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Sample records for nothofagus obliqua mirb

  1. Preformation and distribution of staminate and pistillate flowers in growth units of Nothofagus alpina and N. obliqua (Nothofagaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Puntieri, Javier G.; Grosfeld, Javier E.; Heuret, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The distribution and differentiation times of flowers in monoecious wind-pollinated plants are fundamental for the understanding of their mating patterns and evolution. Two closely related South American Nothofagus species were compared with regard to the differentiation times and positions of staminate and pistillate flowers along their parent growth units (GUs) by quantitative means. Methods Two samples of GUs that had extended in the 2004–2005 growing season were taken in 2005 and 2006 from trees in the Lanín National Park, Patagonia, Argentina. For the first sample, axillary buds of the parent GUs were dissected and the leaf, bud and flower primordia of these buds were identified. The second sample included all branches derived from the parent GUs in the 2005–2006 growing season. Key Results Both species developed flowering GUs with staminate and/or pistillate flowers; GUs with both flower types were the most common. The position of staminate flowers along GUs was similar between species and close to the proximal end of the GUs. Pistillate flowers were developed more distally along the GUs in N. alpina than in N. obliqua. In N. alpina, the nodes bearing staminate and pistillate flowers were separated by one to several nodes with axillary buds, something not observed in N. obliqua. Markovian models supported this between-species difference. Flowering GUs, including all of their leaves and flowers were entirely preformed in the winter buds. Conclusions Staminate and pistillate flowers of N. alpina and N. obliqua are differentiated at precise locations on GUs in the growing season preceding that of their antheses. The differences between N. alpina and N. obliqua (and other South American Nothofagus species) regarding flower distribution might relate to the time of anthesis of each flower type and, in turn, to the probabilities of self-pollination at the GU level. PMID:19033286

  2. Using Genome-Wide SNP Discovery and Genotyping to Reveal the Main Source of Population Differentiation in Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. in Chile

    PubMed Central

    González, Jorge; Fuentes, Glenda; Alarcón, Diego; Ruiz, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Within a woody plant species, environmental heterogeneity has the potential to influence the distribution of genetic variation among populations through several evolutionary processes. In some species, a relationship between environmental characteristics and the distribution of genotypes can be detected, showing the importance of natural selection as the main source of differentiation. Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. (Nothofagaceae) is an endemic tree species occurring both in Chile and in Argentina temperate forests. Postglacial history has been studied with chloroplast DNA and evolutionary forces shaping genetic variation patterns have been analysed with isozymes but fine-scale genetic diversity studies are needed. The study of demographic and selection histories in Nothofagus dombeyi requires more informative markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Genotyping-by-Sequencing tools now allow studying thousands of SNP markers at reasonable prices in nonmodel species. We investigated more than 10 K SNP loci for signatures of local adaptation and showed that interrogation of genomic resources can identify shifts in genetic diversity and putative adaptive signals in this nonmodel woody species. PMID:27446942

  3. Surface-bound phosphatase activity in living hyphae of ectomycorrhizal fungi of Nothofagus obliqua.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Maricel; Godoy, Roberto; Heyser, Wolfgang; Härtel, Steffen

    2004-01-01

    We determined the location and the activity of surface-bound phosphomonoesterase (SBP) of five ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi of Nothofagus oblique. EM fungal mycelium of Paxillus involutus, Austropaxillus boletinoides, Descolea antartica, Cenococcum geophilum and Pisolithus tinctorius was grown in media with varying concentrations of dissolved phosphorus. SBP activity was detected at different pH values (3-7) under each growth regimen. SBP activity was assessed using a colorimetric method based on the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) to p-nitrophenol phosphate (pNP) + P. A new technique involving confocal laser-scanning microscopy (LSM) was used to locate and quantify SBP activity on the hyphal surface. EM fungi showed two fundamentally different patterns of SBP activity in relation to varying environmental conditions (P-concentrations and pH). In the cases of D. antartica, A. boletinoides and C. geophilum, changes in SBP activity were induced primarily by changes in the number of SBP-active centers on the hyphae. In the cases of P. tinctorius and P. involutus, the number of SBP-active centers per μm hyphal length changed much less than the intensity of the SBP-active centers on the hyphae. Our findings not only contribute to the discussion about the role of SBP-active centers in EM fungi but also introduce LSM as a valuable method for studying EM fungi.

  4. Foliar nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics of three Chilean Nothofagus (Fagaceae) species in relation to leaf lifespan.

    PubMed

    Hevia, F; Minoletti O, M L; Decker, K L; Boerner, R E

    1999-03-01

    This study examined foliar nutrient dynamics and nutrient resorption (retranslocation) in three species of Chilean Nothofagus (Fagaceae) that differed in leaf lifespan and elevational distribution. In our central Chile study area the elevations at which these three species are most abundant increase from N. obliqua (deciduous) at low elevations to N. dombeyi at intermediate elevation and N. pumilio (deciduous) at higher elevations up to treeline. We sampled a single stand at 1680 m in which all three species co-occurred. Nothofagus dombeyi leaves were structurally heavier, with specific leaf mass approximately twice that of the two deciduous species. On a concentration basis, foliar N increased in the order N. dombeyi < N. pumilio < N. obliqua and foliar P increased in the order N. dombeyi < N. obliqua < N. pumilio. However, when the differences in specific leaf mass among species were taken into account by calculating N and P content on a leaf area basis, N. dombeyi had the greatest N and P content. N and P remained relatively constant throughout most of the 4-yr N. dombeyi leaf lifespan, then decreased prior to abscission. Nothofagus dombeyi resorbed significantly less N (44-50%) than did the two deciduous species (63-78%), both on proportional and absolute bases. In contrast, N. pumilio and N. dombeyi resorbed similar amounts of P prior to abscission (40-50%), whereas no significant resorption of P from leaves of N. obliqua was noted. We use these results to clarify the relative importance of environmental gradients associated with elevation vs. genetically fixed leaf lifespans in controlling the nutrient dynamics of these congeneric tree species.

  5. Low temperature responses of Nothofagus dombeyi and Nothofagus nitida, two evergreen species from south central Chile.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Díaz, M; Alberdi, M; Piper, F; Bravo, L A; Corcuera, L J

    2005-11-01

    Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Blume and Nothofagus nitida (Phil.) Krasser are closely related evergreen trees native to south central Chile. Nothofagus dombeyi is a pioneer in habitats subject to high daytime irradiances and nighttime freezing temperatures and has a wider altitudinal and latitudinal distribution than N. nitida, which is restricted to more oceanic climates. We postulated that N. dombeyi has a greater cold-acclimation capacity, expressed as a greater capacity to maintain a functional photosynthetic apparatus at low temperatures, than N. nitida. Because cold-acclimation may be related to the accumulation of cryoprotective substances, we investigated relationships between ice nucleation temperature (IN), freezing temperature (FT), and the temperature causing injury to 50% of the leaf tissues (LT(50)) on the one hand, and concentrations of total soluble carbohydrates (TSC), starch and proline on the other hand. Observations were made throughout a seasonal cycle in adults and seedlings in the field and in seedlings in the laboratory under cold-acclimation inductive and non-inductive conditions. In adults, LT(50) values were lower in N. dombeyi than in N. nitida, suggesting that N. dombeyi is the more frost tolerant species. Adults of both species tolerated freezing in autumn and winter but not in spring and summer. In the fall and winter, seedlings of N. dombeyi had a much lower LT(50) than those of N. nitida. Nothofagus nitida seedlings, in autumn and winter, exhibited freezing avoidance mechanisms. Although elevated TSC and proline concentrations may contribute to freezing tolerance in adults of both species, an increase in proline concentration is unlikely to be the dominant frost tolerance response in adults because proline concentrations were higher in N. nitida than in N. dombeyi. In seedlings, however, there were large differences in proline accumulation between species that may account for the difference between them in freezing tolerance. Starch

  6. Development of genomic resources for Nothofagus species using next-generation sequencing data.

    PubMed

    El Mujtar, V A; Gallo, L A; Lang, T; Garnier-Géré, P

    2014-11-01

    Using next-generation sequencing, we developed the first whole-genome resources for two hybridizing Nothofagus species of the Patagonian forests that crucially lack genomic data, despite their ecological and industrial value. A de novo assembly strategy combining base quality control and optimization of the putative chloroplast gene map yielded ~32,000 contigs from 43% of the reads produced. With 12.5% of assembled reads, we covered ~96% of the chloroplast genome and ~70% of the mitochondrial gene content, providing functional and structural annotations for 112 and 52 genes, respectively. Functional annotation was possible on 15% of the contigs, with ~1750 potentially novel nuclear genes identified for Nothofagus species. We estimated that the new resources (13.41 Mb in total) included ~4000 gene regions representing ~6.5% of the expected genic partition of the genome, the remaining contigs potentially being nongenic DNA. A high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms resource was developed by comparing various filtering methods, and preliminary results indicate a strong conservation of cpDNA genomes in contrast to numerous exclusive nuclear polymorphisms in both species. Finally, we characterized 2274 potential simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci, designed primers for 769 of them and validated nine of 29 loci in 42 individuals per species. Nothofagus obliqua had more alleles (4.89) on average than N. nervosa (2.89), 8 SSRs were efficient to discriminate species, and three were successfully transferred in three other Nothofagus species. These resources will greatly help for future inferences of demographic, adaptive and hybridizing events in Nothofagus species, and for conserving and managing natural populations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Patterns of fungal diversity in New Zealand Nothofagus forests.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Peter R; Johansen, Renee B; Williams, Alexandra F R; Paula Wikie, J; Park, Duckchul

    2012-03-01

    The development of protocols for the conservation of fungi requires knowledge of the factors controlling their distribution, diversity, and community composition. Here we compare patterns of variation in fungal communities across New Zealand's Nothofagus forests, reportedly the most myco-diverse in New Zealand and hence potentially key to effective conservation of fungi in New Zealand. Diversity of leaf endophytic fungi, as assessed by culturing on agar plates, is assessed for three Nothofagus sp. growing in mixed stands from four sites. Host species was found to have a greater influence on fungal community assemblage than site. The leaf endophyte communities associated with Nothofagus solandri and Nothofagus fusca (both Nothofagus subgenus Fuscopora), were more similar to each other than either were to the community associated with Nothofagus menziesii (Nothofagus subgenus Lophozonia). The broad taxonomic groups isolated, identified on the basis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, were similar to those found in similar studies from other parts of the world, and from an earlier study on the endophyte diversity in four podocarp species from New Zealand, but there were few matches at species level. Average levels of endophyte species diversity associated with single Nothofagus species and single podocarp species were similar, despite historical literature and collection data recording more than twice as many fungal species on average from the Nothofagus species. The significance of these findings to fungal conservation is discussed.

  8. Population genetic structure, genetic diversity, and natural history of the South American species of Nothofagus subgenus Lophozonia (Nothofagaceae) inferred from nuclear microsatellite data.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Rodrigo; Gitzendanner, Matthew A; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2014-06-01

    The effect of glaciation on the levels and patterns of genetic variation has been well studied in the Northern Hemisphere. However, although glaciation has undoubtedly shaped the genetic structure of plants in the Southern Hemisphere, fewer studies have characterized the effect, and almost none of them using microsatellites. Particularly, complex patterns of genetic structure might be expected in areas such as the Andes, where both latitudinal and altitudinal glacial advance and retreat have molded modern plant communities. We therefore studied the population genetics of three closely related, hybridizing species of Nothofagus (N. obliqua, N. alpina, and N. glauca, all of subgenus Lophozonia; Nothofagaceae) from Chile. To estimate population genetic parameters and infer the influence of the last ice age on the spatial and genetic distribution of these species, we examined and analyzed genetic variability at seven polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci in 640 individuals from 40 populations covering most of the ranges of these species in Chile. Populations showed no significant inbreeding and exhibited relatively high levels of genetic diversity (H E = 0.502-0.662) and slight, but significant, genetic structure (R ST = 8.7-16.0%). However, in N. obliqua, the small amount of genetic structure was spatially organized into three well-defined latitudinal groups. Our data may also suggest some introgression of N. alpina genes into N. obliqua in the northern populations. These results allowed us to reconstruct the influence of the last ice age on the genetic structure of these species, suggesting several centers of genetic diversity for N. obliqua and N. alpina, in agreement with the multiple refugia hypothesis.

  9. Population genetic structure, genetic diversity, and natural history of the South American species of Nothofagus subgenus Lophozonia (Nothofagaceae) inferred from nuclear microsatellite data

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Rodrigo; Gitzendanner, Matthew A; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2014-01-01

    The effect of glaciation on the levels and patterns of genetic variation has been well studied in the Northern Hemisphere. However, although glaciation has undoubtedly shaped the genetic structure of plants in the Southern Hemisphere, fewer studies have characterized the effect, and almost none of them using microsatellites. Particularly, complex patterns of genetic structure might be expected in areas such as the Andes, where both latitudinal and altitudinal glacial advance and retreat have molded modern plant communities. We therefore studied the population genetics of three closely related, hybridizing species of Nothofagus (N. obliqua, N. alpina, and N. glauca, all of subgenus Lophozonia; Nothofagaceae) from Chile. To estimate population genetic parameters and infer the influence of the last ice age on the spatial and genetic distribution of these species, we examined and analyzed genetic variability at seven polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci in 640 individuals from 40 populations covering most of the ranges of these species in Chile. Populations showed no significant inbreeding and exhibited relatively high levels of genetic diversity (HE = 0.502–0.662) and slight, but significant, genetic structure (RST = 8.7–16.0%). However, in N. obliqua, the small amount of genetic structure was spatially organized into three well-defined latitudinal groups. Our data may also suggest some introgression of N. alpina genes into N. obliqua in the northern populations. These results allowed us to reconstruct the influence of the last ice age on the genetic structure of these species, suggesting several centers of genetic diversity for N. obliqua and N. alpina, in agreement with the multiple refugia hypothesis. PMID:25360279

  10. Effect of ectomycorrhizal colonization and drought on reactive oxygen species metabolism of Nothofagus dombeyi roots.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Maricel; Huygens, Dries; Fernandez, Carlos; Gacitúa, Yessy; Olivares, Erick; Saavedra, Isabel; Alberdi, Miren; Valenzuela, Eduardo

    2009-08-01

    Infection with ectomycorrhizal fungi can increase the ability of plants to resist drought stress through morphophysiological and biochemical mechanisms. However, the metabolism of antioxidative enzyme activities in the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis remains poorly understood. This study investigated biomass production, reactive oxygen metabolism (hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde concentration) and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) in pure cultures of the ectomycorrhizal fungi Descolea antartica Sing. and Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch, and non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal roots of Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) roots under well-watered conditions and drought conditions (DC). The studied ectomycorrhizal fungi regulated their antioxidative enzyme metabolism differentially in response to drought, resulting in cellular damage in D. antartica but not in P. tinctorius. Ectomycorrhizal inoculation and water treatment had a significant effect on all parameters studied, including relative water content of the plant. As such, N. dombeyi plants in symbiosis experienced a lower oxidative stress effect than non-mycorrhizal plants under DC. Additionally, ectomycorrhizal N. dombeyi roots showed a greater antioxidant enzyme activity relative to non-mycorrhizal roots, an effect which was further expressed under DC. The association between the non-specific P. tinctorius and N. dombeyi had a more effective reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism than the specific D. antartica-N. dombeyi symbiosis. We conclude that the combination of effective ROS prevention and ROS detoxification by ectomycorrhizal plants resulted in reduced cellular damage and increased plant growth relative to non-mycorrhizal plants under drought.

  11. Thermal energy dissipation and its components in two developmental stages of a shade-tolerant species, Nothofagus nitida, and a shade-intolerant species, Nothofagus dombeyi.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Ivanov, Alexander G; Huner, Norman P A; Alberdi, Miren; Corcuera, Luis J; Bravo, León A

    2009-05-01

    Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Blume and Nothofagus nitida (Phil.) Krasser, two evergreens in the South Chilean forest, regenerate in open habitats and under the canopy, respectively. Both overtop the forest canopy when they are in the adult stage, suggesting that their photoprotective mechanisms differ in ontogenetic dynamics. We postulated that N. nitida, a shade-tolerant species increases its capacity to tolerate photoinhibitory conditions (low temperature and high irradiance) by thermal energy dissipation of excess energy during its transition from the seedling to the adult stage, whereas N. dombeyi, a shade-intolerant species, maintains a high capacity for photoprotection by thermal energy dissipation from the seedling to the adult stage. To test this hypothesis, the main photoprotective mechanisms in plants - the fast- and slow-relaxing components of thermal energy dissipation (NPQ, non-photochemical quenching) NPQ(F) and NPQ(S), respectively, and state transitions - were studied in seedlings and adults of both species grown in their natural habitats and in a common garden. In adults, NPQ(F) and NPQ(S) did not differ between species and seasons. The greatest differences in these parameters were observed in seedlings. The xanthophyll cycle was more active in N. dombeyi seedlings than in N. nitida seedlings at low temperature and high irradiance, consistent with a higher NPQ(F) in N. dombeyi. Under all study conditions, N. nitida seedlings had higher NPQ(S) than N. dombeyi seedlings. The state transition capability was higher in N. nitida seedlings than in N. dombeyi seedlings. Therefore, although (shade-intolerant) N. dombeyi was able to thermally dissipate the excess absorbed energy, under natural conditions its photochemical energy quenching was efficient in both developmental stages, decreasing its need for thermal dissipation. In contrast, the seedlings of N. nitida were more sensitive to photoinhibition than the adult trees, suggesting a change from shade

  12. Novel miR-b2122 regulates several ALS-related RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Zachary C E; Campos-Melo, Danae; Strong, Michael J

    2017-10-02

    Common pathological features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) include cytoplasmic aggregation of several RNA-binding proteins. Out of these RNA-binding proteins, TDP-43, FUS/TLS and RGNEF have been shown to co-aggregate with one another within motor neurons of sporadic ALS (sALS) patients, suggesting that there may be a common regulatory network disrupted. MiRNAs have been a recent focus in ALS research as they have been identified to be globally down-regulated in the spinal cord of ALS patients. The objective of this study was to identify if there are miRNA(s) dysregulated in sALS that are responsible for regulating the TDP-43, FUS/TLS and RGNEF network. In this study, we identify miR-194 and miR-b2122 to be significantly down-regulated in sALS patients, and were predicted to regulate TARDBP, FUS/TLS and RGNEF expression. Reporter gene assays and RT-qPCR revealed that miR-b2122 down-regulates the reporter gene through direct interactions with either the TARDBP, FUS/TLS, or RGNEF 3'UTR, while miR-194 down-regulates firefly expression when it contained either the TARDBP or FUS/TLS 3'UTR. Further, we showed that miR-b2122 regulates endogenous expression of all three of these genes in a neuronal-derived cell line. Also, an ALS-associated mutation in the FUS/TLS 3'UTR ablates the ability of miR-b2122 to regulate reporter gene linked to FUS/TLS 3'UTR, and sALS samples which showed a down-regulation in miR-b2122 also showed an increase in FUS/TLS protein expression. Overall, we have identified a novel miRNA that is down-regulated in sALS that appears to be a central regulator of disease-related RNA-binding proteins, and thus its dysregulation likely contributes to TDP-43, FUS/TLS and RGNEF pathogenesis in sALS.

  13. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons.

    PubMed

    Barry, Karen M; Janos, David P; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations.

  14. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Karen M.; Janos, David P.; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations. PMID:25750650

  15. Ectomycorrhizal fungi enhance nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition of Nothofagus dombeyi under drought conditions by regulating assimilative enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Maricel; Huygens, Dries; Olivares, Erick; Saavedra, Isabel; Alberdi, Miren; Valenzuela, Eduardo

    2009-08-01

    Drought stress conditions (DC) reduce plant growth and nutrition, restraining the sustainable reestablishment of Nothofagus dombeyi in temperate south Chilean forest ecosystems. Ectomycorrhizal symbioses have been documented to enhance plant nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake under drought, but the regulation of involved assimilative enzymes remains unclear. We studied 1-year-old N. dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. plants in association with the ectomycorrhizal fungi Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch. and Descolea antartica Sing. In greenhouse experiments, shoot and root dry weights, mycorrhizal colonization, foliar N and P concentrations, and root enzyme activities [glutamate synthase (glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GOGAT), EC 1.4.1.13-14), glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 1.4.1.2-4), nitrate reductase (NR, EC 1.6.6.1), and acid phosphomonoesterase (PME, EC 3.1.3.1-2)] were determined as a function of soil-water content. Inoculation of N. dombeyi with P. tinctorius and D. antartica significantly stimulated plant growth and increased plant foliar N and P concentrations, especially under DC. Ectomycorrhizal inoculation increased the activity of all studied enzymes relative to non-mycorrhizal plants under drought. We speculate that GDH is a key enzyme involved in the enhancement of ectomycorrhizal carbon (C) availability by fuelling the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle under conditions of drought-induced carbon deficit. All studied assimilative enzymes of the ectomycorrhizal associations, involved in C, N, and P transfers, are closely interlinked and interdependent. The up-regulation of assimilative enzyme activities by ectomycorrhizal fungal root colonizers acts as a functional mechanism to increase seedling endurance to drought. We insist upon incorporating ectomycorrhizal inoculation in existing Chilean afforestation programs.

  16. Resolution of inter and intra-species relationships of the West Indian fruit fly Anastrepha obliqua.

    PubMed

    Scally, M; Into, F; Thomas, D B; Ruiz-Arce, R; Barr, N B; Schuenzel, E L

    2016-08-01

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an economically important pest that inhabits areas of South and Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean with occasional infestations in the southern United States. We examine intra-specific relationships within A. obliqua as well as interspecific relationships to other Anastrepha species using a multi-locus data set comprising nine loci (seven nuclear, two mitochondrial) with 105 operational taxonomic units. The results based on a concatenated set of nuclear loci strongly support the monophyly of A. obliqua and most of the other species previously identified by morphology. A split between Peruvian A. obliqua samples and those from other locations was also identified. These results contrast with prior findings of relationships within A. obliqua based on mitochondrial data, as we found a marked discrepancy between nuclear and mitochondrial loci. These analyses suggest that introgression, particularly between A. obliqua and fraterculus species, may be one explanation for the discrepancy and the high mitochondrial diversity reported for A. obliqua could be the result of incomplete lineage sorting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Accidents with caterpillar Lonomia obliqua (Walker, 1855). An emerging problem].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Matías N; Mignone Chagas, Mariana A; Casertano, Sergio A; Cavagnaro, Luis E; Peichoto, María E

    2015-01-01

    Lonomia obliqua (Walker, 1855) is a moth from the family Saturniidae, widely distributed in tropical rainforests of South America. In its larval stage (caterpillar) it is characterized by bristles that cover the animal's body. These structures are hard and branched spiny evaginations of the cuticle, underneath which a complex mixture of toxic molecules is stored. When spicules are brought into contact with the skin of people, toxins enter passively through the injury, causing not only local but also systemic poisoning (primarily hemorrhagic manifestations). When the whole animal is accidentally crushed, the insect's chitinous bristles are broken and the venomous secretions penetrate the human skin, reaching the blood circulation. Due to the numerous registered cases of erucism in Southern Brazil, the Butantan Institute has produced an antivenom able to neutralize the deleterious effects produced by contact with L. obliqua caterpillar bristles. In Argentina, these kinds of accidents are rare and restricted to the province of Misiones. Taking into account that to date there is no report in this country about clinical cases submitted to a specific treatment (antivenom), our aim is to communicate here six cases of Lonomia caterpillar-induced bleeding syndrome that were treated in the Hospital SAMIC of Puerto Iguazú (Misiones, Argentina) during 2014 with the antilonomic serum produced in Brazil. It is worthy to note that all patients evolved favorably within the first few hours, and for this reason, the use of this antivenom is recommended to treat the cases of Lonomia erucism in Argentina.

  18. Introduced species and management of a Nothofagus/Austrocedrus forest.

    PubMed

    Simberloff, Daniel; Relva, Maria Andrea; Nunez, Martin

    2003-02-01

    Isla Victoria (Nahuel Huapi National Park, Argentina), a large island dominated by native Nothofagus and Austrocedrus forest, has old plantations of many introduced tree species, some of which are famed invaders of native ecosystems elsewhere. There are also large populations of introduced deer and shrubs that may interact in a complex way with the introduced trees, as well as a recently arrived population of wild boar. Long-standing concern that the introduced trees will invade and transform native forest may be unwarranted, as there is little evidence of progressive invasion, even close to the plantations, despite over 50 years of opportunity. Introduced and native shrubs allow scattered introduced trees to achieve substantial size in abandoned pastures, but in almost all areas neither the trees nor the shrubs appear to be spreading beyond these sites. These shrub communities may be stable rather than successional, but the technology for restoring them to native forest is uncertain and probably currently impractical. Any attempt to remove the exotic tree seedlings and saplings from native forest would probably create the very conditions that would favor colonization by exotic plants rather than native trees, while simply clear-cutting the plantations would be unlikely to lead to regeneration of Nothofagus or Austrocedrus. The key to maintaining native forest is preventing catastrophic fire, as several introduced trees and shrubs would be favored over native dominant trees in recolonization. Deer undoubtedly interact with both native and introduced trees and shrubs, but their net effect on native forest is not yet clear, and specific management of deer beyond the current hunting by staff is unwarranted, at least if preventing tree invasion is the goal. The steep terrain and shallow soil make the recently arrived boar a grave threat to the native forest. Eradication is probably feasible and should be attempted quickly.

  19. Reidentification of Sex Pheromones of Tea Geometrid Ectropis obliqua Prout (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunqiu; Zhang, Longwa; Guo, Feng; Long, Yanhua; Wang, Yun; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-02-01

    Tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua Prout (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is an important defoliator of the tree crop Camellia sinensis L. in China. The sex pheromones of E. obliqua have not been identified, but have potential importance relative to the biological control of this predator. In this study, the female sex pheromones of E. obliqua were identified and evaluated for use in the monitoring and mass trapping of this pest. The sex pheromone extracts were subjected to gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The identified chemicals were synthesized and applied to wind-tunnel tests and field experiments. (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-octadecatriene and 6,7-epoxy-(Z,Z)-3,9-octadecadiene were determined to be the primary sex pheromones produced by the female E. obliqua; the latter elicits the strongest electroantennogram responses from male E. obliqua antennae. However, males did not respond to single components in the wind-tunnel tests. The results of a field-trapping experiment indicated that a 4:6 v/v blend of (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-octadecatriene and 6,7-epoxy-(Z,Z)-3,9-octadecadiene was highly effective in attracting male moths.

  20. Relaxed molecular clock provides evidence for long-distance dispersal of Nothofagus (southern beech).

    PubMed

    Knapp, Michael; Stöckler, Karen; Havell, David; Delsuc, Frédéric; Sebastiani, Federico; Lockhart, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Nothofagus (southern beech), with an 80-million-year-old fossil record, has become iconic as a plant genus whose ancient Gondwanan relationships reach back into the Cretaceous era. Closely associated with Wegener's theory of "Kontinentaldrift", Nothofagus has been regarded as the "key genus in plant biogeography". This paradigm has the New Zealand species as passengers on a Moa's Ark that rafted away from other landmasses following the breakup of Gondwana. An alternative explanation for the current transoceanic distribution of species seems almost inconceivable given that Nothofagus seeds are generally thought to be poorly suited for dispersal across large distances or oceans. Here we test the Moa's Ark hypothesis using relaxed molecular clock methods in the analysis of a 7.2-kb fragment of the chloroplast genome. Our analyses provide the first unequivocal molecular clock evidence that, whilst some Nothofagus transoceanic distributions are consistent with vicariance, trans-Tasman Sea distributions can only be explained by long-distance dispersal. Thus, our analyses support the interpretation of an absence of Lophozonia and Fuscospora pollen types in the New Zealand Cretaceous fossil record as evidence for Tertiary dispersals of Nothofagus to New Zealand. Our findings contradict those from recent cladistic analyses of biogeographic data that have concluded transoceanic Nothofagus distributions can only be explained by vicariance events and subsequent extinction. They indicate that the biogeographic history of Nothofagus is more complex than envisaged under opposing polarised views expressed in the ongoing controversy over the relevance of dispersal and vicariance for explaining plant biodiversity. They provide motivation and justification for developing more complex hypotheses that seek to explain the origins of Southern Hemisphere biota.

  1. Dispersal and longevity of wild and mass-reared Anastrepha Ludens and Anastrepha Obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, E.; Orozco, D.; Flores Breceda, S.; Dominguez, J.

    2007-03-15

    The rates of dispersal and survival of sterile mass-reared laboratory flies and sterile wild flies of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) were estimated and compared with a regular rectangular array of 64 food-baited traps spaced 60 m between traps around the release point in Tapachula Chiapas, Mexico. The traps were scored every day during the first week, and then every 3 d over a 30-d period. For A. obliqua, the number of males recaptured was higher than that of females, while for A. ludens, females were recaptured more frequently than males. The recapture rate for the wild strains ranged from 0.6-24.8% for A. ludens and 1.3-16.2% for A. obliqua and the corresponding ranges for the mass-reared strains were 0.5-7.1% and 0.5-3.0% respectively. The life expectancy was 4.7 d for wild and 4.3 d for mass-reared A. obliqua males but 3 and 2 d, respectively, for wild and mass-reared A. ludens males. The net displacement of A. ludens and A. obliqua ranged approximately from 100-250 m and took place mostly on the first day. Wild A. ludens moved to the northwest from the release point while the mass-reared strain moved to the west. The A. obliqua wild flies moved to the west, while the mass-reared strain shifted to the southwest. We discuss the implications of our findings as to the spacing and frequency of sterile fly releases for the suppression of wild populations. (author) [Spanish] La dispersion y longevidad de las moscas esteriles silvestres y de cria masiva de Anastrepha ludens (Loew) y A. obliqua (Macquart) fueron determinadas y comparadas utilizando un arreglo rectangular de 64 trampas espaciadas a 60 metros entre trampas alrededor del punto de liberacion en Tapachula Chiapas, Mexico. Las trampas fueron revisadas y evaluadas diariamente durante la primera semana y despues cada tres dias hasta completar 30 dias. Para A. obliqua la cantidad de machos capturados fue mayor que la cantidad de hembras; mientras que para A. ludens las hembras fueron

  2. Environmental stability and morphologic variation in the bryozoan Homotrypa obliqua

    SciTech Connect

    Key, M.M. Jr

    1985-01-01

    Bryozoans as colonial organisms permit the separation of environmental and genetic contributions to morphologic variation. Previous analyses attempted to establish the effects of environmental stability on the partitioning of morphologic variation. Regrettably they utilized multiple species in different environments. To test this model definitively, colonies of the Ordovician bryozoan Homotrypa obliqua were sampled from paleoenvironments of different stabilities from Cincinnati. The Corryville and Fairmount beds provided ten colonies on which measures of zooecial shape and spacing on and between monticules were made. ANOVA and discriminant function analysis revealed that colonies from the deeper more stable environment of the Corryville beds exhibit more between colony variation. Colonies from the less stable Fairmount beds show relatively more within colony variation. This difference most likely results from less microenvironmental perturbation and/or greater within genotype developmental regulation in colonies from more stable environments. This is confirmed by correlation coefficient matrices that show biologically expected interdependence between characters only in the Corryville colonies. Thus, the partitioning of morphologic variation is a useful tool for predicting paleoenvironmental stability.

  3. Effects of Fuscoporia obliqua on postprandial glucose excursion and endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Maenaka, Toshihiro; Oshima, Masami; Itokawa, Yuka; Masubuchi, Takashi; Takagi, Yasuyuki; Choi, Jung-Sook; Ishida, Torao; Gu, Yeunhwa

    2008-03-01

    Postprandial hyperglycemia has been reported to elicit endothelial dysfunction and provoke future cardiovascular complications. A reduction of postprandial blood glucose levels by the glucosidase inhibitor Fuscoporia obliqua was associated with a risk reduction of cardiovascular complications, but the effects of Fuscoporia obliqua on endothelial function have never been elucidated. This study is aimed to assess the efficacy of Fuscoporia obliqua on postprandial metabolic parameters and endothelial function in type 2 diabetic patients. Postprandial peak glucose (14.47 +/- 1.27 vs. 8.50 +/- 0.53 mmol/liter), plasma glucose excursion (PPGE), and change in the area under the curve (AUC) glucose after a single loading of test meal (total 450 kcal; protein 15.3%; fat 32.3%; carbohydrate 51.4%) were significantly higher in the diet-treated type 2 diabetic patients (n=14) than the age- and sex-matched controls (n=12). The peak forearm blood flow response and total reactive hyperemic flow (flow debt repayment) during reactive hyperemia, indices of resistance artery endothelial function on strain-gauge plethysmography, were unchanged before and after meal loading in the controls. But those of the diabetics were significantly decreased 120 and 240 min after the test meal. A prior administration of Fuscoporia obliqua decreased postprandial peak glucose, PPGE, and AUC glucose. The peak forearm blood flow and flow debt repayment were inversely well correlated with peak glucose, PPGE, and AUC glucose, but not with AUC insulin or the other lipid parameters. Even a single loading of the test meal was shown to impair the endothelial function in type 2 diabetic patients, and the postprandial endothelial dysfunction was improved by a prior use of Fuscoporia obliqua. Fuscoporia obliqua might reduce macrovascular complication by avoiding endothelial injury in postprandial hyperglycemic status.

  4. Declining moisture availability in late Eocene Antarctica as deduced from Nothofagus sporopollenin δ13C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griener, K. W.; Nelson, D. M.; Warny, S.

    2012-12-01

    Palynological data demonstrate that significant changes in vegetation and climate occurred at the Eocene-Oligocene (E-O) Boundary on the Antarctic Peninsula. These changes include decreases in terrestrial palynomorph abundance and diversity as well as dinoflagellate assemblages that reflect colder sea surface temperatures and increased glaciation (Warny and Askin, 2011). Understanding the factors controlling these changes in climate and vegetation is a topic of great interest. One area of remaining uncertainty is how the hydrologic regime varied during Antarctica's shift from greenhouse to icehouse conditions. For example, estimates of Antarctic precipitation from around the E-O boundary based on plant leaf margins (e.g. Francis et al., 2008), clay mineralogy (e.g. Christian and Kennett, 1997), and models (Thorn and DeConto 2006) are vastly different. We used a moving-wire device interfaced with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (Sessions et al., 2005; Nelson et al., 2008) to analyze δ13C of small quantities of Nothofagus sporopollenin extracted from Antarctic Eocene SHALDRIL cores from ~35.9 Mya, just prior to the E-O Boundary (Bohaty et al., 2011). We also analyzed δ13C of modern Nothofagus sporopollenin from herbaria specimens and related these results to historical climate data. Our modern data show that carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) of Nothofagus sporopollenin is positively correlated with mean annual and growing-season precipitation, consistent with prior studies that demonstrate a strong relationship between Δ and water availability in C3 plants. Eocene Nothofagus Δ values progressively decreased through time, implying a decline in moisture availability. There is a close correlation between Nothofagus palynomorph abundance (Warny and Askin, 2011) and Δ, indicating that Nothofagus abundance declined in response to decreasing moisture availability. We consider changes in sea surface temperatures as well as increased glaciation as possible causes

  5. Regeneration mode affects spatial genetic structure of Nothofagus dombeyi forests.

    PubMed

    Premoli, Andrea C; Kitzberger, Thomas

    2005-07-01

    Disturbance may generate population bottlenecks by reducing population size and the number of founders establishing a new colony. We tested the hypothesis that the scale of disturbance affects the levels of genetic diversity and the spatial distribution of genotypes in naturally regenerating stands of Nothofagus dombeyi, an evergreen angiosperm tree, in northwestern Patagonia. At similar spatial scales, we predicted that old-growth stands characterized by fine-scale gap phase dynamics would be genetically diverse due to restricted gene flow among temporal and spatially isolated gaps. In contrast, young massively regenerated postfire cohorts resulting from coarse-scale disturbances would be genetically more homogeneous. At each of three paired old-growth and postfire stands a minimum of 50 trees were mapped and sampled within 1 ha. Fresh tissue was collected for isozyme analysis from a total of 361 trees along with tree cores and diameters. Tree age distributions reflected the dominant modes of regeneration. Six out of nine analysed loci were polymorphic. Mean genetic diversity parameters were greater but not significant in mature stands. Fixation indices suggested significant heterozygous deficit at two-thirds of possible tests indicating a Wahlund effect due to local recruitment of related seeds. F(ST) indicated moderate between-stand divergence. Mature stands concentrated half of positively like joins and yielded significant (P < 0.05) autocorrelation coefficients at small distance classes (< 20 m). Fine-scale patch dynamics within mature stands favours the maintenance of fine-scale genetic structure as a result of shade intolerance and local seed dispersal. Conversely, postfire stands suffer the effects of genetic drift given that a few reproductive trees produce a somewhat impoverished and genetically uniform progeny. Bottleneck effects will depend upon the density of remnant trees which could also be a function of the severity of fire.

  6. The Gene doublesex of the Fruit Fly Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, M. Fernanda; Stefani, Rominy N.; Mascarenhas, Rodrigo O.; Perondini, André L. P.; Selivon, Denise; Sánchez, Lucas

    2005-01-01

    The gene doublesex of Anastrepha obliqua is composed of four instead of the usual six exons. It is transcribed in both sexes and its primary transcript undergoes sex-specific splicing, producing female DsxF and male DsxM proteins, which have in common the amino-terminal region but which differ at the carboxyl-terminal region. PMID:16085699

  7. Mechanisms of Acute Kidney Injury Induced by Experimental Lonomia obliqua Envenomation

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Markus; Santi, Lucélia; Beys-da-Silva, Walter O.; Oliveira, Fabrício Marcus Silva; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Yates, John R.; Ribeiro, Maria Aparecida; Guimarães, Jorge Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Background Lonomia obliqua caterpillar envenomation causes acute kidney injury (AKI), which can be responsible for its deadly actions. This study evaluates the possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of renal dysfunction. Methods To characterize L. obliqua venom effects we subcutaneously injected rats and examined renal functional, morphological and biochemical parameters at several time points. We also performed discovery based proteomic analysis to measure protein expression to identify molecular pathways of renal disease. Results L. obliqua envenomation causes acute tubular necrosis, which is associated with renal inflammation; formation of hematic casts, resulting from intravascular hemolysis; increase in vascular permeability and fibrosis. The dilation of Bowman’s space and glomerular tuft is related to fluid leakage and intra-glomerular fibrin deposition, respectively, since tissue factor procoagulant activity increases in the kidney. Systemic hypotension also contributes to these alterations and to the sudden loss of basic renal functions, including filtration and excretion capacities, urinary concentration and maintenance of fluid homeostasis. In addition, envenomed kidneys increases expression of proteins involved in cell stress, inflammation, tissue injury, heme-induced oxidative stress, coagulation and complement system activation. Finally, the localization of the venom in renal tissue agrees with morphological and functional alterations, suggesting also a direct nephrotoxic activity. Conclusions Mechanisms of L. obliqua-induced AKI are complex involving mainly glomerular and tubular functional impairment and vascular alterations. These results are important to understand the mechanisms of renal injury and may suggest more efficient ways to prevent or attenuate the pathology of Lonomia’s envenomation. PMID:24798088

  8. Morphometric divergence in populations of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Colombia and some Neotropical locations

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda, Maria R.; Selivon, Denise; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Soto, Alberto; Canal, Nelson A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua, is one of seven species of quarantine importance of its genus and is one of the most economically important fruit fly pests in Colombia. The taxonomic status of this species is a key issue for further implementation of any pest management program. Several molecular studies have shown enough variability within Anastrepha obliqua to suggest its taxonomic status could be revised; however, there are no morphological studies supporting this hypothesis. The aim of this work was to describe the morphological variability of Colombian populations of Anastrepha obliqua, comparing this variability with that of other samples from the Neotropics. Measurements were performed on individuals from 11 populations collected from different geographic Colombian localities and were compared with populations from Mexico (2), Dominica Island (1), Peru (1) and Brazil (2). Linear morphometric analyses were performed using 23 female morphological traits, including seven variables of the aculeus, three of the thorax, and six of the wing; seven ratios among them were also considered. Discriminant function analyses showed significant morphological differentiation among the Colombian populations, separating them into two groups. Furthermore, in the comparisons between Colombian samples with those from other countries, three clusters were observed. The possibility of finding more than one species within the nominal Anastrepha obliqua population is discussed. PMID:26798254

  9. The current and future potential geographic range of West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Fu, Liao; Li, Zhi-Hong; Huang, Guan-Sheng; Wu, Xing-Xia; Ni, Wen-Long; Qü, Wei-Wei

    2014-04-01

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), is one of the most important pests throughout the Americas. CLIMEX 3.0 and ArcGIS 9.3 were used to model the current and future potential geographical distribution of this pest. Under current climatic conditions, A. obliqua is predicted to be able to establish throughout much of the tropics and subtropics, including not only North and South America, where it has been reported, but also southern Asia, northeastern Australia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The main factors limiting the pest's range expansion may be cold stress. Climate change expands the potential distribution of A. obliqua poleward as cold stress boundaries recede, but the predicted distribution in northwestern Australia and northern parts of Sub-Saharan Africa will decrease because of heat stress. Considering the widely suitable range for A. obliqua globally and in China, enhanced quarantine and monitoring measures should be implemented in areas that are projected to be suitable for the establishment of the pest under current and future climatic conditions. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Phylogeography of West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua, inferred with mtDNA sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the West Indian fruit fly, is a frugivorous pest that occasionally finds its way to commercial growing areas outside its native distribution. It inhabits areas in Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean, with occasional infestations...

  11. Resolution of inter and intra-species relationships of the West Indian fruit fly Anastrepha obliqua

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an economically important pest that inhabits areas of South and Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean with occasional infestations in the southern United States. We examine intra-specific variation within Anastre...

  12. Morphometric divergence in populations of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Colombia and some Neotropical locations.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Maria R; Selivon, Denise; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente; Soto, Alberto; Canal, Nelson A

    2015-01-01

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua, is one of seven species of quarantine importance of its genus and is one of the most economically important fruit fly pests in Colombia. The taxonomic status of this species is a key issue for further implementation of any pest management program. Several molecular studies have shown enough variability within Anastrepha obliqua to suggest its taxonomic status could be revised; however, there are no morphological studies supporting this hypothesis. The aim of this work was to describe the morphological variability of Colombian populations of Anastrepha obliqua, comparing this variability with that of other samples from the Neotropics. Measurements were performed on individuals from 11 populations collected from different geographic Colombian localities and were compared with populations from Mexico (2), Dominica Island (1), Peru (1) and Brazil (2). Linear morphometric analyses were performed using 23 female morphological traits, including seven variables of the aculeus, three of the thorax, and six of the wing; seven ratios among them were also considered. Discriminant function analyses showed significant morphological differentiation among the Colombian populations, separating them into two groups. Furthermore, in the comparisons between Colombian samples with those from other countries, three clusters were observed. The possibility of finding more than one species within the nominal Anastrepha obliqua population is discussed.

  13. Field evaluation of potential fruit-derived lures for Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Toledo, Jorge; Malo, Edi A; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rojas, Julio C

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that a nine-component blend (ethyl butyrate, isopropyl butyrate, hexan-1-ol, propyl butyrate, isobutyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, isopentyl butyrate, ethyl benzoate, and ethyl octanoate) isolated from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) fruit are attractive to both sexes of West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in laboratory and field cage tests. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of traps baited with the nine-component blend in capturing wild A. obliqua in a mango, Mangifera indica L. variety Ataulfo) orchard. In addition, we tested other S. mombin-derived lures to determine whether any of these effectively mimic the nine-component blend in attracting A. obliqua. In all trials, we compared the attractiveness of the S. mombin-derived lures against hydrolyzed protein, the standard bait for monitoring A. obliqua. We found that, in some trials, there was no difference in the number of females caught by traps baited with the nine-component blend or with hydrolyzed protein. In other trials, traps baited with hydrolyzed protein captured more females than traps baited with the nine-component blend. For males, in general there were no differences in the number of flies caught by traps baited either with the nine-component blend or with hydrolyzed protein. Traps baited with other S. mombin-derived lures captured fewer A. obliqua than traps baited with hydrolyzed protein. Traps baited with S. mombin-derived lures caught fewer species of nontarget tephritid flies and nontarget insects than traps baited with hydrolyzed protein.

  14. Nutrient cycling in Nothofagus pumilio forests along an altitudinal gradient in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Treesearch

    Jorge L. Frangi; Marcelo D. Barrera; Laura L. Richter; Ariel E. Lugo

    2005-01-01

    Nothofagus pumilio (lenga) forests form monocultures from sea level to timberline in Tierra de Fuego, Argentina. Past studies suggested that the life form change from erect forest to krummholz had advantages to forest function. Aboveground net primary productivity (NPP) and organic matter production per unit leaf area and growing season day were higher in krummholz...

  15. A sex-averaged genetic linkage map in coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb] Franco var menziesii) based on RFLP and RAPD markers

    Treesearch

    K.D. Jermstad; D.L. Bassoni; N.C. Wheeler; D.B. Neale

    1998-01-01

    We have constructed a sex-averaged genetic linkage map in coastal Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco var menziesii) using a three-generation outcrossed pedigree and molecular markers. Our research objectives are to learn about genome organization and to identify markers associated with adaptive traits. The map...

  16. Effect of rootstock on mango fruit susceptibility to infestation by Anastrepha obliqua.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Luna, A; Rivera-Cabrera, F; Perez-Flores, L J; Diaz-Sobac, R

    2011-12-01

    The effect of the use of rootstock Criollo on the susceptibility of Manila mango fruit to infestation by Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) was determined in the present investigation. Growth, quality parameters (Soluble solids content (%), citric acid content (%), firmness, monoterpene volatiles (3-carene, limonene, alpha-pinene, and beta-myrcene), main flavonoids content (milligrams/100 g fresh pulp), and larvicidal activity of methanolic extracts, as well as the degree of infestation during preharvest development of the fruits were analyzed. The results indicated that the rootstock did not have any significant effect on growth, soluble solids content, or citric acid content; although it increased firmness as well as 3-carene levels and main flavonoids content, resulting in a greater resistance to infestation by A. obliqua. The obtained results support the use of this rootstock because of the beneficial effects observed on the resistance of mango fruit to infestation by this fruit fly.

  17. Enhancing effect of a protein from Lonomia obliqua hemolymph on recombinant protein production

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Katia N.; Sousa, Alvaro P. B.; Moraes, Roberto H. P.; Astray, Renato M.; Pereira, Carlos A.

    2008-01-01

    Gene expression in animal cells allows large scale production of proteins used for either structure and function studies or therapeutic purposes. Maximizing recombinant protein production is necessary to optimize cell growth and protein expression. Some studies have demonstrated the presence of pharmacologically active substances in insect hemolymph. In this work, we have identified and purified a protein from Lonomia obliqua hemolymph able to increase the production of the rabies virus glycoprotein, expressed in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells, by about 59%. PMID:19003176

  18. Acute renal failure provoked by toxin from caterpillars of the species Lonomia obliqua.

    PubMed

    Gamborgi, Geni Portela; Metcalf, Elena Brett; Barros, Elvino J G

    2006-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is a complication of envenoming by contact with caterpillars of the species Lonomia obliqua. A cohort study was conducted to evaluate development of acute and chronic renal failure (CRF) in patients who been in contact with L. obliqua during the period from 1989 to 2003 in the State of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Patients were evaluated in two distinct groups: those prior to 1995, who did not receive specific treatment of any type, and those after this date who were treated with antilonomic serum (SALon). The presence of creatinine > or = 1.5 mg/dl in patients who had no history of previous renal illness was considered to be indicative of acute kidney failure. Of the 2067 patients evaluated, 39 (1.9%) developed ARF. Eleven (32%) of these patients were treated with dialysis and four (10.3%) developed CRF. The seven deaths (4%) occurred in the period before treatment with SALon. Blood coagulation measures (TC, TP, and TTPA), were significantly longer in the group with ARF. All patients with ARF and 67% of the control group presented hematuria. The majority of the patients recovered prior renal function, however, four (10.3%) needed chronic dialysis. Envenoming by L. obliqua can be considered an important risk factor for the development of potentially fatal ARF, as well as for developing CRF.

  19. Occurrence and characterization of a tetrahedral nucleopolyhedrovirus from Spilarctia obliqua (Walker).

    PubMed

    Senthil Kumar, C M; Jacob, T K; Devasahayam, S; D'Silva, Sharon; Jinsha, J; Rajna, S

    2015-11-01

    Spilarctia obliqua Walker (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) is a polyphagous insect pest damaging pulses, oil seeds, cereals, vegetables and medicinal and aromatic plants in India. The pest also infests turmeric and ginger sporadically in Kerala. We observed an epizootic caused by a nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) in field populations of the insects in December 2013. The NPV was purified and characterized. The isolate was tetrahedral in shape and belonged to multicapsid NPV. The REN profile of the SpobNPV genome with Pst I, Xho I and HindIII enzymes showed a genome size of 99.1±3.9 kbp. Partialpolh, lef-8 and lef-9 gene sequences of the isolate showed a close relationship with HycuNPV and SpphNPV. Phylogram and K-2-P distances between similar isolates suggested inclusion of the present SpobNPV isolate to group I NPV. The biological activity of the isolate was tested under laboratory conditions against third instar larvae of S. obliqua and the LC50 was 4.37×10(3)OBs/ml occlusion bodies (OBs) per ml. The median survival time (ST50) was 181 h at a dose of 1×10(6)OBs/ml and 167 h at a dose of 1×10(8)OBs/ml. SpobNPV merits further field evaluation as a potential biological control agent of S. obliqua, a serious pest of many agriculturally important crops in the Oriental region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterisation of ectomycorrhizal formation by the exotic fungus Amanita muscaria with Nothofagus cunninghamii in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Dunk, Christopher William; Lebel, Teresa; Keane, Philip J

    2012-02-01

    The occurrence of the exotic ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria in a mixed Nothofagus-Eucalyptus native forest was investigated to determine if A. muscaria has switched hosts to form a successful association with a native tree species in a natural environment. A mycorrhizal morphotype consistently found beneath A. muscaria sporocarps was examined, and a range of morphological and anatomical characteristics in common with those described for ectomycorrhizae formed by A. muscaria on a broad range of hosts were observed. A full description is provided. The likely plant associate was determined to be Nothofagus cunninghamii based upon anatomy of the roots. Analysis of ITS-1 and ITS-2 regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences confirmed the identities of both fungal and plant associates. These findings represent conclusive evidence of the invasion of a non-indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungus into native forest and highlight the ecological implications of this discovery.

  1. Differential hypogeous sporocarp production from Nothofagus dombeyi and N. pumilio forests in southern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Nouhra, Eduardo R; Urcelay, Carlos; Longo, M Silvana; Fontenla, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi that form hypogeous sporocarps are an important component of the temperate forest soil community. In many regions, such as the Nothofagus forest in the Patagonian Andes, this group of fungi has been poorly studied. Here we examined the spring and autumn community composition of "sequestrate fungi", based on sporocarp production in pure forests of Nothofagus dombeyi (evergreen) and N. pumilio (deciduous). We investigated the possible relationships between these communities and environmental factors over 2 y. The rarefaction curves and the minimal richness estimates converged at nearly the same level for each forest type, and the asymptotes suggested that the sampling effort was sufficient to capture most of the hypogeous sporocarp richness in these forest stands. In total 27 species were recovered. Basidiomycota, Ascomycota and Glomeromycota respectively accounted for nine, two and one genera. Species richness of hypogeous sporocarps varied in relation to forest type but not to season (fall and spring), whereas sporocarp biomass varied according to an interaction between season and forest type. Species richness and sporocarp biomass were positively correlated with rainfall and negatively correlated with altitude. In addition sporocarp species richness was positively related to number of trees per transect. We found that two different forest stands, each dominated by different species of Nothofagus, exhibited different hypogeous sporocarp communities.

  2. Fine-scale genetic structure of Nothofagus pumilio (lenga) at contrasting elevations of the altitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Mathiasen, Paula; Premoli, Andrea C

    2013-03-01

    Montane forests provide the natural framework to test for various ecological settings at distinct elevations as they may affect population demography, which in turn will affect the spatial genetic structure (SGS). We analyzed the fine-scale SGS of Nothofagus pumilio, which dominates mountain areas of Patagonia, in three pairs of sites at contrasting elevations (low- vs. high-elevation). Within a total area of 1 ha fresh leaf tissue from 90 individuals was collected at each of the six studied stands following a spatially explicit sampling design. Population genetic diversity parameters were analyzed for all sampled individuals using five polymorphic isozyme loci, and a subset of 50 individuals per stand were also screened for five microsatellite loci. The SGS was assessed on 50 individuals/stand, using the combined datasets of isozymes and microsatellites. Most low-elevation stands consisted of older individuals with complex age structures and genetically diverse plots. In contrast, high-elevation stands and one post-fire low-elevation population yielded even-aged structures with evidence of growth suppression, and were genetically homogeneous. All stands yielded significant SGS. Similarly to mature stands of the non-sprouter congener Nothofagus dombeyi, multi-age low-altitude N. pumilio yielded significant SGS weakened by competing species of the understory and the formation of seedling banks. Alike the sprouter Nothofagus antarctica, high-altitude stands produced significant SGS as a consequence of occasional seedling establishment reinforced by vegetative spread.

  3. Early Miocene Nothofagus in Antarctica based on fossil leaves from the Transantarctic Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrobleski, S. A.; Ashworth, A. C.; Lewis, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Nothofagus (Southern Beech) is the most widely reported plant from Cenozoic Antarctic fossil assemblages. Most of the fossils are of pollen morphotypes and it is assumed that the plants the pollen represents were growing on the continent. However, because of the uncertainties with systematics, long-distance dispersal, and reworking, it has been difficult to interpret the assemblages in terms of paleoenvironments and paleoclimate. Here, we report an in situ assemblage of Nothofagus leaves and pollen from the Friis Hills (77⁰ 45'S, 161⁰ 28'E). The leaves are preserved as carbonaceous impressions in brown, fissile shales that represent the deposits of a lake occupying a glacial valley. The leaves most probably accumulated from deciduous shrubs. Based on the stratigraphic relationship to a tephra with a 40 Ar/39 Ar age of c. 20 Ma, the leaf assemblage is of early Miocene age. Nothofagus pollen from the shale suggests that at least 3 species were represented. A total of 227 leaves were examined and lengths, widths, and areas recorded. The preservation is generally good but only a few of the specimens represent complete leaves; the spectrum is 30-100%. Plots of the measurements of the leaves provide a summary of size variation but were otherwise not useful for separating out different taxa . The most useful characters for establishing differences between the leaves were the leaf margins, of which three or four types were distinguished: 1. margins entire or finely serrate between ribs; 2. margins with one or two convex lobes between the ribs; 3. margins with convex lobes over the ribs. The leaf study indicates that three or possibly four species were co-inhabiting the valley in the early Miocene and were part of a dynamic vegetation that colonized the valley with each deglaciation. A possible analog today would be at low elevations in Tierra del Fuego where three species of Nothofagus coexist. The stem diameters of abundant wood preserved in adjacent facies indicates

  4. Food-based lure performance in three locations in Puerto Rico: attractiveness to Anastrepha suspensa and A. obliqua

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Different lures based on hydrolyzed protein products were assayed in the field for their ability to attract Anastrepha suspensa and A. obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae). Typically, ammonium acetate with putrescine and freeze-dried NuLure with ammonium acetate and putrescine attracted more flies than ot...

  5. The complete genome of a baculovirus isolated from an insect of medical interest: Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Aragão-Silva, C. W.; Andrade, M. S.; Ardisson-Araújo, D. M. P.; Fernandes, J. E. A.; Morgado, F. S.; Báo, S. N.; Moraes, R. H. P.; Wolff, J. L. C.; Melo, F. L.; Ribeiro, B. M.

    2016-01-01

    Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is a species of medical importance due to the severity of reactions caused by accidental contact with the caterpillar bristles. Several natural pathogens have been identified in L. obliqua, and among them the baculovirus Lonomia obliqua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LoobMNPV). The complete genome of LoobMNPV was sequenced and shown to have 120,022 bp long with 134 putative open reading frames (ORFs). Phylogenetic analysis of the LoobMNPV genome showed that it belongs to Alphabaculovirus group I (lepidopteran-infective NPV). A total of 12 unique ORFs were identified with no homologs in other sequenced baculovirus genomes. One of these, the predicted protein encoded by loob035, showed significant identity to an eukaryotic transcription terminator factor (TTF2) from the Lepidoptera Danaus plexippus, suggesting an independent acquisition through horizontal gene transfer. Homologs of cathepsin and chitinase genes, which are involved in host integument liquefaction and viral spread, were not found in this genome. As L. obliqua presents a gregarious behavior during the larvae stage the impact of this deletion might be neglectable. PMID:27282807

  6. Influence of Methoprene on Pheromone Emission and Sexual Maturation of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) males.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Barrios, Rodolfo; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rojas, Julio C; Hernández, Emilio; Liedo, Pablo; Gómez-Simuta, Yeudiel; Malo, Edi A

    2016-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that the application of juvenile hormone analog, methoprene, reduces the time required for sexual maturation and enhances mating success in several species of tephritid fruit flies. This study examined the effect of different concentrations of methoprene incorporated into the diet of adult flies and distinct sugar:protein (S:P) ratios on sexual maturity and pheromone emission of Anastrepha obliqua males. Diets with 0.2 and 0.5% of methoprene accelerated sexual maturation of males compared with untreated males. In subsequent assays, the enhancement of male pheromone emission and sexual maturation by the incorporation of 0.02% methoprene into a 24:1 (S: P) diet was confirmed. Among the volatiles released by males, (Z)-3-nonenol and (Z,Z)-3,6-nonadienol were emitted at higher quantities by flies treated with methoprene than untreated ones. The results show that methoprene accelerates sexual maturation of mass-reared A. obliqua males and increases their mating propensity. This would reduce the time required to attain sexual maturation by sterile males, thus decreasing fly handling costs and improving the efficacy of the sterile insect technique.

  7. Comparative Responses of Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) to the Synthetic Attractant BioLure.

    PubMed

    Déctor, Nayeli; Malo, Edi A; Rojas, Julio C; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-10-01

    The responses of wild and sterile Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Mcquart) fruit flies to the synthetic attractant BioLure were determined by electroantennography (EAG), in field cage tests using MultiLure traps, and by release-recapture field experiments using sterile flies. In EAG bioassays, no differences were found between species, sexes, sterile and wild flies. There were only specific differences and interactions in dose responses. More A. ludens than A. obliqua individuals were captured in multilure traps in field cage test. In A. ludens, there was not significant difference between the number of females and males captured, whereas in A. obliqua more females than males were caught. Age showed a bimodal response in both species and both sexes, with peaks at 4 and 14 d old. In the release-recapture experiments, there were significant differences between species, sexes, and orchards and among the days after release. More individuals of A. ludens than A obliqua were recaptured. Only in A. obliqua the difference between the sexes was significant, with a 3.60:1 female:male ratio. Orchard conditions affected the recapture rate, but in both orchards the largest number of flies recaptured occurred during the first day after release (46 and 88% in each orchard). Our results show that the response to this synthetic lure is species-specific and contribute to better interpret trapping data. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Detecting Deep Divergence in Seventeen Populations of Tea Geometrid (Ectropis obliqua Prout) in China by COI mtDNA and Cross-Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chuan-Xi; Yin, Kun-Shan; Tang, Mei-Jun; Guo, Hua-Wei; Fu, Jian-Yu; Xiao, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The tea geometrid (Ectropis obliqua Prout, Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is a dominant chewing insect endemic in most tea-growing areas in China. Recently some E. obliqua populations have been found to be resistant to the nucleopolyhedrovirus (EoNPV), a host-specific virus that has so far been found only in E. obliqua. Although the resistant populations are morphologically indistinguishable from susceptible populations, we conducted a nationwide collection and examined the genetic divergence in the COI region of the mtDNA in E. obliqua. Phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA in 17 populations revealed two divergent clades with genetic distance greater than 3.7% between clades and less than 0.7% within clades. Therefore, we suggest that E. obliqua falls into two distinct groups. Further inheritance analyses using reciprocal single-pair mating showed an abnormal F1 generation with an unbalanced sex ratio and the inability to produce fertile eggs (or any eggs) through F1 self-crossing. These data revealed a potential cryptic species complex with deep divergence and reproductive isolation within E. obliqua. Uneven distribution of the groups suggests a possible geographic effect on the divergence. Future investigations will be conducted to examine whether EoNPV selection or other factors prompted the evolution of resistance. PMID:24915522

  9. Electrophysiological and behavioural responses of the tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) to volatiles from a non-host plant, rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengqun; Bian, Lei; Sun, Xiaoling; Luo, Zongxiu; Xin, Zhaojun; Luo, Fengjian; Chen, Zongmao

    2015-01-01

    A plant-based 'push-pull' strategy for Ectropis obliqua (Prout) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is being developed using semiochemicals in the volatiles of Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae). The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the bioactive components within R. officinalis by gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and to test the antennal and behavioural responses of E. obliqua to these chemicals. The emission dynamics of bioactive chemicals was also monitored. GC-EAD experiments indicated that E. obliqua antennae responded to the following volatile compounds from R. officinalis: myrcene, α-terpinene, γ-terpinene, linalool, cis-verbenol, camphor, α-terpineol and verbenone, which were the minor constituents. Based on the dose-dependent antennal and behavioural responses of E. obliqua to these bioactive compounds, myrcene, γ-terpinene, linalool, cis-verbenol, camphor and verbenone were found to play a key role in repelling the moths, and the mixture that included all eight compounds was significantly more effective. The maximum emissions of these semiochemicals occurred at nightfall. The specifically bioactive compounds in R. officinalis volatiles are responsible for repelling E. obliqua adults. Results indicate that R. officinalis should be considered as a potential behaviour-modifying stimulus for 'push' components when developing 'push-pull' strategies for control of E. obliqua using semiochemicals. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Evidence of Pliocene Nothofagus in Antarctica from Pliocene marine sedimentary deposits (DSDP Site 274)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, R.F.; Barron, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Microfossil assemblages in Pliocene sediments from DSDP Site 274 (68??59.81???S, 173??25.64???E) provide data on the age of the sediments and suggest the presence of Nothofagus (southern beech) in Antarctica during the Pliocene. A suite of 17 samples was collected in an interval from Samples 28-274-6R-1, 83-87 cm to 28-274-11R-4, 73-77 cm (48.33-100.29 mbsf). Biostratigraphic study of the abundant diatom assemblages combined with published radiolarian data indicates that the sample interval ranges in age from 5.0 to 2.2 Ma, with an apparent unconformity between about 3.8 and 3.2 Ma. Nothofagidites (the genus for fossil pollen referable to Nothofagus) occurs throughout the interval, as well as pollen and spores with known stratigraphic ranges that unequivocally indicate reworking from older rocks. Species of Nothofagidites recovered include N. asperus, N. brachyspinulosus, N. flemingii, N. senectus, and N. sp. cf. N. lachlaniae; the latter form is previously known from the Sirius Group in the Transantarctic Mountains. Abundant palynomorphs were recovered in only three of the samples from Site 274 (Samples 28-274-9R-2, 15-19 cm; 28-274-9R-2, 48-52 cm; and 28-274-9R-2, 65-69 cm). Based on the diatom and radiolarian biostratigraphic data, the ages of these samples range from 3.00 to 3.01 Ma. The relative abundance of N. sp. cf. N. lachlaniae in the three samples is an order of magnitude higher than relative abundances for the other species of Nothofagidites in the same samples. The significantly higher relative abundance of N. sp. cf. N. lachlaniae suggests that this pollen was derived from trees of Nothofagus that were living in Antarctica during the mid Pliocene. Diatom assemblages from these three samples indicate that sediments in this interval were rapidly deposited as biogenic oozes in an open-ocean setting relatively free of sea ice, thus decreasing the possibility of reworking from a single source bed rich in N. sp. cf. N. lachlaniae. Clearly, more detailed

  11. Halfway encounters: meeting points of colonization routes among the southern beeches Nothofagus pumilio and N. antarctica.

    PubMed

    Soliani, Carolina; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Bagnoli, Francesca; Gallo, Leonardo A; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Marchelli, Paula

    2015-04-01

    The Patagonian region is characterized by a complex biogeographic history, with evidence of deep phylogeographic breaks shared among species. Of particular interest to conservation is the nature of colonization and settlement patterns after the last glacial period, including the detection of secondary contact between different lineages and/or hybridization among related species around phylogeographic breaks. Here we studied population demography and past hybridization of two widespread tree species endemic to South America, Nothofagus pumilio and N. antarctica. Using 8 nuclear microsatellites we genotyped 41 populations of both species. Genetic variation and structure across the geographic region were evaluated within and among species and the past demographic history of hybridization between the two species was inferred using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC). Northern and southern lineages were identified in each species, and Bayesian clustering revealed their convergence at mid latitudes (42°S). Spatial genetic structure (SGS) also indicated the existence of a genetic discontinuity at these latitudes, which is in agreement with previous data from maternal DNA markers. Several populations around 42-44°S presented high levels of genetic diversity with a decrease toward southern populations. Even though the species are clearly differentiated (G'ST=0.335), admixed gene pools were observed in both species. Two independent runs of ABC suggested that inter species admixture-like patterns occurred within the timescale of the Last Glacial Maximum (around 20,000 BP). We also provide evidences of recent and bi-directional hybridization/introgression between the two Nothofagus species and describe features of the populationś demography in the past. The settlement of a secondary contact zone in Nothofagus species around 42-44°S coincides with the phylogeographic breaks and hotspots of genetic diversity found in other plant and animal species in Patagonia

  12. Expression of an antiviral protein from Lonomia obliqua hemolymph in baculovirus/insect cell system.

    PubMed

    Carmo, A C V; Giovanni, D N S; Corrêa, T P; Martins, L M; Stocco, R C; Suazo, C A T; Moraes, R H P; Veiga, A B G; Mendonça, R Z

    2012-05-01

    The control of viral infections, mainly those caused by influenza viruses, is of great interest in Public Health. Several studies have shown the presence of active properties in the hemolymph of arthropods, some of which are of interest for the development of new pharmacological drugs. Recently, we have demonstrated the existence of a potent antiviral property in the hemolymph of Lonomia obliqua caterpillars. The aim of this study was to produce an antiviral protein in a baculovirus/Sf9 cell system. The resulting bacmid contains the sequence coding for the antiviral protein previously described by our group. Total RNA from L. obliqua caterpillars was extracted with Trizol and used in the reverse transcription assay with oligo(d)T primer followed by polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) with specific primers for the cDNA coding for the antiviral protein, based on the sequence deposited in the GenBank database. Restriction sites were inserted in the cDNA for ligation in the donor plasmid pFastBac1™. The recombinant plasmid was selected in Escherichia coli DH5α and subsequently used in the transformation of E. coli DH10Bac for the construction of the recombinant bacmid. This bacmid was used for the expression of the antiviral protein in the baculovirus/Sf9 cell system. After identifying the protein by western blot, activity tests were performed, showing that the purified recombinant protein was able to significantly reduce viral replication (about 4 logs). Studies on the optimization of the expression system for the production of this antiviral protein in insect cells are in progress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Transcriptome survey of Patagonian southern beech Nothofagus nervosa (= N. Alpina): assembly, annotation and molecular marker discovery.

    PubMed

    Torales, Susana L; Rivarola, Máximo; Pomponio, María F; Fernández, Paula; Acuña, Cintia V; Marchelli, Paula; Gonzalez, Sergio; Azpilicueta, María M; Hopp, Horacio Esteban; Gallo, Leonardo A; Paniego, Norma B; Poltri, Susana N Marcucci

    2012-07-02

    Nothofagus nervosa is one of the most emblematic native tree species of Patagonian temperate forests. Here, the shotgun RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) of the transcriptome of N. nervosa, including de novo assembly, functional annotation, and in silico discovery of potential molecular markers to support population and associations genetic studies, are described. Pyrosequencing of a young leaf cDNA library generated a total of 111,814 high quality reads, with an average length of 447 bp. De novo assembly using Newbler resulted into 3,005 tentative isotigs (including alternative transcripts). The non-assembled sequences (singletons) were clustered with CD-HIT-454 to identify natural and artificial duplicates from pyrosequencing reads, leading to 21,881 unique singletons. 15,497 out of 24,886 non-redundant sequences or unigenes, were successfully annotated against a plant protein database. A substantial number of simple sequence repeat markers (SSRs) were discovered in the assembled and annotated sequences. More than 40% of the SSR sequences were inside ORF sequences. To confirm the validity of these predicted markers, a subset of 73 SSRs selected through functional annotation evidences were successfully amplified from six seedlings DNA samples, being 14 polymorphic. This paper is the first report that shows a highly precise representation of the mRNAs diversity present in young leaves of a native South American tree, N. nervosa, as well as its in silico deduced putative functionality. The reported Nothofagus transcriptome sequences represent a unique resource for genetic studies and provide a tool to discover genes of interest and genetic markers that will greatly aid questions involving evolution, ecology, and conservation using genetic and genomic approaches in the genus.

  14. Transcriptome survey of Patagonian southern beech Nothofagus nervosa (= N. Alpina): assembly, annotation and molecular marker discovery

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nothofagus nervosa is one of the most emblematic native tree species of Patagonian temperate forests. Here, the shotgun RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) of the transcriptome of N. nervosa, including de novo assembly, functional annotation, and in silico discovery of potential molecular markers to support population and associations genetic studies, are described. Results Pyrosequencing of a young leaf cDNA library generated a total of 111,814 high quality reads, with an average length of 447 bp. De novo assembly using Newbler resulted into 3,005 tentative isotigs (including alternative transcripts). The non-assembled sequences (singletons) were clustered with CD-HIT-454 to identify natural and artificial duplicates from pyrosequencing reads, leading to 21,881 unique singletons. 15,497 out of 24,886 non-redundant sequences or unigenes, were successfully annotated against a plant protein database. A substantial number of simple sequence repeat markers (SSRs) were discovered in the assembled and annotated sequences. More than 40% of the SSR sequences were inside ORF sequences. To confirm the validity of these predicted markers, a subset of 73 SSRs selected through functional annotation evidences were successfully amplified from six seedlings DNA samples, being 14 polymorphic. Conclusions This paper is the first report that shows a highly precise representation of the mRNAs diversity present in young leaves of a native South American tree, N. nervosa, as well as its in silico deduced putative functionality. The reported Nothofagus transcriptome sequences represent a unique resource for genetic studies and provide a tool to discover genes of interest and genetic markers that will greatly aid questions involving evolution, ecology, and conservation using genetic and genomic approaches in the genus. PMID:22747958

  15. Mistletoes and epiphytic lichens contribute to litter input in Nothofagus antarctica forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, Rosina; Pastur, Guillermo Martínez; Lencinas, María Vanessa; Peri, Pablo Luis

    2015-10-01

    Litter input is one of the key components that define nutrient cycling in forests and the majority of studies only consider the tree components of litterfall. However, epiphytic species can play a crucial role in litter input throughout the growing season. This work evaluates changes in litter production by mistletoe (Misodendrum sp.) and epiphytic lichen (Usnea sp.), related to crown cover in mature unmanaged, second-growth and managed (thinned for silvopastoral use) forests in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina). We used plastic traps to collect litterfall biomass from trees, lichens and mistletoes on a monthly basis over three consecutive years. Tree litter was considerable during autumn (March to May), which is typical of Nothofagus deciduous species in the Southern hemisphere. In contrast, peak litterfall from mistletoes and lichens occurred during spring and summer seasons. Tree litter (1954-3398 kg dry matter ha-1 year-1) was correlated with crown cover gradient being highest in second-growth forests and lowest in thinned sites. While litter input from mistletoes did not vary among forest types (307-333 kg dry matter ha-1 year-1), lichen litter (11-40 kg dry matter ha-1 year-1) was higher in unmanaged and thinned mature forests despite differences in tree crown cover. Contrary to what we expected, the management practices investigated here did not affect the biomass of canopy communities compared to unmanaged mature forests. Mistletoes and lichens significantly increased the spatial (forest type) and temporal complexity (extended period of falling) of litterfall in Nothofagus antarctica forests. This study provides a starting point to understand the ecological relevance of canopy communities in the Patagonian forests of southern Argentina.

  16. Juvenile hormone analog enhances calling behavior, mating success, and quantity of volatiles released by Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Chacón-Benavente, Roxana; López-Guillen, Guillermo; Hernández, Emilio; Rojas, Julio C; Malo, Edi A

    2013-04-01

    The application of a juvenile hormone analog, methoprene, to newly emerged adult males reduced the time required for sexual maturation and enhanced mating success in several species of tephritid fruit flies. In this work, we investigated the effect of topical methoprene application on West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), male calling, mating, and volatile release. Males treated with topical methoprene exhibited sexual maturation and reproductive behavior 2 d earlier when compared with control males treated with acetone. Methoprene-treated males began calling and mating at 4 d old, whereas control males did not call and mate until 6 d old. The gas chromotography-mass spectrometry analysis of volatiles showed that during calling A. obliqua males consistently released four compounds; three of them were identified as (Z)-3-nonenol, (Z,E)-α-farnesene, (E,E)-α-farnesene, and a fourth compound with the appearance of a farnesene isomer. Both treated and control males released the same compounds, although treated males started to release volatiles before that control males. The results are discussed in view of possible methoprene application with the aim of reducing costs in fly emergence and release facilities before eventual release of A. obliqua in the field, thus improving the sterile insect technique.

  17. Seed dormancy responses to temperature relate to Nothofagus species distribution and determine temporal patterns of germination across altitudes in Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Arana, María V; Gonzalez-Polo, Marina; Martinez-Meier, Alejandro; Gallo, Leonardo A; Benech-Arnold, Roberto L; Sánchez, Rodolfo A; Batlla, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Seeds integrate environmental cues that modulate their dormancy and germination. Although many mechanisms have been identified in laboratory experiments, their contribution to germination dynamics in existing communities and their involvement in defining species habitats remain elusive. By coupling mathematical models with ecological data we investigated the contribution of seed temperature responses to the dynamics of germination of three Nothofagus species that are sharply distributed across different altitudes in the Patagonian Andes. Seed responsiveness to temperature of the three Nothofagus species was linked to the thermal characteristics of their preferred ecological niche. In their natural distribution range, there was overlap in the timing of germination of the species, which was restricted to mid-spring. By contrast, outside their species distribution range, germination was temporally uncoupled with altitude. This phenomenon was described mathematically by the interplay between interspecific differences in seed population thermal parameters and the range in soil thermic environments across different altitudes. The observed interspecific variations in seed responsiveness to temperature and its environmental regulation, constitute a major determinant of the dynamics of Nothofagus germination across elevations. This phenomenon likely contributes to the maintenance of patterns of species abundance across altitude by placing germinated seeds in a favorable environment for plant growth.

  18. Mass Rearing History and Irradiation Affect Mating Performance of the Male Fruit Fly, Anastrepha obliqua

    PubMed Central

    Rull, Juan; Encarnación, Nery; Birke, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    As an initial step to improve the efficiency of the sterile insect technique applied to eradicate, suppress, and control wild Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango producing areas of Mexico, the effect of radiation dose and mass rearing history on male mating performance was examined. Field cage tests in which both male and female laboratory flies were irradiated at different doses (0, 40, and 80 Gy) were released with cohorts of wild flies of both sexes, revealing that both mass rearing history and irradiation affected male mating performance. Laboratory males were accepted for copulation by wild females less frequently than wild males. Copulations involving laboratory males were shorter than those involving wild males. Irradiated males mated less frequently with wild females than wild males, and irradiated females appeared to be less able to reject courting males of both origins. High levels of fertility for untreated laboratory females crossed with males irradiated at different doses may reflect problems in mass rearing affecting homogeneity of pupal age before irradiation, and possibly masked a dose effect. Proposed remedial measures to improve male mating performance are discussed. PMID:22957485

  19. Hemostatic disorders induced by skin contact with Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae) caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Sano-Martins, Ida Sigueko; Duarte, Alaour Candida; Guerrero, Belsy; Moraes, Roberto Henrique Pinto; Barros, Elvino José Guardão; Arocha-Piñango, Carmen Luisa

    2017-04-20

    Patients envenomed by Lonomia sp caterpillars initially experience a mild burning pain, headache, nausea, vomiting, and skin and mucosal hemorrhages. Some patients can rapidly progress to a severe coagulopathy that presents as visceral or intracerebral hemorrhaging. We studied the hemostatic alterations that occurred in 14 patients who were envenomed by Lonomia obliqua in Southern Brazil and presented at the Hospital São Vicente de Paulo (Passo Fundo, RS), Brazil during the summers of 1993 and 1994 when Lonomia antivenom was not yet available for treatment. The patients were classified into to 4 clinical groups: 0 (two patients), I (eight patients), II (two patients), and III (two patients). The patients were admitted to the hospital between 4 hours and five days after contact with the caterpillars. In this study, the coagulation parameters of the patients were followed up for up to 172 hours after the accidents. The patients received no treatment with the exceptions of two patients who received blood transfusions and antifibrinolytic treatment. The observed abnormalities related to blood coagulation and fibrinolytic factors were similar regardless of the severity of the bleeding symptoms. These findings suggest that alterations in hemostatic parameters without thrombocytopenia are not predictors of the seriousness of such accidents. Thus, consumptive disorder and reactive fibrinolysis are not proportional to mild coagulopathy. Furthermore, these patients recovered. The hemostatic parameters of most of the patients normalized between 96 and 120 h after the accident.

  20. Effect of temperature on pupa development and sexual maturity of laboratory Anastrepha obliqua adults.

    PubMed

    Telles-Romero, R; Toledo, J; Hernández, E; Quintero-Fong, J L; Cruz-López, L

    2011-10-01

    The effect of four temperatures (18, 20, 25 and 30°C) on pupa development and sexual maturity of Anastrepha obliqua adults was investigated under laboratory conditions. The results showed that the duration of the pupal stage decreased with an increase in temperature (29, 25, 13 and 12 days, respectively), and maintaining the pupae at 18°C and 20°C results in a low percentage of pupation, pupa weight loss and lesser flying ability. However, it significantly favored sexual behavior, a higher proportion of sexual calls and matings. While enhanced pupa development was observed at a temperature of 30°C, adults had low sexual efficiency, as well as a lower proportion of calls and matings. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of male volatiles showed that the amount of (Z,E)-α-farnesene did not vary among males from pupae reared at different temperatures; however, less (E,E)-α-farnesene was emitted by males obtain from pupa reared at 30°C. Male flies kept at 30°C during their larval stage had more (Z)-3-nonenol and, also, an unknown compound was detected. The fecundity of the females was higher at low temperatures. Regarding fertility, no significant differences were found between temperatures. The optimal temperature on pupa development was 25°C when males displayed ideal attributes for rearing purposes.

  1. New insight into the mechanism of Lonomia obliqua envenoming: toxin involvement and molecular approach.

    PubMed

    Alvarez Flores, M P; Zannin, M; Chudzinski-Tavassi, A M

    2010-01-01

    Despite the nearly worldwide distribution of Lepidoptera, there are few species with clear documentation of adverse reactions in humans. Most syndromes caused by Lepidoptera are consequences of direct contact with the hairs or setae of caterpillars. In most instances, the adverse effects caused by moth and caterpillars are self-limited and the treatment is based on the removal of hairs, application of topical antipruritics and, in some cases, the use of oral antihistamines. However, in the case of envenoming by South American Lonomiaobliqua caterpillars, the antilonomic serum produced at Instituto Butantan in Brazil is the only effective treatment to re-establish the physiological coagulation parameters in poisoned patients and to abolish the complications seen in severe cases (e.g. consumptive coagulopathy, intracerebral hemorrhage, and acute renal failure). Many studies have been carried out to understand the pathophysiological mechanism of envenoming by L. obliqua. Several toxic principles were found in bristle extract and the hemolymph, probably related to the envenoming. An interesting fact is that some toxins from the venom usually have more than one function. With the advent of molecular biology techniques it has become possible to analyze these processes at a molecular level, thus giving rise to hypotheses on the molecular basis of envenomation. This review contributes to enhance our understanding of the dramatic alterations that hemorrhagic syndrome causes in patients, current treatment, and the diversity of the molecules involved in this pathology. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma) on stromata of Cyttaria hariotii in northwestern Patagonian Nothofagus forests.

    PubMed

    Libkind, Diego; Tognetti, Celia; Ruffini, Alejandra; Sampaio, José Paulo; Van Broock, María

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous associated with Cyttaria hariotii parasitizing three Nothofagus species (N. dombeyi, N. antarctica and N. pumilio) in northwestern Patagonia (Argentina), as well as the factors that may affect this distribution were herein studied. Between 2000 and 2007, samples were obtained from 18 different locations. Based on physiological tests and morphological characteristics of sexual structures, 72 isolates were identified as X. dendrorhous. Representative strains were studied by MSP-PCR fingerprinting and sequence analysis of the ITS region. MSP-PCR fingerprints were similar for the newly isolated strains, and were also identical to the profiles of the strains previously found in this region. Patagonian strains appear to be a genetically uniform and distinct population, supporting the hypothesis that the association with different host species has determined genetically distinct X. dendrorhous populations worldwide. X. dendrorhous was recovered from N. dombeyi and N. antarctica. Approximately half the sampling sites and samples were positive for X. dendrorhous, but the isolation recovery rate was low. X. dendrorhous was absent in the early stages of ascostromata maturation, becoming more abundant in later stages. The present work represents a step forward in the understanding of the natural distribution and ecology of this biotechnologically relevant yeast.

  3. Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Wild Edible Mushrooms from Native Nothofagus spp. Forest, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Carolina V; Barroetaveña, Carolina; Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-09-08

    This study addresses issues regarding chemical and bioactive properties of nine wild edible mushrooms from native Nothofagus forest from Patagonia, Argentina. Macronutrients, sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic acids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties were determined. Protein was found in high levels and varied between 3.35 g/100 g dw in Cyttaria hariotii and 22.29 g/100 g dw in Lepista nuda. All of them presented mannitol and trehalose as main sugars. Mannitol was significantly higher in Ramaria patagonica, although absent in Fistulina endoxantha, whereas trehalose predominated in Aleurodiscus vitellinus, Hydropus dusenii, Cortinarius magellanicus, C. hariotii, Grifola gargal and L. nuda, ranging from 1.15 to 10.26 g/100 g dw; it was absent in R. patagonica. The major fatty acid found was linoleic acid, followed by oleic acid and palmitic acid. All species presented oxalic and fumaric acids, while some also had malic, quinic and citric acids. Tocopherols composition was variable. Cortinarius magellanicus presented significantly higher contents of both α-tocopherol and β-tocopherol. R. patagonica presented the best results in all the antioxidant activity assays (EC50 values ≤ 1 mg/mL) and the highest content of phenolic compounds presenting gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric and cinnamic acids. This study constitutes the first report on chemical composition and nutritional value of most of these edible mushroom species. Furthermore, it provides important information necessary to characterize and define the use of these species as gastronomic delicacies, functional foods and sources of bioactive compounds.

  4. Water supply and demand remain balanced during leaf acclimation of Nothofagus cunninghamii trees.

    PubMed

    Brodribb, Timothy J; Jordan, Gregory J

    2011-10-01

    Higher leaf vein density (D(vein) ) enables higher rates of photosynthesis because enhanced water transport allows higher leaf conductances to CO(2) and water. If the total cost of leaf venation rises in proportion to the density of minor veins, the most efficient investment in leaf xylem relative to photosynthetic gain should occur when the water transport capacity of the leaf (determined by D(vein) ) matches potential transpirational demand (determined by stomatal size and density). We tested whether environmental plasticity in stomatal density (D(stomata) ) and D(vein) were linked in the evergreen tree Nothofagus cunninghamii to achieve a balance between liquid and gas phase water conductances. Two sources of variation were examined; within-tree light acclimation, and differences in sun leaves among plants from ecologically diverse populations. Strong, linear correlations between D(vein) and D(stomata) were found at all levels of comparison. The correlations between liquid- and vapour-phase conductances implied by these patterns of leaf anatomy were confirmed by direct measurement of leaf conductance in sun and shade foliage of an individual tree. • Our results provide strong evidence that the development of veins and stomata are coordinated so that photosynthetic yield is optimized relative to carbon investment in leaf venation.

  5. The response of leaf morphology to irradiance depends on altitude of origin in Nothofagus cunninghamii.

    PubMed

    Hovenden, Mark J; Vander Schoor, Jacqueline K

    2006-01-01

    Leaf morphology varies reliably with increasing altitude in many species, and this is generally considered to be related to temperature. Changes in irradiance with elevation may confound any relationships between a morphological character and altitude, particularly if altitude of origin affects the response to irradiance. Here we describe the interaction between irradiance and altitude of origin on leaf morphology of Southern beech, Nothofagus cunninghamii. Cuttings from each of four altitudes were grown in a glasshouse under full sunlight or 50% shade, and leaf morphology was related to irradiance, altitude of origin and accession. There was a significant interaction between irradiance and altitude of origin for leaf length, width, thickness, area, weight, specific leaf area and stomatal density. There was no effect of altitude on leaf length to width ratio or stomatal index, nor was there an interaction between irradiance and altitude of origin for these variables. These results show that the altitude of origin of a plant has an overriding impact on the leaf morphological response to irradiance. This must be considered in climatic reconstructions.

  6. A New Adult Diet Formulation for Sterile Males of Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Orozco-Dávila, Dina; Quintero-Fong, Luis

    2015-08-01

    A new adult diet formulation was evaluated for sterile Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) males at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The formulation consists of hydrolyzed protein, sugar, juvenile hormone analogue methoprene, and water. The proportion of the ingredients between the solute (4% hydrolyzed protein and 96% sugar) and solvent (10% methoprene and 90% water) was 5:1. This new formulation was called the 1:24 formulation. The main objectives of this study were to develop a simple way to supply the 1:24 formulation to adults and to compare the sexual performance of these flies with the performance of flies fed a standard diet (called the Mubarqui formulation) used at the emergence and release facility of fruit flies in Mexico. The preparation, time, and cost also were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences in the sexual behaviors of the males (number of males mating, number of males calling, mating latency, and mating duration) between the 1:24 formulation and the Mubarqui formulation. However, the cost and the required preparation time are much lower for the 1:24 formulation process than for the Mubarqui formulation process. Based on these results, we recommend the 1:24 formulation as an additional adult diet option in the handling of sterile flies. Its application is practical and does not require changes in packaging systems. The contribution of our findings and their potential application to the improvement of the sterile insect technique are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Toxicity and bioefficacy of individual and combination of diversified insecticides against jute hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, K; Ramesh, V; Gotyal, B S; Satpathy, S

    2015-11-01

    Toxicity of conventional (profenofos 50 EC and λ-cyhalothrin 5 EC) and non-conventional (flubendiamide 480 SC, chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC, emamectin benzoate 5 SG) insecticides was determined on the basis of median lethal concentration (LC50) values on third instar larvae of jute hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua under laboratory conditions. Further, the promising binary insecticides combinations with lesser LC50 values and adequate synergistic activity were evaluated under field conditions. The LC50 values calculated for insecticides viz., chlorantraniliprole, flubendiamide emamectin benzoate, λ-cyhalothrin and profenophos were 0.212, 0.232, 0.511, 0.985 and 3.263 ppm, respectively. Likewise, the LC50 values for flubendiamide with λ-cyhalothrin in 3:1 proportion was most toxic (0.103 ppm) amongst all the other binary combinations with λ-cyhalothrin. Chlorantraniliprole in combination with λ-cyhalothrin at 1:1 proportion (0.209 ppm) was most toxic followed by 3:1 proportion (0.345 ppm). Similarly, emamectin benzoate in combination with λ-cyhalothrin at 1:1 proportion was more toxic (0.271 ppm) than 3:1 ratio (0.333 ppm). Toxicity index of flubendiamide + λ-cyhalothrin (3:1 ratio) was highest (970.87). Bioefficacy of synergistic binary combinations along with individual insecticides established the superiority of profenophos + λ-cyhalothrin (3:1) with 89.12% reduction in infestation and recorded maximum fibre yield 38.67qha' under field condition. Moreover, combination of diverse insecticides group might sustain toxicity against the target insect for longer period with least probability of resistance development.

  8. Ectomycorrhizas naturally established in Nothofagus nervosa seedlings under different cultivation practices in a forest nursery.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Natalia V; Marchelli, Paula; Fontenla, Sonia B

    2013-10-01

    Mycorrhizas are mutualistic associations between soil fungi and plant roots which usually improve water and nutrient uptake, influencing plant fitness. Nothofagus nervosa (Raulí) is an ecologically and economically important species of South American temperate forests. Since this native tree species yields valuable timber, it was overexploited and its natural distribution area was critically reduced, so it is currently included in domestication and conservation programs. Among the factors that should be considered in these programs are the ectomycorrhizas (EcM), which would be important for the successful establishment and survival of outplanted seedlings. The aim of this work was to analyze the abundance and diversity of EcM in N. nervosa nursery-cultivated seedlings assessed by morphotyping, fungal isolation, and DNA sequencing. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) occurrence was also studied. A 2-year trial was conducted following the cultivation conditions used for domestication programs. Seedlings were cultivated under two different cultivation practices (greenhouse and nursery soil) without artificial inoculation of mycorrhizal fungi. Seedlings' roots were examined at different times. It was observed that they developed EcM between 6 and 12 months after germination and AMs were not detected in any plant. The most abundant ectomycorrhizal fungi present in seedlings' roots were Tomentella ellisii (Basidiomycota) and an unidentified fungus named Ascomicetous EcM sp. 1. Abundance and diversity of EcM varied between the two cultivation techniques analyzed in this study, since seedlings that continued growing in the greenhouse had higher colonization values, but those transplanted to the nursery soil were colonized by a higher diversity of fungal taxa.

  9. Size-Specific Tree Mortality Varies with Neighbourhood Crowding and Disturbance in a Montane Nothofagus Forest

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Jennifer M.; Allen, Robert B.; Coomes, David A.; Duncan, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Tree mortality is a fundamental process governing forest dynamics, but understanding tree mortality patterns is challenging because large, long-term datasets are required. Describing size-specific mortality patterns can be especially difficult, due to few trees in larger size classes. We used permanent plot data from Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortioides (mountain beech) forest on the eastern slopes of the Southern Alps, New Zealand, where the fates of trees on 250 plots of 0.04 ha were followed, to examine: (1) patterns of size-specific mortality over three consecutive periods spanning 30 years, each characterised by different disturbance, and (2) the strength and direction of neighbourhood crowding effects on size-specific mortality rates. We found that the size-specific mortality function was U-shaped over the 30-year period as well as within two shorter periods characterised by small-scale pinhole beetle and windthrow disturbance. During a third period, characterised by earthquake disturbance, tree mortality was less size dependent. Small trees (<20 cm in diameter) were more likely to die, in all three periods, if surrounded by a high basal area of larger neighbours, suggesting that size-asymmetric competition for light was a major cause of mortality. In contrast, large trees (≥20 cm in diameter) were more likely to die in the first period if they had few neighbours, indicating that positive crowding effects were sometimes important for survival of large trees. Overall our results suggest that temporal variability in size-specific mortality patterns, and positive interactions between large trees, may sometimes need to be incorporated into models of forest dynamics. PMID:22046327

  10. Solar radiation transmission in and around canopy gaps in an uneven-aged Nothofagus betuloides forest.

    PubMed

    Promis, Alvaro; Schindler, Dirk; Reif, Albert; Cruz, Gustavo

    2009-07-01

    The transmission of direct, diffuse and global solar radiation in and around canopy gaps occurring in an uneven-aged, evergreen Nothofagus betuloides forest during the growing season (October 2006-March 2007) was estimated by means of hemispherical photographs. The transmission of solar radiation into the forest was affected not only by a high level of horizontal and vertical heterogeneity of the forest canopy, but also by low angles of the sun's path. The below-canopy direct solar radiation appeared to be variable in space and time. On average, the highest amount of transmitted direct solar radiation was estimated below the undisturbed canopy at the southeast of the gap centre. The transmitted diffuse and global solar radiation above the forest floor exhibited lower variability and, on average, both were higher at the centre of the canopy gaps. Canopy structure and stand parameters were also measured to explain the variation in the below-canopy solar radiation in the forest. The model that best fit the transmitted below-canopy direct solar radiation was a growth model, using plant area index with an ellipsoidal angle distribution as the independent variable (R (2) = 0.263). Both diffuse and global solar radiation were very sensitive to canopy openness, and for both cases a quadratic model provided the best fit for these data (R (2) = 0.963 and 0.833, respectively). As much as 75% and 73% of the variation in the diffuse and global solar radiation, respectively, were explained by a combination of stand parameters, namely basal area, crown projection, crown volume, stem volume, and average equivalent crown radius.

  11. Effect of Resin Ducts and Sap Content on Infestation and Development of Immature Stages of Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Four Mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Larissa; Adaime, Ricardo; Birke, Andrea; Velázquez, Olinda; Angeles, Guillermo; Ortega, Fernando; Ruíz, Eliel; Aluja, Martín

    2017-01-10

    We determined the influence of resin ducts, sap content, and fruit physicochemical features of four mango cultivars (Criollo, Manila, Ataulfo, and Tommy Atkins) on their susceptibility to the attack of the two most pestiferous fruit fly species infesting mangoes in Mexico: Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart). We performed three studies: 1) analysis of resin ducts in mango fruit exocarp to determine the density and area occupied by resin ducts in each mango cultivar, 2) assessment of mango physicochemical features including fruit sap content, and 3) a forced infestation trial under field conditions using enclosed fruit-bearing branches to expose mangoes to gravid A. ludens or A. obliqua females. Infestation rates, development time from egg to prepupae and pupae, pupal weight, and percent of adult emergence, were assessed. 'Ataulfo' and 'Tommy Atkins' cultivars exhibited the highest resin duct density and sap content, the lowest infestation rate, and had a negative effect on immature development and pupal weight. In sharp contrast, 'Manila' and 'Criollo' cultivars, with the lowest resin duct density and sap content, were highly susceptible to A. ludens and A. obliqua attack. We conclude that sap content and the number, size, and distribution of resin ducts as well as firmness in mango fruit exocarp are all involved in the resistance of mango to A. ludens and A. obliqua attack.

  12. Food-based lure performance in three locations in Puerto Rico: attractiveness to Anastrepha suspensa and A. obliqua (Diptera;Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lures based on odors released by hydrolyzed protein were assessed for their attractiveness to Anastrepha obliqua and A. suspensa at three locations in Puerto Rico in August through October 2009. Lures compared included ammonium acetate combined with putrescine, hydrolyzed corn protein (Nulure) with ...

  13. Reference genes for accessing differential expression among developmental stages and analysis of differential expression of OBP genes in Anastrepha obliqua

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Aline Minali; Chahad-Ehlers, Samira; Lima, André Luís A.; Taniguti, Cristiane Hayumi; Sobrinho Jr., Iderval; Torres, Felipe Rafael; de Brito, Reinaldo Alves

    2016-01-01

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua, is an important agricultural pest in the New World. The use of pesticide-free methods to control invasive species such as this reinforces the search for genes potentially useful in their genetic control. Therefore, the study of chemosensory proteins involved with a range of responses to the chemical environment will help not only on the understanding of the species biology but may also help the development of environmentally friendly pest control strategies. Here we analyzed the expression patterns of three OBP genes, Obp19d_2, Obp56a and Obp99c, across different phases of A. obliqua development by qPCR. In order to do so, we tested eight and identified three reference genes for data normalization, rpl17, rpl18 and ef1a, which displayed stability for the conditions here tested. All OBPs showed differential expression on adults and some differential expression among adult stages. Obp99c had an almost exclusive expression in males and Obp56a showed high expression in virgin females. Thereby, our results provide relevant data not only for other gene expression studies in this species, as well as for the search of candidate genes that may help in the development of new pest control strategies. PMID:26818909

  14. Carambola Cultivar, Fruit Ripeness, and Damage by Conspecific Larvae Influence the Host-Related Behaviors of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    López-Ley, Jorge Ulises; Toledo, Jorge; Malo, Edi A; Gomez, Jaime; Santiesteban, Antonio; Rojas, Julio C

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of cultivar type, fruit ripeness, and damage by conspecific larvae on the attraction of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to and oviposition on carambola fruit (Averroha carambola L.). The attraction of both sexes of A. obliqua to fruit of different quality was evaluated through cage experiments in the field, and the oviposition preferences of mated females were examined in laboratory tests. Both sexes, mated or virgin, were more attracted to the "Maha" fruit than to the "Golden Star" fruit, and the females oviposited more frequently on the Maha cultivar than the Golden Star cultivar. Both sexes were more attracted to ripe and half-ripe Maha fruits than to mature green fruit, and although females did not show a preference for ovipositing on half-ripe or ripe fruits, they did not oviposit on mature green fruits. Males did not show a preference for the volatiles from uninfested, artificially damaged, or infested Maha fruits, but females were more attracted to uninfested fruits than to artificially damaged and infested Maha fruits. Furthermore, females preferred to oviposit on uninfested fruits compared with artificially damaged fruit, and they did not oviposit on infested fruits. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Testing the impact of calibration on molecular divergence times using a fossil-rich group: the case of Nothofagus (Fagales).

    PubMed

    Sauquet, Hervé; Ho, Simon Y W; Gandolfo, Maria A; Jordan, Gregory J; Wilf, Peter; Cantrill, David J; Bayly, Michael J; Bromham, Lindell; Brown, Gillian K; Carpenter, Raymond J; Lee, Daphne M; Murphy, Daniel J; Sniderman, J M Kale; Udovicic, Frank

    2012-03-01

    Although temporal calibration is widely recognized as critical for obtaining accurate divergence-time estimates using molecular dating methods, few studies have evaluated the variation resulting from different calibration strategies. Depending on the information available, researchers have often used primary calibrations from the fossil record or secondary calibrations from previous molecular dating studies. In analyses of flowering plants, primary calibration data can be obtained from macro- and mesofossils (e.g., leaves, flowers, and fruits) or microfossils (e.g., pollen). Fossil data can vary substantially in accuracy and precision, presenting a difficult choice when selecting appropriate calibrations. Here, we test the impact of eight plausible calibration scenarios for Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae, Fagales), a plant genus with a particularly rich and well-studied fossil record. To do so, we reviewed the phylogenetic placement and geochronology of 38 fossil taxa of Nothofagus and other Fagales, and we identified minimum age constraints for up to 18 nodes of the phylogeny of Fagales. Molecular dating analyses were conducted for each scenario using maximum likelihood (RAxML + r8s) and Bayesian (BEAST) approaches on sequence data from six regions of the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Using either ingroup or outgroup constraints, or both, led to similar age estimates, except near strongly influential calibration nodes. Using "early but risky" fossil constraints in addition to "safe but late" constraints, or using assumptions of vicariance instead of fossil constraints, led to older age estimates. In contrast, using secondary calibration points yielded drastically younger age estimates. This empirical study highlights the critical influence of calibration on molecular dating analyses. Even in a best-case situation, with many thoroughly vetted fossils available, substantial uncertainties can remain in the estimates of divergence times. For example, our estimates for

  16. Foraging behavior of Anastrepha Ludens, A. obliqua, and A. serpentina in response to feces extracts containing host marking pheromone.

    PubMed

    Aluja, Martin; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2006-02-01

    Following oviposition, females of many Tephritid flies deposit host marking pheromones (HMPs) to indicate that the host fruit has been occupied. We describe the foraging behavior of these three economically important species (Anastrepha ludens and A. obliqua from the fraterculus species group and A. serpentina from the serpentina species group) when they encounter an artificial fruit (green agar spheres wrapped in Parafilm) marked with intra- and interspecific feces extracts that contain, among other substances, host marking pheromone. When flies encountered fruit treated with either 1 or 100 mg/ml feces extract, there were drastic and statistically significant reductions in tree residence time, mean time spent on fruit, and in the number of oviposition attempts or actual ovipositions when compared to the control treatment (clean fruit). These responses were almost identical irrespective of extract origin (i.e., fly species), indicating complete interspecific HMP cross-recognition by all three Anastrepha species tested. We discuss the ecological and practical implications of our findings.

  17. The southernmost Andean Mountain soils: a toposequence from Nothofagus Forest to Sub Antarctic Tundra at Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firme Sá, Mariana M.; Schaefer, Carlos E.; Loureiro, Diego C.; Simas, Felipe N.; Francelino, Marcio R.; Senra, Eduardo O.

    2015-04-01

    Located at the southern tip of the Fuegian Andes Cordilhera, the Martial glacier witnessed a rapid process of retreat in the last century. Up to now little is known about the development and genesis of soils of this region. A toposequence of six soils, ranging from 430-925 m a.s.l, was investigated, with emphasis on genesis, chemical and mineralogical properties. The highest, youngest soil is located just below the Martial Glacier Martial Sur sector, and the lowest soils occur on sloping moraines under Nothofagus pumilio forests. Based on chemical, physical and mineralogical characteristics, the soils were classified according to the Soil taxonomy, being keyed out as Inceptisols and Entisols. Soil parent material of the soil is basically moraines, in which the predominant lithic components dominated by metamorphic rocks, with allochthonous contributions of wind-blown materials (very small fragments of volcanic glass) observed by hand lens in all horizons, except the highest profile under Tundra. In Nothofagus Deciduous Forests at the lowest part of the toposequence, poorly developed Inceptisols occur with Folistic horizons, with mixed "andic" and "spodic" characters, but with a predominance of andosolization (Andic Drystrocryepts). Under Tundra vegetation, Inceptisols are formed under hydromorphism and andosolization processes (Oxiaquic Dystrocrepts and Typic Dystrocrepts). On highland periglacial environments, soils without B horizon with strong evidence of cryoturbation and cryogenesis occur, without present-day permafrost down to 2 meters (Typic Cryorthents and Lithic Haploturbels). The mountain soils of Martial glacier generalize young, stony and rich in organic matter, with the exception of barely vegetated Tundra soils at higher altitudes. The forest soils are more acidic and have higher Al3+activity. All soils are dystrophic, except for the highest profile of the local periglacial environment. The organic carbon amounts are higher in forest soils and

  18. Genetic Diversity in Nothofagus alessandrii (Fagaceae), an Endangered Endemic Tree Species of the Coastal Maulino Forest of Central Chile

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Ruiz, Eduardo; González, Fidelina; Fuentes, Glenda; Cavieres, Lohengrin A.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The endemic tree Nothofagus alessandrii (Fagaceae) has been historically restricted to the coastal range of Region VII of central Chile, and its forests have been increasingly destroyed and fragmented since the end of the 19th century. In this study, the patterns of within- and among-population genetic diversity in seven fragments of this endangered narrowly endemic tree were examined. Methods Allozyme electrophoresis of seven loci of N. alessandrii was used to estimate genetic diversity, genetic structure and gene flow. Key Results High levels of genetic diversity were found as shown by mean expected heterozygosity (He = 0·182 ± 0·034), percentage of polymorphic loci (Pp = 61·2 %), mean number of alleles per locus (A = 1·8) and mean number of alleles per polymorphic locus (Ap = 2·3). Genetic differentiation was also high (GST = 0·257 and Nm = 0·7). These values are high compared with more widespread congeneric species. Conclusions Despite its endemic status and restricted geographical range N. alessandrii showed high levels of genetic diversity. The observed patterns of diversity are explained in part by historical processes and more recent human fragmentation. PMID:17513870

  19. Effects of age, diet, female density, and the host resource on egg load in Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Aluja, M; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Papaj, D R.; Lagunes, G; Sivinski, J

    2001-09-01

    Oocyte counts, used as a measure of egg load, were compared among three different age groups (15, 30 and 45 days) of two polyphagous species of tephritid fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua, which were exposed to varying conditions of diet (sucrose vs sucrose and protein), availability of oviposition substrate (present vs absent), adult female density (1, 2 and 4 females/cage), and semiochemical context (presence vs absence of male pheromones and fruit volatiles). In both species, oocyte counts were higher in older females and for females fed sucrose and protein than for females fed sucrose only. The presence of artificial oviposition substrates influenced oocyte counts in A. obliqua, but not in A. ludens. Female density influenced oocyte counts in both species. Females maintained in groups had higher egg loads than isolated females. Finally, preliminary evidence suggests that semiochemical context influenced oocyte counts. Counts were highest for females in a room containing both fruit volatiles and male pheromone, lowest for females in a room containing neither volatiles nor pheromone, and intermediate for females in rooms containing either volatiles or pheromone but not both. Our results suggest that egg load is influenced by environmental factors in different ways in these two species. Egg load in A. obliqua, a species whose host fruits are highly ephemeral, is responsive to access to the host resource. By contrast, in A. ludens, a species infesting less ephemeral fruit, female density and age played a more important role than host stimuli. The role of ovarian maturation and oviposition in mediating these effects, as well as implications for mass rearing and pest management, are discussed.

  20. Nonhost status of commercial Persea americana 'Hass' to Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha obliqua, Anastrepha serpentina, and Anastrepha striata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aluja, Martín; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, José

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the host status in Mexico of commercially cultivated and marketed avocado, Persea americana (Mill.), 'Hass' to Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), and Anastrepha striata (Schiner) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Experiments in Michoacán, Mexico, were carried out in six orchards located at three altitudes above sea level during two times (August-October 2001 and April-June 2002). They included choice ('Hass' avocado plus natural host) and no-choice foraging behavior tests on trees under field cages; no-choice, forced infestation trials on caged, fruit-bearing branches in the field, and with individual fruit under laboratory conditions; infestation trials using 'Hass' avocados left unprotected over 1 and 7 d on the ground of orchards; studies to ascertain depth of oviposition and determine egg hatchability; and experiments to determine susceptibility by using time elapsed since removal of fruit from tree as the experimental variable. We trapped adult Anastrepha (n = 7,936) in all orchards and dissected fruit (n = 7,695) from orchards and packing houses (n = 1,620) in search of eggs or larvae. Most (96.7%) A. ludens, A. obliqua, A. striata, and A. serpentina adults were captured in low-elevation orchards. No eggs or larvae were detected in any of the fruit from foraging behavior studies or dissected fruit from orchards or packing houses. Of 5,200 mature, intact fruit on trees in the field forcibly exposed to no-choice female oviposition activity (five females/fruit), we only found four fruit infested by A. ludens but no adults emerged. 'Hass' avocados only became marginally susceptible to attack by A. ludens (but not A. obliqua, A. serpentina, and A. striata) 24 h after being removed from the tree. Fruit placed on the ground in orchards (n = 3,600) were occasionally infested by Neosilba batesi (Curran) (Diptera: Lonchaeidae), a decomposer, but not Anastrepha spp. Based on our

  1. Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae) do not infest Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), but Anastrepha obliqua occasionally shares this resource with Anastrepha striata in nature.

    PubMed

    Birke, Andrea; Aluja, Martin

    2011-08-01

    This study examined whether economically important fruit fly species Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann), and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) may opportunistically exploit guavas, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), growing near preferred natural hosts. We collected 3,459 kg of guavas and 895 kg of other known host species [sour orange, Citrus aurantium L.; grapefruit, Citrus paradisi Macfadyen; mango, Mangifera indica L.; white sapote, Casimiroa edulis La Llave and Lex.; sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.); sapodilla, Manilkara zapota L.; and wild plum, Spondias purpurea L. and Spondias mombin L.] along an altitudinal gradient over a 4-yr period (2006-2009). Plants were growing in sympatry in 23 localities where the guavas are usually infested in the state of Veracruz, M6xico. The guava samples yielded 20,341 Anastrepha spp. pupae in total (overall mean, 5.88 pupae per kg of fruit). Confirming previous reports, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha striata (Schiner) were found heavily infesting guavas in Veracruz. Importantly, although we did not find evidence that A. ludens and A. serpentina are able to attack this valuable commodity, we document for the first time in the agriculturally important state of Veracruz that P. guajava is an alternative natural host plant of A. obliqua. We recovered two fruit in the mango-growing locality of la Vibora, Tlalixcoyan, that harbored larvae of A. striata and A. obliqua. This finding has important practical implications for management of A. obliqua. Over the entire altitudinal gradient, when individual fruit infestation was examined, a dynamic pattern of species dominance was unveiled with guavas growing below 800 m above sea level mainly attacked by A. striata and a progressive replacement with increasing altitude by A. fraterculus. Interestingly, most individual fruit examined (97%) harbored a single species of fruit fly, a finding that may be taken as evidence of

  2. Physicochemical Evidence on Sublethal Neonicotinoid Imidacloprid Interacting with an Odorant-Binding Protein from the Tea Geometrid Moth, Ectropis obliqua.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongliang; Zhao, Lei; Fu, Xiaobin; Song, Xinmi; Wu, Fan; Tang, Mingzhu; Cui, Hongchun; Yu, Jizhong

    2017-04-26

    Nowadays the excessive usage of neonicotinoid insecticides always results in residues in Chinese tea fields. It is not clear whether the insecticide residue at the sublethal level influences the physiological processes of tea pests. Here, we provide evidence of interaction between the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and a general odorant-binding protein, EoblGOBP2, from the tea geometrid moth, Ectropis obliqua. The interacting process was demonstrated through multiple fluorescence spectra, UV absorption spectra, circular dichroism (CD) spectra, molecular docking, etc. The binding mode was determined to be static (from 300 to 310 K) and dynamic quenching (from 290 to 300 K). The binding distance was calculated to be 6.9 nm on the basis of FRET theory. According to the thermodynamic analysis, the process was mainly driven by enthalpy (ΔH < 0), and hydrogen bond and van der Waals interactions were the main driving forces in the static and dynamic binding cases, respectively. Moreover, synchronous fluorescence spectra and CD spectra analysis showed stretching of the EoblGOBP2 peptide chains with a decreasing α-helix when imidacloprid was added. Molecular docking was applied and predicted that two hydrogen bonds were formed between imidacloprid and Arg110 in the mature peptide of EoblGOBP2. Moreover, when the absolute amounts of EoblGOBP2 in the moth antennae were measured and calculated by using real-time PCR, it was estimated that imidacloprid at sublethal level (about 0.233 and 0.175 ng/male and female moth antennae, respectively) inhibited the binding of a tea volatile, E-2-hexenal, to EoblGOBP2 at about half. This study indicates that neonicotinoid insecticide at sublethal level may still affect the olfactory cognition of the tea geometrid moth to volatile compounds from tea leaves.

  3. Effectiveness of fencing and hunting to control Lama guanicoe browsing damage: Implications for Nothofagus pumilio regeneration in harvested forests.

    PubMed

    Martínez Pastur, Guillermo; Soler, Rosina; Ivancich, Horacio; Lencinas, María V; Bahamonde, Héctor; Peri, Pablo L

    2016-03-01

    Browsing damage by native ungulates is often to be considered one of the reasons of regeneration failure in Nothofagus pumilio silvicultural systems. Fencing and hunting in forests at regeneration phase have been proposed to mitigate browsing effects. This study aims to determine effectiveness of these control methods in harvested forests, evaluating browsing damage over regeneration, as well as climate-related constraints (freezing or desiccation). Forest structure and regeneration plots were established in two exclosures against native ungulates (Lama guanicoe) by wire fences in the Chilean portion of Tierra del Fuego island, where tree regeneration density, growth, abiotic damage and quality (multi-stems and base/stem deformation) were assessed. Exclosures did not influence regeneration density (at the initial stage with < 1.3 m high, and at the advanced stage with >1.3 m high). However, sapling height at 10-years old was significantly lower outside (40-50 cm high) than inside exclosures (80-100 cm), and also increased their annual height growth, probably as a hunting effect. Likewise, quality was better inside exclosures. Alongside browsing, abiotic conditions negatively influenced sapling quality in the regeneration phase (20%-28% of all seedlings), but greatly to taller plants (as those from inside exclosure). This highlights the importance of considering climatic factors when analysing browsing effects. For best results, control of guanaco in recently harvested areas by fencing should be applied in combination with a reduction of guanaco density through continuous hunting. The benefits of mitigation actions (fencing and hunting) on regeneration growth may shorten the regeneration phase period in shelterwood cutting forests (30-50% less time), but incremental costs must be analysed in the framework of management planning by means of long-term studies.

  4. Genetic differentiation in spite of high gene flow in the dominant rainforest tree of southeastern Australia, Nothofagus cunninghamii.

    PubMed

    Duncan, C J; Worth, J R P; Jordan, G J; Jones, R C; Vaillancourt, R E

    2016-01-01

    Nothofagus cunninghamii is a long-lived, wind-pollinated tree species that dominates the cool temperate rainforests of southeastern Australia. The species' distribution is more or less continuous in western Tasmania but is fragmented elsewhere. However, it is unknown whether this fragmentation has affected the species' genetic architecture. Thus, we examined N. cunninghamii using 12 nuclear microsatellites and 633 individuals from 18 populations spanning the species' natural range. Typical of wind-pollinated trees, there was low range-wide genetic structure (FST=0.04) consistent with significant gene flow across most of the species' range. However, gene flow was not high enough to overcome the effects of drift across some disjunctions. Victorian populations (separated from Tasmania by the 240 km wide Bass Strait) formed a genetic group distinct from Tasmanian populations, had lower diversity (mean allelic richness (Ar)=5.4 in Victoria versus 6.9 in Tasmania) and were significantly more differentiated from one another than those in Tasmania (FST=0.045 in Victoria versus 0.012 in Tasmania). Evidence for bottlenecking was found in small populations that were at least 20 km from other populations. Interestingly, we found little divergence in microsatellite markers between the extremes of genetically based morphological and physiological altitudinal clines suggesting adaptive differentiation is strongly driven by selection because it is likely to be occurring in the presence of gene flow. Even though the cool temperate rainforests of Australia are highly relictual, the species is relatively robust to population fragmentation due to high levels of genetic diversity and gene flow, especially in Tasmania.

  5. Multi-stemmed trees of Nothofagus pumilio second-growth forest in Patagonia are formed by highly related individuals

    PubMed Central

    Till-Bottraud, Irène; Fajardo, Alex; Rioux, Delphine

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Multi-stemmed trees (tree clusters) in Nothofagus pumilio, a dominant tree species in Patagonia, are very uncommon and are restricted to the edge of second-growth forests following human-provoked fires. No vegetative reproduction has been reported so far. The genetic structure of multi-stemmed trees of this species was investigated and it was hypothesized that genets within a cluster were more closely related than average in the population. Methods Fifteen clusters (composed of at least three purported stems) and 15 single trees were sampled at the edge of a second-growth forest and genotyped using two amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primer pairs. We obtained 119 polymorphic markers that allowed clonality to be determined, together with sibship structure and relatedness among samples. Key Results Clonality was detected in seven clusters but all clusters had at least two different genotypes. Full sibs were found exclusively within clusters and in all clusters. Within a cluster, stems that were not identified as full sibs were often half sibs. Relatedness values for the full sibs and half sibs were higher than the theoretical values of 0·5 and 0·25 but the relatedness between clusters was very low. Conclusions Tree clusters that are merged at the edge of the second-growth forest of N. pumilio are composed of stems of the same genotype and of other genotypes that are highly related (but not always). It is suggested that this peculiar genetic structure results from a combination of several causes, including selection for merging of related individuals. PMID:22782238

  6. No evidence of carbon limitation with tree age and height in Nothofagus pumilio under Mediterranean and temperate climate conditions

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Frida I.; Fajardo, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Trees universally decrease their growth with age. Most explanations for this trend so far support the hypothesis that carbon (C) gain becomes limited with age; though very few studies have directly assessed the relative reductions of C gain and C demand with tree age. It has also been suggested that drought enhances the effect of C gain limitation in trees. Here tests were carried out to determine whether C gain limitation is causing the growth decay with tree age, and whether drought accentuates its effect. Methods The balance between C gain and C demand across tree age and height ranges was estimated. For this, the concentration of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in stems and roots of trees of different ages and heights was measured in the deciduous temperate species Nothofagus pumilio. An ontogenetic decrease in NSCs indicates support for C limitation. Furthermore, the importance of drought in altering the C balance with ontogeny was assessed by sampling the same species in Mediterranean and humid climate locations in the southern Andes of Chile. Wood density (WD) and stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) were also determined to examine drought constraints on C gain. Key Results At both locations, it was effectively found that tree growth ultimately decreased with tree age and height. It was found, however, that NSC concentrations did not decrease with tree age or height when WD was considered, suggesting that C limitation is not the ultimate mechanism causing the age/height-related declining tree growth. δ13C decreased with tree age/height at the Mediterranean site only; drought effect increased with tree age/height, but this pattern was not mirrored by the levels of NSCs. Conclusions The results indicate that concentrations of C storage in N. pumilio trees do not decrease with tree age or height, and that reduced C assimilation due to summer drought does not alter this pattern. PMID:21852277

  7. Genetic differentiation in spite of high gene flow in the dominant rainforest tree of southeastern Australia, Nothofagus cunninghamii

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, C J; Worth, J R P; Jordan, G J; Jones, R C; Vaillancourt, R E

    2016-01-01

    Nothofagus cunninghamii is a long-lived, wind-pollinated tree species that dominates the cool temperate rainforests of southeastern Australia. The species' distribution is more or less continuous in western Tasmania but is fragmented elsewhere. However, it is unknown whether this fragmentation has affected the species' genetic architecture. Thus, we examined N. cunninghamii using 12 nuclear microsatellites and 633 individuals from 18 populations spanning the species' natural range. Typical of wind-pollinated trees, there was low range-wide genetic structure (FST=0.04) consistent with significant gene flow across most of the species' range. However, gene flow was not high enough to overcome the effects of drift across some disjunctions. Victorian populations (separated from Tasmania by the 240 km wide Bass Strait) formed a genetic group distinct from Tasmanian populations, had lower diversity (mean allelic richness (Ar)=5.4 in Victoria versus 6.9 in Tasmania) and were significantly more differentiated from one another than those in Tasmania (FST=0.045 in Victoria versus 0.012 in Tasmania). Evidence for bottlenecking was found in small populations that were at least 20 km from other populations. Interestingly, we found little divergence in microsatellite markers between the extremes of genetically based morphological and physiological altitudinal clines suggesting adaptive differentiation is strongly driven by selection because it is likely to be occurring in the presence of gene flow. Even though the cool temperate rainforests of Australia are highly relictual, the species is relatively robust to population fragmentation due to high levels of genetic diversity and gene flow, especially in Tasmania. PMID:26350630

  8. Susceptibility of 15 mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) cultivars to the attack by Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the role of underdeveloped fruit as pest reservoirs: management implications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated the susceptibility of 15 mango cultivars to the attack of Anastrepha ludens and A. obliqua, the main Tephritid pests of this crop in Mexico. In a field experiment, bagged, fruit-bearing branches were exposed to gravid females of both fly species. Infestation rates, developmental time,...

  9. Lopap, a prothrombin activator from Lonomia obliqua belonging to the lipocalin family: recombinant production, biochemical characterization and structure–function insights

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Cleyson Valença; Andrade, Sonia Aparecida; Ramos, Oscar Henrique Pereira; Ramos, Celso Raul Romero; Ho, Paulo Lee; Batista, Isabel de Fátima Correia; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana Marisa

    2006-01-01

    Using a cDNA library made from Lonomia obliqua caterpillar bristles, we identified a transcript with a 603 bp open reading frame. The deduced protein corresponds to Lopap, a prothrombin activator previously isolated by our group from the bristles of this species. The mature protein is composed by 185 amino acids and shares similarity with members of the lipocalin family. The cDNA encoding the mature form was amplified by PCR, subcloned into pAE vector and used to transform Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells. As for the native Lopap, the recombinant fusion protein shows enzymatic activity, promotes prothrombin hydrolysis, generates fragments similar to prethrombin-2 and fragment 1.2 as intermediates, and generates thrombin as the final product. In addition, structural bioinformatics studies indicated several interesting molecular features, including the residues that could be responsible for Lopap's serine protease-like activity and the role of calcium binding in this context. Such catalytic activity has never been found in other members of the lipocalin family. This is the first report describing the recombinant production and biochemical characterization of a Lonomia obliqua lipocalin, as well as the structural features that could be responsible for its serine protease-like catalytic activity. PMID:16734589

  10. Tree-Ring Stable Isotopes Reveal Twentieth-Century Increases in Water-Use Efficiency of Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. in Italian and Chilean Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Tognetti, Roberto; Lombardi, Fabio; Lasserre, Bruno; Cherubini, Paolo; Marchetti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Changes in intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) were investigated in Fagus sylvatica and Nothofagus spp. over the last century. We combined dendrochronological methods with dual-isotope analysis to investigate whether atmospheric changes enhanced iWUE of Fagus and Nothofagus and tree growth (basal area increment, BAI) along latitudinal gradients in Italy and Chile. Post-maturation phases of the trees presented different patterns in δ13C, Δ13C, δ18O, Ci (internal CO2 concentration), iWUE, and BAI. A continuous enhancement in isotope-derived iWUE was observed throughout the twentieth century, which was common to all sites and related to changes in Ca (ambient CO2 concentration) and secondarily to increases in temperature. In contrast to other studies, we observed a general increasing trend of BAI, with the exception of F. sylvatica in Aspromonte. Both iWUE and BAI were uncoupled with the estimated drought index, which is in agreement with the absence of enduring decline in tree growth. In general, δ13C and δ18O showed a weak relationship, suggesting the major influence of photosynthetic rate on Ci and δ13C, and the minor contribution of the regulation of stomatal conductance to iWUE. The substantial warming observed during the twentieth century did not result in a clear pattern of increased drought stress along these latitudinal transects, because of the variability in temporal trends of precipitation and in specific responses of populations. PMID:25398040

  11. A catalog for the transcripts from the venomous structures of the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua: identification of the proteins potentially involved in the coagulation disorder and hemorrhagic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, Ana B. G.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Guimarães, Jorge A.; Francischetti, Ivo M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Accidents with the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua are often associated with a coagulation disorder and hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. In the present study, we have constructed cDNA libraries from two venomous structures of the caterpillar, namely the tegument and the bristle. High-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analyses were performed in parallel. Over one thousand cDNAs were obtained and clustered to produce a database of 538 contigs and singletons (clusters) for the tegument library and 368 for the bristle library. We have thus identified dozens of full-length cDNAs coding for proteins with sequence homology to snake venom prothrombin activator, trypsin-like enzymes, blood coagulation factors and prophenoloxidase cascade activators. We also report cDNA coding for cysteine proteases, Group III phospholipase A2, C-type lectins, lipocalins, in addition to protease inhibitors including serpins, Kazal-type inhibitors, cystatins and trypsin inhibitor-like molecules. Antibacterial proteins and housekeeping genes are also described. A significant number of sequences were devoid of database matches, suggesting that their biologic function remains to be defined. We also report the N-terminus of the most abundant proteins present in the bristle, tegument, hemolymph, and "cryosecretion". Thus, we have created a catalog that contains the predicted molecular weight, isoelectric point, accession number, and putative function for each selected molecule from the venomous structures of L. obliqua. The role of these molecules in the coagulation disorder and hemorrhagic syndrome caused by envenomation with this caterpillar is discussed. All sequence information and the Supplemental Data, including Figures and Tables with hyperlinks to FASTA-formatted files for each contig and the best match to the Databases, are available at http://www.ncbi.nih.gov/projects/omes. PMID:16023793

  12. Identification and Comparative Study of Chemosensory Genes Related to Host Selection by Legs Transcriptome Analysis in the Tea Geometrid Ectropis obliqua

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Lei; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Luo, Zong-Xiu; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Chen, Zong-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Host selection by female moths is fundamental to the survival of their larvae. Detecting and perceiving the non-volatile chemicals of the plant surface involved in gustatory detection determine the host preference. In many lepidopteran species, tarsal chemosensilla are sensitive to non-volatile chemicals and responsible for taste detection. The tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua is one devastating chewing pest selectively feeding on limited plants, requiring the specialized sensors to forage certain host for oviposition. In present study, we revealed the distribution of chemosensilla in the ventral side of female fifth tarsomere in E. obliqua. To investigate its molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, we performed HiSeq 2500 sequencing of the male- and female- legs transcriptome and identified 24 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 21 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 3 gustatory receptors (GRs) and 4 odorant receptors (ORs). Several leg-specific or enriched chemosensory genes were screened by tissue expression analysis, and clustered with functionally validated genes from other moths, suggesting the potential involvement in taste sensation or other physiological processes. The RPKM value analysis revealed that 9 EoblOBPs showed sex discrepancy in the leg expression, 8 being up-regulated in female and only 1 being over expressed in male. These female-biased EoblOBPs indicated an ecological adaption related with host-seeking and oviposition behaviors. Our work will provide basic knowledge for further studies on the molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, and enlighten a host-selection-based control strategy of insect pests. PMID:26930056

  13. Identification and Comparative Study of Chemosensory Genes Related to Host Selection by Legs Transcriptome Analysis in the Tea Geometrid Ectropis obliqua.

    PubMed

    Ma, Long; Li, Zhao-Qun; Bian, Lei; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Luo, Zong-Xiu; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Chen, Zong-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Host selection by female moths is fundamental to the survival of their larvae. Detecting and perceiving the non-volatile chemicals of the plant surface involved in gustatory detection determine the host preference. In many lepidopteran species, tarsal chemosensilla are sensitive to non-volatile chemicals and responsible for taste detection. The tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua is one devastating chewing pest selectively feeding on limited plants, requiring the specialized sensors to forage certain host for oviposition. In present study, we revealed the distribution of chemosensilla in the ventral side of female fifth tarsomere in E. obliqua. To investigate its molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, we performed HiSeq 2500 sequencing of the male- and female- legs transcriptome and identified 24 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 21 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 3 gustatory receptors (GRs) and 4 odorant receptors (ORs). Several leg-specific or enriched chemosensory genes were screened by tissue expression analysis, and clustered with functionally validated genes from other moths, suggesting the potential involvement in taste sensation or other physiological processes. The RPKM value analysis revealed that 9 EoblOBPs showed sex discrepancy in the leg expression, 8 being up-regulated in female and only 1 being over expressed in male. These female-biased EoblOBPs indicated an ecological adaption related with host-seeking and oviposition behaviors. Our work will provide basic knowledge for further studies on the molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, and enlighten a host-selection-based control strategy of insect pests.

  14. Application of feces extracts and synthetic analogues of the host marking pheromone of Anastrepha ludens significantly reduces fruit infestation by A. obliqua in tropical plum and mango backyard orchards.

    PubMed

    Aluja, Martín; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Boller, E F; Hurter, J; Edmunds, A J F; Hagmann, L; Patrian, B; Reyes, J

    2009-12-01

    We determined the efficacy of three potential oviposition deterrents in reducing fruit infestation by Anastrepha obliqua in tropical plum and mango orchards. These were: (1) Extracts of feces of Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, known to contain the A. ludens host marking pheromone (HMP) and (2) two fully synthetic simplified analogues of the naturally occurring compound, which we have named desmethyl A. ludens HMP (DM-HMP) and Anastrephamide. Two applications of feces extracts 2 or 3 wk before fruit color break reduced A. obliqua infestation in plums by 94.1, 75.9, and 72% when measured 8, 14, and 25 d, respectively, after application. The natural A. ludens-HMP containing extract retained its effectiveness despite considerable rainfall (112.5 mm) and high A. obliqua populations. The synthetic desmethyl HMP derivative (DM-HMP) also reduced infestation in plums by 53.3 and 58.7% when measured, 18 and 26 d, respectively, after application. Finally, applications of Anastrephamide resulted in fruit loss cut by half and an 80% reduction in numbers of fly larvae per fruit. Our results confirm previous findings indicating that there is interspecific cross-recognition of the HMP in two of the most pestiferous Anastrepha species and open the door for the development of a highly selective, biorational Anastrepha management scheme.

  15. There is no magic fruit fly trap: multiple biological factors influence the response of adult Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) individuals to MultiLure traps baited with BioLure or NuLure.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, José; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Aluja, Martín

    2009-02-01

    Field-cage experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of MultiLure traps (Better World MFG Inc., Fresno, CA) baited with NuLure (Miller Chemical and Fertilizer Corp., Hanover, PA) or BioLure (Suterra LLC, Inc., Bend, OR) in capturing individually marked Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), and West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), of both sexes. Experimental treatments involved wild and laboratory-reared flies of varying ages (2-4 and 15-18 d) and dietary histories (sugar only, open fruit, open fruit plus chicken feces, and hydrolyzed protein mixed with sugar). Data were divided into two parts: total captures over a 24-h period and trap visits/landings, entrances into interior of trap ,and effective captures (i.e., drowning in liquid bait or water) over a 5-h detailed observation period (0600-1100 hours). The response to the two baits varied by fly species, gender, physiological state, age, and strain. Importantly, there were several highly significant interactions among these factors, underlining the complex nature of the response. The two baits differed in attractiveness for A. obliqua but not A. ludens. The effect of strain (wild versus laboratory flies) was significant for A. ludens but not A. obliqua. For effect of dietary history, adults of both species, irrespective of sex, were significantly less responsive to both baits when fed on a mixture of protein and sugar when compared with adults fed the other diets. Finally, we confirmed previous observations indicating that McPhail-type traps are quite inefficient. Considering the total 24-h fly tenure in the cage, and independent of bait treatment and fly type (i.e., strain, adult diet, gender and age), of a total of 2,880 A. obliqua and 2,880 A. ludens adults released into the field cages over the entire study (15 replicates), only 564 (19.6%) and 174 (6%) individuals, respectively, were effectively caught. When only considering the 5-h detailed

  16. Examination of the ligand-binding and enzymatic properties of a bilin-binding protein from the poisonous caterpillar Lonomia obliqua.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Ana B G; Ribeiro, José M C; Francischetti, Ivo M B; Xu, Xueqing; Guimarães, Jorge A; Andersen, John F

    2014-01-01

    The bilin-binding proteins (BBP) from lepidopteran insects are members of the lipocalin family of proteins and play a special role in pigmentation through the binding of biliverdin IXγ. Lopap, a BBP-like protein from the venom of the toxic caterpillar Lonomia obliqua has been reported to act as a serine protease that activates the coagulation proenzyme prothrombin. Here we show that BBPLo, a variant of lopap from the same organism binds biliverdin IXγ, forming a complex that is spectrally identical with previously described BBP proteins. Although BBPLo is nearly identical in sequence to lopap, no prothrombinase activity was detected in our recombinant preparations using reconstituted systems containing coagulation factors Xa and Va, as well as anionic phospholipids. In addition to biliverdin, BBPLo was found to form a 1:1 complex with heme prompting us to examine whether the unusual biliverdin IXγ ligand of BBPs forms as a result of oxidation of bound heme in situ rather than by a conventional heme oxygenase. Using ascorbate or a NADPH(+)-ferredoxin reductase-ferredoxin system as a source of reducing equivalents, spectral changes are seen that suggest an initial reduction of heme to the Fe(II) state and formation of an oxyferrous complex. The complex then disappears and a product identified as a 5-coordinate carbonyl complex of verdoheme, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of biliverdin, is formed. However, further reaction to form biliverdin was not observed, making it unlikely that biliverdin IXγ is formed by this pathway.

  17. Living on the edge: adaptive and plastic responses of the tree Nothofagus pumilio to a long-term transplant experiment predict rear-edge upward expansion.

    PubMed

    Mathiasen, Paula; Premoli, Andrea C

    2016-06-01

    Current climate change affects the competitive ability and reproductive success of many species, leading to local extinctions, adjustment to novel local conditions by phenotypic plasticity or rapid adaptation, or tracking their optima through range shifts. However, many species have limited ability to expand to suitable areas. Altitudinal gradients, with abrupt changes in abiotic conditions over short distances, represent "natural experiments" for the evaluation of ecological and evolutionary responses under scenarios of climate change. Nothofagus pumilio is the tree species which dominates as pure stands the montane forests of Patagonia. We evaluated the adaptive value of variation in quantitative traits of N. pumilio under contrasting conditions of the altitudinal gradient with a long-term reciprocal transplant experimental design. While high-elevation plants show little response in plant, leaf, and phenological traits to the experimental trials, low-elevation ones show greater plasticity in their responses to changing environments, particularly at high elevation. Our results suggest a relatively reduced potential for evolutionary adaptation of high-elevation genotypes, and a greater evolutionary potential of low-elevation ones. Under global warming scenarios of forest upslope migration, high-elevation variants may be outperformed by low-elevation ones during this process, leading to the local extinction and/or replacement of these genotypes. These results challenge previous models and predictions expected under global warming for altitudinal gradients, on which the leading edge is considered to be the upper treeline forests.

  18. Establishment of ectomycorrhizal fungal community on isolated Nothofagus cunninghamii seedlings regenerating on dead wood in Australian wet temperate forests: does fruit-body type matter?

    PubMed

    Tedersoo, Leho; Gates, Genevieve; Dunk, Chris W; Lebel, Teresa; May, Tom W; Kõljalg, Urmas; Jairus, Teele

    2009-08-01

    Decaying wood provides an important habitat for animals and forms a seed bed for many shade-intolerant, small-seeded plants, particularly Nothofagus. Using morphotyping and rDNA sequence analysis, we compared the ectomycorrhizal fungal community of isolated N. cunninghamii seedlings regenerating in decayed wood against that of mature tree roots in the forest floor soil. The /cortinarius, /russula-lactarius, and /laccaria were the most species-rich and abundant lineages in forest floor soil in Australian sites at Yarra, Victoria and Warra, Tasmania. On root tips of seedlings in dead wood, a subset of the forest floor taxa were prevalent among them species of /laccaria, /tomentella-thelephora, and /descolea, but other forest floor dominants were rare. Statistical analyses suggested that the fungal community differs between forest floor soil and dead wood at the level of both species and phylogenetic lineage. The fungal species colonizing isolated seedlings on decayed wood in austral forests were taxonomically dissimilar to the species dominating in similar habitats in Europe. We conclude that formation of a resupinate fruit body type on the underside of decayed wood is not necessarily related to preferential root colonization in decayed wood. Rather, biogeographic factors as well as differential dispersal and competitive abilities of fungal taxa are likely to play a key role in structuring the ectomycorrhizal fungal community on isolated seedlings in decaying wood.

  19. Reduced densities of the invasive wasp, Vespula vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), did not alter the invertebrate community composition of Nothofagus forests in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Duthie, Catherine; Lester, Philip J

    2013-04-01

    Invasive common wasps (Vespula vulgaris L.) are predators of invertebrates in Nothofagus forests of New Zealand. We reduced wasp densities by poisoning in three sites over three y. We predicted an increase in the number of invertebrates and a change in the community composition in sites where wasps were poisoned (wasps removed) relative to nearby sites where wasps were not poisoned (wasps maintained). Wasp densities were significantly reduced by an average of 58.9% by poisoning. Despite this reduction in wasp densities, native bush ants (Prolasius advenus Forel) were the only taxa that was significantly influenced by wasp removal. However, contrary to our predictions there were more ants caught in pitfall traps where wasps were maintained. We believe that the higher abundance of these ants is probably because of the scarcity of honeydew in wasp-maintained sites and compensatory foraging by ants in these areas. Otherwise, our results indicated no significant effects of reduced wasp densities on the total number of invertebrates, or the number of invertebrate families, observed in pitfall or Malaise traps. An analysis of community composition (permutational multivariate analysis of variance) also indicated no significant difference between wasp-removed or wasp-maintained communities. The most parsimonious explanation for our results is that although we significantly reduced wasp numbers, we may not have reduced numbers sufficiently or for a sufficiently long period, to see a change or recovery in the community.

  20. Tree size and light availability increase photochemical instead of non-photochemical capacities of Nothofagus nitida trees growing in an evergreen temperate rain forest.

    PubMed

    Coopman, Rafael E; Briceño, Verónica F; Corcuera, Luis J; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Alvarez, Daniela; Sáez, Katherine; García-Plazaola, José I; Alberdi, Miren; Bravo, León A

    2011-10-01

    Nothofagus nitida (Phil.) Krasser (Nothofagaceae) regenerates under the canopy in microsites protected from high light. Nonetheless, it is common to find older saplings in clear areas and adults as emergent trees of the Chilean evergreen forest. We hypothesized that this shade to sun transition in N. nitida is supported by an increase in photochemical and non-photochemical energy dissipation capacities of both photosystems in parallel with the increase in plant size and light availability. To dissect the relative contribution of light environment and plant developmental stage to these physiological responses, the photosynthetic performance of both photosystems was studied from the morpho-anatomical to the biochemical level in current-year leaves of N. nitida plants of different heights (ranging from 0.1 to 7 m) growing under contrasting light environments (integrated quantum flux (IQF) 5-40 mol m(-2). Tree height (TH) and light environment (IQF) independently increased the saturated electron transport rates of both photosystems, as well as leaf and palisade thickness, but non-photochemical energy flux, photoinhibition susceptibility, state transition capacity, and the contents of D1 and PsbS proteins were not affected by IQF and TH. Spongy mesophyll thickness and palisade cell diameter decreased with IQF and TH. A(max), light compensation and saturation points, Rubisco and nitrogen content (area basis) only increased with light environment (IQF), whereas dark respiration (R(d)) decreased slightly and relative chlorophyll content was higher in taller trees. Overall, the independent effects of more illuminated environment and tree height mainly increased the photochemical instead of the non-photochemical energy flux. Regardless of the photochemical increase with TH, carbon assimilation only significantly improved with higher IQF. Therefore it seems that mainly acclimation to the light environment supports the phenotypic transition of N. nitida from shade to

  1. Intraspecific Relationships among Wood Density, Leaf Structural Traits and Environment in Four Co-Occurring Species of Nothofagus in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Sarah J.; Allen, Robert B.; Buxton, Rowan P.; Easdale, Tomás A.; Hurst, Jennifer M.; Morse, Christopher W.; Smissen, Rob D.; Peltzer, Duane A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant functional traits capture important variation in plant strategy and function. Recent literature has revealed that within-species variation in traits is greater than previously supposed. However, we still have a poor understanding of how intraspecific variation is coordinated among different traits, and how it is driven by environment. We quantified intraspecific variation in wood density and five leaf traits underpinning the leaf economics spectrum (leaf dry matter content, leaf mass per unit area, size, thickness and density) within and among four widespread Nothofagus tree species in southern New Zealand. We tested whether intraspecific relationships between wood density and leaf traits followed widely reported interspecific relationships, and whether variation in these traits was coordinated through shared responses to environmental factors. Sample sites varied widely in environmental variables, including soil fertility (25–900 mg kg–1 total P), precipitation (668–4875 mm yr–1), temperature (5.2–12.4 °C mean annual temperature) and latitude (41–46 °S). Leaf traits were strongly correlated with one another within species, but not with wood density. There was some evidence for a positive relationship between wood density and leaf tissue density and dry matter content, but no evidence that leaf mass or leaf size were correlated with wood density; this highlights that leaf mass per unit area cannot be used as a surrogate for component leaf traits such as tissue density. Trait variation was predicted by environmental factors, but not consistently among different traits; e.g., only leaf thickness and leaf density responded to the same environmental cues as wood density. We conclude that although intraspecific variation in wood density and leaf traits is strongly driven by environmental factors, these responses are not strongly coordinated among functional traits even across co-occurring, closely-related plant species. PMID:23527041

  2. Susceptibility of 15 mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) cultivars to the attack by Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the role of underdeveloped fruit as pest reservoirs: management implications.

    PubMed

    Aluja, M; Arredondo, J; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Birke, A; Rull, J; Niogret, J; Epsky, N

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the susceptibility of 15 mango cultivars to the attack of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the main tephritid pests of this crop in Mexico. In a field experiment, bagged fruit-bearing branches were exposed to gravid females of both fly species. Infestation rates, developmental time, adult eclosion, and F1 adult longevity, fecundity, and fertility were recorded, ranking cultivars in terms of susceptibility to fly attack and development. We also compared the volatile profile in selected resistant and susceptible cultivars in search of possible correlations. In a second experiment, clutch size for A. ludens was determined in each cultivar. Infestation rates, developmental time, and F1 demographic parameters varied sharply among cultivars and between fly species for bagged fruit. Cultivars 'Vishi,' '74-82,' and 'Brooks' were most susceptible to A. ludens infestation while "Tommy,' 'Sensation,' and 'Ataulfo "niño"' (parthenocarpic fruit) were most susceptible to A. obliqua infestation. 'Edward,' 'Kent,' 'Brooks late,' 'Palmer, and 'Ataulfo' exhibited tolerance to attack of both fly species. Fruit of susceptible and resistant cultivars exhibited unique volatile profiles. Fly development and F1 adult demographic parameters varied significantly among cultivars. A. ludens females laid larger clutches in larger and harder fruit. We highlight the important role of Ataulfo "niño" as pest reservoir if fruit is left unharvested on trees. We discuss the possible use of highly resistant cultivars as trap crops or egg sinks.

  3. Effects of leaf age and tree size on stomatal and mesophyll limitations to photosynthesis in mountain beech (Nothofagus solandrii var. cliffortiodes).

    PubMed

    Whitehead, David; Barbour, Margaret M; Griffin, Kevin L; Turnbull, Matthew H; Tissue, David T

    2011-09-01

    Mesophyll conductance, g(m), was estimated from measurements of stomatal conductance to carbon dioxide transfer, g(s), photosynthesis, A, and chlorophyll fluorescence for Year 0 (current-year) and Year 1 (1-year-old) fully sunlit leaves from short (2 m tall, 10-year-old) and tall (15 m tall, 120-year-old) Nothofagus solandrii var. cliffortiodes trees growing in adjacent stands. Rates of photosynthesis at saturating irradiance and ambient CO(2) partial pressure, A(satQ), were 25% lower and maximum rates of carboxylation, V(cmax), were 44% lower in Year 1 leaves compared with Year 0 leaves across both tree sizes. Although g(s) and g(m) were not significantly different between Year 0 and Year 1 leaves and g(s) was not significantly different between tree heights, g(m) was significantly (19%) lower for leaves on tall trees compared with leaves on short trees. Overall, V(cmax) was 60% higher when expressed on the basis of CO(2) partial pressure at the chloroplasts, C(c), compared with V(cmax) on the basis of intercellular CO(2) partial pressure, C(i), but this varied with leaf age and tree size. To interpret the relative stomatal and mesophyll limitations to photosynthesis, we used a model of carbon isotopic composition for whole leaves incorporating g(m) effects to generate a surface of 'operating values' of A over the growing season for all leaf classes. Our analysis showed that A was slightly higher for leaves on short compared with tall trees, but lower g(m) apparently reduced actual A substantially compared with A(satQ). Our findings showed that lower rates of photosynthesis in Year 1 leaves compared with Year 0 leaves were attributable more to increased biochemical limitation to photosynthesis in Year 1 leaves than differences in g(m). However, lower A in leaves on tall trees compared with those on short trees could be attributed in part to lower g(m) and higher stomatal, L(s), and mesophyll, L(m), limitations to photosynthesis, consistent with steeper hydraulic

  4. Effect of multiple endogenous biological factors on the response of the tephritids Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) to multilure traps baited with BioLure or NuLure in mango orchards.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, José; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2014-06-01

    The physiological state of an insect is likely the most important endogenous factor influencing resource-oriented behavior, and it varies considerably among individuals. Trials were conducted in mango orchards to study the effect of multiple endogenous biological factors on the response of two fly species, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Maquart (Diptera: Tephritidae), to BioLure and NuLure baits. The biological factors of the two fly species that were tested were the following: 1) fertility status-sterile (irradiated) and fertile flies; 2) two types of diets (only sugar and a 3:1 mixture of sugar and hydrolyzed yeast protein; 3) sex, and 4) two sexual maturity conditions (2-4- and 15-18-d-old flies, representing immature and sexually mature flies, respectively, and 2-4-d-old flies treated with methoprene as an artificially induced sexually state male condition). The laboratory-treated flies were released into three different mango orchards. The trials were conducted in four blocks per orchard using eight traps in each block (50:50 BioLure: NuLure). The traps were replaced every 2 d during the 12-d period and the flies per trap per day values were calculated. More protein-fed, fertile, female, immature, and A. obliqua flies were caught compared with the other flies tested. In addition, the traps baited with NuLure attracted more flies than those baited with BioLure. Interaction analyses indicated that the type of bait and the sexual maturity status were the most important factors affecting the responses of the flies. Our study demonstrated that lures attract only a small segment of the fly population, those that have a specific hunger for amino acids-immature flies-and those that were protein-starved. The implications for improved trapping system designs are discussed.

  5. Visibility and Persistence of Marker Dyes and Effect on the Quality and Mating Competitiveness of Mass-Reared Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): Anastrepha obliqua and Bisexual and Genetic Sexing (Tapachula-7) Strains of A. ludens.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, José; Ruiz, Lia; López, Gladis; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2017-08-01

    Fluorescent dyes are commonly used in the sterile insect technique (SIT) for marking insects for a proper identification after recapture. However, the quality of the mark must be balanced against insect performance, because dyes can negatively affect some parameters of insect performance and reduce their effectiveness in control with the SIT. We determined the visibility and persistence and the effect of dyes on the quality of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (bisexual and genetic sexing strains) by testing four concentrations of a dye (Day-Glo) from 0 to 2.5 g dye/kg of pupae. Visibility and persistence of the mark were positively affected by dose and negatively affected by the length of time the samples were kept in a solution of 75% alcohol. However, upon dissection, even the lowest dose of dye was visible under a fluorescence microscope. Between dyed and undyed pupae (control), no significant differences were observed in rates of emergence, fliers and flight ability, and survival in two tests, with water and without food and without water and food, at any of the concentrations tested. Furthermore, no significant difference in mating competitiveness was detected between control pupae and those dyed at 1.0 and 2.5 g dye/kg pupae. We discuss our results with the possibility of reducing the dose of dye in these three flies, because the heads are large enough to capture sufficient particles to permit identification with the current methods of detection. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Seasonal patterns of bole water content in old growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large, old conifer trees in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), USA purportedly ameliorate the effects of seasonal summer drought by drawing down the water content of bole tissues over the summer months and refilling during the winter. Continuous monitoring of bole relative water conten...

  7. Breeding graft-compatible Douglas-fir rootstocks (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco).

    Treesearch

    D.L. Copes

    1999-01-01

    A study encompassing 24 years was conducted to determine if a breeding program could produce highly graft-compatible rootstocks. Twenty-seven trees of apparent high graft compatibility were selected and crossed to produce 226 control-pollinated families. Seedlings were grown, field planted, and grafted with test scions. Graft unions from field tests were evaluated...

  8. Sequestrate fungi from Patagonian Nothofagus forests: Cystangium (Russulaceae, Basidiomycota).

    PubMed

    Trierveiler-Pereira, Larissa; Smith, Matthew E; Trappe, James M; Nouhra, Eduardo R

    2015-01-01

    Six species of Cystangium, a genus of sequestrate taxa related to Russula, were collected in Patagonia (Argentina and Chile) during autumn 2001. Two species, C. depauperatum Singer & A.H. Sm. and C. nothofagi (E. Horak) Trappe, Castellano & T. Lebel, were already known from this region, while four new species, C. domingueziae, C. gamundiae, C. grandihyphatum and C. longisterigmatum, are described, illustrated and a key to the species is provided. In addition, sequences of the ITS (rDNA) region were obtained to explore the phylogenetic relationships of our South American Cystangium species. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  9. Carbon reservoirs in temperate South American Nothofagus forests.

    PubMed

    Böswald, Klaus; Lencinas, José D; Loguercio, Gabriel

    2002-01-08

    Humans are influencing the global carbon (C) cycle due to the combustion of fossil fuels and due to changes in land use management. These activities are fostering the manmade greenhouse effect and thus global climate change. Negative effects for life on earth are accounted for. Among others the international climate debate focused attention on forests and forestry, knowing about their considerable influence on global climate change. Whilst the global C budget is described fairly well, there is a lack of regional data describing the C reservoirs and flows in detail. This has to be constituted especially for forests in developing countries. This paper presents an investigation at regional scale of the C reservoirs in a South American forest ecosystem. The investigation puts emphasis on the area and stand volume estimation and the development of expansion and reduction factors. Vegetation types are classified and stratified, determining the corresponding areas and estimating the stand volume. Converting factors are developed to calculate C in branches and roots as a percentage of standing wood measured by inventories.

  10. XEROMORPHY INCREASES IN SHOOTS OF PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (MIRB.) FRANCO SEEDLINGS WITH EXPOSURE TO ELEVATED TEMPERATURE BUT NOT ELEVATED CO2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seedling structure influences tree structure and function, ultimately determining the potential productivity of trees and their competitiveness for resources. We investigated changes in shoot organ structure, as indicated by biomass allocation, allometry and anatomy in response ...

  11. XEROMORPHY INCREASES IN SHOOTS OF PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII (MIRB.) FRANCO SEEDLINGS WITH EXPOSURE TO ELEVATED TEMPERATURE BUT NOT ELEVATED CO2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seedling structure influences tree structure and function, ultimately determining the potential productivity of trees and their competitiveness for resources. We investigated changes in shoot organ structure, as indicated by biomass allocation, allometry and anatomy in response ...

  12. Estimation of population structure in coastal Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii] using allozyme and microsatellite markers

    Treesearch

    Konstantin V. Krutovsky; John Bradley St. Clair; Robert Saich; Valerie D. Hipkins; David B. Neale

    2009-01-01

    Characterizing population structure using neutral markers is an important first step in association genetic studies in order to avoid false associations between phenotypes and genotypes that may arise from nonselective demographic factors. Population structure was studied in a wide sample of approximately 1,300 coastal Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii...

  13. Virtual Screening of Plant Volatile Compounds Reveals a High Affinity of Hylamorpha elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Odorant-Binding Proteins for Sesquiterpenes From Its Native Host

    PubMed Central

    Palma-Millanao, Rubén; Yáñez, Osvaldo; Rojas, Maximiliano; Mutis, Ana; Venthur, Herbert; Quiroz, Andrés; Ramírez, Claudio C.

    2016-01-01

    Hylamorpha elegans (Burmeister) is a native Chilean scarab beetle considered to be a relevant agricultural pest to pasture and cereal and small fruit crops. Because of their cryptic habits, control with conventional methods is difficult; therefore, alternative and environmentally friendly control strategies are highly desirable. The study of proteins that participate in the recognition of odorants, such as odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), offers interesting opportunities to identify new compounds with the potential to modify pest behavior and computational screening of compounds, which is commonly used in drug discovery, may help to accelerate the discovery of new semiochemicals. Here, we report the discovery of four OBPs in H. elegans as well as six new volatiles released by its native host Nothofagus obliqua (Mirbel). Molecular docking performed between OBPs and new and previously reported volatiles from N. obliqua revealed the best binding energy values for sesquiterpenic compounds. Despite remarkable divergence at the amino acid level, three of the four OBPs evaluated exhibited the best interaction energy for the same ligands. Molecular dynamics investigation reinforced the importance of sesquiterpenes, showing that hydrophobic residues of the OBPs interacted most frequently with the tested ligands, and binding free energy calculations demonstrated van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions to be the most important. Altogether, the results suggest that sesquiterpenes are interesting candidates for in vitro and in vivo assays to assess their potential application in pest management strategies. PMID:27012867

  14. Males of Hylamorpha elegans burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are attracted to odors released from conspecific females.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Andrés; Palma, Ruben; Etcheverría, Paulina; Navarro, Vicente; Rebolledo, Ramón

    2007-04-01

    The behavioral responses of Hylamorpha elegans L. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae) to the semiochemicals released from conspecific individual adults were studied, with particular attention paid to female attraction of males. Odors released from virgin females significantly attracted male conspecifics in both the field and laboratory olfactometer and wind tunnel bioassays. However, females did not attract other females, and males attracted no one. The response of male H. elegans to (1) compounds (1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone) released only by unmated females; (2) the essential oil of the secondary host (Nothofagus obliqua); and (3) the blend of 1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone with N. obliqua essential oil was studied. The blend of 1,4-benzoquinone mixed with essential oil at the trial concentration was attractive with males. The same response was found with 1,4-hydroquinone alone. The essential oil did not have the expected attractant effect on conspecific males. These results suggest that, when combined with essential oil, 1,4-benzoquinone may function in the sexual behavior of males and females. These findings are discussed in terms of the ecological role of this putative sexual pheromone and its potential use in a strategy of control of this pest.

  15. Dendroecological analysis of a Fitzroya cupressoides and a Nothofagus nitida stand in the Cordillera Pelada, Chile

    Treesearch

    Margaret S. Devall; Bernard R. Parresol; Juan J. Armesto

    1998-01-01

    Lumbering of Fitzroya cupressoides in Chile began in 1599 and continued until 1976, when the species was declared a national monument and cutting of live trees was prohibited. Today, F. cupressoides is threatened; many of the remaining stands in the coastal range appear to be declining, with a predominance of standing dead stems and patchy, sparse regeneration. The...

  16. Solar sterilization of abscised fruit: a cultural practice to reduce infestations of Anastrepha obliqua around orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Abscised mangoes, Mangifera indica L., of several varieties were stored under varying conditions of insolation, including no sun (stored in a laboratory), shade (stored under the shade of a mango tree), full sun (stored in direct view of the sun), and covered in a black plastic bag and stored in dir...

  17. Influence of native forest cover on water yield in southern Chile: a comparative study of small watersheeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Garretón, Camila; McPhee, James; Little, Christian; Lara, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    In this work we compare water yield in five small watersheds (surface area from 7 to 70 hectares) with different native forest cover, located in Southern Chile (39.5° Lat S). Forest covers include unmanaged second-growth forest of deciduous Nothofagus obliqua - Nothofagus nervosa ("Rsm", 7,4 ha), thinned second-growth forest of deciduous N. obliqua - N. nervosa with 35% of basal area extraction ("Rcm", 12,6 ha), altered evergreen old-growth forest dominated by Laurelia philippiana ("Tran", 7,5 ha), pristine old-growth forest of Nothofagus dombeyi ("Enc", 72,1 ha) and grassland as a control ("Prad", 12,3 ha). It is expected that differences in water yield are related mainly to differences in native forest structure, given that all watersheds have similar geomorphology and are located close to each other. We monitored daily streamflow and precipitation during four hydrological years (April 2003 through Dec 2006). Data were collected on each watershed and analyzed, first by recession curve classification, then by separating base flow and direct runoff. Subsequently, storm events were individualized, in order to isolate the effect of different antecedent soil moisture conditions. Variations in hydrograph recession curves as well as rainfall-runoff coefficients are analyzed in relation to differences in land cover type, storm magnitude and duration, antecedent soil moisture and presence of leafs. In agreement with the literature, all forested watersheds consume more water than a grassland watershed, but display a slower release of soil water storage. On the other hand, results show that managed forest basins yield more total, direct and base runoff in comparison to unmanaged watersheds. Further, unmanaged natural forests display flatter recession curves, implying a longer duration of base flow after storm events. This behavior has important implications for valuation and management of water yield, as an Ecosystem Service of native forest in Chile; it suggests that it

  18. Foliage constituents of douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco (Pinaceae)): Their seasonal variation and potential role in douglas fir resistance and silviculture management.

    PubMed

    Zou, J; Cates, R G

    1995-04-01

    Seasonal changes in the production of primary nutrients (soluble carbohydrates) and secondary metabolites (terpenes, monomeric phenolics, and tannins) in the current needle tissue of Douglas fir were investigated. All four classes of compounds showed significant seasonal changes in concentration during foliage development. Most terpenes increased significantly in concentration from June 11 to August 3, and then showed declining concentrations to September 20. The most dramatic and significant seasonal increases occurred inα-pinene, camphene, and bornyl acetate concentrations. The monomeric phenolics chlorogenic acid, taxifolin glucoside, quercetin galactoside, and those unknown phenolics showed an overall trend of declining in concentration from June 11 through September 20. However, considerable variation between sampling dates in the concentration of these phenolics was noted. Tannin concentration decreased significantly from June 11 to July 9, and then increased in concentration to the September 20 sampling date. Fructose, galactose, glucose, and sucrose tended to decrease from June 11 to September 20. However, significant variation between sampling dates was evident in these compounds as well. Galactose was the major compound in the soluble carbohydrate fraction, amounting to almost 80% of the total concentration throughout the growing season. These data suggest that if phenolics and tannins function as defenses, they would only affect second- and possibly third-instar budworm larvae during the time that these instars mine the buds. Camphene,α-pinene, and bornyl acetate increased in concentration throughout the growing season and may be effective deterrents to the budworm. Both bornyl acetate and camphene have been shown in field and laboratory studies to increase larval mortality and adversely affect budworm larval growth. Carbohydrates generally act as nutrients that enhance herbivore growth. However, in a previous study, galactose was found to cause reduced budworm larval growth and increased larval mortality.

  19. Indirect effects of prey swamping: differential seed predation during a bamboo masting event.

    PubMed

    Kitzberger, Thomas; Chaneton, Enrique J; Caccia, Fernando

    2007-10-01

    Resource pulses often involve extraordinary increases in prey availability that "swamp" consumers and reverberate through indirect interactions affecting other community members. We developed a model that predicts predator-mediated indirect effects induced by an epidemic prey on co-occurring prey types differing in relative profitability/preference and validated our model by examining current-season and delayed effects of a bamboo mass seeding event on seed survival of canopy tree species in mixed Patagonian forests. The model shows that predator foraging behavior, prey profitability, and the scale of prey swamping influence the character and strength of short-term indirect effects on various alternative prey. When in large prey-swamped patches, nonselective predators decrease predation on all prey types. Selective predators, instead, only benefit prey of similar quality to the swamping species, while very low or high preference prey remain unaffected. Negative indirect effects (apparent competition) may override such positive effects (apparent mutualism), especially for highly preferred prey, when prey-swamped patches are small enough to allow predator aggregation and/or predators show a reproductive numerical response to elevated food supply. Seed predation patterns during bamboo (Chusquea culeou) masting were consistent with predicted short-term indirect effects mediated by a selective predator foraging in large prey-swamped patches. Bamboo seeds and similarly-sized Austrocedrus chilensis (ciprés) and Nothofagus obliqua (roble) seeds suffered lower predation in bamboo flowered than nonflowered patches. Predation rates on the small-seeded Nothofagus dombeyi (coihue) and the large-seeded Nothofagus alpina (rauli) were independent of bamboo flowering. Indirect positive effects were transient; three months after bamboo seeding, granivores preyed heavily upon all seed types, irrespective of patch flowering condition. Moreover, one year after bamboo seeding

  20. The spatial distribution of acid phosphatase activity in ectomycorrhizal tissues depends on soil fertility and morphotype, and relates to host plant phosphorus uptake.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Maricel; Huygens, Dries; Díaz, Leila Milena; Villanueva, Claudia Añazco; Heyser, Wolfgang; Boeckx, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Acid phosphatase (ACP) enzymes are involved in the mobilization of soil phosphorus (P) and polyphosphate accumulated in the fungal tissues of ectomycorrhizal roots, thereby influencing the amounts of P that are stored in the fungus and transferred to the host plant. This study evaluated the effects of ectomycorrhizal morphotype and soil fertility on ACP activity in the extraradical mycelium (ACP(myc)), the mantle (ACP(mantle)) and the Hartig net region (ACP(Hartig)) of ectomycorrhizal Nothofagus obliqua seedlings. ACP activity was quantified in vivo using enzyme-labelled fluorescence-97 (ELF-97) substrate, confocal laser microscopy and digital image processing routines. There was a significant effect of ectomycorrhizal morphotype on ACP(myc), ACP(mantle) and ACP(Hartig), while soil fertility had a significant effect on ACP(myc) and ACP(Hartig). The relative contribution of the mantle and the Hartig net region to the ACP activity on the ectomycorrhizal root was significantly affected by ectomycorrhizal morphotype and soil fertility. A positive correlation between ACP(Hartig) and the shoot P concentration was found, providing evidence that ACP activity at the fungus:root interface is involved in P transfer from the fungus to the host. It is concluded that the spatial distribution of ACP in ectomycorrhizas varies as a function of soil fertility and colonizing fungus.

  1. Aggregate structure and stability linked to carbon dynamics in a south Chilean Andisol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huygens, D.; Boeckx, P.; van Cleemput, O.; Godoy, R.; Oyarzún, C.

    2005-02-01

    The extreme vulnerability of soil organic carbon to climate and land use change emphasizes the need for further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. We have studied the aggregate stability and carbon dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses in a south Chilean Andisols: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR), a grassland (GRASS) and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Al as soil organic matter stabilizing agent in this Andisol. In a case study, we linked differences in carbon dynamics between the three land use treatments to physical protection and recalcitrance of the soil organic matter (SOM). In this study, C aggregate stability and dynamics were studied using size and density fractionation experiments of the SOM, δ13C and total carbon analysis of the different SOM fractions, and mineralization measurements. The results showed that electrostatic attractions between and among Al-oxides and clay minerals are mainly responsible for the stabilization of soil aggregates and the physical protection of the enclosed soil organic carbon. Whole soil C mineralization rate constants were highest for SGFOR and PINUS, followed by GRASS. In contrast, incubation experiments of isolated macro organic matter fractions showed that the recalcitrance of the SOM decreased in another order: PINUS > SGFOR > GRASS. We concluded that physical protection of soil aggregates was the main process determining whole soil C mineralization. Land use changes affected soil organic carbon dynamics in this south Chilean Andisol by altering soil pH and consequently available Al.

  2. In the right place at the right time: habitat representation in protected areas of South American Nothofagus-dominated plants after a dispersal constrained climate change scenario.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Diego; Cavieres, Lohengrin A

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of climate change in temperate rainforest plants in southern South America in terms of habitat size, representation in protected areas, considering also if the expected impacts are similar for dominant trees and understory plant species, we used niche modeling constrained by species migration on 118 plant species, considering two groups of dominant trees and two groups of understory ferns. Representation in protected areas included Chilean national protected areas, private protected areas, and priority areas planned for future reserves, with two thresholds for minimum representation at the country level: 10% and 17%. With a 10% representation threshold, national protected areas currently represent only 50% of the assessed species. Private reserves are important since they increase up to 66% the species representation level. Besides, 97% of the evaluated species may achieve the minimum representation target only if the proposed priority areas were included. With the climate change scenario representation levels slightly increase to 53%, 69%, and 99%, respectively, to the categories previously mentioned. Thus, the current location of all the representation categories is useful for overcoming climate change by 2050. Climate change impacts on habitat size and representation of dominant trees in protected areas are not applicable to understory plants, highlighting the importance of assessing these effects with a larger number of species. Although climate change will modify the habitat size of plant species in South American temperate rainforests, it will have no significant impact in terms of the number of species adequately represented in Chile, where the implementation of the proposed reserves is vital to accomplish the present and future minimum representation. Our results also show the importance of using migration dispersal constraints to develop more realistic future habitat maps from climate change predictions.

  3. In the Right Place at the Right Time: Habitat Representation in Protected Areas of South American Nothofagus-Dominated Plants after a Dispersal Constrained Climate Change Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, Diego; Cavieres, Lohengrin A.

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of climate change in temperate rainforest plants in southern South America in terms of habitat size, representation in protected areas, considering also if the expected impacts are similar for dominant trees and understory plant species, we used niche modeling constrained by species migration on 118 plant species, considering two groups of dominant trees and two groups of understory ferns. Representation in protected areas included Chilean national protected areas, private protected areas, and priority areas planned for future reserves, with two thresholds for minimum representation at the country level: 10% and 17%. With a 10% representation threshold, national protected areas currently represent only 50% of the assessed species. Private reserves are important since they increase up to 66% the species representation level. Besides, 97% of the evaluated species may achieve the minimum representation target only if the proposed priority areas were included. With the climate change scenario representation levels slightly increase to 53%, 69%, and 99%, respectively, to the categories previously mentioned. Thus, the current location of all the representation categories is useful for overcoming climate change by 2050. Climate change impacts on habitat size and representation of dominant trees in protected areas are not applicable to understory plants, highlighting the importance of assessing these effects with a larger number of species. Although climate change will modify the habitat size of plant species in South American temperate rainforests, it will have no significant impact in terms of the number of species adequately represented in Chile, where the implementation of the proposed reserves is vital to accomplish the present and future minimum representation. Our results also show the importance of using migration dispersal constraints to develop more realistic future habitat maps from climate change predictions. PMID:25786226

  4. Emission factors for PM2.5, CO, CO2, NOx, SO2 and particle size distributions from the combustion of wood species using a new controlled combustion chamber 3CE.

    PubMed

    Cereceda-Balic, Francisco; Toledo, Mario; Vidal, Victor; Guerrero, Fabian; Diaz-Robles, Luis A; Petit-Breuilh, Ximena; Lapuerta, Magin

    2017-04-15

    The objective of this research was to determine emission factors (EF) for particulate matter (PM2.5), combustion gases and particle size distribution generated by the combustion of Eucalyptus globulus (EG), Nothofagus obliqua (NO), both hardwoods, and Pinus radiata (PR), softwood, using a controlled combustion chamber (3CE). Additionally, the contribution of the different emissions stages associated with the combustion of these wood samples was also determined. Combustion experiments were performed using shaving size dried wood (0% humidity). The emission samples were collected with a tedlar bag and sampling cartridges containing quartz fiber filters. High reproducibility was achieved between experiment repetitions (CV<10%, n=3). The EF for PM2.5 was 1.06gkg(-1) for EG, 1.33gkg(-1) for NO, and 0.84gkg(-1) for PR. Using a laser aerosol spectrometer (0.25-34μm), the contribution of particle emissions (PM2.5) in each stage of emission process (SEP) was sampled in real time. Particle size of 0.265μm were predominant during all stages, and the percentages emitted were PR (33%), EG (29%), and NO (21%). The distributions of EF for PM2.5 in pre-ignition, flame and smoldering stage varied from predominance of the flame stage for PR (77%) to predominance of the smoldering stage for NO (60%). These results prove that flame phase is not the only stage contributing to emissions and on the contrary, pre-ignition and in especial post-combustion smoldering have also very significant contributions. This demonstrates that particle concentrations measured only in stationary state during flame stage may cause underestimation of emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Foraging behaviour of the exotic wasp Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) on a native caterpillar defoliator.

    PubMed

    Pietrantuono, A L; Moreyra, S; Lozada, M

    2017-09-19

    Vespula germanica is a social wasp and an opportunistic predator. While foraging, these wasps learn and integrate different kinds of cues. They have successfully invaded many parts of the world, including native Nothofagus and Lophozonia forests located in the Andean-Patagonian region, where they forage on native arthropods. Perzelia arda, a lepidopteron defoliator of Lophozonia obliqua, uses the foliage to hide in and feed on. The purpose of this work is to study whether V. germanica use olfactory cues when foraging on P. arda. To do this, we used a Y-tube olfactometer and established three treatments to compare pairs of all combinations of stimuli (larvae, leaves with larval traces, and leaves without larval traces) and controls. Data were analysed via two developed models that showed decisions made by V. germanica and allowed to establish a scale of preferences between the stimuli. The analysis demonstrates that V. germanica wasps choose P. arda as larval prey and are capable of discriminating between the offered stimuli (deviance information criterion (DIC) null model = 873.97; DIC simple model = 84.5, n = 152). According to the preference scale, V. germanica preferred leaves with traces of larvae, suggesting its ability to associate these traces with the presence of the prey. This may be because, under natural conditions, larvae are never exposed outside their shelters of leaves and therefore V. germanica uses indirect signals. The presence of V. germanica foraging on P. arda highlights the flexible foraging behaviour of this wasp which may also act as a positive biological control, reducing lepidopteran populations.

  6. Succession of ground-dwelling beetle assemblages after fire in three habitat types in the Andean forest of NW Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sasal, Yamila; Raffaele, Estela; Farji-Brener, Alejandro G

    2010-01-01

    Wildfires are one of the major disturbances in the dynamics of forests and shrublands. However, little is known about their effects on insect communities that contribute to faunal biodiversity and play key roles in the ecosystem's dynamics. An intense and widespread fire occurred in 1999 in the Nahuel Huapi National Park in the Andean forest in northern Patagonia, Argentina. This fire affected adjacent, but different, habitat types. After the fire, beetle abundance, species richness and assemblage composition were compared among three habitats that were structurally different before the fire. These habitats were: 1) evergreen forest dominated by Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. (Fagales: Nothofagaceae), 2) a mixed forest of the evergreen conifer Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Pic. Serm. and Bizzarri (Pinales: Cupressaceae) and N. dombeyi and 3) a shrubland with a diverse community of shrub species. The relationship between beetle diversity and vegetation structure was investigated over three consecutive years. Ground beetles were collected by pitfall traps, and plant species richness, vegetation cover, and height were measured. Beetle communities varied more over years between habitats during the early regeneration after fire. There was a shift in beetle assemblage composition with time after the fire in all habitat types, probably due to similar colonization rates and microclimatic conditions. Therefore, beetle succession was more influenced by recolonization and survivorship, accompanied by climatic conditions and recovery rate of plant communities over time, than it was influenced by pre-fire habitat conditions. These results suggest that in NW Patagonia, wildfire can have a substantial, short-term impact on beetle abundance and species composition. The pre-fire conditions of each habitat type determined the structure of post-fire communities of plants but not beetle assemblages. Wildfires produce simplification and homogenization of habitat types, and this

  7. Succession of Ground-Dwelling Beetle Assemblages After Fire in Three Habitat Types in the Andean Forest of NW Patagonia, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sasal, Yamila; Raffaele, Estela; Farji-Brener, Alejandro G.

    2010-01-01

    Wildfires are one of the major disturbances in the dynamics of forests and shrublands. However, little is known about their effects on insect communities that contribute to faunal biodiversity and play key roles in the ecosystem's dynamics. An intense and widespread fire occurred in 1999 in the Nahuel Huapi National Park in the Andean forest in northern Patagonia, Argentina. This fire affected adjacent, but different, habitat types. After the fire, beetle abundance, species richness and assemblage composition were compared among three habitats that were structurally different before the fire. These habitats were: 1) evergreen forest dominated by Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. (Fagales: Nothofagaceae), 2) a mixed forest of the evergreen conifer Austrocedrus chilensis (D. Don) Pic. Serm. and Bizzarri (Pinales: Cupressaceae) and N. dombeyi and 3) a shrubland with a diverse community of shrub species. The relationship between beetle diversity and vegetation structure was investigated over three consecutive years. Ground beetles were collected by pitfall traps, and plant species richness, vegetation cover, and height were measured. Beetle communities varied more over years between habitats during the early regeneration after fire. There was a shift in beetle assemblage composition with time after the fire in all habitat types, probably due to similar colonization rates and microclimatic conditions. Therefore, beetle succession was more influenced by recolonization and survivorship, accompanied by climatic conditions and recovery rate of plant communities over time, than it was influenced by pre-fire habitat conditions. These results suggest that in NW Patagonia, wildfire can have a substantial, short-term impact on beetle abundance and species composition. The pre-fire conditions of each habitat type determined the structure of post-fire communities of plants but not beetle assemblages. Wildfires produce simplification and homogenization of habitat types, and this

  8. Aggregate and soil organic carbon dynamics in South Chilean Andisols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huygens, D.; Boeckx, P.; Van Cleemput, O.; Oyarzún, C.; Godoy, R.

    2005-06-01

    Extreme sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) to climate and land use change warrants further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between aggregate and SOC dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses of a south Chilean Andisol: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR), a grassland (GRASS) and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS). Total carbon content of the 0-10cm soil layer was higher for GRASS (6.7 kg C m-2) than for PINUS (4.3 kg C m-2, while TC content of SGFOR (5.8 kg C m-2) was not significantly different from either one. High extractable oxalate and pyrophosphate Al concentrations (varying from 20.3-24.4 g kg-1, and 3.9-11.1 g kg-1, respectively) were found in all sites. In this study, SOC and aggregate dynamics were studied using size and density fractionation experiments of the SOC, δ13C and total carbon analysis of the different SOC fractions, and C mineralization experiments. The results showed that electrostatic sorption between and among amorphous Al components and clay minerals is mainly responsible for the formation of metal-humus-clay complexes and the stabilization of soil aggregates. The process of ligand exchange between SOC and Al would be of minor importance resulting in the absence of aggregate hierarchy in this soil type. Whole soil C mineralization rate constants were highest for SGFOR and PINUS, followed by GRASS (respectively 0.495, 0.266 and 0.196 g CO2-Cm-2d-1 for the top soil layer). In contrast, incubation experiments of isolated macro organic matter fractions gave opposite results, showing that the recalcitrance of the SOC decreased in another order: PINUS>SGFOR>GRASS. We deduced that electrostatic sorption processes and physical protection of SOC in soil aggregates were the main processes determining SOC stabilization. As a result, high aggregate carbon concentrations, varying from 148 till 48 g kg-1, were encountered for all land use sites. Al

  9. Biological Characteristics of Fluorescent Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Labeled Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-wei; Bai, Yu; Guo, Hui-hui

    2017-01-01

    Tracking transplanted stem cells is necessary to clarify cellular properties and improve transplantation success. In this study, we investigate the effects of fluorescent superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO) (Molday ION Rhodamine-B™, MIRB) on biological properties of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) and monitor hDPSCs in vitro and in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Morphological analysis showed that intracellular MIRB particles were distributed in the cytoplasm surrounding the nuclei of hDPSCs. 12.5–100 μg/mL MIRB all resulted in 100% labeling efficiency. MTT showed that 12.5–50 μg/mL MIRB could promote cell proliferation and MIRB over 100 μg/mL exhibited toxic effect on hDPSCs. In vitro MRI showed that 1 × 106 cells labeled with various concentrations of MIRB (12.5–100 μg/mL) could be visualized. In vivo MRI showed that transplanted cells could be clearly visualized up to 60 days after transplantation. These results suggest that 12.5–50 μg/mL MIRB is a safe range for labeling hDPSCs. MIRB labeled hDPSCs cell can be visualized by MRI in vitro and in vivo. These data demonstrate that MIRB is a promising candidate for hDPSCs tracking in hDPSCs based dental pulp regeneration therapy. PMID:28298928

  10. Phylogenetic diversity of true morels (Morchella), the main edible non-timber product from native Patagonian forests of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pildain, María B; Visnovsky, Sandra B; Barroetaveña, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Morchella species are edible fungi in high demand and therefore command high prices in world markets. Phenotypic-based identification at the species-level remains inadequate because of their complex life cycles, minor differences and plasticity of morphological characteristics between species, and the lack of agreement between scientific and common names. In Patagonia-Argentina, morels are associated with native forests of Austrocedrus chilensis (Cordilleran or Chilean cypress) and Nothofagus antarctica (ñire) and several exotic conifers that were introduced from western North America. Little is known about their taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships with other species in the genus. This work focused on the identification of collections of Morchella from Patagonia and their phylogenetic relationships with other species from the Northern Hemisphere. The comparison was made by analysis of DNA sequences obtained from four loci: the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and the partial RNA polymerase I gene (RPB1) for the complete collection; and ITS, RPB1, RNA polymerase II gene (RPB2), and translation elongation factor (EF1-α) for the species-rich Elata Subclade. Analyses of individual and combined data sets revealed that Patagonian morels belong to the Elata Clade and comprised three strongly supported species-level lineages from both Patagonian native forest, and exotic trees introduced from western North America. One lineage was identified as Morchella frustrata phylogenetic species Mel-2, which is known from the USA and Canada. The second lineage, which appeared to be 'fire-adapted', was identified as Morchella septimelata phylogenetic species (Mel-7), which is also known from the USA. This species was collected from burned native forests mainly composed of A. chilensis and N. antarctica but also Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Blanco, which is native to western North America. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that the third species from

  11. Human neural progenitor cells retain viability, phenotype, proliferation, and lineage differentiation when labeled with a novel iron oxide nanoparticle, Molday ION Rhodamine B

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei-Bin; Plachez, Celine; Chan, Amanda; Yarnell, Deborah; Puche, Adam C; Fishman, Paul S; Yarowsky, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron-oxide particles (USPIOs) loaded into stem cells have been suggested as a way to track stem cell transplantation with magnetic resonance imaging, but the labeling, and post-labeling proliferation, viability, differentiation, and retention of USPIOs within the stem cells have yet to be determined for each type of stem cell and for each type of USPIO. Molday ION Rhodamine B™ (BioPAL, Worcester, MA, USA) (MIRB) has been shown to be a USPIO labeling agent for mesenchymal stem cells, glial progenitor cells, and stem cell lines. In this study, we have evaluated MIRB labeling in human neuroprogenitor cells and found that human neuroprogenitor cells are effectively labeled with MIRB without use of transfection reagents. Viability, proliferation, and differentiation properties are unchanged between MIRB-labeled neuroprogenitors cells and unlabeled cells. Moreover, MIRB-labeled human neuroprogenitor cells can be frozen, thawed, and replated without loss of MIRB or even without loss of their intrinsic biology. Overall, those results show that MIRB has advantageous properties that can be used for cell-based therapy. PMID:24348036

  12. Human neural progenitor cells retain viability, phenotype, proliferation, and lineage differentiation when labeled with a novel iron oxide nanoparticle, Molday ION Rhodamine B.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei-Bin; Plachez, Celine; Chan, Amanda; Yarnell, Deborah; Puche, Adam C; Fishman, Paul S; Yarowsky, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron-oxide particles (USPIOs) loaded into stem cells have been suggested as a way to track stem cell transplantation with magnetic resonance imaging, but the labeling, and post-labeling proliferation, viability, differentiation, and retention of USPIOs within the stem cells have yet to be determined for each type of stem cell and for each type of USPIO. Molday ION Rhodamine B™ (BioPAL, Worcester, MA, USA) (MIRB) has been shown to be a USPIO labeling agent for mesenchymal stem cells, glial progenitor cells, and stem cell lines. In this study, we have evaluated MIRB labeling in human neuroprogenitor cells and found that human neuroprogenitor cells are effectively labeled with MIRB without use of transfection reagents. Viability, proliferation, and differentiation properties are unchanged between MIRB-labeled neuroprogenitors cells and unlabeled cells. Moreover, MIRB-labeled human neuroprogenitor cells can be frozen, thawed, and replated without loss of MIRB or even without loss of their intrinsic biology. Overall, those results show that MIRB has advantageous properties that can be used for cell-based therapy.

  13. Enhancing efficacy of Mexican fruit fly SIT programmes by large-scale incorporation of methoprene into pre-release diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The juvenile hormone analog, methoprene, has been documented to accelerate development of reproductive competence and sexual signaling of Caribbean (Anstrepha suspensa), the Mexican (Anastrepha ludens), the South American (Anastrepha fraterculus) and West Indian (Anastrepha obliqua) tephritid fruit ...

  14. Transpiration and water use efficiency in native chilean and exotic species, a usefull tool for catchment management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervé-Fernández, P.; Oyarzun, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    Land-use and forest cover change play important roles in socio-economic processes and have been linked with water supply and other ecosystem services in various regions of the world. Water yield from watersheds is a major ecosystem service for human activities but has been altered by landscape management superimposed on climatic variability and change. Sustaining ecosystem services important to humans, while providing a dependable water supply for agriculture and urban needs is a major challenge faced by managers of human-dominated or increased antropical effect over watersheds. Since water is mostly consumed by vegetation (i.e: transpiration), which strongly depends on trees physiological characteristics (i.e: foliar area, transpiration capacity) are very important. The quantity of water consumed by plantations is influenced mainly by forest characteristics (species physiology, age and management), catchment water retention capacity and meteorological characteristics. Eventhough in Chile, the forest sector accounts for 3.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 12.5% of total exports (INFOR, 2003), afforestation with fast growing exotic species has ended up being socially and politically questionable because of the supposed impact on the environment and water resources. We present data of trees transpiration and water use efficiency from three headwater catchments: (a) second growth native evergreen forest (Aetoxicon punctatum, Drimys winterii, Gevuina avellana, Laureliopsis philippiana); (b) Eucalyptus globulus plantation, and (c) a mixed native deciduous (Nothofagus obliqua and some evergreen species) forest and Eucalyptus globulus and Acacia melanoxylon plantation located at the Coastal Mountain Range in southern Chile (40°S). Annual transpiration rates ranged from 1.24 ± 0.41 mol•m-2•s-1 (0.022 ± 0.009 L•m-2•s-1) for E. globulus, while the lowest observed was for L. philippiana 0.44 ± 0.31 mol•m-2•s-1 (0.008 ± 0.006 L•m-2•s-1). However

  15. Basal area growth, carbon isotope discrimination, and intrinsic water use efficiency after fertilization of Douglas-fir in the Oregon Coast Range

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many hectares of intensively managed Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. Franco) stands in western North America are fertilized with nitrogen to increase growth rates. Understanding the mechanisms of response facilitates prioritization of stands for treatment. The objective ...

  16. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  17. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  18. Estimating seed crops of conifer and hardwood species

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald

    1992-01-01

    Cone, acorn, and berry crops of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. var. ponderosa), sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), California white fir (Abies concolor var. lowiana (Gord...

  19. Basal area growth, carbon isotope discrimination, and intrinsic water use efficiency after fertilization of Douglas-fir in the Oregon Coast Range

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many hectares of intensively managed Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. Franco) stands in western North America are fertilized with nitrogen to increase growth rates. Understanding the mechanisms of response facilitates prioritization of stands for treatment. The objective ...

  20. Local volume tables for young-growth conifers on a high quality site in the northern Sierra Nevada

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald; Carl. N. Skinner

    1989-01-01

    Local volume tables for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws. var. ponderosa), sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco), California white fir (Abies concolor var. lowiana [Gord.] Lemm.), and incense...

  1. Sequestrate fungi of New Zealand: Elaphomyces (Ascomycota, Eurotiales, Elaphomycetaceae)

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Castellano; Ross E. Beever; James M. Trappe

    2012-01-01

    Four species of the sequestrate fungal genus Elaphomyces are reported from New Zealand: Elaphomyces bollardii sp. nov. associated with Leptospermum spp. and Kunzea ericoides, E. luteicrustus sp. nov. associated with Nothofagus menziesii, E. putridus sp. nov. associated with...

  2. Effects of the iron oxide nanoparticle Molday ION Rhodamine B on the viability and regenerative function of neural stem cells: relevance to clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Umashankar, Abhishek; Corenblum, Mandi J; Ray, Sneha; Valdez, Michel; Yoshimaru, Eriko S; Trouard, Theodore P; Madhavan, Lalitha

    2016-01-01

    An essential component of developing successful neural stem cell (NSC)-based therapies involves the establishment of methodologies to noninvasively monitor grafted NSCs within brain tissues in real time. In this context, ex vivo labeling with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles has been shown to enable efficient tracking of transplanted NSCs via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, whether and how USPIO labeling affects the intrinsic biology of NSCs is not thoroughly understood, and remains an active area of investigation. Here, we perform a comprehensive examination of rat NSC survival and regenerative function upon labeling with the USPIO, Molday ION Rhodamine B (MIRB), which allows for dual magnetic resonance and optical imaging. After optimization of labeling efficiency, two specific doses of MIRB (20 and 50 μg/mL) were chosen and were followed for the rest of the study. We observed that both MIRB doses supported the robust detection of NSCs, over an extended period of time in vitro and in vivo after transplantation into the striata of host rats, using MRI and post hoc fluorescence imaging. Both in culture and after neural transplantation, the higher 50 μg/mL MIRB dose significantly reduced the survival, proliferation, and differentiation rate of the NSCs. Interestingly, although the lower 20 μg/mL MIRB labeling did not produce overtly negative effects, it increased the proliferation and glial differentiation of the NSCs. Additionally, application of this dose also changed the morphological characteristics of neurons and glia produced after NSC differentiation. Importantly, the transplantation of NSCs labeled with either of the two MIRB doses upregulated the immune response in recipient animals. In particular, in animals receiving the 50 μg/mL MIRB-labeled NSCs, this immune response consisted of an increased number of CD68(+)-activated microglia, which appeared to have phagocytosed MIRB particles and cells contributing to an

  3. Effects of the iron oxide nanoparticle Molday ION Rhodamine B on the viability and regenerative function of neural stem cells: relevance to clinical translation

    PubMed Central

    Umashankar, Abhishek; Corenblum, Mandi J; Ray, Sneha; Valdez, Michel; Yoshimaru, Eriko S; Trouard, Theodore P; Madhavan, Lalitha

    2016-01-01

    An essential component of developing successful neural stem cell (NSC)-based therapies involves the establishment of methodologies to noninvasively monitor grafted NSCs within brain tissues in real time. In this context, ex vivo labeling with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles has been shown to enable efficient tracking of transplanted NSCs via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, whether and how USPIO labeling affects the intrinsic biology of NSCs is not thoroughly understood, and remains an active area of investigation. Here, we perform a comprehensive examination of rat NSC survival and regenerative function upon labeling with the USPIO, Molday ION Rhodamine B (MIRB), which allows for dual magnetic resonance and optical imaging. After optimization of labeling efficiency, two specific doses of MIRB (20 and 50 μg/mL) were chosen and were followed for the rest of the study. We observed that both MIRB doses supported the robust detection of NSCs, over an extended period of time in vitro and in vivo after transplantation into the striata of host rats, using MRI and post hoc fluorescence imaging. Both in culture and after neural transplantation, the higher 50 μg/mL MIRB dose significantly reduced the survival, proliferation, and differentiation rate of the NSCs. Interestingly, although the lower 20 μg/mL MIRB labeling did not produce overtly negative effects, it increased the proliferation and glial differentiation of the NSCs. Additionally, application of this dose also changed the morphological characteristics of neurons and glia produced after NSC differentiation. Importantly, the transplantation of NSCs labeled with either of the two MIRB doses upregulated the immune response in recipient animals. In particular, in animals receiving the 50 μg/mL MIRB-labeled NSCs, this immune response consisted of an increased number of CD68+-activated microglia, which appeared to have phagocytosed MIRB particles and cells contributing to an

  4. Impacts of fluorescent superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-labeled materials on biological characteristics and osteogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guangping; Na, Zhenwen; Ren, Bin; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Weixian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of fluorescent superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (Molday ION Rhodamine B, MIRB) on bioactivities and osteogenetic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) method was used to detect the proliferation of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-labeled BMSCs and observed the distribution of MIRB in cells; real time -polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was used to analyze the expressions of such osteogenesis-related genes as bone sialoprotein, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), RUNX2, bonemorphogeneticprotein-2 (BMP-2), type 1 collagen (COL-1) and type 3 collagen (COL-3); ALP-Alizarin red staining and poly-biochemical analyzer were used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the osteogenetic metabolites. The labeled MIRB particles distributed in the cytoplasm of BMSCs, the diameter of larger particles could be up to several hundred nanometers, and concentrated around the nuclei, the particles far away from the nuclei were smaller, but the labeled-cells’ skeletons and adherent morphology did not change significantly; under the concentration of 25 μg Fe/mL of, MIRB did not affect cellular viabilities of BMSCs, but the gene expressions of bone sialoprotein, ALP, RUNX2 and BMP-2 were decreased, and the secretion amount of ALP and osteocalcin were also declined. MIRB would not affect the proliferation and cell structures of BMSCs, but the SPIO particles aggregated and formed larger granules around the nuclei, which might affect the osteogenesis of BMSCs. PMID:26550127

  5. [Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated to host plants in the southern region of Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, M A L; da Silva, A C M; Silva, V E S; Bomfim, Z V; Guimarães, J A; de Souza Filho, M F; Araujo, E L

    2011-01-01

    The association among Anastrepha species, braconid parasitoids and host fruits in southern Bahia is recorded. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was associated with A. serpentina (Wied.) in Pouteria caimito, A. bahiensis Lima in Helicostylis tomentosa, A. sororcula Zucchi in Eugenia uniflora, and A. obliqua (Macquart) in Spondias purpurea. Anatrepha obliqua was unique in fruits of Averrhoa carambola, but associated with D. areolatus, Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck) and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck). In Achras sapota, A. serpentina was associated with A. anastrephae and D. areolatus, while in Psidium guajava, A. fraterculus (Wied.) and A. sororcula were associated with D. areolatus and U. anastrephae.

  6. Cell-Based Therapy in TBI: Magnetic Retention of Neural Stem Cells In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei-Bin; Plachez, Céline; Tsymbalyuk, Orest; Tsymbalyuk, Natalya; Xu, Su; Smith, Aaron M; Michel, Sarah L J; Yarnell, Deborah; Mullins, Roger; Gullapalli, Rao P; Puche, Adam; Simard, J Marc; Fishman, Paul S; Yarowsky, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is under active investigation for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Noninvasive stem cell delivery is the preferred method, but retention of stem cells at the site of injury in TBI has proven challenging and impacts effectiveness. To investigate the effects of applying a magnetic field on cell homing and retention, we delivered human neuroprogenitor cells (hNPCs) labeled with a superparamagnetic nanoparticle into post-TBI animals in the presence of a static magnetic field. We have previously devised a method of loading hNPCs with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles Molday ION Rhodamine B (MIRB™). Labeling of hNPCs (MIRB-hNPCs) does not affect hNPC viability, proliferation, or differentiation. The 0.6 tesla (T) permanent magnet was placed ∼4 mm above the injured parietal cortex prior to intracarotid injection of 4 × 10(4) MIRB-hNPCs. Fluorescence imaging, Perls' Prussian blue histochemistry, immunocytochemistry with SC121, a human-specific antibody, and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging ex vivo revealed there was increased homing and retention of MIRB-hNPCs in the injured cortex as compared to the control group in which MIRB-hNPCs were injected in the absence of a static magnetic field. Fluoro-Jade C staining and immunolabeling with specific markers confirmed the viability status of MIRB-hNPCs posttransplantation. These results show that increased homing and retention of MIRB-hNPCs post-TBI by applying a static magnetic field is a promising technique to deliver cells into the CNS for treatment of neurological injuries and neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Forest fragments as barriers to fruit fly dispersal: Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in orchards and adjacent forest fragments in Puerto Rico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    McPhail-type traps baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine were used to monitor populations of Anastrepha obliqua and A. suspensa at four sites in Guánica, Puerto Rico; one forest fragment in Ponce, Puerto Rico; in a commercial mango orchard in Guayanilla, PR; and an experimental carambola orcha...

  8. Pest risk assessment of the importation into the United States of unprocessed logs and chips of eighteen Eucalypt species from Australia.

    Treesearch

    John T. Kliejunas; Harold H., Jr. Burdsall; Gregg A. DeNitto; Andris Eglitis; Dennis A. Haugen; Michael I. Harverty; Jessie A. Micales; Borys M. Tkacz; Mark R. Powell

    2003-01-01

    The unmitigated pest risk potential for the importation of unprocessed logs and chips of 18 species of eucalypts (Eucalyptus amygdalina, E. cloeziana, E. delegatensis, E. diversicolor, E. dunnii, E. globulus, E. grandis, E. nitens, E. obliqua, E. ovata, E. pilularis, E. regnans, E. saligna, E. sieberi, E. viminalis, Corymbia calophylla, C. citriodora, and C. maculata)...

  9. Establishment of the west indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoid Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)in the Dominican Republic

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), infests numerous fruit species, particularly Anacardiaceae and most importantly mango (Mangifera indica L.). Widespread in the Neotropics, it was first reported in Hispaniola nearly 70 years ago. Continental populations are attacked by the op...

  10. Chilled packing systems for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the sterile insect technique.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Emilio; Escobar, Arseny; Bravo, Bigail; Montoya, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated three packing systems (PARC boxes, "GT" screen towers and "MX" screen towers) for the emergence and sexual maturation of sterile fruit flies, at three adult fly densities (1, 1.2 and 1.3 fly/cm²) and three food types. At the lowest density, results showed no significant differences in the longevity and flight ability of adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua Macquart among the three packing systems. Higher densities resulted in a decrease in these parameters. In the evaluation of the three food types, no significant differences were found either on longevity or flight ability of A. ludens. However, the greatest longevity for both sexes A. obliqua was obtained with commercial powdered Mb® and the mix of sugar, protein and corn starch on paper (SPCP) food types. The highest value for flight ability in A. obliqua males was obtained with powdered Mb® and SPCP food types, and for females with Mb® powdered food. Our data indicated that GT and MX screen tower packing systems are an alternative to the PARC boxes, since they were suitable for adult fly sexual maturation without any harm to their longevity or flight ability. The tested foods were equivalent in both fruit fly species, with the exception of the agar type for A. obliqua, which yielded the lowest biological parameters evaluated. Our results contribute to the application of new methods for the packing and release of sterile flies in large-scale programs.

  11. New species and new records in Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of the state of Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Galileo, Maria Helena M.; Martins, Ubirajara R.; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species are described from Bahia (Brazil): Coleoxestia beckeri (Cerambycini), and Oncioderes obliqua (Onciderini). Nine species are recorded for the first time for Bahia (Brazil). Key to species of Oncioderes Martins & Galileo, 1990 is provided. Coleoxestia beckeri is included in a previous key. PMID:26312029

  12. Brown rot in inner heartwood: why large logs support characteristics saproxylic beetle assemblages of conservation concern

    Treesearch

    Marie Yee; Simon J. Grove; Alastair M.M. Richardson; Caroline L. Mohammed

    2006-01-01

    It is not clear why large diameter logs generally host saproxylic beetle assemblages that are different from those of small diameter logs. In a study in Tasmanian wet eucalypt forest, two size-classes of Eucalyptus obliqua logs (>100cm and 30-60cm diameter) were destructively sampled to assess their beetle fauna and the associations of this fauna...

  13. Grapefruit as a host for the West Indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis; Robacker, David

    2011-02-01

    The most common hosts for the West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are fruit in the family Anacardiaceae (mango [Mangifera L.] and mombin [Spondias L.] species). However, similar to many of the tropical fruit flies of major economic importance, this species attacks several other families of crop fruit, including Annonaceae (cherimoya, Annona cherimola Mill.), Myrtaceae (guava, Psidium L.), Oxalidaceae (carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), Passifloraceae (granadilla, Passiflora quadrangularis Mill.), and Sapotaceae [mamey sapote, Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H. E. Moore & Steam]. In the family Rutaceae the economically important genus Citrus has been reported and until recently considered a host for this fruit fly. In this study, we reviewed the taxonomy of A. obliqua, tested specific chemicals that may inhibit oviposition, compared egg-to-adult survival of A. obliqua on preferred hosts and on grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.), and measured fruit tissue-specific developmental rates of A. obliqua and the known citrus breeding Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), from egg to pupae. Our literature review shows much confusion concerning the taxonomy of this and related Anastrepha species, including synonymies and confusion with other species. The deterrent effect of the highest concentration of flavonoids for oviposition, although significant, was not absolute. Experiments carried out under laboratory conditions showed 15-40 times greater survival of A. ludens (whose preferred hosts include Rutaceae) on grapefruit compared with A. obliqua for both tree attached and harvested fruit. Experiments of survival of developing stages over time showed that the two species oviposit into different tissues in the fruit, and mortality is much higher for the West Indian fruit fly in the flavedo and albedo of the fruit compared with the Mexican fruit fly.

  14. Stand characteristics of 65-year-old planted and naturally regenerated stands near Sequim, Washington.

    Treesearch

    Richard E. Miller; Harry W. Anderson

    1995-01-01

    Tree numbers, height, and volume were determined in six 63- to 66-year-old plantations of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) in northwest Washington. These stands resulted from the first extensive plantings of this species in the Pacific Northwest. Data from 0.25-acre plots in these...

  15. Reconstructed old-growth forest stand structure and composition of two stands on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington state

    Treesearch

    David H. Peter; Constance A. Harrington

    2010-01-01

    We reconstructed the stand structure and composition for two western Washington old-growth forest stands harvested around 1930 (named Fresca and Rail) from field and historical data. Both old-growth stands had a codominant or dominant 250-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) overstory with a few scattered older Douglas-fir....

  16. Operational experience at a "dog-hair" site.

    Treesearch

    Stephen R. Ricketts; Richard E. Miller

    1995-01-01

    To monitor consequences of past operational practices, we installed eight 0.05-acre plots in a 9-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) plantation established after clearcutting a grossly overstocked stand on a poor-quality site. Logging slash was broadcast burned on half this clearcut. One...

  17. Food reserves and seasonal growth of Douglas-fir seedlings.

    Treesearch

    Kenneth W. Krueger; James M. Trappe

    1967-01-01

    Seasonal growth of tops and roots and concomitant trends in food reserves were observed biweekly on Peudotsuga menzisii (Mirb.) Franco seedlings of two seed sources growing in a Pacific Northwest forest nursery. A general pattern of alternating root, diameter, and shoot growth was found. Rapid root growth did not coincide with rapid shoot...

  18. Testing predictions of forest succession using long-term measurements: 100 yrs of observations in the Oregon Cascades

    Treesearch

    Mark E. Harmon; Robert J. Pabst

    2015-01-01

    Question: Many predictions about forest succession have been based on chronosequences. Are these predictions – at the population, community and ecosystemlevel – consistent with long-termmeasurements in permanent plots? Location: Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco dominated forest in western Oregon, US.Methods: Over a 100-yr period,...

  19. Developmental decline in height growth in Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    Barbara J. Bond; Nicole M. Czarnomski; Clifton Cooper; Michael E. Day; Michael S. Greenwood

    2007-01-01

    The characteristic decline in height growth that occurs over a tree's lifespan is often called "age-related decline." But is the reduction in height growth in aging trees a function of age or of size? We grafted shoot tips across different ages and sizes of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees to determine whether...

  20. Effects of sib-mating and wind pollination on nursery seedling size, growth components, and phenology of Douglas-fir seed-orchard progenies.

    Treesearch

    Frank C. Sorensen

    1997-01-01

    Polymix outcross (X), full-sib (FS), and wind-pollination (WP) families were produced on 25 seed trees and 10 half-sib families on 10 of the same trees in a Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii seedling seed orchard. Seedlings were raised at two sowing densities for 2 years in the nursery, and inbreeding depression in seedling size...

  1. Interim definitions for old growth Douglas-fir and mixed-conifer forests in the Pacific Northwest and California.

    Treesearch

    J.F. Franklin; F. Hall; W. Laudenslayer; C. Maser; J. Nunan; J. Poppino; C.J. Ralph; T. Spies

    1986-01-01

    Interim definitions of old-growth forests are provided to guide efforts in land-management planning until comprehensive definitions based on research that is currently underway can be formulated. The basic criteria for identifying old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and mixed-conifer forests in western Washington and...

  2. Species richness, abundance, and composition of hypogeous and epigeous ectomycorrhizal fungal sporocarps in young, rotation-age, and old-growth stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in the Cascade Range of Oregon, U.S.A.

    Treesearch

    J.E. Smith; R. Molina; M.M.P. Huso; D.L. Luoma; D. McKay; M.A. Castellano; T. Lebel; Y. Valachovic

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge of the community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi among successional forest age-classes is critical for conserving fungal species diversity. Hypogeous and epigeous sporocarps were collected from three replicate stands in each of three forest age-classes (young, rotation-age, and old-growth) of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)...

  3. Energy values for whole trees and crowns of selected species.

    Treesearch

    James O. Howard

    1988-01-01

    Energy values, BTU's (British thermal units) per ovendry pound, were determined for whole-tree and crown materials from western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii), and western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don)....

  4. Genetic variation and seed zones of Douglas-fir in the Siskiyou National Forest.

    Treesearch

    Robert K. Campbell; Albert I. Sugano

    1993-01-01

    Provisional seed zones and breeding zones were developed for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Siskiyou National Forest in southwestern Oregon. Zones were based on maps of genetic variation patterns obtained by evaluating genotypes of trees from 260 locations in the region. Genotypes controlling growth vigor and growth...

  5. Genetic variation in tree structure and its relation to size in Douglas-fir: I. Biomass partitioning, foliage efficiency, stem form, and wood density.

    Treesearch

    J.B. St. Clair

    1994-01-01

    Genetic variation and covariation among traits of tree size and structure were assessed in an 18-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) genetic test in the Coast Range of Oregon. Considerable genetic variation was found in size, biomass partitioning, and wood density, and genetic gains may be...

  6. Use of large-scale silvicultural studies to evaluate management options in Pacific Northwest forests of the United States.

    Treesearch

    Stephen E. Reutebuch; Constance A. Harrington; David D. Marshall; Leslie C. Brodie

    2004-01-01

    A suite of large-scale silvicultural experiments has been established to develop and assess operational silviculture options for the Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco vat. menziesii) forests. This paper summarizes three such studies that focus on three major stages in the life of managed stands...

  7. Infection of Douglas-fir by Leptographium wageneri.

    Treesearch

    Paul F. Hessburg; Everett M. Hansen

    2000-01-01

    In three related experiments, root systems of 2-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were dip-inoculated with a viscous blend of Leptographium wageneri var. pseudotsugae Harrington and Cobb spores and hyphal fragments and planted in a sterile potting medium. Infection...

  8. Graft union formation in Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    D.L. Copes

    1969-01-01

    Greenhouse-grown Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) graft unions were examined between 2 and 84 days after grafting. Room temperature was maintained at 60-70 F throughout the growing season. In most respects grafts of Douglas-fir followed development patterns previously reported for spruce and pine grafts, but specific differences...

  9. Occurrence of Piloderma fallax in young, rotationage, and old-growth stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in the Cascade Range of Oregon, U.S.A.

    Treesearch

    J.E. Smith; R. Molina; M.M.P. Huso; M.J. Larsen

    2000-01-01

    Yellow mycelia and cords of Piloderma fallax (Lib.) Stalp. were more frequently observed in old-growth stands than in younger managed stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). Piloderma fallax frequency and percent cover data were collected from 900 plots in three replicate stands in...

  10. Growth of bear-damaged trees in a mixed plantation of Douglas-fir and red alder.

    Treesearch

    Richard E. Miller; Harry W. Anderson; Donald L. Reukema; Timothy A. Max

    2007-01-01

    Incidence and effects of tree damage by black bear (Ursus americanus altifrontalis) in a 50-year-old, coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) plantation are described. Bears girdled or partially girdled 35 dominant or codominant Douglas-fir trees per acre, but only in that...

  11. Levels-of-growing-stock cooperative study in Douglas-fir: report no. 12—The Iron Creek Study, 1966-89.

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Curtis; Gary W. Clendenen

    1994-01-01

    Results of the Iron Creek installation of the levels-of-growing-stock study in Douglasfir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) are summarized. To age 42 (planned completion of the experiment) volume growth in this site II Douglas-fir plantation has been strongly related to level of growing stock, partially offsetting the decrease in volume growth...

  12. Levels-of-growing-stock cooperative study in Douglas-fir: report no. 19—The Iron Creek study, 1966–2006.

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Curtis; David D. Marshall

    2009-01-01

    This report documents the history and results of the Iron Creek installation of the cooperative Levels-of-Growing-Stock (LOGS) study in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), over the period 1966–2006 (ages 19 to 59). This is a 1949 plantation on an excellent site, and is one of nine installations in the study. Results are generally...

  13. Financial feasibility of marker-aided selection in Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    G.R. Johnson; N.C. Wheeler; S.H. Strauss

    2000-01-01

    The land area required for a marker-aided selection (MAS) program to break-even (i.e., have equal costs and benefits) was estimated using computer simulation for coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Pacific Northwestern United States. We compared the selection efficiency obtained when using an index that included the...

  14. Effects of leader topping and branch pruning on efficiency of Douglas-fir cone harvesting with a tree shaker.

    Treesearch

    D.L. Copes

    1985-01-01

    In 1983, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of leader topping and branch pruning on the efficiency to tree shaking to remove Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) cones. Removal efficiency for three topping and pruning treatments averaged 69 percent, whereas for the uncut control treatment it was 62 percent. The treatment...

  15. SEASONAL PATTERNS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN DOUGLAS FIR SEEDLINGS DURING THE THIRD AND FOURTH YEAR OF EXPOSURE TO ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the interactive effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and temperature on seasonal patterns of photosynthesis in Douglas-fir (Psuedotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings. Seedlings were grown in sunlit chambers controlled to track either ambient (~400 ppm) CO2 or am...

  16. Breeding design considerations for coastal Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    Randy. Johnson

    1998-01-01

    The basic principles of designing forest tree breeding programs are reviewed for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Pacific Northwest. Breeding populations are discussed given current and future breeding zone sizes and seed orchard designs. Seed orchard composition is discussed for potential genetic gain and maintaining...

  17. Current seed orchard techniques and innovations

    Treesearch

    Lawrence K. Miller; Jeffrey DeBell

    2013-01-01

    As applied forest tree improvement programs in the US Northwest move forward into the third cycle, seed orchards remain as the primary source of genetically improved forest tree seed used for reforestation. The vast majority of seed orchards in this region are coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), consistent with the high economic importance of...

  18. Lacinipolia Patalis grote (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) infesting Douglas-fir cones: A new host record

    Treesearch

    Nancy G. Rappaport

    1988-01-01

    Larvai of Lacinipolia patalis (Grote) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were discovered in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziessi [Mirb.} Franco) cones collected from the Louisiana-Pacific Corporation's Little River Seed Orchard near Trinidad Head in Humboldt County, CA (elevation 91 m) during the fall of 1985. Previous surveys have not...

  19. ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ALTER NITROGEN ALLOCATION IN DOUGLAS-FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on principal carbon constituents (PCC) and C and N allocation between needle, woody (stem and branches) and root tissue of Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. Franco seedlings were determined. The seedlings were grown in sun-lit controlled-envi...

  20. Short-day treatment alters Douglas-fir seedling dehardening and transplant root proliferation at varying rhizosphere temperatures

    Treesearch

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Anthony S. Davis; BArrett C. Wilson; R. Kasten Dumroese; Rosa C. Goodman; K. Francis Salifu

    2008-01-01

    We tested effects of shortened day length during nursery culture on Douglis-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedling development at dormancy release. Seedlings from a 42 N source were grown either under ambient photoperiods (long-day (LD)) or with a 28 day period of 9 h light: 15 h dark photoperiods (short...

  1. Relationships among chilling hours, photoperiod, calendar date, cold hardiness, seed source, and storage of Douglas-fir seedlings

    Treesearch

    Diane L. Haase; Nabil Khadduri; Euan Mason; Kas Dumroese

    2016-01-01

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) seedlings from three nurseries in the Pacific Northwest United States were lifted on five dates from mid-October through mid-December 2006. Each nursery provided seedlings from a low- and a high-elevation seed lot. Photoperiod and accumulated chilling hours (calculated using two methods) were evaluated...

  2. DFPRUNE users guide.

    Treesearch

    R.D. Fight; J.M. Cahill; T.D. Fahey

    1992-01-01

    The DFPRUNE spreadsheet program is designed to estimate the expected financial return from pruning coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii. It is a significant revision of the PRUNE-SIM program. The PRUNE-SIM program was based on the average product recovery for unpruned logs from a single stand...

  3. The New Zealand douglas-fir breeding program: proposed adjustments for a changing climate

    Treesearch

    Heidi Dungey; Charlie Low; Mark Miller; Kane Fleet; Alvin D. Yanchuk

    2012-01-01

    Genetic improvement of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in New Zealand was initiated in 1955 with large provenance trials established in the late 1950s. These trials showed that material of Oregon and Californian origin was growing faster than other provenances. Additional collections were made to further evaluate provenance...

  4. Acoustic sorting models for improved log segregation

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang; Steve Verrill; Eini Lowell; Robert J. Ross; Vicki L. Herian

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined three individual log measures (acoustic velocity, log diameter, and log vertical position in a tree) for their ability to predict average modulus of elasticity (MOE) and grade yield of structural lumber obtained from Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb. Franco]) logs. We found that log acoustic velocity only had a...

  5. Effect of Peat Moss and Pumice on Douglas Fir Bark based Soilless Substrate Physical and Hydraulic Properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb.(Franco)] bark (DFB), sphagnum peat moss, and pumice are the most common substrate components used in the Oregon nursery industry. The objective of this study was to document the effect of peat and pumice addition on the physical and hydrological properties o...

  6. Estimating tree biomass, carbon, and nitrogen in two vegetation control treatments in an 11-year-old Douglas-fir plantation on a highly productive site

    Treesearch

    Warren D. Devine; Paul W. Footen; Robert B. Harrison; Thomas A. Terry; Constance A. Harrington; Scott M. Holub; Peter J. Gould

    2013-01-01

    We sampled trees grown with and without competing vegetation control in an 11-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation on a highly productive site in southwestern Washington to create diameter based allometric equations for estimating individual-tree bole, branch, foliar, and total...

  7. Pityophthorus orarius Bright (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in a northern California Douglas-fir seed orchard: effect of clone, tree vigor, and cone crop on rate of attack

    Treesearch

    Nancy G. Rappaport; David L. Wood

    1994-01-01

    The geographic range of the Douglas-fir twig beetle, Pityophthorus orarius Bright, was extended beyond the original provenance of southern British Columbia to northern California. A survey of 457 Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] trees in 1985 revealed that those with heavy cone crops were more likely to be...

  8. Predicting postfire Douglas-fir beetle attacks and tree mortality in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    Sharon Hood; Barbara Bentz

    2007-01-01

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) were monitored for 4 years following three wildfires. Logistic regression analyses were used to develop models predicting the probability of attack by Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, 1905) and the probability of Douglas-fir mortality within 4 years following...

  9. Acoustic Evaluation of Thinning and Biosolid Fertilization Effects on Wood Quality of a Douglas-fir stand

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Steve Verrill; Eini Lowell; Jamie Barbour

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the potential of using a time-of-flight (TOF) acoustic wave method to evaluate thinning and biosolid fertilization effects on acoustic velocity of trees and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of structural lumber in a 76-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb., Franco)) experimental stand. The stand consisted of four...

  10. Discerning responses of down wood and understory vegetation abundance to riparian buffer width and thinning treatments: an equivalence-inequivalence approach

    Treesearch

    Paul D. Anderson; Mark A. Meleason

    2009-01-01

    We investigated buffer width and thinning effects on the abundance of down wood and understory vegetation in headwater stream catchments of 40- to 65-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests in western Oregon, USA. Small-wood cover became more homogeneous among stream reaches within 5 years following thinning, primarily...

  11. Effects of Geographic Seed Source on the Form of Planted Loblolly Pine in Louisiana

    Treesearch

    H. E. Kennedy; A. B. Crow

    1969-01-01

    European foresters have long recognized that when seed are moved from one location to another, the possibilities of getting trees of good form, frost hardiness, and disease resistance are lessened. Early work on seed origin iD the United States ,was conducted with Douglas-fir ( (Mirb.) Franco) and ponderosa pine (Pinus...

  12. Bedrock type significantly affects individual tree mortality for various conifers in the inland Northwest, U.S.A

    Treesearch

    James A. Moore; David A Hamilton; Yu Xiao; John Byrne

    2004-01-01

    Individual tree mortality models for western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.), western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex. D. Don), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), and western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) were developed using data...

  13. Four centuries of soil carbon and nitrogen change after stand-replacing fire in a forest landscape in the western Cascade Range of Oregon

    Treesearch

    T. W. Giesen; S. S. Perakis; K. Cromack

    2008-01-01

    Episodic stand-replacing wildfire is a significant disturbance in mesic and moist Douglas-frr (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests of the Pacific Northwest. We studied 24 forest stands with known fire histories in the western . Cascade Range in Oregon to evaluate long-tenn impacts of stand-replacing wildfire on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N)...

  14. SAPWOOD MOISTURE IN DOUGLAS-FIR BOLES AND SEASONAL CHANGES IN SOIL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large conifers, such as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. Menziesii), purportedly draw on water stored in their boles during periods of summer drought. The relation of seasonal changes in soil moisture to sapwood water content was evaluated in four forest st...

  15. Intensive management influence on Douglas-fir stem form, branch characteristics, and simulated product recovery

    Treesearch

    A.R. Weiskittel; R.A. Monserud; R. Rose; E.C. Turnblom; Douglas A. Maguire

    2006-01-01

    Intensive management may adversely affect lumber yield and quality by increasing knot size and creating a more conical stem form with a greater average rate of taper. This study was initiated to examine the impact of management on simulated lumber yield and quality. Stem diameter and branch size and location of 223 Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)...

  16. Log and lumber grades as indicators of wood quality in 20- to 100-year-old Douglas-fir trees from thinned and unthinned stands.

    Treesearch

    R. James Barbour; Dean L. Parry

    2001-01-01

    This report examines the differences in wood characteristics found in coastal Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga mensziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees harvested at the age of 70 to 100 years old to wood characteristics of trees harvested at the age of 40 to 60 years. Comparisons of differences in domestic log grades suggest that the proportion...

  17. Temporal and spatial changes in soil carbon and nitrogen after clearcutting and burning of an old-growth Douglas-fir forest.

    Treesearch

    Joseph A. Antos; Charles B. Halpern; Richard E. Miller; Kermit Cromack; Melora G. Halaj

    2003-01-01

    We used 135 permanent plots (4 m2) nested within 15 blocks (121 m2) to quantify changes in concentration and spatial variation of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in the mineral soil (0- to 10-cm depth) after logging and broadcast burning of an old-growth, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco)...

  18. Douglas-fir displays a range of growth responses to temperature, water, and Swiss needle cast in western Oregon, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) growth in the Pacific Northwest is affected by climatic, edaphic factors and Swiss needle cast (SNC) disease. We examine Douglas-fir growth responses to temperature, dewpoint deficit (DPD), soil moisture, and SNC ...

  19. Parental GCA testing: how many crosses per parent?

    Treesearch

    G.R. Johnson

    1998-01-01

    The impact of increasing the number of crosses per parent (k) on the efficiency of roguing seed orchards (backwards selection, i.e., reselection of parents) was examined by using Monte Carlo simulation. Efficiencies were examined in light of advanced-generation Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) tree improvement programs where...

  20. The role of tree improvement programs for ex situ gene conservation of coastal Douglas-fir in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Sara R. Lipow; G. Randy Johnson; J. Bradley St. Claiff; Keith J. Jayawickrama

    2003-01-01

    We enumerate the genetic resources for coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) in tree improvement programs in the Pacific Northwest USA and evaluate how they contribute to gene conservation of the species. The first-generation programs include over four million progeny from 33,928 selections...

  1. DFSIM with economics: A financial analysis option for the DFSIM Douglas-fir simulator.

    Treesearch

    Roger O. Fight; Judith M. Chittester; Gary W. Clendenen

    1984-01-01

    A modified version of the DFSIM Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) growth and yield simulator, DFSIM WITH ECONOMICS, now has an economics option that allows the user to estimate present net worth at the same time a silvicultural regime is simulated. If desired, the economics option will apply a...

  2. Application of chloropicrin to Douglas-fir stumps to control laminated root rot does not affect infection or growth of regeneration 16 growing seasons after treatment.

    Treesearch

    Walter G. Thies; Douglas J. Westlind

    2006-01-01

    Phellinus weirii (Murr.) Gilb. causes laminated root rot (LRR), a major disease affecting growth and survival of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco (Douglas-fir) and other commercially important conifer species throughout the Pacific Northwest. This disease is known to spread to a replacement stand by root contact between...

  3. RELATING FINE ROOT BIOMASS TO SOIL AND CLIMATE CONDITIONS IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The additive contribution of fine root biomass for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) to the stand average fine root biomass were estimated for eight conifer stands in the Pacific Northwest. Base...

  4. Deterioration rates of blowndown timber and potential problems associated with product recovery.

    Treesearch

    Paul E. Aho; James M. Cahill

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes published reports of deterioration and product recovery studies conducted on dead timber. Decay rates experienced in blowndown timber are presented for western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don), Douglasfir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), and...

  5. Protecting wood decks from biodegradation and weathering : evaluation of deck finish systems

    Treesearch

    J. J. Morrell; P. F. Schneider; R. Sam Williams

    2001-01-01

    Mildew resistance, water repellency, and overall finish appearance were evaluated for 32 deck finishes on western redcedar (Thuja plicata D. Donn.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) after 12, 21, and 39 months of outdoor exposure in western Oregon. The finishes were either solvent-borne or waterborne; were ei- ther clear, tinted, or lightly...

  6. SAPWOOD MOISTURE IN DOUGLAS-FIR BOLES AND SEASONAL CHANGES IN SOIL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large conifers, such as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. Menziesii), purportedly draw on water stored in their boles during periods of summer drought. The relation of seasonal changes in soil moisture to sapwood water content was evaluated in four forest st...

  7. Development and validation of a fixed-precision sequential sampling plan for estimating brood adult density of Dendroctonus pseudotsugae (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Treesearch

    Jose F. Negron; Willis C. Schaupp; Erik Johnson

    2000-01-01

    The Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, attacks Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco (Pinaceae), throughout western North America. Periodic outbreaks cause increased mortality of its host. Land managers and forest health specialists often need to determine population trends of this insect. Bark samples were obtained from 326 trees...

  8. Effects of plantation and juvenile spacing on tree and stand development.

    Treesearch

    J. Harry G. Smith; Donald L. Reukema

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarize current knowledge of effects of initial spacing and respacing of plantations and natural stands on early growth until the time of first commercial entry—for coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco), concentrating on conclusions that can be drawn from the literature and the authors...

  9. Relation of initial spacing and relative stand density indices to stand characteristics in a Douglas-fir plantation spacing trial

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Curtis; Sheel Bansal; Constance A. Harrington

    2016-01-01

    This report presents updated information on a 1981 Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii ) plantation spacing trial at 33 years from planting. Stand statistics at the most recent measurement were compared for initial spacing of 1 through 6 meters and associated relative densities. There was no clear...

  10. Respiration , nitrogen fixation, and mineralizable nitrogen spatial and temporal patterns within two Oregon Douglas-fir stands.

    Treesearch

    Sharon M. Hope; Ching-Yan. Li

    1997-01-01

    Substrate respiration, mineralizable nitrogen, and nitrogen fixation rates, substrate moisture,content, and temperature were measured in trenched and undisturbed plots within two western Oregon Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands. The stands represent two different environments and ages. Woods Creek, the site of the lower...

  11. Reforestation systems compared on coastal clearcuts: 10-year results

    Treesearch

    William I. Stein

    2014-01-01

    In a large factorial study replicated in six locations, responses of five Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and two western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) stock types, tubed and untubed, were observed when planted after each of four site preparation treatments with and without later release. In 10...

  12. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON COLD HARDINESS AND SPRING BUD BURST AND GROWTH IN DOUGLAS-FIR (PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on cold hardiness and bud burst of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings. Two-year-old seedlings were grown for 2.5 years in semi-closed, sunlit chambers at either ambient or elevated (ambient+apprxeq 4deg...

  13. Effects of seed source origin on bark thickness of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) growing in southwestern Germany

    Treesearch

    Ulrich Kohnle; Sebastian Hein; Frank C. Sorensen; Aaron R. Weiskittel

    2012-01-01

    Provenance-specific variation in bark thickness in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) is important for accurate volume calculations and might carry ecological implications as well. To investigate variation, diameter at breast height (dbh) and double bark thickness (dbt) were measured in 10 experiments in southwestern Germany (16...

  14. Stump-to-truck cable logging cost equations for young-growth douglas-fir

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux; Roger D. Fight; Tom L. Ortman

    1986-01-01

    Logging cost simulators and data from logging cost studies have been assembled and converted into a series of equations that can be used to estimate the cost of logging young-growth coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco var. menziesii) in mountainous terrain of the Pacific Northwest. These equations were...

  15. Analysts guide: TreeVal for Windows, Version 2.0.

    Treesearch

    R.D. Fight; J.T. Chmelik; E.A. Coulter

    2001-01-01

    TreeVal for Windows provides financial information and analysis to support silvicultural decisions in coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). It integrates the effect of growth and yield, management costs, harvesting costs, product and mill type, manufacturing costs, product prices, and product grade premiums. Output files from...

  16. Simulating fuel treatment effects in dry forests of the western United States: testing the principles of a fire-safe forest

    Treesearch

    Morris C. Johnson; Maureen C Kennedy; David L. Peterson

    2011-01-01

    We used the Fire and Fuels Extension to the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FFE-FVS) to simulate fuel treatment effects on stands in low- to midelevation dry forests (e.g., ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex. P. & C. Laws.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) of the western United States. We...

  17. Calculating moisture content for 1000-hour timelag fuels in western Washington and western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Roger D. Ottmar; David V. Sandberg

    1985-01-01

    A predictive model is presented to calculate moisture content of 1000-hour timelag fuels in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) logging slash in western Washington and western Oregon. The model is a modification of the 1000-hour fuel moisture model of the...

  18. Regeneration in mixed conifer and Douglas-fir shelterwood cuttings in the Cascade Range of Washington.

    Treesearch

    K.W. Seidel

    1983-01-01

    A survey of shelterwood cuttings in mixed conifer and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests in the Cascade Range in Washington showed that, on the average, shelterwood units were adequately-stocked with a mixture of advance, natural postharvest, and planted reproduction of a number of species. Shelterwood cuttings in the...

  19. Impact of the foliar pathogen Swiss needle cast on wood quality of Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    G.R. Johnson; Amy T. Grotta; Barbara L. Gartner; Geoff. Downes

    2005-01-01

    Many stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) near coastal areas of Oregon and Washington are heavily infected with the foliar pathogen causing Swiss needle cast (SNC) disease, and yet there is very little research on the resulting wood quality. Modulus of elasticity(MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), microfibril angle (MFA), wood...

  20. Hormonal control of second flushing in Douglas-fir shoots.

    Treesearch

    Morris Cline; Mark Yoders; Dipti Desai; Constance Harrington; William. Carlson

    2006-01-01

    Spring-flushing, over-wintered buds of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) produce new buds that may follow various developmental pathways. These include second flushing in early summer or dormancy before flushing during the following spring. Second flushing usually entails an initial release of apical dominance as some of the...

  1. Inheritance of restriction fragment length polymorphisms, random amplified polymorphic DNAs and isozymes in coastal Douglas-fir

    Treesearch

    K.D. Jermstad; A.M. Reem; J.R. Henifin; N.C. Wheeler; D.B Neale

    1994-01-01

    A total of 225 new genetic loci [151 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and 74 random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPD)] in coastal Douglas- fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii] have been identified using a three-generation outbred pedigree. The Mendelian inheritance of 16 RFLP loci and 29...

  2. Partial DNA sequencing of Douglas-fir cDNAs used in RFLP mapping

    Treesearch

    K.D. Jermstad; D.L. Bassoni; C.S. Kinlaw; D.B. Neale

    1998-01-01

    DNA sequences from 87 Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) cDNA RFLP probes were determined. Sequences were submitted to the GenBank dbEST database and searched for similarity against nucleotide and protein databases using the BLASTn and BLASTx programs. Twenty-one sequences (24%) were assigned putative functions; 18 of which...

  3. Growth and cold hardiness of container-grown Douglas-fir, noble fir, and Sitka spruce seedlings in simulated greenhouse regimes.

    Treesearch

    Peyton W. Owston; T.T. Kozlowski

    1981-01-01

    Seedlings of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, Abies procera Rehd., and Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. were grown for 5 months in growth rooms which simulated hot, warm, or cool growing regimes in greenhouses in western Oregon. Temperature, humidity, light intensity, and photoperiod were changed...

  4. Resource use and clonal differences in attack rate by the Douglas-fir seed chalcid, Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), in France

    Treesearch

    Nancy Rappaport; Alain Roques

    1991-01-01

    The within-cone distribution of Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), the Douglas-fir seed chalcid, infesting Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] cones from north-central France was compared with that in samples from California. Results indicate that the mid-region of cones was more intensively...

  5. Wood productivity of Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir: estimates from growth-and-yield models.

    Treesearch

    David D. Marshall; Eric C. Turnblom

    2005-01-01

    With increases in harvest of forests in the Pacific Northwest during the late 1800s and early 1900s came a concern for future timber supplies. Unsuccessful attempts at selective logging in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) France) and a better understanding of requirements for natural regeneration led to the adoption of moderate-sized...

  6. Ground-based forest harvesting effects on soil physical properties and Douglas-fir growth.

    Treesearch

    Adrian Ares; Thomas A. Terry; Richard E. Miller; Harry W. Anderson; Barry L. Flaming

    2005-01-01

    Soil properties and forest productivity can be affected by heavy equipment used for harvest and site preparation but these impacts vary greatly with site conditions and operational practices. We assessed the effects of ground-based logging on soil physical properties and subsequent Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb) Franco] growth on a highly...

  7. Accelerating development of late-successional conditions in young managed Douglas-fir stands: a simulation study.

    Treesearch

    Steven L. Garman; John H. Cissel; James H. Mayo

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this simulation study was to provide information for defining thinning regimes for young Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in the Central Cascades Adaptive Management Area, located in west-central Oregon. Specifically, this study used the ZELIG.PNW (3.0) gap model to evaluate effects of experimental thinning treatments on the...

  8. Multi-decadal establishment for single-cohort Douglas-fir forests

    Treesearch

    James A. Freund; Jerry F. Franklin; Andrew J. Larson; James A. Lutz

    2014-01-01

    The rate at which trees regenerate following stand-replacing wildfire is an important but poorly understood process in the multi-century development of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) forests. Temporal patterns of Douglas-fir establishment reconstructed from old-growth forests (>450 year) have...

  9. Levels-of-growing-stock cooperative study in Douglas-fir: report no. 13—The Francis Study, 1963-90.

    Treesearch

    Gerald E. Hoyer; Norman A. Andersen; David. Marshall

    1996-01-01

    Results of the Francis installation of the levels-of-growing-stock study in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), begun at stand age 15, are summarized together with results from additional first-thinning treatments started at age 25. To age 42 (5 years beyond the last planned thinning), total cubic-foot volume growth on this mid-site...

  10. The density effect: Red/far red signaling and douglas-fir seedling growth in a variable density field test

    Treesearch

    Gary A. Ritchie; James Keeley; Barbara J. Bond

    2007-01-01

    Coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings, when planted in a reforestation setting, exhibit early height and diameter growth that is inversely proportional to planting density. One hypothesis to explain this observation is that they are able to detect the presence of nearby trees using phytochrome by sensing the ratio of...

  11. MCOL, frontalin, and ethanol: A potential operational trap lure for Douglas-fir beetle in British Columbia

    Treesearch

    B. Staffan Lingren; Daniel R. Miller; J.P. LaFontaine

    2012-01-01

    The Douglas-fir beetle, Dedroctonus pseudotsugae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of Douglas-fire, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) in British Columbia (Humphreys 1995). An operational trap lure for D. pseudotsugae could be useful in an integrated pest management program to minimize mortality of Douglas-...

  12. Effects of vegetation control and organic matter removal on soil water content in a young Douglas-fir plantation.

    Treesearch

    Warren D. Devine; Constance A. Harrington

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of vegetation control and organic matter (OM) removal on soil water content (SWC) in a Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation from age 3 through age 5. Treatments were presence versus absence of vegetation control through year 5 and bole only harvest of the previous stand versus total-tree harvest of...

  13. The "great" price spike of '93: an analysis of lumber and stumpage prices in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Brent L. Sohngen; Richard W. Haynes

    1994-01-01

    Lumber prices for coast Douglas-fir (Psuedotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) swung rapidly from a low of $306 per thousand board feet (MBF) in September 1992 to a high of $495/MBF in March 1993. This price spike represented a sizable increase in the value of lumber over a short period, but it was not the historical...

  14. Effects of bear damage on Douglas-fir lumber recovery

    Treesearch

    Eini C. Lowell; Dennis Dykstra; George McFadden

    2009-01-01

    Bear activily resulting in injury to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) trees has been documented as early as the mid-1850s in the Pacific Northwest. The study reported in this article was designed to help managers decide whether the common practice of removing the damaged but potentially valuable butt section of the bottom log and...

  15. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON COLD HARDINESS AND SPRING BUD BURST AND GROWTH IN DOUGLAS-FIR (PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on cold hardiness and bud burst of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings. Two-year-old seedlings were grown for 2.5 years in semi-closed, sunlit chambers at either ambient or elevated (ambient+apprxeq 4deg...

  16. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers on deer browsing and growth of young Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    Glenn L. Crouch; M.A. Radwan

    1981-01-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus were applied to young Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees to determine their effects on deer browsing and tree growth. Nitrogen (N) proauced measurable responses in browsing of terminal shoots and growth of trees the first year, but effects were mostly negligible 2 years after treatments. No responses to...

  17. Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling adaptive traits in coastal Douglas-fir.II. Spring and fall cold-hardiness

    Treesearch

    K.D. Jermstad; D.L. Bassoni; N.C. Wheeler; T.S. Anekonda; S.N. Aitken; W.T. Adams; D.B. Neale

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting fall and spring cold-hardiness were identified in a three-generation outbred pedigree of coastal Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga meniziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii]. Eleven QTLs controlling fall cold-hardiness were detected on four linkage groups, and 15 QTLs controlling spring cold-hardiness were detected on four...

  18. Dispersion of kaolinite by dissolved organic matter from Douglas-fir roots

    Treesearch

    Philip B. Durgin; Jesse G. Chaney

    1984-01-01

    The organic constituents of water extracts from Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco var. menziesii) roots that cause kaolinite dispersion were investigated. The dissolved organic matter was fractionated according to molecular size and chemical characteristics into acids, neutrals, and bases of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups.

  19. Analyses of gene diversity in some species of conifers

    Treesearch

    Francis C. Yeh

    1981-01-01

    Genetic variation at 21 to 25 loci in extracts of individual megagametophytes was surveyed in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis [Bong.] Carr.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia [Engelm.] Critchfield). The overall mean proportion...

  20. Early genetic testing of coastal Douglas-fir for Swiss needle cast tolerance.

    Treesearch

    Fatih Temel; G.R. Johnson; W.T. Adams

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of early testing coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) for Swiss needle cast (SNC; caused by Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii (Rohde) Petrak) tolerance was investigated using 55 Douglas-fir families from western Oregon. Seedlings were inoculated with P...

  1. Incorporation of genetic gain into growth projections of Douglas-Fir using ORGANON and the Forest Vegetation Simulator

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Gould; David D. Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Growth models for coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) are generally based on measurements of stands that are genetically unimproved (or woods-run); therefore, they cannot be expected to accurately project the development of stands that originate from improved seedlots. In this report, we...

  2. Long-term effects of stump removal to control root rot on forest soil bulk density, soil carbon and nitrogen content.

    Treesearch

    D. Zabowski; D. Chambrear; N. Rotramel; W.G. Thies

    2008-01-01

    Phellinus weirii (Mum.) Gilb is a native pathogen in the forests of the Northwestern United States causing laminated root rot and mortality in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and other susceptible conifer species. This facultative saprophyte is a natural part of the ecosystem, present in most Douglas-fir...

  3. Genetic variation in tree structure and its relation to size in Douglas-fir: II. crown form, branch characters, and foliage characters.

    Treesearch

    J.B. St. Clair

    1994-01-01

    Genetic variation and covariation among traits of tree size and structure were assessed in an 18-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) genetic test in the Coast Range of Oregon. Considerable genetic variation was found for relative crown width; stem increment per crown projection area; leaf...

  4. Projected future suitable habitat and productivity of Douglas-fir in western North America

    Treesearch

    Aaron R. Weiskittel; Nicholas L. Crookston; Gerald E. Rehfeldt

    2012-01-01

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) is one of the most common and commercially important species in western North America. The species can occupy a range of habitats, is long-lived (up to 500 years), and highly productive. However, the future of Douglas-fir in western North America is highly uncertain due to the expected changes in climate conditions....

  5. Site index and height growth curves for managed, even-aged stands of Douglas-fir east of the Cascades in Oregon and Washington

    Treesearch

    P. H. Cochran

    1979-01-01

    Height growth and site index curves and equations for managed, even-aged stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziezii (Mirb.) Franco) east of the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington are presented. Data were collected in stands where height growth apparently has not been suppressed by high density or top damage.

  6. Ten-year development of Douglas-fir and associated vegetation after different site preparation on coast range clearcuts.

    Treesearch

    William I. Stein

    1995-01-01

    Side-by-side comparisons were made in an operational-sized, replicated experiment, installed in 1980-81 on four areas in the Coast Ranges of Oregon, to determine the effects of six methods of site preparation on the subsequent survival and growth of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and associated vegetation. A decade later, tree...

  7. Seedfall in a young-growth Douglas-fir stand: 1950-1978.

    Treesearch

    D.L. Reukema

    1982-01-01

    A 29-year record of seedfall in thinned and unthinned portions of a Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stand, spanning ages 39 through 68, reveals annual seed production from no seeds to about 3 million per hectare. For the nine largest crops, annual seedfall in the best seed-producing thinning treatment included at least 100 000...

  8. Ammonium nitrate, urea, and biuret fertilizers increase volume growth of 57-year-old Douglas-fir trees within a gradient of nitrogen deficiency.

    Treesearch

    Richard E. Miller; Donald L. Reukema; John W. Hazard

    1996-01-01

    In a nitrogen-deficient plantation in southwest Washington, we (1) compared effects of 224 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate, urea, and biuret on volume growth of dominant and codominant Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco); (2) determined how 8-year response of these trees to fertilization was related to...

  9. Development of random amplified polymorphic DNA markers for genetic mapping in Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia)

    Treesearch

    B. Gocmen; Z. Zaya; K.D. Jermstad; D.B. Neale

    1996-01-01

    Variation in cold-hardiness traits, and their extent of genetic control and interrelationships, were investigated among individuals (clones) within a single large full-sib family of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) from Oregon. Cold injury to needle, stem, and bud tissues was evaluated...

  10. Development of western spruce budworm on Douglas-fir callus tissue.

    Treesearch

    Roy C. Beckwith; Barry. Goldfarb

    1991-01-01

    The success of feeding and development of western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) on callus tissue of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) was determined. Fewer insects died when fed pure callus tissue than when fed on standard diet or callus incorporated into the standard diet. The final...

  11. Non-invasive tracking of CD4+ T cells with a paramagnetic and fluorescent nanoparticle in brain ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Wei-Na; Yang, Xiaoxia; Li, Zhiguo; Li, Minshu; Shi, Samuel Xiang-Yu; Wood, Kristofer; Fu, Ying; Han, Wei; Xu, Yun; Shi, Fu-Dong; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that lymphocytes play a key role in ischemic brain injury. However, there is still a lack of viable approaches to non-invasively track infiltrating lymphocytes and reveal their key spatiotemporal events in the inflamed central nervous system (CNS). Here we describe an in vivo imaging approach for sequential monitoring of brain-infiltrating CD4+ T cells in experimental ischemic stroke. We show that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or Xenogen imaging combined with labeling of SPIO-Molday ION Rhodamine-B (MIRB) can be used to monitor the dynamics of CD4+ T cells in a passive transfer model. MIRB-labeled CD4+ T cells can be longitudinally visualized in the mouse brain and peripheral organs such as the spleen and liver after cerebral ischemia. Immunostaining of tissue sections showed similar kinetics of MIRB-labeled CD4+ T cells when compared with in vivo observations. Our results demonstrated the use of MIRB coupled with in vivo imaging as a valid method to track CD4+ T cells in ischemic brain injury. This approach will facilitate future investigations to identify the dynamics and key spatiotemporal events for brain-infiltrating lymphocytes in CNS inflammatory diseases. PMID:26661207

  12. MONOTERPENE LEVELS IN NEEDLES OF DOUGLAS-FIR EXPOSED TO ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Levels of monoterpenes in current year needles of douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were measured at the conclusion of four years of exposure to ambient or elevated CO2 (+ 179 mmol.mol-1), and ambient or elevated temperature (+ 3.5 C). Eleven monoterpen...

  13. FOLIAR NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS AND NATURAL ABUNDANCE OF 15N SUGGEST NITROGEN ALLOCATION PATTERNS OF DOUGLAS-FIR AND MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI DURING DEVELOPMENT IN ELEVATED CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION AND TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an experiment using Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco (Douglas-fir) seedlings and a 2x2 factorial design in enclosed mesocosms, temperatures were maintained at ambient or +3.5 degrees C above ambient, and CO2 levels were maintained at ambient or 179 ppm above ambient. Two ...

  14. SEASONAL PATTERNS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN DOUGLAS FIR SEEDLINGS DURING THE THIRD AND FOURTH YEAR OF EXPOSURE TO ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the interactive effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and temperature on seasonal patterns of photosynthesis in Douglas-fir (Psuedotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings. Seedlings were grown in sunlit chambers controlled to track either ambient (~400 ppm) CO2 or am...

  15. ELEVATED CO2 AND ELEVATED TEMPERATURE AFFECT CARBON AND NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS BUT NOT ACCUMULATION IN PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII SEEDLINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the impact of climate change on concentrations and accumulation of C and N in trees, we grew Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco (Douglas-fir) seedlings treated with ambient or elevated (+180 mol mol-1) CO2, and with ambient or elevated (+3.5 C) temperature for f...

  16. Killing tanoak in northwestern California

    Treesearch

    D. F. Roy

    1956-01-01

    Residual tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. & Arn.) Rehd.) trees and tanoak sprouts often are an important component of the vegetation which competes with conifer reproduction in northwestern California. Sometimes enough tanoak is present in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands to dominate the...

  17. Height-growth response to climatic changes differs among populations of Douglas-fir: A novel analysis of historic data

    Treesearch

    Laura P. Leites; Andrew P. Robinson; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; John D. Marshall; Nicholas L. Crookston

    2012-01-01

    Projected climate change will affect existing forests, as substantial changes are predicted to occur during their life spans. Species that have ample intraspecific genetic differentiation, such as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), are expected to display population-specific growth responses to climate change. Using a mixed-effects modeling approach,...

  18. Soil disturbance and 10-year growth response of coast Douglas-fir on nontilled and tilled skid trails in the Oregon Cascades.

    Treesearch

    Ronald Heninger; William Scott; Alex Dobkowski; Richard Miller; Harry Anderson; Steve. Duke

    2002-01-01

    We (i) quantified effects of skidder yarding on soil properties and seedling growth in a portion of western Oregon, (ii) determined if tilling skid trails improved tree growth, and (iii) compared results with those from an earlier investigation in coastal Washington. Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were hand planted at...

  19. Stand-level gas-exchange responses to seasonal drought in very young versus old Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Treesearch

    Sonia Wharton; Matt Schroeder; Ken Bible; Matthias Falk; Kyaw Tha Paw U

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how stand age affects ecosystem mass and energy exchange response to seasonal drought in three adjacent Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests. The sites include two early seral (ES) stands (0 to 15 years old) and an old-growth (OG) (~450 to 500 years old) forest in the Wind River Experimental Forest,...

  20. ELEVATED CO2 AND ELEVATED TEMPERATURE AFFECT CARBON AND NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS BUT NOT ACCUMULATION IN PSEUDOTSUGA MENZIESII SEEDLINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the impact of climate change on concentrations and accumulation of C and N in trees, we grew Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco (Douglas-fir) seedlings treated with ambient or elevated (+180 mol mol-1) CO2, and with ambient or elevated (+3.5 C) temperature for f...

  1. Within-stand spatial distribution of tree mortality caused by the Douglas-Fir beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Treesearch

    Jose F. Negron; John A. Anhold; A. Steve Munson

    2001-01-01

    The Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, causes considerable mortality in Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, forests. Within-stand distribution of mortality was examined in affected stands using geostatistical techniques. A 10 x 10 m grid was established in two 4-ha study sites. Live and beetle-killed host basal area was measured at...

  2. Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling adaptive traits in coastal Douglas-fir. I. Timing of vegetative bud flush.

    Treesearch

    K.D. Jermstad; D.L. Bassoni; K.S. Jech; N.C. Wheeler; D.B. Neale

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Thirty three unique quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting the timing of spring bud flush have been identified in an intraspecific mapping population of coastal Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii]. Both terminal and lateral bud flush were measured over a 4-year period on clonal replicates at two test sites, allowing for the...

  3. Fine-scale variability in growth-climate relationships of Douglas-fir, North Cascade Range, Washington.

    Treesearch

    Michael J. Case; David L. Peterson

    2005-01-01

    Information about the sensitivity to climate of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) is valuable because it will allow forest managers to maximize growth, better understand how carbon sequestration may change over time, and better model and predict future ecosystem responses to climatic change. We examined the effects of climatic...

  4. Variance in response of pole-size trees and seedlings of Douglas-fir and western hemlock to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers.

    Treesearch

    M.A. Radwan; J.S. Shumway; D.S. Debell; J.M. Kraft

    1991-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine effects of N and P fertilizers on growth and levels of plant-tissue nutrients of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.). Both pole-size trees in closed-canopy stands and potted seedlings were use d . Soil series were...

  5. Effects of release from suppression on wood functional characteristics in young Douglas-fir and western hemlock.

    Treesearch

    H.J. Renninger; B.L. Gartner; F.C. Meinzer

    2006-01-01

    We assessed differences in growth-ring width, specific conductivity (Ks), tracheid dimensions, moisture content, and wood density in suppressed Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) trees and trees released from suppression. Growth-ring width was 370 percent...

  6. Levels-of-growing-stock cooperative study in Douglas-fir: report no. 17—The Skykomish Study, 1961–93; The Clemons study, 1963–94.

    Treesearch

    James E. King; David D. Marshall; John F. Bell

    2002-01-01

    Stand treatments were completed as prescribed with an initial calibration cut and five thinnings resulting in eight new regimes for management of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). Measurements were continued for an additional 14 years to observe stability and yields of stands in a postthinning holding period. Detailed descriptions...

  7. Height growth and site index curves for Douglas-fir on dry sites in the Willamette National Forest.

    Treesearch

    Joseph E Means; Mary E. Helm

    1985-01-01

    Equations and curves are presented for estimating height and site index of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) on hot, dry sites in the Willamette National Forest in western Oregon. The equations are based on the dissected stems of 27 trees. The curves differ from those previously published for Douglas-fir. Instructions are presented...

  8. Douglas-fir displays a range of growth responses to temperature, water, and Swiss needle cast in western Oregon, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) growth in the Pacific Northwest is affected by climatic, edaphic factors and Swiss needle cast (SNC) disease. We examine Douglas-fir growth responses to temperature, dewpoint deficit (DPD), soil moisture, and SNC ...

  9. Douglas-fir tussock moth- and Douglas-fir beetle-caused mortality in a ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Treesearch

    Jose F. Negron; Ann M. Lynch; Willis C. Schaupp; Vladimir Bocharnikov

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir...

  10. Response of Northwest Douglas-fir stands to urea: correlations with forest soil properties.

    Treesearch

    C.E. Peterson; P.J. Ryan; S.P. Gessel

    1984-01-01

    Replicated forest floor and surface soil (0–15 cm) samples were obtained from control plots at 160 field installations to western Washington and Oregon. Six year growth responses of thinned and unthinned Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] in stallations treated with 0, 224, and 448 kg of urea-N ha-1 were correlated with 18 forest...

  11. FOLIAR NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS AND NATURAL ABUNDANCE OF 15N SUGGEST NITROGEN ALLOCATION PATTERNS OF DOUGLAS-FIR AND MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI DURING DEVELOPMENT IN ELEVATED CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION AND TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an experiment using Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco (Douglas-fir) seedlings and a 2x2 factorial design in enclosed mesocosms, temperatures were maintained at ambient or +3.5 degrees C above ambient, and CO2 levels were maintained at ambient or 179 ppm above ambient. Two ...

  12. Family composition of Douglas-fir nursery stock as influenced by seed characters, mortality, and culling practices.

    Treesearch

    J.B. St. Clair; W.T. Adams

    1993-01-01

    Changes in family composition during nursery production were evaluated by following individual seeds and seedlings of 36 wind-pollinated Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) families sown in mixture in two operational nurseries in western Washington and Oregon. Families differed significantly in...

  13. Family differences in equations for predicting biomass and leaf area in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii).

    Treesearch

    J.B. St. Clair

    1993-01-01

    Logarithmic regression equations were developed to predict component biomass and leaf area for an 18-yr-old genetic test of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco var. menziesii) based on stem diameter or cross-sectional sapwood area. Equations did not differ among open-pollinated families in slope, but intercepts...

  14. Calibration and modification for the Pacific Northwest of the New Zealand Douglas-fir silvicultural growth model.

    Treesearch

    James W. Flewelling; David D. Marshall

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a growth model for young plantations of Douglas-fir(Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) growing in the Pacific Northwest. The overall model has three major components. The first is a yield model for diameter and height distributions describing stands prior to pruning or precommercial thinning. The second component is an...

  15. Effects of site preparation on seedling, growth: a preliminary comparison of broadcast burning and pile burning.

    Treesearch

    Don. Minore

    1986-01-01

    Site preparation is often necessary to obtain adequate forest regeneration, but inappropriate treatment may reduce subsequent growth. Broadcast-burned and piled-and-burned plantations were studied in southwestern Oregon to determine if burning method affected the growth of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii...

  16. Levels-of-growing-stock cooperative study in Douglas-fir: report no. 11—Stampede Creek, a 20-year progress report.

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Curtis

    1992-01-01

    Results of the first 20 years of the Stampede Creek levels-of-growing-stock study in southwest Oregon are summarized. To age 53, growth in this site III Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stand has been strongly related to level of growing stock. Marked differences in volume distribution by tree sizes are developing as a result of...

  17. Levels-of-growing-stock cooperative study in Douglas-fir: report no. 15—The Hoskins Study, 1963-1998.

    Treesearch

    David D. Marshall; Robert O. Curtis

    2001-01-01

    The cooperative levels-of-growing-stock (LOGS) study in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) was begun to study the relations between growing stock, growth, cumulative wood production, and tree size in repeatedly thinned stands. This report summarizes results from the Hoskins installation through age 55. Growing stock has been allowed...

  18. Riparian buffer and density management influences on microclimate of young headwater forests of Western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Paul D. Anderson; David J. Larson; Samuel S. Chan

    2007-01-01

    Thinning of 30- to 70-year-old Douglas-fir (Psuedotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) stands is a common silvicultural activity on federal forest lands of the Pacific Northwest, United States. Empirical relationships among riparian functions, silvicultural treatments, and different riparian buffer widths are not well documented for small headwater...

  19. Initial and continued effects of a release spray in a coastal Oregon Douglas-fir plantation.

    Treesearch

    Richard E. Miller; Edmund L. Obermeyer

    1996-01-01

    Portions of a 4-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation were sprayed with herbicide. Five years after spraying, we established 18 plots and used several means to determine retrospectively that six plots probably received full spray treatment and six others received no spray. Various...

  20. Detecting response of Douglas-fir plantations to urea fertilizer at three locations in the Oregon Coast Range.

    Treesearch

    Richard E. Miller; Jim Smith; Harry. Anderson

    2001-01-01

    Fertilizer trials in coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Oregon Coast Range usually indicate small and statistically nonsignificant response to nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Inherently weak experimental designs of past trials could make them too insensitive to detect growth differences...

  1. Seedfall and seed viability within artificial canopy gaps in a western Washington douglas-fir forest

    Treesearch

    Warren D. Devine; Timothy B. Harrington

    2015-01-01

    Seedfall of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco var. menziesii) has been studied at the forest edge-clearcut interface and in small canopy gaps, but it has not been evaluated in gap sizes that would be typical of a group-selection method of regeneration. In a mature Douglas-fir forest in the Puget Sound...

  2. Some lessons in artificial regeneration from southwestern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    William I. Stein

    1955-01-01

    Natural reproduction has often proved undependable for restocking cutovers and burns in the mixed-conifer forest types of southwestern Oregon. These types, covering 6,000 square miles of productive forest land in the five southwestern Oregon counties, are composed of many species--principally Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco;...

  3. Financial analysis of early stand treatments in southwest Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Helge Eng; K. Norman Johnson; Roger D. Fight

    1990-01-01

    Management guidelines for economically efficient early stand treatments were developed by identifying treatments that would maximize financial returns over the rotation for coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) in southwest Oregon. Short rotations and low stand densities (trees per acre) gave...

  4. PRUNE—SIM users guide.

    Treesearch

    R.D. Fight; J.M. Cahill; T.A. Snellgrove; T.D. Fahey

    1987-01-01

    PRUNE-SIM is a spreadsheet template (program) that allows users to simulate a financial analysis of pruning coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii). The program estimates the increase in product value resulting from pruning the butt 17-foot log. Product recovery information is based on actual...

  5. WestPro: a computer program for simulating uneven-aged Douglas-fir stand growth and yield in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Rebecca Ralston; Joseph Buongiorno; Benedict Schulte; Jeremy. Fried

    2003-01-01

    WestPro is an add-in program designed to work with Microsoft Excel to simulate the growth of uneven-aged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Given the initial stand state, defined as the number of softwood and hardwood trees per acre by diameter class, WestPro predicts the...

  6. Changes in wood product proportions in the Douglas-fir region with respect to size, age, and time.

    Treesearch

    R.A. Monserud; X. Zhou

    2007-01-01

    We examine both the variation and the changing proportions of different wood products obtained from trees and logs in the Douglas-fir region of the Northwestern United States. Analyses are based on a large product recovery database covering over 40 years of recovery studies; 13 studies are available for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)...

  7. Transpiration-induced axial and radial tension gradients in trunks of Douglas-fir trees.

    Treesearch

    J.C. Domec; F. C. Meinzer; B. L. Gartner; D. Woodruff

    2006-01-01

    We determined the axial and radial xylem tension gradients in trunks of young Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees. Axial specific conductivity (ks-a) and sap flux density (Js) were measured at four consecutive depths within the sapwood at a...

  8. Genetic selection in coastal Douglas-fir for tolerance to Swiss needle cast disease

    Treesearch

    Keith J.S. Jayawickrama; David Shaw; Terrance Z. Ye

    2012-01-01

    Swiss needle cast (SNC) of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), caused by the ascomycete fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii, is associated with significant volume growth losses (20 to 50 percent) along the Oregon Coast. Although the pathogen is endemic, disease symptoms have intensified in coastal forests of Oregon...

  9. Relationships of density, microfibril angle, and sound velocity with stiffness and strength in mature wood of Douglas-fir

    Treesearch

    B. Lachenbruch; G.R. Johnson; G.M. Downes; R. Evans

    2010-01-01

    The relative importance of density, acoustic velocity, and microfibril angle (MFA) for the prediction of stiffness (MOE) and strength (MOR) has not been well established for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). MOE and MOR of small clear specimens of mature wood were better predicted by density and velocity than by either variable...

  10. Modeling regional and climatic variation of wood density and ring width in intensively managed Douglas-fir

    Treesearch

    Cosmin N. Filipescue; Eini C. Lowell; Ross Koppenaal; Al K. Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    Characteristics of annual rings are reliable indicators of growth and wood quality in trees. The main objective of our study was to model the variation in annual ring attributes due to intensive silviculture and inherent regional differences in climate and site across a wide geographic range of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco)....

  11. RELATING FINE ROOT BIOMASS TO SOIL AND CLIMATE CONDITIONS IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    The additive contribution of fine root biomass for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) to the stand average fine root biomass were estimated for eight conifer stands in the Pacific Northwest. Base...

  12. Belowground competition from overstory trees influences Douglas-fir sapling morphology in thinned stands

    Treesearch

    Warren D. Devine; Timothy B. Harrington

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated effects of belowground competition on morphology of naturally established coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) saplings in 60- to 80-year-old thinned Douglas-fir stands in southwestern Washington. We separately quantified belowground competition from overstory and understory sources...

  13. AUTOSAW simulations of lumber recovery for small-diameter Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine from southwestern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    R. James Barbour; Dean L. Parry; John Punches; John Forsman; Robert. Ross

    2003-01-01

    Small-diameter (5- to 10-inch diameter at breast height) Douglas-fi r (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws) trees were assessed for product potential by diagramming the location, size, and type of knots visible on the wood surface (inside bark) and using the AUTOSAW sawing simulator to evaluate...

  14. The influence of weather variation on regional growth of Douglas-fir stands in the U.S. Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Charles E. Peterson; Linda S. Heath

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we examine the influence of precipitation and temperature deviations on regional volume growth rates in even aged, onnen.,ed second growth Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) stands. Between 1969 and 1986, average volume growth rates in natural stands of coast Douglas fix in western Washington and Oregon were negatively...

  15. Vegetation control effects on untreated wood, crude cellulose and holocellulose 𗉝C of early and latewood in 3- to 5-year-old rings of Douglas-fir

    Treesearch

    Adrian Ares; Constance A Harrington; Thomas A. Terry; Joseph M. Kraft

    2009-01-01

    The stable carbon (C) composition of tree rings expressed as 13C, is a measure of intrinsic water-use efficiency and can indicate the occurrence of past water shortages for tree growth. We examined 13C in 3- to 5-year-old rings of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees...

  16. User's guide to the Douglas-fir beetle impact model

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Marsden; Bov B. Eav; Matthew K. Thompson

    1993-01-01

    Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopk.) occurs throughout the range of its principal host, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). At epidemic levels, the beetle causes considerable mortality in large-diameter Douglas-fir trees. Wind storms, drought, fire, and other factors have been reported as precedent...

  17. Is long primary growth associated with stem sinuosity in Douglas-fir?

    Treesearch

    Barbara L. Gartner; G.R. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Stem sinuosity is a highly visible stem-form trait in the leaders of fast-growing Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees, yet its cause is unknown. We tested the hypotheses that sinuous stems have longer expanses of primary growth than nonsinuous stems (putting the leader at higher risk for...

  18. Genetics of cold hardiness in a cloned full-sib family of coastal Douglas-fir

    Treesearch

    T.S. Anekonda; W.T. Adams; S.N. Aitken; D.B. Neale; K.D. Jermstad; N.C. Wheeler

    2000-01-01

    Variation in cold-hardiness traits, and their extent of genetic control and interrelationships, were investigated among individuals (clones) within a single large full-sib family of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) from Oregon. Cold injury to needle, stem, and bud tissues was evaluated...

  19. Comparative mapping in the Pinaceae

    Treesearch

    Konstantin V. Krutovsky; Michela Troggio; Garth R. Brown; Kathleen D. Jermstad; David B. Neale

    2004-01-01

    A comparative genetic map was constructed between two important genera of the family Pinaceae. Ten homologous linkage groups in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) were identified using orthologous expressed sequence tag polymorphism (ESTP) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. The comparative...

  20. Tall oil precursors of Douglas fir

    Treesearch

    Daniel O. Foster; Duane F. Zinkel; Anthony H. Conner

    1980-01-01

    The sapwood and heartwood extractives of Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] and the tall oil in the kraft black liquor were characterized. On pulping, isomerization and conversion of conjugated resin acids to dehydroabietic acid was observed. Recovery of both fatty and resin acids from pulping was lower than predicted from the extractive composition....

  1. Extended rotations and culmination age of coast Douglas-fir: old studies speak to current issues.

    Treesearch

    Robert O. Curtis

    1995-01-01

    Trends of mean annual increment and periodic annual increment were examined in 17 long-term thinning studies in coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in western Washington, western Oregon, and British Columbia. Maximum ages included ranged from about 90 years on high sites to 117 years on a low site. None of the...

  2. Impact of the first recorded outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata, in southern California and the extent of its distribution in the Pacific Southwest region

    Treesearch

    Tom W. Coleman; Michael I. Jones; Beatrice Courtial; Andrew D. Graves; Meghan Woods; Alain Roques; Steven J. Seybold

    2014-01-01

    The Douglas-fir tussock moth (DFTM), Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough (Lepidoptera:Erebidae: Lymantriinae), is a native western North American defoliator of true fir, Abies spp. Mill., and Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. We investigated the population genetics and impact associated with the first recorded...

  3. History of fire and Douglas-fir establishment in a savanna and sagebrush-grassland mosaic, southwestern Montana, USA

    Treesearch

    Emily K. Heyerdahl; Richard F. Miller; Russell A. Parsons

    2006-01-01

    Over the past century, trees have encroached into grass- and shrublands across western North America. These include Douglas-fir trees (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) encroaching into mountain big sagebrush Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) from stable islands of savanna in...

  4. Levels-of-growing-stock cooperative study in Douglas-fir: report no. 10—The Hoskins Study, 1963-83.

    Treesearch

    David D. Marshall; John F. Bell; John C. Tappeiner

    1992-01-01

    Results of the Hoskins LOGS study in western Oregon are summarized and management implications discussed through the fifth and final planned treatment period. To age 40 thinnings in this low site I Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stand resulted in large increases in diameter growth with reductions in basal area and volume growth...

  5. Growth and yield of all-aged Douglas-fir -- western hemlock forest stands: a matrix model with stand diversity effects.

    Treesearch

    Jingjing Liang; Joseph Buonglorno; Robert A. Monserud

    2005-01-01

    A density-dependent matrix model was developed for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) -- western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) forest stands in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The model predicted the number and volume of trees for 4 species groups and 19 diameter classes. The parameters...

  6. Examining soil parent material influence over Douglas-fir stem growth response to fertilization: Taking advantage of information from spatiotemporally distributed experiments

    Treesearch

    Kevin P. White; Mark Coleman; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Paul E. Gessler; Mark Kimsey; Terry Shaw

    2012-01-01

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) in the Inland Northwest region of the USA are nitrogen (N) deficient; however stem growth responses to N fertilizers are unpredictable, which may be due to poor accounting of other limiting nutrients. Screening trial experiments, including potassium (K), sulfur (S), and boron (B) multiple nutrient treatments, have been...

  7. Influence of thinning on acoustic velocity of Douglas-fir trees in western Washington and western Oregon

    Treesearch

    David G. Briggs; Gonzalo Thienel; Eric C. Turnblom; Eini Lowell; Dennis Dykstra; Robert J. Ross; Xiping Wang; Peter. Carter

    2008-01-01

    Acoustic velocity was measured with a time-of-flight method on approximately 50 trees in each of five plots from four test sites of a Douglas-fir (Pseudostuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) thinning trial. The test sites reflect two age classes, 33 to 35 and 48 to 50 years, with 50-year site index ranging from 35 to 50 m. The acoustic velocity...

  8. Genetic variation in response to shade in coastal Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    J. Bradley St. Clair; Richard A. Sniezko

    1999-01-01

    Tree improvement programs have generally relied on testing families in open light environments. With increased interest in multiaged silvicultural systems, some people have questioned whether families selected in the open are appropriate for planting in the shade. We grew Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii...

  9. Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling adaptive traits in coastal Douglas-fir. III

    Treesearch

    Kathleen D. Jermstad; Daniel L. Bassoni; Keith S. Jech; Gary A. Ritchie; Nicholas C. Wheeler; David B. Neale

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were mapped in the woody perennial Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) for complex traits controlling the timing of growth initiation and growth cessation. QTL were estimated under controlled environmental conditions to identify QTL interactions with photoperiod, moisture stress, winter chilling, and spring...

  10. Soil and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) foliar nitrogen responses to variable logging-debris retention and competing vegetation control in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Slesak; Timothy B. Harrington; Stephen H. Schoenholtz

    2010-01-01

    Experimental treatments of logging-debris retention (0%, 40%, or 80% surface coverage) and competing vegetation control (initial or annual applications) were installed at two sites in the Pacific Northwest following clearcutting Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) stands to assess short term...

  11. Release of Douglas-fir seedlings: growth and treatment costs

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald; Gary O. Fiddler

    1986-01-01

    Foresters often lack information on growth of woody shrubs and their effect on conifer seedling survival and growth. Deerbrush (Ceanothus integerrimus H. & A.) was treated by several manual and chemical methods at age 3 and again at age 5 in a Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) plantation on a medium-quality...

  12. Establishment and growth of native hardwood and conifer seedlings underplanted in thinned Douglas-fir stands.

    Treesearch

    Kathleen G. Maas-Hebner; William H. Emmingham; David L. Larson; Samuel S. Chan

    2005-01-01

    Five conifers and two hardwoods native to the Pacific Northwest were planted under four overstory densities of 30-year-old plantations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Oregon Coast Range, USA. Stand treatments were unthinned (547 trees ha-1), narrow thin (252 trees ha-1),...

  13. Spatial and population characteristics of dwarf mistletoe infected trees in an old-growth Douglas-fir - western hemlock forest.

    Treesearch

    David C. Shaw; Jiquan Chen; Elizabeth A. Freeman; David M. Braun

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the distribution and severity of trees infected with western hemlock dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium tsugense (Rosendahl) G.N. Jones subsp. tsugense) in an old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) - western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.)...

  14. Growth phenology of coast Douglas-fir seed sources planted in diverse environments

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Gould; Constance A. Harrington; J. Bradley. St. Clair

    2012-01-01

    The timing of periodic life cycle events in plants (phenology) is an important factor determining how species and populations will react to climate change. We evaluated annual patterns of basal-area and height growth of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotusuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings from four seed sources...

  15. Large wood recruitment and redistribution in headwater streams in the southern Oregon Coast Range, U.S.A.

    Treesearch

    C. L. May; R. E. Gresswell

    2003-01-01

    Abstract - Large wood recruitment and redistribution mechanisms were investigated in a 3.9 km 2 basin with an old-growth Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco and Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. Forest, located in the southern Coast Range of Oregon. Stream size and topographic setting strongly influenced processes that delivered wood to the channel network. In small...

  16. Effect of natural inbreeding on variance structure in tests of wind pollination Douglas-fir progenies.

    Treesearch

    Frank C. Sorensen; T.L. White

    1988-01-01

    Studies of the mating habits of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) have shown that wind-pollination families contain a small proportion of very slow-growing natural inbreds.The effect of these very small trees on means, variances, and variance ratios was evaluated for height and diameter in a 16-year-old plantation by...

  17. Early genetic evaluation of open-pollinated Douglas-fir families

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Riitters; David A. Perry

    1987-01-01

    In a test of early genetic evaluation of the growth potential of 14 families of open-pollinated Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) [Mirb.] Franco), measures of growth and phenology of seedligns grown in a coldframe were correlated with height of saplings in evaluation plantations at 9, 12, and 15 years. fifteen-year height was most strongly...

  18. Relative family performance and variance structure of open-pollinated Douglas-fir seedlings grown in three competitive environments.

    Treesearch

    J.B. St. Clair; W.T. Adams

    1991-01-01

    Open-pollinated Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) families were tested in three contrasting competitive environments to test the hypothesis that relative performance as measured by total seedling dry weight is dependent upon distance or genotype of neighbors. The three competitive environments...

  19. Effects of seed weight and rate of emergence on early growth of open-pollinated Douglas-fir families.

    Treesearch

    J.B. St. Clair; W.T. Adams

    1991-01-01

    Seed weight, time of emergence, and three measures of seedling size were recorded for 39 open-pollinated Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii[Mirb.] Franco) families in order to assess family variation in seed weight and emergence, and the influence of these seed traits on early growth. Families were planted both...

  20. Biophysical constraints on leaf expansion in a tall conifer.

    Treesearch

    Fredrick C. Meinzer; Barbara J. Bond; Jennifer A. Karanian

    2008-01-01

    The physiological mechanisms responsible for reduced extension growth as trees increase in height remain elusive. We evaluated biophysical constraints on leaf expansion in old-growth Douglas-fir (Psuedotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees. Needle elongation rates, plastic and elastic extensibility, bulk leaf water, (L...

  1. Robust enzymatic saccharification of a Douglas-fir forest harvest residue by SPORL

    Treesearch

    Shao-Yuan Leu; J.Y. Zhu; Roland Gleisner; John Sessions; Gevan Marrs

    2013-01-01

    Forest harvest residues can be a cost-effective feedstock for a biorefinery, but the high lignin content of forest residues is a major barrier for enzymatic sugar production. Sulfite pretreatment to overcome strong recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) was applied to a Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb) Franco var. menziesii) forest residue...

  2. Mesenchymal stem cell labeling and in vitro MR characterization at 1.5 T of new SPIO contrast agent: Molday ION Rhodamine-B™

    PubMed Central

    Addicott, Benjamin; Willman, Melissa; Rodriguez, Jose; Padgett, Kyle; Han, Dongmei; Berman, Dora; Hare, Joshua M.; Kenyon, Norma Sue

    2015-01-01

    In vivo detection of transplanted stem cells is requisite for improving stem cell-based treatments by developing a thorough understanding of their therapeutic mechanisms. MRI tracking of magnetically labeled cells is non-invasive and is suitable for longitudinal studies. Molday ION Rhodamine-B™ (MIRB) is a new superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) contrast agent specifically formulated for cell labeling and is readily internalized by non-phagocytic cells. This investigation characterizes mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) labeling and MR imaging properties of this new SPIO agent. Effects of MIRB on MSC viability and differentiation as well as cellular loading properties were assessed for MSC labeled with MIRB at concentrations from 5 to 100 μg Fe/ml. Labeled MSC were evaluated, in vitro, on a clinical 1.5 T MRI. Optimal scanning sequences and imaging parameters were determined based on contrast-to-noise ratio and contrast modulation. Relaxation rates (1/T2*) for gradient-echo sequences were approximated and an idealized limit of detection was established. MIRB labeling did not affect MSC viability or the ability to differentiate into either bone or fat. Labeling efficiency was found to be approximately 95% for labeling concentrations at or above 20 μg Fe/ml. Average MIRB per MSC ranged from 0.7 pg Fe for labeling MIRB concentration of 5 μg Fe/ml and asymptotically approached a value of 20–25 pg Fe/MSC as labeling concentration increased to 100 μg Fe/ml. MRI analysis of MIRB MSC revealed long echo time, gradient echo sequences to provide the most sensitivity. Limit of detection for gradient echo sequences was determined to be less than 1000 MSC, with approximately 15 pg Fe/MSC (labeled at 20μg Fe/ml). These investigations have laid the groundwork and established feasibility for the use of this contrast agent for in vivo MRI detection of MSC. Properties evaluated in this study will be used as a reference for tracking labeled MSC for in vivo studies. PMID:20690161

  3. Optimality and nitrogen allocation in a tree canopy

    Treesearch

    D.Y. Hollinger

    1996-01-01

    Physical and functional properties of foliage were measured at a variety of microsites in a broad-leaved Nothofagus fusca (Hook. f.) Orst. canopy. The light climate of the foliage at these sites was monitored for 39 days in the late sprlng and early summer with in situ sensors. Foliage nitrogen content (N), mean leaf angle, and gas exchange...

  4. Piracy in the high trees: ectomycorrhizal fungi from an aerial 'canopy soil' microhabitat.

    PubMed

    Orlovich, David A; Draffin, Suzy J; Daly, Robert A; Stephenson, Steven L

    2013-01-01

    The mantle of dead organic material ("canopy soil") associated with the mats of vascular and nonvascular epiphytes found on the branches of trees in the temperate rainforests along the southwestern coast of the South Island of New Zealand were examined for evidence of ectomycorrhizal fungi. DNA sequencing and cluster analysis were used to identify the taxa of fungi present in 74 root tips collected from the canopy soil microhabitat of three old growth Nothofagus menziesii trees in the South West New Zealand World Heritage Area. A diverse assemblage of ectomycorrhizal fungi was found to infect an extensive network of adventitious canopy roots of Nothofagus menziesii in this forest, including 14 phylotypes from nine genera of putative ectomycorrhizal fungi. Seven of the genera identified previously were known to form ectomycorrhizas with terrestrial roots of Nothofagus: Cortinarius, Russula, Cenococcum, Thelephora/Tomentella, Lactarius and Laccaria; two, Clavulina and Leotia, previously have not been reported forming ectomycorrhizas with Nothofagus. Canopy ectomycorrhizas provide an unexpected means for increased host nutrition that may have functional significance in some forest ecosystems. Presumably, canopy ectomycorrhizas on host adventitious roots circumvent the tree-ground-soil nutrient cycle by accessing a wider range of nutrients directly in the canopy than would be possible for non-mycorrhizal or arbuscular mycorrhizal canopy roots. In this system, both host and epiphytes would seem to be in competition for the same pool of nutrients in canopy soil.

  5. Postglacial vegetation, climate, and fire history along the east side of the Andes (lat 41-42.5°S), Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlock, Cathy; Bianchi, Maria Martha; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Markgraf, Vera; Marlon, Jennifer; Walsh, Megan; McCoy, Neil

    2006-09-01

    The history of the low-elevation forest and forest-steppe ecotone on the east side of the Andes is revealed in pollen and charcoal records obtained from mid-latitude lakes. Prior to 15,000 cal yr BP, the vegetation was characterized by steppe vegetation with isolated stands of Nothofagus. The climate was generally dry, and the sparse vegetation apparently lacked sufficient fuels to burn extensively. After 15,000 cal yr BP, a mixture of Nothofagus forest and shrubland/steppe developed. Fire activity increased between 13,250 and 11,400 cal yr BP, contemporaneous with a regionally defined cold dry period (Huelmo/Mascardi Cold Reversal). The early-Holocene period was characterized by an open Nothofagus forest/shrubland mosaic, and fire frequency was high in dry sites and low in wet sites; the data suggest a sharp decrease in moisture eastward from the Andes. A shift to a surface-fire regime occurred at 7500 cal yr BP at the wet site and at 4400 cal yr BP at the dry site, preceding the expansion of Austrocedrus by 1000-1500 yr. The spread of Austrocedrus is explained by a shift towards a cooler and wetter climate in the middle and late Holocene. The change to a surface-fire regime is consistent with increased interannual climate variability and the onset or strengthening of ENSO. The present-day mixed forest dominated by Nothofagus and Austrocedrus was established in the last few millennia.

  6. Late-Holocene rodent middens from Rio Limay, Neuquen Province, Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markgraf, Vera; Betancourt, J.; Rylander, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    Pollen analysis of late-Holocene amberat deposits from two caves near the forest-steppe ecotone in northern Patagonia documents a major shift from Austrocedrus-Nothofagus forest to steppe shrub assemblages some time after 1800 and before 1300 BP. The probable explanation of the reduction of tree taxa calls for either drier summers or intensified land use or a combination of both.

  7. Habitat association patterns of forest and steppe birds of northern Patagonia, Argentina

    Treesearch

    C. John Ralph

    1985-01-01

    I censused birds across a moisture gradient in northern Patagonia, Argentina, in the vicinity of Bariloche. Over a 60-km distance, the 12 sites ranged from grassland at lower elevations to upland climax Nothofagus forests of the eastern Andes. Here, I correlated bird abundance and diversities with various vegetation measures. Using all sites, bird...

  8. An experimental approach to explain the southern Andes elevational treeline.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Alex; Piper, Frida I

    2014-05-01

    • The growth limitation hypothesis (GLH) is the most accepted mechanistic explanation for treeline formation, although it is still uncertain whether it applies across taxa. The successful establishment of Pinus contorta--an exotic conifer species in the southern hemisphere--above the Nothofagus treeline in New Zealand may suggest a different mechanism. We tested the GLH in Nothofagus pumilio and Pinus contorta by comparing seedling performance and carbon (C) balance in response to low temperatures.• At a southern Chilean treeline, we grew seedlings of both species 2 m above ground level, to simulate coupling between temperatures at the meristem and in the air (colder), and at ground level, i.e., decoupling air temperature (relatively milder). We recorded soil and air temperatures as well. After 3 yr, we measured seedling survival and biomass (as a surrogate of growth) and determined nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC).• Nothofagus and Pinus did not differ in survival, which, as a whole, was higher at ground level than at the 2-m height. The root-zone temperature for the growing season was 6.6°C. While biomass and NSC decreased significantly for Nothofagus at the 2-m height compared with ground level (C limitation), these trends were not significant for Pinus• The treeline for Nothofagus pumilio is located at an isotherm that fully matches global patterns; however, its physiological responses to low temperatures differed from those of other treeline species. Support for C limitation in N. pumilio but not in P. contorta indicates that the physiological mechanism explaining their survival and growth at treeline may be taxon-dependent. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  9. Shrub communities as inhibitors of plant succession in southern Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meilleur, Alain; Véronneau, Hélène; Bouchard, André

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of our research was to identify shrub species growing in southern Quebec that inhibit ecological succession in power-line corridors. Results are presented in three parts. First, clonal characteristics that allowed the establishment of stable communities were identified. Second, successional vector analysis identified those species that have the potential to inhibit succession. In poorly drained sites those species were Cornus stolonifera, C. obliqua, Salix petiolaris, and Spiraea alba. In well-drained sites, those species were Zanthoxylum americanum, Rubus idaeus, Spiraea alba, Rhus typhina, and Thuja occidentalis. Third, analysis of variance showed that there is a significantly larger number of tree seedlings found in adjacent herbaceous communities than found under the dense cover of Cornus stolonifera, C. obliqua, Salix petiolaris, Spiraea alba, Rhus typhina, Rubus idaeus, Thuya occidentalis, and Zanthoxylum americanum. These results indicate that the planting of selected shrub species could, through biological control, delay reforestation.

  10. Stinging caterpillars from the genera Podalia, Leucanella and Lonomia in Misiones, Argentina: A preliminary comparative approach to understand their toxicity.

    PubMed

    Quintana, María Agustina; Sciani, Juliana Mozer; Auada, Aline Vivian Vatti; Martínez, María Mercedes; Sánchez, Matías Nicolás; Santoro, Marcelo Larami; Fan, Hui Wen; Peichoto, María Elisa

    2017-08-02

    Dermal contact with Lepidoptera specimens at their larval stage (caterpillar) may cause systemic and/or local envenomation. There are multiple venomous species of them in Argentina, but their overall venom composition is poorly known. Lately, several cases of envenomation have been reported in the Misiones province, Northeastern Argentina. Thus, this work aimed to compare the protein composition, and the enzymatic properties of bristle extracts from caterpillars belonging to the families Megalopygidae (Podalia ca. fuscescens) and Saturniidae (Leucanella memusae and Lonomia obliqua) - the most common causative agents of accidents in Misiones -, and additionally to test their cross-reactivity with the L. obliqua antivenom produced in Brazil. Saturniidae venoms exhibited striking similarity in both their electrophoretic protein profile, and antigenic cross-reactivity. All venoms degraded azocasein - with the highest proteolytic activity observed in the P. ca. fuscescens bristle extract -, and hyaluronic acid, but the latter at low levels. Lonomia obliqua venom exhibited the highest level of phospholipase A2 activity. Bristle extracts from P. ca. fuscescens and L. obliqua both degraded human fibrin(ogen) and shortened the clotting time triggered by calcium, while L. memusae venom inhibited plasma coagulation. Proteins related to the coagulation disturbance were identified by mass spectrometry in all samples. Altogether, our findings show for the first time a comparative biotoxinological analysis of three genera of caterpillars with medical relevance. Moreover, this study provides relevant information about the pathophysiological mechanisms whereby these caterpillar bristle extracts can induce toxicity on human beings, and gives insight into future directions for research on them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Improvement of l-lactic acid productivity from sweet sorghum juice by repeated batch fermentation coupled with membrane separation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Meng, Hongyu; Cai, Di; Wang, Bin; Qin, Peiyong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    In order to efficiently produce l-lactic acid from non-food feedstocks, sweet sorghum juice (SSJ), which is rich of fermentable sugars, was directly used for l-lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA-04-1. A membrane integrated repeated batch fermentation (MIRB) was developed for productivity improvement. High-cell-density fermentation was achieved with a final cell density (OD620) of 42.3, and the CCR effect was overcomed. When SSJ (6.77gL(-1) glucose, 4.51gL(-1) fructose and 50.46gL(-1) sucrose) was used as carbon source in MIRB process, l-lactic acid productivity was increased significantly from 1.45gL(-1)h(-1) (batch 1) to 17.55gL(-1)h(-1) (batch 6). This process introduces an effective way to produce l-lactic acid from SSJ.

  12. WestProPlus: a stochastic spreadsheet program for the management of all-aged Douglas-fir–hemlock forests in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Jingjing Liang; Joseph Buongiorno; Robert A. Monserud

    2006-01-01

    WestProPlus is an add-in program developed to work with Microsoft Excel to simulate the growth and management of all-aged Douglas-fir–western hemlock (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco–Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) stands in Oregon and Washington. Its built-in growth model was calibrated from 2,706 permanent plots in the...

  13. Transient physiological responses of planting frozen root plugs of Douglas-fir seedlings

    Treesearch

    M. Anisul Islam; Douglass F. JAcobs; Kent G. Apostol; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2008-01-01

    Short-term physiological responses of planting frozen (FR) and rapidly thawed (TR) root plugs of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were examined through time series (0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days) measurements in two separate experiments: 10 C day: 6 C night, RH 75% and 30 C day: 20 C night, RH 50%, respectively...

  14. Temperature regulation of bud-burst phenology within and among years in a young Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) plantation in western Washington, USA.

    Treesearch

    John D. Bailey; Constance A. Harrington

    2006-01-01

    Past research has established that terminal buds of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings from many seed sources have a chilling requirement of about 1200 h at 0-5 °C; once chilled, temperatures > 5 °C force bud burst via accumulation of heat units. We tested this sequential bud-burst model in the field to determine...

  15. Thinning shock and response to fertilizer less than expected in young Douglas-fir stand at Wind River Experimental Forest.

    Treesearch

    Dean S. DeBell; Constance A. Harrington; John. Shumway

    2002-01-01

    Three thinning treatments (thinned to 3.7 by 3.7 m, thinned to 4.3 by 4.3 m, and an unthinned control treatment with nominal spacing averaging 2.6 by 2.6 m) were installed in a 10-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation growing on a low-quality site at the Wind River Experimental Forest in southwest Washington. Two...

  16. Effects of long-term pruning, meristem origin, and branch order on the rooting of Douglas-fir stem cuttings.

    Treesearch

    D.L. Copes

    1992-01-01

    The rooting percentages of 14 Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) clones were examined annually from 1974 to 1988. The trees were 10 and 13 years old in 1974 and were pruned to 2.0 m in 1978 and 1979 and then recut annually to 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 m, starting in 1983. The pruned trees showed no evidence of decreased rooting percentage...

  17. An example of the use of forensic palynology in assessing an alibi.

    PubMed

    Mildenhall, Dallas C

    2004-03-01

    A man was found shot in the back on Mount Holdsworth in the Tararua Ranges north of Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. Police investigations pinpointed one individual who had been seen in the area, knew, and had the means and motive to kill the victim. His alibi was that an eyewitness was mistaken as he never had been in the area and the jacket he was reported to have been wearing had been purchased in The Netherlands and brought to Wellington, where it never had left the city. Furthermore the distinctive board shorts that he was reported to have been wearing had been purchased in a small coastal New Zealand town after the victim had been murdered. Pollen of Nothofagus menziesii, a mountain plant, on the clothing suggested that the alibi was untrue and that the clothing had been in mountains in the vicinity of Mount Holdsworth or a similar mountain scene where Nothofagus menziesii was growing.

  18. Late-glacial and Holocene record of vegetation and climate from Cynthia Bay, Lake St Clair, Tasmania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopf, F. V. L.; Colhoun, E. A.; Barton, C. E.

    2000-10-01

    A Late-glacial-Holocene pollen record was obtained from a 3.96 m sediment core taken from Lake St Clair, central Tasmania. Modern vegetation and pollen analyses formed the basis for interpretation of the vegetation and climate history. Following deglaciation and before ca. 18450 yr BP Podocarpus lawrencei coniferous heath and Astelia-Plantago wet alpine herbfield became established at Lake St Clair. A distinct Poaceae-Plantago peak occurs between 18450 and 11210 yr BP and a mean annual temperature depression from ca. 6.2°C to 3°C below present is inferred for this period. The marked reduction in Podocarpus and strong increase of Poaceae suggests reduced precipitation levels during the period of widespread deglaciation (ca. 18.5-11 kyr BP). The local Late Pleistocene-Holocene non-forest to forest biostratigraphical boundary is dated at 11.2 kyr BP. It is characterised by expansion of the subalpine taxa Athrotaxis/Diselma with Nothofagus gunnii, and by the establishment of Nothofagus cunninghamii with Eucalyptus spp. A Phyllocladus bulge prior to the expansion of Nothofagus cunninghamii, reported at other Tasmanian sites, is not present at Lake St Clair. Nothofagus cunninghamii cool temperate rainforest peaked at 7800 yr BP, probably under wetter climatic conditions than present. The maximum development of rainforest in the early-middle Holocene may indicate that the temperature was slightly warmer than present, but the evidence is not definitive. The expansion of Eucalyptus spp. and Poaceae after 6000 yr BP may be partly a disclimax effect as a result of Aboriginal burning, but appears also to reflect reduced precipitation. The changes in vegetation and inferred climate can be explained by major changes in synoptic patterns of southern Australia and the adjacent southwest Pacific.

  19. New species of Tomentella (Thelephorales) from the Patagonian Andes forests.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, Francisco; Barroetaveña, Carolina; Rajchenberg, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The genus Tomentella forms abundant ectomycorrhizae in coniferous and deciduous forests worldwide. Molecular identification of root tips suggests undescribed species in the Nothofagus forests of Patagonia, Argentina. Tomentella tenuissima, T. pulvinulata and T. patagonica are described here as new to science based on morphological and molecular analyses. Their host range is addressed using available soil sequences. The identity of previous records of T. galzinii and T. radiosa are discussed with morphological and molecular evidence. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  20. A new species of Acanthostigma (Tubeufiaceae, Dothideomycetes) from the southern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, R M; Miller, A N; Bianchinotti, M V

    2012-01-01

    A new species belonging to the Dothideomycete genus Acanthostigma is described from bark of two Nothofagus species from Argentina. Its identity as a new species is based on both morphology and molecular sequence data. Acanthostigma patagonica differs from other species in the genus by having larger ascomata and setae and wider, asymmetrical ascospores. An amended key to Acanthostigma species is provided along with a discussion of other species previously described from South America.

  1. Holocene vegetation and climate changes from a peat pollen record of the forest - steppe ecotone, Southwest of Patagonia (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, María Virginia

    2009-07-01

    Pollen analysis from a peat-bog sequence located at 50° 24' S, 72° 42' W in the Subantarctic forest - Patagonian steppe ecotone gives information about vegetation and climate changes in Southwestern Patagonia since the glacier retreat. After 11 000 cal yr BP a change from grass steppe to open Nothofagus forest indicates that climatic conditions became rapidly warmer. Development of a closed Nothofagus forest between 5800 and 3200 cal yr BP is interpreted as precipitation increase. During the late Holocene colder climate conditions prevail in response to Neoglacial events. After ca 3000 cal yr BP Nothofagus forest became opener, and after 800 cal yr BP grass steppe expanded. Changes in the forest-steppe ecotone composition as well as the ecotone longitudinal shifts suggest changes in temperature and precipitation. Present-day mean annual precipitation between 300 and 400 mm is associated with grass steppe, and 500-600 mm with a greater forest representation. During the last century, low presence of forest in the area may be related to European settlement and repeated flooding caused by periodic advances of Perito Moreno glacier.

  2. Climate and local controls of long-term vegetation dynamics in northern Patagonia (Lat 41°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Virginia; Whitlock, Cathy; Bianchi, María Martha; Villarosa, Gustavo; Outes, Valeria

    2012-11-01

    Patagonian vegetation has dramatically changed in composition and distribution over the last 16,000 yr. Although patterns of vegetation change are relatively clear, our understanding of the processes that produce them is limited. High-resolution pollen and charcoal records from two lakes located at lat 41°S provide new information on the postglacial history of vegetation and fire activity at the forest-steppe ecotone, and help clarify the relative importance of local and regional drivers of late-Holocene ecological change. Our results suggest that late-glacial parkland was colonized by shrubs at ca. 11,200 cal yr BP and this vegetation persisted until 4900 cal yr BP, when increased humidity allowed for the establishment of Nothofagus forest. The late Holocene is characterized by oscillations in forest dominance largely driven by changes in humidity, possibly associated with the onset or strengthening of ENSO. In the last 4900 yr, humid periods (4900-3800 and 2850-1350 cal yr BP) have promoted Nothofagus forest, whereas drier times (3800-2850 and 1350-450 cal yr BP) have favored Austrocedrus expansion. At intermediate moisture levels, however, the lower forest supported both taxa, and fire became an important control of community composition, with severe, infrequent fires facilitating Nothofagus regeneration and high fire frequency and intensity supporting Austrocedrus.

  3. Holocene Vegetation and Paleoclimatic and Paleomagnetic History from Lake Johnston, Tasmania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anker, Sharon A.; Colhoun, Eric A.; Barton, Charles E.; Peterson, Mike; Barbetti, Mike

    2001-09-01

    Lake Johnston cirque contains some of the best subalpine rainforest in Tasmania. Pollen from the sediments shows Lagarostrobos franklinii, which presently reaches 1040 m, may be a glacial relict. Nothofagus cunninghamii-Nothofagus gunnii subalpine rainforest developed between 9000 and 6000 14C yr B.P., with a maximum at 8700 14C yr B.P. After 6000 14C yr B.P. Nothofagus gunnii became more important, and from 3600 14C yr B.P. sclerophyll and heath components increased. Partial burning of the catchment occurred periodically. Early Holocene climate was warmer and wetter than late Holocene climate. The vegetation and climate changes are similar to those recorded from western South Island New Zealand and Chile. Radiocarbon dates give a sedimentation rate of 0.43 mm/yr. Cores are correlated by magnetic susceptibility. Magnetic ages are assigned by matching with the 14C-dated secular variation master curve for southeastern Australia. Magnetic ages are consistent with the 14C chronology when the former are adjusted by 350 years.

  4. Trajectories associated to regional and extra-regional pollen transport in the southeast of Buenos Aires province, Mar del Plata (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Gassmann, María I; Pérez, Claudio F

    2006-05-01

    Long range transport of airborne pollen has been seldom studied in South America. Backward trajectories of Celtis and Nothofagus pollen grains trapped over a meteorological station outside Mar del Plata City were calculated in one-hour steps using the regional hybrid model developed by the NOAA (HYSPLIT 4.5) and the data of the NCEP filed in the NOAA server. Results showed that the observed trajectories agree with the location of vegetation sources of the collected tree species. In the case of Celtis, the transport was associated to anticyclones located east of the city, generating winds with a N-NE component, which produce pollen cloud advection from the Celtis forests located some tens of kilometers to the N and NE of the city. The sources of Nothofagus pollen correspond to a narrow strip on the Andes slopes between 39 degrees and 55 degrees S, at least 1100 km to the SW of Mar del Plata. The transport was associated to eastward displacement of the troughs corresponding to the Westerlies circulation and the presence of an anticyclone system that brings back Nothofagus pollen towards Mar del Plata area.

  5. Holocene vegetation and climate change in southern New Zealand: linkages between forest composition and quantitative surface moisture reconstructions from an ombrogenous bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmshurst, Janet M.; McGlone, Matt S.; Charman, Dan J.

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents a Holocene pollen record from an ombrotrophic bog in Southland, New Zealand, together with multiproxy data (testate amoebae, peat humification and plant macrofossils) from the same core to establish an independent semiquantitative record of peatland surface moisture. Linkages between reconstructed peatland surface moisture and regional forest composition are investigated using redundancy analysis of the forest pollen data constrained with predicted bog water-table depths. Over 32% of the pollen data variance can be explained by surface moisture changes in the bog, suggesting a common cause of water-table and regional vegetation change. Water tables were higher during the early to mid-Holocene when the forest was dominated by podocarp taxa. Water tables lowered after about 3300 cal. yr BP coevally with the expansion of Nothofagus species, culminating with the dominance of Nothofagus subgenus Fuscospora in the past 1200 cal. yr BP. This is in apparent opposition to the warm/dry to cool/wet trend suggested by subjective interpretation of pollen data alone, from this and other studies. We suggest that during the late Holocene, drier summers associated with shifts in solar insolation caused reduced surface wetness and summer humidity, which together with a trend to cooler winters, apparently favoured the regeneration of Nothofagus species.

  6. Environmental and climatic changes in Central Chilean Patagonia since the Late Glacial (Mallín El Embudo, 44° S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Porras, M. E.; Maldonado, A.; Quintana, F. A.; Martel-Cea, A.; Reyes, O.; Méndez, C.

    2013-10-01

    Multi-millennial environmental and climatic changes in Central Chilean Patagonia (44-49° S) during the Last Glacial-Interglacial cycle have been of particular interest as changes in the position and strength of the Southern Westerlies are the major forcing factor conditioning the environmental dynamics. Recent attempts to reconstruct regional environmental and climatic signals from Central Chilean Patagonia reveal some discrepancies and unclear issues among the records. This paper presents the 13 ka pollen and charcoal records from Mallín El Embudo (44°40' S; 71°42' W) located in the deciduous Nothofagus forest in the middle Río Cisnes valley. The paper aims to (1) establish the timing and magnitude of local vegetation changes and fire activity since the Late Glacial and (2) integrate these results at the regional scale in order to discuss the discrepancies and depict the Central Chilean Patagonia environmental and climatic dynamics since Late Glacial. Open landscapes dominated by grasses associated with scattered Nothofagus forest patches dominated middle Río Cisnes valley between 13-11.2 ka suggesting low effective moisture but also reflecting that landscape configuration after glacial retreat was still ongoing. At 11.2 ka, a sudden development of an open and quite dynamic Nothofagus forest probably associated to the synchronous high fire activity occurred suggesting a rise in effective moisture. Since 9.5 ka, the record reflects the presence of a closed Nothofagus forest related to higher/similar effective moisture conditions than before but under an unmarked precipitation seasonality. The forest experienced a slight canopy opening since 5.7 ka, probably due to slightly drier conditions than before followed by a sudden change around 4.2 ka associated with fire and volcanic disturbances. The recovery of an open Nothofagus forest related to slight wetter conditions (similar to present) occurred around 2 ka and persisted under highly variable climatic

  7. Environmental and climatic changes in central Chilean Patagonia since the Late Glacial (Mallín El Embudo, 44° S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Porras, M. E.; Maldonado, A.; Quintana, F. A.; Martel-Cea, A.; Reyes, O.; Méndez, C.

    2014-05-01

    Multi-millennial environmental and climatic changes in central Chilean Patagonia (44-49° S) during the Last Glacial-Interglacial cycle have been of particular interest as changes in the position and strength of the southern westerlies are the major forcing factor conditioning the environmental dynamics. Recent attempts to reconstruct regional environmental and climatic signals from central Chilean Patagonia reveal some discrepancies and unclear issues among the records. This paper presents the 13 ka pollen and charcoal records from Mallín El Embudo (44° 40' S, 71° 42' W) located in the deciduous Nothofagus forest in the middle Río Cisnes valley. The paper aims to (1) establish the timing and magnitude of local vegetation changes and fire activity since the Late Glacial and (2) integrate these results at the regional scale in order to discuss the discrepancies and depict the environmental and climatic dynamics in central Chilean Patagonia since the Late Glacial. Open landscapes dominated by grasses associated with scattered Nothofagus forest patches dominated the middle Río Cisnes valley between 13 and 11.2 ka suggesting low effective moisture but also indicating that landscape configuration after glacial retreat was still ongoing. At 11.2 ka, the sudden development of an open and quite dynamic Nothofagus forest probably associated with the synchronous high fire activity occurred, suggesting a rise in effective moisture associated with dry summers. Since 9.5 ka, the record reflects the presence of a closed Nothofagus forest related to higher effective moisture conditions than before combined with moderate dry summers that may have triggered a high frequency of low-magnitude crown fires that did not severely affect the forest. The forest experienced a slight canopy opening after 5.7 ka, probably due to slightly drier conditions than before followed by a sudden change to open forest conditions around 4.2 ka associated with fire and volcanic disturbances. Around

  8. Head Transcriptomes of Two Closely Related Species of Fruit Flies of the Anastrepha fraterculus Group Reveals Divergent Genes in Species with Extensive Gene Flow

    PubMed Central

    Rezende, Victor Borges; Congrains, Carlos; Lima, André Luís A.; Campanini, Emeline Boni; Nakamura, Aline Minali; de Oliveira, Janaína Lima; Chahad-Ehlers, Samira; Junior, Iderval Sobrinho; Alves de Brito, Reinaldo

    2016-01-01

    Several fruit flies species of the Anastrepha fraterculus group are of great economic importance for the damage they cause to a variety of fleshy fruits. Some species in this group have diverged recently, with evidence of introgression, showing similar morphological attributes that render their identification difficult, reinforcing the relevance of identifying new molecular markers that may differentiate species. We investigated genes expressed in head tissues from two closely related species: A. obliqua and A. fraterculus, aiming to identify fixed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and highly differentiated transcripts, which, considering that these species still experience some level of gene flow, could indicate potential candidate genes involved in their differentiation process. We generated multiple libraries from head tissues of these two species, at different reproductive stages, for both sexes. Our analyses indicate that the de novo transcriptome assemblies are fairly complete. We also produced a hybrid assembly to map each species’ reads, and identified 67,470 SNPs in A. fraterculus, 39,252 in A. obliqua, and 6386 that were common to both species. We identified 164 highly differentiated unigenes that had a mean interspecific index (D¯) of at least 0.94. We selected unigenes that had Ka/Ks higher than 0.5, or had at least three or more highly differentiated SNPs as potential candidate genes for species differentiation. Among these candidates, we identified proteases, regulators of redox homeostasis, and an odorant-binding protein (Obp99c), among other genes. The head transcriptomes described here enabled the identification of thousands of genes hitherto unavailable for these species, and generated a set of candidate genes that are potentially important to genetically identify species and understand the speciation process in the presence of gene flow of A. obliqua and A. fraterculus. PMID:27558666

  9. Experimental hybridization and reproductive isolation between two sympatric species of tephritid fruit flies in the Anastrepha fraterculus species group.

    PubMed

    Rull, Juan; Tadeo, Eduardo; Lasa, Rodrigo; Rodríguez, Christian L; Altuzar-Molina, Alma; Aluja, Martín

    2017-06-06

    Among tephritid fruit flies, hybridization has been found to produce local adaptation and speciation, and in the case of pest species, induce behavioral and ecological alterations that can adversely impact efficient pest management. The fraterculus species group within Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a rapidly radiating aggregate, which includes cryptic species complexes, numerous sister species, and several pest species. Molecular studies have highlighted the possibility of introgression between A. fraterculus and A. obliqua. Reproductive isolation has been studied among morphotypes of the A. fraterculus species complex as a tool for species delimitation. Here we examined the existence and strength of prezygotic and postzygotic isolation between sympatric populations of two closely related species within the highly derived fraterculus group (A. fraterculus and A. obliqua), coexisting in nature. Although adults of both species showed a strong tendency for assortative mating, a small proportion of hybrid pairings in both directions were observed. We also observed asymmetric postzygotic isolation, with one hybrid cross displaying a strong reduction in fecundity and F1 egg fertility. Survival was greater for the progeny of homotypic and hybrid crosses in the maternal host. There was a marked female biased sex ratio distortion for both F1 hybrid adults. Hybridization between A. fraterculus and A. obliqua in nature may be difficult but possible; these two species display stronger reproductive isolation than all pairs of species previously examined in the A. fraterculus species complex. Asymmetric postzygotic isolation is suggestive of Wolbachia mediated cytoplasmic incompatibilities that may be exploited in area-wide pest management. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Hosts and parasitoids of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea) in the State of Tocantins, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, Darcy A; Uchôa-Fernandes, Manoel A; Bragança, Marcos A L

    2007-01-01

    Fruit flies were obtained from 13 species of naturally infested fruits in the central region of Tocantins State, from January to October 2005. A total of 1,753 female flies were collected that belong to 11 species: Anastrepha coronilli Carrejo & González, A. fraterculus (Wied.), A. mucronota Stone, A. obliqua (Macquart), A. sororcula Zucchi, A. striata Schiner, A. turpiniae Stone, A. zenildae Zucchi, Anastrepha sp., Ceratitis capitata (Wied.) and Neosilba sp. Also six species of parasitoids were associated to Anastrepha larvae: Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck), Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti), Doryctobracon sp., Opius bellus Gahan, Opius sp. and Utetes anastrephae (Viereck).

  11. Severe Hemorrhagic Syndrome After Lonomia Caterpillar Envenomation in the Western Brazilian Amazon: How Many More Cases Are There?

    PubMed

    Santos, João Hugo A; Oliveira, Sâmella S; Alves, Eliane C; Mendonça-da-Silva, Iran; Sachett, Jacqueline A G; Tavares, Antonio; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos; Fan, Hui Wen; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Monteiro, Wuelton M

    2017-03-01

    Contact with Lonomia caterpillars can cause a hemorrhagic syndrome. In Brazil, Lonomia obliqua and Lonomia achelous are known to cause this venom-induced disease. In the Brazilian Amazon, descriptions of this kind of envenomation are scarce. Herein, we report a severe hemorrhagic syndrome caused by Lonomia envenomation in the Amazonas state, Western Brazilian Amazon. The patient showed signs of hemorrhage lasting 8 days and required Lonomia antivenom administration, which resulted in resolution of hemorrhagic syndrome. Thus, availability of Lonomia antivenom as well as early antivenom therapy administration should be addressed across remote areas in the Amazon.

  12. Comparative Mapping in the Pinaceae

    PubMed Central

    Krutovsky, Konstantin V.; Troggio, Michela; Brown, Garth R.; Jermstad, Kathleen D.; Neale, David B.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative genetic map was constructed between two important genera of the family Pinaceae. Ten homologous linkage groups in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) were identified using orthologous expressed sequence tag polymorphism (ESTP) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. The comparative mapping revealed extensive synteny and colinearity between genomes of the Pinaceae, consistent with the hypothesis of conservative chromosomal evolution in this important plant family. This study reports the first comparative map in forest trees at the family taxonomic level and establishes a framework for comparative genomics in Pinaceae. PMID:15454556

  13. Comparative mapping in the Pinaceae.

    PubMed

    Krutovsky, Konstantin V; Troggio, Michela; Brown, Garth R; Jermstad, Kathleen D; Neale, David B

    2004-09-01

    A comparative genetic map was constructed between two important genera of the family Pinaceae. Ten homologous linkage groups in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) were identified using orthologous expressed sequence tag polymorphism (ESTP) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. The comparative mapping revealed extensive synteny and colinearity between genomes of the Pinaceae, consistent with the hypothesis of conservative chromosomal evolution in this important plant family. This study reports the first comparative map in forest trees at the family taxonomic level and establishes a framework for comparative genomics in Pinaceae.

  14. Levels-of-growing-stock cooperative studies in douglas-fir: Report No. 10. The Hoskins study. 1963-83. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, D.D.; Bell, J.F.; Tappeiner, J.C.

    1992-09-01

    Results of the Hoskins levels-of-growing-stock (LOGS) study in western Oregon are summarized and management implications discussed through the fifth and final planned treatment period. To age 40 thinnings in this low site I Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stand resulted in large increases in diameter growth with reductions in basal area and volume growth and yield. Growth was strongly related to the level of growing stock. Culmination of cubic-foot mean annual increment does not appear to be near for any of the treatments.

  15. Genetic variation and seed zones of douglas-fir in the Siskiyou National Forest. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.K.; Sugano, A.I.

    1993-07-01

    The provisional seed zones and breeding zones were developed for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Siskiyou National Forest in southwestern Oregon. Zones were based on maps of genetic variation patterns obtained by evaluating genotypes of trees from 260 locations in the region. Genotypes controlling growth vigor and growth rhythm were assessed in the common garden. Within the Forest, three breeding blocks were recommended, with different numbers of elevational bands in each block: from 0 to 610 meters, from 611 to 838 meters, and then a series of bands 152 meters wide at higher elevations.

  16. Holocene climate variability and environmental history at the Patagonian forest/steppe ecotone: Lago Mosquito (lat. 42.50°S, long. 71.40°W) and Laguna del Cóndor (lat. 42.20°S, long. 71.17°W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, V.; Whitlock, C. L.; Bianchi, M. M.

    2010-12-01

    Along the eastern Andes, a sharp ecotone separates steppe from North Patagonian forest dominated by Nothofagus spp. and Austrocedrus chilensis. The elevational position of the ecotone is determined by effective moisture, which in turn is governed by the strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Westerlies. As a result, past changes in ecotone position and composition, and fire activity provide an opportunity to examine past climate variations. Holocene environmental history at two sites in close proximity along a west-to-east moisture gradient is inferred from magnetic susceptibility, pollen and high-resolution charcoal data. Comparison of the two records enhanced the spatial resolution of the reconstruction. Pollen data suggest that, prior to 9 ka, vegetation resembled a modern steppe, in accordance with the widespread aridity characteristic of the period. Fires were infrequent, likely as a consequence of fuel discontinuity associated with low vegetation cover. At 9 ka, forest taxa expanded into the steppe. This change in community composition was reflected in the fire regime: fires became more frequent and biomass burning increased. This fire-vegetation linkage suggests that summers were arid enough to support fires but moisture was sufficient for Nothofagus forest to expand. Based on a westward displacement of the forest-steppe ecotone, drier-than-before conditions are inferred for the 5.5-3.7 ka period. A shift from crown to surface fires at the westernmost site, and lengthening fire return intervals towards the east accompanied this vegetation change. Between 3.7 and 2.4 ka, both sites registered an A. chilensis expansion, suggesting an increase in effective moisture. The last 2400 years are characterized by uninterrupted advances of Nothofagus forest. Ecotonal trees and shrubs, such as A. chilensis, Maytenus boaria and Rhamnaceae, have become less abundant, suggesting a recent trend towards cooler and/or wetter conditions.

  17. The phylogenetic position of poroid Hymenochaetaceae (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) from Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rajchenberg, Mario; Pildain, María Belén; Bianchinotti, María V; Barroetaveña, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Six poroid Hymenochaetaceae from Patagonia, Argentina, were studied phylogenetically with nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial 28S rDNA sequences, together with morphological data. Two new genera and a new species are introduced as well as two new combinations proposed. Arambarria destruens gen. et sp. nov. is proposed for a taxon fruiting on fallen or standing, dead Diostea juncea and Lomatia hirsuta and previously recorded erroneously as Inocutis jamaicensis; it is distinguished by annual, effused to effused-reflexed basidiomes forming pilei, a monomitic hyphal system, thick-walled and yellowish basidiospores (brownish chestnut in potassium hydroxide solution), lack of a granular core in the context and lack of setoid elements. Nothophellinus gen. nov. is proposed to accommodate Phellinus andinopatagonicus, the main white wood-rotting polypore of standing Nothofagus pumilio and also an important wood-decayer of other Nothofagus species from southern Argentina and Chile. It is morphologically similar to Phellopilus (type species P. nigrolimitatus) but differs by lacking setae. The new combinations Pseudoinonotus crustosus and Phellinopsis andina are proposed for Inonotus crustosus and Phellinus andinus, respectively. Phellinus livescens, which decays the sapwood of several standing Nothofagus species, is closely related to Phellinus uncisetus, a Neotropical species related to Fomitiporia; for the time being P. livescens is retained in Phellinus sensu lato. An unidentified taxon responsible for a white heart-rot in living Austrocedrus chilensis grouped with Phellinus caryophyllii and Fulvifomes inermis, but its generic affinities remain ambiguous. Transmission electron microscopy studies confirm this unidentified taxon has an imperforate parenthesome, which is typical of the Hymenochaetaceae. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  18. Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with frugivorous larvae in a Brazilian caatinga-cerrado ecotone.

    PubMed

    De Souza, A R; Lopes-Mielezrski, G N; Lopes, E N; Querino, R B; Corsato, C D A; Giustolin, T A; Zucchi, R A

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate native species of parasitoids of frugivorous larvae and their associations with host plants in commercial guava orchards and in typical native dry forests of a caatinga-cerrado ecotone in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Nine species of parasitoids were associated with larvae of Anastrepha (Tephritidae) and Neosilba (Lonchaeidae) in fruit of Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. (Rhamnaceae), Spondias tuberosa Arruda (Anacardiaceae), Spondias dulcis Forst. (Anacardiaceae), Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae), and Randia armata (Sw.) DC. (Rubiaceae). Doryctobracon areolatus was the most abundant species, obtained from puparia of Anastrepha zenildae, An. sororcula, An. fraterculus, An. obliqua, and An. turpiniae. This is the first report of Asobara obliqua in Brazil and of As. anastrephae and Tropideucoila weldi in dry forests of Minas Gerais State. The number of species of parasitoids was higher in areas with greater diversity of cultivated species and lower pesticide use. The forest fragments adjacent to the orchards served as shelter for parasitoids of frugivorous larvae.

  19. The influence of microhabitat on the population dynamics of four herbaceous species in a semiarid area of northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, K A; Santos, J M F F; Andrade, J R; Lima, E N; Albuquerque, U P; Ferraz, E M N; Araújo, E L

    2016-02-01

    Variation in annual rainfall is considered the most important factor influencing population dynamics in dry environments. However, different factors may control population dynamics in different microhabitats. This study recognizes that microhabitat variation may attenuate the influence of climatic seasonality on the population dynamics of herbaceous species in dry forest (Caatinga) areas of Brazil. We evaluated the influence of three microhabitats (flat, rocky and riparian) on the population dynamics of four herbaceous species (Delilia biflora, Commelina obliqua, Phaseolus peduncularis and Euphorbia heterophylla) in a Caatinga (dry forest) fragment at the Experimental Station of the Agronomic Research Institute of Pernambuco in Brazil, over a period of three years. D. biflora, C. obliqua and P. peduncularis were found in all microhabitats, but they were present at low densities in the riparian microhabitat. There was no record of E. heterophylla in the riparian microhabitat. Population size, mortality rates and natality rates varied over time in each microhabitat. This study indicates that different establishment conditions influenced the population size and occurrence of the four species, and it confirms that microhabitat can attenuate the effect of drought stress on mortality during the dry season, but the strength of this attenuator role may vary with time and species.

  20. Evaluation of lufenuron as a chemosterilant against fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Moya, Pilar; Flores, Salvador; Ayala, Ildefonso; Sanchis, Juan; Montoya, Pablo; Primo, Jaime

    2010-06-01

    Chemosterilisation with lufenuron bait stations is a recently developed technique that is being implemented for Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann control. The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemosterilising effect of lufenuron against four economically important Latin American fruit flies species: Anastrepha ludens (Loew.), A. obliqua Macquart, A. serpentina Wiedemann and A. striata Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) in order to design a similar strategy for their control. Sexually mature adults were treated by ingestion with concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 30.0 mg g(-1) of lufenuron in the diet. In addition, conspecific crosses with only one of the sexes being treated (30.0 mg g(-1)) were performed in order to appraise the contribution of each sex to the sterilising effect. In all cases, fecundity was not affected by the treatments, as opposed to fertility where all Anastrepha species studied were significantly affected, although to different extents. The conspecific crosses showed that treated males of A. ludens, A. obliqua and A. serpentina were not able to transmit the sterility to their respective untreated females. Only in the case of A. striata did crossing treated males with untreated females significantly reduced egg hatch. Although further investigations are required, the present results demonstrate that the use of lufenuron for controlling A. striata could be potentially viable.

  1. Residual control and lethal concentrations of GF-120 (spinosad) for Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Flores, Salvador; Gomez, Luis E; Montoya, Pablo

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between residual time of GF-120 (spinosad) treatment and mortality in three species of Anastrepha Schiner. Concentrations of 96, 72, 48, and 24 ppm were aged on mango leaves under field conditions for 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 d after application. We found that Anastrepha ludens, A. obliqua, and A. serpentina were highly sensitive to spinosad. The effects of spinosad were not reduced over the 4 d after the initial application, even at a concentration of 24 ppm. Mortality at 14 d after the application of 72 and 96 ppm of spinosad was similar in each of the three fruit fly species. In addition, we found that 24 ppm of spinosad was consumed the most by each species even though no direct relationship between the rate of consumption per female and the dose of the product was observed, in this test, higher consumption of active ingredient was observed at a concentration of 72 ppm, for A. ludens, 48 ppm for A. obliqua, and 96 ppm for A. serpentina. Our results suggest that a spinosad concentration of 72 ppm may effectively control these pests for at least 10 d under field conditions.

  2. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Hydroperoxide Lyase Gene in the Leaves of Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei-Wei; Wu, Yi-Lin; Li, Ye-Yun; Tan, Zhen; Wei, Chao-Ling

    2016-03-02

    Hydroperoxide lyase (HPL, E.C. 4.1.2.) is the major enzyme in the biosynthesis of natural volatile aldehydes and alcohols in plants, however, little was known about HPL in tea plants (Camellia sinensis). A unique cDNA fragment was isolated by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) from a tea plant subjected to herbivory by tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua. This full length cDNA acquired by RACE was 1476 bp and encoded 491 amino acids. DNA and protein BLAST searches showed high homology to HPL sequences from other plants. The His-tag expression vector pET-32a(+)/CsHPL was constructed and transferred into Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). The expression product of recombinant CsHPL in E. coli was about 60 kDa. The enzyme activity of CsHPL was 0.20 μmol·min(-1)·mg(-1). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated CsHPL was strongly up-regulated in tea plants after Ectropis obliqua attack, suggesting that it may be an important candidate for defense against insects in tea plants.

  3. Irradiation of mangoes as a postharvest quarantine treatment for fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Bustos, María E; Enkerlin, Walther; Reyes, Jesús; Toledo, Jorge

    2004-04-01

    Mangoes infested with third instar larvae were irradiated using Co-60 gamma rays and a dose interval of 2-250 Gy to assess the irradiation dose required to prevent adult emergence of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens), the West Indies fruit fly (A. obliqua), the sapote fruit fly (A. serpentina), and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata). Doses of 76.9, 87.3, 91.4 and 112.7 Gy, were estimated to inhibit 99.9968% (probit 9) of adult emergence forA. obliqua, A. serpentina, A. ludens, and C. capitata, respectively. Using mangoes infested with a total of 100,000 larvae of each species, the results obtained in the laboratory were confirmed using a dose of 100 Gy for the Anastrepha species and 150 Gy for C. capitata. No adult emergence was observed for any of the four species compared with approximately 80% emergence in the controls. A dose of 150 Gy is recommended as a generic quarantine treatment against potential infestation of these species in exported mangoes. A minor decrease in the ascorbic acid content was the only adverse effects observed in irradiated mangoes.

  4. Sperm allocation and cost of mating in a tropical tephritid fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Perez-Staples, Diana; Aluja, Martín

    2006-08-01

    Males that copulate repeatedly may suffer from reduced sperm stores. However, few studies have addressed sperm depletion from both the female and male perspective. Here, we show that male Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) do not ejaculate all available sperm and are left with mature sperm in the seminal vesicles even after copulating as often as three times in half a day. Ejaculate size was not related to male mating history; time elapsed since the last mating, copulation duration, female thorax length or head width. Larval host origin did not affect the number of sperm stored by females. More sperm was found in the ventral receptacle compared to sperm stored in the three spermathecae. Males apparently do not suffer a cost of mating in terms of longevity, although we cannot rule out other fitness costs. Sperm production in this species may not be as costly as it is for other species. Results suggest that males strategically allocate similar numbers of sperm among successive mates without exhausting sperm reserves for future encounters. We discuss the role that differential sperm storage may have in mediating sperm competition and tie our results to the unique natural history of A. obliqua.

  5. Acceptance and digestibility of some selected browse feeds with varying tannin content as supplements in sheep nutrition in west Africa.

    PubMed

    Aschfalk, A; Steingass, H; Müller, W; Drochner, W

    2000-11-01

    In 1994 and 1995 leaves from 10 selected West African trees and shrubs with varying tannin content were tested to determine their suitability as an alternative and supplementary browse feed for West African dwarf sheep to improve productivity in small-scale holdings in Benin. Dry matter intake per kg metabolic body weight (DM g/kg W0.75) varied between the different browse feeds and between the different trials and ranged from zero (Leucaena leucocephala) up to 26.7 DM g/kg W0.75 (Margaritaria discoidea). The digestibility of the organic matter varied between 58.9% (L. leucocephala) and 68.2% (Mallotus oppositifolius). Agelaea obliqua showed the highest levels of total phenols (10.2%), tannin phenols (8.8%) and extractable condensed tannins (8.0%). Leaves from various browse feeds are a good and protein-rich supplementary fodder in addition to the grass Panicum maximum. However, feeding of A. obliqua and Cnestis ferruginea should be avoided due to toxic components.

  6. Polyploid evolution and biogeography in Chelone (Scrophulariaceae): morphological and isozyme evidence.

    PubMed

    Nelson, A D; Elisens, W J

    1999-10-01

    Chelone is a genus of perennial herbs comprising three diploid species (C. cuthbertii, C. glabra, and C. lyonii) and a fourth species (C. obliqua) that occurs as tetraploid and hexaploid races. To assess patterns of isozyme and morphological variation, and to test hypotheses of hybridization and allopolyploidy, we analyzed variation among 16 isozyme loci from 61 populations and 16 morphological characters from 33 populations representing all taxa and ploidy levels. Based on morphological analyses using clustering (unweighted pair group method using an arithmetic average) and ordination (principal components analysis and canonical variance analysis) methods, we recognize three diploid species without infraspecific taxa. Polyploids in the C. obliqua complex were most similar morphologically to diploid populations of C. glabra and C. lyonii. Patterns of isozyme variation among polyploids, which included fixed heterozygosity and recombinant profiles of alleles present in diploids, suggested polytopic origins of tetraploids and hexaploids. Our data indicate independent origins of polyploids in or near the southern Blue Ridge, Interior Highlands and Plains, and Atlantic Coastal Plain regions from progenitors most similar to C. glabra and C. lyonii. Extant tetraploids were not implicated in evolution of hexaploids, and plants similar to C. cuthbertii appeared unlikely as diploid progenitors for polyploids. We propose multiple differentiation and hybridization/polyploidization cycles in different geographic regions to explain the pattern of allopatry and inferred polytopic origins among polyploids.

  7. RADIO CONTINUUM EMISSION AND WATER MASERS TOWARD CB 54

    SciTech Connect

    De Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar; Gomez, Jose F.; Anglada, Guillem; Suarez, Olga; Torrelles, Jose M.; Kuiper, Thomas B. H.; Patel, Nimesh A.

    2009-06-15

    We present high angular resolution observations of water masers at 1.3 cm and radio continuum emission at 1.3, 3.6, and 6 cm toward the Bok globule CB 54 using the Very Large Array. At 1.3 cm, with subarcsecond angular resolution, we detect a radio continuum compact source located to the southwest of the globule and spatially coincident with a mid-infrared (mid-IR) embedded object (MIR-b). The spectral index derived between 6 and 1.3 cm ({alpha} = 0.3 {+-} 0.4) is flat, consistent with optically thin free-free emission from ionized gas. We propose the shock-ionization scenario as a viable mechanism for producing the radio continuum emission observed at cm frequencies. Water masers are detected at two different positions separated by 2.''3, and coincide spatially with two mid-IR sources: MIR-b and MIR-c. The association of these mid-IR sources with water masers confirms that they are likely protostars undergoing mass loss, and they are the best candidate as driving sources of the molecular outflows in the region.

  8. Pollen evidence for variations in the southern margin of the westerly winds in SW Patagonia over the last 12,600 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa-Martínez, Rodrigo; Moreno, Patricio I.

    2007-11-01

    We report pollen and charcoal records from Vega Ñandú (˜ 51°0'S, 72°45'W), a small mire located near the modern forest-steppe ecotone in Torres del Paine National Park, southern Chile. The record shows an open landscape dominated by low shrubs and herbs between 12,600 and 10,800 cal yr BP, under cold and relatively humid conditions. Nothofagus experienced frequent, large-amplitude oscillations between 10,800 and 6800 cal yr BP, indicating recurrent transitions between shrubland/parkland environments, under warm and highly variable moisture conditions. A sustained increase in Nothofagus started at 6800 cal yr BP, punctuated by step-wise increases at 5100 and 2400 cal yr BP, implying further increases in precipitation. We interpret these results as indicative of variations in the amount of precipitation of westerly origin, with prominent increases at 6800, 5100, and 2400 cal yr BP. These pulses led to peak precipitation regimes during the last two millennia in this part of SW Patagonia. Our data suggest variations in the position and/or strength of the southern margin of the westerlies, most likely linked to variations in the extent and/or persistence of sea ice and sea-surface temperature anomalies in the Southern Ocean. Over the last two centuries the record shows a forest decline and expansion of Rumex acetosella, an exotic species indicative of European disturbance.

  9. Late quaternary vegetation of southern Isla Grande de Chiloñ, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villagran, Carolina

    1988-05-01

    Late-glacial-Holocene forest history of southern Isla Chiloé (latitude 43°10' S) was reconstructed on the basis of pollen analysis in three profiles (Laguna Soledad, Laguna Chaiguata, Puerto Carmen). Prior to 12,500 yr B.P. pollen records are dominated by plant taxa characteristic of open habitats (Zone I). From 12,500 yr B.P. to the present, tree species predominate in the pollen records (Zones II-V). Between 12,500 and 9500 yr B.P. ombrophyllous taxa ( Nothofagus, Podocarpus nubigena. Myrtaceae, Fitzroya/Pilgerodendron, and Drimys) are frequent in all pollen diagrams, suggesting a wetter and colder climate than the present. Between 9000 and 5500 yr B.P. Valdivian forest elements, such as Nothofagus dombeyi type, Weinmannia, and Eucryphia/Caldcluvia, dominate, indicating a period of drier and warmer climate. From 5500 yr B.P. onward, the expansion of mixed North Patagonian-Subantarctic forest elements and the increased frequence of Tepualia suggest increased rainfall and temperatures oscillating around the modern values. The change from open to forest vegetation (ca. 12,500 yr B.P.) probably represents the most pronounced climatic change in the record and can be interpreted as the glacial-postglacial transition in the study area.

  10. Heavy metal and trace elements in riparian vegetation and macrophytes associated with lacustrine systems in Northern Patagonia Andean Range.

    PubMed

    Juárez, Andrea; Arribére, María A; Arcagni, Marina; Williams, Natalia; Rizzo, Andrea; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    Vegetation associated with lacustrine systems in Northern Patagonia was studied for heavy metal and trace element contents, regarding their elemental contribution to these aquatic ecosystems. The research focused on native species and exotic vascular plant Salix spp. potential for absorbing heavy metals and trace elements. The native species studied were riparian Amomyrtus luma, Austrocedrus chilensis, Chusquea culeou, Desfontainia fulgens, Escallonia rubra, Gaultheria mucronata, Lomatia hirsuta, Luma apiculata, Maytenus boaria, Myrceugenia exsucca, Nothofagus antarctica, Nothofagus dombeyi, Schinus patagonicus, and Weinmannia trichosperma, and macrophytes Hydrocotyle chamaemorus, Isöetes chubutiana, Galium sp., Myriophyllum quitense, Nitella sp. (algae), Potamogeton linguatus, Ranunculus sp., and Schoenoplectus californicus. Fresh leaves were analyzed as well as leaves decomposing within the aquatic bodies, collected from lakes Futalaufquen and Rivadavia (Los Alerces National Park), and lakes Moreno and Nahuel Huapi (Nahuel Huapi National Park). The elements studied were heavy metals Ag, As, Cd, Hg, and U, major elements Ca, K, and Fe, and trace elements Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Na, Rb, Se, Sr, and Zn. Geochemical tracers La and Sm were also determined to evaluate contamination of the biological tissues by geological particulate (sediment, soil, dust) and to implement concentration corrections.

  11. Preliminary data on growth and enzymatic abilities of soil fungus Humicolopsis cephalosporioides at different incubation temperatures.

    PubMed

    Elíades, Lorena Alejandra; Cabello, Marta N; Pancotto, Verónica; Moretto, Alicia; Rago, María Melisa; Saparrat, Mario C N

    2015-01-01

    Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp & Endl.) Krasser, known as "lenga" is the most important timber wood species in southernmost Patagonia (Argentina). Humicolopsis cephalosporioides Cabral & Marchand is a soil fungus associated with Nothofagus pumilio forests, which has outstanding cellulolytic activity. However, there is no information about the ability of this fungus to use organic substrates other than cellulose, and its ability to produce different enzyme systems, as well as its response to temperature. The aim of this study was to examine the role of H. cephalosporioides in degradation processes in N. pumilio forests in detail by evaluating the in vitro ability of four isolates of this fungus to grow and produce different lytic enzyme systems, and their response to incubation temperature. The ability of the fungi to grow and produce enzyme systems was estimated by inoculating them on agar media with specific substrates, and the cultures were incubated at three temperatures. A differential behavior of each strain in levels of growth and enzyme activity was found according to the medium type and/or incubation temperature. A intra-specific variability was found in H. cephalosporioides. Likewise a possible link between the saprotrophic role of this fungus in N. pumilio forests and the degradation of organic matter under stress conditions, such as those from frosty environments, was also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Pseudotsuga menziesii invasion in native forests of Patagonia, Argentina: What about mycorrhizas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado Salomón, María Eugenia; Barroetaveña, Carolina; Rajchenberg, Mario

    2013-05-01

    Pseudotsuga menziesii is one of the most widely planted conifers in the Patagonian Andes of Argentina, with invading characteristics that are widely reported. Nevertheless, little is known about the role of its obligate mycorrhizal associations in limiting or fostering the establishment of invading seedlings. We studied the richness and abundance of endo- (AM) and ectomycorrhizae (EM) present in P. menziesii seedlings growing in six Nothofagus forests invaded by P. menziesii seedlings (Nothofagus + P. menziesii) matrices. One transect along the maximum effective recruitment distance (ERA) was established at each site in order to wrench seedlings and sample soils. P. menziesii showed effective associations with a wide range of mycorrhizal symbionts: AM (ranging between 13.21 and 37.11%), EM (ranging between 79.91 and 89.14%) and Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE). Seedlings' mycorrhization percentages were always high, suggesting a good nursery effect provided by neighboring plantations. Mycorrhizal abundance (AM% and EM%), EM morphotypes richness and evenness showed significant differences between sites, indicating that P. menziesii displays a high plasticity being capable to select the more convenient mycorrhizal arrangement at each invaded site.

  13. Postglacial history of the Patagonian forest/steppe ecotone (41-43°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Virginia; Whitlock, Cathy; Markgraf, Vera; Bianchi, María Martha

    2014-06-01

    Patagonian vegetation has dramatically changed in composition and distribution over the last 23,000 years. Although the vegetation history has been inferred from individual pollen records, the regional patterns and drivers of vegetation development are poorly understood. High resolution pollen and charcoal data from eleven sites located along the eastern flanks of the Patagonian Andes (41-43°S) were examined to reconstruct the Lateglacial and Holocene vegetation and fire history of steppe/forest ecotone and separate the relative influence of climatic versus non-climatic factors in shaping the patterns of ecological change. Pollen data indicate that, as the Lateglacial climate became progressively wetter, the initial steppe vegetation was replaced by open forest of Nothofagus in the Lateglacial and early Holocene periods, and by closed forest in the late Holocene. Fire activity was lowest during the Lateglacial/early-Holocene transition and gradually increased through the Holocene. Prior to ca 5000 cal yr BP, the conifer Austrocedrus chilensis possibly persisted in isolated populations along the eastern boundary of its modern distribution. Cooler/more humid conditions after ca 5000 cal yr BP allowed the development of the modern mixed Nothofagus-Austrocedrus forest. The paleoenvironmental record points to the sensitivity of the forest/steppe ecotone in the past, not only to climate but also to complex environmental feedbacks that amplified the effects of climate change.

  14. Postglacial formation and dynamics of North Patagonian Rainforest in the Chonos Archipelago, Southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberle, S. G.; Bennett, K. D.

    2004-12-01

    Pollen analysis of continuous sediment cores from two lakes in the northern Chonos Archipelago (44°S) in southern Chile shows a complete postglacial record of vegetation change. The fossil records indicate that deglaciation was complete in the northern Chonos by at least 13,600 14C yr BP. Ericaceous heath and grassland persisted for more than 600 years after deglaciation under the influence of dry/cold climates and frequent burning. Nothofagus- Pilgerodendron- Podocarpus forest, with modern analogues in the southern Chonos Archipelago, was established across the northern islands by 12,400 14C yr BP under increasingly warm and wet climates. There is no evidence for a return to cooler climates during the Younger Dryas chronozone. The rise of Tepualia stipularis and Weinmannia trichosperma as important forest components between 10,600 and 6000 14C yr BP may be associated with climates that were warmer than present. The collapse of Pilgerodendron communities during this time may have been triggered by a combination of factors related to disturbance frequency including tephra deposition events, fire and climate change. After 6000 14C yr BP Pilgerodendron recovers and Nothofagus-Pilgerodendron-Tepualia forest persists until the present. European logging and burning activity may have increased the susceptibility of North Patagonian Rainforest to invasion by introduced species and to future collapse of the long-lived Pilgerodendron communities.

  15. Ecology of cultivable yeasts in pristine forests in northern Patagonia (Argentina) influenced by different environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Mestre, María Cecilia; Fontenla, Sonia; Rosa, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    Environmental factors influencing the occurrence and community structure of soil yeasts in forests are not well studied. There are few studies dedicated to Southern Hemisphere soil yeasts populations and even fewer focused on temperate forests influenced by volcanic activity. The present work aimed to study the ecology of soil yeast communities from pristine forests influenced by different environmental factors (precipitation, physicochemical properties of soil, tree species, soil region, and season). The survey was performed in 4 northern Patagonian forests: 2 dominated by Nothofagus pumilio and 2 by Nothofagus antarctica. Yeast communities were described with ecological indices and species accumulation curves, and their association with environmental characteristics was assessed using multivariate analysis. Each forest site showed a particular arrangement of species as a result of environmental characteristics, such as dominant plant species, nutrient availability, and climatic characteristics. Cryptococcus podzolicus was most frequently isolated in nutrient-rich soils, Trichosporon porosum dominated cold mountain forests with low nutrient and water availability in soil, and capsulated yeasts such as Cryptococcus phenolicus dominated forest sites with low precipitation. The present work suggests that environmental factors affecting yeast communities may not be the current soil characteristics but the result of complex interactions of factors including natural disturbances like volcanic activity.

  16. Hydro-Geomorphologic Effects Of Large Wood Jams On A Third-Order Stream (Tierra Del Fuego, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, L.; Andreoli, A.; Comiti, F.; Lenzi, M. A.; Iturraspe, R.; Burns, S.; Novillo, M. G.

    2007-05-01

    Dead wood pieces, especially when organized in jams, play an important geomorphic role in streams because of the effects on flow hydraulics, pool formation and sediments storage. The increase of stream morphological diversity and complexity also exerts also an important ecological role. This work reports on geomorphic role of large wood pieces and jams in a third order mountain stream located in the Southern Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), and draining an old-growth nothofagus forested basin not influenced by the beavers damming activity. Even if the in-stream number of wood pieces (length > 1m; diameter > 0.1 m) is comparable to what observed in other climatic areas, the slow growth of the nothofagus forest causes a lower wood abundance in terms of volumetric load. Since the relatively small dimensions of the surveyed large wood pieces, almost the 70% of them demonstrated to have been fluvial transported and the also wood jams reflect the apparent dynamic of wood in the channel. Wood jams exert a significant influence on the channel morphology, representing almost the half of the drop caused by steps and being responsible for the creation of 30% of the pools. The LW-forced pool volume is strongly and positively correlated to the height of the LW jam, and a significant inverse relationship between pool spacing and wood density within is evident if only the LW-forced pools are considered. The geomorphic influence of LW jams is also exerted by a considerable sediment storing capacity.

  17. Glacier fluctuations during the last 400 years at Mount San Lorenzo and Santa Ines Island, southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravena, J.; Luckman, B. H.

    2007-12-01

    We examine the local glacier fluctuations for the last 400 years in two mountain areas of the western coast of southernmost South America, Mount San Lorenzo and Santa Ines Island, using dendroglaciologic, geomorphologic and historical evidence. Mount San Lorenzo moraines span between 1636 and 1927 with periods of more frequent occurrence of glacial advances for the years 1670, 1770, 1870 and 1910. Santa Ines glacial advances are less numerous than in Mount San Lorenzo with well defined, clearly separated frontal moraines. The moraines were colonized by Nothofagus betuloides and Nothofagus antarctica two species with clear and well-preserved tree rings and the total age of the sampled trees was more precisely estimated. Dated moraines cover the last 300 years with evidence for advances during late 1600s, around 1800, 1860, 1910, 1930 and 1960. Further work is needed in dendroglaciological dating, geomorphologic surveying, and better understanding of local glacial dynamics for several glaciers to obtain a regional history of the glacier fluctuations of the southern Andes.

  18. Effects of lindane on lindane-degrading Azotobacter chroococcum; evaluation of toxicity of possible degradation product(s) on plant and insect.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sangeeta; Paul, Bishwajeet; Aslam Khan, Md; Aggarwal, Chetana; Thakur, Jyoti K; Rathi, Maheshwar S

    2013-03-01

    The effects of lindane on growth and plant growth-promoting traits of two lindane-degrading Azotobacter chroococcum strains (JL 15 and JL 104) were determined. The potential of both A. chroococcum strains to degrade lindane was also determined. Lower concentrations of lindane had a stimulatory effect, and higher concentrations generally had an inhibitory effect on growth and plant growth-promoting activities. A high percentage (>90%) of lindane was degraded by both strains at a lindane concentration of 10 ppm. Lindane at 1,000 ppm decreased seed germination and reduced seedling fresh weight. However, the possible degradation products for a starting lindane concentration of 10 ppm was found to be non-phytotoxic. Toxicity studies with larvae of Spilarctia obliqua resulted in an LC50 estimate of 3.41 ppm for lindane solutions into which leaf discs were dipped. No toxicity was observed for possible degradation products.

  19. Le contenu astronomique des Sphériques de Ménélaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadal, Robert; Taha, Abdelkaddous; Pinel, Pierre

    2004-07-01

    The Spherics were written by Menelaos in the form of a purely mathematical treatise. However, the material developed in the second and third book is closely linked to problems met in astronomy: computation of equatorial coordinates of the Sun, setting up of rising-time tables, study of the motion of the Sun in the sphaera obliqua, simultaneous risings. This link, which remains implicit in the text, was clearly displayed by two arabo-islamic mathematicians and astronomers, who expounded the astronomical meaning of some theorems of the Spherics. We describe, comment and complement their explanations, by classifying the implications of the theorems in three groups: direction of variation of some quantities on the sphere, spherical trigonometry and applications, direction of variation of ratios of some quantities on the sphere. An erratum to this article can be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00407-004-0084-7

  20. Five new species and three new subspecies of Erebidae and Noctuidae (Insecta, Lepidoptera) from Northwestern North America, with notes on Chytolita Grote (Erebidae) and Hydraecia Guenée (Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Crabo, Lars G.; Davis, Melanie; Hammond, Paul; Tomas Mustelin;  Jon Shepard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Several taxonomic issues in the moth families Erebidae and Noctuidae are addressed for Northwestern North America. Drasteria parallelaCrabo & Mustelin andCycnia oregonensis tristisCrabo in the Erebidae and Eudryas brevipennis bonneville Shepard & Crabo, Resapamea diluvius Crabo, Resapamea angelika Crabo, Resapamea mammuthus Crabo, Fishia nigrescens Hammond & Crabo, and Xestia perquiritata orca Crabo & Hammond in the Noctuidae are described as new. The following new synonyms are proposed: Chytolita petrealis Grote with Herminea morbidalis Guenée; Gortyna columbia Barnes & Benjamin and Gortyna ximena Barnes & Benjamin with Gortyna obliqua Harvey; and Hydroecia pallescens Smith with Hydroecia medialis Smith. The type locality of Gortyna intermedia Barnes & Benjamin is restricted to Lundbreck, Municipality of Crowsnest Pass, Alberta, Canada. PMID:23730179

  1. Is There an Upper Limit to Genome Size?

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Oriane; Pellicer, Jaume; Christenhusz, Maarten; Schneider, Harald; Leitch, Andrew R; Leitch, Ilia J

    2017-07-01

    At 50-fold the size of the human genome (3 Gb), the staggeringly huge genome of 147.3 Gb recently discovered in the fern Tmesipteris obliqua is comparable in size to those of the other plant and animal record-holders (i.e., Paris japonica, a flowering plant with a genome size of 148.8 Gb, and Protopterus aethiopicus, a lungfish with a genome of 130 Gb). The synthesis of available information on giant genomes suggests that the biological limit to genome size expansion in eukaryotes may have been reached. We propose several explanations for why the genomes of ferns, flowering plants, and lungfish, all of which have independently undergone dramatic increases in genome size through a variety of mechanisms, do not exceed 150 Gb. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sequence similarity-based proteomics in insects: characterization of the larvae venom of the Brazilian moth Cerodirphia speciosa.

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, Anna; de Sousa, Mirta Mittelstedt Leal; Waridel, Patrice; Bittencourt, Silvia Tolfo; de Sousa, Marcelo Valle; Shevchenko, Andrej

    2005-01-01

    Using a combination of tandem mass spectrometric sequencing and sequence similarity searches, we characterized the larvae venom of the moth Cerodirphia speciosa, which belongs to the Saturniidae family of the Lepidoptera order. Despite the paucity of available database sequence resources, the approach enabled us to identify 48 out of 58 attempted spots on its two-dimensional gel electrophoresis map, which represented 37 unique proteins, whereas it was only possible to identify 13 proteins by conventional non-error tolerant database searching methods. The majority of cross-species hits were made to proteins from the phylogenetically related Lepidoptera organism, the silk worm Bombyx mori. The protein composition of the venom suggested that envenoming by C. speciosa toxins might proceed through the contact with its hemolymph, similarly to another toxic Lepidoptera organism, Lonomia obliqua.

  3. Caterpillars and moths: Part II. Dermatologic manifestations of encounters with Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Hossler, Eric W

    2010-01-01

    Caterpillars and moths (order Lepidoptera) are uncommonly recognized causes of adverse cutaneous reactions, such as localized stings, papular dermatitis, and urticarial wheals. These reactions are typically mild and self-limited; however, in South America, the sting of Lonomia caterpillars can cause a potentially fatal hemorrhagic diathesis related to massive fibrinolysis. In addition, ocular inflammation and prominent arthralgias have been reported to be caused by caterpillar exposures. Therapies for mucocutaneous reactions to Lepidoptera are largely empiric, with the exception of antivenin against Lonomia obliqua envenomation. Part II of this two-part series on caterpillars and moths reviews the varied symptoms caused by Lepidopteran exposures, reviews the differential diagnosis, and discusses appropriate treatment algorithms.

  4. Similar variation in carbon storage between deciduous and evergreen treeline species across elevational gradients

    PubMed Central

    Fajardo, Alex; Piper, Frida I.; Hoch, Günter

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The most plausible explanation for treeline formation so far is provided by the growth limitation hypothesis (GLH), which proposes that carbon sinks are more restricted by low temperatures than by carbon sources. Evidence supporting the GLH has been strong in evergreen, but less and weaker in deciduous treeline species. Here a test is made of the GLH in deciduous–evergreen mixed species forests across elevational gradients, with the hypothesis that deciduous treeline species show a different carbon storage trend from that shown by evergreen species across elevations. Methods Tree growth and concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in foliage, branch sapwood and stem sapwood tissues were measured at four elevations in six deciduous–evergreen treeline ecotones (including treeline) in the southern Andes of Chile (40°S, Nothofagus pumilio and Nothofagus betuloides; 46°S, Nothofagus pumilio and Pinus sylvestris) and in the Swiss Alps (46°N, Larix decidua and Pinus cembra). Key Results Tree growth (basal area increment) decreased with elevation for all species. Regardless of foliar habit, NSCs did not deplete across elevations, indicating no shortage of carbon storage in any of the investigated tissues. Rather, NSCs increased significantly with elevation in leaves (P < 0·001) and branch sapwood (P = 0·012) tissues. Deciduous species showed significantly higher NSCs than evergreens for all tissues; on average, the former had 11 % (leaves), 158 % (branch) and 103 % (sapwood) significantly (P < 0·001) higher NSCs than the latter. Finally, deciduous species had higher NSC (particularly starch) increases with elevation than evergreens for stem sapwood, but the opposite was true for leaves and branch sapwood. Conclusions Considering the observed decrease in tree growth and increase in NSCs with elevation, it is concluded that both deciduous and evergreen treeline species are sink limited when faced with decreasing temperatures

  5. An evaluation of the impacts of energy tree plantations on water resources in the United Kingdom under present and future UKCIP02 climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, Ian R.; Nisbet, Tom; Harrison, Jennifer A.

    2009-07-01

    The Hydrological Land Use Change model was used to assess the range of water resource impacts associated with four potential energy tree species (Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus gunnii, Nothofagus sp., and Fraxinus excelsior) at eight United Kingdom locations under present and future, Environment Agency Rainfall and Weather Impacts Generator, climate scenarios generated using UK Climate Impacts Programme 2002 (UKCIP02). Parameter values were derived using expert opinion and interpolation because of limited data. For Fraxinus excelsior, there are questions concerning the unusual, in a world context, published findings that evaporation from a tree crop is less than that from grass. Model predictions indicated that under the present climate all tree species, excepting Fraxinus excelsior, at all sites have greater mean annual evaporation, (8 to 84%) and reduced water yields (-6 to -97%) compared with grass. The predicted increase in tree evaporation arises from parameter values reflecting both increased rainfall interception and higher transpiration due to deeper rooting depths. Under future climate scenarios, (1) "potential annual yield" (difference between actual rainfall and potential evaporation) will decrease, becoming negative at all studied sites in England and Wales by 2080; (2) at drier sites and for species with highest evaporation rates, E. nitens and Nothofagus, evaporation rates will decrease; (3) at wetter sites and for all species, evaporation rates will increase; (4) at all sites and for all species, water yields will decrease; (5) differences between species remain the same, with evaporation rates increasing and water yield decreasing in the order Fraxinus excelsior, grass, E. gunnii, Nothofagus, and E. Nitens; and (6) there is an overall trend through time toward convergence in water yields from trees and grass. If higher water yield predictions for Fraxinus excelsior are proved correct, this would represent an attractive land use option for water and

  6. Environmental effects on growth phenology of co-occurring Eucalyptus species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawal, Deepa S.; Kasel, Sabine; Keatley, Marie R.; Aponte, Cristina; Nitschke, Craig R.

    2014-05-01

    Growth is one of the most important phenological cycles in a plant's life. Higher growth rates increase the competitive ability, survival and recruitment and can provide a measure of a plant's adaptive capacity to climate variability and change. This study identified the growth relationship of six Eucalyptus species to variations in temperature, soil moisture availability, photoperiod length and air humidity over 12 months. The six species represent two naturally co-occurring groups of three species each representing warm-dry and the cool-moist sclerophyll forests, respectively. Warm-dry eucalypts were found to be more tolerant of higher temperatures and lower air humidity than the cool-moist eucalypts. Within groups, species-specific responses were detected with Eucalyptus microcarpa having the widest phenological niche of the warm-dry species, exhibiting greater resistance to high temperature and lower air humidity. Temperature dependent photoperiodic responses were exhibited by all the species except Eucalyptus tricarpa and Eucalyptus sieberi, which were able to maintain growth as photoperiod shortened but temperature requirements were fulfilled. Eucalyptus obliqua exhibited a flexible growth rate and tolerance to moisture limitation which enables it to maintain its growth rate as water availability changes. The wider temperature niche exhibited by E. sieberi compared with E. obliqua and Eucalyptus radiata may improve its competitive ability over these species where winters are warm and moisture does not limit growth. With climate change expected to result in warmer and drier conditions in south-east Australia, the findings of this study suggest all cool-moist species will likely suffer negative effects on growth while the warm-dry species may still maintain current growth rates. Our findings highlight that climate driven shifts in growth phenology will likely occur as climate changes and this may facilitate changes in tree communities by altering inter

  7. Environmental effects on growth phenology of co-occurring Eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Deepa S; Kasel, Sabine; Keatley, Marie R; Aponte, Cristina; Nitschke, Craig R

    2014-05-01

    Growth is one of the most important phenological cycles in a plant's life. Higher growth rates increase the competitive ability, survival and recruitment and can provide a measure of a plant's adaptive capacity to climate variability and change. This study identified the growth relationship of six Eucalyptus species to variations in temperature, soil moisture availability, photoperiod length and air humidity over 12 months. The six species represent two naturally co-occurring groups of three species each representing warm-dry and the cool-moist sclerophyll forests, respectively. Warm-dry eucalypts were found to be more tolerant of higher temperatures and lower air humidity than the cool-moist eucalypts. Within groups, species-specific responses were detected with Eucalyptus microcarpa having the widest phenological niche of the warm-dry species, exhibiting greater resistance to high temperature and lower air humidity. Temperature dependent photoperiodic responses were exhibited by all the species except Eucalyptus tricarpa and Eucalyptus sieberi, which were able to maintain growth as photoperiod shortened but temperature requirements were fulfilled. Eucalyptus obliqua exhibited a flexible growth rate and tolerance to moisture limitation which enables it to maintain its growth rate as water availability changes. The wider temperature niche exhibited by E. sieberi compared with E. obliqua and Eucalyptus radiata may improve its competitive ability over these species where winters are warm and moisture does not limit growth. With climate change expected to result in warmer and drier conditions in south-east Australia, the findings of this study suggest all cool-moist species will likely suffer negative effects on growth while the warm-dry species may still maintain current growth rates. Our findings highlight that climate driven shifts in growth phenology will likely occur as climate changes and this may facilitate changes in tree communities by altering inter

  8. Natural Parasitism in Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations in Disturbed Areas Adjacent to Commercial Mango Orchards in Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Pablo; Ayala, Amanda; López, Patricia; Cancino, Jorge; Cabrera, Héctor; Cruz, Jassmin; Martinez, Ana Mabel; Figueroa, Isaac; Liedo, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    To determine the natural parasitism in fruit fly populations in disturbed areas adjacent to commercial mango orchards in the states of Chiapas and Veracruz, Mexico, we recorded over one year the fruit fly-host associations, fly infestation, and parasitism rates in backyard orchards and patches of native vegetation. We also investigated the relationship between fruit size, level of larval infestation, and percent of parasitism, and attempted to determine the presence of superparasitism. The most recurrent species in trap catches was Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), followed by Anastrepha ludens (Loew), in both study zones. The fruit infestation rates were higher in Chiapas than in Veracruz, with A. obliqua again being the most conspicuous species emerging from collected fruits. The diversity of parasitoids species attacking fruit fly larvae was greater in Chiapas, with a predominance of Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) in both sites, although the exotic Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) was well established in Chiapas. Fruit size was positively correlated with the number of larvae per fruit, but this relationship was not observed in the level of parasitism. The number of oviposition scars was not related to the number of immature parasitoids inside the pupa of D. areolatus emerging from plum fruits. Mass releases of Di. longicaudata seem not to affect the presence or prevalence of the native species. Our findings open new research scenarios on the role and impact of native parasitoid species attacking Anastrepha flies that can contribute to the development of sound strategies for using these species in projects for augmentative biological control. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Extended rotations and culmination age of coast douglas-fir: Old studies speak to current issues. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, R.O.

    1995-11-01

    Trends of mean annual increment and periodic annual increment were examined in 17 long-term thinning studies in Douglas-fir (Pseuditsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in western Washington, western Oregon, and British Columbia. Problems in evaluating growth trends and culmination ages are discussed. None of the stands had clearly reached culmination of mean annual increment, although some seemed close. The observed trends seem generally consistent with some other recent comparisons. These comparisons indicate that rotations can be considerably extended without reducing long-term timber production; value production probably would increase. A major problem in such a strategy is design of thinning regimes that can maintain a reasonable level of timber flow during the transition period while producing stand conditions compatible with other management objectives. The continuing value of long-term permanent plot studies is emphasized.

  10. Relation of initial spacing and relative stand density indices to stand characteristics in a Douglas-fir plantation spacing trial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, Robert O.; Bansal, Sheel; Harrington, Constance A.

    2016-01-01

    This report presents updated information on a 1981 Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) plantation spacing trial at 33 years from planting. Stand statistics at the most recent measurement were compared for initial spacing of 1 through 6 meters and associated relative densities. There was no clear relationship of spacing to top height. Diameter, live crown ratio, and percent survival increased with spacing; basal area and relative density decreased with increase in spacing. Volume in trees ≥ 4 cm diameter was greatest at 2 m spacing, while utilizable volume (trees ≥20 cm dbh) was greatest at 4 m spacing. Live crown ratio decreased and total crown projectional area increased with increasing relative density indices. Total crown projectional area was more closely related to relative density than to basal area.

  11. Levels-of-growing-stock cooperative study in douglas-fir: Report No. 13. The Francis study, 1963-90. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, G.E.; Andersen, N.A.; Marshall, D.

    1996-04-01

    The levels-of-growing-stock studies in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), were designed to test the influence of treatment regimes by using a wide range of retained growing stock on the development of forest growth, yield, and stand structure. Results of the Francis installation located in the headwaters of the Willapa River in Pacific County, Washington, are summarized from calibration at age 15 through age 42 (completion of 60 feet of height growth from calibration, and the planned course of the experimental thinnings plus 5 years). In addition to the eight basic treatments and control common to the other eight study installations in the region, five additional treatments were added at Francis; four late first thinnings (at age 25), which matched the level of growing stock of four standard fixed treatments, and an unthinned western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.). Estimated Douglas-fir site index (50-year base) of this plantation is 124, a mid site II.

  12. Species richness and abundance of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete sporocarps on a moisture gradient in the Tsuga heterophylla zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Dell, Thomas E.; Ammirati, Joseph F.; Schreiner, Edward G.

    1999-01-01

    Sporocarps of epigeous ectomycorrhizal fungi and vegetation data were collected from eight Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. - Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco stands along a wet to dry gradient in Olympic National Park, Washington, U.S.A. One hundred and fifty species of ectomycorrhizal fungi were collected from a total sample area of 2.08 ha. Over 2 years, fungal species richness ranged from 19 to 67 taxa per stand. Sporocarp standing crop ranged from 0 to 3.8 kg/ha, averaging 0.58 kg/ha, 0.06 kg/ha in spring and 0.97 kg/ha in fall. Sporocarp standing crop and fungal species richness were correlated with precipitation. These results demonstrated that ectomycorrhizal fungal sporocarp abundance and species richness can be partly explained in terms of an environmental gradient.

  13. Biogeochemical prospecting for uranium with conifers: results from the Midnite Mine area, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas; Ward, Frederick Norville

    1977-01-01

    The ash of needles, cones, and duff from Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws) growing near uranium deposits of the Midnite mine, Stevens County, Wash., contain as much as 200 parts per million (ppm) uranium. Needle samples containing more than 10 ppm uranium define zones that correlate well with known uranium deposits or dumps. Dispersion is as much as 300 m but generally is less. Background is about 1 ppm. Tree roots are judged to be sampling ore, low-grade uranium halo, or ground water to a depth of about 15 m. Uptake of uranium by Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) needles appears to be about the same as by Ponderosa pine needles. Cones and duff are generally enriched in uranium relate to needles. Needles, cones, and duff are recommended as easily collected, uncomplicated sample media for geochemical surveys. Samples can be analyzed by standard methods and total cost per sample kept to about $6.

  14. Stand characteristics of 65-year-old planted and naturally regenerated stands near Sequim, Washington. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.E.; Anderson, H.W.

    1995-04-01

    Tree numbers, height, and volume were determined in six 63- to 66-year-old plantations of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsunga menziesii) (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii in northwest Washington. These stands resulted from the first extensive plantings of this species in the Pacific Northwest. Data from 0.25-acre plots in these plantations were compared to those from matched plots in adjacent, naturally regenerated stands with the same history of logging, wildfire, and absence of further siviculture after regeneration. Planting resulted in well-stocked Douglas-fir stands with volunteers of other tree species. Natural seeding resulted in similarly stocked stands of western hemlock (Tsunga heterophylla) (Raf.) (Sarg.) with Douglas-fir in the dominant crown class.

  15. Effects of CO[sub 2] and climate change on forest trees: TERA, a state-of-the-science research facility

    SciTech Connect

    Waschmann, R.S.; Jarrell, G.D.; Johnson, M.G. ); McVeety, B.D. ); Rygiewicz, P.T.; Olszyk, D.M. )

    1994-06-01

    The Terestrial Ecophysiological Research Area (TERA) is a facility being used to examine the effects of elevated CO[sub 2] and global climate change on Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb) Franco) seedlings. TERA consists of 12 climate-controlled growth chambers (Terracosms) that are illuminated with natural sunlight. Terracosm environmental conditions continuously mimic diurnal and seasonal changes in ambient air temperature, dew point temperature, and CO[sub 2] concentration to [+-] 1.5[degrees]C, [+-] 5[degrees]C, and [+-] 20 ppm, respectively. The terracosms are extensively instrumented in order to examine above- and belowground processes. All sensors, analytical instruments, and data acquisition equipment required for independent operation are located at each Terracosm. Data quality control is insured with centralized, redundant instrumentation. The TERA research facility will be described, including overall system performance and terracosm climate control.

  16. Histopathology and Host Range Studies of the Redwood Nematode Rhizonema sequoiae

    PubMed Central

    Cid Del Prado Vera, I.; Lownsbery, B. F.

    1984-01-01

    Second-stage larvae of Rehizonma sequoiae Cid del Prado Vera et al. tunnel through the cortex of the redwood Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. root to the vascular tissue where each developing female induces a single ovoid or occasionally spherical giant cell with a single ovoid to spherical nucleus containing one to four enlarged nucleoli. Nematode tunnels are filled with a gel material and often contain second-stage larvae and males. There is tissue necrosis around females, and cortical tissue is destroyed after infection by many second-stage larvae. R. sequoiae females developed to maturity on S. sempervirens, Acer macrophyllum Pursh, AInus rhombifolia Nutt., Libocedrus decurrens Torr, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, and Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Decne. In the Marin County, California, forest mature females were also found naturally infecting Lithocarpus densiflorus (Hook &Arn.) Rehd., Umbellularia californica (Hook &Arn.) Nutt., and Arbutus menziesii Pursh. PMID:19295877

  17. Histopathology and Host Range Studies of the Redwood Nematode Rhizonema sequoiae.

    PubMed

    Cid Del Prado Vera, I; Lownsbery, B F

    1984-01-01

    Second-stage larvae of Rehizonma sequoiae Cid del Prado Vera et al. tunnel through the cortex of the redwood Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. root to the vascular tissue where each developing female induces a single ovoid or occasionally spherical giant cell with a single ovoid to spherical nucleus containing one to four enlarged nucleoli. Nematode tunnels are filled with a gel material and often contain second-stage larvae and males. There is tissue necrosis around females, and cortical tissue is destroyed after infection by many second-stage larvae. R. sequoiae females developed to maturity on S. sempervirens, Acer macrophyllum Pursh, AInus rhombifolia Nutt., Libocedrus decurrens Torr, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, and Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Decne. In the Marin County, California, forest mature females were also found naturally infecting Lithocarpus densiflorus (Hook &Arn.) Rehd., Umbellularia californica (Hook &Arn.) Nutt., and Arbutus menziesii Pursh.

  18. Temporary Disturbance of Translocation of Assimilates in Douglas Firs Caused by Low Levels of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide 1

    PubMed Central

    Gorissen, Antonie; van Veen, Johannes A.

    1988-01-01

    Douglas firs (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) are suffering strongly from air pollution in western Europe. We studied the effect of low concentrations of ozone (200 micrograms per cubic meter during 3 days) and sulfur dioxide (53 micrograms per cubic meter during 28 days) on translocation of assimilates in 2 year old Douglas firs. The trees were exposed to the pollutants and afterward transferred to a growth chamber adapted to the use of 14CO2. Root/soil respiration was measured daily. The results showed a significant decrease of the 14CO2 root/soil respiration during the first 1 to 2 weeks after exposure to either ozone or sulfur dioxide. The ultimate level of 14CO2 root/soil respiration did not differ significantly, which suggests a recovery of the exposed trees during the first weeks after exposure. PMID:16666348

  19. Initial and continued effects of a release spray in a coastal Oregon douglas-fir plantation. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.E.; Obermeyer, E.L.

    1996-03-01

    Portions of a 4-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation were sprayed with herbicide. Five years after spraying the authors established 18 plots and used several means to determine retrospectively that six plots probably received full spray treatment and six others received no spray. Various portions of the remaining six plots were sprayed. Herbicide reduced number and size of red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.), increased number and size of planted Douglas-fir, damaged terminal shoots of Douglas-fir resulting in more abnormal boles and branching, and increased number of volunteer conifers. Fifteen of the eighteen plots were thinned, in the subsequent 6 years, thinned plots that had received full release at age 4 averaged 9 percent more volume growth (all species) than plots not released.

  20. A new species of Alsodes (Anura: Alsodidae) from Altos de Cantillana, central Chile.

    PubMed

    Charrier, Andrés; Correa, Claudio; Castro, Camila; Méndez, Marco A

    2015-02-05

    Based on morphological and molecular evidence (mitochondrial and nuclear sequences) we describe a new species of spiny-chest frog, Alsodes cantillanensis, from central Chile (around 34°S). The type locality, Quebrada Infiernillo, is located in the Coastal Range at approximately 65 km from Santiago (Metropolitan Region), the capital of Chile. The distribution of the new species is included entirely in that of A. nodosus (32-36°S approximately), which was identified as the sister taxon according to molecular phylogenetic analyses. Moreover, both species are sympatric in the type locality. The new species was found in a Nothofagus macrocarpa relict forest potentially threatened by gold mining activities. We identify other threats for its conservation and some biological data needed for understanding the evolution of this species. This discovery reveals the scarce knowledge about biogeography, evolution and ecology of spiny-chest frogs from central Chile. 

  1. A new species of Rhytidognathus (Carabidae, Migadopini) from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Roig-Juñent, Sergio; Rouaux, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Migadopini are a small tribe of Carabidae with 47 species that occur in South America, Australia, and New Zealand, in the sub-Antarctic areas. In South America, most of the genera inhabit areas related to sub-Antartic Nothofagus forest except two monogeneric genera, the Ecuadorian genus Aquilex Moret and the Pampean genus Rhytidognathus Chaudoir. These two genera are geographically isolated from the remaining five South American genera. New material of Rhytidognathus from the northeast of Buenos Aires province and from Entre Ríos province permits establishing that the previous records of Rhytidognathus ovalis (Dejean) for Argentina were erroneous and that it belongs to a new species. Based on external morphological characters and from male and female genitalia we describe Rhytidognathus platensis as a new species. In this contribution we provide illustrations, keys, habitat characteristics and some biogeographic considerations on the distribution of Rhytidognathus. PMID:23275755

  2. Ecological responses to mid- and late-Holocene climate variability in the Patagonian Andes (lat 34-55S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, V.; Whitlock, C. L.; Bianchi, M. M.; Markgraf, V.; Navarro, D.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    Along the eastern Andes, a prominent ecotone separates steppe from North Patagonian forest, dominated by Nothofagus spp. and at middle latitudes by Nothofagus spp. and Austrocedrus. The elevational position of the ecotone is determined by effective moisture, which in turn is governed by the strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Westerlies. As a result, past changes in forest composition and fire activity provide an opportunity to examine past climate variations in this region. The vegetation and fire history can be inferred from a longitudinal transect of 8 lake and bog sites. Pollen data indicate that, on millennial time scales, late-glacial steppe was replaced by open forest in the early Holocene and then by closed forest in the middle and late Holocene (south of lat 36S). Charcoal data suggest that fire activity south of latitude 41S was highest between 11 and 8-6 ka and significantly decreased between 8-6 and 3 ka. The opposite pattern occurred north of lat 41S, where fire activity was highest between 6 and 3 ka. Between lat 40 and 43S, fires were nearly as frequent between 3 and 1 ka as in the early Holocene, and this period was followed by a decline in fire activity to the 20th century. The long-term vegetation and fire patterns are partly explained as a response to variations in seasonal and annual insolation and their effect on summer (fire-season) conditions. In the last 5000 years, changes in precipitation and interannual/decadal variability, inferred from independent data, matched closely with variations in the abundance of Nothofagus, Austrocedrus, and Poaceae pollen and charcoal influx. Four climate scenarios (dry conditions/low variability, dry conditions/high variability, wet conditions/high variability, wet conditions/low variability) registered distinctive ecotonal responses. For example, wet conditions led to the expansion of forest into steppe, and high moisture variability, mainly through its effects on fire occurrence, shaped the

  3. First Evidence for Wollemi Pine-type Pollen (Dilwynites: Araucariaceae) in South America

    PubMed Central

    Macphail, Mike; Carpenter, Raymond J.; Iglesias, Ari; Wilf, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We report the first fossil pollen from South America of the lineage that includes the recently discovered, extremely rare Australian Wollemi Pine, Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae). The grains are from the late Paleocene to early middle Eocene Ligorio Márquez Formation of Santa Cruz, Patagonia, Argentina, and are assigned to Dilwynites, the fossil pollen type that closely resembles the pollen of modern Wollemia and some species of its Australasian sister genus, Agathis. Dilwynites was formerly known only from Australia, New Zealand, and East Antarctica. The Patagonian Dilwynites occurs with several taxa of Podocarpaceae and a diverse range of cryptogams and angiosperms, but not Nothofagus. The fossils greatly extend the known geographic range of Dilwynites and provide important new evidence for the Antarctic region as an early Paleogene portal for biotic interchange between Australasia and South America. PMID:23894439

  4. Coevolution and the adaptive value of autumn tree colours: colour preference and growth rates of a southern beech aphid.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, C C; Lavandero, B; Archetti, M

    2008-01-01

    The evolutionary explanation for the change in leaf colour during autumn is still debated. Autumn colours could be a signal of defensive commitment towards insects (coevolution) or an adaptation against physical damage because of light at low temperatures (photoprotection). These two hypotheses have different predictions: (1) under the coevolution hypothesis, insects should not prefer red leaves in autumn and grow better in spring on trees with green autumn leaves; and (2) under the photoprotection hypothesis, insects should prefer and grow better on trees with red leaves because they provide better nutrition. Studying colour preference in autumn and growth rates in spring of a southern beech aphid species (Neuquenaphis staryi) on Nothofagus alessandrii, we found preference for green leaves in autumn but no differential performance of aphids in spring. We suggest that aphid preference for green might have evolved to exploit better their host during the autumn rather than to improve their performance in spring.

  5. Philodryas chamissonis (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) preys on the arboreal marsupial Dromiciops gliroides (Mammalia: Microbiotheria: Microbiotheriidae).

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Leal, S; Ardiles, K; Figueroa, R A; González-Acuña, D

    2013-02-01

    Philodryas chamissonis, the Chilean long-tailed snake, is a diurnal predator mainly of Liolaemus lizards, but also of amphibians, birds, rodents and juvenile rabbits. Dromiciops gliroides (Colocolo opossum) is an arboreal marsupial endemic of temperate rainforest of southern South America. Little information is available about this marsupial's biology and ecology. Here we report the predation of one Colocolo opossum by an adult female P. chamissonis in a mixed Nothofagus forest, composed mainly by N. dombeyi, N. glauca and N. alpina trees, in the "Huemules de Niblinto" National Reserve, Nevados de Chillán, Chile. Since these two species have different activity and habitat use patterns, we discuss how this encounter may have occurred. Although it could just have been an opportunistic event, this finding provides insights into the different components of food chains in forest ecosystems of Chile.

  6. A new species of Rhytidognathus (Carabidae, Migadopini) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Roig-Juñent, Sergio; Rouaux, Julia

    2012-01-01

    The Migadopini are a small tribe of Carabidae with 47 species that occur in South America, Australia, and New Zealand, in the sub-Antarctic areas. In South America, most of the genera inhabit areas related to sub-Antartic Nothofagus forest except two monogeneric genera, the Ecuadorian genus Aquilex Moret and the Pampean genus Rhytidognathus Chaudoir. These two genera are geographically isolated from the remaining five South American genera. New material of Rhytidognathus from the northeast of Buenos Aires province and from Entre Ríos province permits establishing that the previous records of Rhytidognathus ovalis (Dejean) for Argentina were erroneous and that it belongs to a new species. Based on external morphological characters and from male and female genitalia we describe Rhytidognathus platensis as a new species. In this contribution we provide illustrations, keys, habitat characteristics and some biogeographic considerations on the distribution of Rhytidognathus.

  7. Deglacial and postglacial vegetation changes on the eastern slopes of the central Patagonian Andes (47°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa-Martínez, Rodrigo; Moreno, Patricio I.; Valenzuela, Marcela A.

    2012-01-01

    We report pollen, spore, and charcoal records from Lago Augusta (47°05'S, 72°23'W, 440 m a.s.l.), a small closed-basin lake located near the modern forest-steppe ecotone east of the Andes in Central Patagonia, Chile. The record shows local ice-free conditions through the last glacial termination in the Río Chacabuco Valley and flooding by an ice-dammed lake. Once this proglacial lake ceased to inundate areas above 450 m a.s.l., the valley was colonized by herbs, shrubs and evergreen rainforest taxa between 15,600 and 16,000 cal yr BP, indicating an open landscape under cold/wet conditions. Millennial-scale fluctuations in the hygrophilous conifer Fitzroya/ Pilgerodendron suggest precipitation variations within a cool/wet climate between 11,800 and 13,400 cal yr BP, followed by the establishment of dense Nothofagus forests between 9800 and 11,800 cal yr BP and declines in hygrophilous and cold-resistant trees, herbs and shrubs. This interval coincided with peak fire activity and laminated carbonate deposition. Nothofagus forests have persisted with little variation since 9800 cal yr BP, except for a sudden decline associated with a rapid increase in Rumex cf. acetosella, an exotic weed introduced by Europeans. Our results and interpretations are best explained by changes in the strength/position of the southern westerly winds at millennial and multi-millennial timescales since the last glaciation. Contrary to previous interpretations, we propose increased precipitation of westerly origin in the Andean sector of central-east Patagonia between 11,800 and 16,000 cal yr BP followed by a decline between 9800 and 11,800 cal yr BP and an increase thereafter. These trends are coherent with variations of the southern westerly winds identified in other terrestrial mid-latitude records, suggesting zonally symmetric changes in atmospheric circulation since the last glaciation.

  8. Alteration of hydrogeomorphic processes by invasive beavers in southern South America.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Cherie J; Cooper, David J; Anderson, Christopher B

    2017-01-01

    The North American beaver (Castor canadensis) is an invasive species in southern Patagonia, introduced in 1946 as part of a program by the Argentine government to augment furbearers. Research focus has turned from inventorying the beaver's population and ecosystem impacts toward eradicating it from the region and restoring degraded areas. Successful restoration, however, requires a fuller determination of how beavers have altered physical landscape characteristics, and of what landscape features and biota need to be restored. Our goal was to identify changes to the physical landscape by invasive beaver. We analyzed channel and valley morphology in detail at one site in each of the three major forest zones occurring on the Argentine side of Tierra del Fuego's main island. We also assessed 48 additional sites across the three forest biomes on the island to identify a broader range of aquatic habitat occupied and modified by beaver. Beaver build dams with Nothofagus tree branches on streams, which triggered mineral sediment accretion processes in the riparian zone, but not in ways consistent with the beaver meadow theory and only at a few sites. At the majority of sites, beavers actively excavated peat and mineral sediment, moved thousands of cubic meters of sediment within their occupied landscapes and used it to build dams. Beaver were also common in fen ecosystems where pond formation inundated and drowned peat forming mosses and sedges, and triggered a massive invasion of exotic plant species. Results highlight that restoration of fen ecosystems is a previously unrecognized but pressing and challenging restoration need in addition to reforestation of Nothofagus riparian forests. We recommend that decision-makers include the full ecosystem diversity of the Fuegian landscape in their beaver eradiation and ecosystem restoration plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. First comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the genus Erysiphe (Erysiphales, Erysiphaceae) II: the Uncinula lineage.

    PubMed

    Takamatsu, Susumu; Ito Arakawa, Hanako; Shiroya, Yoshiaki; Kiss, Levente; Heluta, Vasyl

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of the Uncinula lineage, which is the basal group in the genus Erysiphe, were investigated with 167 sequences of nuc ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 and the 28S rDNA regions. Backbone tree analyses with six datasets and two tree-constructing methods revealed that the Uncinula lineage is divided into seven distinct clades. Clades 1-5 each contained a representative powdery mildew species, namely E. australiana in Clade 1, E. liquidambaris in Clade 2, E. adunca in Clade 3, E. fraxinicola in Clade 4 and E. actinidiae in Clade 5. Clade 6 comprises 71 sequences including the Microsphaera lineage and 17 species of the Uncinula lineage, such as E. carpinicola, E. carpinilaxiflorae, E. miyabei, E. glycines and E. necator. Topology tests supported the Microsphaera lineage forming a monophyletic clade in Clade 6, suggesting that Microsphaera-type appendages appeared only once in this clade to diverge into the Microsphaera lineage. Clade 7 consists of 72 sequences containing 30 species, including species of sects. Californiomyces and Typhulochaeta, four species from Nothofagus, species of sect. Erysiphe parasitising herbaceous plants belonging to the Asteraceae, Rosaceae and Saxifragaceae. Molecular clock analysis suggests that the major seven clades appeared 50-30 million years ago (Ma) in the Paleogene Period. The Microsphaera lineage may have split from the Uncinula lineage at the boundary of the Paleogene and Neogene, when appendages with dichotomously branched tips appeared. The clade of the species on Nothofagus split from the northern hemisphere species about 20-10 million years ago (Ma) in the Miocene Epoch, and host-shift from trees to herbs also might have occurred in this period. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  10. Vegetation, Fire and Climate Over the Last 2000 Yrs in Central West Patagonia (45°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa-Martinez, R. P.; Simi, E. I.; Moreno, P. I.

    2014-12-01

    We report high-resolution pollen and charcoal records from lake sediments obtained from Lago Mellizas and Lago Churrasco to reconstruct the history of vegetation, fire and past variations of the southern westerly winds (SWW) over the last 2000 years. Both sites are located near to the climate-modulated forest-steppe ecotone in central west Patagonia. In this region the SWW are the only source of precipitation and is ideal for reconstructing past changes in atmospheric circulation. This is facilitated by the marked west-east precipitation gradient across the Patagonian Andes that induces a zonation of the regional vegetation which can be used for inferring past changes in precipitation regimes based on fossil pollen records. Furthermore, the Chilean-European colonization process in central west Patagonia started early in the 20th century, allowing characterization of natural vegetation and climate variability in the absence of human disturbance until the end of the 19th century. The pollen records shows dominance of Nothofagus deciduous forests with minor fluctuations and low herb and aquatics abundances, which suggest humid climate conditions. We detect a major change in the pollen stratigraphy at 200 cal yr BP, when started a sustained decreasing trend in Nothofagus, along with increases of Poaceae and aquatics plants (Cyperaceae, Myriophyllum). We interpret these changes as a forest opening and centripetal expansion of littoral environments toward the lake center driven by lake-level lowering in response to lowered precipitation brought by the SWW. Pinus, Rumex, Plantago, which indicate human perturbation, increase in 1900 AD. Macroscopic charcoal increases at 1750, 1400, 850-700, 500, and 200 cal yr BP, suggesting local fires, followed by sharp increases during the last 100 years. We interpret the pre-20th century charcoal peaks as dry intervals with lowered SWW influence. Acknowledgement: Fondecyt 1121141, Fondap 15110009, and ICM grants P02-51 and NC120066.

  11. Environmental change and fire in the Owen Stanley Ranges, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, Geoffrey

    2009-11-01

    Kosipe, an upland valley at 2000 m altitude in the Owen Stanley Ranges of southeastern New Guinea, is known for the discovery of large stone waisted blades dated to 31 400 cal a BP. The purpose of these tools and the nature of occupation are unknown. The altitude is too high for most food crops today and may have stood close to the treeline during the last glaciation. Three pollen and charcoal diagrams from a large swamp in the Kosipe Valley provide a record of swamp and dryland changes for more than 50 000 years. There have been considerable fluctuations in vegetation on the slopes and on the swamp which reflect both environmental change and anthropogenic influences. A gymnosperm-rich forest at the base is replaced by mountain forest dominated by Nothofagus about 42 000 years ago. Fire first becomes apparent across the swamp around 40 000 years ago but is not common during the time when subalpine herbs reach their best representation. Tree fern-rich grasslands form a mosaic with montane forest in a near-treeline environment. The Pleistocene-Holocene boundary is marked by a decline in Nothofagus and increase in lower montane mixed forest taxa. Charcoal increases before this time and the swamp vegetation becomes more grass-rich. Charcoal is at its maximum through the last 3000 years possibly reflecting climate variability as well as sedentary occupation and agriculture on the swamp margin. Supplementary pollen diagrams from two higher altitude sites support the evidence from the Kosipe Swamp cores. Charcoal, local catchment erosion and increases in disturbance taxa become more widespread in the last 5000 years at these sites, suggesting that local settlement at Kosipe may have lagged behind general landscape use by populations from lower altitudes.

  12. Male and female condition influence mating performance and sexual receptivity in two tropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with contrasting life histories.

    PubMed

    Aluja, M; Rull, J; Sivinski, J; Trujillo, G; Pérez-Staples, D

    2009-12-01

    Recent recognition of widespread polyandry in insects has generated considerable interest in understanding why females mate multiple times and in identifying factors that affect mating rate and inhibit female remating. However, little attention has been paid to understanding the question from both a female and male perspective, particularly with respect to factors that may simultaneously influence female remating rates. Here, we report on a study aimed at ascertaining the possible interactive effects that male and female size and diet, and female access to a host could have on mating latency, probability, and duration and female refractory period using two tropical fruit fly species with contrasting life histories. Of all factors tested, adult diet played the most significant role. Both Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua males which had constant access to protein and sucrose mated more often, had shorter copulations and induced longer refractory periods in females than males fed a low quality diet (sucrose offered every third day). Female size and the interaction with male diet determined how quickly female A. ludens mated for the first time. Smaller females mated sooner with low quality fed males than with high quality fed males while there was no difference for large females, suggesting that male choice may be at play if high quality fed males discriminate against smaller females. Copulation duration also depended on both male and female nutritional condition, and the interaction between male diet and female size and diet. Large and high quality fed females had shorter copulations regardless of male condition. Importantly, for A. ludens, female refractory period depended on male size and the nutritional condition of both males and females, which could indicate that for this species, female receptivity does not depend only on the condition of the male ejaculate. For A. obliqua refractory period was associated with the interaction between male size and diet

  13. Larval feeding substrate and species significantly influence the effect of a juvenile hormone analog on sexual development/performance in four tropical tephritid flies.

    PubMed

    Aluja, Martín; Ordano, Mariano; Teal, Peter E A; Sivinski, John; García-Medel, Darío; Anzures-Dadda, Alberto

    2009-03-01

    The juvenile hormone (JH) analog methoprene reduces the amount of time it takes laboratory-reared Anastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly) males to reach sexual maturity by almost half. Here, we examined if methoprene exerted a similar effect on four other tropical Anastrepha species (Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha obliqua, Anastrepha serpentina and Anastrepha striata) reared on natural hosts and exhibiting contrasting life histories. In the case of A. ludens, we worked with two populations that derived from Casimiroa greggii (ancestral host, larvae feed on seeds) and Citrus paradisi (exotic host, larvae feed on pulp). We found that the effects of methoprene, when they occurred, varied according to species and, in the case of A. ludens, according to larval host. For example, in the case of the two A. ludens populations the effect of methoprene on first appearance of male calling behavior and number of copulations was only apparent in flies derived from C. greggii. In contrast, males derived from C. paradisi called and mated almost twice as often and females started to lay eggs almost 1 day earlier than individuals derived from C. greggii, but in this case there was no significant effect of treatment (methoprene) only a significant host effect. There were also significant host and host by treatment interactions with respect to egg clutch size. A. ludens females derived from C. paradisi laid significantly more eggs per clutch and total number of eggs than females derived from C. greggii. With respect to the multiple species comparisons, the treatment effect was consistent for A. ludens, occasional in A. serpentina (e.g., calling by males, clutch size), and not apparent in the cases of A. obliqua and A. striata. Interestingly, with respect to clutch size, in the cases of A. ludens and A. serpentina, the treatment effect followed opposite directions: positive in the case of A. ludens and negative in the case of A. serpentina. We center our discussion on two hypotheses

  14. Miocene Antarctic Terrestrial Realm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, A. C.; Lewis, A.; Marchant, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    The discovery of several locations in the Transantarctic Mountains that contain macrofossils and pollen is transforming our understanding of late Cenozoic Antarctica. The most southerly location is on the Beardmore Glacier (85.1°S) about 500 km from the South Pole. The environment was an active glacial margin in which plants, insects and freshwater mollusks inhabited the sand and gravel bars and small lakes on an outwash plain. In addition to leaves and wood of dwarf Nothofagus (Southern Beech) shrubs, achenes of Ranunculus (Buttercup), in situ cushion growth forms of mosses and a vascular plant, the assemblages contains various exoskeletal parts of carabid and curculionid beetles and a cyclorrhaphan fly, the shells of freshwater bivalve and gastropod species and a fish tooth. Initially the deposits were assigned a Pliocene age (3.5 Ma) but a mid- to early Miocene age is more probable (c. 14 - 25 Ma) based on correlation of fossil pollen from the deposits with 39Ar/40Ar dated pollen assemblages from the McMurdo Dry Valleys locations. The oldest location within the Dry Valleys also involved an active ice margin but was part of a valley system that was completely deglaciated for intervals long enough for thick paleosols to develop. The Friis Hills fossil deposits of the Taylor Valley region (77.8°S) are at least 19.76 Ma based on the 39Ar/40Ar age of a volcanic ash bed. The valley floor during the non-glacial phases had poorly-drained soils and the extensive development of mossy mires. Wood and leaves of Nothofagus are abundant in lacustrine deposits. The silts of shallow fluvial channels contain abundant megaspores and spiky leaves of the aquatic lycopod Isoetes (Quillwort). Fossils of beetles are also present in these deposits. During the glacial phases, proglacial lakes were surrounded by dwarfed, deciduous Nothofagus shrubs. The youngest fossils recovered from the Dry Valleys are from the Olympus Range (77.5°S) with an age of 14.07 Ma. The environment was an

  15. Early to mid-Miocene palaeoclimate of Antarctica based on terrestrial records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, Allan; Lewis, Adam

    2017-04-01

    Paleontological and stratigraphic studies of sites in the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) are advancing knowledge of the landscape, vegetation and climate that existed immediately before the growth of the modern East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The sites are located in the Friis Hills and the western Olympus Range in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. In both localities, parts of ancient landscapes are preserved on upland surfaces high above modern valley floors. The early to mid-Miocene interval is bracketed by 40Ar/39Ar ages on volcanic ashes of 19.76 ± 0.11 Ma to 13.85 ± 0.03 Ma. Like all glacial records it is discontinuous but even so several trends can be detected. The record is one of an evolving glacial system during which ice caps coalesced to form an ice sheet. Initially, small alpine glaciers flowed southwestward toward the continental interior eroding shallow troughs into granitic bedrock. By the close of the interval, large glaciers flowed eastward from the continental interior to the Ross Sea. The interval was marked by numerous glacial advances and retreats. Tills are matrix-rich, and outwash sands and gravels ripple-laminated and cross-bedded, typical of those associated with wet-based glaciation. The vegetation during the interval was in a dynamic flux retreating downslope during glacial advances and recolonizing valleys after retreats. Fossils accumulated in peat beds and organic silts representing lacustrine, fluvial and paludal environments. Fossils include diatoms, fungal ascomycetes, pollen and spores, lycopod megaspores, mosses, wood and leaves of Nothofagus (southern beech), fruits of vascular plants, and insect skeletal parts of Diptera (flies) and Coleoptera (beetles). The vegetation was a tundra, initially shrub- and later moss-dominated. During the interval there was a marked decline in biodiversity. Initially, there were 4 species of Nothofagus represented by different leaf types and at least 9 species of vascular plants by their seeds. At the close of

  16. Climate-vegetation-fire linkages on decadal-to-millennial time scales along the Patagonian forest-steppe ecotone (41 - 43°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, V.; Whitlock, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    Patagonian vegetation has dramatically changed in composition and distribution over the last 16,000 years. Although patterns of vegetation change are relatively clear, our understanding of the processes that produce them is limited. In this study, we reconstructed the vegetation and fire history of the North Patagonian forest-steppe ecotone (41 - 43°S) and linked past ecological changes to variations in large-scale synoptic controls of climate and past human activity. Postglacial vegetation and fire dynamics were inferred from high-resolution pollen and charcoal records from seven lakes located along the forest-steppe ecotone in the eastern flanks of the Andes. We fit Mixed Generalized Additive Models to these time series to estimate regional trends in vegetation composition and biomass burning through time, and compared them with independent paleoclimate data so as to assess long-term vegetation-fire-climate linkages. Pollen data indicate that late-glacial steppe was replaced by open forest in the early Holocene and by closed forest in the middle and late Holocene. Fire activity was lowest during the late-glacial to early-Holocene transition and gradually increased through the Holocene. Long-term vegetation and fire patterns responded to variations in seasonal and annual insolation and their effect on moisture during the growing season. Submillennial-scale precipitation variability explained much of the fine-scale ecotonal behavior, mainly through its effect on fire, which can amplify or override the direct influence of climate on ecotone composition. During the late Holocene, in particular, century-long oscillations in forest composition were largely driven by changes in humidity, associated with the strengthening of the westerlies and ENSO variability. Humid periods (4900-3800 cal yr BP, 2850-1350 cal yr BP) promoted Nothofagus forest, and dry times (3800-2850 cal yr BP, 1350-450 cal yr BP) favored Austrocedrus expansion. At intermediate moisture levels

  17. Plant Responses to Increased UV-B Radiation: A Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DAntoni, H. L.; Skiles, J. W.; Armstrong, R.; Coughlan, J.; Daleo, G.; Mayoral, A.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    because there is anecdotal evidence of plant damage on the saguaros that has been linked to increased UV radiation, and (3) the forests of Nothofagus spp. and the steppe of Patagonia where the risk of plant damage at 35S is 5% and increases to as much as 15% at 55S due to increased UV-B radiation. Measurements of UV-B radiation impinging on the surface at 55S largely exceed the predicted UV-B radiation values at 50 latitude and 0% ozone depletion. Preliminary HPLC analyses of UV-B absorbing compounds in Nothofagus antartica, N. pumilio, N. betuloides and Rumex sp. in natural conditions show species-specific patterns. The spectrum of N. antartica grown at 38S differs significantly from that of N. antartica in natural conditions in Ushuaia (55S). These results suggest that the selected main area (Patagonia) is appropriate for assessing the problem and its magnitude and that Nothofagus is appropriate for our study.

  18. Plant Responses to Increased UV-B Radiation: A Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DAntoni, H. L.; Skiles, J. W.; Armstrong, R.; Coughlan, J.; Daleo, G.; Mayoral, A.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    because there is anecdotal evidence of plant damage on the saguaros that has been linked to increased UV radiation, and (3) the forests of Nothofagus spp. and the steppe of Patagonia where the risk of plant damage at 35S is 5% and increases to as much as 15% at 55S due to increased UV-B radiation. Measurements of UV-B radiation impinging on the surface at 55S largely exceed the predicted UV-B radiation values at 50 latitude and 0% ozone depletion. Preliminary HPLC analyses of UV-B absorbing compounds in Nothofagus antartica, N. pumilio, N. betuloides and Rumex sp. in natural conditions show species-specific patterns. The spectrum of N. antartica grown at 38S differs significantly from that of N. antartica in natural conditions in Ushuaia (55S). These results suggest that the selected main area (Patagonia) is appropriate for assessing the problem and its magnitude and that Nothofagus is appropriate for our study.

  19. The early to mid-Miocene environment of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, A. C.; Lewis, A.

    2012-12-01

    Paleoecological studies in the Transantarctic Mountains of the McMurdo region provide evidence that the climate was both warmer and wetter in the early to mid-Miocene than it was during the late Miocene. The climate change was accompanied by a shift from wet- to cold-based glaciation in the TAM and the probable growth of the polar ice sheet. Terrestrial and freshwater aquatic fossil assemblages from the Friis Hills (77°S) and the Olympus Range (77°S), with endpoint 40Ar/39Ar ages on tephras of 19.76 Ma and 14.07 Ma, respectively, indicate climatic cooling during the interval. At c.14 Ma, the temperature dropped below the threshold required to support the plants and insects of a tundra biome, and they became extinct. This interpretation is supported by pollen studies from Ross Sea cores. The extinction of the tundra biota on the continent appears to have been time-transgressive, occurring at 12.8 Ma on the Antarctic Peninsula. Evidence of climatic cooling from early to mid-Miocene is based on a decrease in biodiversity. During interglacial phases of the early Miocene, the poorly drained valley of the Friis Hills supported a sexually-reproducing moss community dominated by Campylium cf. polygamum, which today grows on the margins of lakes and in soil between boulders. Wood and leaves of Nothofagus (Southern Beech), and the seeds of at least five other angiosperm species are preserved as fossils. In addition, there are abundant megaspores and spiny, curved leaves of the aquatic lycopod Isoetes (Quillwort), as well as chitinous remains of curculionid beetles and Chironomidae (midges). During glacial phases, the only fossils found are Nothofagus leaves of a species which appears to be different than that associated with the interglacial phases. Pollen supports the interpretation that there was more than one species of Nothofagus in the vegetation. The types and numbers of species indicate that the vegetation was a shrub tundra. The closest modern analog for the fossil

  20. Impact of alternative regeneration methods on genetic diversity in coastal Douglas-fir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, W.T.; Zuo, J.; Shimizu, J.Y.; Tappeiner, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic implications of natural and artificial regeneration following three regeneration methods (group selection, shelterwood, and clearcut) were investigated in coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) using genetic markers (17 allozyme loci). In general, harvesting followed by either natural or artificial regeneration resulted in offspring populations little altered from those in the previous generation. Cutting the smallest trees to form shelterwoods, however, resulted in the removal of rare, presumably deleterious, alleles, such that slightly fewer alleles per locus were observed among residual trees (2.76) and natural regeneration (2.75) than found in uncut (control) stands (2.86). Thus, although the shelterwood regime appears quite compatible with gene conservation, it would be best to leave parent trees of a range of sizes in shelterwoods designated as gene conservation reserves, in order to maximize the number of alleles (regardless of current adaptive value) in naturally regenerated offspring. Seedling stocks used for artificial regeneration in clearcut, shelterwood, and group selection stands (7 total) had significantly greater levels of genetic diversity, on average, than found in natural regeneration. This is probably because the seeds used in artificial seedling stocks came from many wild stands and thus, sampled more diversity than found in single populations.Genetic implications of natural and artificial regeneration following three regeneration methods (group selection, shelterwood, and clearcut) were investigated in coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) using genetic markers (17 allozyme loci). In general, harvesting followed by either natural or artificial regeneration resulted in offspring populations little altered from those in the previous generation. Cutting the smallest trees to form shelterwoods, however, resulted in the removal of rare, presumably deleterious, alleles

  1. Lacustrine Records of Holocene Climate Change From Southernmost South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, C. M.; Francois, J.; Moreno, P. I.; Dunbar, R. B.; Villa-Martinez, R.; Waldmann, N.; Ariztegui, D.

    2005-12-01

    The westerly wind field is one of the most prominent atmospheric circulation features in the Southern Hemisphere, which has a major impact on the climate of southern South America and hydrographic conditions in the Southern Ocean. Recent studies have argued that latitudinal shifts in the westerly boundaries during the LGM played a role in the modulation of atmospheric CO2 through positive feedback mechanisms within the Southern Ocean. However, significant discrepancies exist among paleoclimate records and GCM simulations. Here we present lacustrine records of late Holocene climate variability from two sites in southern South America. The first, a 4.75 meter sediment core from Laguna Guanacos (51°S, 72°W) in Southern Patagonia, provides a continuous record of climatic change related to the westerly wind regime during the last ~11,000 14C yrs. The sediment cores obtained from this small, shallow closed-basin lake reveal high concentrations of organic mater and biogenic carbonate. Eleven AMS radiocarbon dates on organic and carbonate fractions indicate that the record spans the last ~13,000 calendar years and modern dates from core tops suggest little influence by old or dead carbon sources. Combined pollen, stable isotope and elemental data indicate that significant shifts in the forest-steppe ecotone have occurred during the late Holocene. Increases in C/N and Nothofagus/Graminae index values culminating between 100 and 550 14C yrs BP are indicative of forest expansion related to cooler and moister conditions during the Little Ice Age. A large >2‰ decrease in bulk organic δ13C and a concomitant decrease in Nothofagus and rise in Rumex during the last 100 years, marks extensive burning of the region and the replacement of a forested landscape by an anthropogenic-set steppe. A positive linear relationship between δ18O and δ13C on bi-valves and ostracodes indicates that the lake behaves as a closed system and will be sensitive to changes in moisture balance

  2. Environmental changes in two lakes of Northern Patagonia (Chile): A 1000 yr reconstruction based on pollen and charcoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicole, Vargas; Laura, Torres; Alberto, Araneda; Fabiola, Cruces; Fernando, Torrejón; Denisse, Alvarez; G, Bizama; Nathalie, Fagel; Roberto, Urrutia

    2010-05-01

    We aim to reconstruct the environmental changes experimented in Patagonian ecosystems during the last 1000 years. We analyze sediment cores from two lakes (Thompson and Burgos), located in Aysen Region, Southern Chile. The samples were obtained using a gravity corer and sampled at intervals of 1 cm to 30 cm depth and every 5 cm until the end of the core. Thompson lake sediment core was sampled every 5 cm. Age model is based on radiocarbon datings on bulk sediments and macroremains. In Burgos lake we evidence two main climatic changes. A wet period between 876-1444 AD is marked by the presence of Pteridophytes. A colder and dryer period is then evidenced by an increase of Berberis sp between 1444 and 1656 AD. From 1834 AD to Present the sediment record is mainly affected by human activities. High concentrations of carbon particles and a sharp change in pollen assemblage (increase of Poaceae, decrease of Nothofagus dombeyi-Type) are indicators of two large fire events. The lacustrine sediment of Thompson is characterized by a wetter period, between 874 - 1168 AD, with abundance of Pteridophytes. Then from 1168 AD to Present the environmental conditions of the watershed were characterized by lower ferns and fire events. Two major fires were evidenced between 1850 AD and Present. Like in Burgos they are marked by major changes in plant associations (sharp increase in Poaceae, drastic loss of Nothofagus dombeyi-Type). Wet periods identified in both lakes at the base of the sediment record could correspond to manifestations of a warm climate anomaly like the Medieval Warm Period. The dry and cold period, especially obvious in the Burgos record, could be associated to a cold climate anomaly. Finally the great changes in vegetation that occurred from the year ~ 1830 in the basin of the two lakes were directly related to human activities (forest cutting) developed during the ninetheenth and twentieth centuries. This research is funded by both Chilean and Belgian projects

  3. North Patagonia climate over the last millennium inferred from variations in tree-ring width and isotopic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavergne, Aliénor; Villalba, Ricardo; Daux, Valérie

    2014-05-01

    To disentangle natural variability from man-induced climate changes, current climatic trends should be placed in a longer perspective. Tree-rings provide a wealth of information on past climates with high-resolution records covering up to thousands years. Recent tree-ring studies have highlighted the divergence phenomenon in Northern Hemisphere forests. At some temperature-limited northern sites, tree growth responses to climate during recent decades have changed, raising concerns about the quality of historical climate reconstructions based on tree-ring widths. This shift in the eco-physiological response of trees to climate has not yet been documented in the Southern Hemisphere. The aim of this study is to present the tree-ring evolution over the last centuries in northern Patagonia (southern South America; 41° 10'S-71° 50'W) in order to assess 1) divergence in tree-growth response to climate in recent decades, and 2) the potential of tree-ring parameters (width and δ18O) to reconstruct temperature and atmospheric circulation patterns such as the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). Based on quality and extent, instrumental temperature records across North Patagonia (39° -41° S) were selected for comparison with tree-ring records. Detection and correction of series inhomogeneities were conducted using HOMER software. A set of homogenized temperature data was developed for the period 1901-2013. Increment-borer samples from Fitzroya cupressoides and Nothofagus pumilio were collected along the regional precipitation gradient from the wet Valdivian rainforest to the mesic Patagonian forests during the austral summer of 2013. Six sampling sites (2 for Fitzroya, 4 for Nothofagus) along the gradient were established to maximize differences in tree-growth responses to climate and to assess the effect of precipitation on the responses. More than 500 cores were cross-dated, detrended and indexed. Composite tree-ring index (TRI) chronologies of F. cupressoides and N. pumilio

  4. The vegetation cover of New Zealand at the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newnham, Rewi; McGlone, Matt; Moar, Neville; Wilmshurst, Janet; Vandergoes, Marcus

    2013-08-01

    A new reconstruction of the vegetation cover for New Zealand at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is presented, based primarily on a database of 66 pollen site records and a more limited range of plant macrofossil and coleopteran records. Extensive forest is evident only from Auckland northwards. Conifer-broadleaf forest similar to that in the region today, but with Agathis australis scarce, persisted in the far north, whilst Nothofagus trees and a range of shrub taxa characterised the more open forests elsewhere in Northland. Survival of Nothofagus-dominated forest in coastal and exposed continental shelf locations to the southwest of Auckland and northwestern South Island is also indicated. Beyond these regions, vegetation cover comprised shrubland- and grassland-dominant communities, with the latter more prominent in eastern areas, to the south and presumably at higher altitudes. Nevertheless the survival of forest trees is indicated unambiguously in most regions apart from the eastern South Island. Thus the concept of 'micro glacial forest refugia' in New Zealand remains supported by this latest glacial vegetation reconstruction and we draw possible parallels with the developing but contentious concept of 'northern cryptic refugia' in Europe. Recent assertions that pollen and beetle reconstructions of the New Zealand LGM vegetation patterns diverge significantly are not supported by this analysis. Rather, the two proxies are readily reconciled if the term 'woody' as indicated by coleoptera is not restricted to tall forest trees but extended to the widespread woody shrub and small tree elements of the New Zealand flora. Regional distinctions in the LGM vegetation reconstruction concur broadly with the contemporary vegetation pattern, suggesting that, along with temperature depression and likely drier growing conditions, a zonal circulation regime with prominent southern westerly winds was important at 21 ka, as it is today. Pollen-climate modelling of the extent of

  5. Wolbachia in guilds of Anastrepha fruit flies (Tephritidae) and parasitoid wasps (Braconidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Rodrigo O; Prezotto, Leandro F; Perondini, André Luiz P; Marino, Celso Luiz; Selivon, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The endosymbiont Wolbachia is efficiently transmitted from females to their progenies, but horizontal transmission between different taxa is also known to occur. Aiming to determine if horizontal transmission might have occurred between Anastrepha fruit flies and associated braconid wasps, infection by Wolbachia was screened by amplification of a fragment of the wsp gene. Eight species of the genus Anastrepha were analyzed, from which six species of associated parasitoid wasps were recovered. The endosymbiont was found in seven Anastrepha species and in five species of braconids. The WSP Typing methodology detected eight wsp alleles belonging to Wolbachia supergroup A. Three were already known and five were new ones, among which four were found to be putative recombinant haplotypes. Two samples of Anastrepha obliqua and one sample of Doryctobracon brasiliensis showed multiple infection. Single infection by Wolbachia was found in the majority of samples. The distribution of Wolbachia harboring distinct alleles differed significantly between fruit flies and wasps. However, in nine samples of fruit flies and associated wasps, Wolbachia harbored the same wsp allele. These congruences suggest that horizontal transfer of Wolbachia might have occurred in the communities of fruit flies and their braconid parasitoids. PMID:27648768

  6. Mass trapping is as effective as ground bait sprays for the control of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) fruit flies in mango orchards.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Jorge; Flores, Salvador; Liedo, Pablo; Malo, Edi A

    2017-10-01

    Anastrepha fruit flies are considered one of the main phytosanitary problems for the fresh fruit industry in the USA, Caribbean islands and Latin America. Since 1994, the Mexican government has implemented the National Fruit Fly Program using an area-wide integrated pest management approach. In this paper, we evaluate the effectiveness of mass trapping and compare it with ground GF-120 spraying against Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha ludens populations in mango cv. Ataulfo orchards. Multilure® traps baited with Ceratrap® or Biolure® captured significantly more fruit flies than Captor 300 in field cage tests. Mass trapping and ground GF-120 spray significantly suppressed fruit fly populations compared with untreated plots. In Multilure traps placed in untreated plots, we captured significantly more fruit flies than in treated plots with mass trapping or GF-120 sprays. Plots treated with either mass trapping or GF-120 sprays reduced the percentage of infested fruit significantly compared with untreated plots. There was no difference between mass trapping and GF-120 ground bait spraying. Our results demonstrate that mass trapping was as effective as GF-120 ground spraying for the control of fruit flies in mango cv. Ataulfo orchards. The suppression effect of mass trapping was similar to GF-120 ground bait spraying. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. New record for Woldstedtius flavolineatus (Ichneumonidae: Diplazontinae), a hymenopteran parasitoid of syrphid flies in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cappadonna, Justin; Euaparadorn, Melody; Peck, Robert W.; Banko, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Woldstedtius flavolineatus (Gravenhorst) (Ichneumonidae) attacks the larvae of syrphid flies (Syrphidae). Woldstedtius flavolineatus was collected in Hawaii for the first time during an extensive malaise trap-based survey of parasitoids in Hawaiian forests. Since its initial collection on Hawaii Island in January 2006, it has been collected at five additional sites on Hawaii Island and at one site each on Maui and Oahu. Malaise trap results from Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge showed a strong seasonal pattern of abundance, with peak population levels reached during July–September. Rearing of its host, Allograpta obliqua (Say), collected from koa (Acacia koa Gray) at Hakalau over two days, revealed a parasitism rate of approximately 95%. Broader impacts of this alien wasp are unknown, but a reduction in host syrphid abundance could result in an increase in numbers of psyllids and aphids (Homoptera) that are preyed upon by syrphid larvae. Furthermore, a reduction in adult syrphids could impact the reproductive success of some of the plants they pollinate.

  8. Toward an Automated Identification of Anastrepha Fruit Flies in the fraterculus group (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Perre, P; Faria, F A; Jorge, L R; Rocha, A; Torres, R S; Souza-Filho, M F; Lewinsohn, T M; Zucchi, R A

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we assess image analysis techniques as automatic identifiers of three Anastrepha species of quarantine importance, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, based on wing and aculeus images. The right wing and aculeus of 100 individuals of each species were mounted on microscope slides, and images were captured with a stereomicroscope and light microscope. For wing image analysis, we used the color descriptor Local Color Histogram; for aculei, we used the contour descriptor Edge Orientation Autocorrelogram. A Support Vector Machine classifier was used in the final stage of wing and aculeus classification. Very accurate species identifications were obtained based on wing and aculeus images, with average accuracies of 94 and 95%, respectively. These results are comparable to previous identification results based on morphometric techniques and to the results achieved by experienced entomologists. Wing and aculeus images produced equally accurate classifications, greatly facilitating the identification of these species. The proposed technique is therefore a promising option for separating these three closely related species in the fraterculus group.

  9. Faunistic analysis of the species of Anastrepha Schiner (Diptera: Tephritidae) in three municipalities of the state of Roraima, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Nascimento, D B; Ronchi-Teles, B; Adaime, R

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to describe the population patterns of Anastrepha in three municipalities of the state of Roraima, Brazil, via faunistic analysis. Weekly collections were performed from January through December 2008, using McPhail traps containing 5% hydrolysed protein, in domestic orchards in the municipalities of Boa Vista, Bonfim and Pacaraima. We captured 301 females of Anastrepha in Boa Vista, 212 in Bonfim, and 167 in Pacaraima. Boa Vista presented the highest species richness (S = 10) and Pacaraima the lowest (S = 4). Anastrepha striata was the predominant species in Boa Vista (47.18%) and Pacaraima (65.87%), whereas A. obliqua predominated in Bonfim (46.23%). Boa Vista presented the highest Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H' = 1.19) and Margalef index (α = 1.58), and Bonfim presented the highest Pielou's evenness index (J' = 0.69). In Pacaraima the cumulative curves reached stability, confirming that the observed and expected species richness were the same. In the other two municipalities, the curves showed a moderate growth, suggesting that the sampling effort was not sufficient to produce an accurate depiction of species richness. In this study, Anastrepha zernyi is reported for the first time in Roraima.

  10. Wolbachia in guilds of Anastrepha fruit flies (Tephritidae) and parasitoid wasps (Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Rodrigo O; Prezotto, Leandro F; Perondini, André Luiz P; Marino, Celso Luiz; Selivon, Denise

    2016-01-01

    The endosymbiont Wolbachia is efficiently transmitted from females to their progenies, but horizontal transmission between different taxa is also known to occur. Aiming to determine if horizontal transmission might have occurred between Anastrepha fruit flies and associated braconid wasps, infection by Wolbachia was screened by amplification of a fragment of the wsp gene. Eight species of the genus Anastrepha were analyzed, from which six species of associated parasitoid wasps were recovered. The endosymbiont was found in seven Anastrepha species and in five species of braconids. The WSP Typing methodology detected eight wsp alleles belonging to Wolbachia supergroup A. Three were already known and five were new ones, among which four were found to be putative recombinant haplotypes. Two samples of Anastrepha obliqua and one sample of Doryctobracon brasiliensis showed multiple infection. Single infection by Wolbachia was found in the majority of samples. The distribution of Wolbachia harboring distinct alleles differed significantly between fruit flies and wasps. However, in nine samples of fruit flies and associated wasps, Wolbachia harbored the same wsp allele. These congruences suggest that horizontal transfer of Wolbachia might have occurred in the communities of fruit flies and their braconid parasitoids.

  11. Climate change and wildfire influence the methane uptake capacity in Australian eucalypt forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Stefan; Fest, Benedikt; Hinko-Najera, Nina; Wardlaw, Tim; Livesley, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Forest ecosystems comprise the largest soil sink for the greenhouse gas methane and climate change and fire can have significant impacts on this important process. We present data from a number of long-term field studies that investigated the impacts of reduced rainfall and fire regimes on soil methane flux in Australian forest systems. Long term soil methane flux measurements with automated chambers indicated that around 90% of soil methane uptake variability in dry- and wet-sclerophyll Eucalyptus obliqua (L. Her.) forests was explained by soil moisture through influencing methane diffusivity. The application of rainfall reduction shelters in the dry-sclerophyll eucalypt forest caused an average reduction of 14.6% in soil volumetric water content but an increase in soil methane uptake of around 38%, again a consequence of increased methane diffusivity. Consequently, the potential reductions in rainfall in large parts of Australia are likely to result in an increase in methane uptake. Wildfire disturbance also altered forest soil methane uptake and here the methane uptake capacity was related to stand age dependent changes in stand structure likely linked to changes in stand water use. Stands that had dryer soils displayed greater methane uptake, indicating that soil methane uptake changes during forest stand development. Wildfire can therefore have significant impacts on landscape level methane uptake.

  12. Contribution to the taxonomy of Garcinia (Clusiaceae) in Africa, including two new species from Gabon and a key to the Lower Guinean species.

    PubMed

    Sosef, Marc S M; Dauby, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Garcinia has some 260 species and is often regarded as a genus with a difficult taxonomy. No recent treatment is available for the botanically rich Lower Guinea phytogeographical region. This study aims at partly filling this gap. First, several taxonomic problems are solved. Garcinia chromocarpa is reduced to a variety of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia gnetoides and Garcinia granulata are both synonyms of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia zenkeri is a synonym of Garcinia densivenia and lectotypes are being designated for both names. Garcinia brevipedicellata is a synonym of Garcinia afzelii, as is Garcinia antidysenterica for which a lectotype is designated. Second, two new species endemic to Gabon are described: Garcinia gabonensis Sosef & Dauby and Garcinia obliqua Sosef & Dauby. Finally, an identification key to all species present in the Lower Guinea region is provided. A few remaining West African species names could not be placed with certainty, because the type material was lost or not traced yet. One is a Rutaceae while the remaining three are provisionally to be regarded as synonyms of Garcinia smeathmannii.

  13. Insect growth inhibition, antifeedant and antifungal activity of compounds isolated/derived from Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) rhizomes.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, M; Walia, S; Dhingra, S; Khambay, B P

    2001-03-01

    Fresh rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (ginger), when subjected to steam distillation, yielded ginger oil in which curcumene was found to be the major constituent. The thermally labile zingiberene-rich fraction was obtained from its diethyl ether extract. Column chromatography of ginger oleoresin furnished a fraction from which [6]-gingerol was obtained by preparative TLC. Naturally occurring [6]-dehydroshogaol was synthesised following condensation of dehydrozingerone with hexanal, whereas zingerone and 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)butane were obtained by hydrogenation of dehydrozingerone with 10% Pd/C. The structures of the compounds were established by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass (EI-MS and ES-MS) spectral analysis. The test compounds exhibited moderate insect growth regulatory (IGR) and antifeedant activity against Spilosoma obliqua, and significant antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. Among the various compounds, [6]-dehydroshogaol exhibited maximum IGR activity (EC50 3.55 mg ml-1), while dehydrozingerone imparted maximum antifungal activity (EC50 86.49 mg litre-1).

  14. Contribution to the taxonomy of Garcinia (Clusiaceae) in Africa, including two new species from Gabon and a key to the Lower Guinean species

    PubMed Central

    Sosef, Marc S.M.; Dauby, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Garcinia has some 260 species and is often regarded as a genus with a difficult taxonomy. No recent treatment is available for the botanically rich Lower Guinea phytogeographical region. This study aims at partly filling this gap. First, several taxonomic problems are solved. Garcinia chromocarpa is reduced to a variety of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia gnetoides and Garcinia granulata are both synonyms of Garcinia quadrifaria. Garcinia zenkeri is a synonym of Garcinia densivenia and lectotypes are being designated for both names. Garcinia brevipedicellata is a synonym of Garcinia afzelii, as is Garcinia antidysenterica for which a lectotype is designated. Second, two new species endemic to Gabon are described: Garcinia gabonensis Sosef & Dauby and Garcinia obliqua Sosef & Dauby. Finally, an identification key to all species present in the Lower Guinea region is provided. A few remaining West African species names could not be placed with certainty, because the type material was lost or not traced yet. One is a Rutaceae while the remaining three are provisionally to be regarded as synonyms of Garcinia smeathmannii. PMID:23233817

  15. Chemical composition and fumigant toxicity of the essential oils from 16 species of Eucalyptus against Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) adults.

    PubMed

    Juan, Laura W; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N; Harrand, Leonel; Marco, Martin; Masuh, Hector M

    2011-06-01

    Oils extracted from various species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev & Welch, Eucalyptus badjensis x Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus benthamii variety dorrigoensis Maiden & Cambage, Eucalyptus botryoides Smith, Eucalyptus dalrympleana Maiden, Eucalyptus fastigata Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus nobilis L.A.S. Johnson & K. D. Hill, Eucalyptus polybractea R. Baker, Eucalyptus radiata ssp. radiata Sieber ex Spreng, Eucalyptus resinifera Smith, Eucalyptus robertsonii Blakely, Eucalyptus rubida Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus smithii R. Baker, Eucalyptus elata Dehnh, Eucalyptus fraxinoides Deane & Maiden, E. obliqua L'Hér) were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of essential oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Essential oils were mainly composed of 1,8-cineole, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpineol, 4-terpineol, and p-cymene. Vapors from these essential oils and their major components were found to be toxic to Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) adults. An aliquot of each oil was placed in a cylindrical test chamber, and the number of knocked down flies was recorded as a function of time. Knockdown time 50% was then calculated. Results showed that essential oil of E. polybractea had the highest knockdown activity of 3.44 min. A correlation was observed between the content of 1,8-cineole in the Eucalyptus essential oils and the corresponding toxic effect.

  16. Antiprotozoal activities of Colombian plants.

    PubMed

    Weniger, B; Robledo, S; Arango, G J; Deharo, E; Aragón, R; Muñoz, V; Callapa, J; Lobstein, A; Anton, R

    2001-12-01

    In our search for therapeutical alternatives for antiprotozoal chemotherapy, we collected a selection of 44 plants from western Colombia upon ethnopharmacological and chemotaxonomic considerations. Polar and apolar extracts of these species were examined for antimalarial activity using in vitro tests with two clones of Plasmodium falciparum. Leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activity were determined in vitro using promastigote and amastigote forms of several strains of Leishmania sp. and epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi. Among the selected plants, the 15 following species showed good or very good antiprotozoal activity in vitro: Aspidosperma megalocarpon, Campnosperma panamense, Conobea scoparioides, Guarea polymera, Guarea guidonia, Guatteria amplifolia, Huberodendron patinoi, Hygrophila guianensis, Jacaranda caucana, Marila laxiflora, Otoba novogranatensis, Otoba parviflora, Protium amplium, Swinglea glutinosa and Tabernaemontana obliqua. Cytotoxicity was assessed in U-937 cells and the ratio of cytotoxicity to antiprotozoal activity was determined for the active extracts. Ten extracts from eight species showed selectivity indexes > or = 10. Among the extracts that showed leishmanicidal activity, the methylene chloride extract of leaves from C. scoparioides showed a selectivity index in the same range that the one of the Glucantime control. Several of the active leishmanicidal plants are traditionally used against leishmaniasis by the population of the concerned area.

  17. Forest fragments as barriers to fruit fly dispersal: Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in orchards and adjacent forest fragments in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David A; Kendra, Paul E; Van Bloem, Skip; Whitmire, Stefanie; Mizell, Russ; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    McPhail-type traps baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine were used to monitor populations of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) in two orchards with hosts of these flies (mango, Mangifera indica L., and carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), as well as in forest fragments bordering these orchards. Contour maps were constructed to measure population distributions in and around orchards. Our results indicate that Anastrepha populations are focused around host fruit in both space and time, that traps do not draw fruit flies away from hosts, even when placed within 15 m of the host, and that lures continue to function for 6 mo in the field. The contour mapping analyses reveal that populations of fruit flies are focused around ovipositional hosts. Although the trapping system does not have a very long effective sampling range, it is ideal, when used in combination with contour analyses, for assessing fine-scale (on the order of meters) population distributions, including identifying resources around which fly populations are focused or, conversely, assessing the effectiveness of management tools. The results are discussed as they pertain to monitoring and detecting Anastrepha spp. with the McPhail-type trap and ammonium acetate and putrescine baiting system and the dispersal of these flies within Puerto Rico.

  18. Environmental effects on germination phenology of co-occurring eucalypts: implications for regeneration under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawal, Deepa S.; Kasel, Sabine; Keatley, Marie R.; Nitschke, Craig R.

    2015-09-01

    Germination is considered one of the important phenological stages that are influenced by environmental factors, with timing and abundance determining plant establishment and recruitment. This study investigates the influence of temperature, soil moisture and light on the germination phenology of six Eucalyptus species from two co-occurring groups of three species representing warm-dry and cool-moist sclerophyll forests. Data from germination experiments were used to calibrate the germination module of the mechanistic model TACA-GEM, to evaluate germination phenology under a range of climate change scenarios. With the exception of E. polyanthemos, the optimal niche for all species was characterised by cool-moist stratification, low light, cool temperatures and high soil moisture. Model results indicated that of the warm-dry species, Eucalyptus microcarpa exhibited greater germination and establishment under projected changes of warmer drier conditions than its co-occurring species Eucalyptus polyanthemos and Eucalyptus tricarpa which suggests that E. microcarpa could maintain its current distribution under a warmer and drier climate in southeastern Australia. Among the cool-moist species, Eucalyptus radiata was the only species that established under projected climate change of the 2080s but at such a low probability that its persistence compared to Eucalyptus obliqua and Eucalyptus sieberi cannot be posited. For all cool-moist species, germination did not benefit from the phenological shifts they displayed. This study successfully demonstrated environmental effects on germination phenology and how a shift in climate can influence the timing and success of recruitment.

  19. Species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) captured in a guava orchard (Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae) in Boa Vista, Roraima, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Deus, E G; Ronchi-Teles, B; Adaime, R; Silva Júnior, R J

    2013-11-01

    The guava fruit (Psidium guajava) is among the most strongly affected by fruit flies in Brazil. In the Brazilian Amazon, 11 species of Anastrepha have been reported in guava orchards to date. This work aimed to identify the species of Anastrepha present in a guava orchard in the municipality of Boa Vista, determine the species infesting the fruits, and identify any parasitoids present. Two McPhail traps with food bait were installed and weekly collections were made between January and December 2008. Fruits were also collected systematically during this period, with a view to determining the association between host plant and tephritid species. Nine species of Anastrepha were identified, in addition to one specimen belonging to a probable new species. Anastrepha striata Schiner, Anastrepha sororcula Zucchi, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) were the dominant species in the orchard, accounting for 84.8% of all captured individuals. All females collected directly from fruits were A. striata. Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti) was the only parasitoid species obtained. In this work, Anastrepha ethalea (Walker) is reported for the first time in the state of Roraima.

  20. New Early Eocene Basal tapiromorph from Southern China and Its Phylogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Bin; Wang, Yuanqing; Meng, Jin; Li, Qian; Jin, Xun

    2014-01-01

    A new Early Eocene tapiromorph, Meridiolophus expansus gen. et sp. nov., from the Sanshui Basin, Guangdong Province, China, is described and discussed. It is the first reported Eocene mammal from the basin. The new taxon, represented by a left fragmentary mandible, is characterized by an expanded anterior symphyseal region, a long diastema between c1 and p1, a rather short diastema between p1 and p2, smaller premolars relative to molars, an incipient metaconid appressed to the protoconid on p3, a prominent entoconid on p4, molar metaconid not twinned, cristid obliqua extending mesially and slightly lingually from the hypoconid, inclined metalophid and hypolophid, and small hypoconulid on the lower preultimate molars. Meridiolophus is morphologically intermediate between basal Homogalax-like taxa and derived tapiromorphs (such as Heptodon). Phylogenetic analysis indicates Equidae is more closely related to Tapiromorpha than to Palaeotheriidae, although the latter is only represented by a single species Pachynolophus eulaliensis. ‘Isectolophidae’, with exception of Meridiolophus and Karagalax, has the closest affinity with Chalicotherioidea. Furthermore, the majority rule consensus tree shows that Meridiolophus is closer to Karagalax than to any other ‘isectolophid’, and both genera represent stem taxa to crown group Ceratomorpha. PMID:25353987

  1. The Relationship Between Soil Air Filled Porosity and Soil Methane Oxidation is Almost Identical in Both Dry and Wet Temperate Eucalypt Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fest, B. J.; Wardlaw, T.; Hinko-Najera, N.; Arndt, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the temporal variation in soil methane (CH4) exchange in temperate evergreen eucalypt forests in south-eastern Australia we measured soil CH4 exchange in high temporal resolution (every 2 hours or less) over two consecutive years (Wombat State Forest, Victoria, AUS) and over one year (Warra, Tasmania, AUS) in two temperate Eucalyptus obliqua (L. Her) forests with contrasting annual precipitation (Wombat State Forest = 870 mm yr-1, Warra = 1700 mm yr-1). Both forests were continuous CH4 sinks with the Victorian site having a sink strength of -1.79 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1 and the Tasmanian site having a sink strength of -3.83 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1. Our results show that CH4 uptake was strongly controlled by soil moisture at both sites and explained up to 90% of the temporal variability in CH4 uptake. Furthermore, when soil moisture was expressed as soil air filled porosity (AFP) we were able to predict the CH4 uptake of one site by the linear regression between AFP and CH4 uptake from the other site. Soil temperature only had an apparent control over seasonal variation in CH4 uptake during periods when soil moisture and soil temperature were closely correlated. The fluctuation of the generally low soil nitrogen levels did not influence soil CH4 uptake at either site.

  2. Environmental effects on germination phenology of co-occurring eucalypts: implications for regeneration under climate change.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Deepa S; Kasel, Sabine; Keatley, Marie R; Nitschke, Craig R

    2015-09-01

    Germination is considered one of the important phenological stages that are influenced by environmental factors, with timing and abundance determining plant establishment and recruitment. This study investigates the influence of temperature, soil moisture and light on the germination phenology of six Eucalyptus species from two co-occurring groups of three species representing warm-dry and cool-moist sclerophyll forests. Data from germination experiments were used to calibrate the germination module of the mechanistic model TACA-GEM, to evaluate germination phenology under a range of climate change scenarios. With the exception of E. polyanthemos, the optimal niche for all species was characterised by cool-moist stratification, low light, cool temperatures and high soil moisture. Model results indicated that of the warm-dry species, Eucalyptus microcarpa exhibited greater germination and establishment under projected changes of warmer drier conditions than its co-occurring species Eucalyptus polyanthemos and Eucalyptus tricarpa which suggests that E. microcarpa could maintain its current distribution under a warmer and drier climate in southeastern Australia. Among the cool-moist species, Eucalyptus radiata was the only species that established under projected climate change of the 2080s but at such a low probability that its persistence compared to Eucalyptus obliqua and Eucalyptus sieberi cannot be posited. For all cool-moist species, germination did not benefit from the phenological shifts they displayed. This study successfully demonstrated environmental effects on germination phenology and how a shift in climate can influence the timing and success of recruitment.

  3. A new species of the archaic primate Zanycteris from the late Paleocene of western Colorado and the phylogenetic position of the family Picrodontidae.

    PubMed

    Burger, Benjamin John

    2013-01-01

    A new species of an archaic primate (Pleisadapiformes) is described based on a maxilla containing the first and second upper molars from the Fort Union Formation, Atwell Gulch Member in northwestern Colorado. The preserved teeth show the unusual dental characteristics of members of the rare and poorly documented Picrodontidae family, including an elongated centrocrista and wide occlusal surface. The new species is placed within the genus Zanycteris (represented by a single specimen from southern Colorado). This placement is based on similarities in regard to the parastyle, curvilinear centrocrista, and wider anterior stylar shelf on the upper molars. However, the new species differs from the only known species of Zanycteris in exhibiting an upper first molar that is 30% larger in area, while retaining a similarly sized upper second molar. Phylogenetic analysis supports the separation of the Picrodontidae family from the Paromomyidae, while still recognizing picrodontids position within Pleisadapiformes. The unusual dental features of the upper molars likely functioned in life as an enhanced shearing surface between the centrocrista and cristid obliqua crests for a specialized diet of fruit. A similar arrangement is found in the living bat Ariteus (Jamaican fig-eating bat), which feeds on fleshy fruit. The new species showcases the rapid diversification of archaic primates shortly after the extinction of the dinosaurs during the Paleocene, and the unusual dental anatomy of picrodontids to exploit new dietary specializations.

  4. Patterns of inner chorion structure in Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) eggs.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Julia V A; Perondini, André L P; Selivon, Denise

    2017-03-01

    The inner chorion structure of Anastrepha eggs from 16 species of various infrageneric taxonomic groups is described by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The layers of the chorion, the outer egg membrane, are structurally similar. Furthermore, an additional trabecular layer (ATL) that exists in some species, together with other characteristics, facilitates the recognition of four patterns of chorion structuring: Pattern I, in which the ATL layer is absent, is found in Anastrepha amita, the Anastrepha fraterculus complex, Anastrepha obliqua, Anastrepha sororcula, Anastrepha suspensa and Anastrepha zenildae (fraterculus group), and Anastrepha bistrigata and Anastrepha striata (striata group); Pattern II in Anastrepha serpentina (serpentina group), Anastrepha grandis (grandis group) and Anastrepha pseudoparallela (pseudoparallela group), in which the ATL presents large open spaces with pillars; Pattern III, found in Anastrepha consobrina (pseudoparallela group), in which the ATL is composed of round cavities; and Pattern IV, found in Anastrepha alveata and Anastrepha pickeli (spatulata group), where the large ATL cavities are reticulated. Comparatively, the chorion structure in Anastrepha eggs is more complex than in eggs of other fruit flies, e.g., Bactrocera, Rhagoletis and Ceratitis.

  5. A new species of the archaic primate Zanycteris from the late Paleocene of western Colorado and the phylogenetic position of the family Picrodontidae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A new species of an archaic primate (Pleisadapiformes) is described based on a maxilla containing the first and second upper molars from the Fort Union Formation, Atwell Gulch Member in northwestern Colorado. The preserved teeth show the unusual dental characteristics of members of the rare and poorly documented Picrodontidae family, including an elongated centrocrista and wide occlusal surface. The new species is placed within the genus Zanycteris (represented by a single specimen from southern Colorado). This placement is based on similarities in regard to the parastyle, curvilinear centrocrista, and wider anterior stylar shelf on the upper molars. However, the new species differs from the only known species of Zanycteris in exhibiting an upper first molar that is 30% larger in area, while retaining a similarly sized upper second molar. Phylogenetic analysis supports the separation of the Picrodontidae family from the Paromomyidae, while still recognizing picrodontids position within Pleisadapiformes. The unusual dental features of the upper molars likely functioned in life as an enhanced shearing surface between the centrocrista and cristid obliqua crests for a specialized diet of fruit. A similar arrangement is found in the living bat Ariteus (Jamaican fig-eating bat), which feeds on fleshy fruit. The new species showcases the rapid diversification of archaic primates shortly after the extinction of the dinosaurs during the Paleocene, and the unusual dental anatomy of picrodontids to exploit new dietary specializations. PMID:24255808

  6. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast? (paper) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Arceuthobium spp., Armillaria, Phaseolus schweinitzii, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough) on radial stem growth of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). SNC impacts physiological processes of carbon and water relations by stomatal occlusion and early needle abscission resulting in a reduction of tree growth with a distinct periodicity, whereas phytophagous pests reduce tree growth by defoliation with epidemics following less regular pseudo-periodicities. Outbreaks of the various forest disturbance agents differ in their magnitude, frequency, and duration. In particular, SNC impacts on Douglas-fir growth display a primary periodicity of 6-30 years and a secondary periodicity of 3-5 years which is unique to the causal fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii (Rhode) Petrak. We use frequency domain analysis of tree-ring chronologies of Douglas-fir to identify the SNC disease cycle and separate the confounding effects of climate and SNC. We demonstrate the dendroecological reconstruction of SNC impacts on ancient Douglas-fir trees dated ~65K radioactive years B.P. from Eddyville, OR that were unearthed by the Oregon Department of Transportation. By the end of the 21st century, climate

  7. Four centuries of soil carbon and nitrogen change after stand-replacing fire in a forest landscape in the western Cascade Range of Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giesen, T.W.; Perakis, S.S.; Cromack, K.

    2008-01-01

    Episodic stand-replacing wildfire is a significant disturbance in mesic and moist Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests of the Pacific Northwest. We studied 24 forest stands with known fire histories in the western Cascade Range in Oregon to evaluate long-term impacts of stand-replacing wildfire on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools and dynamics within the forest floor (FF, Oe and Oa horizons) and the mineral soil (0-10 cm). Twelve of our stands burned approximately 150 years ago ('young'), and the other 12 burned approximately 550 years ago ('old'). Forest floor mean C and N pools were significantly greater in old stands than young stands (N pools: 1823 ?? 132 kg??ha-1 vs. 1450 ?? 98 kg??ha -1; C pools: 62 980 ?? 5403 kg??ha-1 vs. 49 032 ?? 2965 kg??ha-1, mean ?? SE) as a result of significant differences in FF mass. Forest floor C and N concentrations and C/N ratios did not differ by time since fire, yet potential N mineralization rates were significantly higher in FF of old sites. Old and young mineral soils did not differ significantly in pools, concentrations, C/N ratios, or cycling rates. Our results suggest that C and N are sequestered in FF of Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir forests over long (???400 year) intervals, but that shorter fire return intervals may prevent that accumulation. ?? 2008 NRC.

  8. Identification case of evidence in timber tracing of Pinus radiate, using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    PubMed

    Solano, Jaime; Anabalón, Leonardo; Encina, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    Fast, accurate detection of plant species and their hybrids using molecular tools will facilitate assessment and monitoring of timber tracing evidence. In this study the origin of unknown pine samples is determined for a case of timber theft in the region of Araucania southern Chile. We evaluate the utility of the trnL marker region for species identification applied to pine wood based on High Resolution Melting. This efficient tracing methods can be incorporated into forestry applications such as certification of origin. The object of this work was genotype identification using high-resolution melting (HRM) and trnL approaches for Pinus radiata (Don) in timber tracing evidence. Our results indicate that trnL is a very sensitive marker for delimiting species and HRM analysis was used successfully for genotyping Pinus samples for timber tracing purposes. Genotyping samples by HRM analysis with the trnL1 approach allowed us to differentiate two wood samples from the Pinaceae family: Pinus radiata (Don) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. The same approach with Pinus trnL wood was not able to discriminate between samples of Pinus radiata, indicating that the samples were genetically indistinguishable, possibly because they have the same genotype at this locus. Timber tracing with HRM analysis is expected to contribute to future forest certification schemes, control of illegal trading, and molecular traceability of Pinus spp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term patterns of diameter and basal area growth of old-growth Douglas-fir trees in western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poage, Nathan; Tappeiner, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    Diameter growth and age data collected from stumps of 505 recently cut old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees at 28 sample locations in western Oregon (U.S.A.) indicated that rapid early and sustained growth of old Douglas-fir trees were extremely important in terms of attaining large diameters at ages 100a??300 years. The diameters of the trees at ages 100a??300 years (D100a??D300) were strongly, positively, and linearly related to their diameters and basal area growth rates at age 50 years. Average periodic basal area increments (PAIBA) of all trees increased for the first 30a??40 years and then plateaued, remaining relatively high and constant from age 50 to 300 years. Average PAIBA of the largest trees at ages 100a??300 years were significantly greater by age 20 years than were those of smaller trees at ages 100a??300 years. The site factors province, site class, slope, aspect, elevation, and establishment year accounted for little of the variation observed in basal area growth at age 50 years and D100a??D300. The mean age range for old-growth Douglas-fir at the sample locations was wide (174 years). The hypothesis that large-diameter old-growth Douglas-fir developed at low stand densities was supported by these observations.

  10. Chloroplast genomes of two conifers lack a large inverted repeat and are extensively rearranged.

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, S H; Palmer, J D; Howe, G T; Doerksen, A H

    1988-01-01

    Chloroplast genomes of Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] and radiata (Monterey) pine [Pinus radiata D. Don], two conifers from the widespread Pinaceae, were mapped and their genomes were compared to other land plants. Douglas-fir and radiata pine lack the large (20-25 kilobases) inverted repeat that characterizes most land plants. To our knowledge, this is only the second recorded loss of this ancient and highly conserved inverted repeat among all lineages of land plants thus far examined. Loss of the repeat largely accounts for the small size of the conifer genome, 120 kilobase, versus 140-160 kilobases in most land plants. Douglas-fir possesses a major inversion of 40-50 kilobases relative to radiata pine and nonconiferous plants. Nucleotide sequence differentiation between Douglas-fir and radiata pine was estimated to be 3.8%. Both conifer genomes possess a number of rearrangements relative to Osmunda, a fern, Ginkgo, a gymnosperm, and Petunia, an angiosperm. Among land plants, structural changes of this degree have occurred primarily within tribes of the legume family (Fabaceae) that have also lost the inverted repeat. These results support the hypothesis that the presence of the large inverted repeat stabilizes the chloroplast genome against major structural rearrangements. PMID:2836862

  11. Estimation of leaf area with an integrating sphere.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Lydia; Gamon, J. A.; Berry, J.

    1997-01-01

    Relative absorptance of intact branches measured with an integrating sphere was compared to leaf area estimated by conventional methods (volume displacement and scanning area meter) for three conifer species: Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP, Pinus banksiana (Lamb.) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. A consistent relationship between relative absorptance and surface area emerged for the three species. The ability to predict leaf area from absorptance was further explored by measuring branches of Pseudotsuga menziesii grown in varying light and nutrient regimes. When a single equation was used to predict leaf area under all growth conditions, errors were as large as 40% primarily because of variation in leaf absorptivity, with the largest errors associated with extremely nutrient-deficient foliage. When separate empirical equations were developed for each growth treatment, predicted leaf surface area agreed to within 5% of the area determined by the volume displacement method. Leaf surface area estimated from theoretical principles was also in good agreement with total surface area estimated independently by conventional methods. With proper accounting for needle absorptivity, which varied with growth conditions, leaf area estimates obtained by the integrating sphere method were of similar accuracy to those obtained by conventional methods, with the added advantage that the method allowed intact foliage to be sampled nondestructively in the field. Because the integrating sphere method preserves branch structure during measurement, it could provide a useful measure of needle area for photosynthetic or developmental studies requiring repeated sampling of the same branch.

  12. Density, ages, and growth rates in old-growth and young-growth forests in coastal Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappeiner, J. C.; Huffman, D.; Spies, T.; Bailey, John D.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the ages and diameter growth rates of trees in former Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)Franco) old-growth stands on 10 sites and compared them with young-growth stands (50-70 years old, regenerated after timber harvest) in the Coast Range of western Oregon. The diameters and diameter growth rates for the first 100 years of trees in the old-growth stands were significantly greater than those in the young-growth stands. Growth rates in the old stands were comparable with those from long-term studies of young stands in which density is about 100-120 trees/ha; often young-growth stand density is well over 500 trees/ha. Ages of large trees in the old stands ranged from 100 to 420 years; ages in young stands varied by only about 5 to 10 years. Apparently, regeneration of old-growth stands on these sites occurred over a prolonged period, and trees grew at low density with little self-thinning; in contrast, after timber harvest, young stands may develop with high density of trees with similar ages and considerable self-thinning. The results suggest that thinning may be needed in dense young stands where the management objective is to speed development of old-growth characteristics.

  13. Basal area growth, carbon isotope discrimination, and intrinsic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many hectares of intensively managed Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. Franco) stands in western North America are fertilized with nitrogen to increase growth rates. Understanding the mechanisms of response facilitates prioritization of stands for treatment. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the short-term basal area growth response to a single application of 224 kg N ha-1 as urea was associated with reduced stable carbon isotope discrimination (∆13C) and increased intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) in a 20-yr-old plantation of Douglas-fir in the Oregon Coast Range, USA. Increment cores were measured to estimate earlywood, latewood, and total basal area increment over a time series from 1997 to 2015. Stable carbon isotope discrimination and iWUE were estimated using earlywood and latewood stable carbon isotope concentrations in tree-ring holocellulose starting seven years before fertilization in early 2009 and ending seven years after treatment. A highly significant interaction effect between fertilization treatment and year was found for total basal area growth and earlywood basal area increment. Fertilized trees showed significant total basal area growth and earlywood basal area increment in the first (2009) and second (2010) growing seasons after fertilization in 2009. A marginally significant fertilization effect was found for latewood basal area increment only in the first growing season after treatment. A significant i

  14. Vine maple (Acer circinatum) clone growth and reproduction in managed and unmanaged coastal Oregon douglas-fir forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Dea, Mary E.; Zasada, John C.; Tappeiner, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Vine maple (Acer circinatum Pursh.) clone development, expansion, and regeneration by seedling establishment were studied in 5-240 yr old managed and unmanaged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in coastal Oregon. Stem length, number of stems, and crown area were all significantly (P @10 m long and basal sprouts 1-2 m long; some stems had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen trees or branches and had layered. In stands >120 yr in age, clones were often quite complex, composed of several decumbent stems each of which connected the ramets of 1-10 new aerial stems. Vine maple clone expansion occurs by the layering of long aerial stems. Over 95% of the layered stems we observed had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen debris. Unsevered stems that we artificially pinned to the forest floor initiated roots within 1 yr. Thinning may favor clonal expansion because fallen slash from thinning often causes entire clones to layer, not just individual stems. Clonal vine maple seed production and seedling establishment occurred in all stages of stand development except dense, young stands following crown closure. There were more seedlings in thinned stands than in unthinned stands and in unburned clearcuts than in burned clearcuts.

  15. Dendroclimatological Reconstruction of Streamflow Variability in a Small, Semi-arid Mountain Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhartzen, V. J.

    2006-12-01

    Global warming trends, whether caused from anthropogenic activity or longer-term climate variability, have great potential to negatively impact the hydrologic system globally and, in a more regional context, the water availability in the interior Pacific Northwest's snow-dominated regions. Recent higher winter temperatures have changed the snow-rain proportions of precipitation, resulting in earlier spring runoff. This timing change affects, depending on storage capacity and other hydrologic parameters, the amount of and availability of water during the water year and has become a challenge for water resource management. The ability to develop models to predict changes in streamflow in response to climate variability is hampered by relatively short instrumented records that do not reveal longer-term climatic patterns. In the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed, a 239-km2 drainage located in the Owyhee Mountains of southwest Idaho, a dendroclimatologic study uses the annual growth rings of three precipitation and/or temperature sensitive conifer species: Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii {Mirb.} Franco), subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa {Hook.} Nutt.), and western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.), as biological proxies for streamflow variability. The resultant tree- ring series, using trees from within and near the watershed, is used to reconstruct streamflow records beyond the 40+-year instrumented record in the watershed.

  16. Characterization of condensed tannins and carbohydrates in hot water bark extracts of European softwood species.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Sauro; Kroslakova, Ivana; Janzon, Ron; Mayer, Ingo; Saake, Bodo; Pichelin, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Condensed tannins extracted from European softwood bark are recognized as alternatives to synthetic phenolics. The extraction is generally performed in hot water, leading to simultaneous extraction of other bark constituents such as carbohydrates, phenolic monomers and salts. Characterization of the extract's composition and identification of the extracted tannins' molecular structure are needed to better identify potential applications. Bark from Silver fir (Abies alba [Mill.]), European larch (Larix decidua [Mill.]), Norway spruce (Picea abies [Karst.]), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.]) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) were extracted in water at 60°C. The amounts of phenolic monomers, condensed tannins, carbohydrates, and inorganic compounds in the extract were determined. The molecular structures of condensed tannins and carbohydrates were also investigated (HPLC-UV combined with thiolysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, anion exchange chromatography). Distinct extract compositions and tannin structures were found in each of the analysed species. Procyanidins were the most ubiquitous tannins. The presence of phenolic glucosides in the tannin oligomers was suggested. Polysaccharides such as arabinans, arabinogalactans and glucans represented an important fraction of all extracts. Compared to traditionally used species (Mimosa and Quebracho) higher viscosities as well as faster chemical reactivities are expected in the analysed species. The most promising species for a bark tannin extraction was found to be larch, while the least encouraging results were detected in pine. A better knowledge of the interaction between the various extracted compounds is deemed an important matter for investigation in the context of industrial applications of such extracts.

  17. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast? (paper) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Arceuthobium spp., Armillaria, Phaseolus schweinitzii, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough) on radial stem growth of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). SNC impacts physiological processes of carbon and water relations by stomatal occlusion and early needle abscission resulting in a reduction of tree growth with a distinct periodicity, whereas phytophagous pests reduce tree growth by defoliation with epidemics following less regular pseudo-periodicities. Outbreaks of the various forest disturbance agents differ in their magnitude, frequency, and duration. In particular, SNC impacts on Douglas-fir growth display a primary periodicity of 6-30 years and a secondary periodicity of 3-5 years which is unique to the causal fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii (Rhode) Petrak. We use frequency domain analysis of tree-ring chronologies of Douglas-fir to identify the SNC disease cycle and separate the confounding effects of climate and SNC. We demonstrate the dendroecological reconstruction of SNC impacts on ancient Douglas-fir trees dated ~65K radioactive years B.P. from Eddyville, OR that were unearthed by the Oregon Department of Transportation. By the end of the 21st century, climate

  18. Temperature effects on nitrogen form uptake by seedling roots of three contrasting conifers.

    PubMed

    Boczulak, S A; Hawkins, B J; Roy, R

    2014-05-01

    Plant species may show a preference for uptake of particular nitrogen (N) forms, but little is known about how N form preference is influenced by soil temperature. Potential future changes in soil N form availability and plant N form preference in warmer soils might shift competitive interactions among forest tree species. We compared the N uptake and growth of three conifer species from contrasting environments grown at rhizosphere temperatures of 10, 16 or 20 °C and supplied with ammonium (NH4 (+)) or nitrate (NO3 (-)) or a mix of arginine and alanine. Short-term N uptake was assessed using ion-selective microelectrodes and application of (15)N, and long-term uptake was assessed by plant N status. Species exhibited preferences for particular N forms, and these preferences related to the N form most available in native soils. Specifically, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) showed a preference for nitrate (a N form commonly found in warmer areas), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) preferred ammonium (a N form abundant in cold soils) and Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.) showed a preference for ammonium and organic N (organic N is often abundant in cold soils). Relative N form preference, as indicated by plant growth, changed with temperature in some species, indicating that these species could acclimate to changing rhizosphere temperatures. Understanding how conifers utilize available soil nutrients at different temperatures can help to predict species' future performance as soil temperatures rise.

  19. Impact of competitor species composition on predicting diameter growth and survival rates of Douglas-fir trees in southwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bravo, Felipe; Hann, D.W.; Maguire, Douglas A.

    2001-01-01

    Mixed conifer and hardwood stands in southwestern Oregon were studied to explore the hypothesis that competition effects on individual-tree growth and survival will differ according to the species comprising the competition measure. Likewise, it was hypothesized that competition measures should extrapolate best if crown-based surrogates are given preference over diameter-based (basal area based) surrogates. Diameter growth and probability of survival were modeled for individual Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees growing in pure stands. Alternative models expressing one-sided and two-sided competition as a function of either basal area or crown structure were then applied to other plots in which Douglas-fir was mixed with other conifers and (or) hardwood species. Crown-based variables outperformed basal area based variables as surrogates for one-sided competition in both diameter growth and survival probability, regardless of species composition. In contrast, two-sided competition was best represented by total basal area of competing trees. Surrogates reflecting differences in crown morphology among species relate more closely to the mechanics of competition for light and, hence, facilitate extrapolation to species combinations for which no observations are available.

  20. Seasonal patterns of photosynthetic light response in Douglas-fir seedlings subjected to elevated atmospheric CO(2) and temperature.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J. D.; Olszyk, D.; Tingey, D. T.

    1999-04-01

    Increases in atmospheric CO(2) concentration and temperature are predicted to increase the light response of photosynthesis by increasing light-saturated photosynthetic rates and apparent quantum yields. We examined the interactive effects of elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration and temperature on the light response of photosynthesis in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings. Seedlings were grown in sunlit chambers controlled to track either ambient (~400 ppm) CO(2) or ambient + 200 ppm CO(2), at ambient temperature or ambient + 4 degrees C. Photosynthetic light response curves were measured over an 18-month period beginning 32 months after treatments were initiated. Light-response curves were measured at the growth CO(2) concentration, and were used to calculate the light-saturated rate of photosynthesis, light compensation point, quantum yield and respiration rate. Elevated CO(2) increased apparent quantum yields during two of five measurement periods, but did not significantly affect light-saturated net photosynthetic rates, light compensation points or respiration rates. Elevated temperature increased all parameters. There were no significant interactions between CO(2) concentration and temperature. We conclude that down-regulation of photosynthesis occurred in the elevated CO(2) treatments such that carbon uptake at a given irradiance was similar across CO(2) treatments. In contrast, increasing temperature may substantially increase carbon uptake rates in Douglas-fir, assuming other environmental factors do not limit photosynthesis; however, it is not clear whether the increased carbon uptake will increase growth rates or be offset by increased carbon efflux through respiration.

  1. Ammonium nitrate, urea, and biuret fertilizers increase volume growth of 57-year-old douglas-fir trees within a gradient of nitrogen deficiency. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.E.; Reukema, D.L.; Hazard, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    In a nitrogen-deficient plantation in southwest Washington, the authors (1) compared effects of 224 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate, urea, and biuret on volume growth of dominant and codominant Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco); (2) determined how 8-year response of these trees to fertilization was related to their distance from a strip of the plantation interplanted with nitrogen-fixing red alder (alnus rubra Bong.); and (3) observed effects of biuret on understory vegetation. On both sides of the strip centerline, the authors grouped subject trees into 30 plots of 4 trees each, based on slope position and distance from alder. The authors randomly assigned three fertilizers and a control within each plot. They analyzed separately data from east and west of the mixed stand certerline. Initial volume differed greatly among the 120 trees on each side, so they used covariance analysis to adjust observed treatment means. Adjusted mean volume growth was increased (p equal to or less than 0.10) by 22 to 28 percent on the east side and by 11 to 14 percent on the west side, with no significant difference in response to the three fertilizers.

  2. Basal area growth, carbon isotope discrimination, and intrinsic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many hectares of intensively managed Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. Franco) stands in western North America are fertilized with nitrogen to increase growth rates. Understanding the mechanisms of response facilitates prioritization of stands for treatment. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the short-term basal area growth response to a single application of 224 kg N ha-1 as urea was associated with reduced stable carbon isotope discrimination (∆13C) and increased intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) in a 20-yr-old plantation of Douglas-fir in the Oregon Coast Range, USA. Increment cores were measured to estimate earlywood, latewood, and total basal area increment over a time series from 1997 to 2015. Stable carbon isotope discrimination and iWUE were estimated using earlywood and latewood stable carbon isotope concentrations in tree-ring holocellulose starting seven years before fertilization in early 2009 and ending seven years after treatment. A highly significant interaction effect between fertilization treatment and year was found for total basal area growth and earlywood basal area increment. Fertilized trees showed significant total basal area growth and earlywood basal area increment in the first (2009) and second (2010) growing seasons after fertilization in 2009. A marginally significant fertilization effect was found for latewood basal area increment only in the first growing season after treatment. A significant i

  3. Conifer somatic embryogenesis: improvements by supplementation of medium with oxidation-reduction agents.

    PubMed

    Pullman, Gerald S; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Copeland-Kamp, Brandi; Crockett, Jonathan; Lucrezi, Jacob; May, Sheldon W; Bucalo, Kylie

    2015-02-01

    A major barrier to the commercialization of somatic embryogenesis technology in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) is recalcitrance of some high-value crosses to initiate embryogenic tissue (ET) and continue early-stage somatic embryo growth. Developing initiation and multiplication media that resemble the seed environment has been shown to decrease this recalcitrance. Glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbate analyses were performed weekly throughout the sequence of seed development for female gametophyte and zygotic embryo tissues to determine physiological concentrations. Major differences in stage-specific oxidation-reduction (redox) agents were observed. A simple bioassay was used to evaluate potential growth-promotion of natural and inorganic redox agents added to early-stage somatic embryo growth medium. Compounds showing statistically significant increases in early-stage embryo growth were then tested for the ability to increase initiation of loblolly pine. Low-cost reducing agents sodium dithionite and sodium thiosulfate increased ET initiation for loblolly pine and Douglas fir (Mirb) Franco. Germination medium supplementation with GSSG increased somatic embryo germination. Early-stage somatic embryos grown on medium with or without sodium thiosulfate did not differ in GSH or GSSG content, suggesting that sodium thiosulfate-mediated growth stimulation does not involve GSH or GSSG. We have developed information demonstrating that alteration of the redox environment in vitro can improve ET initiation, early-stage embryo development and somatic embryo germination in loblolly pine.

  4. Fire resistance of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzieesi) treated with borates and natural extractives.

    PubMed

    Baysal, Ergun; Altinok, Mustafa; Colak, Mehmet; Ozaki, S Kiyoka; Toker, Hilmi

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine fire resistance of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzieesi (Mirb.) Franco) specimens treated with borate supplemented aqueous solutions of brutia pine bark powder, acorn powder, sumach leaf powder, and gall-nut powder. Boric acid (BA) and borax (BX) were used as borates which are the most commonly used fire retardants in wood preservation industry. Natural extractives (brutia pine bark powder, sumach leaf powder, acorn powder, and gall-nut powder) were also used which have toxic efficiency against insects and fungi due to their tannin contents. A commercial treatment compound Tanalith-CBC (copper-borate-chromate), which is an impregnation chemical, is used for comparison. The fire test method was performed in three stages: flame stage, without flame stage, and glowing stage. Results indicated that the lowest temperature for flame stage, without flame stage, and glowing stage were obtained for specimens treated with BA and BX mixture (7:3; weight:weight). The lowest mass loss was found for the specimens treated with a mixture of BA and BX. Natural extractives did not improve fire resistance of the samples. However, boric acid and borax had excellent fire retardant effectiveness over untreated and treated samples with natural extractives.

  5. Reconstruction of Winter and July Precipitation in the US Southwest using minimum blue intensity measurements from Pseudotsuga menziesii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, R.; Woodhouse, C. A.; Griffin, D.; Meko, D. M.; Touchan, R.; Leavitt, S. W.; Castro, C. L.

    2012-12-01

    Tree ring research has demonstrated that the latewood measurements of conifers contain information on the variability of the North American Monsoon while the earlywood measurements reflect cool season moisture variability in the US Southwest. Here we use minimum blue intensity a reflected light image technique to investigate the potential for additional seasonal climatic information. This paper presents the first reconstruction of January through April and July (JFMA_J) precipitation (AD 1680-2010) from Rhyolite Canyon, Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona, based on minimum blue intensity measurements of the annual latewood of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). Winter and July precipitation variation (JFMA_J) were reconstructed, suggesting these months may be a critical composite for the moisture important for growth in this region. The wettest years occurred in the early AD 1980s and the driest years occurred around AD 1810. In the Southwest, where annual precipitation is divided between winter and summer seasons, the new 330 year precipitation reconstruction provides information about past climate variability over both precipitation seasons in the Chiricahua Mountains of Arizona.

  6. Hydrological and geopedological dynamics of a forested slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deraedt, Deborah; Colinet, Gilles; Degré, Aurore

    2013-04-01

    Though forested watersheds are really particular in terms of hydrodynamics, most of the hydrological models oversimplify the phenomena involved. More investigations are unavoidable to improve the knowledge and the modelling of this environment. Here is the aim of this study. The studied slope is located on the Houille watershed in the West of the Belgian Ardenne (50°1'47''N, 4°53'22''E) on a silty rocky soil. The site is situated under a Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (MIRB.) FRANCO) and spruce stand cover (Picea abies (L.) Karst). It is about 160 meters long with a North-West facing slope between 7 and 55%. The goal of the study is : - to characterise the hydrological and pedogeological dynamics along a forested slope, - to compare these dynamics with the tree growth. For the geopedological part of the study, eight pits were dug to describe the soil and take some soil samples used for granulometric, chemical, etc. analysis. We have used geophysical methods (Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Ground Penetrating Radar) to estimate the soil depth. As for the hydrological part of this study, moisture sensors (capacitive and TDR) have been installed in the pits along the slope. A dye tracing test has been performed to underline the preferential flow and the importance of the subsurface flow. Several trees have been equipped with dendrometers and some measures of the LAI and the height of the trees are planned. The poster will present the first results of these investigations.

  7. Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling adaptive traits in coastal Douglas fir. III. Quantitative trait loci-by-environment interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Jermstad, Kathleen D; Bassoni, Daniel L; Jech, Keith S; Ritchie, Gary A; Wheeler, Nicholas C; Neale, David B

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were mapped in the woody perennial Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) for complex traits controlling the timing of growth initiation and growth cessation. QTL were estimated under controlled environmental conditions to identify QTL interactions with photoperiod, moisture stress, winter chilling, and spring temperatures. A three-generation mapping population of 460 cloned progeny was used for genetic mapping and phenotypic evaluations. An all-marker interval mapping method was used for scanning the genome for the presence of QTL and single-factor ANOVA was used for estimating QTL-by-environment interactions. A modest number of QTL were detected per trait, with individual QTL explaining up to 9.5% of the phenotypic variation. Two QTL-by-treatment interactions were found for growth initiation, whereas several QTL-by-treatment interactions were detected among growth cessation traits. This is the first report of QTL interactions with specific environmental signals in forest trees and will assist in the identification of candidate genes controlling these important adaptive traits in perennial plants. PMID:14668397

  8. Nitrogen leaching from Douglas-fir forests after urea fertilization.

    PubMed

    Flint, Cynthia M; Harrison, Rob B; Strahm, Brian D; Adams, A B

    2008-01-01

    Leaching of nitrogen (N) after forest fertilization has the potential to pollute ground and surface water. The purpose of this study was to quantify N leaching through the primary rooting zone of N-limited Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] forests the year after fertilization (224 kg N ha(-1) as urea) and to calculate changes in the N pools of the overstory trees, understory vegetation, and soil. At six sites on production forests in the Hood Canal watershed, Washington, tension lysimeters and estimates of the soil water flux were used to quantify the mobilization and leaching of NO(3)-N, NH(4)-N, and dissolved organic nitrogen below the observed rooting depth. Soil and vegetation samples were collected before fertilization and 1 and 6 mo after fertilization. In the year after fertilization, the total leaching beyond the primary rooting zone in excess of control plots was 4.2 kg N ha(-1) (p = 0.03), which was equal to 2% of the total N applied. The peak NO(3)-N concentration that leached beyond the rooting zone of fertilized plots was 0.2 mg NO(3)-N L(-1). Six months after fertilization, 26% of the applied N was accounted for in the overstory, and 27% was accounted for in the O+A horizon of the soil. The results of this study indicate that forest fertilization can lead to small N leaching fluxes out of the primary rooting zone during the first year after urea application.

  9. Douglas-fir displays a range of growth responses to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) growth in the Pacific Northwest is affected by climatic, edaphic factors and Swiss needle cast (SNC) disease. We examine Douglas-fir growth responses to temperature, dewpoint deficit (DPD), soil moisture, and SNC using time series intervention analysis of intra-annual tree-ring width data collected at nine forest stands in western Oregon, USA. The effects of temperature and SNC were similar in importance on tree growth at all sites. Previous-year DPD during the annual drought period was a key factor limiting growth regionally. Winter temperature was more important at high elevation cool sites, whereas summer temperature was more important at warm and dry sites. Growth rate increased with summer temperature to an optimum (Topt) then decreased at higher temperatures. At drier sites, temperature and water affected growth interactively such that Topt decreased with decreasing summer soil moisture. With climate change, growth rates increased at high elevation sites and declined at mid-elevation inland sites since ~1990. Growth response to climate is masked by SNC regionally. We conclude that as temperature rises and precipitation patterns shift towards wetter winters and drier summers, Douglas-fir will experience greater temperature and water stress and an increase in severity of SNC. By the end of the 21st century, climate models predict hotter, drier summers and warmer, wetter winters in the Pac

  10. Use of shaking treatments and preharvest sprays of pyrethroid insecticides to reduce risk of yellowjackets and other insects on Christmas trees imported into Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Robert G; Chastagner, Gary A; Reimer, Neil J; Oishi, Darcy E; Landolt, Peter J; Paull, Robert E

    2009-02-01

    Insects are commonly found by Hawaii's quarantine inspectors on Christmas trees imported from the Pacific Northwest. To reduce the risk of importing yellowjacket (Vespula spp.) queens and other insects, an inspection and tree shaking certification program was begun in 1990. From 1993 to 2006, the annual percentage of shipped containers rated by Hawaii quarantine inspectors as moderately or highly infested with insects was significantly higher for manually shaken trees than for mechanically shaken trees. Between 1993 and 2001, 343 insect species in total were recovered from Christmas trees. Live western yellowjacket [Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure)] queens were intercepted both from containers certified as manually shaken and from containers certified as mechanically shaken. The standard manual shaking protocol removed about one-half of the queens from Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] trees that were naturally infested with western yellowjacket queens. We investigated the use of preharvest sprays of permethrin as a complement to shaking procedures used to control yellowjackets and other insects. Western yellowjacket queens and honey bees (surrogates for wasp pests) were exposed to Noble fir foliage that had been sprayed in the field with permethrin > 6 wk before harvest. Pesticide residues provided complete control (moribundity or mortality) in both species. The sprays did not affect needle retention or quality of Noble fir foliage. We conclude that preharvest sprays of pyrethroid insecticides could be used in combination with mechanical shaking to greatly reduce the quarantine risk of yellowjacket queens and other insects in exported Christmas trees.

  11. Clonal expansion and seedling recruitment of Oregon grape (Berberis nervosa) in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests: comparisons with salal (Gaultheria shallon)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, D.; Tappeiner, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    Seedling regeneration and morphology of Oregon grape (Berberis nervosa Pursh) and salal (Gaultheria shallon Pursh) were studied in thinned and unthinned Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in the central Coast Range, Oregon. Above- and below-ground growth of both species were significantly and negatively correlated with stand density. Oregon grape appears to have less potential for vegetative spread than does salal. It produced two to three times fewer rhizome extensions, and rhizome extensions were only half as long as those of salal. Oregon grape seedlings were common in areas of moss ground cover among patches of the two species. Salal seedlings were restricted to decaying logs. Seedling densities of Oregon grape in thinned stands were more than six times those in unthinned stands. For Oregon grape, understory establishment is accomplished by seedling establishment and recruitment of new genets. In contrast, salal maintains itself in forest understories primarily through vegetative growth, since its seedling establishment is restricted mainly to decayed wood. Continual recruitment of new aerial stems or ramets enables Oregon grape to maintain a dense cover once it is established in the understory.

  12. Large wood recruitment and redistribution in headwater streams in the southern Oregon Coast Range, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Christine L.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    Large wood recruitment and redistribution mechanisms were investigated in a 3.9 km2 basin with an old-growth Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco and Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. forest, located in the southern Coast Range of Oregon. Stream size and topographic setting strongly influenced processes that delivered wood to the channel network. In small colluvial channels draining steep hillslopes, processes associated with slope instability dominated large wood recruitment. In the larger alluvial channel, windthrow was the dominant recruitment process from the local riparian area. Consequently, colluvial channels received wood from further upslope than the alluvial channel. Input and redistribution processes influenced piece location relative to the direction of flow and thus, affected the functional role of wood. Wood recruited directly from local hillslopes and riparian areas was typically positioned adjacent to the channel or spanned its full width, and trapped sediment and wood in transport. In contrast, wood that had been fluvially redistributed was commonly located in mid-channel positions and was associated with scouring of the streambed and banks. Debris flows were a unique mechanism for creating large accumulations of wood in small streams that lacked the capacity for abundant fluvial transport of wood, and for transporting wood that was longer than the bank-full width of the channel.

  13. Two new Liolaemus lizards from the Andean highlands of Southern Chile (Squamata, Iguania, Liolaemidae).

    PubMed

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Diaz, Hugo A; Puas, German I; Riveros-Riffo, Edvin; Elorza, Alvaro A

    2016-01-01

    Liolaemus is a diverse genus of lizards, subdivided into two subgenera: Liolaemus (sensu stricto) and Eulaemus, distributed mainly in Chile and Argentina. The Liolaemus elongatus-kriegi complex is the most diverse group within Liolaemus (sensu stricto), especially the species closely related to Liolaemus elongatus, which form a clade currently comprising nine species. Several Chilean species of this group have been recently described, mainly from volcanoes and poorly explored mountains. Here molecular and morphological evidence are provided for a new species of the Liolaemus elongatus clade, which is characterized by its small size and lack of dorsal pattern, unusual features for the species of this group of lizards. Additionally, the lack of precloacal pores in males of Liolaemus (sensu stricto) is a trait found in few species, which do not constitute a monophyletic group. A second new southern Chilean species is also described, without precloacal pores and supported by molecular phylogenetics to be related to Liolaemus villaricensis. Both new species were found in the same locality, near a lake located in a pre-Andean zone with Araucaria and Nothofagus forest. The two species are dedicated to prominent Lonkos (tribal chiefs) of the Mapuche and Pehuenche people: Janequeo and Leftraru. Additionally, the phylogenetic results suggest that Liolaemus lonquimayensis is a synonym of Liolaemus elongatus.

  14. High richness of insect herbivory from the early Miocene Hindon Maar crater, Otago, New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daphne E.; Wappler, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Plants and insects are key components of terrestrial ecosystems and insect herbivory is the most important type of interaction in these ecosystems. This study presents the first analysis of associations between plants and insects for the early Miocene Hindon Maar fossil lagerstätte, Otago, New Zealand. A total of 584 fossil angiosperm leaves representing 24 morphotypes were examined to determine the presence or absence of insect damage types. Of these leaves, 73% show signs of insect damage; they comprise 821 occurrences of damage from 87 damage types representing all eight functional feeding groups. In comparison to other fossil localities, the Hindon leaves display a high abundance of insect damage and a high diversity of damage types. Leaves of Nothofagus(southern beech), the dominant angiosperm in the fossil assemblage, exhibit a similar leaf damage pattern to leaves from the nearby mid to late Miocene Dunedin Volcano Group sites but display a more diverse spectrum and much higher percentage of herbivory damage than a comparable dataset of leaves from Palaeocene and Eocene sites in the Antarctic Peninsula. PMID:28224051

  15. New species of dictyostelids from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Vadell, Eduardo M; Cavender, James C; Romeralo, Maria; Edwards, Sally M; Stephenson, Steven L; Baldauf, Sandra L

    2011-01-01

    In late Jan and early Feb 2005 samples for isolation of dictyostelid cellular slime molds (dictyostelids) were collected in five different provinces and from six national parks (all located 39-55°S) in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Southern beech (Nothofagus) forests represented the primary vegetation type investigated, but some samples were obtained from Patagonian steppe, alpine meadows, Valdivian temperate rainforests and coniferous forests dominated by Araucaria, Austrocedrus and Fitzroya. Among the dictyostelids isolated from the samples we collected were seven species new to science. These species (Dictyostelium austroandinum, D. chordatum, D. fasciculoideum, D. gargantuum, D. leptosomopsis, D. valdivianum and Polysphondylium patagonicum) are described herein on the basis of both morphology and molecular (SSU rDNA) data. One of the new species, D. gargantuum, is one of the largest representatives of the group reported to date. Another unusual species, D. chordatum, produces long interwoven sorocarps that do not appear to respond to a spacing gas similar to the condition first noted in D. implicatum.

  16. Assessment of land influence on a high-latitude marine coastal system: Tierra del Fuego, southernmost Argentina.

    PubMed

    Amin, Oscar; Comoglio, Laura; Spetter, Carla; Duarte, Claudia; Asteasuain, Raúl; Freije, Rubén Hugo; Marcovecchio, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    The study deals with the determination of physico-chemical parameters, inorganic nutrients, particulate organic matter, and photosynthetic pigments on a monthly basis during an annual cycle from nine sampling sites of the coastal zone of a high-latitude ecosystem (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina). Nitrites and phosphates concentrations were similar to other systems of the south Atlantic coast (median, 0.30 and 1.02 μM, respectively), while nitrates were higher in all sampling periods (median, 45.37 μM), and silicates were significantly smaller (median, 7.76 μM). Chlorophyll a and phaeopigments have shown median values of 0.38 and 0.85 mg m(-3), respectively, while saturated values of dissolved oxygen were recorded throughout the study. The analysis reflected that nutrient enrichment seems to be linked to an anthropogenic source, the presence of peatlands areas, and a sink of Nothofagus pumilio woods. The area could be characterized in three zones related to (1) high urban influence, (2) natural inputs of freshwater, and (3) mixed inputs coming from moderate urban impacts.

  17. Phylogeny and evolution of the Betulaceae as inferred from DNA sequences, morphology, and paleobotany.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z D; Manchester, S R; Sun, H Y

    1999-08-01

    Phylogeny of the Betulaceae is assessed on the basis of rbcL, ITS, and morphological data. Based upon 26 rbcL sequences representing most "higher" hamamelid families, the Betulaceae are monophyletic, with Casuarinaceae as its sister group, regardless of whether the outgroup is Cunoniaceae, Cercidiphyllaceae, Hamamelidaceae, or Nothofagus. Within the Betulaceae, two sister clades are evident, corresponding to the subfamilies Betuloideae and Coryloideae. However, with only 13 phylogenetically informative sites, the rbcL sequences provide limited intra-subfamilial resolution. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences provided 96 phylogenetically informative sites from 491 aligned sites resulting in a single most parsimonious tree of 374 steps (consistency index = 0.791) with two major lineages corresponding to the two traditional subfamilies: Betuloideae (Alnus, Betula) and Coryloideae (Corylus, Ostryopsis, Carpinus, Ostrya). This arrangement is mostly consistent with those from rbcL and morphology and is greatly reinforced by analyses with the three data sets combined. In the Coryloideae, the Ostryopsis-Carpinus-Ostrya clade is well supported, with Corylus as its sister group. The sister-group relationship between Ostryopsis and the Carpinus-Ostrya clade is well supported by ITS, rbcL, and morphological data. Phylogenetic relationships among the extant genera deduced by these analyses are compatible with inferences from ecological evolution and the extensive fossil record.

  18. Two new Liolaemus lizards from the Andean highlands of Southern Chile (Squamata, Iguania, Liolaemidae)

    PubMed Central

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Diaz, Hugo A.; Puas, German I.; Riveros-Riffo, Edvin; Elorza, Alvaro A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Liolaemus is a diverse genus of lizards, subdivided into two subgenera: Liolaemus (sensu stricto) and Eulaemus, distributed mainly in Chile and Argentina. The Liolaemus elongatus-kriegi complex is the most diverse group within Liolaemus (sensu stricto), especially the species closely related to Liolaemus elongatus, which form a clade currently comprising nine species. Several Chilean species of this group have been recently described, mainly from volcanoes and poorly explored mountains. Here molecular and morphological evidence are provided for a new species of the Liolaemus elongatus clade, which is characterized by its small size and lack of dorsal pattern, unusual features for the species of this group of lizards. Additionally, the lack of precloacal pores in males of Liolaemus (sensu stricto) is a trait found in few species, which do not constitute a monophyletic group. A second new southern Chilean species is also described, without precloacal pores and supported by molecular phylogenetics to be related to Liolaemus villaricensis. Both new species were found in the same locality, near a lake located in a pre-Andean zone with Araucaria and Nothofagus forest. The two species are dedicated to prominent Lonkos (tribal chiefs) of the Mapuche and Pehuenche people: Janequeo and Leftraru. Additionally, the phylogenetic results suggest that Liolaemus lonquimayensis is a synonym of Liolaemus elongatus. PMID:27920609

  19. From leaves to landscape: A multiscale approach to assess fire hazard in wildland-urban interface areas.

    PubMed

    Ghermandi, Luciana; Beletzky, Natacha A; de Torres Curth, Mónica I; Oddi, Facundo J

    2016-12-01

    The overlapping zone between urbanization and wildland vegetation, known as the wildland urban interface (WUI), is often at high risk of wildfire. Human activities increase the likelihood of wildfires, which can have disastrous consequences for property and land use, and can pose a serious threat to lives. Fire hazard assessments depend strongly on the spatial scale of analysis. We assessed the fire hazard in a WUI area of a Patagonian city by working at three scales: landscape, community and species. Fire is a complex phenomenon, so we used a large number of variables that correlate a priori with the fire hazard. Consequently, we analyzed environmental variables together with fuel load and leaf flammability variables and integrated all the information in a fire hazard map with four fire hazard categories. The Nothofagus dombeyi forest had the highest fire hazard while grasslands had the lowest. Our work highlights the vulnerability of the wildland-urban interface to fire in this region and our suggested methodology could be applied in other wildland-urban interface areas. Particularly in high hazard areas, our work could help in spatial delimitation policies, urban planning and development of plans for the protection of human lives and assets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of plant growth enhancing features in psychrotolerant yeasts from Patagonia (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Mestre, María Cecilia; Fontenla, Sonia; Bruzone, María Clara; Fernández, Natalia Veronica; Dames, Joanna

    2016-10-01

    This study explores the biotechnological potential for plant production of twelve psychrotolerant yeasts strains from Northwest-Patagonia. These strains were isolated from different substrates associated with Nothofagus sp. in native forests and Vaccinium sp. in a commercial plantation. Yeasts characterization was performed using in vitro assays to evaluate the production of auxin-like compounds and siderophores, ability to solubilize inorganic phosphate and to reduce common plant pathogen growth. Strain YF8.3 identified as Aureobasidium pullullans was the main producer of auxin-like and siderophores compounds. Phosphate solubilization was a characteristic observed by strains L8.12 and CRUB1775 identified as Holtermaniella takashimae and Candida maritima, respectively. Different yeast strains were able to inhibit the growth of Verticillium dahliae PPRI5569 and Pythium aphanidermatum PPRI 9009, but they all failed to inhibit the growth of Fusarium oxysporum PPRI5457. The present study, suggests that yeasts present in different environments in Northwestern-Patagonian have physiological in vitro features which may influence plant growth. These results are promising for the developing of biological products based on Patagonian yeasts for plant production in cold-temperate regions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Submillennial palynology and palaeoecology of the last glaciation at Taiquemó (˜50,000 cal yr, MIS 2 4) in southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusser, C. J.; Heusser, L. E.

    2006-03-01

    Stratigraphic palynology of core HE94-2B from a mire at Taiquemó (42.17°S, 73.60°W) on Isla Grande de Chiloé is one of the most closely sampled, continuous Pleistocene records in southern South America. Chronology of the 655-cm core that extends from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 4 through the Lateglacial is controlled by 27 finite radiocarbon dates. Sampled at 1-cm intervals, the high temporal resolution (mean ˜85 yr cm -1) captures short-term palaeoecological changes and successional restabilization of plant communities. Preponderance of Gramineae (grass) with Nothofagus dombeyi type (southern beech) characterizing Subantarctic Parkland under a cold climate in MIS 4 was followed by a conspicuously milder interval that lasted for some ten millennia in MIS 3. Of greater frequency and diversity at this time were more thermophilic taxa associated with North Patagonian Evergreen Forest ( Podocarpus, Pilgerodendron type , Pseudopanax, Myrtaceae). Subsequently with increasing cold and hyperhumidity, N. dombeyi type-Gramineae assemblages that included Subantarctic Parkland indicator taxa ( Lepidothamnus, Astelia, Gaimardia) increased stepwise in MIS 2-3. Parkland maxima in MIS 2 during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) date to glacial advances between ˜17,800 and 33,400 cal yr BP. On deglaciation, Lateglacial North Patagonian Evergreen Forest was subject to short-term stadial and interstadial climatic fluctuations. The high-resolution Taiquemó pollen record details and supports previous conclusions of interhemispheric synchrony of climatic and glacial events.

  2. Knowing and doing: research leading to action in the conservation of forest genetic diversity of Patagonian temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Leonardo A; Marchelli, Paula; Chauchard, Luis; Peñalba, Marcelo Gonzalez

    2009-08-01

    Researchers dealing with conservation subjects usually do not put the results of their work into practice, even when the primary purpose of their research is the preservation of biodiversity. In the South American temperate forests we identified an area with the highest genetic diversity in Argentina of Nothofagus nervosa, one of the most relevant southern beech species. Based on the information of our scientific study and our recommendations, the authorities of Lanin National Park changed the protection status of this area to avoid logging. The new forestry management plans include consideration of "high genetic diversity" in decisions on where logging will be allowed. Results of our initial genetic study induced the analysis of biodiversity at the species and ecosystems levels, which yielded results similar to our genetic studies. A strong connection among researchers and managers from the onset of our study and the awareness of the former about the importance of the implementation of the research work were key to bridging the gap between conservation research and conservation practice.

  3. Palynological evidence for increased aridity on the central Chilean coast during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villagrán, Carolina; Varela, Juan

    1990-09-01

    The late Quaternary vegetation of the semiarid coast of central Chile is inferred from the palynological analysis of profiles from Quereo (31°55'S) and Quintero (32°47'S). Prior to 11,400 yr B.P., wet conditions are suggested by the abundance of pollen indicators of swamp and aquatic taxa, such as Cyperaceae and Myriophyllum, and by the presence of traces of arboreal pollen. Since ca. 10,000 yr B.P., a trend toward increasingly drier conditions is implied by the almost complete absence of arboreal and aquatic taxa, and a general decrease in the diversity of the semiarid shrubland indicators. From 3000 yr B.P. onward, the pollen records show the reappearance of swamp and aquatic taxa, presumably associated with wetter conditions, which led to recolonization by forest taxa at 1720 yr B.P. in Quintero. The drier climate detected along the semiarid coast of central Chile during most of the Holocene extended inland to the Andean foot-hills, within the present mediterranean-type climate zone of Chile, and also affected the distribution of the winter-deciduous Nothofagus forests and the northern boundary of the temperate rain forests.

  4. Relative Extents of Preformation and Neoformation in Tree Shoots: Analysis by a Deconvolution Method

    PubMed Central

    GUÉDON, YANN; PUNTIERI, J. G.; SABATIER, S.; BARTHÉLÉMY, D.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Neoformation is the process by which organs not preformed in a bud are developed on a growing shoot, generally after preformation extension. The study of neoformation in trees has been hindered due to methodological reasons. The present report is aimed at assessing the relative importance of preformation and neoformation in the development of shoots of woody species. • Methods A deconvolution method was applied to estimate the distribution of the number of neoformed organs for eight data sets corresponding to four Nothofagus species and a Juglans hybrid. • Key Results The number of preformed organs was higher and less variable than the number of neoformed organs. Neoformation contributed more than preformation to explain full-size differences between shoots developed in different positions within the architecture of each tree species. • Conclusions Differences between the distributions of the numbers of preformed and neoformed organs may be explained by alluding to the duration of differentiation and extension for each of these groups of organs. The deconvolution of distributions is a useful tool for the analysis of neoformation and shoot structure in trees. PMID:16899472

  5. Geomorphic Effect of Wood in Southern Andes Streams: Evidences From Three Mountain Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreoli, A.; Comiti, F.; Mao, L.; Lenzi, M. A.; Urciolo, A.; Iroumé, A.; Opazo, L.

    2007-05-01

    This study analyses large wood (LW) storage and the associated effects on channel morphology and flow hydraulics in three third-order mountain basins (drainage area 9-12 km2) covered in old-growth nothofagus forests, ranging from the temperate warm Chilean Andean Cordillera to the subantarctic Tierra del Fuego (Argentina). Amount, characteristics and dimensions of large wood (>10 cm large, > 1 m long) were recorded, as well as their effects on stream morphology, hydraulics and on sediment storage. Also, wood transport over a 1 year time period was assessed. Results show that major differences in LW abundance exist even between adjacent basins, due to the basins' disturbance history (fire). Massive LW volumes (i.e. > 1,000 m3ha-1) can be reached in basins disturbed by fires followed by mass movements and debris flows. However, wood mobility at bankfull conditions appears quite scarce (<4% of the logs moved), with travel distances inversely related to the piece length/channel width ratio. Potential energy dissipation due to wood dams is about a quarter of the total elevation drop in two streams, with a the gross sediment volume stored behind wood dams of around 1,000 m3km-1, which appears to be of the same order of the annual sediment yield. Finally, the presence of wood dams may increase flow resistance up to one order of magnitude.

  6. A Holocene record of climate, vegetation change and peat bog development, east Otago, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlone, Matt S.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    1999-05-01

    A Holocene record of pollen, macrofossils, testate amoebae and peat humification is presented from a small montane bog. Sediment accumulation began before 9000 yr BP, but peat growth not until ca. 7000 BP. From 12 000 to 7000 yr BP, a shrub-grassland dominated under a dry climate, with increasing conifer forest and tall scrub from ca. 9600 yr BP. At 7000 yr BP a dense montane-subalpine low conifer forest established under a moist, cool climatic regime. Between 7000 and 700 yr BP the bog surface was shrubby, tending to be dry but with highly variable surface wetness. The catchment was affected by major fire at least four times between 4000 and 1000 yr BP. Both fire and bog surface wetness may have been linked to ENSO-caused variations in rainfall. Cooler, cloudier winters and disturbance by fire promoted the expansion of the broadleaf tree Nothofagus menziesii between 4000 yr BP and 1300 yr BP at the expense of the previous conifer forest-scrub vegetation. Polynesian fires (ca. 700 yr BP) reduced the vegetation to tussock grassland and bracken. Deforestation did not markedly affect the hydrology of the site. European pastoralism since ad 1860 has increased run-off and rising water tables in the bog have led to a Sphagnum-dominated cover.

  7. Disturbance affects short-term facilitation, but not long-term saturation, of exotic plant invasion in New Zealand forest

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Laura A.; Ross, Joshua V.; Wiser, Susan K.; Allen, Robert B.; Coomes, David A.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the spread of an exotic herb, Hieracium lepidulum, into a New Zealand Nothofagus forest with the aim of understanding how stand-development of tree populations, propagule pressure and invader persistence, affect invasion across the landscape and within communities. Using data repeatedly collected over 35 years, from 250 locations, we parametrize continuous-time Markov chain models and use these models to examine future projections of the invasion under a range of hypothetical scenarios. We found that the probability of invasion into a stand was relatively high following canopy disturbance and that local abundance of Hieracium was promoted by minor disturbances. However, model predictions extrapolated 45 years into the future show that neither the rate of landscape-level invasion, nor local population growth of Hieracium, was affected much by changing the frequency of canopy disturbance events. Instead, invasion levels were strongly affected by the ability of Hieracium to persist in the understorey following forest canopy closure, and by propagule supply from streams, forest edges and plants already established within the stand. Our results show that disturbance frequency has surprisingly little influence on the long-term trajectory of invasion, while invader persistence strongly determines invasion patterns. PMID:20980298

  8. Plesiosaur-bearing rocks from the Late Cretaceous Tahora Fm, Mangahouanga, New Zealand - a palaeoenvironmental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajda, Vivi; Raine, J. Ian

    2010-05-01

    Mangahouanga Stream, Hawkes Bay, New Zealand is world-famous for its high southern latitude vertebrate fossils including plesiosaurs, mosasaurs and more rarely, dinosaurs. The fossils are preserved in the conglomeratic facies of the Maungataniwha Sandstone Member of the Tahora Formation. A palynological investigation of sediments from the boulders hosting vertebrate fossils reveals well-preserved palynological assemblages dominated by pollen and spores from land plants but also including marine dinoflagellate cysts in one sample. The palynofacies is strongly dominated by wood fragments including charcoal, and the sample taken from a boulder hosting plesiosaur vertebrae is entirely terrestrially derived, suggesting a fresh-water habitat for at least some of these plesiosaurs. The key-pollen taxa Nothofagidites senectus and Tricolpites lilliei, together with the dinocyst Isabelidinium pellucidum and the megaspore Grapnelispora evansii, strongly indicate an early Maastrichtian age for the host rock. The terrestrial palynoflora reflects a mixed vegetation dominated by podocarp conifers and angiosperms with a significant tree-fern subcanopy component. The presence of taxa with modern temperate distributions such as Nothofagus (southern beech), Proteaceae and Cyatheaceae (tree-ferns), indicates a mild-temperate climate and lack of severe winter freezing during the latest Cretaceous, providing an ecosystem which most probably made it possible for polar dinosaurs to overwinter. The paper is dedicated to Mrs Joan Wiffen who with her great persistence, enthusiasm and courage put Mangahouanga on the world map, becoming a role model for many young scientists.

  9. Solid-state spectroscopic analysis of lignins from several Austral hardwoods.

    PubMed

    Martínez, A T; Almendros, G; González-Vila, F J; Fründ, R

    1999-10-01

    In order to gain information about lignin molecular characteristics with a direct bearing on the remarkable susceptibility of some Austral hardwoods to biological delignification, milled-wood lignins were isolated and analyzed by spectroscopic techniques in the solid state. Cross polarization and magic-angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C CPMAS NMR) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the lignin preparations were obtained. The most diagnostic peaks were assigned and quantified as percentages of the total spectral area, and the differences observed discussed in terms of lignin composition. The spectral patterns obtained revealed that the woods from Gevuina avellana, Eucryphia cordifolia and Nothofagus dombeyii have lignin with high syringyl/guaiacyl ratio, as evidenced by relative areas of 13C NMR signals at 153 and 148 ppm, and FTIR bands at 1,335 and 1,275 cm-1. The presence of syringyl-rich lignins, characterized by lower redox potential and condensation degree than guaiacyl-rich lignins, could be a structural factor contributing to the ease of extensive delignification of these woods by white-rot fungi.

  10. Intra and Inter-Population Morphological Variation of Shape and Size of the Chilean Magnificent Beetle, Ceroglossus chilensis in the Baker River Basin, Chilean Patagonia

    PubMed Central

    Benítez, Hugo A.; Briones, Raúl; Jerez, Viviane

    2011-01-01

    The alteration of habitat generates different degrees of stress in insects. It has been suggested that the degrees of phenotypic disturbances reflect the ability of an individual to overcome the effects of stress. The Baker River Basin in the Aysén Region, Chilean Patagonia has a very fragmented landscape, due to the destruction of the native forest and the use of land for agriculture and animal husbandry. This alteration should generate different degrees of disturbances in the insect communities, whose effects may be quantified by geometric morphometric tools. We analyzed morphological differences in 244 males and 133 females of the the Chilean magnificent beetle, Ceroglossus chilensis (Eschscholtz) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) collected in January, 2007, in mixed forests of Nothofagus dombeyi Mirbel (Ørsted) (Fagales: Nothofagaceae) and N. nitida Hofmus and in Second-growth forest of N. pumilio (Poepp. & Endl.) Krasser. Males were generally wider in the pronotum, while females had wider abdominal sternites. Although there were significant differences in shape and size between mature forests and second-growth forest, these were less significant among the sites within each type of vegetal formation. Individuals had more shape variations in the mature forest. We suggest that differences in shape are due at least in part to the isolation of the habitat. The differences found between sexes raises the question of how morphological variations and sexual dimorphism may be affected spatially by natural selection. PMID:21870986

  11. Differential snow accumulation and melt at southern hemisphere deciduous forested sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhee, James; Huerta, Marlene; Molotch, Noah

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the differential snow dynamics resulting from forest cover in southern hemisphere alpine regions. Tree species variability and differences in local climate preclude extrapolation of northern hemisphere results and introduce uncertainty on the future impacts of climate change on snow-cover duration, maximum accumulation and melt rates. This research presents preliminary results from field observations obtained at an experimental watershed in the Nevados de Chillan region, in south-central Chile. The relatively low elevation of the Andes Cordillera and higher latitude of the site allows the existence of mixed Nothofagus forests, sometimes combined with bamboo-type undergrowth. Rain-on-snow events can be observed during winter and in the early stages of the austral spring. We installed four instrument clusters at the Valle Hermoso experimental catchments, where snow depth, air temperature and relative humidity were measured both under canopy and in forest clearings. The clusters where positioned in order to cover a range of elevations and sun exposure. Preliminary results from two winter seasons suggest that forest cover can impact accumulation rates as much as elevation does, and that melt rates are fairly sensitive to forest cover even in low LAI conditions.

  12. Population genetic structure of a colonising, triploid weed, Hieracium lepidulum.

    PubMed

    Chapman, H; Robson, B; Pearson, M L

    2004-03-01

    Understanding the breeding system and population genetic structure of invasive weed species is important for biocontrol, and contributes to our understanding of the evolutionary processes associated with invasions. Hieracium lepidulum is an invasive weed in New Zealand, colonising a diverse range of habitats including native Nothofagus forest, pine plantations, scrubland and tussock grassland. It is competing with native subalpine and alpine grassland and herbfield vegetation. H. lepidulum is a triploid, diplosporous apomict, so theoretically all seed is clonal, and there is limited potential for the creation of variation through recombination. We used intersimple sequence repeats (ISSRs) to determine the population genetic structure of New Zealand populations of H. lepidulum. ISSR analysis of five populations from two regions in the South Island demonstrated high intrapopulation genotypic diversity, and high interpopulation genetic structuring; PhiST = 0.54 over all five populations. No private alleles were found in any of the five populations, and allelic differentiation was correlated to geographic distance. Cladistic compatibility analysis indicated that both recombination and mutation were important in the creation of genotypic diversity. Our data will contribute to any biocontrol program developed for H. lepidulum. It will also be a baseline data set for future comparisons of genetic structure during the course of H. lepidulum invasions.

  13. Net primary production of forests: a constant fraction of gross primary production?

    PubMed

    Waring, R. H.; Landsberg, J. J.; Williams, M.

    1998-02-01

    Considerable progress has been made in our ability to model and measure annual gross primary production (GPP) by terrestrial vegetation. But challenges remain in estimating maintenance respiration (R(m)) and net primary production (NPP). To search for possible common relationships, we assembled annual carbon budgets from six evergreen and one deciduous forest in Oregon, USA, three pine plantations in New South Wales, Australia, a deciduous forest in Massachusetts, USA, and a Nothofagus forest on the South Island of New Zealand. At all 12 sites, a standard procedure was followed to estimate annual NPP of foliage, branches, stems, and roots, the carbon expended in synthesis of these organs (R(g)), their R(m), and that of previously produced foliage and sapwood in boles, branches, and large roots. In the survey, total NPP ranged from 120 to 1660 g C m(-2) year(-1), whereas the calculated fraction allocated to roots varied from 0.22 to 0.63. Comparative analysis indicated that the total NPP/GPP ratio was conservative (0.47 +/- 0.04 SD). This finding supports the possibility of greatly simplifying forest growth models. The constancy of the NPP/GPP ratio also provides an incentive to renew efforts to understand the environmental factors affecting partitioning of NPP above and belowground.

  14. Facilitation within species: a possible origin of group-selected superorganisms.

    PubMed

    McIntire, Eliot J B; Fajardo, Alex

    2011-07-01

    Facilitation (positive interactions) has emerged as a dominant ecological mechanism in many ecosystems. Its importance has recently been expanded to include intraspecific interactions, creating the potential for higher-level natural selection within species. Using multiple lines of evidence, we show that conspecific facilitation within the southern beech tree, Nothofagus pumilio, appears to overcome competition in two life phases. In a seedling experiment addressing stress and planting-density effects, we found that mortality was lowest (∼0%) where there was no stress and was indistinguishable across densities. Furthermore, in mature forests (45 years old), genetically variable, merged individuals had lower mortality (-50%) than unmerged individuals in locations without identifiable stress. Thus, a full understanding of the occurrence of facilitation may require a more general model of resource improvements than the commonly cited stress gradient hypothesis. Additionally, the merged trees showed a density-dependent mortality pattern at the level of the group. These data demonstrate a potential mechanism (facilitation) driving natural selection at this higher level, via stem merging. These merged "superorganisms" would confirm theoretical predictions whereby facilitation acts as an ecological mechanism driving group selection.

  15. Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic investigations on Isla de los Estados, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Björck, S.; Fernandez, M.; Hjort, C.; Ljung, K.; Martinez, O.; Möller, P.; Ponce, F.; Rabassa, J.; Roig, F.; Unkel, I.; Wohlfarth, B.

    2007-05-01

    The expedition in November-December 2005 to Isla de los Estados (Staten Island) off the southeastern tip of South America was a cooperative venture between Lund University (LU) and Stockholm University (SU) in Sweden and the CADIC-CONICET Institute in Ushuaia, Argentina. The aim of the expedition was threefold: (1) to extend the Swedish paleoclimatic "ATLANTIS"-project (Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Islands, Azores, Grenada, Tristan da Cunha; PI S Björck) to the southern part of the South American continent, (2) to connect earlier glacial and climate history reconstructions from the Antarctic Peninsula to equivalents north of the Drake Passage in southernmost South America, and (3) to complement paleo-information available from the Tierra del Fuego mainland with information from Isla de los Estados. Focus was on two areas in the northern and north-western part of the island, Bahía Colnett and Bahia Crossley. Detailed geomorphologic and stratigraphic mapping of glacial deposits were combined with sampling sediments for OSL dating. To reconstruct the paleoclimatic development of Isla de los Estados since the last ice retreat, four main peat bog/lake sites were cored and sampled. In addition, living trees of Nothofagus and old logs preserved in the peat were sampled for dendrochronological and dendroclimatological studies. Preliminary results show that the deglaciation of the study area occurred before 16500 cal yr BP. Detailed multi- proxy analyses of the four sequences are under way and first results will be presented.

  16. Palo Podrido: Model for Extensive Delignification of Wood by Ganoderma applanatum

    PubMed Central

    Dill, Ingrid; Kraepelin, Gunda

    1986-01-01

    Chemical and micromorphological analysis revealed that South Chilean “palo podrido” results from a white-rot fungus that causes highly selective and extensive delignification. Palo podrido samples from 10 different hardwood trunks (Eucryphia cordifolia, Drimys winteri, and Nothofagus dombeyi) decayed by Ganoderma applanatum were analyzed. Of 14 samples, 11 had extremely low Klason lignin values, ranging from 6.1 to 0.4% (dry weight). The most remarkable and unusual feature was that delignification and defibration were not restricted to small pockets but extended throughout large areas in the interior of trunks subjected to undisturbed rotting over long periods of time. Comparative analysis of water content, swelling capacity, and lignin content led to the conclusion that besides lignin degradation, suppression of the cellulolytic activity of the rotting organisms plays a decisive role. Among various nutrients added to a palo podrido sample (3% residual Klason lignin), the nitrogen source was the only one leading to almost complete cellulose degradation. We suggest that the extremely low nitrogen content (0.037 to 0.073% [dry weight]) of the investigated wood species was the primary cause for the extensive delignification as well as the concomitant suppression of cellulose breakdown. The low temperatures, high humidity, and microaerobic conditions maintained within the decaying trunks are discussed as additional ecological factors favoring delignification in South Chilean rain forests. Images PMID:16347235

  17. Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces uvarum associated with the fermentation of Araucaria araucana seeds in Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M Eugenia; Pérez-Través, Laura; Sangorrín, Marcela P; Barrio, Eladio; Lopes, Christian A

    2014-09-01

    Mudai is a traditional fermented beverage, made from the seeds of the Araucaria araucana tree by Mapuche communities. The main goal of the present study was to identify and characterize the yeast microbiota responsible of Mudai fermentation as well as from A. araucana seeds and bark from different locations in Northern Patagonia. Only Hanseniaspora uvarum and a commercial bakery strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated from Mudai and all Saccharomyces isolates recovered from A. araucana seed and bark samples belonged to the cryotolerant species Saccharomyces eubayanus and Saccharomyces uvarum. These two species were already reported in Nothofagus trees from Patagonia; however, this is the first time that they were isolated from A. araucana, which extends their ecological distribution. The presence of these species in A. araucana seeds and bark samples, led us to postulate a potential role for them as the original yeasts responsible for the elaboration of Mudai before the introduction of commercial S. cerevisiae cultures. The molecular and genetic characterization of the S. uvarum and S. eubayanus isolates and their comparison with European S. uvarum strains and S. eubayanus hybrids (S. bayanus and S. pastorianus), allowed their ecology and evolution us to be examined.

  18. Microbe domestication and the identification of the wild genetic stock of lager-brewing yeast.

    PubMed

    Libkind, Diego; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Valério, Elisabete; Gonçalves, Carla; Dover, Jim; Johnston, Mark; Gonçalves, Paula; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2011-08-30

    Domestication of plants and animals promoted humanity's transition from nomadic to sedentary lifestyles, demographic expansion, and the emergence of civilizations. In contrast to the well-documented successes of crop and livestock breeding, processes of microbe domestication remain obscure, despite the importance of microbes to the production of food, beverages, and biofuels. Lager-beer, first brewed in the 15th century, employs an allotetraploid hybrid yeast, Saccharomyces pastorianus (syn. Saccharomyces carlsbergensis), a domesticated species created by the fusion of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae ale-yeast with an unknown cryotolerant Saccharomyces species. We report the isolation of that species and designate it Saccharomyces eubayanus sp. nov. because of its resemblance to Saccharomyces bayanus (a complex hybrid of S. eubayanus, Saccharomyces uvarum, and S. cerevisiae found only in the brewing environment). Individuals from populations of S. eubayanus and its sister species, S. uvarum, exist in apparent sympatry in Nothofagus (Southern beech) forests in Patagonia, but are isolated genetically through intrinsic postzygotic barriers, and ecologically through host-preference. The draft genome sequence of S. eubayanus is 99.5% identical to the non-S. cerevisiae portion of the S. pastorianus genome sequence and suggests specific changes in sugar and sulfite metabolism that were crucial for domestication in the lager-brewing environment. This study shows that combining microbial ecology with comparative genomics facilitates the discovery and preservation of wild genetic stocks of domesticated microbes to trace their history, identify genetic changes, and suggest paths to further industrial improvement.

  19. Microbe domestication and the identification of the wild genetic stock of lager-brewing yeast

    PubMed Central

    Libkind, Diego; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Valério, Elisabete; Gonçalves, Carla; Dover, Jim; Johnston, Mark; Gonçalves, Paula; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2011-01-01

    Domestication of plants and animals promoted humanity's transition from nomadic to sedentary lifestyles, demographic expansion, and the emergence of civilizations. In contrast to the well-documented successes of crop and livestock breeding, processes of microbe domestication remain obscure, despite the importance of microbes to the production of food, beverages, and biofuels. Lager-beer, first brewed in the 15th century, employs an allotetraploid hybrid yeast, Saccharomyces pastorianus (syn. Saccharomyces carlsbergensis), a domesticated species created by the fusion of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae ale-yeast with an unknown cryotolerant Saccharomyces species. We report the isolation of that species and designate it Saccharomyces eubayanus sp. nov. because of its resemblance to Saccharomyces bayanus (a complex hybrid of S. eubayanus, Saccharomyces uvarum, and S. cerevisiae found only in the brewing environment). Individuals from populations of S. eubayanus and its sister species, S. uvarum, exist in apparent sympatry in Nothofagus (Southern beech) forests in Patagonia, but are isolated genetically through intrinsic postzygotic barriers, and ecologically through host-preference. The draft genome sequence of S. eubayanus is 99.5% identical to the non-S. cerevisiae portion of the S. pastorianus genome sequence and suggests specific changes in sugar and sulfite metabolism that were crucial for domestication in the lager-brewing environment. This study shows that combining microbial ecology with comparative genomics facilitates the discovery and preservation of wild genetic stocks of domesticated microbes to trace their history, identify genetic changes, and suggest paths to further industrial improvement. PMID:21873232

  20. Extreme environments in the forests of Ushuaia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antoni, Hector; Rothschild, Lynn; Schultz, Cynthia; Burgess, Seth; Skiles, J. W.

    2007-11-01

    A survey over two mountain slopes (Glaciar Martial and Cerro Guanaco) in the vicinity of Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) showed normal results for the region in terms of chlorophyll concentration in the leaves of the dominant tree species Nothofagus antarctica, N. pumilio and N. betuloides, and soil variables such as temperature, moisture, pH, and concentration of nitrogen, sodium and potassium. Solar radiation, on the other hand, showed high values of ultraviolet over the 200-400 nm range, suggesting that the environment is extreme in terms of incoming solar radiation. The forest canopy absorbs and/or reflects a significant amount of that radiation. In separate analyses we showed that these tree species contain UV-absorbing pigments (cyanidin, delphidin, and flavonol glycosides). We submit that the rippled and glossy surface of leaves serves as a reflection/backscattering mechanism that protects their inner structure and function. The presence of krummholz (= twisted, dwarf trees) in the upper end of the forest shows the effects of an extreme environment.