgeon distinguishes himself by the fact that he is right about the situation and converts sooner that later to conventional cholecystectomy if there's any doubt. In open surgery the principle is applied that structures may be only divided when they are clearly identified. The same goes even on a wider

  15. Percutaneous cholecystolithotomy. A minimally invasive alternative to cholecystectomy and to shock wave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Griffith, D P; Gleeson, M J; Appel, M F; Bentlif, P S; Hochman, F L; Toombs, B D; Skolkin, M D

    1990-09-01

    Recently introduced treatment alternatives for gallstones include peroral pharmacological chemolysis plus shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous cholecystolithotomy. Herein we report on the treatment preferences of 23 patients with symptomatic gallstones and our initial experience with percutaneous cholecystolithotomy in 6 of these patients. All patients were rendered stone free after one procedure. Percutaneous cholecystolithotomy, which is applicable to all types of gallstones, is a safe, practical, low-morbidity alternative to cholecystectomy in selected patients.

  16. Management of complicated gallstones: results of an alternative approach to difficult cholecystectomies.

    PubMed

    Lirici, Marco Maria; Califano, Andrea

    2010-10-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the gold standard treatment of gallstones. Nevertheless, the incidence of conversion and injuries to the biliary tract is still high in difficult cholecystectomies. In this study we sought to determine how using operative risk predictive scores (PSs) and the Nassar scale to grade the difficulty of LC would optimize the perioperative management of complicated gallstone patients. We also evaluated whether the "fundus-first" approach to LC combined with ultrasonic dissection minimizes the risk of conversion and biliary injury in difficult cholecystectomies, and avoids routine intraoperative cholangiography. A prospective non-randomized study was carried out from 2005 to 2007 including 237 patients referred for gallbladder diseases. All patients were evaluated using an operative risk PS. The LC grade of difficulty was assessed according to Nassar. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of PS were calculated. LC in difficult cases was accomplished with a fundus-first approach. Outcome measures included: Conversion rate, bile duct (BD) injury rate, and postoperative complications according to Clavien. In 178 out of 237 patients, a higher risk of conversion and complication was predicted. In 146 out of these 178 cases, intra-operative grading confirmed the difficulty of the procedure. The PS diagnostic accuracy was 0.865, sensitivity was 100%, and specificity 65%. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 0.82 and 1, respectively. Conversion rate was 2.7%. Mean operating time and postoperative length of hospital stay were 75 minutes and 3.5 days. Intra-operative cholangiography was necessary in five cases, and one intraoperative biliary complication occurred with an uneventful postoperative course. Overall, postoperative complications were 2.7% with a mortality rate of 0.68% (1 myocardial infarction). Fundus-first LC by ultrasonic dissection is safe and minimizes the risk of conversion and biliary injuries

  17. Porcine cadaver organ or virtual-reality simulation training for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Van Bruwaene, Siska; Schijven, Marlies P; Napolitano, Daniel; De Win, Gunter; Miserez, Marc

    2015-01-01

    As conventional laparoscopic procedural training requires live animals or cadaver organs, virtual simulation seems an attractive alternative. Therefore, we compared the transfer of training for the laparoscopic cholecystectomy from porcine cadaver organs vs virtual simulation to surgery in a live animal model in a prospective randomized trial. After completing an intensive training in basic laparoscopic skills, 3 groups of 10 participants proceeded with no additional training (control group), 5 hours of cholecystectomy training on cadaver organs (= organ training) or proficiency-based cholecystectomy training on the LapMentor (= virtual-reality training). Participants were evaluated on time and quality during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on a live anaesthetized pig at baseline, 1 week (= post) and 4 months (= retention) after training. All research was performed in the Center for Surgical Technologies, Leuven, Belgium. In total, 30 volunteering medical students without prior experience in laparoscopy or minimally invasive surgery from the University of Leuven (Belgium). The organ training group performed the procedure significantly faster than the virtual trainer and borderline significantly faster than control group at posttesting. Only 1 of 3 expert raters suggested significantly better quality of performance of the organ training group compared with both the other groups at posttesting (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between groups at retention testing. The virtual trainer group did not outperform the control group at any time. For trainees who are proficient in basic laparoscopic skills, the long-term advantage of additional procedural training, especially on a virtual but also on the conventional organ training model, remains to be proven. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Predictors of outcome after reconstructive hepatico-jejunostomy for post cholecystectomy bile duct injuries.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Rachel M; Doctor, Nilesh H

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructive hepatico-jejunostomy is recommended for major bile duct injuries (BDIs) during cholecystectomy. Complications of biliary leak, cholangitis, bleeding, anastomotic strictures and biliary cirrhosis remain a major concern affecting a patient's outcome after surgery. The aim of this study was to analyse the results of surgical repair of major BDIs at our institution and identify predictors for the development of major complications. A retrospective study of 57 patients with major BDI after cholecystectomy referred to a tertiary hepato-biliary centre from July 1999 to July 2011 and subsequently managed with reconstructive bilio-enteric anastomosis was performed. Of 57 patents 35 (61.4%) were primary referred. 22 (38.6 %) were secondary referred, of which 17 were for correct reconstructive surgery performed elsewhere and 5 were following attempted endoscopic management. 17 (29.8%) had local and systemic perioperative complications. 13 (22.8%) had major complications (bile leak, bleed, stricture and/or biliary cirrhosis). No association was found between age, type of cholecystectomy, type of injury, vascular injury and occurrence of major complications. Secondarily referred patients after therapeutic interventions (p = 0.010) and reconstructive surgery after repair performed by non-specialists suffered an increased incidence of major complications (p = 0.032). Secondary referral was also an independent predictor of major complications (p = 0.024). Early referral of patients with no previous intervention to a tertiary hepato-biliary center and specialist surgical repair is recommended for improved outcome after reconstructive hepatico-jejunostomy for major BDIs during cholecystectomy.

  19. [Late stage stenoses of bile ducts after iatrogenic bile duct injuries following cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Bektas, H; Winny, M; Schrem, H; Becker, T; Klempnauer, J

    2007-12-01

    Iatrogenic bile duct injuries represent a severe complication after cholecystectomy. For the attending physician therapy and management of these injuries are a challenge. Inadequate and delayed treatment can lead to stenoses at a late stage, which can necessitate further surgical intervention. In a study data of 74 patients, who were treated in our clinic for bile duct injuries following cholecystectomy, were analysed retrospectively. A total of 8 patients with late stage bile duct strictures following iatrogenic bile duct injury including the subsequent therapy could be identified. The data of these patients were analysed in respect of cause and strategies to prevent late stage stenoses. In 62 patients the bile duct injury occurred following laparoscopic and in 12 patients following open cholecystectomy. In 16 patients the injury was combined with a vascular lesion. The interval between primary intervention and definitive therapy was 11 days in 53 patients and 1-15 years in 21 patients. In 8 patients the reason for the re-operation after a long interval (1-15 years) was a late stage stenosis. A hepatico-jejunostomy was performed subsequently and during follow-up 5 / 8 patients were symptom-free; 7 patients were re-operated due to a stenosed primary biliodigestive anastomosis and 3 patients each due to atrophy of the right liver lobe and recurrent cholangitis. One patient complained of recurrent cholangitis and a further patient of symptoms due to adhesions. If treated inadequately bile duct injuries occurring during cholecystectomy can in the long-term lead to considerable problems such as recurrent cholangitis, late stage stenoses and even to secondary biliary cirrhosis. Therefore, a complex inter-disciplinary therapeutic concept aiming at timely treatment is necessary.

  20. Euro-NOTES Status Paper: from the concept to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, K H; Meining, A; von Renteln, D; Fernandez-Esparrach, G; Breithaupt, W; Zornig, C; Lacy, A

    2013-05-01

    The concept of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) consists of the reduction of access trauma by using a natural orifice access to the intra-abdominal cavity. This could possibly lead to less postoperative pain, quicker recovery from surgery, fewer postoperative complications, fewer wound infections, and fewer long-term problems such as hernias. The Euro-NOTES Foundation has organized yearly meetings to work on this concept to bring it safely into clinical practice. The aim of this Euro-NOTES status update is to assess the yearly scientific working group reports and provide an overview on the current clinical practice of NOTES procedures. After the Euro-NOTES meeting 2011 in Frankfurt, Germany, an analysis was started regarding the most important topics of the European working groups. All prospectively documented information was gathered from Euro-NOTES and D-NOTES working groups from 2007 to 2011. The top five topics were analyzed. The statements of the working group activities demonstrate the growing information and changing insights. The most important selected topics were infection issue, peritoneal access, education and training, platforms and new technology, closure, suture, and anastomosis. The focus on research topics changed over time. The principle of hybrid access has overcome the technical and safety limitations of pure NOTES. Currently the following NOTES access routes are established for several indications: transvaginal access for cholecystectomy, appendectomy and colon resections; transesophageal access for myotomy; transgastric access for full-thickness small-tumor resections; and transanal/transcolonic access for rectal and colon resections. NOTES and hybrid NOTES techniques have emerged for all natural orifices and were introduced into clinical practice with a good safety record. There are different indications for different natural orifices. Each technique has been optimized for the purpose of finding a safe and realistic

  1. Novel and safer endoscopic cholecystectomy using only a flexible endoscope via single port

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Hirohito; Kobayashi, Nobuya; Kobara, Hideki; Nishiyama, Noriko; Fujihara, Shintaro; Chiyo, Taiga; Ayaki, Maki; Nagase, Takashi; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To apply the laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery concept, we investigated whether endoscopic cholecystectomy could be performed more safely and rapidly via only 1 port or not. METHODS: Two dogs (11 and 13-mo-old female Beagle) were used in this study. Only 1 blunt port was created, and a flexible endoscope with a tip attachment was inserted between the fundus of gallbladder and liver. After local injection of saline to the gallbladder bed, resection of the gallbladder bed from the liver was performed. After complete resection of the gallbladder bed, the gallbladder was pulled up to resect its neck using the Ring-shaped thread technique. The neck of the gallbladder was cut using scissor forceps. Resected gallbladder was retrieved using endoscopic net forceps via a port. RESULTS: The operation times from general anesthetizing with sevoflurane to finishing the closure of the blunt port site were about 50 min and 60 min respectively. The resection times of gallbladder bed were about 15 min and 13 min respectively without liver injury and bleeding at all. Feed were given just after next day of operation, and they had a good appetite. Two dogs are in good health now and no complications for 1 mo after endoscopic cholecystectomy using only a flexible endoscope via one port. CONCLUSION: We are sure of great feasibility of endoscopic cholecystectomy via single port for human. PMID:27053847

  2. Post-cholecystectomy syndrome: spectrum of biliary findings at magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Girometti, R; Brondani, G; Cereser, L; Como, G; Del Pin, M; Bazzocchi, M; Zuiani, C

    2010-01-01

    Post-cholecystectomy syndrome (PCS) is defined as a complex of heterogeneous symptoms, consisting of upper abdominal pain and dyspepsia, which recur and/or persist after cholecystectomy. Nevertheless, this term is inaccurate, as it encompasses biliary and non-biliary disorders, possibly unrelated to cholecystectomy. Biliary manifestations of PCS may occur early in the post-operative period, usually because of incomplete surgery (retained calculi in the cystic duct remnant or in the common bile duct) or operative complications, such as bile duct injury and/or bile leakage. A later onset is commonly caused by inflammatory scarring strictures involving the sphincter of Oddi or the common bile duct, recurrent calculi or biliary dyskinesia. The traditional imaging approach for PCS has involved ultrasound and/or CT followed by direct cholangiography, whereas manometry of the sphincter of Oddi and biliary scintigraphy have been reserved for cases of biliary dyskinesia. Because of its capability to provide non-invasive high-quality visualisation of the biliary tract, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) has been advocated as a reliable imaging tool for assessing patients with suspected PCS and for guiding management decisions. This paper illustrates the rationale for using MRCP, together with the main MRCP biliary findings and diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:20335441

  3. Cholecystectomy in patients with sickle cell disease: experience at a regional hospital in southeast Georgia.

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, R.; Williams, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    The treatment of patients with sickle cell disease and cholelithiasis is controversial. This retrospective study assesses the outcome of preoperative transfusion and timely cholecystectomy in symptomatic sickle cell disease patients. Fourteen patients who had undergone cholecystectomy were determined to have sickle cell disease. The patients' mean age was 17.9 years. Eleven patients were female. Thirteen patients had complained of abdominal pain. Ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis of cholelithiasis in 12 of 13 patients tested. Hemoglobin before treatment averaged 7.7 g/dL. Transfusion or exchange transfusion was given to 12 patients, raising the average hemoglobin to 10.3 g/dL. Postoperative morbidity was 14%: one patient had a urinary tract infection and another a left-lower-lobe pneumonia. No sickle cell crises or deaths occurred. Postoperative hospital stay averaged 4.4 days. With judicious use of preoperative transfusion, early cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones was well tolerated by sickle cell disease patients and is advisable to avoid the morbid sequelae of acute cholecystitis and peroperative sickle cell crisis. PMID:1507260

  4. The impact of routine histopathological examination on cholecystectomy specimens from an Asian demographic

    PubMed Central

    Chin, KF; Mohammad, AA; Khoo, YY; Krishnasamy, T

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Most gallbladder carcinoma cases are suspected pre-operatively or intra-operatively. In Malaysia histopathological examination of cholecystectomy specimens has become routine practice. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of routine histological examinations on cholecystectomy specimens from an Asian demographic, which may differ from a Caucasian demographic. METHODS A retrospective study was performed of all histopathoiogy reports for choiecystectomies (Iaparoscopic and open) undertaken over a period of 12 years (1997-2008) in a single teaching hospital. RESULTS A total of 1,375 gallbladder specimens were sent for histopathological analysis, with 7 (0.5%) being reported as malignant while only three (0.2%) were found to contain primary gallbladder carcinoma. Other premalignant findings included two specimens with dyspiastic changes of the mucosa and one tubuioviiious adenoma with a dyspiastic epithelium. From the ten malignant and premalignant specimens, seven were diagnosed pre-operatively, two were suspected intra-operatively and one was diagnosed with dyspiastic changes on the histopathoiogy report post-operatively. CONCLUSIONS This study supports earlier research carried out in the UK and the demographic difference does not affect the impact of the histology examination on cholecystectomy specimens in diagnosing this disease. A selective policy is recommended in Malaysia. PMID:22507719

  5. A Comparative Study Between Palonosetron and Granisetron to Prevent Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Dhurjoti Prosad; Dawn, Satrajit; Nayak, Sushil; Roy, Pramod Ranjan; Acharya, Amita; Dey, Ramkrishna

    2010-01-01

    Background: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is commonly seen after laparoscopic surgery. In this randomized double blind prospective clinical study, we investigated and compared the efficacy of palonosetron and granisetron to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients & Methods: Sixty female patients (18-65 yrs of age) undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly allocated one of the two groups containing 30 patients each. Group P received palonosetron 75 μg intravenously as a bolus before induction of anaesthesia. Group G received granisetron 2.5 mg intravenously as a bolus before induction. Results: The incidence of a complete response (no PONV, no rescue medication) during 0-3 hour in the postoperative period was 86.6% with granisetron and 90% with palonosetron, the incidence during 3-24 hour postoperatively was 83.3% with granisetron and 90% with palonosetron. During 24-48 hour, the incidence was 66.6% and 90% respectively (p<0.05). The incidence of adverse effects were statistically insignificant between the groups. Conclusion: Prophylactic therapy with palonosetron is more effective than granisetron for long term prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:21547174

  6. The effect of short-term continuous epidural morphine on postoperative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, T; Nakamura, Y; Takeda, H; Matsusue, S; Kato, Y; Nishiwada, M

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether short-term continuous epidural analgesia using morphine would relieve pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The authors retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 182 cases who had undergone a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. These cases were divided into four groups according to their anesthetic modes as follows: a control group with general anesthesia only (n = 37); group I, general anesthesia combined with one shot of epidural morphine (n = 78); and group II, general anesthesia combined with continuous epidural analgesia using morphine (IIa for 12 h (n = 33); IIb for 8 h (n = 34)). The pain score on a four-category verbal scale and the frequency of analgesic use were investigated. There were no differences in the background characteristics of the patients among the groups, except for the duration of surgery (I vs IIa; P = 0.006). The pain scores were significantly different between the control group and the other groups. The frequency of analgesic use in the control group was also significantly higher than in the other groups. A tendency toward a higher frequency of analgesic use in group I, compared with that in groups IIa and IIb, was observed. These findings thus suggest that short-term continuous epidural analgesia using morphine can effectively relieve postoperative pain after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  7. Incision extension is the optimal method of difficult gallbladder extraction at laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Bordelon, B M; Hobday, K A; Hunter, J G

    1992-01-01

    An unsolved problem of laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the optimal method of removing the gallbladder with thick walls and a large stone burden. Proposed solutions include fascial dilatation, stone crushing, and ultrasonic, high-speed rotary, or laser lithotripsy. Our observation was that extension of the fascial incision to remove the impacted gallbladder was time efficient and did not increase postoperative pain. We reviewed the narcotic requirements of 107 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Fifty-two patients required extension of the umbilical incision, and 55 patients did not have their fascial incision enlarged. Parenteral meperidine use was 39.5 +/- 63.6 mg in the patients requiring fascial incision extension and 66.3 +/- 79.2 mg in those not requiring fascial incision extension (mean +/- standard deviation). Oral narcotic requirements were 1.1 +/- 1.5 doses vs 1.3 +/- 1.7 doses in patients with and without incision extension, respectively. The wide range of narcotic use in both groups makes these apparent differences not statistically significant. We conclude that protracted attempts at stone crushing or expensive stone fragmentation devices are unnecessary for the extraction of a difficult gallbladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  8. Intraabdominal contamination after gallbladder perforation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and its complications.

    PubMed

    Kimura, T; Goto, H; Takeuchi, Y; Yoshida, M; Kobayashi, T; Sakuramachi, S; Harada, Y

    1996-09-01

    Gallbladder perforation often occurs during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The frequency and causes of gallbladder perforation as well as the relevant clinical background factors were investigated in 110 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We also evaluated intraperitoneal contamination by bacteria and gallstones at the time of gallbladder perforation and investigated whether perforation caused early or late postoperative complications. Intraoperative gallbladder perforation occurred in 29 of the 110 patients (26.3%). It was caused by injury with an electric knife during dissection of the gallbladder bed, injury during gallbladder retraction with grasping forceps, injury during gallbladder extraction from the abdomen, and slippage of cystic duct clips (potentially causing bile and stone spillage). Perforation was more frequent in patients with positive bile cultures and in those with pigment stones (p < 0.02), but not in patients with cholecystitis or cystic duct obstruction. The peritoneal cavity was contaminated by bacteria in 11/29 patients (37.9%) and by spilled stones in 3/29 patients (10.3%). There was no difference in the incidence of postoperative complications between the patients with and without perforation either in the early postoperative period or during follow-up for 24-42 months. Only one patient developed abdominal pain and fever in the early postoperative period, and they were probably related to perforation. Although gallbladder perforation is sometimes unavoidable during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the risk of severe complications appears to be minimized by early closure of perforation, retrieval of as many of the spilled stones as possible, and intraperitoneal lavage.

  9. Abdominal wall sinus due to impacting gallstone during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an unusual complication.

    PubMed

    Pavlidis, T E; Papaziogas, B T; Koutelidakis, I M; Papaziogas, T B

    2002-02-01

    During laparoscopic cholecystectomy, perforation of the gallbladder can occurs in < or = 20% of cases, while gallstone spillage occurs in < or = 6% of cases. In most cases, there are no consequences. Gallstones can be lost in the abdominal wall as well as the abdomen during extraction of the gallbladder. The fate of such lost gallstones, which can lead to the formation of an abscess, an abdominal wall mass, or a persistent sinus, has not been studied adequately. Herein we report the case of a persistent sinus of the abdominal wall after an emergent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in an 82-year-old woman with gangrenous cholecystitis and perforation of the friable wall in association with an empyema of the gallbladder. The culture of the obtained pus was positive for Escherichia coli. After a small leak of dirty fluid from the wound of the epigastric port site of 4 months' duration, surgical exploration under local anesthesia revealed that the sinus was caused by spilled gallstones impacting into the abdominal wall between the posterior sheath and left rectus abdominalis muscle. The removal of the stones resulted in complete healing. Long-term complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy involving the abdominal wall are rare but important possible consequences that could be avoided.

  10. Protector effect of α-thalassaemia on cholecystitis and cholecystectomy in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Robéria M; Costa, Elaine S; Siqueira, Patrícia F R; Medeiros, Jussara F F; Soares, Andréa; de Mello, Fabiana V; Maioli, Maria C; Filho, Isaac L S; Alves, Liliane R; Land, Marcelo G P; Fleury, Marcos K

    2017-08-01

    Cholecystitis is one of the complications of symptomatic cholelithiasis responsible for high levels of morbidity of sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. Here, we investigated the possible protective role of single gene deletions of α-thalassaemia in the occurrence of cholelithiasis and cholecystitis in SCD patients, as well as the cholecystectomy requirements. The α-globin genotype was determined in 83 SCD patients using the multiplex-polymerase chain reaction and compared with clinical events. Overall, in 23% of patients, -α 3.7 deletion was found. α-Thalassaemia concomitant to SCD was an independent protective factor to cholecystitis (OR = 0.07; 95% CI: 0.01-0.66; p = 0.020) and cholecystectomy requirement (OR = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.03-0.60; p = 0.008). The risk of cholelithiasis was not affected by the α-thalassaemia concomitance. To the best our knowledge, our study is the first to show the protective effect of α-thalassaemia on cholecystitis and cholecystectomy requirements in SCD, which may be due to an improved splenic function.

  11. Racial Disparities in Access and Outcomes of Cholecystectomy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gahagan, John V; Hanna, Mark H; Whealon, Matthew D; Maximus, Steven; Phelan, Michael J; Lekawa, Michael; Barrios, Cristobal; Bernal, Nicole P

    2016-10-01

    Disparities in access to health care between white and minority patients are well described. We aimed to analyze the trends and outcomes of cholecystectomy based on racial classification. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was reviewed for all patients undergoing cholecystectomy from 2009 to 2012. Patients were stratified as white or non-white. A total of 243,536 patients were analyzed: 159,901 white and 83,635 non-white. Non-white patients had significantly higher proportions of Medicaid (25% vs 9.3%), self-pay (14% vs 7.1%), and no-charge (1.8% vs 0.64%). Non-white patients had significantly higher rates of emergent admission (84% vs 78%) compared with the white patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that non-whites had a significantly longer length of stay [mean difference of 0.14 days, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.20] and higher total hospital charges (mean difference of $6748.00, 95% CI 5994.19-7501.81) than whites, despite a lower morbidity (odds ratio 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.98). Use of laparoscopy and mortality were not different. These differences persisted on subgroup analysis by insurance type. These findings suggest a gap in access to and outcomes of cholecystectomy in the minority population nationwide.

  12. Cholecystectomy improves long-term success after endoscopic treatment of CBD stones.

    PubMed

    Hoem, D; Viste, A; Horn, A; Gislason, H; Søndenaa, K

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to study prospectively primary endoscopic treatment of CBD stones and further the long-term need for renewed gallstone disease interventions, defined as short- and long-term outcome. Seven years prospective follow-up of 101 consecutive patients with CBD stones who underwent endoscopic treatment with the intent of primarily achieving duct clearance. Many patients underwent several endoscopy sessions before stone clearance was completed in 83%. Eleven patients were treated surgically, 2 patients received a permanent stent, and the remaining 3 became stone free with other means. Complications occurred in 47 patients. During follow-up, 31 patients were readmitted for gallstone disease and 15 of these had recurrent CBD stones. Ten percent (8/78) of patients with the gallbladder in situ had acute cholecystitis during follow-up and late cholecystectomy was carried out in 22%. Risk factors for new gallstone disease were an in situ gallbladder containing stones and previous episodes of CBD stones. A goal of complete CBD stone clearance with ERC and ES proved to be relatively resource consuming. Subsequent cholecystectomy after duct clearance for CBD should be advised when the gallbladder lodges gallstones, especially in younger patients. Recurrent CBD stones were not influenced by cholecystectomy.

  13. Value of MRI in three patients with major vascular injuries after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Ragozzino, Alfonso; Lassandro, Francesco; De Ritis, Rosaria; Imbriaco, Massimo

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe three cases of major vascular injuries after laparoscopic cholecystectomy depicted on magnetic resonance (MR) examination. Three female patients (mean age, 32 years; range, 22-39 years) were studied with clinical suspicion of bilio-vascular injuries after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All MR examinations were performed within 24 h after the laparoscopic procedure. MR imaging was evaluated for major vascular injuries involving the arterial and portal venous system, for bile duct discontinuity, presence or absence of biliary dilation, stricture, excision injury, free fluid and collections. In the first patient, a type-IV Bismuth injury with associated intrahepatic bile ducts dilation was observed. Contrast-enhanced MR revealed lack of enhancement in the right hepatic lobe due to occlusion of the right hepatic artery and the right portal branch. This patient underwent right hepatectomy with hepatico-jejunostomy. In the other two cases, no visualization of the right hepatic artery and the right portal branch was observed on MR angiography. In the first case, the patient underwent right hepatectomy; in the second case, because of stable liver condition, the patient was managed conservatively. MR imaging combined with MR angiography and MR cholangiography can be performed emergently in patients with suspicion of bilio-vascular injury after laparoscopic cholecystectomy allowing the simultaneous evaluation of the biliary tree and the hepatic vascular supply that is essential for adequate treatment planning.

  14. [Reduction of omalgia in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: clinical randomized trial ketorolac vs ketorolac and acetazolamide].

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Balderas, Lorena; Franco-López, Francisco; Flores-Álvarez, Efrén; López-Rodríguez, Jorge Luis; Vázquez-García, José Antonio; Barba-Valadez, Claudia Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopy cholecystectomy for the surgical treatment of cholelithiasis has been considered the gold standard. The referred pain to the shoulder (omalgia) may be present to 63% of the patients and limits outpatient management. The study was to evaluate the usefulness of acetazolamide associated with ketorolac for reduction of the omalgia to minimally invasive treatment. We performed a clinical trial, randomized, double blind in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy to assess the reduction of post-operative omalgia comparing ketorolac and ketorolaco+acetazolamida. 31 patients in each group were studied. The study group: 250 mg of acetazolamide before anesthetic induction and 30 mg of ketorolac in the immediate postoperative period. one tablet of placebo prior to the anesthetic induction and 30 mg of ketorolac in the immediate postoperative. The presence of omalgia was assessed using the analog visual scale. The variables recorded included: age, sex, flow of carbon dioxide intra-abdominal pressure, surgical time, urgent or elective surgery, omalgia, severity of pain evaluated by analog visual scale, addition analgesia. Both groups were homogeneous and statistical analysis showed no differences in the variables studied. The omalgia in the study group was presented at 9.67% and in the group control was the 58.06% (p < 0.001). 250 mg oral acetazolamide associated 30 mg of ketorolac reduces significantly the development of omalgia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  15. Efficacy of perioperative parecoxib injection on postoperative pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A prospective, randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Akaraviputh, Thawatchai; Leelouhapong, Charay; Lohsiriwat, Varut; Aroonpruksakul, Somkiat

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine the efficacy of perioperative parecoxib injection on postoperative pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 70 patients who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, from January 2006 to December 2007. Patients were randomized to receive either 20 mg parecoxib infusion 30 min before induction of anesthesia and at 12 h after the first dose (treatment group), or normal saline infusion, in the same schedule, as a placebo (control group). The degree of the postoperative pain was assessed every 3 h in the first 24 h after surgery, and then every 12 h the following day, using a visual analog scale. The consumption of analgesics was also recorded. RESULTS: There were 40 patients in the treatment group, and 30 patients in the control group. The pain scores at each time point, and analgesic consumption did not differ between the two groups. However, there were fewer patients in the treatment group than placebo group who required opioid infusion within the first 24 h (60% vs 37%, P = 0.053). CONCLUSION: Perioperative administration of parecoxib provided no significant effect on postoperative pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, preoperative infusion 20 mg parecoxib could significantly reduce the postoperative opioid consumption. PMID:19399934

  16. Patient views through the keyhole: new perspectives on single-incision vs. multiport laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hey, Jennifer; Roberts, Keith John; Morris-Stiff, Gareth J; Toogood, Giles J

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) may be associated with less pain, shorter hospital stay and better cosmetic results than multiport laparoscopic cholecystectomy (MLC). Advocates suggest that patients prefer SILC, although research directly addressing the question of patient preferences is limited. This study aimed to assess patient preferences using currently available evidence. Methods Patients awaiting elective cholecystectomy were shown a series of postoperative images taken after SILC or MLC and asked which procedure this led them to prefer. This was repeated after patients had completed a questionnaire constructed using published objective data comparing patient-reported outcomes of SILC and MLC. Results The study was completed by 113 consecutive patients. After their initial viewing of the images, 16% of subjects preferred MLC. Younger age, lower body mass index and female sex were associated with choosing SILC. After completing the questionnaire, 88% of patients preferred MLC (P < 0.001). Patients ranked the level of risk for complications and postoperative pain above cosmetic results in determining their choice of procedure. Conclusions Patients' initial preference when presented with cosmetic appearance was for SILC. When contemporary outcome data were included, the majority chose MLC. This underlines the need to fully inform patients during the consent process and indicates that patient views of SILC may differ from the views of those introducing the technology. PMID:22404262

  17. How Do Quality-of-Life and Gastrointestinal Symptoms Differ Between Post-cholecystectomy Patients and the Background Population?

    PubMed

    Wanjura, Viktor; Sandblom, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated a correlation between indication for cholecystectomy and long-term gastrointestinal quality-of-life (QoL). The aim of the present study was to compare QoL in a post-cholecystectomy cohort with the background population and with historical controls. A post-cholecystectomy study group (on average 4 years after cholecystectomy) was compared with a control group from the background population using the Gastrointestinal Quality-of-Life Index (GIQLI). EQ-5D scores were compared with expected scores derived from recent historical data. The post-cholecystectomy study group (N = 451) had better QoL measured by the EQ-5D compared with historical controls (p < 0.001), similar total GIQLI scores as the control group (N = 390), but scored worse on the GIQLI gastrointestinal symptoms subscale score (p < 0.001). The results include an item-by-item breakdown of the GIQLI questionnaire where the scores for diarrhea, bowel urgency, bloating, regurgitation, abdominal pain, flatus, fullness, nausea, uncontrolled stools, belching, heartburn, restricted eating, and bowel frequency were found to be significantly lower (i.e. worse) in the post-cholecystectomy cohort than in the control group. The opposite was true for relationships, endurance, sexual life, physical strength, feeling fit, not being frustrated by illness, and being able to carry out leisure activities, i.e. items related to general performance and well-being. In this study, QoL after cholecystectomy was good, but there was an increased prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms compared to the background population.

  18. Population-based cohort study of variation in the use of emergency cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this prospective population-based cohort study were to identify the patient and hospital characteristics associated with emergency cholecystectomy, and the influences of these in determining variations between hospitals. Data were collected for consecutive patients undergoing cholecystectomy in acute UK and Irish hospitals between 1 March and 1 May 2014. Potential explanatory variables influencing the performance of emergency cholecystectomy were analysed by means of multilevel, multivariable logistic regression modelling using a two-level hierarchical structure with patients (level 1) nested within hospitals (level 2). Data were collected on 4744 cholecystectomies from 165 hospitals. Increasing age, lower ASA fitness grade, biliary colic, the need for further imaging (magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography), endoscopic interventions (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) and admission to a non-biliary centre significantly reduced the likelihood of an emergency cholecystectomy being performed. The multilevel model was used to calculate the probability of receiving an emergency cholecystectomy for a woman aged 40 years or over with an ASA grade of I or II and a BMI of at least 25·0 kg/m 2 , who presented with acute cholecystitis with an ultrasound scan showing a thick-walled gallbladder and a normal common bile duct. The mean predicted probability of receiving an emergency cholecystectomy was 0·52 (95 per cent c.i. 0·45 to 0·57). The predicted probabilities ranged from 0·02 to 0·95 across the 165 hospitals, demonstrating significant variation between hospitals. Patients with similar characteristics presenting to different hospitals with acute gallbladder pathology do not receive comparable care. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis: are intended operative approach, timing and outcome affected by BMI? A multicenter retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Lauro, A; Vaccari, S; Cervellera, M; Casella, Giuseppina; D'Andrea, V; Di Matteo, F M; Panarese, A; Santoro, A; Cirocchi, R; Tonini, V

    2018-01-01

    Laparoscopy is the gold-standard for cholecystectomy after acute cholecystitis, but the issue is controversial in obese subjects. We reviewed 464 patients operated for acute cholecystitis (59 open and 405 laparoscopic) over the last five years at St Orsola University Hospital-Bologna and Umberto I University Hospital-Rome, comparing retrospectively: 1) BMI < 30 (397 patients) and BMI =/> 30 (67 patients) and moreover 2) BMI < 25 (207 patients) and BMI =/> 25 (257 patients). In the first comparison, obese patients showed higher cardiovascular co-morbidity (61.1% vs 44.5%, p=0.01), worse symptoms (Murphy's sign positive in 92.5% vs 80.8%, p=0.02; fever >38.5°C in 88.0% vs 76.0 %, p=0.02) and significant radiologic imaging (95.5% vs 85.1%, p=0.01) of acute cholecystitis. Laparoscopy was used in 83.6% of obese patients vs 87.9% without any difference, and operative time or conversion rate were similar. According to Tokyo Guidelines 2013, the number of patients who underwent surgery within 3 days or after 6 weeks was similar without statistical difference between the two groups. Hospital stay, morbidity and mortality were similar. Complications were seen in 25.4% of obese patients vs 15.9% (p= 0.03), mainly represented by wound infections. The second comparison did show no difference between two groups BMI =/>25 and BMI < 25. Our retrospective multicenter study showed no difference related to intended operative approach, timing and outcome in higher BMI versus lower BMI patients operated for acute cholecystitis.

  20. General anesthesia versus segmental thoracic or conventional lumbar spinal anesthesia for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Gamal T; Lasheen, Ahmed E

    2012-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy became the standard surgery for gallstone disease because of causing less postoperative pain, respiratory compromise and early ambulation. This study was designed to compare spinal anesthesia, (segmental thoracic or conventional lumbar) vs the gold standard general anesthesia as three anesthetic techniques for healthy patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, evaluating intraoperative parameters, postoperative recovery and analgesia, complications as well as patient and surgeon satisfaction. A total of 90 patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, between January 2010 and May 2011, were randomized into three equal groups to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy with low-pressure CO2 pneumoperitoneum under segmental thoracic (TSA group) or conventional lumbar (LSA group) spinal anesthesia or general anesthesia (GA group). To achieve a T3 sensory level we used (hyperbaric bupivacaine 15 mg, and fentanyl 25 mg at L2/L3) for LSAgroup, and (hyperbaric bupivacaine 7.5 mg, and fentanyl 25 mg at T10/T11) for TSAgroup. Propofol, fentanyl, atracurium, sevoflurane, and tracheal intubation were used for GA group. Intraoperative parameters, postoperative recovery and analgesia, complications as well as patient and surgeon satisfaction were compared between the three groups. All procedures were completed laparoscopically by the allocated method of anesthesia with no anesthetic conversions. The time for the blockade to reach T3 level, intraoperative hypotensive and bradycardic events and vasopressor use were significantly lower in (TSA group) than in (LSA group). Postoperative pain scores as assessed throughout any time, postoperative right shoulder pain and hospital stay was lower for both (TSA group) and (LSA group) compared with (GA group). The higher degree of patients satisfaction scores were recorded in patients under segmental TSA. The present study not only confirmed that both segmental TSA and conventional

  1. General anesthesia versus segmental thoracic or conventional lumbar spinal anesthesia for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yousef, Gamal T.; Lasheen, Ahmed E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy became the standard surgery for gallstone disease because of causing less postoperative pain, respiratory compromise and early ambulation. Objective: This study was designed to compare spinal anesthesia, (segmental thoracic or conventional lumbar) vs the gold standard general anesthesia as three anesthetic techniques for healthy patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, evaluating intraoperative parameters, postoperative recovery and analgesia, complications as well as patient and surgeon satisfaction. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, between January 2010 and May 2011, were randomized into three equal groups to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy with low-pressure CO2 pneumoperitoneum under segmental thoracic (TSA group) or conventional lumbar (LSA group) spinal anesthesia or general anesthesia (GA group). To achieve a T3 sensory level we used (hyperbaric bupivacaine 15 mg, and fentanyl 25 mg at L2/L3) for LSAgroup, and (hyperbaric bupivacaine 7.5 mg, and fentanyl 25 mg at T10/T11) for TSAgroup. Propofol, fentanyl, atracurium, sevoflurane, and tracheal intubation were used for GA group. Intraoperative parameters, postoperative recovery and analgesia, complications as well as patient and surgeon satisfaction were compared between the three groups. Results: All procedures were completed laparoscopically by the allocated method of anesthesia with no anesthetic conversions. The time for the blockade to reach T3 level, intraoperative hypotensive and bradycardic events and vasopressor use were significantly lower in (TSA group) than in (LSA group). Postoperative pain scores as assessed throughout any time, postoperative right shoulder pain and hospital stay was lower for both (TSA group) and (LSA group) compared with (GA group). The higher degree of patients satisfaction scores were recorded in patients under segmental TSA. Conclusion: The present

  2. Subtotal cholecystectomy for "difficult gallbladders": systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Elshaer, Mohamed; Gravante, Gianpiero; Thomas, Katie; Sorge, Roberto; Al-Hamali, Salem; Ebdewi, Hamdi

    2015-02-01

    Subtotal cholecystectomy (SC) is a procedure that removes portions of the gallbladder when structures of the Calot triangle cannot be safely identified in "difficult gallbladders." To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate current studies and present an evidence-based assessment of the outcomes for the techniques available for SC. A literature search of the PubMed/MEDLINE (1954 to November 2013) and EMBASE (1974 to November 2013) databases was conducted. Search criteria included the words subtotal, partial, insufficient or incomplete, and cholecystectomy. Inclusion criteria were all randomized, nonrandomized, and retrospective studies with data on SC techniques and outcomes. Exclusion criteria were studies that reported data on SC along with other interventions (eg, cholecystostomy) without the possibility to discriminate results specific to SC. This systematic review was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The primary outcome of the study was the occurrence of common bild duct injury. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of other SC-related morbidities, such as hemorrhage, subhepatic collection, bile leak, retained stones, postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, wound infection, reoperation, and mortality. Thirty articles were included. Subtotal cholecystectomy was typically performed using the laparoscopic technique (72.9%), followed by the open (19.0%) and laparoscopic converted to open (8.0%) techniques. The most common indications were severe cholecystitis (72.1%), followed by cholelithiasis in liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension (18.2%) and empyema or perforated gallbladder (6.1%). Morbidity rates were relatively low (postoperative hemorrhage, 0.3%; subhepatic collections, 2.9%; bile duct injury, 0.08%; and retained stones, 3.1%); the rate for bile leaks was higher (18.0%). Reoperations were necessary in 1.8% of the cases; the 30-day

  3. Classical Electrodynamics: Lecture notes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likharev, Konstantin K.

    2018-06-01

    Essential Advanced Physics is a series comprising four parts: Classical Mechanics, Classical Electrodynamics, Quantum Mechanics and Statistical Mechanics. Each part consists of two volumes, Lecture notes and Problems with solutions, further supplemented by an additional collection of test problems and solutions available to qualifying university instructors. This volume, Classical Electrodynamics: Lecture notes is intended to be the basis for a two-semester graduate-level course on electricity and magnetism, including not only the interaction and dynamics charged point particles, but also properties of dielectric, conducting, and magnetic media. The course also covers special relativity, including its kinematics and particle-dynamics aspects, and electromagnetic radiation by relativistic particles.

  4. Writing a technical note.

    PubMed

    Ng, K H; Peh, W C G

    2010-02-01

    A technical note is a short article giving a brief description of a specific development, technique or procedure, or it may describe a modification of an existing technique, procedure or device applicable to medicine. The technique, procedure or device described should have practical value and should contribute to clinical diagnosis or management. It could also present a software tool, or an experimental or computational method. Technical notes are variously referred to as technical innovations or technical developments. The main criteria for publication will be the novelty of concepts involved, the validity of the technique and its potential for clinical applications.

  5. Notes on Piezoelectricity

    SciTech Connect

    Redondo, Antonio

    These notes provide a pedagogical discussion of the physics of piezoelectricity. The exposition starts with a brief analysis of the classical (continuum) theory of piezoelectric phenomena in solids. The main subject of the notes is, however, a quantum mechanical analysis. We first derive the Frohlich Hamiltonian as part of the description of the electron-phonon interaction. The results of this analysis are then employed to derive the equations of piezoelectricity. A couple of examples with the zinc blende and and wurtzite structures are presented at the end

  6. Incidental gall bladder carcinoma in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a report of 6 cases and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sujata, Jetley; S, Rana; Sabina, Khan; Mj, Hassan; Jairajpuri, Zeeba Shamim

    2013-01-01

    Gall bladder carcinoma accounts for 98% of all the gall bladder malignancies and it is the sixth most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract worldwide. The incidence of incidental gall bladder carcinoma which is diagnosed during or after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is reported to be around 0.19-3.3% in the literature. This study was aimed at detecting the incidence of gall bladder carcinomas which were diagnosed incidentally during or after laparoscopic cholecystectomies which were done for gall stone disease and cholecystitis. We analyzed the medical records of patients with symptomatic gallstone disease and acute or chronic cholecystitis, who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomies at the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital during the period from January 2007 to June 2012. A total of 622 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed at our institute during the study period of five and a half years. In 6 (0.96%) cases, incidental carcinomas of the gallbladder were discovered. A laparoscopic cholecystectomy which is performed for benign gall bladder disease rarely results in a diagnosis of unexpected gallbladder cancer. The microscopic examination of the specimens, with special attention to the depth of invasion, range of the mucosal spread and the lymphovascular involvement, is critical in diagnosing the incidental malignancies as well as for the subsequent management of the cases.

  7. Incidental Gall Bladder Carcinoma in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Report of 6 Cases and a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sujata, Jetley; S, Rana; Sabina, Khan; MJ, Hassan; Jairajpuri, Zeeba Shamim

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gall bladder carcinoma accounts for 98% of all the gall bladder malignancies and it is the sixth most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract worldwide. The incidence of incidental gall bladder carcinoma which is diagnosed during or after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is reported to be around 0.19-3.3% in the literature. Aim: This study was aimed at detecting the incidence of gall bladder carcinomas which were diagnosed incidentally during or after laparoscopic cholecystectomies which were done for gall stone disease and cholecystitis. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the medical records of patients with symptomatic gallstone disease and acute or chronic cholecystitis, who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomies at the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital during the period from January 2007 to June 2012. Results: A total of 622 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed at our institute during the study period of five and a half years. In 6 (0.96%) cases, incidental carcinomas of the gallbladder were discovered. Conclusion: A laparoscopic cholecystectomy which is performed for benign gall bladder disease rarely results in a diagnosis of unexpected gallbladder cancer. The microscopic examination of the specimens, with special attention to the depth of invasion, range of the mucosal spread and the lymphovascular involvement, is critical in diagnosing the incidental malignancies as well as for the subsequent management of the cases. PMID:23449518

  8. Incidental non-benign gallbladder histopathology after cholecystectomy in an United Kingdom population: Need for routine histological analysis?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Krashna; Dajani, Khaled; Iype, Satheesh; Chatzizacharias, Nikolaos A; Vickramarajah, Saranya; Singh, Prateush; Davies, Susan; Brais, Rebecca; Liau, Siong S; Harper, Simon; Jah, Asif; Praseedom, Raaj K; Huguet, Emmanuel L

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyse the range of histopathology detected in the largest published United Kingdom series of cholecystectomy specimens and to evaluate the rational for selective histopathological analysis. METHODS Incidental gallbladder malignancy is rare in the United Kingdom with recent literature supporting selective histological assessment of gallbladders after routine cholecystectomy. All cholecystectomy gallbladder specimens examined by the histopathology department at our hospital during a five year period between March 2008 and March 2013 were retrospectively analysed. Further data was collected on all specimens demonstrating carcinoma, dysplasia and polypoid growths. RESULTS The study included 4027 patients. The majority (97%) of specimens exhibited gallstone or cholecystitis related disease. Polyps were demonstrated in 44 (1.09%), the majority of which were cholesterol based (41/44). Dysplasia, ranging from low to multifocal high-grade was demonstrated in 55 (1.37%). Incidental primary gallbladder adenocarcinoma was detected in 6 specimens (0.15%, 5 female and 1 male), and a single gallbladder revealed carcinoma in situ (0.02%). This large single centre study demonstrated a full range of gallbladder disease from cholecystectomy specimens, including more than 1% neoplastic histology and two cases of macroscopically occult gallbladder malignancies. CONCLUSION Routine histological evaluation of all elective and emergency cholecystectomies is justified in a United Kingdom population as selective analysis has potential to miss potentially curable life threatening pathology. PMID:27830040

  9. Fluorescence cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a patient with situs inversus totalis: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Rungsakulkij, Narongsak; Tangtawee, Pongsatorn

    2017-04-20

    Situs inversus totalis is a rare autosomal disorder in which the patient's affected visceral organs are a perfect mirror image of their normal positions. Surgery in these patients is technically challenging. Minimally invasive surgery such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the standard treatment for symptomatic cholelithiasis, but it can be difficult to perform. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with situs inversus totalis may be even more technically challenging. Fluorescence cholangiography is a new innovation in the field of navigation surgery. This procedure is safe and easy to perform, its findings are easy to interpret, and it does not require a learning curve or radiographs. It can be used in real time during surgery to identify extrahepatic biliary structures. We herein report a case of situs inversus totalis in a Thai patient with a history of biliary pancreatitis. He underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with intraoperative fluorescence cholangiography. The operation was successfully completed without complications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of the use of fluorescence cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a patient with situs inversus. Fluorescence cholangiographyis a new navigational surgical technique with which to identify extrahepatic biliary structures. It can be used as an adjunct technique during laparoscopic cholecystectomy to avoid biliary tract injury in difficult cases.

  10. Notes and Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Physics, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Includes eleven short notes, comments and responses to comments on a variety of topics such as uncertainty in a least-squares fit, display of diffraction patterns, the dark night sky paradox, error in the dynamics of deformable bodies and relative velocities and the runner. (GA)

  11. NCTM Student Math Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maletsky, Evan, Ed.; Yunker, Lee E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Five sets of activities for students are included in this document. Each is designed for use in junior high and secondary school mathematics instruction. The first Note concerns mathematics on postage stamps. Historical procedures and mathematicians, metric conversion, geometric ideas, and formulas are among the topics considered. Successful…

  12. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will start a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issues section discussing worst-case analysis requirements.

  13. Notes on Literacy, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notes on Literacy, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The 1997 volume of "Notes on Literacy," numbers 1-4, includes the following articles: "Community Based Literacy, Burkina Faso"; "The Acquisition of a Second Writing System"; "Appropriate Methodology and Social Context"; "Literacy Megacourse Offered"; "Fitting in with Local Assumptions about…

  14. Sawtooth Functions. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirst, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Using MAPLE enables students to consider many examples which would be very tedious to work out by hand. This applies to graph plotting as well as to algebraic manipulation. The challenge is to use these observations to develop the students' understanding of mathematical concepts. In this note an interesting relationship arising from inverse…

  15. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing the use of Root-Sum-Square calculations for digital delays.

  16. Notes on Linguistics, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, David, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The 1999 issues of "Notes on Linguistics," published quarterly, include the following articles, review articles, reviews, book notices, and reports: "A New Program for Doing Morphology: Hermit Crab"; "Lingualinks CD-ROM: Field Guide to Recording Language Data"; "'Unruly' Phonology: An Introduction to Optimality Theory"; "Borrowing vs. Code…

  17. Notes on Linguistics, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notes on Linguistics, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This document consists of the four issues of "Notes on Linguistics" published during 1990. Articles in the four issues include: "The Indians Do Say Ugh-Ugh" (Howard W. Law); "Constraints of Relevance, A Key to Particle Typology" (Regina Blass); "Whatever Happened to Me? (An Objective Case Study)" (Aretta…

  18. Building operative care capacity in a resource limited setting: The Mongolian model of the expansion of sustainable laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Wells, Katie M; Lee, Yu-Jin; Erdene, Sandag; Erdene, Sarnai; Sanchin, Urjin; Sergelen, Orgoi; Zhang, Chong; Rodriguez, Brandon P; deVries, Catherine R; Price, Raymond R

    2016-08-01

    The benefits of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, including rapid recovery and fewer infections, have been largely unavailable to the majority of people in developing countries. Compared to other countries, Mongolia has an extremely high incidence of gallbladder disease. In 2005, only 2% of cholecystectomies were performed laparoscopically. This is a retrospective review of the transition from open to laparoscopic cholecystectomy throughout Mongolia. A cross-sectional, retrospective review was conducted of demographic patient data, diagnosis type, and operation performed (laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy) from 2005-2013. Trends were analyzed from 6 of the 21 provinces (aimags) throughout Mongolia, and data were culled from 7 regional diagnostic referral and treatment centers and 2 tertiary academic medical centers. The data were analyzed by individual training center and by year before being compared between rural and urban centers. We analyzed and compared 14,522 cholecystectomies (n = 4,086 [28%] men, n = 10,436 [72%] women). Men and women were similar in age (men 52.2, standard deviation 14.8; women 49.4, standard deviation 15.7) and in the percentage undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (men 39%, women 42%). By 2013, 58% of gallbladders were removed laparoscopically countrywide compared with only 2% in 2005. In 2011, laparoscopic cholecystectomy surpassed open cholecystectomy as the primary method for gallbladder removal countrywide. More than 315 Mongolian health care practitioners received laparoscopic training in 19 of the country's 21 aimags (states). By 2013, 58% of cholecystectomies countrywide were performed laparoscopically, a dramatic increase over 9 years. The expansion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy has transformed the care of biliary tract disease in Mongolia despite the country's limited resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Open cholecystectomy in cirrhotic patients. Experience at the Salvador Zubirán National Institute of Nutrition].

    PubMed

    Carmona, R; Suazo, J; Mercado, M A; Orozco, H

    1996-01-01

    To inform the morbidity and mortality observed in cirrhotic patients who underwent open cholecystectomy. We reviewed the clinical records of 31 cirrhotics that underwent open cholecystectomy and they were compared with a control group of the same age and sex. Despite administration of plasma or vitamin K or both, bleeding and transfusions during surgery were observed more frequently in cirrhotics. The morbidity was 13% in the controls and 42% in the cases. Renal failure, cardiac failure and upper gastrointestinal bleeding were present only in the cirrhotics. Mortality was 16% in this group (one Child A patient and four Child B-C patients). The variable related with major morbimortality was Child B or C classification. Open cholecystectomy was associated with high morbimortality. The valoration and preparation before surgery must be careful, and the indication from this procedure needs to be made with caution.

  20. Programmable Logic Application Notes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This column will be provided each quarter as a source for reliability, radiation results, NASA capabilities, and other information on programmable logic devices and related applications. This quarter will continue a series of notes concentrating on analysis techniques with this issue's section discussing: Digital Timing Analysis Tools and Techniques. Articles in this issue include: SX and SX-A Series Devices Power Sequencing; JTAG and SXISX-AISX-S Series Devices; Analysis Techniques (i.e., notes on digital timing analysis tools and techniques); Status of the Radiation Hard reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array Program, Input Transition Times; Apollo Guidance Computer Logic Study; RT54SX32S Prototype Data Sets; A54SX32A - 0.22 micron/UMC Test Results; Ramtron FM1608 FRAM; and Analysis of VHDL Code and Synthesizer Output.

  1. CORRIGENDUM: Editorial note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rae, A. I. M.

    2002-07-01

    The first sentence of this comment should read as follows: It has been drawn to our attention that a comment published in our January issue [1] contains the statement that `the functions {1, sin2 α, cos 2α}...are clearly linearly independent...'. References [1]Figueroa-Navarro C 2002 A comment on Gluskin's note on J D Jackson's Classical Electrodynamics Eur. J. Phys. 23 L1-3

  2. Implications of the Index Cholecystectomy and Timing of Referral for Radical Resection of Advanced Incidental Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ausania, F; White, SA; French, JJ; Jaques, BC; Charnley, RM; Manas, DM

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Advanced (pT2/T3) incidental gallbladder cancer is often deemed unresectable after restaging. This study assesses the impact of the primary operation, tumour characteristics and timing of management on re-resection. Methods The records of 60 consecutive referrals for incidental gallbladder cancer in a single tertiary centre from 2003 to 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Decision on re-resection of incidental gallbladder cancer was based on delayed interval restaging at three months following cholecystectomy. Demographics, index cholecystectomy data, primary pathology, CA19–9 tumour marker levels at referral and time from cholecystectomy to referral as well as from referral to restaging were analysed. Results Thirty-seven patients with pT2 and twelve patients with pT3 incidental gallbladder cancer were candidates for radical re-resection. Following interval restaging, 24 patients (49%) underwent radical resection and 25 (51%) were deemed inoperable. The inoperable group had significantly more patients with positive resection margins at cholecystectomy (p=0.002), significantly higher median CA19–9 levels at referral (p=0.018) and were referred significantly earlier (p=0.004) than the patients who had resectable tumours. On multivariate analysis, urgent referral (p=0.036) and incomplete cholecystectomy (p=0.048) were associated significantly with inoperable disease following restaging. Conclusions In patients with incidental, potentially resectable, pT2/T3 gallbladder cancer, inappropriate index cholecystectomy may have a significant impact on tumour dissemination. Early referral of breached tumours is not associated with resectability. PMID:25723690

  3. Pain Management after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy-A Randomized Prospective Trial of Low Pressure and Standard Pressure Pneumoperitoneum

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Sanjeev; Mittal, Geeta; Raghav; Mittal, Rajinder K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abdominal pain and shoulder tip pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy are distressing for the patient. Various causes of this pain are peritoneal stretching and diaphragmatic irritation by high intra-abdominal pressure caused by pneumoperitoneum . We designed a study to compare the post operative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy at low pressure (7-8 mm of Hg) and standard pressure technique (12-14 mm of Hg). Aim : To compare the effect of low pressure and standard pressure pneumoperitoneum in post laparoscopic cholecystectomy pain . Further to study the safety of low pressure pneumoperitoneum in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Settings and Design: A prospective randomised double blind study. Materials and Methods: A prospective randomised double blind study was done in 100 ASA grade I & II patients. They were divided into two groups -50 each. Group A patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with low pressure pneumoperitoneum (7-8 mm Hg) while group B underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with standard pressure pneumoperitoneum (12-13 mm Hg). Both the groups were compared for pain intensity, analgesic requirement and complications. Statistical Analysis: Demographic data and intraoperative complications were analysed using chi-square test. Frequency of pain, intensity of pain and analgesics consumption was compared by applying ANOVA test. Results: Post-operative pain score was significantly less in low pressure group as compared to standard pressure group. Number of patients requiring rescue analgesic doses was more in standard pressure group . This was statistically significant. Also total analgesic consumption was more in standard pressure group. There was no difference in intraoperative complications. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the use of simple expedient of reducing the pressure of pneumoperitoneum to 8 mm results in reduction in both intensity and frequency of post-operative pain and hence early recovery and better outcome

  4. Pain management after laparoscopic cholecystectomy-a randomized prospective trial of low pressure and standard pressure pneumoperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Singla, Sanjeev; Mittal, Geeta; Raghav; Mittal, Rajinder K

    2014-02-01

    Abdominal pain and shoulder tip pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy are distressing for the patient. Various causes of this pain are peritoneal stretching and diaphragmatic irritation by high intra-abdominal pressure caused by pneumoperitoneum . We designed a study to compare the post operative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy at low pressure (7-8 mm of Hg) and standard pressure technique (12-14 mm of Hg). Aim : To compare the effect of low pressure and standard pressure pneumoperitoneum in post laparoscopic cholecystectomy pain . Further to study the safety of low pressure pneumoperitoneum in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A prospective randomised double blind study. A prospective randomised double blind study was done in 100 ASA grade I & II patients. They were divided into two groups -50 each. Group A patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with low pressure pneumoperitoneum (7-8 mm Hg) while group B underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with standard pressure pneumoperitoneum (12-13 mm Hg). Both the groups were compared for pain intensity, analgesic requirement and complications. Demographic data and intraoperative complications were analysed using chi-square test. Frequency of pain, intensity of pain and analgesics consumption was compared by applying ANOVA test. Post-operative pain score was significantly less in low pressure group as compared to standard pressure group. Number of patients requiring rescue analgesic doses was more in standard pressure group . This was statistically significant. Also total analgesic consumption was more in standard pressure group. There was no difference in intraoperative complications. This study demonstrates the use of simple expedient of reducing the pressure of pneumoperitoneum to 8 mm results in reduction in both intensity and frequency of post-operative pain and hence early recovery and better outcome.This study also shows that low pressure technique is safe with comparable rate of intraoperative

  5. Small Gallstone Size and Delayed Cholecystectomy Increase the Risk of Recurrent Pancreatobiliary Complications After Resolved Acute Biliary Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Bum; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Chung, Hyun Hee; Kim, Kook Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) is a severe complication of gallstone disease with considerable mortality, and its recurrence rate is reported as 50-90% for ABP patients who do not undergo cholecystectomy. However, the incidence of and risk factors for recurrent pancreatobiliary complications after the initial improvement of ABP are not well established in the literature. The aims of this study were to determine the risk factors for recurrent pancreatobiliary complications and to compare the outcomes between early (within 2 weeks after onset of pancreatitis) and delayed cholecystectomy in patients with ABP. Patients diagnosed with ABP at Yeungnam University Hospital from January 2004 to July 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. The following risk factors for recurrent pancreatobiliary complications (acute pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis, and acute cholangitis) were analyzed: demographic characteristics, laboratory data, size and number of gallstones, severity of pancreatitis, endoscopic sphincterotomy, and timing of cholecystectomy. Patients were categorized into two groups: patients with recurrent pancreatobiliary complications (Group A) and patients without pancreatobiliary complications (Group B). Of the total 290 patients with ABP (age 66.8 ± 16.0 years, male 47.9%), 56 (19.3%) patients developed recurrent pancreatobiliary complications, of which 35 cases were acute pancreatitis, 11 cases were acute cholecystitis, and 10 cases were acute cholangitis. Endoscopic sphincterotomy and cholecystectomy were performed in 134 (46.2%) patients and 95 (32.8%) patients, respectively. Age, sex, BMI, diabetes, number of stone, severity of pancreatitis, and laboratory data were not significantly correlated with recurrent pancreatobiliary complications. The risk of recurrent pancreatobiliary complications was significantly increased in the delayed cholecystectomy group compared with the early cholecystectomy group (45.5 vs. 5.0%, p < 0.001). Based on the multivariate

  6. A systematic review of surgical skills transfer after simulation-based training: laparoscopic cholecystectomy and endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Dawe, Susan R; Windsor, John A; Broeders, Joris A J L; Cregan, Patrick C; Hewett, Peter J; Maddern, Guy J

    2014-02-01

    A systematic review to determine whether skills acquired through simulation-based training transfer to the operating room for the procedures of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and endoscopy. Simulation-based training assumes that skills are directly transferable to the operation room, but only a few studies have investigated the effect of simulation-based training on surgical performance. A systematic search strategy that was used in 2006 was updated to retrieve relevant studies. Inclusion of articles was determined using a predetermined protocol, independent assessment by 2 reviewers, and a final consensus decision. Seventeen randomized controlled trials and 3 nonrandomized comparative studies were included in this review. In most cases, simulation-based training was in addition to patient-based training programs. Only 2 studies directly compared simulation-based training in isolation with patient-based training. For laparoscopic cholecystectomy (n = 10 studies) and endoscopy (n = 10 studies), participants who reached simulation-based skills proficiency before undergoing patient-based assessment performed with higher global assessment scores and fewer errors in the operating room than their counterparts who did not receive simulation training. Not all parameters measured were improved. Two of the endoscopic studies compared simulation-based training in isolation with patient-based training with different results: for sigmoidoscopy, patient-based training was more effective, whereas for colonoscopy, simulation-based training was equally effective. Skills acquired by simulation-based training seem to be transferable to the operative setting for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and endoscopy. Future research will strengthen these conclusions by evaluating predetermined competency levels on the same simulators and using objective validated global rating scales to measure operative performance.

  7. Reliability of sensor-based real-time workflow recognition in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Kranzfelder, Michael; Schneider, Armin; Fiolka, Adam; Koller, Sebastian; Reiser, Silvano; Vogel, Thomas; Wilhelm, Dirk; Feussner, Hubertus

    2014-11-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a very common minimally invasive surgical procedure that may be improved by autonomous or cooperative assistance support systems. Model-based surgery with a precise definition of distinct procedural tasks (PT) of the operation was implemented and tested to depict and analyze the process of this procedure. Reliability of real-time workflow recognition in laparoscopic cholecystectomy ([Formula: see text] cases) was evaluated by continuous sensor-based data acquisition. Ten PTs were defined including begin/end preparation calots' triangle, clipping/cutting cystic artery and duct, begin/end gallbladder dissection, begin/end hemostasis, gallbladder removal, and end of operation. Data acquisition was achieved with continuous instrument detection, room/table light status, intra-abdominal pressure, table tilt, irrigation/aspiration volume and coagulation/cutting current application. Two independent observers recorded start and endpoint of each step by analysis of the sensor data. The data were cross-checked with laparoscopic video recordings serving as gold standard for PT identification. Bland-Altman analysis revealed for 95% of cases a difference of annotation results within the limits of agreement ranging from [Formula: see text]309 s (PT 7) to +368 s (PT 5). Laparoscopic video and sensor data matched to a greater or lesser extent within the different procedural tasks. In the majority of cases, the observer results exceeded those obtained from the laparoscopic video. Empirical knowledge was required to detect phase transit. A set of sensors used to monitor laparoscopic cholecystectomy procedures was sufficient to enable expert observers to reliably identify each PT. In the future, computer systems may automate the task identification process provided a more robust data inflow is available.

  8. Is cholecystectomy a reasonable treatment option for simple gallbladder polyps larger than 10 mm?

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Yon; Oh, Se Hoon; Lee, Kwang Hyuck; Lee, Jong Kyun; Lee, Kyu Taek

    2015-04-14

    To determine the relevance of the 10-mm size criterion of the generally accepted surgical indication for gallbladder polyps (GBPs). We collected data of patients who were confirmed to have GBPs through cholecystectomy at Samsung Medical Center between January 1997 and December 2012. Among the patients who underwent cholecystectomy for GBP, those with a definite evidence for malignancy such as adjacent organ invasion, metastasis on preoperative imaging studies, polyp larger than 20 mm, absence of preoperative imaging study results, and patients having gallstones were excluded. We retrospectively collected and analyzed information on patient's clinical characteristics, symptoms, ultrasonographic findings, and blood laboratory tests. A total of 836 patients who had undergone cholecystectomy were retrospectively analyzed. Seven hundred eighty patients (93%) had benign polyps, whereas 56 patients (7%) had malignant polyps. Of the 56 patients with malignancy, 4 patients (7%) had borderline GBP (10-12 mm) and a patient had small GBP (< 10 mm) with T2 stage. We conducted an ROC curve analysis to verify the 10-mm size criteria (AUC = 0.887, SD = 0.21, P < 0.001). In the ROC curve for polyp size and malignancy, sensitivity and specificity of the 10-mm size criterion was 98.2% and 19.6%, respectively. The specificity of the 11-mm and 12-mm size criteria was 44.6% and 56%, respectively, whereas the sensitivity of these two size criteria was similar. We defined the GBPs of 10 to 12 mm as a borderline-sized GBP, which were found in 411 patients (49%). In this group, there was a significant difference in age between patients with benign and malignant GBPs (47 years vs 60 years, P < 0.05). GBPs larger than 13 mm need immediate excision whereas for borderline-sized GBPs detected in young patients, careful medical observation can be a rational decision.

  9. Is cholecystectomy a reasonable treatment option for simple gallbladder polyps larger than 10 mm?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Yon; Oh, Se Hoon; Lee, Kwang Hyuck; Lee, Jong Kyun; Lee, Kyu Taek

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the relevance of the 10-mm size criterion of the generally accepted surgical indication for gallbladder polyps (GBPs). METHODS: We collected data of patients who were confirmed to have GBPs through cholecystectomy at Samsung Medical Center between January 1997 and December 2012. Among the patients who underwent cholecystectomy for GBP, those with a definite evidence for malignancy such as adjacent organ invasion, metastasis on preoperative imaging studies, polyp larger than 20 mm, absence of preoperative imaging study results, and patients having gallstones were excluded. We retrospectively collected and analyzed information on patient’s clinical characteristics, symptoms, ultrasonographic findings, and blood laboratory tests. RESULTS: A total of 836 patients who had undergone cholecystectomy were retrospectively analyzed. Seven hundred eighty patients (93%) had benign polyps, whereas 56 patients (7%) had malignant polyps. Of the 56 patients with malignancy, 4 patients (7%) had borderline GBP (10-12 mm) and a patient had small GBP (< 10 mm) with T2 stage. We conducted an ROC curve analysis to verify the 10-mm size criteria (AUC = 0.887, SD = 0.21, P < 0.001). In the ROC curve for polyp size and malignancy, sensitivity and specificity of the 10-mm size criterion was 98.2% and 19.6%, respectively. The specificity of the 11-mm and 12-mm size criteria was 44.6% and 56%, respectively, whereas the sensitivity of these two size criteria was similar. We defined the GBPs of 10 to 12 mm as a borderline-sized GBP, which were found in 411 patients (49%). In this group, there was a significant difference in age between patients with benign and malignant GBPs (47 years vs 60 years, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: GBPs larger than 13 mm need immediate excision whereas for borderline-sized GBPs detected in young patients, careful medical observation can be a rational decision. PMID:25892875

  10. Transversus abdominis plane block as a component of multimodal analgesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Oksar, Menekse; Koyuncu, Onur; Turhanoglu, Selim; Temiz, Muhyittin; Oran, Mustafa Cemil

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate and compare intercostal-iliac transversus abdominis plane (TAP) and oblique subcostal TAP (OSTAP) blocks for multimodal analgesia in patients receiving laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical study. Operating room, postoperative recovery area, and ward. In total, 60 laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients (43 women, 17 men, American Society of Anesthesiologists grades I-II) were enrolled from the general surgery department of our tertiary care center. The patients were assigned to 1 of the 3 groups. Group 1 received TAP blocks (n=20), group 2 received OSTAP blocks (n=20), and group 3 patients were used as controls and received patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) only (n=20). After the induction of anesthesia, blocks were performed bilaterally in study groups 1 and 2, using 20mL of lidocaine (5mg/mL). PCA with intravenous tramadol was routinely provided for all patients during the first 24hours. The intraoperative use of remifentanil, postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) scores, demand for PCA, and total analgesic consumption were recorded. The patients in the control group had greater analgesic demands and analgesic consumption than did those in groups 1 and 2. However, patients in the OSTAP group had lower VAS scores than did those in groups 1 and 3. The demand for analgesia was greater in the control group than in groups 1 and 2. Moreover, lower VAS scores were recorded in the OSTAP group than in groups 1 and 3 and were positively correlated with total PCA consumption among all patients. However, postoperative VAS scores were negatively correlated with the total intraoperative consumption of remifentanil at 24hours. TAP and OSTAP blocks improved postoperative analgesia in patients receiving laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which resulted in lower VAS scores and reduction in total analgesic consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Subcostal transversus abdominis plane block can improve analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Vrsajkov, Vladimir; Mančić, Nedjica; Mihajlović, Dunja; Milićević, Suzana Tonković; Uvelin, Arsen; Vrsajkov, Jelena Pantić

    After laparoscopic cholecystectomy, patients have moderate pain in the early postoperative period. Some studies shown beneficial effects of subcostal transversus abdominis plane block on reducing this pain. Our goal was to investigate influence of subcostal transversus abdominis plane block on postoperative pain scores and opioid consumption. We have randomized 76 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy to receive either subcostal transversus abdominis plane block (n=38) or standard postoperative analgesia (n=38). First group received bilateral ultrasound guided subcostal transversus abdominis plane block with 20mL of 0.33% bupivacaine per side before operation and tramadol 1mg.kg -1 IV for pain breakthrough (≥6). Second group received after operation tramadol 1mg.kg -1 /6h as standard hospital analgesia protocol. Both groups received acetaminophen 1g/8h IV and metamizole 2.5g/12h. Pain at rest was recorded for each patient using NR scale (0-10) in period of 10min, 30min, 2h, 4h, 8h, 12h and 16h after the surgery. We obtained no difference between groups according age, weight, intraoperative fentanyl consumption and duration of surgery. Subcostal transversus abdominis plane block significantly reduced postoperative pain scores compared to standard analgesia in all periods after surgery. Tramadol consumption was significantly lower in the subcostal transversus abdominis plane (24.29±47.54g) than in the standard analgesia group (270.2±81.9g) (p=0.000). Our results show that subcostal transversus abdominis plane block can provide superior postoperative analgesia and reduction in opioid requirements after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Intraoperative low tidal volume ventilation strategy has no benefits during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Vandna; Tyagi, Asha; Kumar, Surendra; Kakkar, Aanchal; Das, Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Benefits of intraoperative low tidal volume ventilation during laparoscopic surgery are not conclusively proven, even though its advantages were seen in other situations with intraoperative respiratory compromise such as one-lung ventilation. The present study compared the efficacy of intraoperative low tidal volume ventilatory strategy (6 ml/kg along with positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP] of 10 cmH2O) versus one with higher tidal volume (10 ml/kg with no PEEP) on various clinical parameters and plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6 in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Methods: A total of 58 adult patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II, undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized to receive the low or higher tidal volume strategy as above (n = 29 each). The primary outcome measure was postoperative PaO2. Systemic levels of IL-6 along with clinical indices of intraoperative gas exchange, pulmonary mechanics, and hemodynamic consequences were measured as secondary outcome measures. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in oxygenation; intraoperative dynamic compliance, peak airway pressures, or hemodynamic parameters, or the IL-6 levels between the two groups (P > 0.05). Low tidal volume strategy was associated with significantly higher mean airway pressure, lower airway resistance, greater respiratory rates, and albeit clinically similar, higher PaCO2and lower pH (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Strategy using 6 ml/kg tidal volume along with 10 cmH2O of PEEP was not associated with any significant improvement in gas exchange, hemodynamic parameters, or systemic inflammatory response over ventilation with 10 ml/kg volume without PEEP during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:28413273

  13. Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum versus standard pneumoperitoneum in laparoscopic cholecystectomy, a prospective randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Trichak; Yamada, Sirikan; Ariyakachon, Veeravorn; Chakrabandhu, Thiraphat; Chongruksut, Wilaiwan; Ko-iam, Wasana

    2009-05-01

    Post-laparoscopic pain syndrome is well recognized and characterized by abdominal and particularly shoulder tip pain; it occurs frequently following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The etiology of post-laparoscopic pain can be classified into three aspects: visceral, incision, and shoulder. The origin of shoulder pain is only partly understood, but it is commonly assumed that the cause is overstretching of the diaphragmatic muscle fibers owing to a high rate of insufflations. This study aimed to compare the frequency and intensity of shoulder tip pain between low-pressure (7 mmHg) and standard-pressure (14 mmHg) in a prospective randomized clinical trial. One hundred and forty consecutive patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized prospectively to either high- or low-pressure pneumoperitoneum and blinded by research nurses who assessed the patients during the postoperative period. The statistical analysis included sex, mean age, weight, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade, operative time, complication rate, duration of surgery, conversion rate, postoperative pain by using visual analogue scale, number of analgesic injections, incidence and severity of shoulder tip pain, and postoperative hospital stay. p < 0.05 was considered indicative of significance. The characteristics of the patients were similar in the two groups except for the predominance of males in the standard-pressure group (controls). The procedure was successful in 68 of 70 patients in the low-pressure group compared with in 70 patients in the standard group. Operative time, number of analgesic injections, visual analogue score, and length of postoperative days were similar in both groups. Incidence of shoulder tip pain was higher in the standard-pressure group, but not statistically significantly so (27.9% versus 44.3%) (p = 0.100). Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum tended to be better than standard-pressure pneumoperitoneum in terms of lower incidence of

  14. Intraperitoneal ketorolac for post-cholecystectomy pain: a double-blind randomized-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, John; Ramsey, Gillian; Day, Andrew G; McMullen, Michael; Orr, Elizabeth; Phelan, Rachel; Jalink, Diederick

    2016-06-01

    Ketorolac is a parenterally active nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with localized anti-inflammatory properties. We examine the postoperative analgesic efficacy of locally administered intraperitoneal (IP) ketorolac compared with intravenous (IV) ketorolac during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. With institutional ethics approval, 120 patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized to receive intraoperative 1) IP ketorolac 30 mg + intravenous saline (IP group), 2) intraperitoneal saline + IV ketorolac 30 mg (IV group), or 3) intraperitoneal saline + intravenous saline (Control group) under standardized anesthesia. The primary and secondary outcomes were postoperative fentanyl requirements in the postanesthesia care unit and the time to first analgesic request, respectively. Other outcomes examined included abdominal pain (at rest and with coughing), shoulder pain, nausea, vomiting, and any other postoperative complications. On average, patients receiving IP ketorolac required less (mean difference, 29 μg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2 to 56; P = 0.04) fentanyl than patients in the Control group but a similar (mean difference, 16 μg; 95% CI, 12 to 43; P = 0.27) amount compared to patients in the IV group. There was an increase in the median (interquartile range [IQR]) time to first request in the IP group (43[30-52] min) compared with the Control group (35 [27-49]min; P = 0.04) but no difference between the IP group compared with the IV group (47 [40-75] min; P = 0.22). Shoulder pain and resting pain were reduced with IP and IV ketorolac compared with Control, but there was no difference between the IP and IV groups. No differences were observed in any other outcomes, side effects, or complications attributable to opioids or ketorolac at any time points. This study did not demonstrate any advantage for the off-label topical intraperitoneal administration of ketorolac in this surgical population. Intraperitoneal and IV ketorolac showed

  15. [Preoperatory sonography efficiency in paediatric patients with cholelithiasis undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Riñón, C; de Mingo, L; Cortés, M J; Ollero, J C; Alvarez, M; Espinosa, R; Rollán, V

    2009-01-01

    Biliary lithiasis is not much frequent in paediatric patients. The manegement of cholelithiasis in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy is still controversial. We propose the preoperatory echographic study of the biliary tree 24-48 h before surgery, as the first choice, instead of the intraoperatory cholangiography. We made a retrospective study of 42 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to symptomatic biliary lithiasis during the last 15 years, with ages between 18 months and 17-years-old (mean age 9,6-years-old) and weight between 11 and 70 kg (mean weight 42 kg) at the moment of surgery. Six of them had haematological illnesses, 17 came to the hospital because of acute abdominal pain, 10 had been studied because of recurrent abdominal pain and 9 had casual diagnoses. Abdominal sonography was performed in all patients 24-48 hours before surgery. Four children were diagnosed of biliary duct lithiasis: two choledocolithiasis and two stones in the cystic duct. One of the cystic stones was extracted in the operating room and the rest resolved spontaneously. One patient presented dilatation of choledocal duct after surgery, without any stones' evidence. Also this patient resolved spontaneously. We had no complications. Biliary lithiasis is not frequent in children, even if it seems to be increasing. A few of these patients will suffer of choledocolithiasis. The intraoperatory exploration of the biliary tree during laparoscopic surgery is technically difficult due the small size of paediatric patients. Cholangiography is not always successful and can produce some important complications as pancreatitis. Preoperative sonography 24-48 hours before surgery is a safe and efficient method for the diagnosis and follow-up of paediatric patients with biliary lithiasis undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It is safe enough to be performed without intraoperatory cholangiography.

  16. [The development of laparoscopic technology in light of cholecystectomies performed between 1994 and 2007].

    PubMed

    Lukovich, Péter; Vanca, Tímea; Gero, Dániel; Kupcsulik, Péter

    2009-11-29

    The spread of laparoscopy has required surgeons to familiarize with a completely new surgical method and by today this method has clearly become of major importance in gastrointestinal surgery. The evolution of laparoscopic cholecystectomy offers many good lessons to learn for the purposes of advanced laparoscopic surgeries and surgeons may benefit from this experience in any process of introducing new minimal invasive techniques. We have made a retrospective analysis of the data of the cholecystectomies made in the 1st. Department of Surgery, Semmelweis University, right after laparoscopy had become a widely spread, routine surgical method (1994) as well as 13 years later (2007). The data have been processed using the SPSS 16.0 application package. Significance levels have been established with the chi-square probe. Within the analyzed timeframe we could clearly see a growing use of laparoscopic techniques (52.09% vs. 90.13%) with a growing number of cases (263/304), unchanged average age (approximately 53.5 years) and constant male/female ratio (75/25%). The BMI increased moderately (26.5 vs. 27.6), but the frequency of laparoscopic interventions on extremely obese patients grew (BMI: 25-30 37.93% vs. 44.39%, 30-35 13.79% vs. 20.6% 35-40 6.89% vs. 5.82% and 40 \\lt; 0% vs. 1.34%) while the postoperative hospitalization decreased dramatically from 5.9 days to 2.3. In year 1994, patients spent on the average 2.9 days in hospital after a laparoscopic surgery, while in year 2007 nearly 25% of the patients left the hospital 1 day after surgery. The duration of a laparoscopic surgery decreased from 78 minutes to 53, and the occurrence of intraoperative bleeding, gall bladder perforation and gallstone spillage also decreased. The conversion ratio increased from 2.7% to 4.9%. In 3% of the laparoscopic cholecystectomies (10 patients) only 3 ports were used during surgery. As surgeons have come to master the new technique, the previous relative and absolute pros and cons

  17. The First Korean Experience of Telemanipulative Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Using the da Vinci System

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chang Moo; Chi, Hoon Sang; Hyeung, Woo Jin; Kim, Kyung Sik; Choi, Jin Sub; Kim, Byong Ro

    2007-01-01

    With the advancement of laparoscopic instruments and computer sciences, complex surgical procedures are expected to be safely performed by robot assisted telemanipulative laparoscopic surgery. The da Vinci system (Intuitive Surgical, Mountain View, CA, USA) became available at the many surgical fields. The wrist like movements of the instrument's tip, as well as 3-dimensional vision, could be expected to facilitate more complex laparoscopic procedure. Here, we present the first Korean experience of da Vinci robotic assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy and discuss the introduction and perspectives of this robotic system. PMID:17594166

  18. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the treatment of gallbladder polypoid lesions--15 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Matłok, Maciej; Migaczewski, Marcin; Major, Piotr; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Budzyński, Piotr; Winiarski, Marek; Ostachowski, Mateusz; Budzyński, Andrzej; Rembiasz, Kazimierz

    2013-11-01

    Due to the constant increase of public health awareness and widespread "cancerophobia", the progressively larger number of incidentally diagnosed gall-bladder polyps became the source of anxiety, which leads patients and physicians to undertake therapeutic decisions, despite the absence of symptoms. The majority of gall-bladder polyps are benign. It is estimated that only 3 to 5% of polyps are malignant. Currently, there is lack of randomized control trials based on which the clear-cut criteria of qualification of patients with gall-bladder polyps for surgical procedure can be created. The aim of the study was to analyze gall-bladder polyps in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd Department of General Surgery, Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum. The retrospective study was conducted on 5369 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd Department of General Surgery, Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum with special attention to 152 (2.8%) patients in whom gall-bladder polyps were diagnosed preoperatively. Qualification criteria for surgery, surgical treatment results, and histopathological examination results were also analyzed. Amongst the 5369 patients qualified for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 152 (2.8%) were diagnosed with gall-bladder polyps during the preoperative ultrasound examinations. Postoperative histopathological examinations of 41 (27%) patients confirmed the presence of gall-bladder polyps. In 102 (67%) patients, only gall-stones were diagnosed without previously described polyps during the ultrasound examination. Analysis of the histopathological examination results revealed the presence of benign lesions in 35 (23.35%) patients. In 5 (3%) patients the presence of an adenoma, and in one (0.65%) the presence of adenocarcinoma were confirmed. Based on the conducted study and previous personal experience in the treatment of patients with gall-bladder polyps, we believe that due to the potential

  19. Ramosetron versus ondansetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Junghee; So, Yun-Mi; Hwang, Jungwon; Do, Sang-Hwan

    2010-04-01

    Patients undergoing general anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy are at high risk for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). This study compared ramosetron and ondansetron in terms of efficacy for PONV prevention after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. For this study, 120 patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized (in double-blind fashion) to receive 4 mg of ondansetron (group O4, n = 40), 8 mg of ondansetron (group O8, n = 40), or 0.3 mg of ramosetron (group R, n = 40) intravenously after surgery. Postoperative nausea, retching, vomiting, pain, and side effects were assessed at 2 h, 24 h, and 48 h after surgery. No statistical differences were observed among the three groups with regard to patient characteristics and information on surgery and anesthesia. The ratio of complete response (no PONV for 2 h) was higher for groups O8 and R than for group O4 as follows: 80% (n = 32) for groups O8 and R versus 58% (n = 23) for group O4 during the first postoperative 2 h (p = 0.04), 90% (n = 36) for groups O8 and R versus 76% (n = 30) for group O4 over 24 h (2-24 h) (p = 0.09), and 98% (n = 38) for groups O4 and O8 versus 100% (n = 40) for group R over the next 24 h (24-48 h) after surgery (p = 0.36). During the first 2 h after surgery, rescue antiemetics were used for significantly fewer patients in groups O8 and R (20%) than in group O4 (42.5%) (p = 0.04). Postoperative pain and the use of rescue analgesics were comparable among the groups. There was no clinically serious adverse event due to the study drugs. Ramosetron 0.3 mg and ondansetron 8 mg are more effective than ondansetron 4 mg for the prevention of PONV (2 h). Ramosetron 0.3 mg is as effective as ondansetron 8 mg for the prophylaxis of PONV after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  20. Single-port robotic cholecystectomy. Initial and pioneer experience in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Schraibman, Vladimir; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Maccapani, Gabriel Naman; Macedo, Antônio Luiz de Vasconcellos

    2015-01-01

    The technique of a single-port laparoscopy was developed over the last years as an attempt to lower surgical aggression and improve the aesthetic results of the minimally invasive surgery. A new robotic platform used with the da Vinci® Robotic System Single-Site System® (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, California, United States) was recently launched on the global market and is still not documented in Brazil. The authors report on the first four robotic single-port cholecystectomies performed with this da Vinci® Robotic System in Brazil. PMID:26398360

  1. A powder-free surgical glove bag for retraction of the gallbladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Holme, Jørgen Bendix; Mortensen, Frank Viborg

    2005-08-01

    To test the use of a simple and cheap powder-free glove bag to extract the gallbladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). The medical records of 142 consecutive patients who had their gallbladder removed using a powder-free glove bag were reviewed. No complications in the form of bile or stone spillage during extraction were observed. The absence of complications and the low cost make routine use of the glove bag a wise option for extracting the gallbladder during LC. The use of the glove bag seems to reduce the risk of contamination with bacteria, bile, and gallstones and may reduce contamination by malignant cells in case of unexpected gallbladder carcinoma.

  2. Cholecystectomy using a novel Single-Site(®) robotic platform: early experience from 45 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Konstantinos M; Hirides, Petros; Hirides, Savas; Chrysocheris, Pericles; Georgiou, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of single-incision robotic cholecystectomy using a novel platform from Intuitive Surgical. All operations were performed by the same surgeon. Parameters assessed included patient history, indication for surgery, operation time, complication rate, conversion rate, robot-related issues, length of hospital stay, postoperative pain, and time to return to work. All patients were followed for a 2-month period postoperatively. Forty-five patients (22 women, 23 men) underwent single-incision robotic cholecystectomy from March 1 to July 15, 2011. There were no conversions to either conventional laparoscopy or laparotomy, although in three cases a second trocar was used. There were no major complications apart from a single case of postoperative hemorrhage. Average patient age was 47 ± 12 years (range = 27-80 years) and average BMI was 30 kg/m(2) (mean = 28.8 ± 4 kg/m(2), range = 18.4-46.7 kg/m(2)). The primary indication for surgery was gallstones. The mean operation time (skin-to-skin) was 84.5 ± 25.5 min (range = 51-175 min), docking time was 5.8 ± 1.5 min (range = 4-11 min), and console time (net surgical time) was 43 ± 21.9 min (range = 21-121 min). Intraoperative blood loss was negligible. There were no collisions between the robotic arms and no other robot-related problems. Average postoperative length of stay was less than 24 h. The mean Visual Analog Pain Scale Score 6 h after the operation was 2.2 ± 1.51 (range = 0-6) and patients returned to normal activities in 4.48 ± 2.3 days (range = 1-9 days). Single-Site(®) is a new platform offering a potentially more stable and reliable environment to perform single-port cholecystectomy. Both simple and complicated cholecystectomies can be performed with safety. The technique is possible in patients with a high BMI. The induction of pneumoperitoneum using the new port and the docking process require additional training.

  3. Risk Factors and Risk Stratification for Adverse Obstetrical Outcomes After Appendectomy or Cholecystectomy During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Adam; Guglielminotti, Jean; Miller, Russell; Landau, Ruth; Smiley, Richard; Li, Guohua

    2017-05-01

    Identification of risk factors for adverse obstetrical outcomes after appendectomy and cholecystectomy during pregnancy is necessary for evidence-based risk reduction and adequate patient counseling. To identify risk factors for adverse obstetrical outcomes after appendectomy and cholecystectomy during pregnancy and stratify the risk of such outcomes. A cohort study was conducted using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a nationally representative sample of patients discharged from community hospitals in the United States, from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2012. Multivariable analysis of risk factors for adverse obstetric outcomes was performed for 19 926 women undergoing appendectomy or cholecystectomy during pregnancy and a scoring system for such risk factors was developed. Data analysis was conducted from January 1, 2015, to July 31, 2016. A composite measure including 7 adverse obstetrical outcomes throughout pregnancy and occurring before hospital discharge. Of the 19 926 women (mean [SD] age, 26 [6] years) in the study, 1018 adverse obstetrical events were recorded in 953 pregnant women (4.8%). The 3 most frequent adverse events were preterm delivery (360 [35.4%]), preterm labor without preterm delivery (269 [26.4%]), and miscarriage (262 [25.7%]). The risk factors associated most strongly with an adverse obstetrical outcome included cervical incompetence (adjusted odds ratio, 24.29; 95% CI, 7.48-78.81), preterm labor during current pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio, 18.34; 95% CI, 4.95-67.96), vaginitis or vulvovaginitis (adjusted odds ratio, 5.17; 95% CI, 2.19-12.23), and sepsis (adjusted odds ratio, 3.39; 95% CI, 2.08-5.51). A scoring system based on statistically significant variables classified the study sample into 3 risk groups corresponding to predicted probabilities of adverse obstetrical outcomes of 2.5% (≤4 points), 8.2% (5-8 points), and 21.8% (≥9 points). Approximately 5% of women experience adverse obstetrical outcomes after appendectomy

  4. Risk Factors and Risk Stratification for Adverse Obstetrical Outcomes After Appendectomy or Cholecystectomy During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Guglielminotti, Jean; Miller, Russell; Landau, Ruth; Smiley, Richard; Li, Guohua

    2017-01-01

    Importance Identification of risk factors for adverse obstetrical outcomes after appendectomy and cholecystectomy during pregnancy is necessary for evidence-based risk reduction and adequate patient counseling. Objectives To identify risk factors for adverse obstetrical outcomes after appendectomy and cholecystectomy during pregnancy and stratify the risk of such outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants A cohort study was conducted using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a nationally representative sample of patients discharged from community hospitals in the United States, from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2012. Multivariable analysis of risk factors for adverse obstetric outcomes was performed for 19 926 women undergoing appendectomy or cholecystectomy during pregnancy and a scoring system for such risk factors was developed. Data analysis was conducted from January 1, 2015, to July 31, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures A composite measure including 7 adverse obstetrical outcomes throughout pregnancy and occurring before hospital discharge. Results Of the 19 926 women (mean [SD] age, 26 [6] years) in the study, 1018 adverse obstetrical events were recorded in 953 pregnant women (4.8%). The 3 most frequent adverse events were preterm delivery (360 [35.4%]), preterm labor without preterm delivery (269 [26.4%]), and miscarriage (262 [25.7%]). The risk factors associated most strongly with an adverse obstetrical outcome included cervical incompetence (adjusted odds ratio, 24.29; 95% CI, 7.48-78.81), preterm labor during current pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio, 18.34; 95% CI, 4.95-67.96), vaginitis or vulvovaginitis (adjusted odds ratio, 5.17; 95% CI, 2.19-12.23), and sepsis (adjusted odds ratio, 3.39; 95% CI, 2.08-5.51). A scoring system based on statistically significant variables classified the study sample into 3 risk groups corresponding to predicted probabilities of adverse obstetrical outcomes of 2.5% (≤4 points), 8.2% (5-8 points), and 21.8% (≥9

  5. Cystic artery pseudoaneurysm presenting as a complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy treated with percutaneous thrombin injection.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhishek; Sheikh, Ahmed; Partyka, Luke; Contractor, Sohail

    2014-01-01

    A 45-year-old woman status post laparoscopic cholecystectomy 3years ago presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopy revealed hemobilia. Computed tomographic abdomen demonstrated a 2-cm aneurysm in the gall bladder fossa, consistent with a pseudoaneurysm. Initially, transcatheter coil embolization was attempted but recanalization of the aneurysm with recurrent bleeding in 2 days ensued. The aneurysm was then accessed percutaneously under ultrasound guidance and thrombin was injected into the aneurysm with subsequent complete thrombosis of the aneurysm and cessation of bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cost-minimization analysis in a blind randomized trial on small-incision versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy from a societal perspective: sick leave outweighs efforts in hospital savings

    PubMed Central

    Keus, Frederik; de Jonge, Trudy; Gooszen, Hein G; Buskens, Erik; van Laarhoven, Cornelis JHM

    2009-01-01

    Background After its introduction, laparoscopic cholecystectomy rapidly expanded around the world and was accepted the procedure of choice by consensus. However, analysis of evidence shows no difference regarding primary outcome measures between laparoscopic and small-incision cholecystectomy. In absence of clear clinical benefit it may be interesting to focus on the resource use associated with the available techniques, a secondary outcome measure. This study focuses on a difference in costs between laparoscopic and small-incision cholecystectomy from a societal perspective with emphasis on internal validity and generalisability Methods A blinded randomized single-centre trial was conducted in a general teaching hospital in The Netherlands. Patients with reasonable to good health diagnosed with symptomatic cholecystolithiasis scheduled for cholecystectomy were included. Patients were randomized between laparoscopic and small-incision cholecystectomy. Total costs were analyzed from a societal perspective. Results Operative costs were higher in the laparoscopic group using reusable laparoscopic instruments (difference 203 euro; 95% confidence interval 147 to 259 euro). There were no significant differences in the other direct cost categories (outpatient clinic and admittance related costs), indirect costs, and total costs. More than 60% of costs in employed patients were caused by sick leave. Conclusion Based on differences in costs, small-incision cholecystectomy seems to be the preferred operative technique over the laparoscopic technique both from a hospital and societal cost perspective. Sick leave associated with convalescence after cholecystectomy in employed patients results in considerable costs to society. Trial registration ISRCTN Register, number ISRCTN67485658. PMID:19732431

  7. Prospective Observational Study of Single-Site Multiport Per-umbilical Laparoscopic Endosurgery versus Conventional Multiport Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Critical Appraisal of a Unique Umbilical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jategaonkar, Priyadarshan Anand; Yadav, Sudeep Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. This prospective observational study compares an innovative approach of Single-Site Multi-Port Per-umbilical Laparoscopic Endo-surgery (SSMPPLE) cholecystectomy with the gold standard—Conventional Multi-port Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (CMLC)—to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the former. Methods. In all, 646 patients were studied. SSMPPLE cholecystectomy utilized three ports inserted through three independent mini-incisions at the umbilicus. Only the day-to-day rigid laparoscopic instruments were used in all cases. The SSMPPLE cholecystectomy group had 320 patients and the CMLC group had 326 patients. The outcomes were statistically compared. Results. SSMPPLE cholecystectomy had average operative time of 43.8 min and blood loss of 9.4 mL. Their duration of hospitalization was 1.3 days (range, 1–5). Six patients (1.9%) of this group were converted to CMLC. Eleven patients had controlled gallbladder perforations at dissection. The Visual Analogue Scores for pain on postoperative days 0 and 7, the operative time, and the scar grades were significantly better for SSMPPLE than CMLC. However, umbilical sepsis and seroma outcomes were similar. We had no bile-duct injuries or port-site hernias in this study. Conclusion. SSMPPLE cholecystectomy approach complies with the principles of laparoscopic triangulation; it seems feasible and safe method of minimally invasive cholecystectomy. Overall, it has a potential to emerge as an economically viable alternative to single-port surgery. PMID:24876955

  8. Elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy for surgical trainees: predictive factors of operative time.

    PubMed

    Haji, A; Khan, A; Haq, A; Ribeiro, B

    2009-08-01

    To determine pre-operative criteria to predict duration and technical difficulty of laparoscopic cholecystectomies that will aid in identifying patients suitable for training lists. A prospective analysis of 835 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Data collected included patient demographics, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES), duration of surgery (from skin incision to skin closure), peri-operative and postoperative complications and histological gallbladder wall thickness. Post-operative complications were seen in 3% (n=20). Overall open conversion rate was 2%. The mean duration of surgery was 78.76 +/- 1.75 minutes. Age, ERCP and ES were not independent predictors of a long operation time. However, a positive correlation was seen with histological gallbladder wall thickness and duration of surgery (p=0.001). The mean operating time for gallbladder wall thickness < 3 mm was 72.1 +/- 1.62 minutes whereas that for > 3 mm thickness was 83.3 +/- 2.05 minutes (p=<0.001). Gallbladder wall thickness can be used as an independent predictor of a long operation time.

  9. Effectiveness of Ultrasound Shear for Clipless Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Versus Conventional Unipolar Electrocautery in Patients with Cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Sanawan, Ejaz; Qureshi, Ahmad Uzair; Qureshi, Sidra Shoaib; Cheema, Khalid M; Cheema, Muhammad Arshad

    2017-10-01

    To determine the efficacy of ultrasound shear in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in terms of total operative time, postoperative bile leaks, gall bladder perforation rate, and postoperative bleeding from cystic artery and collateral injury to bowel and duodenum. Comparative study. Mayo Hospital, Lahore, from June 2013 to May 2014. 150 cases (75 in each group) were randomized into two groups, i.e. harmonic scalpel clipless group (HSG) versus conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC) with electrocautery group. The above stated variables were documented. The data for age, blood loss, and drain output were positively skewed as calculated using the Shapiro-Wilk test. The histograms, Q-Q plots and box plots were analyzed for all the dependent variables. Skewed qualitative continuous data was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-Test. Operative time was significantly lower in HSG as compared to CLC. Median operative times were 30 minutes (IQR 10) versus 35 minutes (IQR 10) (p<0.001). HSG group had perforation rate of 5/75 (6.67%) as compated to 16/75 (21.33%) in CLC (p=0.010). Intraoperative blood loss in group Awas significantly lower than in group B (p=0.001). Postoperative median pain score was 3 (IQR 2) versus 3 (IQR 3) in HSG versus CLC, respectively. All the primary outcomes showed improved results in the ultrasound shear group as compared to the group for conventional electrocautery.

  10. Is it necessary to perform prophylactic cholecystectomy for all symptomatic gallbladder polyps diagnosed with ultrasound?

    PubMed

    Velidedeoğlu, Mehmet; Çitgez, Bülent; Arıkan, Akif Enes; Ayan, Fadıl

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to determine the necessity of cholecystectomy in patients with ultrasound diagnosed symptomatic polypoid lesions of the gallbladder. The data of 82 patients with polypoid lesions of the gallbladder who had cholecystectomy between 2000 and 2012 were analyzed retrospectively with preoperative ultrasound and histopathology results. The mean age was 48.05±11.18 years (range 25-74 years). All patients underwent preoperative ultrasound examination. Eighteen (22%) of the 82 patients were asymptomatic; their polypoid lesions of the gallbladder were detected with ultrasound during a check-up or other reasons. In 45 (55%) of cases pathology reported no polypoid lesions of the gallbladder. Right upper quadrant or epigastric pain was the most common symptom (41.46%) that led to hepatobiliary ultrasound, the other symptom was dyspepsia (36.59%). On preoperative ultrasound evaluation, 22 patients had multiple polyps, and 9 of these 22 patients had at least 3 polyps. There is an inaccuracy of ultrasound to detect polypoid lesions of the gallbladder. After diagnosing polypoid lesions of the gallbladder by using standard ultrasound, further pre-operative diagnostic tests are needed to help discriminating benign lesions from malignant ones, which may prevent unnecessary surgery regardless of symptoms.

  11. Learning curve and early clinical outcomes for a robotic surgery novice performing robotic single site cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Angus, Andrew A; Sahi, Saad L; McIntosh, Bruce B

    2014-06-01

    A rapid training protocol has been developed for robotic surgery novices to learn robotic single-incision techniques. This study assesses the learning curve and early clinical results for a robotic surgery novice starting single-site cholecystectomy. A chart review was performed on the surgeon's first 55 patients to undergo this procedure. Average patient age was 46.01 ± 4.25 (range 21-86) years and BMI was 26.57 ± 4.25 (range 19.4-36.6) kg/m(2) . The mean port placement with docking time was 11.34 ± 3.74 (range 7-23) min. Mean console time was 28.74 ± 11.04 (range 15-66) min. Average total OR time was 61.84 ± 14.66 (range 40-105) min. All procedures were successfully completed without conversion or added ports. Complications included several minor procedural gall bladder perforations and miscellaneous postoperative symptomatic complaints. Robotic single site cholecystectomy can be safely performed by a robotic novice within a minimal learning curve and have early clinical results that are comparable to the published data of robotic experts. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. [Ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A cohort study of 1,600 consecutive cases].

    PubMed

    Planells Roig, Manuel; Garcia Espinosa, Rafael; Cervera Delgado, María; Navarro Vicente, Francisco; Carrau Giner, Miguel; Sanahuja Santafé, Angel; Arnal Bertomeu, Consuelo

    2013-03-01

    A descriptive analysis of day-case laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ALC) in a cohort of 1,600 consecutive patients performed in Instituto de Cirugía y Aparato Digestivo (ICAD), Clínica Quirón de Valencia in the period 1997-2010. Prospective observational study of 1,601 consecutive patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) provided by the regional health service and private health companies. Conversion rate, non-planned admissions, readmissions, surgery duration and demographics. ALC was successfully performed in 80.8% of cases. LC with over-night (ON) stay accounted for 13.4% of patients. Admission was necessary in 4.6%. Mortality was 0.13%, 0.08 in ALC and 0.5% in ON LC. Readmissions occurred in 2.1%, 1.6% in ALC group, 5.4% in ON stay and 4.2% in admission group. ALC is a reliable and safe procedure. Minimization of admission rates is the key for cost-effective optimization in the management of cholelithiasis. ALC should be considered as the reference standard in gallbladder stone disease treatment. Copyright © 2011 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Design, Development, and Evaluation of a Novel Retraction Device for Gallbladder Extraction During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Joshua M.; Stukenborg, George J.; Johnston, William F.; Guilford, William H.; Slingluff, Craig L.; Hallowell, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Background A source of frustration during laparoscopic cholecystectomy involves extraction of the gallbladder through port sites smaller than the gallbladder itself. We describe the development and testing of a novel device for the safe, minimal enlargement of laparoscopic port sites to extract large, stone-filled gallbladders from the abdomen. Methods The study device consists of a handle with a retraction tongue to shield the specimen and a guide for a scalpel to incise the fascia within the incision. Patients enrolled underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Gallbladder extraction was attempted. If standard measures failed, the device was implemented. Extraction time and device utility scores were recorded for each patient. Patients returned 3 - 4 weeks post-operatively for assessment of pain level, cosmetic effect, and presence of infectious complications. Results Twenty (51%) of 39 patients required the device. Average extraction time for the first 8 patients was 120 seconds. After interim analysis, an improved device was used in twelve patients, and average extraction time was 24 seconds. There were no adverse events. Post-operative pain ratings and incision cosmesis were comparable between patients with and without use of the device. Conclusion The study device enables safe and rapid extraction of impacted gallbladders through the abdominal wall. PMID:23897085

  14. Design, development, and evaluation of a novel retraction device for gallbladder extraction during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Judge, Joshua M; Stukenborg, George J; Johnston, William F; Guilford, William H; Slingluff, Craig L; Hallowell, Peter T

    2014-02-01

    A source of frustration during laparoscopic cholecystectomy involves extraction of the gallbladder through port sites smaller than the gallbladder itself. We describe the development and testing of a novel device for the safe, minimal enlargement of laparoscopic port sites to extract large, stone-filled gallbladders from the abdomen. The study device consists of a handle with a retraction tongue to shield the specimen and a guide for a scalpel to incise the fascia within the incision. Patients enrolled underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Gallbladder extraction was attempted. If standard measures failed, the device was implemented. Extraction time and device utility scores were recorded for each patient. Patients returned 3-4 weeks postoperatively for assessment of pain level, cosmetic effect, and presence of infectious complications. Twenty (51 %) of 39 patients required the device. Average extraction time for the first eight patients was 120 s. After interim analysis, an improved device was used in 12 patients and average extraction time was 24 s. There were no adverse events. Postoperative pain ratings and incision cosmesis were comparable between patients with and without use of the device. The study device enables safe and rapid extraction of impacted gallbladders through the abdominal wall.

  15. Profile and predictors of bile infection in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Mahafzah, Azmi M; Daradkeh, Salam S

    2009-08-01

    To study the bacteriological profile, and to determine predictors of bile infection and septic complications following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This cross-sectional study reviewed 1248 laparoscopic cholecystectomy cases performed between January 1994 and December 2007 by one surgical team at the Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan. Bile cultures were performed for all patients and statistical analysis was performed on culture results and postoperative complications as well as, on the possible predictors of bile infection including age, gender, associated diseases, preoperative retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and indications for surgery. Uncomplicated gallstone disease was diagnosed in 993 patients (79.6%), 221 patients (17.7%) had acute cholecystitis, and 34 patients (2.7%) had jaundice. Associated morbidities were present in 513 patients (41.1%), preoperative ERCP was performed for 132 patients (10.6%), and postoperative septic complications developed in 25 patients (2%). Bile culture was positive in 250 patients (20%), 134 (53.6%) of whom had gram negative bacteria, 73 (29.2%) had gram positive bacteria, and 43 (17.2%) had mixed cultures. The chi-square test has shown that positive bile culture is significantly associated with age, gender, preoperative ERCP, associated morbidities, and complicated gallbladder disease, whereas multinomial regression analysis has shown that age and preoperative ERCP were the only significant predictors of bile infection. Bile infection commonly complicates gallstone disease, and it can be influenced by age and preoperative endoscopic interventions, but it does not influence the occurrence of postoperative septic complications.

  16. Technical difficulties and its remedies in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in situs inversus totalis: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Arya, S V; Das, Anupam; Singh, Sunil; Kalwaniya, Dheer Singh; Sharma, Ashok; Thukral, B B

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered to be the gold standard surgical procedure for cholelithiasis and is one of the commonest surgical procedures in the world today. However, in rare cases of previously undiagnosed situs inversus totalis (with dextrocardia), the presentation of the cholecystitis, its diagnosis and the operative procedure can pose problems. We present here one such case and discuss how the diagnosis was made and difficulties encountered during surgery and how they were coped with. A 35 year old female presented with left hypochondrium pain and dyspepsia, for 2 years. A diagnosis of cholelithiasis with situs inversus was confirmed after thorough clinical examination, abdominal and chest X-rays and ultrasonography of the abdomen. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which is the standard treatment, was performed with numerous modifications in the positioning of the monitor, insufflator, ports and the position of the members of the surgical team and the laparoscopic instruments. The patient had an uneventful recovery. Situs inversus totalis is itself a rare condition and when associated with cholelithiasis poses a challenge in the management of the condition. We must appreciate the necessity of setting up the operating theatre, the positioning of the ports, the surgical team and the instruments. Therefore, it becomes important for the right handed surgeons to modify their techniques and establish a proper hand eye coordination to adapt to the mirror image anatomy of the Calot's triangle in a patient of situs inversus totalis. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Laparoscopic cholecystectomy. First year experience at the Salvador Zubirán National Institute of Nutrition].

    PubMed

    Orozco, H; Mercado, M A; Prado, E

    1993-01-01

    The results at our institution with laparoscopic cholecystectomy in its first year are informed. The patients included in this study were routinely evaluated for an open procedure. The operation was done with the standard technique and equipment. In the postoperative period, ultrasound was done. Seventy-eight patients were included, 63 of them females. Age averaged 49.5 years (range 20-77). In three cases, choledocholithiasis was also demonstrated; these patients were treated with transendoscopic sphincterotomy. In 74 cases only cholelithiasis was demonstrated, two of them with shrinked gallbladder. In one case adenomyosis was found. Sixty-five cases had associated diseases which did not preclude the operation. Six cases were converted to an open cholecystectomy: two because of bleeding, the two cases with shrinked gallbladders, one with intrahepatic gallbladder, and the last one because of a Mirizzi syndrome with bile duct injury. In all cases, the conversion resolved the indication including the Mirizzi syndrome that required biliary reconstruction. No operative mortality was recorded. wound infection four, wound hematoma one, subhepatic hematoma two, and bile duct injury one.

  18. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes (1) use of VELA (a stand-alone programmable instrument); (2) forced harmonic motion of galvanometers; (3) holographic interferometry and measurement of small angular displacement; and (4) an analogy useful on teaching capacitors at A-level. Also describes a comparison of fuses and circuit breakers using a microcomputer as a storage…

  19. Incidental gallbladder cancer after routine cholecystectomy: when should we suspect it preoperatively and what are predictors of patient survival?

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yongchel; Hwang, Shin; Jang, Hyuk-Jai; Choi, Kun-Moo; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In about 1% of cases, incidental gallbladder cancers (iGBC) are found after routine cholecystectomy. The aim of this study is to compare clinical features of iGBC with benign GB disease and to evaluate factors affecting recurrence and survival. Methods Between January 1998 and March 2014, 4,629 patients received cholecystectomy and 73 iGBC patients (1.6%) were identified. We compared clinical features of 4,556 benign GB disease patients with 73 iGBC patients, and evaluated operative outcomes and prognostic factors in 56 eligible patients. Results The iGBC patients were older and concomitant diseases such as hypertension and anemia were more common than benign ones. And an age of more than 65 years was the only risk factor of iGBC. Adverse prognostic factors affecting patients' survival were age over 65, advanced histology, lymph node metastasis, and lymphovascular invasion on multivariate analysis. Age over 65 years, lymph node involvement, and lymphovascular invasion were identified as unfavorable factors affecting survival in subgroup analysis of extended cholecystectomy with bile duct resection (EC with BDR, n = 22). Conclusion Prior to routine cholecystectomy, incidental GB cancer should be suspected especially in elderly patients. And advanced age, lymph node metastasis, and lymphovascular invasion are important prognostic factors in EC with BDR cohorts. PMID:26942156

  20. Ultrasound-guided Combined Fascial Plane Blocks as an Intervention for Pain Management after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Randomized Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramkiran, Seshadri; Jacob, Mathews; Honwad, Manish; Vivekanand, Desiraju; Krishnakumar, Mathangi; Patrikar, Seema

    2018-01-01

    Background: Pain associated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy is most severe during the first 24 h and the port sites are the most painful. Recent multimodal approaches target incisional pain instead of visceral pain which has led to the emergence of abdominal fascial plane blocks. This study embraces a novel combination of two independently effective fascial plane blocks, namely rectus sheath block and subcostal transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block to alleviate postoperative pain. Study Objective: The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of rectus sheath block and subcostal TAP block, to compare its efficacy with that of subcostal TAP block alone and with conventional port site infiltration (PSI) in alleviating postoperative pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methodology: This prospective, randomized control, pilot study included 61 patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy and distributed among three groups, namely Group 1: Combined subcostal TAP block with rectus sheath block (n = 20); Group 2: Oblique subcostal TAP block alone (n = 21); and Group 3: PSI group as an active control (n = 20). Results: Combined group had significantly lower pain scores, higher satisfaction scores, and reduced rescue analgesia both in early and late postoperative periods than the conventional PSI group. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided combined fascial plane blocks is a novel intervention in pain management of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy and should become the standard of care. PMID:29628547

  1. Surgical Innovation and the Multiple Meanings of Randomized Controlled Trials: The First RCT on Minimally Invasive Cholecystectomy (1980–2000)

    PubMed Central

    Schlich, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This article uses the case of the first randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating laparoscopic cholecystectomy to investigate the introduction of minimally invasive surgery in the 1990s and explore the meaning of RCTs within the context of the introduction of a new surgical technology. It thus brings together the history of the use of laparoscopic cholecystectomy to remove the gallbladder, and the history of the RCT, shedding light on particular aspects of both. We first situate the RCT in the context of the history of the various treatment options for gallstones, or cholelithiasis, then characterize the specific situation of the rapid, patient-driven spread of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and in a next step describe how the local context of laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a new technology made it possible and desirable to conduct an RCT, despite numerous obstacles. This article then shows that in order to capture and understand the rationale of an RCT it is worth it to explore the various levels and dimensions of its context, demonstrating how even the RCT as an ostensibly universal tool draws its meaning from its contexts and that this meaning goes beyond the simple determination of efficiency and safety, including, maybe most importantly, the control and management of new technologies. PMID:27667536

  2. Should laparoscopic cholecystectomy be practiced in the developing world?: the experience of the first training program in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Manning, Richard G; Aziz, Abdul Qayoume

    2009-05-01

    We address the controversial issue of whether or not it is wise to perform and train laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in a developing nation by reviewing the results of the first large series done in Afghanistan. Afghanistan has been devastated by 3 decades of war leaving it with deficiencies in training programs, medical technologies, and overall medical infrastructure that are among the worst in the developing world. We retrospectively reviewed 137 consecutive cholecystectomies, 102 laparoscopic and 35 open, performed by 4 senior and 3 junior surgeons trained at our hospital in Kabul from July 2005 until February 2008. Deaths, complications, conversion rate, operative time, and hospital length of stay were compared. Unrecognized major operative injuries occurred in 4 LC patients, 3 bile leaks, and 1 duodenal perforation, although there were no such injuries in the open cholecystectomy group. Complication rates were much higher for patients operated on for acute cholecystitis for both surgeon groups. Even though junior surgeons converted to open cholecystectomy more frequently than senior surgeons, they had a higher major complication rate. Hospital length of stay was 28% shorter for the laparoscopic group. The high rate of major unrecognized intraoperative complications during LC in our series underscores the difficulties inherent in performing and training LC in developing nations. Practical changes are suggested to make LC more efficient and safer in a developing world hospital.

  3. A prospective, randomised trial of prophylactic antibiotics versus bag extraction in the prophylaxis of wound infection in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Harling, R; Moorjani, N; Perry, C; MacGowan, A P; Thompson, M H

    2000-11-01

    Septic complications are rare following laparoscopic cholecystectomy if prophylactic antibiotics are given, as demonstrated in previous studies. Antibiotic treatment may be unnecessary and, therefore, undesirable, so we compared two forms of prophylaxis: a cephalosporin antibiotic and bag extraction of the dissected gallbladder. A total of 76 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomised to either receive an antibiotic or to have their gallbladder removed from the abdomen in a plastic bag. Complicated cases were excluded. There was a total of 6 wound infections (7.9%), 3 in each of the study groups. All these were associated with skin commensals. There were no other septic complications. Bacteriological studies grouped the organisms isolated from the bile and the wound as potential pathogens and likely commensals. A total of 10 potential pathogens were isolated, 9 of which were found in the group receiving antibiotics. We conclude that septic sequelae of uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy are uncommon, but clearly not entirely prevented by antibiotic or mechanical prophylaxis. Prophylactic antibiotics may not be required in uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Further study is warranted.

  4. Emergent cholecystectomy is superior to percutaneous cholecystostomy tube placement in critically ill patients with emergent calculous cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Hall, Bradley R; Armijo, Priscila R; Krause, Crystal; Burnett, Tyler; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2018-07-01

    The role of percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) is undefined in patients with multiple comorbidities presenting with emergent calculous cholecystitis (CC). This study compared outcomes between PC, laparoscopic (LC), and open cholecystectomy (OC). The Vizient UHC database was queried for high-risk patients with CC who underwent PC, LC, OC, or laparoscopic converted to open cholecystectomy (CONV). Demographics, outcomes, mortality, length of stay (LOS), and direct cost were compared between the groups. LC was the most common approach with the lowest risk of death, complications, LOS, and cost. Complication risk was highest in OC. Nearly 20% of patients underwent PC. Complication rate, LOS, infection, aspiration pneumonia, and mortality were higher in PC. Direct cost was lowest in LC, followed by CONV, PC, and OC. Emergent cholecystectomy for CC in high-risk patients is safer and more cost effective than PC and this study supports the use of cholecystectomy as the primary treatment approach in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of a new strategy to identify uncomplicated gallstone disease patients that will benefit from a cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Lamberts, Mark P; Özdemir, Cihan; Drenth, Joost P H; van Laarhoven, Cornelis J H M; Westert, Gert P; Kievit, Wietske

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of a new strategy for the preoperative detection of patients that will likely benefit from a cholecystectomy, using simple criteria that can be applied by surgeons. Criteria for a cholecystectomy indication are: (1) having episodic pain; (2) onset of pain 1 year or less before the outpatient clinic visit. The cost-effectiveness of the new strategy was evaluated against current practice using a decision analytic model. The incremental cost-effectiveness of applying criteria for a cholecystectomy for a patient with abdominal pain and gallstones was compared to applying no criteria. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was expressed as extra costs to be invested to gain one more patient with absence of pain. Scenarios were analyzed to assess the influence of applying different criteria. The new strategy of applying one out of two criteria resulted in a 4 % higher mean proportion of patients with absence of pain compared to current practice with similar costs. The 95 % upper limit of the ICER was €4114 ($4633) per extra patient with relief of upper abdominal pain. Application of two out of two criteria resulted in a 3 % lower mean proportion of patients with absence of pain with lower costs. The new strategy of using one out of two strict selection criteria may be an effective but also a cost-effective method to reduce the proportion of patients with pain after cholecystectomy.

  6. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Gallbladder Calculosis in Fibromyalgia Patients: Impact on Musculoskeletal Pain, Somatic Hyperalgesia and Central Sensitization.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Raffaele; Affaitati, Giannapia; Massimini, Francesca; Tana, Claudio; Innocenti, Paolo; Giamberardino, Maria Adele

    2016-01-01

    Fibromyalgia, a chronic syndrome of diffuse musculoskeletal pain and somatic hyperalgesia from central sensitization, is very often comorbid with visceral pain conditions. In fibromyalgia patients with gallbladder calculosis, this study assessed the short and long-term impact of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on fibromyalgia pain symptoms. Fibromyalgia pain (VAS scale) and pain thresholds in tender points and control areas (skin, subcutis and muscle) were evaluated 1week before (basis) and 1week, 1,3,6 and 12months after laparoscopic cholecystectomy in fibromyalgia patients with symptomatic calculosis (n = 31) vs calculosis patients without fibromyalgia (n. 26) and at comparable time points in fibromyalgia patients not undergoing cholecystectomy, with symptomatic (n = 27) and asymptomatic (n = 28) calculosis, and no calculosis (n = 30). At basis, fibromyalgia+symptomatic calculosis patients presented a significant linear correlation between the number of previously experienced biliary colics and fibromyalgia pain (direct) and muscle thresholds (inverse)(p<0.0001). After cholecystectomy, fibromyalgia pain significantly increased and all thresholds significantly decreased at 1week and 1month (1-way ANOVA, p<0.01-p<0.001), the decrease in muscle thresholds correlating linearly with the peak postoperative pain at surgery site (p<0.003-p<0.0001). Fibromyalgia pain and thresholds returned to preoperative values at 3months, then pain significantly decreased and thresholds significantly increased at 6 and 12months (p<0.05-p<0.0001). Over the same 12-month period: in non-fibromyalgia patients undergoing cholecystectomy thresholds did not change; in all other fibromyalgia groups not undergoing cholecystectomy fibromyalgia pain and thresholds remained stable, except in fibromyalgia+symptomatic calculosis at 12months when pain significantly increased and muscle thresholds significantly decreased (p<0.05-p<0.0001). The results of the study show that biliary colics from

  7. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Gallbladder Calculosis in Fibromyalgia Patients: Impact on Musculoskeletal Pain, Somatic Hyperalgesia and Central Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Raffaele; Affaitati, Giannapia; Massimini, Francesca; Tana, Claudio; Innocenti, Paolo; Giamberardino, Maria Adele

    2016-01-01

    Fibromyalgia, a chronic syndrome of diffuse musculoskeletal pain and somatic hyperalgesia from central sensitization, is very often comorbid with visceral pain conditions. In fibromyalgia patients with gallbladder calculosis, this study assessed the short and long-term impact of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on fibromyalgia pain symptoms. Fibromyalgia pain (VAS scale) and pain thresholds in tender points and control areas (skin, subcutis and muscle) were evaluated 1week before (basis) and 1week, 1,3,6 and 12months after laparoscopic cholecystectomy in fibromyalgia patients with symptomatic calculosis (n = 31) vs calculosis patients without fibromyalgia (n. 26) and at comparable time points in fibromyalgia patients not undergoing cholecystectomy, with symptomatic (n = 27) and asymptomatic (n = 28) calculosis, and no calculosis (n = 30). At basis, fibromyalgia+symptomatic calculosis patients presented a significant linear correlation between the number of previously experienced biliary colics and fibromyalgia pain (direct) and muscle thresholds (inverse)(p<0.0001). After cholecystectomy, fibromyalgia pain significantly increased and all thresholds significantly decreased at 1week and 1month (1-way ANOVA, p<0.01-p<0.001), the decrease in muscle thresholds correlating linearly with the peak postoperative pain at surgery site (p<0.003-p<0.0001). Fibromyalgia pain and thresholds returned to preoperative values at 3months, then pain significantly decreased and thresholds significantly increased at 6 and 12months (p<0.05-p<0.0001). Over the same 12-month period: in non-fibromyalgia patients undergoing cholecystectomy thresholds did not change; in all other fibromyalgia groups not undergoing cholecystectomy fibromyalgia pain and thresholds remained stable, except in fibromyalgia+symptomatic calculosis at 12months when pain significantly increased and muscle thresholds significantly decreased (p<0.05-p<0.0001). The results of the study show that biliary colics from

  8. Residents' performance in open versus laparoscopic bench-model cholecystectomy in a hands-on surgical course.

    PubMed

    Nebiker, Christian Andreas; Mechera, Robert; Rosenthal, Rachel; Thommen, Sarah; Marti, Walter Richard; von Holzen, Urs; Oertli, Daniel; Vogelbach, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Laparoscopy has become the gold standard for many abdominal procedures. Among young surgeons, experience in laparoscopic surgery increasingly outweighs experience in open surgery. This study was conducted to compare residents' performance in laparoscopic versus open bench-model task. In an international surgical skills course, we compared trainees' performance in open versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a cadaveric animal bench-model. Both exercises were evaluated by board-certified surgeons using an 8-item checklist and by the trainees themselves. 238 trainees with a median surgical experience of 24 months (interquartile range 14-48) took part. Twenty-two percent of the trainees had no previous laparoscopic and 62% no previous open cholecystectomy experience. Significant differences were found in the overall score (median difference of 1 (95% CI: 1, 1), p < 0.001), gallbladder perforation rate (73% vs. 29%, p < 0.001), safe dissection of the Calot's triangle (98% vs. 90%, p = 0.001) and duration of surgery (42 (13) minutes vs. 26 (10) minutes (mean differences 17.22 (95% CI: 15.37, 19.07), p < 0.001)), all favouring open surgery. The perforation rate in open and laparoscopic cholecystectomies was not consistently decreasing with increasing years of experience or number of previously performed procedures. Self-assessment was lower than the assessment by board-certified surgeons. Despite lower experience in open compared to laparoscopic cholecystectomy, better performance was observed in open task. It may be explained by a wider access with easier preparation. Open cholecystectomy is the rescue manoeuvre and therefore, it is important to provide also enough training opportunities in open surgery. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Contribution of bile duct drainage on resource use and clinical outcome of open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Kazuaki; Matsuda, Shinya; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Ishikawa, Koichi B; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Hayashida, Kenshi; Fujimori, Kenji

    2010-02-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is replacing conventional open cholecystectomy (OC) as a preferred surgical method for treating complicated biliary tract disorders. However, there have been few studies assessing the impact of staged bile duct drainage (BDD) on costs and clinical outcomes for either surgical approach. This study evaluated the impact of surgical technique and BDD on resource utilization and complication rates. This study included 2778 cholecystectomy patients treated for benign biliary tract diseases in 80 academic and 81 community hospitals. For both OC and LC patients, the following variables were analysed: demographics, clinical data, length of stay (LOS), total charges (TC; US$), procedure-related complications and hospital type. Multivariate analyses were used to determine the impact of BDD on LOS, TC and complication rates. Of the 2778 cholecystectomy patients in the study, 2255 (81.2%) underwent LC. Inflammation was diagnosed in 55.6% of OC patients and 36.0% of LC patients. Complication was 9.4% in OC cases and 4.7% in LC cases. BDD was performed in 14.5% of OC cases and in 7.6% of LC cases. Diagnosis of inflammation, presence of co-morbidities and BDD each had a significant impact on LOS and TC. After risk adjustment, LC was associated with a reduction in LOS and TC, while BDD resulted in greater LOS and TC. LC and BDD were significantly associated with complications. The study suggested that BDD utilized more resources and had higher rates of complications. LC remains an appropriate procedure for cholecystectomy patients. Further study will be needed to evaluate the effect of pre-operative or post-operative BDD on quality of care.

  10. Intraperitoneal local anaesthetic instillation versus no intraperitoneal local anaesthetic instillation for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Nagendran, Myura; Guerrini, Gian Piero; Toon, Clare D; Zinnuroglu, Murat; Davidson, Brian R

    2014-03-13

    While laparoscopic cholecystectomy is generally considered less painful than open surgery, pain is one of the important reasons for delayed discharge after day surgery and overnight stay laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The safety and effectiveness of intraperitoneal local anaesthetic instillation in people undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy is unknown. To assess the benefits and harms of intraperitoneal instillation of local anaesthetic agents in people undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded to March 2013 to identify randomised clinical trials of relevance to this review. We considered only randomised clinical trials (irrespective of language, blinding, or publication status) comparing local anaesthetic intraperitoneal instillation versus placebo, no intervention, or inactive control during laparoscopic cholecystectomy for the review with regards to benefits while we considered quasi-randomised studies and non-randomised studies for treatment-related harms. Two review authors collected the data independently. We analysed the data with both fixed-effect and random-effects models using Review Manager 5 analysis. For each outcome, we calculated the risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included 58 trials, of which 48 trials with 2849 participants randomised to intraperitoneal local anaesthetic instillation (1558 participants) versus control (1291 participants) contributed data to one or more of the outcomes. All the trials except one trial with 30 participants were at high risk of bias. Most trials included only low anaesthetic risk people undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Various intraperitoneal local anaesthetic agents were used but bupivacaine in the liquid form was the most common local anaesthetic used. There were considerable differences in the methods of local anaesthetic

  11. The use of patient factors to improve the prediction of operative duration using laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Thiels, Cornelius A; Yu, Denny; Abdelrahman, Amro M; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Hallbeck, Susan; Pasupathy, Kalyan S; Bingener, Juliane

    2017-01-01

    Reliable prediction of operative duration is essential for improving patient and care team satisfaction, optimizing resource utilization and reducing cost. Current operative scheduling systems are unreliable and contribute to costly over- and underestimation of operative time. We hypothesized that the inclusion of patient-specific factors would improve the accuracy in predicting operative duration. We reviewed all elective laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed at a single institution between 01/2007 and 06/2013. Concurrent procedures were excluded. Univariate analysis evaluated the effect of age, gender, BMI, ASA, laboratory values, smoking, and comorbidities on operative duration. Multivariable linear regression models were constructed using the significant factors (p < 0.05). The patient factors model was compared to the traditional surgical scheduling system estimates, which uses historical surgeon-specific and procedure-specific operative duration. External validation was done using the ACS-NSQIP database (n = 11,842). A total of 1801 laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients met inclusion criteria. Female sex was associated with reduced operative duration (-7.5 min, p < 0.001 vs. male sex) while increasing BMI (+5.1 min BMI 25-29.9, +6.9 min BMI 30-34.9, +10.4 min BMI 35-39.9, +17.0 min BMI 40 + , all p < 0.05 vs. normal BMI), increasing ASA (+7.4 min ASA III, +38.3 min ASA IV, all p < 0.01 vs. ASA I), and elevated liver function tests (+7.9 min, p < 0.01 vs. normal) were predictive of increased operative duration on univariate analysis. A model was then constructed using these predictive factors. The traditional surgical scheduling system was poorly predictive of actual operative duration (R 2  = 0.001) compared to the patient factors model (R 2  = 0.08). The model remained predictive on external validation (R 2  = 0.14).The addition of surgeon as a variable in the institutional model further improved predictive ability of the model

  12. Effective treatment of laparoscopic cholecystectomy pain with intravenous followed by oral COX-2 specific inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Girish P; Viscusi, Eugene R; Gan, Tong J; Minkowitz, Harold; Cippolle, Mark; Schuller, Rienhard; Cheung, Raymond Y; Fort, John G

    2004-02-01

    In this multicenter, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study we evaluated the analgesic and opioid-sparing efficacy of a preoperative dose of i.v. parecoxib followed by oral valdecoxib in treating pain associated with elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients were randomized to receive a single i.v. dose of parecoxib 40 mg (n = 134) or placebo (n = 129) 30-45 min before induction of anesthesia. Six to 12 h after the i.v. dose, the parecoxib group received a single oral dose of valdecoxib 40 mg, followed by valdecoxib 40 mg qd on postoperative days 1-4, then 40 mg qd prn days 5-7. The placebo i.v. group received oral placebo on an identical schedule. All patients were allowed supplemental i.v. fentanyl as needed during the first 4 h postoperatively (T0-240 min) followed by hydrocodone 5 mg/acetaminophen 500 mg (Vicodin(R); 1-2 tablets orally every 4-6 h as needed). Patients taking parecoxib used 21% less fentanyl than those receiving placebo (P = 0.011). The mean area under the curve of pain intensity (PI) scores over time from T0-240 min was 55.2 for parecoxib and 61.2 for placebo (P = 0.083). At T180 and T240 min, mean PI score was 7.0 and 7.6 points lower in the parecoxib group, respectively (P < 0.02). Fewer patients on valdecoxib required supplemental analgesics (P < 0.05) after discharge. At T240 min and at day 7, Patient's and Physician's/Nurse's Global Evaluations were significantly better in the parecoxib/valdecoxib group (P < 0.05). Incidences of adverse events, adverse events causing withdrawal, and serious adverse events were less for parecoxib/valdecoxib than for placebo. The authors conclude that preoperative parecoxib is a valuable opioid-sparing adjunct to the standard of care for treating pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and subsequent treatment with oral valdecoxib extends this clinical benefit. Parecoxib 40 mg i.v., 30-45 min preoperatively followed by oral valdecoxib 40 mg qd reduced opioid requirements and provided

  13. Routine administration of antibiotics to patients suffering accidental gallbladder perforation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not necessary.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Valdivia, Gilberto

    2008-12-01

    Accidental rupture of the gallbladder is an event which occurs in up to 20% of laparoscopic cholecystectomies, mainly in those where dissection is difficult, or during extraction when the gallbladder is withdrawn directly through the laparoscope port. It has been commonly assumed that contamination by bile in the abdominal cavity could be a cause of infection and lead to the formation of a residual abscess or even to surgical wound infection. It is common practice, therefore, for the surgeon to prescribe the application of an antibiotic at the moment when gallbladder perforation occurs. To compare 2 groups of similar patients, to determine whether administration of antibiotics, started during surgery, is actually useful in reducing the risk of residual abscess or infection in the surgical wound. The study considered a total of 166 patients who had suffered accidental perforation of the gallbladder during elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This total was divided at random into 2 groups: group A (80 patients) who received a dose of 1 g of Cefotaxime at the moment of gallbladder rupture, followed by 2 more doses at intervals of 8 hours in the immediate postoperative period; and group B (86 patients) who did not receive any antibiotic treatment at all. The dependent variables observed were surgical wound infection and residual abscess: and the control variables were age, sex, length of operation time, intercurrent illnesses, and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification. Two patients (2.5%) in group A developed a surgical wound infection, against 3 cases (3.4%) in group B, the result having no statistical significance. No patients developed residual abscess. In a multivariant analysis, the following were identified as independent factors significantly associated with the onset of surgical wound infection (P<0.001): diabetes mellitus, being over 60 years of age, operation time lasting longer than 70 minutes, and ASA 3. Routine application of an

  14. Can bile duct injuries be prevented? "A new technique in laparoscopic cholecystectomy"

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Yavuz Selim; Tunali, Vahit; Tomaoglu, Kamer; Karagöz, Binnur; Güneyİ, Ayhan; KaragöZ, İbrahim

    2005-01-01

    Background Over the last decade, laparoscopic cholecystectomy has gained worldwide acceptance and considered to be as "gold standard" in the surgical management of symptomatic cholecystolithiasis. However, the incidence of bile duct injury in laparoscopic cholecystectomy is still two times greater compared to classic open surgery. The development of bile duct injury may result in biliary cirrhosis and increase in mortality rates. The mostly blamed causitive factor is the misidentification of the anatomy, especially by a surgeon who is at the beginning of his learning curve. Biliary tree injuries may be decreased by direct coloration of the cystic duct, ductus choledochus and even the gall bladder. Methods gall bladder fundus was punctured by Veress needle and all the bile was aspirated. The same amount of fifty percent methylene blue diluted by saline solution was injected into the gall bladder for coloration of biliary tree. The dissection of Calot triangle was much more safely performed after obtention of coloration of the gall bladder, cystic duct and choledocus. Results Between October 2003 and December 2004, overall 46 patients (of which 9 males) with a mean age of 47 (between 24 and 74) underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with methylene blue injection technique. The diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis (the thickness of the gall bladder wall was normal) confirmed by pre-operative abdominal ultrasonography in all patients. The diameters of the stones were greater than 1 centimeter in 32 patients and calcula of various sizes being smaller than 1 cm. were documented in 13 cases. One patient was operated for gall bladder polyp (our first case). Successful coloration of the gall bladder, cystic duct and ductus choledochus was possible in 43 patients, whereas only the gall bladder and proximal cystic duct were visualised in 3 cases. In these cases, ductus choledochus visibility was not possible. None of the patients developed bile duct injury. Conclusion The

  15. What Limits the Encoding Effect of Note-Taking? A Meta-Analytic Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, K.

    2005-01-01

    Previous meta-analyses indicate that the overall encoding effect of note-taking is positive but modest. This meta-analysis of 57 note-taking versus no note-taking comparison studies explored what limits the encoding effect by examining the moderating influence of seven variables: intervention, schooling level, presentation mode and length, test…

  16. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a patient with Steinert myotonic dystrophy. Case report.

    PubMed

    Agrusa, A; Mularo, S; Alessi, R; Di Paola, P; Mularo, A; Amato, G; Romano, G

    2011-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (MD) is a serious multi-systemic autosomal dominant disease. The estimated incidence is 1 in every 8000 births, with an estimated prevalence of between 2.1 and 14.3 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Signs and symptoms vary from a severe form of congenital myopathy, present from birth and often fatal, to a classic form and a delayed form, which generally presents after the age of 50 and in which the only sign is a cataract and life expectancy is completely normal. We describe the clinical case of a 40-year-old woman with Steinert myotonic dystrophy who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy (under general anesthesia) for symptomatic gallbladder stones. The conduct of anesthesia in such patients must be carefully considered, as hypothermia, shivering, electrical and mechanical stimulation, and the drugs used can all trigger myotonia.

  17. Automatic PSO-Based Deformable Structures Markerless Tracking in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djaghloul, Haroun; Batouche, Mohammed; Jessel, Jean-Pierre

    An automatic and markerless tracking method of deformable structures (digestive organs) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy intervention that uses the (PSO) behavour and the preoperative a priori knowledge is presented. The associated shape to the global best particles of the population determines a coarse representation of the targeted organ (the gallbladder) in monocular laparoscopic colored images. The swarm behavour is directed by a new fitness function to be optimized to improve the detection and tracking performance. The function is defined by a linear combination of two terms, namely, the human a priori knowledge term (H) and the particle's density term (D). Under the limits of standard (PSO) characteristics, experimental results on both synthetic and real data show the effectiveness and robustness of our method. Indeed, it outperforms existing methods without need of explicit initialization (such as active contours, deformable models and Gradient Vector Flow) on accuracy and convergence rate.

  18. Three-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy by harmonic dissection without cystic duct and artery clipping.

    PubMed

    Tebala, Giovanni D

    2006-05-01

    The technique of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) still has areas of refinements. To decrease the number of ports, a cannula may be replaced by a percutaneous suture suspension of the gallbladder. The risk of tissue injury caused by repeat blind extraction and insertion of various instruments in and out of the abdomen may be decreased by the use of the multipurpose harmonic dissector. One hundred consecutive patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis underwent 3-port LC entirely performed by harmonic dissector without cystic duct and artery clipping. In 8 cases, a fourth trocar was necessary. In 2 cases, the cystic duct was clipped after an unsafe ultrasound sealing. In 1 case, continuous bleeding from the liver required the use of diathermy. No common bile duct injury was registered. The 3-port harmonic LC is a feasible, effective, and safe technique.

  19. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy after Endoscopic Nasogallbladder Drainage: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Igami, Tsuyoshi; Ebata, Tomoki; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Sugawara, Gen; Mizuno, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Junpei; Nagino, Masato

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report a single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) for a patient with cholecystitis that required endoscopic nasogallbladder drainage (ENGBD). Clinical Presentation and Intervention A 75-year-old man was diagnosed with moderate acute cholecystitis and underwent antiplatelet therapy for a history of brain infarction. An ENGBD was performed as an initial treatment for his cholecystitis. After recovery from the cholecystitis, a SILC was performed using a SILS Port with an additional forceps. Because neither Rouviere's sulcus nor Calot's triangle could be identified with a favorable laparoscopic view, the fundus-first procedure was selected. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and he was discharged from the hospital on day 3 after surgery. Conclusion In this case of a patient who had cholecystitis that required ENGBD, a SILC was successful performed using a combination of SILS Port with additional forceps and fundus-first procedure. PMID:26022235

  20. [Case of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a patient with glucose-6-dehydrogenase deficiency].

    PubMed

    Wada, Rina; Hino, Hirofumi; Ando, Yumi; Tateda, Takeshi

    2008-02-01

    We report management of anesthesia in a patient suffering from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, a condition that induces acute hemolysis when associated with surgical stress and infection, or following the application of oxidant drugs. A 5 year-old-male patient, suffering from G6PD deficiency was scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The patient had exhibited signs of hemolysis during the course of various infections and after ingesting fava beans (favism). Anesthesia was induced with midazolam and vecuronium and maintained with nitrous oxide in oxygen and sevoflurane. There was no hemolytic change during the perioperative period. It was clear that this combination of drugs provided safe anesthesia for the G6PD patient in the present study. The most important considerations for patients with G6PD deficiency is firstly, the avoidance of oxidative stress, which can be caused by a variety of different conditions, and secondly, the use of anti-oxidative anesthetic drugs.

  1. ASC Weekly News Notes

    SciTech Connect

    Womble, David E.

    Unified collision operator demonstrated for both radiation transport and PIC-DSMC. A side-by-side comparison between the DSMC method and the radiation transport method was conducted for photon attenuation in the atmosphere over 2 kilometers in physical distance with a reduction of photon density of six orders of magnitude. Both DSMC and traditional radiation transport agreed with theory to two digits. This indicates that PIC-DSMC operators can be unified with the radiation transport collision operators into a single code base and that physics kernels can remain unique to the actual collision pairs. This simulation example provides an initial validation of the unifiedmore » collision theory approach that will later be implemented into EMPIRE.« less

  2. Ergonomic assessment of the French and American position for laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the MIS Suite.

    PubMed

    Kramp, Kelvin H; van Det, Marc J; Totte, Eric R; Hoff, Christiaan; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N

    2014-05-01

    Cholecystectomy was one of the first surgical procedures to be performed with laparoscopy in the 1980s. Currently, two operation setups generally are used to perform a laparoscopic cholecystectomy: the French and the American position. In the French position, the patient lies in the lithotomy position, whereas in the American position, the patient lies supine with the left arm in abduction. To find an ergonomic difference between the two operation setups the movements of the surgeon's vertebral column were analyzed in a crossover study. The posture of the surgeon's vertebral column was recorded intraoperatively using an electromagnetic motion-tracking system with three sensors attached to the head and to the trunk at the levels of Th1 and S1. A three-dimensional posture analysis of the cervical and thoracolumbar spine was performed to evaluate four surgeons removing a gallbladder in the French and American position. The body angles assessed were flexion/extension of the cervical and thoracolumbar spine, axial rotation of the cervical and thoracolumbar spine, lateroflexion of the cervical and thoracolumbar spine, and the orientation of the head in the sagittal plane. For each body angle, the mean, the percentage of operation time within an ergonomic acceptable range, and the relative frequencies were calculated and compared. No statistical difference was observed in the mean body angles or in the percentages of operation time within an acceptable range between the French and the American position. The relative frequencies of the body angles might indicate a trend toward slight thoracolumbar flexion in the French position. In a modern dedicated minimally invasive surgery suite, the body posture of the neck and trunk and the orientation of the head did not differ significantly between the French and American position.

  3. Hepatic resection for post-cholecystectomy bile duct injuries: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Truant, Stéphanie; Boleslawski, Emmanuel; Lebuffe, Gilles; Sergent, Géraldine; Pruvot, François-René

    2010-06-01

    This study seeks to identify factors for hepatectomy in the management of post-cholecystectomy bile duct injury (BDI) and outcome via a systematic review of the literature. Relevant literature was found by searching the PubMed database and the bibliographies of extracted articles. To avoid bias selection, factors for hepatectomy were analysed in series reporting both patients undergoing hepatectomy and patients undergoing biliary repair without hepatectomy (bimodal treatment). Relevant variables were the presence or absence of additional hepatic artery and/or portal vein injury, the level of BDI, and a previous biliary repair. Among 460 potentially relevant publications, only 31 met the eligibility criteria. A total of 99 hepatectomies were reported among 1756 (5.6%) patients referred for post-cholecystectomy BDI. In eight series reporting bimodal treatment, including 232 patients, logistic regression multivariate analysis showed that hepatic arterial and Strasberg E4 and E5 injuries were independent factors associated with hepatectomy. Patients with combined arterial and Strasberg E4 or E5 injury were 43.3 times more likely to undergo hepatectomy (95% confidence interval 8.0-234.2) than patients without complex injury. Despite high postoperative morbidity, mortality rates were comparable with those of hepaticojejunostomy, except in urgent hepatectomies (within 2 weeks; four of nine patients died). Longterm outcome was satisfactory in 12 of 18 patients in the largest series. Hepatectomies were performed mainly in patients showing complex concurrent Strasberg E4 or E5 and hepatic arterial injury and provided satisfactory longterm outcomes despite high postoperative morbidity.

  4. [Use of percutaneous needles in the feasability of single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Dávila, Fausto; Tsin, Daniel; González, Gloria; Dávila, M Ruth; Lemus, José; Dávila, Ulises

    2014-04-01

    The usefulness of percutaneous needles (PN) to replace traditional assistance ports in mini-invasive techniques with a single port is analyzed and their feasibility for conducting a single port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SPLC) is demonstrated. A retrospective, linear and descriptive study covering 2,431 patients with a diagnosis of acute and non-acute gallbladder disease has been conducted. The patients underwent a single port laparoscopic cholecystectomy using some type of PNs, replacing the assisting ports used in traditional laparoscopic cholecystechtomy (TLC). Based on the progressive use of PNs-reins (R), hooked needles (HN) and passing suture needles (PSN)-to carry out the SPLC technique, 3 groups have been established: A, B and C. The results were compared using a Student T test, odds ratio and CI and were analyzed by means of the SPSS software v. 13.0. The use of PNs showed an increased feasibility for the laparoscopic procedure, as they were included in the surgical technique. The R were useful when carrying out the SPLC in 78% of the cases and when the HK were added, the results increased to 88%. When using the 3 types (R, HN and PSN), the results increased by 96%. Statistical significance was obtained with these values: chi 2=67.13 and P<.001; odds ratio and 95% CI became significant when comparing the B/C, A/C, and A-B/C groups. The PNs, replacing the assisting ports in laparoscopy, make it possible to attain a feasibility of the process in 96% of the cases. This percentage was similar to what is achieved with the TLC, which places the one port laparoscopy surgery technique as an advantageous and economic alternative. This application of the PNs could be made extensive to other single-port techniques, with a multi-valve platform and natural orifice surgery. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Prospective randomized blinded trial of pulmonary function, pain, and cosmetic results after laparoscopic vs. microlaparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, W; Neudecker, J; Mall, J; Böhm, B; Müller, J M

    2000-04-01

    The size of laparoscopic instruments has been reduced for use in abdominal video endoscopic surgery. However, it has yet to be proven that microlaparoscopic surgery will actually result in clinically relevant benefits for patients. Fifty patients were randomized in a blinded fashion to receive either elective laparoscopic (MINI), (n = 25) or microlaparoscopic (MICRO) (n = 25) cholecystectomy. Pulmonary function (FVC, FEV (1)), analgesic consumption during patient-controlled analgesia (PCA), pain perception by visual analogue score (VAS), and the cosmetic result (by the patient's self-assessment) were evaluated postoperatively as clinically relevant end points. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), preoperative pulmonary function, pain perception, and operative time were similar for the two groups. At 8:00 PM on the day of surgery, FVC (MINI: 1.96 L [range, 1.48-2.48]; MICRO: 2.13 L) [(range, 1.61.-2.50)] and FEV (1) (MINI: 1.17 L/sec) [range, 0.87-1. 48]; MICRO: 1.34 L/sec [range, 1.05.-2.14] were also similar (each p = 0.5). From surgery to the 3rd postoperative day, cumulative PCA morphine doses were comparable (MINI: 0.15 mg/kg bw [range, 0.09-0. 23]; MICRO: 0.21 mg/kg bw [range, 0.10-0.42]; p = 0.4), but overall VAS scores for pain while coughing were higher in the laparoscopic group (406 [range, 358-514]) than in the microlaparoscopic group (365 [range, 215-427]; p = 0.02). The cosmetic result was judged to be slightly superior by the microlaparoscopic patients (10 [range, 9-10]), as compared to those in the laparoscopic (9 [range, 8-10]) group (p = 0.04). Because microlaparoscopic cholecystectomy has some minor advantages over laparoscopic surgery, it should be considered for use in selected patients.

  6. YouTube as a potential training method for laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Suh; Seo, Ho Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to analyze the educational quality of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) videos accessible on YouTube, one of the most important sources of internet-based medical information. Methods The keyword 'laparoscopic cholecystectomy' was used to search on YouTube and the first 100 videos were analyzed. Among them, 27 videos were excluded and 73 videos were included in the study. An arbitrary score system for video quality, devised from existing LC guidelines, were used to evaluate the quality of the videos. Video demographics were analyzed by the quality and source of the video. Correlation analysis was performed. Results When analyzed by video quality, 11 (15.1%) were evaluated as 'good', 40 (54.8%) were 'moderate', and 22 (30.1%) were 'poor', and there were no differences in length, views per day, or number of likes, dislikes, and comments. When analyzed by source, 27 (37.0%) were uploaded by primary centers, 20 (27.4%) by secondary centers, 15 (20.5%) by tertiary centers, 5 (6.8%) by academic institutions, and 6 (8.2%) by commercial institutions. The mean score of the tertiary center group (6.0 ± 2.0) was significantly higher than the secondary center group (3.9 ± 1.4, P = 0.001). The video score had no correlation with views per day or number of likes. Conclusion Many LC videos are accessible on YouTube with varying quality. Videos uploaded by tertiary centers showed the highest educational value. This discrepancy in video quality was not recognized by viewers. More videos with higher quality need to be uploaded, and an active filtering process is necessary. PMID:26236699

  7. Same admission laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis: is the "golden 72 hours" rule still relevant?

    PubMed

    Tan, Jarrod K H; Goh, Joel C I; Lim, Janice W L; Shridhar, Iyer G; Madhavan, Krishnakumar; Kow, Alfred W C

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that same admission laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SALC) is superior to delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis (AC). While some proposed a"golden 72-hour" for SALC, the optimal timing remains controversial. The aim of the study was to compare the outcomes of SALC in AC patients with different time intervals from symptom onset. A retrospective analysis of 311 patients who underwent SALC for AC from June 2010-June 2015 was performed. Patients were divided into three groups based on the time interval between symptom onset and surgery: <4 days (E-SALC), 4-7 days (M-SALC), >7 (L-SALC). The mean duration of symptoms was 2(1-3), 5(4-7) and 9 (8-13) days for E-SALC, M-SALC and L-SALC, respectively (p < 0.001). Conversion rates were higher in the L-SALC group [E-SALC, 8.2% vs M-SALC, 9.6% vs L-SALC, 21.4%] (p = 0.048). The total length of stay was longer in patients with longer symptom duration [E-SALC, 4 (2-33) vs M-SALC, 2 (2-23) vs L-SALC, 7 (2-49)] (p < 0.001). Patients with AC presenting beyond 7 days of symptoms have higher conversion rates and longer length of stay associated with SALC. However, patients with less than a week of symptoms should be offered SALC. Copyright © 2016 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of transversus abdominis plane block on cost of laparoscopic cholecystectomy anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kokulu, Serdar; Bakı, Elif Doğan; Kaçar, Emre; Bal, Ahmet; Şenay, Hasan; Üstün, Kübra Demir; Yılmaz, Sezgin; Ela, Yüksel; Sıvacı, Remziye Gül

    2014-12-23

    Use of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block for postoperative analgesia is continuously increasing. However, few studies have investigated intraoperative effects of TAP block. We aimed to study the effects of TAP block in terms of cost-effectiveness and consumption of inhalation agents. Forty patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: Group 1 (n=20) patients received TAP block and Group 2 (n=20) patients did not receive TAP block. Standard anesthesia induction was used in all patients. For the maintenance of anesthesia, fractional inspired oxygen (FIO2) of 50% in air with desflurane was used with a fresh gas flow of 4 L/min. All patients were monitored with electrocardiography and for peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), end-tidal carbon dioxide (ET), heart rate (HR), noninvasive mean blood pressure (MBP), and bispectral index (BIS). Bilateral TAP blocks were performed under ultrasound guidance to Group 1 patients. The BIS value was maintained at between 40 and 50 during the surgery. The Dion formula was used to calculate consumption of desflurane for each patient. There was no difference between the groups with respect to demographic characteristics of the patients. Duration of anesthesia, surgery time, and dosage of fentanyl were similar in the 2 groups. However, the cost and consumption of desflurane was significantly lower in Group 1. Total anesthesia consumption was lower and the cost-effectiveness of anesthesia was better in TAP block patients with general anesthesia than in non-TAP block patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  9. Efficacy of transverse abdominis plane block in reduction of postoperation pain in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Saliminia, Alireza; Azimaraghi, Omid; Babayipour, Shiva; Ardavan, Kamelia; Movafegh, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a recently introduced regional anesthesia technique that is used for postoperative pain reduction in some abdominal surgeries. The present study evaluated the efficacy of the TAP block on the post laparoscopic cholecystectomy pain intensity and analgesic consumption. Fifty-four patients were enrolled in three groups: TAP block with normal saline (Group 1, n = 18); TAP block with bupivacaine (Group 2, n = 18); and TAP block with bupivacaine plus sufentanil (Group 3, n = 18). The time to the first fentanyl request, fentanyl consumption in the 24 hours following surgery, and postoperative pain intensity at 30 minutes, 1 hour, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours following discharge for recovery were measured and recorded. The total amount of 24-hour fentanyl consumption was higher in Group 1 (877.8 ± 338.8 μg) than either Group 2 (566.7 ± 367.8 μg) or Group 3 (555.5 ± 356.8 μg; p = 0.03). Postoperative pain score was higher in Group 1 than intervention groups (p = 0.006); however, there was no significant difference in intervention groups. The time to the first fentanyl request in Group 1 (79.44 ± 42.2) was significantly lower than Group 3 (206.38 ± 112.7; p = 0.001). The present study demonstrated that bilateral TAP block with 0.5% bupivacaine reduces post laparoscopic cholecystectomy pain intensity and fentanyl request and prolongs time to the first analgesic request. Adding sufentanil to the block solution reduced neither pain intensity nor fentanyl further consumption. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Analysis of actual healthcare costs of early versus interval cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheryl H M; Pang, Tony C Y; Woon, Winston W L; Low, Jee Keem; Junnarkar, Sameer P

    2015-03-01

    Healthcare cost modeling have favored early (ELC) over interval laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ILC) for acute cholecystitis (AC). However, actual costs of treatment have never been studied. The aim of the present study was to compare actual hospital costs involved in ELC and ILC in patients with AC. Retrospective study of patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for AC was conducted. Demographic, clinical, operative data and costs were extracted and analyzed. Between 2011 and 2013, 201 had laparoscopic surgery for AC at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore. One hundred and thirty-four (67%) patients underwent ELC (≤7 days of presentation, within index admission). Median total length of stay (LOS) was 4.6 and 6.8 days for ELC and ILC groups, respectively (P = 0.006). Patients who had ELC also had significantly lesser total number of admissions (P < 0.001). The median (IQR) total inpatient costs were €4.4 × 10(3) (3.6-5.6) and €5.5 × 10(3) (4.0-7.5) for ELC and ILC patients, respectively (P < 0.007). Costs associated with investigations were significantly higher in the ILC group (P = 0.039), of which serological costs made most difference (P < 0.005). The ward costs were also significantly higher in the ILC group. The cost differences reflect the significantly increased total LOS, and repeat presentations associated with ILC. Therefore, ELC should be the preferred management strategy for AC. © 2014 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  11. The impact of alcohol consumption and cholecystectomy on small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Gabbard, Scott L; Lacy, Brian E; Levine, Gary M; Crowell, Michael D

    2014-03-01

    The etiology of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is diverse and frequently multi-factorial. SIBO is thought to result from structural changes of the gastrointestinal tract, disordered peristalsis of the stomach and/or small intestine, or a disruption of the normal mucosal defenses of the small intestine. Alcoholics are reported to have higher rates of SIBO, as diagnosed by jejunal aspirate; however, no data are available on the association between moderate alcohol consumption and SIBO. To evaluate the association between moderate alcohol consumption and SIBO and identify risk factors for SIBO using the lactulose breath test (LBT). A retrospective chart review was completed for 210 consecutive patients who underwent the LBT between 2008 and 2010. We reviewed demographic data, including age, race, body mass index, alcohol and tobacco history, medication use, comorbid medical conditions, and history of abdominal surgery. The study included 196 patients (68 % female; mean age 55 years), 93 of whom had a positive LBT (47.4 %). Of those patients who consumed a moderate amount of alcohol, 58 % had a positive LBT, compared to 38.9 % of abstainers (P = 0.008). Those with a history of cholecystectomy had significantly lower rates of a positive LBT than those who had not (33.3 vs. 51.7 % respectively; P = 0.031). Neither proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use nor tobacco use was associated with a positive LBT. In this retrospective review, moderate alcohol consumption was a strong risk factor for SIBO. Cholecystectomy appeared to be protective against SIBO. Neither PPI use nor tobacco use was associated with an increased risk of SIBO.

  12. How often do surgeons obtain the critical view of safety during laparoscopic cholecystectomy?

    PubMed

    Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Chintalapudi, Nikita; Anderson-Montoya, Brittany; Oommen, Bindhu; Tobben, Daniel; Pimentel, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The reported incidence (0.16-1.5 %) of bile duct injury (BDI) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is higher than during open cholecystectomy and has not decreased over time despite increasing experience with the procedure. The "critical view of safety" (CVS) technique may help to prevent BDI when certain criteria are met prior to division of any structures. This study aimed to evaluate the adherence of practicing surgeons to the CVS criteria during LC and the impact of a training intervention on CVS identification. LC procedures of general surgeons were video-recorded. De-identified recordings were reviewed by a blinded observer and rated on a 6-point scale using the previously published CVS criteria. A coaching program was conducted, and participating surgeons were re-assessed in the same manner. The observer assessed ten LC videos, each involving a different surgeon. The CVS was adequately achieved by two surgeons (20 %). The remaining eight surgeons (80 %) did not obtain adequate CVS prior to division of any structures, despite two surgeons dictating that they did; the mean score of this group was 1.75. After training, five participating surgeons (50 %) scored > 4, and the mean increased from 1.75 (baseline) to 3.75 (p < 0.05). The CVS criteria were not routinely used by the majority of participating surgeons. Further, one-fourth of those who claimed to obtain the CVS did so inadequately. All surgeons who participated in training showed improvement during their post-assessment. Our findings suggest that education of practicing surgeons in the application of the CVS during LC can result in increased implementation and quality of the CVS. Pending studies with larger samples, our findings may partly explain the sustained BDI incidence despite increased experience with LC. Our study also supports the value of direct observation of surgical practices and subsequent training for quality improvement.

  13. YouTube as a potential training method for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Suh; Seo, Ho Seok; Hong, Tae Ho

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the educational quality of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) videos accessible on YouTube, one of the most important sources of internet-based medical information. The keyword 'laparoscopic cholecystectomy' was used to search on YouTube and the first 100 videos were analyzed. Among them, 27 videos were excluded and 73 videos were included in the study. An arbitrary score system for video quality, devised from existing LC guidelines, were used to evaluate the quality of the videos. Video demographics were analyzed by the quality and source of the video. Correlation analysis was performed. When analyzed by video quality, 11 (15.1%) were evaluated as 'good', 40 (54.8%) were 'moderate', and 22 (30.1%) were 'poor', and there were no differences in length, views per day, or number of likes, dislikes, and comments. When analyzed by source, 27 (37.0%) were uploaded by primary centers, 20 (27.4%) by secondary centers, 15 (20.5%) by tertiary centers, 5 (6.8%) by academic institutions, and 6 (8.2%) by commercial institutions. The mean score of the tertiary center group (6.0 ± 2.0) was significantly higher than the secondary center group (3.9 ± 1.4, P = 0.001). The video score had no correlation with views per day or number of likes. Many LC videos are accessible on YouTube with varying quality. Videos uploaded by tertiary centers showed the highest educational value. This discrepancy in video quality was not recognized by viewers. More videos with higher quality need to be uploaded, and an active filtering process is necessary.

  14. Selective use of preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Nataly, Yogesh; Merrie, Arend E; Stewart, Ian D

    2002-03-01

    The use of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the management of suspected common bile duct (CBD) stones prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy is common. The associated morbidity can be significant. The present study determines significant predictors of CBD stones and improves the selection of patients for preoperative ERCP. All preoperative ERCP for suspected CBD stones in the year 1998 were studied retrospectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses of a number of clinical, biochemical and radiological variables were carried out to determine the best predictors of CBD stones. A total of 112 patients had successful preoperative ERCP. Sixty-one per cent of these were negative for stones and the morbidity was 9%. Univariate analysis revealed the following variables as predictors: cholangitis (P = 0.006), abnormal serum bilirubin > or = 3 days (P = 0.002), serum alkaline phosphatase > or = 130 U/L (P = 0.002), deranged liver function tests (P = < 0.001) and CBD diameter > or = 8 mm (P = 0.009) with positive predictive values of 80%, 68%, 49%, 38% and 52%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed the model with the best ability to discriminate for CBD stones (P = 0.0005) was cholangitis, abnormal serum bilirubin for > or = 3 days and CBD diameter > or = 8 mm. The best predictors from this study had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 27%. The predictors of CBD stones are imprecise. Until laparoscopic exploration of CBD becomes widely available, ERCP prior to cholecystectomy will remain popular. The use of stricter selection criteria can reduce the number of negative preoperative ERCP.

  15. Mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy in children under 10 years of age with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Seleem, Mohamed I; Al-Hashemy, Ahmed M; Meshref, Sahar S

    2005-07-01

    Cholelithiasis is very common in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and is responsible for recurrent attacks of abdominal pain. The ideal management, especially for children, remains controversial. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the safety and outcome of mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy (MLC) in young children under age of 10 years with SCD. A prospective study was carried out of 75 children with SCD under 10 years of age with recurrent abdominal pains seen between August 2001 and March 2004 at Armed Forces Hospital, Khamis Mushayt, Saudi Arabia, who were screened for cholelithiasis. Twelve (16%) of the 75 children were found to have gallstones. The mean age was 7.8 years (range 4-9 years). All 12 children underwent MLC. Anaemia was corrected preoperatively in all the patients. Operative time, intraoperative complications, hospital stay, and postoperative recurrent abdominal pain were recorded. The mean operating time was 46.5 min (range: 35-65 min). Intraoperative cholangiogram failed in two children due to narrow cystic ducts. The mean hospital stay was 2.1 days (range: 2-4 days). No patient required intra-abdominal drain. The mean follow-up period was 13.4 months (range: 4-24 months). The only postoperative complication was deep jaundice 1 month postoperatively due to cholestasis, and this responded to medical treatment. None of the children had recurrent abdominal pain after MLC. Mini-laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe surgical procedure for the management of cholelithiasis in children with SCD and leads to improvement in the quality of life by decreasing the frequency of recurrent abdominal pain.

  16. Robotic single port cholecystectomy (R-LESS-C): experience in 36 patients.

    PubMed

    Uras, Cihan; Böler, Deniz Eren; Ergüner, Ilknur; Hamzaoğlu, Ismail

    2014-07-01

    Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) has emerged as a result of a search for "pain-less" and "scar-less" surgery. Laparoendoscopic single-site cholecystectomy (LESS-C) is probably the most common application in general surgery, although it harbors certain limitations. It was proposed that the da Vinci Single-Site (Si) robotic system may overcome some of the difficulties experienced during LESS, providing three dimensional views and the ability to work in a right-handed fashion. Thirty-six robotic single port cholecystectomies (R-LESS-C) performed with the da Vinci Si robotic system are evaluated in this paper R-LESS-C performed in 36 patients were reviewed. The data related to the perioperative period (i.e., anesthesia time, operation time, docking time, and console time) was recorded prospectively, whereas the hospitalization period, postoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores were collected retrospectively. A total number of 36 patients, with a mean age of 40.1 years (21-64 years), underwent R-LESS-C. There were five men and 31 women. The mean anesthesia and operation times were 79.3 minutes (45-130 minutes) and 61.8 minutes (34-110 minutes), respectively. The mean docking time was 9.8 minutes (4-30 minutes) and the mean console time was 24.9 minutes (7-60 minutes). The mean hospital stay was 1.05 days (1-2 days) and the mean pain score (VAS) was 3.6 (2-8) in the first 24 hours. Incisional hernia was recorded in one patient. R-LESS-C can be performed reliably with acceptable operative times and safety. The da Vinci Si robotic system may ease LESS-C. Two issues should be considered for routine use: expensive resources are needed and the incidence of incisional hernia may increase. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Robot-assisted single port radical nephrectomy and cholecystectomy: description and technical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Francisco Hidelbrando Alves; Sávio, Luis Felipe; Sakata, Rafael Eiji; Ivanovic, Renato Fidelis; da Silva, Marco Antonio Nunes; Maia, Ronaldo Soares; Passerotti, Carlo Camargo

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction Robot-Assisted Single Site Radical Nephrectomy (RASS-RN) has been reported by surgeons in Europe and United States (1–3). To our best knowledge this video presents the first RASS-RN with concomitant cholecystectomy performed in Latin America. Case A 66 year-old renal transplant male due to chronic renal failure presented with an incidental 1.3cm nodule in the upper pole of the right kidney. In addition, symptomatic gallbladder stones were detected. Results Patient was placed in modified flank position. Multichannel single port device was placed using Hassan's technique through a 3 cm supra-umbilical incision. Standard radical nephrectomy and cholecystectomy were made using an 8.5mm camera, two 5mm robotic arms and an assistant 5mm access. Surgery time and estimated blood loss were 208 minutes and 100mL, respectively. Patient did well and was discharged within less than 48 hours, without complications. Pathology report showed benign renomedullary tumor of interstitial cells and chronic cholecystitis. Discussion Robotic technology improves ergonomics, gives better precision and enhances ability to approach complex surgeries. Robot-assisted Single Port aims to reduce the morbidity of multiple trocar placements while maintaining the advantages of robotic surgery (2). Limitations include the use of semi-rigid instruments providing less degree of motion and limited space leading to crash between instruments. On the other hand, it is possible to perform complex and concomitant surgeries with just one incision. Conclusion RASS-RN seems to be safe and feasible option for selected cases. Studies should be performed to better understand the results using single port technique in Urology. PMID:29039889

  18. Robot-assisted single port radical nephrectomy and cholecystectomy: description and technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Mota Filho, Francisco Hidelbrando Alves; Sávio, Luis Felipe; Sakata, Rafael Eiji; Ivanovic, Renato Fidelis; da Silva, Marco Antonio Nunes; Maia, Ronaldo; Passerotti, Carlo

    2018-01-01

    Robot-Assisted Single Site Radical Nephrectomy (RASS-RN) has been reported by surgeons in Europe and United States (1-3). To our best knowledge this video presents the first RASS-RN with concomitant cholecystectomy performed in Latin America. A 66 year-old renal transplant male due to chronic renal failure presented with an incidental 1.3cm nodule in the upper pole of the right kidney. In addition, symptomatic gallbladder stones were detected. Patient was placed in modified flank position. Multichannel single port device was placed using Hassan's technique through a 3cm supra-umbilical incision. Standard radical nephrectomy and cholecystectomy were made using na 8.5mm camera, two 5mm robotic arms and an assistant 5mm access. Surgery time and estimated blood loss were 208 minutes and 100mL, respectively. Patient did well and was discharged within less than 48 hours, without complications. Pathology report showed benign renomedullary tumor of interstitial cells and chronic cholecystitis. Robotic technology improves ergonomics, gives better precision and enhances ability to approach complex surgeries. Robot-assisted Single Port aims to reduce the morbidity of multiple trocar placements while maintaining the advantages of robotic surgery (2). Limitations include the use of semi-rigid instruments providing less degree of motion and limited space leading to crash between instruments. On the other hand, it is possible to perform complex and concomitant surgeries with just one incision. RASS-RN seems to be safe and feasible option for selected cases. Studies should be performed to better understand the results using single port technique in Urology. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  19. PLMA vs. I-gel: A Comparative Evaluation of Respiratory Mechanics in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bimla; Sehgal, Raminder; Sahai, Chand; Sood, Jayashree

    2010-01-01

    Background: Supraglottic airway devices (SADs), such as ProSealTM laryngeal mask airway (PLMA), which produce high oropharyngeal seal pressure (OSP) and have the facility for gastric decompression have been used in laparoscopic procedures. i-gel is a new SAD which shares these features with the PLMA. This study was designed to compare the respiratory mechanics of these two devices during positive pressure ventilation in anaesthetised adult patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients & Methods: The study included 60 ASA I-II adult patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The patients were randomized to two groups of 30 each, with either PLMA or i-gel as their airway device. Anaesthesia and premedication were standardized for both the groups. In addition to routine monitoring, neuromuscular monitoring with TOF ratio, OSP and respiratory mechanics monitoring (dynamic compliance, resistance, work of breathing, measured minute ventilation and peak airway pressures) were employed. Fibreoptic evaluation of positioning of the devices and adverse events related to them were also compared. Results: The OSP (cm H2O) were higher for PLMA (38.9 vs. 35.6, P=0.007). The respiratory mechanics parameters using the two devices were comparable apart from the dynamic compliance, which was significantly higher with i-gel (P < 0.05). Malrotation was higher with i-gel than with PLMA (15 vs. 5, P = 0.006). Conclusion: The PLMA formed a better seal while the dynamic compliance was higher with the i-gel. Both devices provided optimal ventilation and oxygenation and the adverse events were also comparable. PMID:21547168

  20. Effect of Transversus Abdominis Plane Block on Cost of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kokulu, Serdar; Bakı, Elif Doğan; Kaçar, Emre; Bal, Ahmet; Şenay, Hasan; Üstün, Kübra Demir; Yılmaz, Sezgin; Ela, Yüksel; Sıvacı, Remziye Gül

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block for postoperative analgesia is continuously increasing. However, few studies have investigated intraoperative effects of TAP block. We aimed to study the effects of TAP block in terms of cost-effectiveness and consumption of inhalation agents. Material/Methods Forty patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: Group 1 (n=20) patients received TAP block and Group 2 (n=20) patients did not receive TAP block. Standard anesthesia induction was used in all patients. For the maintenance of anesthesia, fractional inspired oxygen (FIO2) of 50% in air with desflurane was used with a fresh gas flow of 4 L/min. All patients were monitored with electrocardiography and for peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), end-tidal carbon dioxide (ET), heart rate (HR), noninvasive mean blood pressure (MBP), and bispectral index (BIS). Bilateral TAP blocks were performed under ultrasound guidance to Group 1 patients. The BIS value was maintained at between 40 and 50 during the surgery. The Dion formula was used to calculate consumption of desflurane for each patient. Results There was no difference between the groups with respect to demographic characteristics of the patients. Duration of anesthesia, surgery time, and dosage of fentanyl were similar in the 2 groups. However, the cost and consumption of desflurane was significantly lower in Group 1. Conclusions Total anesthesia consumption was lower and the cost-effectiveness of anesthesia was better in TAP block patients with general anesthesia than in non-TAP block patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:25534331

  1. Hepatic resection for post-cholecystectomy bile duct injuries: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Truant, Stéphanie; Boleslawski, Emmanuel; Lebuffe, Gilles; Sergent, Géraldine; Pruvot, François-René

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study seeks to identify factors for hepatectomy in the management of post-cholecystectomy bile duct injury (BDI) and outcome via a systematic review of the literature. Methods: Relevant literature was found by searching the PubMed database and the bibliographies of extracted articles. To avoid bias selection, factors for hepatectomy were analysed in series reporting both patients undergoing hepatectomy and patients undergoing biliary repair without hepatectomy (bimodal treatment). Relevant variables were the presence or absence of additional hepatic artery and/or portal vein injury, the level of BDI, and a previous biliary repair. Results: Among 460 potentially relevant publications, only 31 met the eligibility criteria. A total of 99 hepatectomies were reported among 1756 (5.6%) patients referred for post-cholecystectomy BDI. In eight series reporting bimodal treatment, including 232 patients, logistic regression multivariate analysis showed that hepatic arterial and Strasberg E4 and E5 injuries were independent factors associated with hepatectomy. Patients with combined arterial and Strasberg E4 or E5 injury were 43.3 times more likely to undergo hepatectomy (95% confidence interval 8.0–234.2) than patients without complex injury. Despite high postoperative morbidity, mortality rates were comparable with those of hepaticojejunostomy, except in urgent hepatectomies (within 2 weeks; four of nine patients died). Longterm outcome was satisfactory in 12 of 18 patients in the largest series. Conclusions: Hepatectomies were performed mainly in patients showing complex concurrent Strasberg E4 or E5 and hepatic arterial injury and provided satisfactory longterm outcomes despite high postoperative morbidity. PMID:20590909

  2. Postoperative outcomes and quality of life in patients with cystic fibrosis undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Cogliandolo, Andrea; Patania, Mariangela; Currò, Giuseppe; Chillè, Giovanni; Magazzù, Giuseppe; Navarra, Giuseppe

    2011-06-01

    Approximately 28% of the patients with cystic fibrosis are affected by cholelythiasis. More than 40% of them have a symptomatic disease, which would mandate cholecystectomy. The aim of this study was to review surgical and respiratory outcomes and quality of life scores of cystic fibrosis patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelythiasis to verify the hypothesis that cholecystectomy is a low-risk operation by laparoscopy, not affecting unfavorably respiratory function and quality of life. Study group was consisted of 9 patients with a mean age of 24.8±8.1 years (range, 15 to 38 y), 2 male and 7 female patients, with cystic fibrosis and symptomatic cholelithiasis. Three patients also presented common bile duct stones. All the patients underwent perioperative Positive End-Expiratory Pressure mask sessions and aggressive antibiotic regimens. At the middle of the antibiotics regimen period, a standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed. In the 3 cases with common duct lithiasis, the so-called "rendezvous" technique was carried out. Preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively, respiratory function was strictly monitored by the evaluation of SO2 and of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). Preoperatively and 6 months after laparoscopic cholecystectomy the Gastro Intestinal Quality of Life Index was evaluated on all patients. All the operations were completed laparoscopically. No mortality was observed. The intraoperative mean SO2 was 89.0%±5.6% (range, 80% to 95%), versus 82.8%±8.5% (range, 66% to 91%) at the extubation (P=0.006). Intraoperative respiratory functions were stable in 6 patients. In 3 patients, a severe bronchospasm occurred determining marked desaturation. Preoperative mean FEV1 was 70.5%±7.0% (range, 55% to 75%) versus 61.8%±13.2% (range, 39% to 80%) 48 hours after the operation (P=0.132). The 3 patients, who experienced intraoperatively severe bronchospasm, reported a 48 hours postoperative

  3. Cholecystectomy vs. percutaneous cholecystostomy for the management of critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis: a protocol for a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ambe, Peter C; Kaptanis, Sarantos; Papadakis, Marios; Weber, Sebastian A; Zirngibl, Hubert

    2015-05-30

    Acute cholecystitis is a common diagnosis. However, the heterogeneity of presentation makes it difficult to standardize management. Although surgery is the mainstay of treatment, critically ill patients have been managed via percutaneous cholecystostomy. However, the role of percutaneous cholecystostomy in the management of such patients has not been clearly established. This systematic review will compare the outcomes of critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis managed with percutaneous cholecystostomy to those of similar patients managed with cholecystectomy. Systematic searches will be conducted across relevant health databases including the Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus using the following keywords: (acute cholecystitis OR severe cholecystitis OR cholecystitis) AND (cholecystectomy OR laparoscopic cholecystectomy OR open cholecystectomy) AND (Cholecystostomy OR percutaneous cholecystectomy OR gallbladder drain OR gallbladder tube OR transhepatic gallbladder drain OR transhepatic gallbladder tube OR cholecystostomy tube). The reference lists of eligible articles will be hand searched. Articles from 2000-2014 will be identified using the key terms "acute cholecystitis, cholecystectomy, and percutaneous cholecystostomy". Studies including both interventions will be included. Relevant data will be extracted from eligible studies using a specially designed data extraction sheet. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale will be used to assess the quality of non-randomized studies. Central tendencies will be reported in terms of means and standard deviations where necessary, and risk ratios will be calculated where possible. All calculations will be performed with a 95 % confidence interval. Furthermore, the Fisher's exact test will be used for the calculation of significance, which will be set at p < 0.05. Pooled estimates will be presented after consideration of both clinical and

  4. Online Class Size, Note Reading, Note Writing and Collaborative Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Mingzhu; Hewitt, Jim; Brett, Clare

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have long recognized class size as affecting students' performance in face-to-face contexts. However, few studies have examined the effects of class size on exact reading and writing loads in online graduate-level courses. This mixed-methods study examined relationships among class size, note reading, note writing, and collaborative…

  5. Heuristic evaluation of eNote: an electronic notes system.

    PubMed

    Bright, Tiffani J; Bakken, Suzanne; Johnson, Stephen B

    2006-01-01

    eNote is an electronic health record (EHR) system based on semi-structured narrative documents. A heuristic evaluation was conducted with a sample of five usability experts. eNote performed highly in: 1)consistency with standards and 2)recognition rather than recall. eNote needs improvement in: 1)help and documentation, 2)aesthetic and minimalist design, 3)error prevention, 4)helping users recognize, diagnosis, and recover from errors, and 5)flexibility and efficiency of use. The heuristic evaluation was an efficient method of evaluating our interface.

  6. Is cholecystectomy necessary after endoscopic treatment of bile duct stones in patients older than 80 years of age?

    PubMed

    Yasui, Takaharu; Takahata, Shunichi; Kono, Hiroshi; Nagayoshi, Yosuke; Mori, Yasuhisa; Tsutsumi, Kosuke; Sadakari, Yoshihiko; Ohtsuka, Takao; Nakamura, Masafumi; Tanaka, Masao

    2012-01-01

    Although patients with cholecystocholedocholithiasis are generally referred to cholecystectomy after endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) and common bile duct clearance, we often have a conflict whether cholecystectomy is necessary in very elderly patients with comorbid diseases. The aim of this study is to assess whether cholecystectomy in very elderly patients is justified after ES. Patients with cholecystocholedocholithiasis who underwent ES and stone extraction and were followed-up for more than 10 years were retrospectively reviewed. We divided these patients into two groups: the elderly group (equal to or more than 80 years old) and young group (less than 80 years old) and compared late biliary complications and mortality. The 10-year cumulative incidence of overall biliary complications was significantly lower in cholecystectomized patients than in patients with gallbladder in situ in the young group (7.5 vs. 21.7%, p = 0.0037), but not different in the elderly group (8.3 vs. 7.4%, p = 0.92). When each complication was evaluated separately, the rate of recurrent common bile duct stones (CBDS) was not different, but that of acute cholecystitis was significantly lower in the elderly group than in the young group (4.1 vs. 22.6%, p = 0.011). In very elderly patients the incidence of acute cholecystitis is low even when the gallbladder is preserved after endoscopic treatment of CBDS, with a similar risk of CBDS recurrence. Thus, it may not be necessary to recommend cholecystectomy after ES for CBDS in very elderly patients.

  7. Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Cholecystectomy: First Experiences with a New Standardized Technique Replicating the Four-Port Technique.

    PubMed

    Morales-Conde, Salvador; Cañete-Gómez, Jesús; Gómez, Virginia; Socas Macías, María; Moreno, Antonio Barranco; Del Agua, Isaias Alarcón; Ruíz, Francisco Javier Padillo

    2016-10-01

    After reports on laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) cholecystectomy, concerns have been raised over the level of difficulty and a potential increase in complications when moving away from conventional gold standard multiport laparoscopy due to incomplete exposure and larger umbilical incisions. With continued development of technique and technology, it has now become possible to fully replicate this gold standard procedure through an LESS approach. First experiences with the newly developed technique and instrument are reported. Fifteen patients presenting with cholelithiasis without signs of inflammation were operated using all surgical steps considered appropriate for the conventional four-port laparoscopic approach, but applied through a single access device. Operation-centered outcomes are presented. There were no peri- or postoperative complications. Mean operating time was 32.3 minutes. No conversion to regular laparoscopy was required. The critical view of safety was achieved in all cases. Mean skin incision length was 2.2 cm. The application of a standardized technique combined with the use of a four-port LESS device allows us to perform LESS cholecystectomy, giving us a correct exposure of the structures and without increasing the mean operating time combining previously reported advantages of LESS. A universal trait of any new technique should be safety and reproducibility. This will enhance its applicability by large number of surgeons and to large number of patients requiring cholecystectomy.

  8. Bile acid malabsorption demonstrated by SeHCAT in chronic diarrhoea, with special reference to the impact of cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Suhr, O; Danielsson, A; Nyhlin, H; Truedsson, H

    1988-12-01

    SeHCAT is a gamma-labelled synthetic bile acid, suitable for external measurements and detection of bile acid malabsorption. In this study 138 subjects were investigated with 75SeHCAT. The technique was modified by calculating the biologic half-life of the isotope (WBR-50) within 48 h. All patients with ileocaecal resection had reduced WBR-50 values, as did most (8 of 12) with Crohn's disease affecting the small bowel. Among patients with chronic diarrhoea 24 out of 62 patients had reduced WBR-50 values. Four of the patients with low WBR-50 and one in the group with normal WBR-50 had previously been cholecystectomized. In a consecutive study, 15 patients were investigated before and after cholecystectomy. In 12, WBR-50 decreased after the operation (p less than 0.05). The results demonstrate the impact of cholecystectomy on the interpretation of the SeHCAT retention results. The results may also add to the understanding of diarrhoea secondary to cholecystectomy.

  9. Evaluation of the impact of preoperative education in ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A prospective, double-blind randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Subirana Magdaleno, Helena; Caro Tarragó, Aleidis; Olona Casas, Carles; Díaz Padillo, Alba; Franco Chacón, Mario; Vadillo Bargalló, Jordi; Saludes Serra, Judit; Jorba Martín, Rosa

    2018-02-01

    Outpatient laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe procedure and provides a better use of health resources and perceived satisfaction without affecting quality of care. Preoperative education has shown less postoperative stress, pain and nausea in some interventions. The principal objective of this study is to assess the impact of preoperative education on postoperative pain in patients undergoing ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Secondary objectives were: to evaluate presence of nausea, morbidity, hospital admissions, readmissions rate, quality of life and satisfaction. Prospective, randomized, and double blind study. Between April 2014 and May 2016, 62 patients underwent outpatient laparoscopic cholecystectomy. ASA I-II, age 18-75, outpatient surgery criteria, abdominal ultrasonography with cholelithiasis. Patient randomization in two groups, group A: intensified preoperative education and group B: control. Sixty-two patients included, 44 women (71%), 18 men (29%), mean age 46,8 years (20-69). Mean BMI 27,5. Outpatient rate 92%. Five cases required admission, two due to nausea. Pain scores obtained using a VAS was at 24-hour, 2,9 in group A and 2,7 in group B. There were no severe complications or readmissions. Results of satisfaction and quality of life scores were similar for both groups. We did not find differences due to intensive preoperative education. However, we think that a correct information protocol should be integrated into the patient's preoperative preparation. Registered in ISRCTN number ISRCTN83787412. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Primary versus delayed repair for bile duct injuries sustained during cholecystectomy: results of a survey of the Association Francaise de Chirurgie

    PubMed Central

    Iannelli, Antonio; Paineau, Jacques; Hamy, Antoine; Schneck, Anne-Sophie; Schaaf, Caroline; Gugenheim, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background Bile duct injuries (BDIs) sustained during a cholecystectomy still remain a major surgical problem, and it is still not clear whether the injury should be repaired immediately or a delayed repair is preferred. Methods A retrospective national French survey was conducted to compare the results of immediate (at time of cholecystectomy), early (within 45 days after a cholecystectomy) and late (beyond 45 days after a cholecystectomy) surgical repair for BDI sustained during a cholecystectomy. Results Forty-seven surgical centres provided 640 cases of bile duct injury sustained during a cholecystectomy of which 543 were analysed for the purpose of the present study. The timing of repair was immediate in 194 cases (35.7%), early in 216 cases (39.8%) and late in 133 cases (24.5%). The type of repair was a suture repair in 157 cases (81%), and a bilio-digestive reconstruction in 37 cases (19%) for immediate repair; a suture repair in 119 cases (55.1%) and a bilio-digestive anastomosis in 96 cases (44.9%) for the early repair; and a bilio-digestive reconstruction in 129 cases (97%) and a suture repair in 4 cases (3%) for late repair. A second procedure was required in 110 cases (56.7%) for immediate repair, 80 cases (40.7%) for early repair (P < 0.05) and in 9 cases (6.8%) for late repair (P < 0.001). Conclusion The timing of surgical repair for a bile duct injury sustained during a cholecystectomy influences significantly the rate of a second procedure and a late repair should be preferred option. PMID:23458568

  11. Station Program Note Pull Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Upon commencement of my internship, I was in charge of maintaining the CoFR (Certificate of Flight Readiness) Tool. The tool acquires data from existing Excel workbooks on NASA's and Boeing's databases to create a new spreadsheet listing out all the potential safety concerns for upcoming flights and software transitions. Since the application was written in Visual Basic, I had to learn a new programming language and prepare to handle any malfunctions within the program. Shortly afterwards, I was given the assignment to automate the Station Program Note (SPN) Pull process. I developed an application, in Python, that generated a GUI (Graphical User Interface) that will be used by the International Space Station Safety & Mission Assurance team here at Johnson Space Center. The application will allow its users to download online files with the click of a button, import SPN's based on three different pulls, instantly manipulate and filter spreadsheets, and compare the three sources to determine which active SPN's (Station Program Notes) must be reviewed for any upcoming flights, missions, and/or software transitions. Initially, to perform the NASA SPN pull (one of three), I had created the program to allow the user to login to a secure webpage that stores data, input specific parameters, and retrieve the desired SPN's based on their inputs. However, to avoid any conflicts with sustainment, I altered it so that the user may login and download the NASA file independently. After the user has downloaded the file with the click of a button, I defined the program to check for any outdated or pre-existing files, for successful downloads, to acquire the spreadsheet, convert it from a text file to a comma separated file and finally into an Excel spreadsheet to be filtered and later scrutinized for specific SPN numbers. Once this file has been automatically manipulated to provide only the SPN numbers that are desired, they are stored in a global variable, shown on the GUI, and