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Sample records for notional generation iv

  1. Sur la notion d'adequation explicative en phonologie generative (On the Notion of Explanatory Adequacy in Generative Phonology)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hind, A.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the notion of explanatory adequacy with reference to a theory of generative phonology. An approach is suggested which defines the notion of possible processes based on natural language rules, rather than one which defines the notion of possible rules based on universal processes. (Text is in French.) (CDSH/AM)

  2. An Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Generation IV Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy J. Leahy

    2010-06-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Early work of the RSWG focused on defining a safety philosophy founded on lessons learned from current and prior generations of nuclear technologies, and on identifying technology characteristics that may help achieve Generation IV safety goals. More recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. The methodology, tentatively called ISAM, is an integrated “toolkit” consisting of analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time.

  3. Automatic generation and analysis of solar cell IV curves

    DOEpatents

    Kraft, Steven M.; Jones, Jason C.

    2014-06-03

    A photovoltaic system includes multiple strings of solar panels and a device presenting a DC load to the strings of solar panels. Output currents of the strings of solar panels may be sensed and provided to a computer that generates current-voltage (IV) curves of the strings of solar panels. Output voltages of the string of solar panels may be sensed at the string or at the device presenting the DC load. The DC load may be varied. Output currents of the strings of solar panels responsive to the variation of the DC load are sensed to generate IV curves of the strings of solar panels. IV curves may be compared and analyzed to evaluate performance of and detect problems with a string of solar panels.

  4. IRIS Responsiveness to Generation IV Road-map Goals

    SciTech Connect

    Carelli, M.D.; Paramonov, D.V.; Petrovic, B.

    2002-07-01

    The DOE Generation IV road-map process is in its second and final year. Almost one hundred concepts submitted from all over the world have been reviewed against the Generation IV goals of resources sustainability; safety and reliability; and, economics. Advanced LWRs are taken as the reference point. IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure), a 100-335 MWe integral light water reactor being developed by a vast international consortium led by Westinghouse, is one on the concepts being considered in the road-map and is perhaps the most visible representative of the concept set known as Integral Primary System Reactors (IPSR). This paper presents how IRIS satisfies the prescribed goals. The first goal of resource sustainability includes criteria like utilization of fuel resources, amount and toxicity of waste produced, environmental impact, proliferation and sabotage resistance. As a thermal reactor IRIS does not have the same fuel utilization as fast reactors. However, it has a significant flexibility in fuel cycles as it is designed to utilize either UO{sub 2} or MOX with straight burn cycles of 4 to 10 years, depending on the fissile content. High discharge burnup and Pu recycling result in good fuel utilization and lower waste; IRIS has also attractive proliferation resistance characteristics, due to the reduced accessibility of the fuel. The safety and reliability goal include reliability, workers' exposure, robust safety features, models with well characterized uncertainty, source term and mechanisms of energy release, robust mitigation of accidents. IRIS is significantly better than advanced LWRs because of its safety by design which eliminates a variety of accidents such as LOCAs, its containment vessel coupled design which maintains the core safely covered during the accident sequences, its design simplification features such as no (or reduced) soluble boron, internal shielding and four-year refueling/maintenance interval which significantly reduce

  5. Nuclear Data Needs for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rullhusen, Peter

    2006-04-01

    Nuclear data needs for generation IV systems. Future of nuclear energy and the role of nuclear data / P. Finck. Nuclear data needs for generation IV nuclear energy systems-summary of U.S. workshop / T. A. Taiwo, H. S. Khalil. Nuclear data needs for the assessment of gen. IV systems / G. Rimpault. Nuclear data needs for generation IV-lessons from benchmarks / S. C. van der Marck, A. Hogenbirk, M. C. Duijvestijn. Core design issues of the supercritical water fast reactor / M. Mori ... [et al.]. GFR core neutronics studies at CEA / J. C. Bosq ... [et al]. Comparative study on different phonon frequency spectra of graphite in GCR / Young-Sik Cho ... [et al.]. Innovative fuel types for minor actinides transmutation / D. Haas, A. Fernandez, J. Somers. The importance of nuclear data in modeling and designing generation IV fast reactors / K. D. Weaver. The GIF and Mexico-"everything is possible" / C. Arrenondo Sánchez -- Benmarks, sensitivity calculations, uncertainties. Sensitivity of advanced reactor and fuel cycle performance parameters to nuclear data uncertainties / G. Aliberti ... [et al.]. Sensitivity and uncertainty study for thermal molten salt reactors / A. Biduad ... [et al.]. Integral reactor physics benchmarks- The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPHEP) / J. B. Briggs, D. W. Nigg, E. Sartori. Computer model of an error propagation through micro-campaign of fast neutron gas cooled nuclear reactor / E. Ivanov. Combining differential and integral experiments on [symbol] for reducing uncertainties in nuclear data applications / T. Kawano ... [et al.]. Sensitivity of activation cross sections of the Hafnium, Tanatalum and Tungsten stable isotopes to nuclear reaction mechanisms / V. Avrigeanu ... [et al.]. Generating covariance data with nuclear models / A. J. Koning. Sensitivity of Candu-SCWR reactors physics calculations to nuclear data files / K. S

  6. Generation IV PR and PP Methods and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bari,R.A.

    2008-10-13

    This paper presents an evaluation methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP) of Generation IV nuclear energy systems (NESs). For a proposed NES design, the methodology defines a set of challenges, analyzes system response to these challenges, and assesses outcomes. The challenges to the NES are the threats posed by potential actors (proliferant States or sub-national adversaries). The characteristics of Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate the response of the system and determine its resistance against proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and terrorism threats. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of six measures for PR and three measures for PP, which are the high-level PR&PP characteristics of the NES. The methodology is organized to allow evaluations to be performed at the earliest stages of system design and to become more detailed and more representative as design progresses. Uncertainty of results are recognized and incorporated into the evaluation at all stages. The results are intended for three types of users: system designers, program policy makers, and external stakeholders. Particular current relevant activities will be discussed in this regard. The methodology has been illustrated in a series of demonstration and case studies and these will be summarized in the paper.

  7. An Economic Analysis of Generation IV Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J S; Lamont, A D; Rothwell, G S; Smith, C F; Greenspan, E; Brown, N; Barak, A

    2002-03-01

    This report examines some conditions necessary for Generation IV Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) to be competitive in the world energy market. The key areas that make nuclear reactors an attractive choice for investors are reviewed, and a cost model based on the ideal conditions is developed. Recommendations are then made based on the output of the cost model and on conditions and tactics that have proven successful in other industries. The Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS), a specific SMR design concept, is used to develop the cost model and complete the analysis because information about the ENHS design is readily available from the University of California at Berkeley Nuclear Engineering Department. However, the cost model can be used to analyze any of the current SMR designs being considered. On the basis of our analysis, we determined that the nuclear power industry can benefit from and SMRs can become competitive in the world energy market if a combination of standardization and simplification of orders, configuration, and production are implemented. This would require wholesale changes in the way SMRs are produced, manufactured and regulated, but nothing that other industries have not implemented and proven successful.

  8. Optical Harmonic Generation from Interfaces with Group IV Semiconductors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottomley, David John

    Nonlinear optical techniques have been used to investigate the symmetry properties of interfaces between media comprising at least one Group IV semiconductor. Second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) have been performed for s and p polarization states of the fundamental and harmonic beams as a function of sample azimuthal angle at a fixed fundamental wavelength of 775 nm. In addition to these experimental measurements, the thesis contains theoretical calculations of the optical harmonic response from such media with vicinal surfaces, that is surfaces miscut from a low-index face by {<}{~}10^ circ. The phenomenological theory of Sipe, Moss and van Driel (Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129 (1987)) for SHG and THG in reflection from the low-index faces of cubic centrosymmetric media has been extended to all faces of both cubic centrosymmetric and cubic noncentrosymmetric media. This theory is applied in many parts of the thesis to interpreting the symmetry information present in nonlinear optical data. Experimentally, measurements of SHG and THG from vicinal semiconductor wafers have been performed, and using the above theory the wafer orientations have been obtained to within +/-0.1^circ . In addition, the above theory has been applied to achieve an approximate separation of bulk and surface contributions to SHG measurements from vincinal Si(001) and Si(111) surfaces which Sipe et al. showed is not possible on the low-index faces. The SiO_2/Si interface on vicinal Si(001) has been studied with SHG, and evidence has been obtained for the presence of noncentrosymmetric phases of c-SiO_2 at this interface whose relative concentrations are influenced by the oxidation conditions. For oxidation temperatures below 600 ^circC, the SHG data is shown to be consistent with the presence of tridymite at the buried interface, whereas for oxidation at 900^ circC the SHG data is consistent with the presence of cristobalite. Finally, SHG has been measured from odd

  9. Group IV nanotube transistors for next generation ubiquitous computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahad, Hossain M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Sevilla Torres, Galo A.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2014-06-01

    Evolution in transistor technology from increasingly large power consuming single gate planar devices to energy efficient multiple gate non-planar ultra-narrow (< 20 nm) fins has enhanced the scaling trend to facilitate doubling performance. However, this performance gain happens at the expense of arraying multiple devices (fins) per operation bit, due to their ultra-narrow dimensions (width) originated limited number of charges to induce appreciable amount of drive current. Additionally arraying degrades device off-state leakage and increases short channel characteristics, resulting in reduced chip level energy-efficiency. In this paper, a novel nanotube device (NTFET) topology based on conventional group IV (Si, SiGe) channel materials is discussed. This device utilizes a core/shell dual gate strategy to capitalize on the volume-inversion properties of an ultra-thin (< 10 nm) group IV nanotube channel to minimize leakage and short channel effects while maximizing performance in an area-efficient manner. It is also shown that the NTFET is capable of providing a higher output drive performance per unit chip area than an array of gate-all-around nanowires, while maintaining the leakage and short channel characteristics similar to that of a single gate-all-around nanowire, the latter being the most superior in terms of electrostatic gate control. In the age of big data and the multitude of devices contributing to the internet of things, the NTFET offers a new transistor topology alternative with maximum benefits from performance-energy efficiency-functionality perspective.

  10. From NDE to Prognostics: A Revolution in Asset Management for Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2007-06-01

    For Generation IV nuclear power plants (NPP) to achieve operational goals it is necessary to adopt new on-line monitoring and prognostic methodologies, giving operators better plant situational awareness and reliable predictions of remaining service life. Such techniques can improve plant economics, reduce unplanned outages, improve safety and provide probabilistic risk assessments. This paper reviews the state of the art and the potential impact from monitoring, diagnostics and prognostics on advanced NPP, with a focus on the needs of Generation IV systems.

  11. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 5 Report: Generation IV Reactor Virtual Mockup Proof-of-Principle Study

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Task 5 report is part of a 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Created a virtual mockup of PBMR reactor cavity and discussed applications of virtual mockup technology to improve Gen IV design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning.

  12. College and Notions of "Asian American": Second-Generation Chinese and Korean Americans Negotiate Race and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibria, Nazli

    1999-01-01

    Uses data from a qualitative study of 64 postcollege, second-generation Chinese and Korean Americans to explore negotiations of race and identity during the college years. Participants were disengaged from pan-Asian student activities. Findings highlight the diversity of social patterns and experiences of this group. (SLD)

  13. [AN ENTRY FOR A "DICTIONARY OF GENETICS" GENERATION AND ASPECTS OF HEREDITY FROM THE PRESOCRATICS TO GALEN: THE MAIN NOTIONS AND THE TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY].

    PubMed

    Giorgianni, Franco; Provenza, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at dealing with the historical development and the terminology of the notion of generation in ancient Greece, taking as well into consideration several aspects of the notion of heredity, for, at present, research in this field lacks a consistent encyclopedic entry on such subjects. The Presocratic - mainly Empedoclean - notions of 'mixing' and 'separation' lurk behind the Hippocratic treatise De genitura/De natura pueri, in which the process of generation is explained through the 'mixing' mechanism of a female semen and a male one. Semen comes from each part of both parents, so it is sound from the sound parts, and unhealthy from the unhealthy parts. It is considered as the "foam of blood" (Diogenes, A 24 DK), gathering itself into a web of blood vessels that bring it to the genital organs. The mixed semen keeps on fixing itself in the womb thanks to pneuma ('breath'), until the embryo takes human shape. Generation is influenced by both the environment (Airs, Waters, Places) and dietetics (On Regimen, I). Male and female are on different levels in CH, since the former is characterized as hot and strong, and the latter is considered as cold and weak; as a consequence of this, the articulation takes longer in the case of a female embryo. On the other hand, the pangenesis and the preformism theory claim for a strong mutual relationship. Sex determination depends from the 'prevalence' of the male or female semen. The generation of twins of different sex depends from such 'prevalence', as well as from the conformation of the womb and its places (right/male, left/female). Both nature (physis) and use (nomos) have a role in the mechanism of inheritance, as the case of the Macrocephalians in Airs Waters Places shows. On the other hand, Plato's Timaeus exemplifies the theory according to which semen derives from the spinal marrow. The structures of the body - bones, flesh, nerves - aim at protecting marrow itself for the sake of maintaining the continuity

  14. A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    2003-03-01

    To meet future energy needs, ten countries--Argentina, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of South Africa, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States--have agreed on a framework for international cooperation in research for an advanced generation of nuclear energy systems, known as Generation IV. These ten countries have joined together to form the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) to develop future-generation nuclear energy systems that can be licensed, constructed, and operated in a manner that will provide competitively priced and reliable energy products while satisfactorily addressing nuclear safety, waste, proliferation, and public perception concerns. The objective for Generation IV nuclear energy systems is to be available for international deployment before the year 2030, when many of the world's currently operating nuclear power plants will be at or near the end of their operating licenses.

  15. A Synthetic High-Spin Oxoiron(IV) Complex: Generation, Spectroscopic Characterization, and Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    England, J.; Martinho, M; Farquhar, E; Frisch, J; Bominaar, E; Munck, E; Que, L

    2009-01-01

    The high-yield generation of a synthetic high-spin oxoiron(IV) complex, (Fe{sup IV}(O)(TMG{sub 3}tren)){sup 2+} (TMG{sub 3}tren = 1,1,1-tris{l_brace}2-(N2-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidino))ethyl{r_brace}amine), has been achieved by using the very bulky tetradentate TMG{sub 3}tren ligand, in order to both sterically protect the oxoiron(IV) moiety and enforce a trigonal bipyramidal geometry at the iron center, for which an S=2 ground state is favored.

  16. Notional-Functional Syllabuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finocchiaro, Mary

    1979-01-01

    This article discusses the value of the notional-functional approach to language teaching and considers some sociolinguistic, psycholinguistic, and linguistic features of the notional-functional syllabus. (CFM)

  17. Design of Radiation-Tolerant Structural Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.R.; Was, G.S.; Bruemmer, S.M.; Gan, J.; Ukai, S.

    2005-12-28

    The objective of this program is to improve the radiation tolerance of both austenitic and ferritic-martensitic (F-M) alloys projected for use in Generation IV systems. The expected materials limitations of Generation IV components include: creep strength, dimensional stability, and corrosion/stress corrosion compatibility. The material design strategies to be tested fall into three main categories: (1) engineering grain boundaries; (2) alloying, by adding oversized elements to the matrix; and (3) microstructural/nanostructural design, such as adding matrix precipitates. These three design strategies were tested across both austenitic and ferritic-martensitic alloy classes

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK-BASED AND TECHNOLOGY-INDEPENDENT SAFETY CRITERIA FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    William E. Kastenberg; Edward Blandford; Lance Kim

    2009-03-31

    This project has developed quantitative safety goals for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. These safety goals are risk based and technology independent. The foundations for a new approach to risk analysis has been developed, along with a new operational definition of risk. This project has furthered the current state-of-the-art by developing quantitative safety goals for both Gen IV reactors and for the overall Gen IV nuclear fuel cycle. The risk analysis approach developed will quantify performance measures, characterize uncertainty, and address a more comprehensive view of safety as it relates to the overall system. Appropriate safety criteria are necessary to manage risk in a prudent and cost-effective manner. This study is also important for government agencies responsible for managing, reviewing, and for approving advanced reactor systems because they are charged with assuring the health and safety of the public.

  19. Updated Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, William R; Burchell, Timothy D; Halsey, William; Hayner, George; Katoh, Yutai; Klett, James William; McGreevy, Timothy E; Nanstad, Randy K; Ren, Weiju; Snead, Lance Lewis; Stoller, Roger E; Wilson, Dane F

    2005-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Program will address the research and development (R&D) necessary to support next-generation nuclear energy systems. Such R&D will be guided by the technology roadmap developed for the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) over two years with the participation of over 100 experts from the GIF countries. The roadmap evaluated over 100 future systems proposed by researchers around the world. The scope of the R&D described in the roadmap covers the six most promising Generation IV systems. The effort ended in December 2002 with the issue of the final Generation IV Technology Roadmap [1.1]. The six most promising systems identified for next generation nuclear energy are described within the roadmap. Two employ a thermal neutron spectrum with coolants and temperatures that enable hydrogen or electricity production with high efficiency (the Supercritical Water Reactor - SCWR and the Very High Temperature Reactor - VHTR). Three employ a fast neutron spectrum to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel (the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor - GFR, the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor - LFR, and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor - SFR). The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs a circulating liquid fuel mixture that offers considerable flexibility for recycling actinides, and may provide an alternative to accelerator-driven systems. A few major technologies have been recognized by DOE as necessary to enable the deployment of the next generation of advanced nuclear reactors, including the development and qualification of the structural materials needed to ensure their safe and reliable operation. Accordingly, DOE has identified materials as one of the focus areas for Gen IV technology development.

  20. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Ten-Year Program Plan Fiscal Year 2005, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-01

    As reflected in the U.S. ''National Energy Policy'', nuclear energy has a strong role to play in satisfying our nation's future energy security and environmental quality needs. The desirable environmental, economic, and sustainability attributes of nuclear energy give it a cornerstone position, not only in the U.S. energy portfolio, but also in the world's future energy portfolio. Accordingly, on September 20, 2002, U.S. Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham announced that, ''The United States and nine other countries have agreed to develop six Generation IV nuclear energy concepts''. The Secretary also noted that the systems are expected to ''represent significant advances in economics, safety, reliability, proliferation resistance, and waste minimization''. The six systems and their broad, worldwide research and development (R&D) needs are described in ''A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems'' (hereafter referred to as the Generation IV Roadmap). The first 10 years of required U.S. R&D contributions to achieve the goals described in the Generation IV Roadmap are outlined in this Program Plan.

  1. The Generation in Between: A Perspective from the Keystone IV Conference.

    PubMed

    Chen, Frederick M; Bliss, Erika; Dunn, Aaron; Edgoose, Jennifer; Elliott, Tricia C; Maxwell, Lisa C; Morris, Carl G; Phillips, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Keystone IV affirmed the value of relationships in family medicine, but each generation of family physicians took away different impressions and lessons. "Generation III," between the Baby Boomers and Millennials, reported conflict between their professional ideal of family medicine and the realities of current practice. But the Keystone conference also helped them appreciate core values of family medicine, their shared experience, and new opportunities for leadership.

  2. European cross-cutting research on structural materials for Generation IV and transmutation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, C.; Alamo, A.; Almazouzi, A.; De Grandis, S.; Gomez-Briceno, D.; Henry, J.; Malerba, L.; Rieth, M.

    2009-07-01

    It has been internationally recognized that materials science and materials development are key issues for the implementation of innovative reactor systems such as those defined in the framework of the Generation IV and advanced fuel cycle initiatives. In Europe, materials studies are considered within the Strategic Research Agenda of the Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform. Moreover, the European Commission has recently launched a 7th Framework Programme Research Project, named 'Generation IV and Transmutation Materials', that has the objective of addressing materials issues which are cross-cutting for more than one type of innovative reactor systems. The present work has been prepared with the aim of describing the rationale, the objectives, the work plan and the expected results of this research project.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, R.; Bari, R.; Peterson, P.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Kalenchuk, D.

    2004-10-06

    Enhanced proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP) is one of the technology goals for advanced nuclear concepts, such as Generation IV systems. Under the auspices of the Generation IV International Forum, the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology of the U.S. DOE, the Office of Nonproliferation Policy of the National Nuclear Security Administration, and participating organizations from six other countries are sponsoring an international working group to develop an evaluation methodology for PR&PP. This methodology will permit an objective PR&PP comparison between alternative nuclear systems (e.g., different reactor types or fuel cycles) and support design optimization to enhance robustness against proliferation, theft and sabotage. The paper summarizes the proposed assessment methodology including the assessment framework, measures used to express the PR&PP characteristics of the system, threat definition, system element and target identification, pathway identification and analysis, and estimation of the measures.

  4. Fundamental Understanding of Crack Growth in Structural Components of Generation IV Supercritical Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Iouri I. Balachov; Takao Kobayashi; Francis Tanzella; Indira Jayaweera; Palitha Jayaweera; Petri Kinnunen; Martin Bojinov; Timo Saario

    2004-11-17

    This work contributes to the design of safe and economical Generation-IV Super-Critical Water Reactors (SCWRs) by providing a basis for selecting structural materials to ensure the functionality of in-vessel components during the entire service life. During the second year of the project, we completed electrochemical characterization of the oxide film properties and investigation of crack initiation and propagation for candidate structural materials steels under supercritical conditions. We ranked candidate alloys against their susceptibility to environmentally assisted degradation based on the in situ data measure with an SRI-designed controlled distance electrochemistry (CDE) arrangement. A correlation between measurable oxide film properties and susceptibility of austenitic steels to environmentally assisted degradation was observed experimentally. One of the major practical results of the present work is the experimentally proven ability of the economical CDE technique to supply in situ data for ranking candidate structural materials for Generation-IV SCRs. A potential use of the CDE arrangement developed ar SRI for building in situ sensors monitoring water chemistry in the heat transport circuit of Generation-IV SCWRs was evaluated and proved to be feasible.

  5. Synergies Between Generation-IV and Advanced Fusion Power Plant Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Paul P.H.; Allen, Todd R.; El-Guebaly, Laila A.

    2005-04-15

    For the first time since the early 1990's, the U.S. Department of Energy has long term research and development programs in both nuclear fission and nuclear fusion, the Generation IV program and the ARIES program, respectively. The Generation IV program has introduced a safety goal for future fission reactor systems that has long been reflected in the ARIES mission: no off-site emergency response to any design basis accident. This change, in concert with the overall departure from light water reactor technology, will drive a change in the regulatory framework for both Generation IV reactors and fusion power plants of the future. Further, both fission and fusion power plants will have to compete in similar future energy markets with uncertainties in energy prices and the development of alternative energy products. Enabling the success of nuclear energy, advanced materials will be a cornerstone to both programs, driven both by higher temperatures and heat fluxes and by a desire for longer lifetimes in high radiation environments. The synergies created by these increasingly parallel programs open the door for renewed collaborations that will increase the total effectiveness of research needed in both.

  6. Generation IV reactors and the ASTRID prototype: Lessons from the Fukushima accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauché, François

    2012-05-01

    In France, the ASTRID prototype is a sodium-cooled fast neutron industrial demonstrator, fulfilling the criteria for Generation IV reactors. ASTRID will meet safety requirements as stringent as for 3rd generation reactors, and take into account lessons from the Fukushima accident. The objectives are to reinforce the robustness of the safety demonstration for all safety functions. ASTRID will feature an innovative core with a negative sodium void coefficient, take advantage of the large thermal inertia of SFRs for decay heat removal, and provide for a design either eliminating the sodium-water reaction, or guaranteeing no consequences for safety in case such reaction would take place.

  7. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Final report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Mockups applied to design review of AP600/1000, Construction planning for AP 600, and AP 1000 maintenance evaluation. Proof of concept study also performed for GenIV PBMR models.

  8. Did the Preservice Teacher-Generated Studies Constitute Actual Instances of Teacher-Researcher Studies, and Were They Consistent with Notions of Dewey?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Robert E.; Wang, Ye; Hartman, Maria C.

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that articles in an "American Annals of the Deaf" special issue on teacher action research constitute a 2-tiered metastudy: The first article serves as a literature review of the teacher-as-researcher notion; 5 subsequent articles form the data set for a higher-order teacher-as-researcher inquiry. It is maintained that the…

  9. Did the preservice teacher-generated studies constitute actual instances of teacher-researcher studies, and were they consistent with notions of Dewey?

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Robert E; Wang, Ye; Hartman, Maria C

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that articles in an American Annals of the Deaf special issue on teacher action research constitute a 2-tiered metastudy: The first article serves as a literature review of the teacher-as-researcher notion; 5 subsequent articles form the data set for a higher-order teacher-as-researcher inquiry. It is maintained that the preservice teachers' work met the definition of teacher-as-researcher in that they systematically investigated their own teaching/learning practices through a reflective lens, with the twin purposes of modifying their own practices and contributing to the theoretical in situ knowledge base of learning and teaching in general. It is also argued that this body of work is consistent with the stance on inquiry advocated by Columbia University's Teachers College and its Program in the Education of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing, and that teacher research reflected Dewey's notions of pragmatism, functionalism, constructivism, communication, and social advocacy.

  10. A Project Management and Systems Engineering Structure for a Generation IV Very High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ed Gorski; Dennis Harrell; Finis Southworth

    2004-09-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) will be an advanced, very high temperature (approximately 1000o C. coolant outlet temperature), gas cooled nuclear reactor and is the nearest term of six Generation IV reactor technologies for nuclear assisted hydrogen production. In 2001, the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), a ten nation international forum working together with the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee (NERAC), agreed to proceed with the development of a technology roadmap and identified the next generation of nuclear reactor systems for producing new sources of power. Since a new reactor has not been licensed in the United States since the 1970s, the risks are too large for a single utility to assume in the development of an unprecedented Generation IV reactor. The government must sponsor and invest in the research to resolve major first of a kind (FOAK) issues through a full-scale demonstration prior to industry implementation. DOE’s primary mission for the VHTR is to demonstrate nuclear reactor assisted cogeneration of electricity and hydrogen while meeting the Generation IV goals for safety, sustainability, proliferation resistance and physical security and economics. The successful deployment of the VHTR as a demonstration project will aid in restarting the now atrophied U.S. nuclear power industry infrastructure. It is envisioned that VHTR project participants will include DOE Laboratories, industry partners such as designers, constructors, manufacturers, utilities, and Generation IV international countries. To effectively mange R&D, engineering, procurement, construction, and operation for this multi-organizational and technologically complex project, systems engineering will be used extensively to ensure delivery of the final product. Although the VHTR is an unprecedented FOAK system, the R&D, when assessed using the Office of Science and Technology Gate Model, falls primarily in the 3rd - Exploratory

  11. Status of advanced fuel candidates for Sodium Fast Reactor within the Generation IV International Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delage, F.; Carmack, J.; Lee, C. B.; Mizuno, T.; Pelletier, M.; Somers, J.

    2013-10-01

    The main challenge for fuels for future Sodium Fast Reactor systems is the development and qualification of a nuclear fuel sub-assembly which meets the Generation IV International Forum goals. The Advanced Fuel project investigates high burn-up minor actinide bearing fuels as well as claddings and wrappers to withstand high neutron doses and temperatures. The R&D outcome of national and collaborative programs has been collected and shared between the AF project members in order to review the capability of sub-assembly material and fuel candidates, to identify the issues and select the viable options. Based on historical experience and knowledge, both oxide and metal fuels emerge as primary options to meet the performance and the reliability goals of Generation IV SFR systems. There is a significant positive experience on carbide fuels but major issues remain to be overcome: strong in-pile swelling, atmosphere required for fabrication as well as Pu and Am losses. The irradiation performance database for nitride fuels is limited with longer term R&D activities still required. The promising core material candidates are Ferritic/Martensitic (F/M) and Oxide Dispersed Strengthened (ODS) steels.

  12. Ethnic Notions & Healthy Paranoias

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Colette Marie

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To report the firsthand perspectives of older Black women within healthcare encounters that impact the trajectories of health seeking behavior; to examine their perceptions, expectations, and beliefs about the role of cultural difference within predominantly White (US) health care settings; and to explore how sharing personal experiences (theirs and others’) as a fund of knowledge influences ethnic notions. This research is aimed at the development of community resource partnerships and effective healthcare service delivery with intervention and promotion efforts targeting older Black women. Design Ethnographic data collected over a twenty-four month period (2003 – 2005) from fifty older Black women in Tucson, Arizona is discussed on three levels: (1) expectations and beliefs, (2) the use of ethnic notions in the form of healthy paranoias as part of individual and communal health advocacy, and (3) perceptions of interethnic communication within healthcare settings, including feeling uncared for by healthcare providers and support staff. Results Disparities in older Black women's health and well-being are often constructed and filtered through "non-clinical" influences, such as cultural differences, individual experiences, and beliefs about "race" or "being" a Black female. Conclusions Unfamiliarity with ethnic notions may cause misinterpretations and misunderstandings and may influence interactions between older Black women and healthcare providers. PMID:20694867

  13. EVALUATION METHODOLOGY FOR PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF GENERATION IV NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW.

    SciTech Connect

    BARI, R.; ET AL.

    2006-03-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: (1) System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. (2) Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. (3) Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include

  14. Evaluation Methodology For Proliferation Resistance And Physical Protection Of Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    T. Bjornard; R. Bari; R. Nishimura; P. Peterson; J. Roglans; D. Bley; J. Cazalet; G.G.M. Cojazzi; P. Delaune; M. Golay; G. Rendad; G. Rochau; M. Senzaki; I. Therios; M. Zentner

    2006-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: 1.System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. 2.Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. 3.Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include

  15. Novel growth techniques of group-IV based semiconductors on insulator for next-generation electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyao, Masanobu; Sadoh, Taizoh

    2017-05-01

    Recent progress in the crystal growth of group-IV-based semiconductor-on-insulators is reviewed from physical and technological viewpoints. Liquid-phase growth based on SiGe-mixing-triggered rapid-melting growth enables formation of hybrid (100) (110) (111)-orientation Ge-on-insulator (GOI) structures, which show defect-free GOI with very high carrier mobility (˜1040 cm2 V-1 s-1). Additionally, SiGe mixed-crystals with laterally uniform composition were obtained by eliminating segregation phenomena during the melt-back process. Low-temperature solid-phase growth has been explored by combining this process with ion-beam irradiation, additional doping of group-IV elements, metal induced lateral crystallization with/without electric field, and metal-induced layer exchange crystallization. These efforts have enabled crystal growth on insulators below 400 °C, achieving high carrier mobility (160-320 cm2 V-1 s-1). Moreover, orientation-controlled SiGe and Ge films on insulators have been obtained below the softening temperatures of conventional plastic films (˜300 °C). Detailed characterization provides an understanding of physical phenomena behind these crystal growth techniques. Applying these methods when fabricating next-generation electronics is also discussed.

  16. DESIGN AND LAYOUT CONCEPTS FOR COMPACT, FACTORY-PRODUCED, TRANSPORTABLE, GENERATION IV REACTOR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Mynatt Fred R.; Townsend, L.W.; Williamson, Martin; Williams, Wesley; Miller, Laurence W.; Khan, M. Khurram; McConn, Joe; Kadak, Andrew C.; Berte, Marc V.; Sawhney, Rapinder; Fife, Jacob; Sedler, Todd L.; Conway, Larry E.; Felde, Dave K.

    2003-11-12

    The purpose of this research project is to develop compact (100 to 400 MWe) Generation IV nuclear power plant design and layout concepts that maximize the benefits of factory-based fabrication and optimal packaging, transportation and siting. The reactor concepts selected were compact designs under development in the 2000 to 2001 period. This interdisciplinary project was comprised of three university-led nuclear engineering teams identified by reactor coolant type (water, gas, and liquid metal) and a fourth Industrial Engineering team. The reactors included a Modular Pebble Bed helium-cooled concept being developed at MIT, the IRIS water-cooled concept being developed by a team led by Westinghouse Electric Company, and a Lead-Bismuth-cooled concept developed by UT. In addition to the design and layout concepts this report includes a section on heat exchanger manufacturing simulations and a section on construction and cost impacts of proposed modular designs.

  17. Multidimensional Model of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Generation-IV Supercritical Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaway, Tara; Antal, Steven P.; Podowski, Michael Z.

    2006-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the mechanistic modeling and theoretical/computational analysis of flow and heat transfer in future Generation-IV Supercritical Water Cooled Reactors (SCWR). The issues discussed in the paper include: the development of analytical models of the properties of supercritical water, and the application of full three-dimensional computational modeling framework to simulate fluid flow and heat transfer in SCWRs. Several results of calculations are shown, including the evaluation of water properties (density, specific heat, thermal conductivity, viscosity, and Prandtl number) near the pseudo-critical temperature for various supercritical pressures, and the CFD predictions using the NPHASE computer code. It is demonstrated that the proposed approach is very promising for future mechanistic analyses of SCWR thermal-hydraulics and safety. (authors)

  18. Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan: Focus on Very High Temperature Reactor Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, William R; Burchell, Timothy D; Katoh, Yutai; McGreevy, Timothy E; Nanstad, Randy K; Ren, Weiju; Snead, Lance Lewis; Wilson, Dane F

    2008-08-01

    Since 2002, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems (Gen IV) Program has addressed the research and development (R&D) necessary to support next-generation nuclear energy systems. The six most promising systems identified for next-generation nuclear energy are described within this roadmap. Two employ a thermal neutron spectrum with coolants and temperatures that enable hydrogen or electricity production with high efficiency (the Supercritical Water Reactor-SCWR and the Very High Temperature Reactor-VHTR). Three employ a fast neutron spectrum to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel (the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor-GFR, the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor-LFR, and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor-SFR). The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs a circulating liquid fuel mixture that offers considerable flexibility for recycling actinides and may provide an alternative to accelerator-driven systems. At the inception of DOE's Gen IV program, it was decided to significantly pursue five of the six concepts identified in the Gen IV roadmap to determine which of them was most appropriate to meet the needs of future U.S. nuclear power generation. In particular, evaluation of the highly efficient thermal SCWR and VHTR reactors was initiated primarily for energy production, and evaluation of the three fast reactor concepts, SFR, LFR, and GFR, was begun to assess viability for both energy production and their potential contribution to closing the fuel cycle. Within the Gen IV Program itself, only the VHTR class of reactors was selected for continued development. Hence, this document will address the multiple activities under the Gen IV program that contribute to the development of the VHTR. A few major technologies have been recognized by DOE as necessary to enable the deployment of the next generation of advanced nuclear reactors, including the development and qualification of the structural

  19. Benchmark Development in Support of Generation-IV Reactor Validation (IRPhEP 2010 Handbook)

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs

    2010-06-01

    The March 2010 edition of the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) Handbook includes additional benchmark data that can be implemented in the validation of data and methods for Generation IV (GEN-IV) reactor designs. Evaluations supporting sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) efforts include the initial isothermal tests of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at the Hanford Site, the Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) 10B and 10C experiments at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the burn-up reactivity coefficient of Japan’s JOYO reactor. An assessment of Russia’s BFS-61 assemblies at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) provides additional information for lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) systems. Benchmarks in support of the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) project include evaluations of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments performed at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in Switzerland and the start-up core physics tests of Japan’s High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor. The critical configuration of the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the INL which used ternary ceramic fuel, U(18)O2-CaO-ZrO2, is of interest for fuel cycle research and development (FCR&D) and has some similarities to “inert-matrix” fuels that are of interest in GEN-IV advanced reactor design. Two additional evaluations were revised to include additional evaluated experimental data, in support of light water reactor (LWR) and heavy water reactor (HWR) research; these include reactor physics experiments at Brazil’s IPEN/MB-01 Research Reactor Facility and the French High Flux Reactor (RHF), respectively. The IRPhEP Handbook now includes data from 45 experimental series (representing 24 reactor facilities) and represents contributions from 15 countries. These experimental measurements represent large investments of infrastructure, experience, and cost that have been evaluated and preserved as benchmarks for the validation of methods and collection of

  20. Uncertainty Quantification in the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Generation IV Reactors: Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Vierow, Karen; Aldemir, Tunc

    2009-09-10

    The project entitled, “Uncertainty Quantification in the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Generation IV Reactors”, was conducted as a DOE NERI project collaboration between Texas A&M University and The Ohio State University between March 2006 and June 2009. The overall goal of the proposed project was to develop practical approaches and tools by which dynamic reliability and risk assessment techniques can be used to augment the uncertainty quantification process in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods and PRA applications for Generation IV reactors. This report is the Final Scientific/Technical Report summarizing the project.

  1. Lead-cooled system design and challenges in the frame of Generation IV International Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinotti, Luciano; Smith, Craig F.; Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Mansani, Luigi; Reale, Marco; Sienicki, James J.

    2011-08-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Technology Roadmap identified the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) as a technology well suited for electricity generation, hydrogen production and actinide management in a closed fuel cycle. One of the most important features of the LFR is the fact that lead is a relatively inert coolant, a feature that conveys significant advantages in terms of safety, system simplification, and the consequent potential for economic performance. In 2004, the GIF LFR Provisional System Steering Committee was organized and began to develop the LFR System Research Plan. The committee selected two pool-type reactor concepts as candidates for international cooperation and joint development in the GIF framework: these are the Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR); and the European Lead-cooled System (ELSY). The high boiling point (1745 °C) of lead has a beneficial impact to the safety of the system, whereas its high melting point (327.4 °C) requires new engineering strategies, especially for In-Service-Inspection and refuelling. Lead, especially at high temperatures, is also relatively corrosive towards structural materials. This necessitates that coolant purity and the level of dissolved oxygen be carefully controlled, in addition to the proper selection of structural materials. For the GIF LFR concepts, lead has been chosen as the coolant rather than Lead-Bismuth Eutectic primarily because of its greatly reduced generation of the alpha-emitting 210Po isotope formed in the coolant. This results in significantly reduced levels of radioactive contamination of the coolant while minimizing the effect of decay power in the coolant from such contaminants; an additional consideration is the desire to eliminate dependence on bismuth which might be a limited resource. This paper provides an overview of the historical development of the LFR, a summary of the advantages and challenges associated with heavy liquid metal coolants, and an

  2. Efficient Generation of Chemiluminescence during the reduction of manganese(IV) ions with lactic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaplev, Yu. B.

    2016-12-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of chemiluminescence during the reduction of manganese(IV) ions with lactic acid in an H2SO4-AcOH medium are studied. Kinetic spectrophotometric measurements are used to determine the profiles of change in the concentrations of Mn(IV) and Mn(III) ions during the reaction. The results from kinetic spectrophotometric measurements are compared to the light yield kinetics. The quantum chemiluminescence and chemiexcitation yields reach record values.

  3. Notions Catalog. Polish Functional Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woytak, Lidia

    The Polish notions catalog systematizes a variety of informational codes used in Polish, resulting in lists of notions, each presented from a structural perspective. Where applicable, they are accompanied by a morphological component, structural chart, semantic description, frequentative expressions, and related vocabulary items. The notions…

  4. Notions Catalog. Polish Functional Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woytak, Lidia

    The Polish notions catalog systematizes a variety of informational codes used in Polish, resulting in lists of notions, each presented from a structural perspective. Where applicable, they are accompanied by a morphological component, structural chart, semantic description, frequentative expressions, and related vocabulary items. The notions…

  5. Creep Behavior of High Temperature Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xingshuo

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is one of the leading concepts of the Generation IV nuclear reactor development, which is the core component of Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The major challenge in the research and development of NGNP is the performance and reliability of structure materials at high temperature. Alloy 617, with an exceptional combination of high temperature strength and oxidation resistance, has been selected as a primary candidate material for structural use, particularly in Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) which has an outlet temperature in the range of 850 to 950°C and an inner pressure from 5 to 20MPa. In order to qualify the material to be used at the operation condition for a designed service life of 60 years, a comprehensive scientific understanding of creep behavior at high temperature and low stress regime is necessary. In addition, the creep mechanism and the impact factors such as precipitates, grain size, and grain boundary characters need to be evaluated for the purpose of alloy design and development. In this study, thermomechanically processed specimens of alloy 617 with different grain sizes were fabricated, and creep tests with a systematic test matrix covering the temperatures of 850 to 1050°C and stress levels from 5 to 100MPa were conducted. Creep data was analyzed, and the creep curves were found to be unconventional without a well-defined steady-state creep. Very good linear relationships were determined for minimum creep rate versus stress levels with the stress exponents determined around 3-5 depending on the grain size and test condition. Activation energies were also calculated for different stress levels, and the values are close to 400kJ/mol, which is higher than that for self-diffusion in nickel. Power law dislocation climb-glide mechanism was proposed as the dominant creep mechanism in the test condition regime. Dynamic recrystallization happening at high strain range enhanced dislocation climb and

  6. The Notion of Technological Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Guy

    1984-01-01

    Rapid technological change is widely regarded as a primary cause of unemployment, especially in depressions. This article summarizes the diverse interpretations given to the notion of technological unemployment, critically examining the assumptions underlying those views. (Author/SSH)

  7. Kinetics of phosphodiester cleavage by differently generated cerium(IV) hydroxo species in neutral solutions.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Ana L; Yatsimirsky, Anatoly K

    2005-08-07

    Neutral aqueous solutions of cerium ammonium nitrate obtained by dilution of their acetonitrile stock solution with imidazole buffer show high catalytic activity in the hydrolysis of bis(p-nitrophenyl) phosphate (BNPP) and better reproducibility than other similar systems, but suffer from low stability. The kinetics of catalytic hydrolysis is second-order in Ce(IV), independent of pH in the range 5-8 and tentatively involves the Ce2(OH)7+ species as the active form. Attempts to stabilize the active species by different types of added ligands failed, but the use of Ce(IV) complexes pre-synthesized in an organic solvent with potentially stabilizing ligands as precursors of active hydroxo species appeared to be more successful. Three new Ce(IV) complexes, [Ce(Phen)2O(NO3)2], [Ce(tris)O(NO3)(OH)] and [Ce(BTP)2(NO3)4].2H2O (BTP = bis-tris propane, 1,3-bis[tris(hydroxymethyl)methylamino]propane), were prepared by reacting cerium ammonium nitrate with the respective ligands in acetonitrile and were characterized by analytical and spectroscopic techniques. Aqueous solutions of these complexes undergo rapid hydrolysis producing nearly neutral polynuclear Ce(IV) oxo/hydroxo species with high catalytic activity in BNPP hydrolysis. Potentiometric titrations of the solutions obtained from the complex with BTP revealed the formation of Ce4(OH)15+ species at pH > 7, which are protonated affording Ce4(OH)14(2+) and then Ce4(OH)13(3+) on a decrease in pH from 7 to 5. The catalytic activity increases strongly on going to species with a higher positive charge. The reaction mechanism involves first- and second-order in catalyst paths as well as intermediate complex formation with the substrate for higher charged species.

  8. Multiscale Modeling of the Deformation of Advanced Ferritic Steels for Generation IV Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Nasr M. Ghoniem; Nick Kioussis

    2009-04-18

    The objective of this project is to use the multi-scale modeling of materials (MMM) approach to develop an improved understanding of the effects of neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of high-temperature structural materials that are being developed or proposed for Gen IV applications. In particular, the research focuses on advanced ferritic/ martensitic steels to enable operation up to 650-700°C, compared to the current 550°C limit on high-temperature steels.

  9. A non-iterative technique for determination of solar cell parameters from the light generated I-V characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Gaurav; Panchal, Ashish K.

    2013-08-01

    Accurate information about electrical parameters of a photovoltaic (PV) cell is many times essential for evaluating the performance of the cell when delivering power at its full capacity. This paper presents a technique for determining the cell parameters from the light generated current-voltage (I-V) characteristic with a valid assumption for any kind of cells. The technique neither involves any initial approximations nor iteration processes. The technique is employed for various PV cell technologies such as silicon, copper indium gallium selenide, organic, dye sensitized solar cell, and organic tandem cells, previously available in the literatures. Obtained I-V characteristics for the cells using the present technique are in well agreement with those of reported in the literature. The technique is further extended for the analysis of a silicon cell and a silicon module tested in the laboratory and the results obtained are very close to those of the experimental data.

  10. Mechanisms Governing the Creep Behavior of High Temperature Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, Vijay; Carroll, Laura; Sham, Sam

    2015-04-06

    This research project, which includes collaborators from INL and ORNL, focuses on the study of alloy 617 and alloy 800H that are candidates for applications as intermediate heat exchangers in GEN IV nuclear reactors, with an emphasis on the effects of grain size, grain boundaries and second phases on the creep properties; the mechanisms of dislocation creep, diffusional creep and cavitation; the onset of tertiary creep; and theoretical modeling for long-term predictions of materials behavior and for high temperature alloy design.

  11. Assessment of the Technical Maturity of Generation IV Concepts for Test or Demonstration Reactor Applications, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gougar, Hans David

    2015-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned a study the suitability of different advanced reactor concepts to support materials irradiations (i.e. a test reactor) or to demonstrate an advanced power plant/fuel cycle concept (demonstration reactor). As part of the study, an assessment of the technical maturity of the individual concepts was undertaken to see which, if any, can support near-term deployment. A Working Group composed of the authors of this document performed the maturity assessment using the Technical Readiness Levels as defined in DOE’s Technology Readiness Guide . One representative design was selected for assessment from of each of the six Generation-IV reactor types: gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR), lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR), molten salt reactor (MSR), supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), and very high temperature reactor (VHTR). Background information was obtained from previous detailed evaluations such as the Generation-IV Roadmap but other technical references were also used including consultations with concept proponents and subject matter experts. Outside of Generation IV activity in which the US is a party, non-U.S. experience or data sources were generally not factored into the evaluations as one cannot assume that this data is easily available or of sufficient quality to be used for licensing a US facility. The Working Group established the scope of the assessment (which systems and subsystems needed to be considered), adapted a specific technology readiness scale, and scored each system through discussions designed to achieve internal consistency across concepts. In general, the Working Group sought to determine which of the reactor options have sufficient maturity to serve either the test or demonstration reactor missions.

  12. The Next Generation of Platinum Drugs: Targeted Pt(II) Agents, Nanoparticle Delivery, and Pt(IV) Prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Timothy C.; Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    The platinum drugs, cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, prevail in the treatment of cancer,, but new platinum agents have been very slow to enter the clinic. Recently, however, there has been a surge of activity, based on a great deal of mechanistic information, aimed at developing non-classical platinum complexes that operate via mechanisms of action distinct from those of the approved drugs. The use of nanodelivery devices has also grown and many different strategies have been explored to incorporate platinum warheads into nanomedicine constructs. In this review, we discuss these efforts to create the next generation of platinum anticancer drugs. The introduction provides the reader with a brief overview of the use, development, and mechanism of action of the approved platinum drugs to provide the context in which more recent research has flourished. We then describe approaches that explore non-classical platinum(II) complexes with trans geometry and with a monofunctional coordination mode, polynuclear platinum(II) compounds, platinum(IV) prodrugs, dual-treat agents, and photoactivatable platinum(IV) complexes. Nanodelivery particles designed to deliver platinum(IV) complexes will also be discussed, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, upconversion nanoparticles, and polymeric micelles. Additional nanoformulations including supramolecular self-assembled structures, proteins, peptides, metal-organic frameworks, and coordination polymers will then be described. Finally, the significant clinical progress made by nanoparticle formulations of platinum(II) agents will be reviewed. We anticipate that such a synthesis of disparate research efforts will not only help to generate new drug development ideas and strategies, but also reflect our optimism that the next generation of platinum cancer drugs is about to arrive. PMID:26865551

  13. The Next Generation of Platinum Drugs: Targeted Pt(II) Agents, Nanoparticle Delivery, and Pt(IV) Prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Timothy C; Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Lippard, Stephen J

    2016-03-09

    The platinum drugs, cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, prevail in the treatment of cancer, but new platinum agents have been very slow to enter the clinic. Recently, however, there has been a surge of activity, based on a great deal of mechanistic information, aimed at developing nonclassical platinum complexes that operate via mechanisms of action distinct from those of the approved drugs. The use of nanodelivery devices has also grown, and many different strategies have been explored to incorporate platinum warheads into nanomedicine constructs. In this Review, we discuss these efforts to create the next generation of platinum anticancer drugs. The introduction provides the reader with a brief overview of the use, development, and mechanism of action of the approved platinum drugs to provide the context in which more recent research has flourished. We then describe approaches that explore nonclassical platinum(II) complexes with trans geometry or with a monofunctional coordination mode, polynuclear platinum(II) compounds, platinum(IV) prodrugs, dual-threat agents, and photoactivatable platinum(IV) complexes. Nanoparticles designed to deliver platinum(IV) complexes will also be discussed, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, upconversion nanoparticles, and polymeric micelles. Additional nanoformulations, including supramolecular self-assembled structures, proteins, peptides, metal-organic frameworks, and coordination polymers, will then be described. Finally, the significant clinical progress made by nanoparticle formulations of platinum(II) agents will be reviewed. We anticipate that such a synthesis of disparate research efforts will not only help to generate new drug development ideas and strategies, but also will reflect our optimism that the next generation of approved platinum cancer drugs is about to arrive.

  14. Removal of selenite by zero-valent iron combined with ultrasound: Se(IV) concentration changes, Se(VI) generation, and reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Fu, Fenglian; Lu, Jianwei; Cheng, Zihang; Tang, Bing

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the performance and application of zero-valent iron (ZVI) assisted by ultrasonic irradiation for the removal of selenite (Se(IV)) in wastewater was evaluated and reaction mechanism of Se(IV) with ZVI in such systems was investigated. A series of batch experiments were conducted to determine the effects of ultrasound power, pH, ZVI concentration, N2 and air on Se(IV) removal. ZVI before and after reaction with Se(IV) was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results indicated that ultrasound can lead to a significant synergy in the removal of Se(IV) by ZVI because ultrasound can promote the generation of OH and accelerate the advanced Fenton process. The primary reaction products of ZVI and Se(IV) were Se(0), ferrihydrite, and Fe2O3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Generation mechanism of the slowly drifting narrowband structure in the type IV solar radio bursts observed by AMATERAS

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Y.; Nishimura, Y.; Kumamoto, A.; Ono, T.; Iwai, K.; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.

    2014-05-20

    We investigate the type IV burst event observed by AMATERAS on 2011 June 7, and reveal that the main component of the burst was emitted from the plasmoid eruption identified in the EUV images of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/AIA. We show that a slowly drifting narrowband structure (SDNS) appeared in the burst's spectra. Using statistical analysis, we reveal that the SDNS appeared for a duration of tens to hundreds of milliseconds and had a typical bandwidth of 3 MHz. To explain the mechanism generating the SDNS, we propose wave-wave coupling between Langmuir waves and whistler-mode chorus emissions generated in a post-flare loop, which were inferred from the similarities in the plasma environments of a post-flare loop and the equatorial region of Earth's inner magnetosphere. We assume that a chorus element with a rising tone is generated at the top of a post-flare loop. Using the magnetic field and plasma density models, we quantitatively estimate the expected duration of radio emissions generated from coupling between Langmuir waves and chorus emissions during their propagation in the post-flare loop, and we find that the observed duration and bandwidth properties of the SDNS are consistently explained by the proposed generation mechanism. While observations in the terrestrial magnetosphere show that the chorus emissions are a group of large-amplitude wave elements generated naturally and intermittently, the mechanism proposed in the present study can explain both the intermittency and the frequency drift in the observed spectra.

  16. Challenges to Integration of Safety and Reliability with Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    H. Khalil; P. F. Peterson; R. Bari; G. -L. Fiorini; T. Leahy; R. Versluis

    2012-07-01

    The optimization of a nuclear energy system's performance requires an integrated consideration of multiple design goals - sustainability, safety and reliability (S&R), proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP), and economics - as well as careful evaluation of trade-offs for different system design and operating parameters. Design approaches motivated by each of the goal areas (in isolation from the other goal areas) may be mutually compatible or in conflict. However, no systematic methodology approach has yet been developed to identify and maximize synergies and optimally balance conflicts across the possible design configurations and operating modes of a nuclear energy system. Because most Generation IV systems are at an early stage of development, design, and assessment, designers and analysts are only beginning to identify synergies and conflicts between PR&PP, S&R, and economics goals. The close coupling between PR&PP and S&R goals has motivated early attention within the Generation IV International Forum to their integrated consideration to facilitate the optimization of their effects and the minimization of potential conflicts. This paper discusses the status of this work.

  17. Development of a High Fidelity System Analysis Code for Generation IV Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hongbin Zhang; Vincent Mousseau; Haihua Zhao

    2008-06-01

    Traditional nuclear reactor system analysis codes such as RELAP and TRAC employ an operator split methodology. In this approach, each of the physics (fluid flow, heat conduction and neutron diffusion) is solved separately and the coupling terms are done explicitly. This approach limits accuracy (first order in time at best) and makes the codes slow in running since the explicit coupling imposes stability restrictions on the time step size. These codes have been extensively tested and validated for the existing LWRs. However, for GEN IV nuclear reactor designs which tend to have long lasting transients resulting from passive safety systems, the performance is questionable and modern high fidelity simulation tools will be required. The requirement for accurate predictability is the motivation for a large scale overhaul of all of the models and assumptions in transient nuclear reactor safety simulation software. At INL we have launched an effort with the long term goal of developing a high fidelity system analysis code that employs modern physical models, numerical methods, and computer science for transient safety analysis of GEN IV nuclear reactors. Modern parallel solution algorithms will be employed through utilizing the nonlinear solution software package PETSc developed by Argonne National Laboratory. The physical models to be developed will have physically realistic length scales and time scales. The solution algorithm will be based on the physics-based preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov solution methods. In this approach all of the physical models are solved implicitly and simultaneously in a single nonlinear system. This includes the coolant flow, nonlinear heat conduction, neutron kinetics, and thermal radiation, etc. Including modern physical models and accurate space and time discretizations will allow the simulation capability to be second order accurate in space and in time. This paper presents the current status of the development efforts as

  18. Generator coordinate method and nuclear collective motions (IV)-TDGCM versus ATDHF

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, G.

    1982-04-01

    Considering the time-dependent generator coordinate method, the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for nuclear collective motions is obtained. It is then possible to obtain through the Wigner matrix a variational expression for mean collective properties q-bar(t) and p-bar(t) in classical limits. Under adiabatic approximation this is just the expression by which Villars has obtained the ATDHF results.

  19. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions Through the Use of Virtual Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Shaw; Vaugh Whisker

    2004-02-28

    The objective of this multi-phase project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. The project will test the suitability of immersive virtual reality technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups. This report presents the results of the completed project.

  20. Classification review of dental adhesive systems: from the IV generation to the universal type.

    PubMed

    Sofan, Eshrak; Sofan, Afrah; Palaia, Gaspare; Tenore, Gianluca; Romeo, Umberto; Migliau, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Adhesive dentistry has undergone great progress in the last decades. In light of minimal-invasive dentistry, this new approach promotes a more conservative cavity design, which relies on the effectiveness of current enamel-dentine adhesives. Adhesive dentistry began in 1955 by Buonocore on the benefits of acid etching. With changing technologies, dental adhesives have evolved from no-etch to total-etch (4(th) and 5(th) generation) to self-etch (6(th), 7(th) and 8(th) generation) systems. Currently, bonding to dental substrates is based on three different strategies: 1) etch-and-rinse, 2) self-etch and 3) resin-modified glass-ionomer approach as possessing the unique properties of self-adherence to the tooth tissue. More recently, a new family of dentin adhesives has been introduced (universal or multi-mode adhesives), which may be used either as etch-and-rinse or as self-etch adhesives. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on the current knowledge for each adhesive system according to their classification that have been advocated by many authorities in most operative/restorative procedures. As noted by several valuable studies that have contributed to understanding of bonding to various substrates helps clinicians to choose the appropriate dentin bonding agents for optimal clinical outcomes.

  1. Classification review of dental adhesive systems: from the IV generation to the universal type

    PubMed Central

    Sofan, Eshrak; Sofan, Afrah; Palaia, Gaspare; Tenore, Gianluca; Romeo, Umberto; Migliau, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Summary Adhesive dentistry has undergone great progress in the last decades. In light of minimal-invasive dentistry, this new approach promotes a more conservative cavity design, which relies on the effectiveness of current enamel-dentine adhesives. Adhesive dentistry began in 1955 by Buonocore on the benefits of acid etching. With changing technologies, dental adhesives have evolved from no-etch to total-etch (4th and 5th generation) to self-etch (6th, 7th and 8th generation) systems. Currently, bonding to dental substrates is based on three different strategies: 1) etch-and-rinse, 2) self-etch and 3) resin-modified glass-ionomer approach as possessing the unique properties of self-adherence to the tooth tissue. More recently, a new family of dentin adhesives has been introduced (universal or multi-mode adhesives), which may be used either as etch-and-rinse or as self-etch adhesives. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on the current knowledge for each adhesive system according to their classification that have been advocated by many authorities in most operative/restorative procedures. As noted by several valuable studies that have contributed to understanding of bonding to various substrates helps clinicians to choose the appropriate dentin bonding agents for optimal clinical outcomes. PMID:28736601

  2. validation and Enhancement of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer Predictive Capabilities for Generation IV Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Spall; Barton Smith; Thomas Hauser

    2008-12-08

    Nationwide, the demand for electricity due to population and industrial growth is on the rise. However, climate change and air quality issues raise serious questions about the wisdom of addressing these shortages through the construction of additional fossil fueled power plants. In 1997, the President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology Energy Research and Development Panel determined that restoring a viable nuclear energy option was essential and that the DOE should implement a R&D effort to address principal obstacles to achieving this option. This work has addressed the need for improved thermal/fluid analysis capabilities, through the use of computational fluid dynamics, which are necessary to support the design of generation IV gas-cooled and supercritical water reactors.

  3. A Comparison of the Safety Analysis Process and the Generation IV Proliferation Resistance/Physical Protection Assessment Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    T. A. Bjornard; M. D. Zentner

    2006-05-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is a vehicle for the cooperative international development of future nuclear energy systems. The Generation IV program has established primary objectives in the areas of sustainability, economics, safety and reliability, and Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP). In order to help meet the latter objective a program was launched in December 2002 to develop a rigorous means to assess nuclear energy systems with respect to PR&PP. The study of Physical Protection of a facility is a relatively well established methodology, but an approach to evaluate the Proliferation Resistance of a nuclear fuel cycle is not. This paper will examine the Proliferation Resistance (PR) evaluation methodology being developed by the PR group, which is largely a new approach and compare it to generally accepted nuclear facility safety evaluation methodologies. Safety evaluation methods have been the subjects of decades of development and use. Further, safety design and analysis is fairly broadly understood, as well as being the subject of federally mandated procedures and requirements. It is therefore extremely instructive to compare and contrast the proposed new PR evaluation methodology process with that used in safety analysis. By so doing, instructive and useful conclusions can be derived from the comparison that will help to strengthen the PR methodological approach as it is developed further. From the comparison made in this paper it is evident that there are very strong parallels between the two processes. Most importantly, it is clear that the proliferation resistance aspects of nuclear energy systems are best considered beginning at the very outset of the design process. Only in this way can the designer identify and cost effectively incorporate intrinsic features that might be difficult to implement at some later stage. Also, just like safety, the process to implement proliferation resistance should be a dynamic

  4. Calculation of stellar structure. IV. Results using a detailed energy generation subroutine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, C. A.

    1995-12-01

    The results from two solar model calculations using the "energy.for" energy generation and neutrino flux code (Bahcall & Pinsonneault 1992) are presented. The models of the present Sun were generated using the program described in the first three papers of this series and using only the helium abundance profile from the Bahcall & Ulrich (1988) (BU) standard model in the present model structure calculations. One model is a simulation of the BU model and yields a ^37^Cl solar neutrino counting rate of 7.0SNU (compared to 7.9SNU for the BU model) and a ^71^Ga neutrino experiment counting rate between 112 and 137SNU (compared to 132SNU for the BU model). The second model has a postulated small high-Z core (Rouse 1983) and yields a ^37^Cl neutrino experiment counting rate of 2.45SNU that is within one sigma of the Homestake Collaboration observed rate of (2.55+/-0.25)SNU (see Parke 1995). It yields a ^71^Ga neutrino experiment counting rate between 89 and 103SNU that is within one sigma of the GALLEX Collaboration neutrino experiment observed rate of (79+/-12)SNU (see Parke 1995). The theoretical ^8^B solar neutrino flux and the observed Kamiokande ^8^B flux (Hirata et al. 1989) are discussed regarding the puzzle of explaining both the chlorine experiment results and the Kamiokande results. The modification of the energy.for code for use in the current Rouse program is described. Consistency of a high-Z core solar model with theories of star formation from pre-stellar nuclei (Krat 1952; Urey 1956; Huang 1957) is suggested.

  5. Managing Model Data Introduced Uncertainties in Simulator Predictions for Generation IV Systems via Optimum Experimental Design

    SciTech Connect

    Turinsky, Paul J; Abdel-Khalik, Hany S; Stover, Tracy E

    2011-03-01

    An optimization technique has been developed to select optimized experimental design specifications to produce data specifically designed to be assimilated to optimize a given reactor concept. Data from the optimized experiment is assimilated to generate posteriori uncertainties on the reactor concept’s core attributes from which the design responses are computed. The reactor concept is then optimized with the new data to realize cost savings by reducing margin. The optimization problem iterates until an optimal experiment is found to maximize the savings. A new generation of innovative nuclear reactor designs, in particular fast neutron spectrum recycle reactors, are being considered for the application of closing the nuclear fuel cycle in the future. Safe and economical design of these reactors will require uncertainty reduction in basic nuclear data which are input to the reactor design. These data uncertainty propagate to design responses which in turn require the reactor designer to incorporate additional safety margin into the design, which often increases the cost of the reactor. Therefore basic nuclear data needs to be improved and this is accomplished through experimentation. Considering the high cost of nuclear experiments, it is desired to have an optimized experiment which will provide the data needed for uncertainty reduction such that a reactor design concept can meet its target accuracies or to allow savings to be realized by reducing the margin required due to uncertainty propagated from basic nuclear data. However, this optimization is coupled to the reactor design itself because with improved data the reactor concept can be re-optimized itself. It is thus desired to find the experiment that gives the best optimized reactor design. Methods are first established to model both the reactor concept and the experiment and to efficiently propagate the basic nuclear data uncertainty through these models to outputs. The representativity of the experiment

  6. SVBR-100 module-type fast reactor of the IV generation for regional power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zrodnikov, A. V.; Toshinsky, G. I.; Komlev, O. G.; Stepanov, V. S.; Klimov, N. N.

    2011-08-01

    In the report the following is presented: basic conceptual provisions of the innovative nuclear power technology (NPT) based on modular fast reactors (FR) SVBR-100, summarized results of calculations of the reactor, analysis of the opportunities of multi-purpose application of such reactor facilities (RF) including export potentials with due account of nonproliferation requirements. The most important features of the proposed NPT analyzed in the report are as follows: (1) integral (monoblock) arrangement of the primary circuit equipment with entire elimination of the primary circuit pipelines and valves that considerably reduces the construction and assembly works period and coupling with high boiling point of lead-bismuth coolant (LBC) deterministically eliminates accidents of the LOCA type, (2) option for 100 MWe power and dimensions of the reactor provide: on the one hand, an opportunity to transport the reactor monoblock in factory-readiness by railway as well as other kinds of transport, on the other hand, core breeding ratio (CBR) exceeds 1 while MOX-fuel is used. The preferable area of application of RF SVBR-100 is regional and small power requiring power-units of electric power in a range of (100-600) MW, which could be used for cogeneration-based district heating while locating them nearby cities as well as for generation of electric power in a mode of load tracking in the regions with low network systems.

  7. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. IV. NGC 4216: A Bombarded Spiral in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Sanjaya; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Côté, Patrick; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Ferrarese, Laura; Ferriere, Etienne; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Mihos, J. Christopher; Vollmer, Bernd; Balogh, Michael L.; Carlberg, Ray G.; Boissier, Samuel; Boselli, Alessandro; Durrell, Patrick R.; Emsellem, Eric; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Mei, Simona; Michel-Dansac, Leo; van Driel, Wim

    2013-04-01

    The final stages of mass assembly of present-day massive galaxies are expected to occur through the accretion of multiple satellites. Cosmological simulations thus predict a high frequency of stellar streams resulting from this mass accretion around the massive galaxies in the Local Volume. Such tidal streams are difficult to observe, especially in dense cluster environments, where they are readily destroyed. We present an investigation into the origins of a series of interlaced narrow filamentary stellar structures, loops and plumes in the vicinity of the Virgo Cluster, edge-on spiral galaxy, NGC 4216 that were previously identified by the Blackbird telescope. Using the deeper, higher-resolution, and precisely calibrated optical CFHT/MegaCam images obtained as part of the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS), we confirm the previously identified features and identify a few additional structures. The NGVS data allowed us to make a physical study of these low surface brightness features and investigate their origin. The likely progenitors of the structures were identified as either already cataloged Virgo Cluster Catalog dwarfs or newly discovered satellites caught in the act of being destroyed. They have the same g - i color index and likely contain similar stellar populations. The alignment of three dwarfs along an apparently single stream is intriguing, and we cannot totally exclude that these are second-generation dwarf galaxies being born inside the filament from the debris of an original dwarf. The observed complex structures, including in particular a stream apparently emanating from a satellite of a satellite, point to a high rate of ongoing dwarf destruction/accretion in the region of the Virgo Cluster where NGC 4216 is located. We discuss the age of the interactions and whether they occurred in a group that is just falling into the cluster and shows signs of the so-called pre-processing before it gets affected by the cluster environment, or in a

  8. FLUOMEG: a planar finite difference mesh generator for fluid flow problems with parallel boundaries. [In FORTRAN IV

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinstreuer, C.; Patterson, M.R.

    1980-05-01

    A two- or three-dimensional finite difference mesh generator capable of discretizing subrectangular flow regions (planar coordinates) with arbitrarily shaped bottom contours (vertical dimension) was developed. This economical, interactive computer code, written in FORTRAN IV and employing DISSPLA software together with graphics terminal, generates first a planar rectangular grid of variable element density according to the geometry and local kinematic flow patterns of a given fluid flow problem. Then subrectangular areas are deleted to produce canals, tributaries, bays, and the like. For three-dimensional problems, arbitrary bathymetric profiles (river beds, channel cross section, ocean shoreline profiles, etc.) are approximated with grid lines forming steps of variable spacing. Furthermore, the code works as a preprocessor numbering the discrete elements and the nodal points. Prescribed values for the principal variables can be automatically assigned to solid as well as kinematic boundaries. Cabinet drawings aid in visualizing the complete flow domain. Input data requirements are necessary only to specify the spacing between grid lines, determine land regions that have to be excluded, and to identify boundary nodes. 15 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Hegel's notion of natural purpose.

    PubMed

    Michelini, Francesca

    2012-03-01

    This paper argues that the notion of natural purpose developed by Hegel can only be thoroughly grasped by considering its intimate connection with the idea of contradiction and, particularly, with what Hegel in his philosophy of nature called the 'activity of deficiency'. This expression is used by Hegel to denote the ontological situation of every living being, which is embodied most authentically in the concepts of need and drive. For Hegel, life itself is imbued with contradiction because it is inextricably bound up with what it lacks: its identity is at one with its negation. This paper defends the thesis that Hegel's philosophy-and not just his philosophy of nature-can be characterized as an 'ontology of life' (to use the same expression that Martin Heidegger applied to Aristotle's De Anima), or more precisely, as an ontology of living individuality. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Triggering the generation of an iron(IV)-oxo compound and its reactivity toward sulfides by Ru(II) photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Company, Anna; Sabenya, Gerard; González-Béjar, María; Gómez, Laura; Clémancey, Martin; Blondin, Geneviève; Jasniewski, Andrew J; Puri, Mayank; Browne, Wesley R; Latour, Jean-Marc; Que, Lawrence; Costas, Miquel; Pérez-Prieto, Julia; Lloret-Fillol, Julio

    2014-03-26

    The preparation of [Fe(IV)(O)(MePy2tacn)](2+) (2, MePy2tacn = N-methyl-N,N-bis(2-picolyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane) by reaction of [Fe(II)(MePy2tacn)(solvent)](2+) (1) and PhIO in CH3CN and its full characterization are described. This compound can also be prepared photochemically from its iron(II) precursor by irradiation at 447 nm in the presence of catalytic amounts of [Ru(II)(bpy)3](2+) as photosensitizer and a sacrificial electron acceptor (Na2S2O8). Remarkably, the rate of the reaction of the photochemically prepared compound 2 toward sulfides increases 150-fold under irradiation, and 2 is partially regenerated after the sulfide has been consumed; hence, the process can be repeated several times. The origin of this rate enhancement has been established by studying the reaction of chemically generated compound 2 with sulfides under different conditions, which demonstrated that both light and [Ru(II)(bpy)3](2+) are necessary for the observed increase in the reaction rate. A combination of nanosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy with laser pulse excitation and other mechanistic studies has led to the conclusion that an electron transfer mechanism is the most plausible explanation for the observed rate enhancement. According to this mechanism, the in-situ-generated [Ru(III)(bpy)3](3+) oxidizes the sulfide to form the corresponding radical cation, which is eventually oxidized by 2 to the corresponding sulfoxide.

  11. Triggering the Generation of an Iron(IV)-Oxo Compound and Its Reactivity toward Sulfides by RuII Photocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The preparation of [FeIV(O)(MePy2tacn)]2+ (2, MePy2tacn = N-methyl-N,N-bis(2-picolyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane) by reaction of [FeII(MePy2tacn)(solvent)]2+ (1) and PhIO in CH3CN and its full characterization are described. This compound can also be prepared photochemically from its iron(II) precursor by irradiation at 447 nm in the presence of catalytic amounts of [RuII(bpy)3]2+ as photosensitizer and a sacrificial electron acceptor (Na2S2O8). Remarkably, the rate of the reaction of the photochemically prepared compound 2 toward sulfides increases 150-fold under irradiation, and 2 is partially regenerated after the sulfide has been consumed; hence, the process can be repeated several times. The origin of this rate enhancement has been established by studying the reaction of chemically generated compound 2 with sulfides under different conditions, which demonstrated that both light and [RuII(bpy)3]2+ are necessary for the observed increase in the reaction rate. A combination of nanosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy with laser pulse excitation and other mechanistic studies has led to the conclusion that an electron transfer mechanism is the most plausible explanation for the observed rate enhancement. According to this mechanism, the in-situ-generated [RuIII(bpy)3]3+ oxidizes the sulfide to form the corresponding radical cation, which is eventually oxidized by 2 to the corresponding sulfoxide. PMID:24568126

  12. Physico-chemical properties of the new generation IV iron preparations ferumoxytol, iron isomaltoside 1000 and ferric carboxymaltose.

    PubMed

    Neiser, Susann; Rentsch, Daniel; Dippon, Urs; Kappler, Andreas; Weidler, Peter G; Göttlicher, Jörg; Steininger, Ralph; Wilhelm, Maria; Braitsch, Michaela; Funk, Felix; Philipp, Erik; Burckhardt, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    The advantage of the new generation IV iron preparations ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), ferumoxytol (FMX), and iron isomaltoside 1000 (IIM) is that they can be administered in relatively high doses in a short period of time. We investigated the physico-chemical properties of these preparations and compared them with those of the older preparations iron sucrose (IS), sodium ferric gluconate (SFG), and low molecular weight iron dextran (LMWID). Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy indicated akaganeite structures (β-FeOOH) for the cores of FCM, IIM and IS, and a maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) structure for that of FMX. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies confirmed the structure of the carbohydrate of FMX as a reduced, carboxymethylated, low molecular weight dextran, and that of IIM as a reduced Dextran 1000. Polarography yielded significantly different fingerprints of the investigated compounds. Reductive degradation kinetics of FMX was faster than that of FCM and IIM, which is in contrast to the high stability of FMX towards acid degradation. The labile iron content, i.e. the amount of iron that is only weakly bound in the polynuclear iron core, was assessed by a qualitative test that confirmed decreasing labile iron contents in the order SFG ≈ IS > LMWID ≥ FMX ≈ IIM ≈ FCM. The presented data are a step forward in the characterization of these non-biological complex drugs, which is a prerequisite to understand their cellular uptake mechanisms and the relationship between the structure and physiological safety as well as efficacy of these complexes.

  13. Notional Airspace Operations Demonstration Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trongale, Nicholas A.

    2006-01-01

    the NAS Preliminary planning for a notional mission to achieve the objectives and goals has been prepared. The planning is intended to serve as a guide for detailed planning of the AOD.

  14. Synergetic action of domain II and IV underlies persistent current generation in Nav1.3 as revealed by a tarantula toxin.

    PubMed

    Tang, Cheng; Zhou, Xi; Zhang, Yunxiao; Xiao, Zhaohua; Hu, Zhaotun; Zhang, Changxin; Huang, Ying; Chen, Bo; Liu, Zhonghua; Liang, Songping

    2015-03-18

    The persistent current (INaP) through voltage-gated sodium channels enhances neuronal excitability by causing prolonged depolarization of membranes. Nav1.3 intrinsically generates a small INaP, although the mechanism underlying its generation remains unclear. In this study, the involvement of the four domains of Nav1.3 in INaP generation was investigated using the tarantula toxin α-hexatoxin-MrVII (RTX-VII). RTX-VII activated Nav1.3 and induced a large INaP. A pre-activated state binding model was proposed to explain the kinetics of toxin-channel interaction. Of the four domains of Nav1.3, both domain II and IV might play important roles in the toxin-induced INaP. Domain IV constructed the binding site for RTX-VII, while domain II might not participate in interacting with RTX-VII but could determine the efficacy of RTX-VII. Our results based on the use of RTX-VII as a probe suggest that domain II and IV cooperatively contribute to the generation of INaP in Nav1.3.

  15. Synergetic Action of Domain II and IV Underlies Persistent Current Generation in Nav1.3 as revealed by a tarantula toxin

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Cheng; Zhou, Xi; Zhang, Yunxiao; xiao, Zhaohua; Hu, Zhaotun; Zhang, Changxin; Huang, Ying; Chen, Bo; Liu, Zhonghua; Liang, Songping

    2015-01-01

    The persistent current (INaP) through voltage-gated sodium channels enhances neuronal excitability by causing prolonged depolarization of membranes. Nav1.3 intrinsically generates a small INaP, although the mechanism underlying its generation remains unclear. In this study, the involvement of the four domains of Nav1.3 in INaP generation was investigated using the tarantula toxin α-hexatoxin-MrVII (RTX-VII). RTX-VII activated Nav1.3 and induced a large INaP. A pre-activated state binding model was proposed to explain the kinetics of toxin-channel interaction. Of the four domains of Nav1.3, both domain II and IV might play important roles in the toxin-induced INaP. Domain IV constructed the binding site for RTX-VII, while domain II might not participate in interacting with RTX-VII but could determine the efficacy of RTX-VII. Our results based on the use of RTX-VII as a probe suggest that domain II and IV cooperatively contribute to the generation of INaP in Nav1.3. PMID:25784299

  16. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitory peptides generated by tryptic hydrolysis of a whey protein concentrate rich in β-lactoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Silvana T; Martínez-Maqueda, Daniel; Recio, Isidra; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca

    2013-11-15

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) is a serine protease involved in the degradation and inactivation of incretin hormones that act by stimulating glucose-dependent insulin secretion after meal ingestion. DPP-IV inhibitors have emerged as new and promising oral agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of β-lactoglobulin as natural source of DPP-IV inhibitory peptides. A whey protein concentrate rich in β-lactoglobulin was hydrolysed with trypsin and fractionated using a chromatographic separation at semipreparative scale. Two of the six collected fractions showed notable DPP-IV inhibitory activity. These fractions were analysed by HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to identify peptides responsible for the observed activity. The most potent fragment (IPAVF) corresponded to β-lactoglobulin f(78-82) which IC50 value was 44.7μM. The results suggest that peptides derived from β-lactoglobulin would be beneficial ingredients of foods against type 2 diabetes.

  17. Analysis of supercritical CO{sub 2} cycle control strategies and dynamic response for Generation IV Reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J.

    2011-04-12

    The analysis of specific control strategies and dynamic behavior of the supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle has been extended to the two reactor types selected for continued development under the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative; namely, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and the Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). Direct application of the standard S-CO{sub 2} recompression cycle to the VHTR was found to be challenging because of the mismatch in the temperature drop of the He gaseous reactor coolant through the He-to-CO{sub 2} reactor heat exchanger (RHX) versus the temperature rise of the CO{sub 2} through the RHX. The reference VHTR features a large temperature drop of 450 C between the assumed core outlet and inlet temperatures of 850 and 400 C, respectively. This large temperature difference is an essential feature of the VHTR enabling a lower He flow rate reducing the required core velocities and pressure drop. In contrast, the standard recompression S-CO{sub 2} cycle wants to operate with a temperature rise through the RHX of about 150 C reflecting the temperature drop as the CO{sub 2} expands from 20 MPa to 7.4 MPa in the turbine and the fact that the cycle is highly recuperated such that the CO{sub 2} entering the RHX is effectively preheated. Because of this mismatch, direct application of the standard recompression cycle results in a relatively poor cycle efficiency of 44.9%. However, two approaches have been identified by which the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can be successfully adapted to the VHTR and the benefits of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle, especially a significant gain in cycle efficiency, can be realized. The first approach involves the use of three separate cascaded S-CO{sub 2} cycles. Each S-CO{sub 2} cycle is coupled to the VHTR through its own He-to-CO{sub 2} RHX in which the He temperature is reduced by 150 C. The three respective cycles have efficiencies of 54, 50, and 44%, respectively, resulting in a net cycle

  18. How to Make Functional-Notional Notions Function with a Standard American ESL Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichman, Thomas Lee

    This paper reviews the application of notional syllabuses and structural curricula to intensive ESL programs. It is suggested that a communicative or functional or functional-notional syllabus must not be viewed in contrast to a structural or grammatical syllabus. Functional notions are necessary inclusions into the class and into texts, but…

  19. DOS-HEATING6: A general conduction code with nuclear heat generation derived from DOT-IV transport calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.L.; Yuecel, A.; Nadkarny, S.

    1988-05-01

    The HEATING6 heat conduction code is modified to (a) read the multigroup particle fluxes from a two-dimensional DOT-IV neutron- photon transport calculation, (b) interpolate the fluxes from the DOT-IV variable (optional) mesh to the HEATING6 control volume mesh, and (c) fold the interpolated fluxes with kerma factors to obtain a nuclear heating source for the heat conduction equation. The modified HEATING6 is placed as a module in the ORNL discrete ordinates system (DOS), and has been renamed DOS-HEATING6. DOS-HEATING6 provides the capability for determining temperature distributions due to nuclear heating in complex, multi-dimensional systems. All of the original capabilities of HEATING6 are retained for the nuclear heating calculation; e.g., generalized boundary conditions (convective, radiative, finned, fixed temperature or heat flux), temperature and space dependent thermal properties, steady-state or transient analysis, general geometry description, etc. The numerical techniques used in the code are reviewed and the user input instructions and JCL to perform DOS-HEATING6 calculations are presented. Finally a sample problem involving coupled DOT-IV and DOS-HEATING6 calculations of a complex space-reactor configurations described, and the input and output of the calculations are listed. 10 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Respiration state IV-generated ROS destroy the mitochondrial bilayer packing order in vitro. An EPR study.

    PubMed

    Megli, Francesco M; Sabatini, Karen

    2003-08-28

    The aim of the present study was to detect defective structural properties in bilayers of mitochondrial phospholipids after oxidative stress of isolated mitochondria in vitro, reportedly during respiration state IV. The structural behaviour of extracted phospholipids was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry in oriented phospholipid bilayers spin-labelled with 5-doxyl-lecithin, by detecting of the degree of EPR spectral anisotropy loss, indicative of the phospholipid bilayer packing order. Bilayers of phospholipids from untreated mitochondria showed the highest spectral anisotropy, hence highly ordered structure, while chemically oxidised phospholipid yielded almost completely disordered supported phospholipid bilayers. Samples from mitochondria after respiration state IV showed bilayer disorder increasing with oxidation time, while inclusion of the antioxidant resveratrol in the respiration medium almost completely prevented bilayer disordering. On the other hand, beta-n-doxylstearoyl-lecithin spin-labelled mitochondria showed unchanged order parameter S at C positions 5, 12 and 16 after respiration state IV, confirming the insensitivity of this parameter to phospholipid oxidative stress. It is concluded that reactive oxygen species attack to the membrane affects lipid packing order more than fluidity, and that EPR anisotropy loss reveals oxidative damage to the bilayer better than the order parameter.

  1. Efficient generation of volatile cadmium species using Ti(III) and Ti(IV) and application to determination of cadmium by cold vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CVG-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Arslan, Zikri; Yilmaz, Vedat; Rose, LaKeysha

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a highly efficient chemical vapor generation (CVG) approach is reported for determination of cadmium (Cd). Titanium (III) and titanium (IV) were investigated for the first time as catalytic additives along with thiourea, L-cysteine and potassium cyanide (KCN) for generation of volatile Cd species. Both Ti(III) and Ti(IV) provided the highest enhancement with KCN. The improvement with thiourea was marginal (ca. 2-fold), while L-cysteine enhanced signal slightly only with Ti(III) in H2SO4. Optimum CVG conditions were 4% (v/v) HCl + 0.03 M Ti(III) + 0.16 M KCN and 2% (v/v) HNO3 + 0.03 M Ti(IV) + 0.16 M KCN with a 3% (m/v) NaBH4 solution. The sensitivity was improved about 40-fold with Ti(III) and 35-fold with Ti(IV). A limit of detection (LOD) of 3.2 ng L(-1) was achieved with Ti(III) by CVG-ICP-MS. The LOD with Ti(IV) was 6.4 ng L(-1) which was limited by the blank signals in Ti(IV) solution. Experimental evidence indicated that Ti(III) and Ti(IV) enhanced Cd vapor generation catalytically; for best efficiency mixing prior to reaction with NaBH4 was critical. The method was highly robust against the effects of transition metal ions. No significant suppression was observed in the presence of Co(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) up to 1.0 μg mL(-1). Among the hydride forming elements, no interference was observed from As(III) and Se(IV) at 0.5 μg mL(-1) level. The depressive effects from Pb(II) and Sb(III) were not significant at 0.1 μg mL(-1) while those from Bi(III) and Sn(II) were marginal. The procedures were validated with determination of Cd by CVG-ICP-MS in a number certified reference materials, including Nearshore seawater (CASS-4), Bone ash (SRM 1400), Dogfish liver (DOLT-4), Mussel tissue (SRM 2976) and Domestic Sludge (SRM 2781).

  2. Efficient generation of volatile cadmium species using Ti(III) and Ti(IV) and application to determination of cadmium by cold vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CVG-ICP-MS)†

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Zikri; Yilmaz, Vedat; Rose, LaKeysha

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a highly efficient chemical vapor generation (CVG) approach is reported for determination of cadmium (Cd). Titanium (III) and titanium (IV) were investigated for the first time as catalytic additives along with thiourea, L-cysteine and potassium cyanide (KCN) for generation of volatile Cd species. Both Ti(III) and Ti(IV) provided the highest enhancement with KCN. The improvement with thiourea was marginal (ca. 2-fold), while L-cysteine enhanced signal slightly only with Ti(III) in H2SO4. Optimum CVG conditions were 4% (v/v) HCl + 0.03 M Ti(III) + 0.16 M KCN and 2% (v/v) HNO3 + 0.03 M Ti(IV) + 0.16 M KCN with a 3% (m/v) NaBH4 solution. The sensitivity was improved about 40-fold with Ti(III) and 35-fold with Ti(IV). A limit of detection (LOD) of 3.2 ng L−1 was achieved with Ti(III) by CVG-ICP-MS. The LOD with Ti(IV) was 6.4 ng L−1 which was limited by the blank signals in Ti(IV) solution. Experimental evidence indicated that Ti(III) and Ti(IV) enhanced Cd vapor generation catalytically; for best efficiency mixing prior to reaction with NaBH4 was critical. The method was highly robust against the effects of transition metal ions. No significant suppression was observed in the presence of Co(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) up to 1.0 μg mL−1. Among the hydride forming elements, no interference was observed from As(III) and Se(IV) at 0.5 μg mL−1 level. The depressive effects from Pb(II) and Sb(III) were not significant at 0.1 μg mL−1 while those from Bi(III) and Sn(II) were marginal. The procedures were validated with determination of Cd by CVG-ICP-MS in a number certified reference materials, including Nearshore seawater (CASS-4), Bone ash (SRM 1400), Dogfish liver (DOLT-4), Mussel tissue (SRM 2976) and Domestic Sludge (SRM 2781). PMID:26251554

  3. Generation of oxoiron (IV) tetramesitylporphyrin pi-cation radical complexes by m-CPBA oxidation of ferric tetramesitylporphyrin derivatives in butyronitrile at - 78 degrees C. Evidence for the formation of six-coordinate oxoiron (IV) tetramesitylporphyrin pi-cation radical complexes FeIV = O(tmp*)X (X = Cl-, Br-), by Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wolter, T; Meyer-Klaucke, W; Müther, M; Mandon, D; Winkler, H; Trautwein, A X; Weiss, R

    2000-01-30

    The generation of six-coordinate oxoiron (IV) tetramesitylporphyrin pi-caption radical complexes by m-CPBA (meta-chloroperbenzoic acid) oxidation of ferric tetramesitylporphyrin derivatives in butyronitrile at - 78 degrees C was investigated. UV-Vis and EPR spectroscopies indicate that the axial ligand present in the ferric starting derivatives is retained in the high-valent iron complexes. Indirect evidence for the formation of six-coordinate oxoiron (IV) tetramesitylporphyrin complexes FeIV = O(tmp*)X (X=Cl-, Br-) by m-CPBA oxidation of FeX(tmp) (X=Cl-, Br-) in butyronitrile at - 78 degrees C was also obtained by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Direct confirmation of the presence of a halide ion as second axial ligand of iron in these high-valent iron species was obtained by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The EXAFS spectra of the samples obtained by m-CPBA oxidation of FeX(tmp) (X=Cl-, Br-) were refined using two different coordination models including both four porphyrinato-nitrogens and the axial oxo group. The two models include (model I) or exclude (model II) the axial halogen. The statistical tests indicate the presence of a halide ion as second axial ligand of iron in both derivatives. The refinements led to the following bond distances: FeIV=O(tmp*)Cl(3):Fe-O=1.66(1),Fe-Cl=2.39(2) and Fe-Np=1.99(1) A;FeIV=O(tmp*)Br(4):Fe-O=1.65(1),Fe-Br=2.93(2), Fe-Np=2.02(1) A. The lengthening of the Fe-X(X=Cl-, Br-) distances relative to those occurring in the ferric precursor porphyrins is, most probably, related to the strong trans influence of the oxoiron(IV) fragment present in 3 or 4.

  4. Speciation and determination of tin(IV) and organotin compounds in sea-water by hydride generation-atomic-absorption spectrometry with an electrically heated long absorption cell.

    PubMed

    Chamsaz, M; Khasawneh, I M; Winefordner, J D

    1988-07-01

    A method is described for the determination of nanogram or subnanogram amounts of Sn(IV) and the halides of methyltin, dimethyltin, trimethyltin, n-butyltin, dibutyltin, and tributyltin. These compounds are volatilized from water samples by hydride generation, collected on a chromatographic stationary phase, desorbed in order of increasing boiling point, and detected by atomic-absorption spectrometry with atomization in a long electrothermally heated alumina tube furnace. The absolute detection limits are in the range 0.4-1.5 ng with a reproducibility of 4-15% for inorganic tin and organotin compounds.

  5. The Mechanism of Intralipid®-Mediated Cardioprotection Complex IV Inhibition by the Active Metabolite, Palmitoylcarnitine, Generates Reactive Oxygen Species and Activates Reperfusion Injury Salvage Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Phing-How; Lucchinetti, Eliana; Zhang, Liyan; Affolter, Andreas; Schaub, Marcus C.; Gandhi, Manoj; Hersberger, Martin; Warren, Blair E.; Lemieux, Hélène; Sobhi, Hany F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Intralipid® administration at reperfusion elicits protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Methods Sprague-Dawley rat hearts were exposed to 15 min of ischemia and 30 min of reperfusion in the absence or presence of Intralipid® 1% administered at the onset of reperfusion. In separate experiments, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine was added either alone or with Intralipid®. Left ventricular work and activation of Akt, STAT3, and ERK1/2 were used to evaluate cardioprotection. ROS production was assessed by measuring the loss of aconitase activity and the release of hydrogen peroxide using Amplex Red. Electron transport chain complex activities and proton leak were measured by high-resolution respirometry in permeabilized cardiac fibers. Titration experiments using the fatty acid intermediates of Intralipid® palmitoyl-, oleoyl- and linoleoylcarnitine served to determine concentration-dependent inhibition of complex IV activity and mitochondrial ROS release. Results Intralipid® enhanced postischemic recovery and activated Akt and Erk1/2, effects that were abolished by the ROS scavenger N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)glycine. Palmitoylcarnitine and linoleoylcarnitine, but not oleoylcarnitine concentration-dependently inhibited complex IV. Only palmitoylcarnitine reached high tissue concentrations during early reperfusion and generated significant ROS by complex IV inhibition. Palmitoylcarnitine (1 µM), administered at reperfusion, also fully mimicked Intralipid®-mediated protection in an N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine -dependent manner. Conclusions Our data describe a new mechanism of postconditioning cardioprotection by the clinically available fat emulsion, Intralipid®. Protection is elicited by the fatty acid intermediate palmitoylcarnitine, and involves inhibition of complex IV, an increase in ROS production and activation of the RISK

  6. A typology of four notions of confounding in epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Tsuda, Toshihide; Yamamoto, Eiji

    2017-02-01

    Confounding is a major concern in epidemiology. Despite its significance, the different notions of confounding have not been fully appreciated in the literature, leading to confusion of causal concepts in epidemiology. In this article, we aim to highlight the importance of differentiating between the subtly different notions of confounding from the perspective of counterfactual reasoning. By using a simple example, we illustrate the significance of considering the distribution of response types to distinguish causation from association, highlighting that confounding depends not only on the population chosen as the target of inference, but also on the notions of confounding in distribution and confounding in measure. This point has been relatively underappreciated, partly because some literature on the concept of confounding has only used the exposed and unexposed groups as the target populations, while it would be helpful to use the total population as the target population. Moreover, to clarify a further distinction between confounding "in expectation" and "realized" confounding, we illustrate the usefulness of examining the distribution of exposure status in the target population. To grasp the explicit distinction between confounding in expectation and realized confounding, we need to understand the mechanism that generates exposure events, not the product of that mechanism. Finally, we graphically illustrate this point, highlighting the usefulness of directed acyclic graphs in examining the presence of confounding in distribution, in the notion of confounding in expectation.

  7. A typology of four notions of confounding in epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Tsuda, Toshihide; Yamamoto, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Confounding is a major concern in epidemiology. Despite its significance, the different notions of confounding have not been fully appreciated in the literature, leading to confusion of causal concepts in epidemiology. In this article, we aim to highlight the importance of differentiating between the subtly different notions of confounding from the perspective of counterfactual reasoning. By using a simple example, we illustrate the significance of considering the distribution of response types to distinguish causation from association, highlighting that confounding depends not only on the population chosen as the target of inference, but also on the notions of confounding in distribution and confounding in measure. This point has been relatively underappreciated, partly because some literature on the concept of confounding has only used the exposed and unexposed groups as the target populations, while it would be helpful to use the total population as the target population. Moreover, to clarify a further distinction between confounding “in expectation” and “realized” confounding, we illustrate the usefulness of examining the distribution of exposure status in the target population. To grasp the explicit distinction between confounding in expectation and realized confounding, we need to understand the mechanism that generates exposure events, not the product of that mechanism. Finally, we graphically illustrate this point, highlighting the usefulness of directed acyclic graphs in examining the presence of confounding in distribution, in the notion of confounding in expectation. PMID:28142011

  8. Asteroids IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    . Asteroids, like planets, are driven by a great variety of both dynamical and physical mechanisms. In fact, images sent back by space missions show a collection of small worlds whose characteristics seem designed to overthrow our preconceived notions. Given their wide range of sizes and surface compositions, it is clear that many formed in very different places and at different times within the solar nebula. These characteristics make them an exciting challenge for researchers who crave complex problems. The return of samples from these bodies may ultimately be needed to provide us with solutions. In the book Asteroids IV, the editors and authors have taken major strides in the long journey toward a much deeper understanding of our fascinating planetary ancestors. This book reviews major advances in 43 chapters that have been written and reviewed by a team of more than 200 international authorities in asteroids. It is aimed to be as comprehensive as possible while also remaining accessible to students and researchers who are interested in learning about these small but nonetheless important worlds. We hope this volume will serve as a leading reference on the topic of asteroids for the decade to come. We are deeply indebted to the many authors and referees for their tremendous efforts in helping us create Asteroids IV. We also thank the members of the Asteroids IV scientific organizing committee for helping us shape the structure and content of the book. The conference associated with the book, "Asteroids Comets Meteors 2014" held June 30-July 4, 2014, in Helsinki, Finland, did an outstanding job of demonstrating how much progress we have made in the field over the last decade. We are extremely grateful to our host Karri Muinonnen and his team. The editors are also grateful to the Asteroids IV production staff, namely Renée Dotson and her colleagues at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, for their efforts, their invaluable assistance, and their enthusiasm; they made life as

  9. Molecular characterization and polyclonal antibody generation against core component CagX protein of Helicobacter pylori type IV secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Gopal Jee; Kumar, Awanish; Pal, Jagannath; Mukhopadhyay, Gauranga

    2014-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria Helicobacter pylori cause gastric ulcer, duodenal cancer, and found in almost half of the world’s residents. The protein responsible for this disease is secreted through type IV secretion system (TFSS) of H. pylori. TFSS is encoded by 40-kb region of chromosomal DNA known as cag-pathogenicity island (PAI). TFSS comprises of three major components: cytoplasmic/inner membrane ATPase, transmembrane core-complex and outer membranous pilli, and associated subunits. Core complex consists of CagX, CagT, CagM, and Cag3(δ) proteins as per existing knowledge. In this study, we have characterized one of the important component of core-complex forming sub-unit protein, i.e., CagX. Complete ORF of CagX except signal peptide coding region was cloned and expressed in pET28a vector. Purification of CagX protein was performed, and polyclonal anti-sera against full-length recombinant CagX were raised in rabbit model. We obtained a very specific and high titer, CagX anti-sera that were utilized to characterize endogenous CagX. Surface localization of CagX was also seen by immunofluorescence microscopy. In short for the first time a full-length CagX was characterized, and we showed that CagX is the part of high molecular weight core complex, which is important for assembly and function of H. pylori TFSS. PMID:24637488

  10. Investigation of a Novel NDE Method for Monitoring Thermomechanical Damage and Microstructure Evolution in Ferritic-Martensitic Steels for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Peter

    2013-09-30

    The main goal of the proposed project is the development of validated nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for in situ monitoring of ferritic-martensitic steels like Grade 91 9Cr-1Mo, which are candidate materials for Generation IV nuclear energy structural components operating at temperatures up to ~650{degree}C and for steam-generator tubing for sodium-cooled fast reactors. Full assessment of thermomechanical damage requires a clear separation between thermally activated microstructural evolution and creep damage caused by simultaneous mechanical stress. Creep damage can be classified as "negligible" creep without significant plastic strain and "ordinary" creep of the primary, secondary, and tertiary kind that is accompanied by significant plastic deformation and/or cavity nucleation and growth. Under negligible creep conditions of interest in this project, minimal or no plastic strain occurs, and the accumulation of creep damage does not significantly reduce the fatigue life of a structural component so that low-temperature design rules, such as the ASME Section III, Subsection NB, can be applied with confidence. The proposed research project will utilize a multifaceted approach in which the feasibility of electrical conductivity and thermo-electric monitoring methods is researched and coupled with detailed post-thermal/creep exposure characterization of microstructural changes and damage processes using state-of-the-art electron microscopy techniques, with the aim of establishing the most effective nondestructive materials evaluation technique for particular degradation modes in high-temperature alloys that are candidates for use in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) as well as providing the necessary mechanism-based underpinnings for relating the two. Only techniques suitable for practical application in situ will be considered. As the project evolves and results accumulate, we will also study the use of this technique for monitoring other GEN IV

  11. The Ontogenesis of Agent: Cognitive Notion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olswang, Lesley Barrett; Carpenter, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Three children were observed in their homes approximately once a month for one year, from their 11th through 22nd month of life. Based on observation of the children's changing nonverbal behaviors, a five-level developmental sequence documenting the evolution of the cognitive notion of agent was developed. (Author)

  12. Refining the Notion of Ethnolinguistic Vitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehala, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The paper argues that the notion of ethnolinguistic vitality has been used ambiguously in the vitality theory, denoting three distinct theoretical concepts: sustainability (Su), strength (S) and vitality (V). It is hypothesised that sustainability is a group's ability to continue existing as a group while vitality is its ability to act as a…

  13. Young Adolescents' Knowledge and Notions of Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppen, Frans H.; Feinberg, Joseph R.; Arrowood-Schultheis, Chelsie M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the US naturalization test as a springboard to gauge the citizenship knowledge and notions of young adolescent students in Ohio and Georgia. The participants' citizenship knowledge was partially measured by administering questions from the US naturalization test in two case studies. Students from a range of…

  14. Notions of "Error" and Appropriate Corrective Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Nancy

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the notion of "error" in linguistics and language teaching theory and its potential application to error correction in the second language classroom is examined. Definitions of "error" in psycholinguistics, native speech, and English second language instruction are discussed, and the relationship of interlanguage…

  15. State-of-the-Art Assessment of Testing and Testability of Custom LSI/VLSI Circuits. Volume IV. Test Generation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    containing 240 gates and 36 flip-flops [Hill & Huey 1977]. It 13 S tart aults Fault (1)-AgorithmI (2) Sensitization Searchj o. , ye F nauls no -- - Delet...Conf., Cherry Hill, NJ, pp. 37-41, October 1979. [Lesser & Shedletsky 1980] J.D. Lesser & J.J. Shedletsky: "An experimental delay test generator for...patterns within a structured sequential logic network," Digest Semiconductor Test Symp., Cherry Hill, NJ, pp. 19-27, October 1977. [Yamada et al. 1977

  16. Development and Validation of Temperature Dependent Thermal Neutron Scattering Laws for Applications and Safety Implications in Generation IV Reactor Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Ayman Hawari

    2008-06-20

    The overall obljectives of this project are to critically review the currently used thermal neutron scattering laws for various moderators as a function of temperature, select as well documented and representative set of experimental data sensitive to the neutron spectra to generate a data base of benchmarks, update models and models parameters by introducing new developments in thermalization theory and condensed matter physics into various computational approaches in establishing the scattering laws, benchmark the results against the experimentatl set. In the case of graphite, a validation experiment is performed by observing nutron slowing down as a function of temperatures equal to or greater than room temperature.

  17. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the use of Virtual Environments: Task 1 Completion Report

    SciTech Connect

    Whisker, V.E.; Baratta, A.J.; Shaw, T.S.; Winters, J.W.; Trikouros, N.; Hess, C.

    2002-11-26

    OAK B204 The objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. Specifically, this project will test the suitability of Immersive Projection Display (IPD) technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups.

  18. Titanium(IV) isopropoxide mediated solution phase reductive amination on an automated platform: application in the generation of urea and amide libraries.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, S; Fan, L; Vo, L; Labadie, J

    2000-04-01

    Amine libraries and their derivatives are important targets for high throughput synthesis because of their versatility as medicinal agents and agrochemicals. As a part of our efforts towards automated chemical library synthesis, a titanium(IV) isopropoxide mediated solution phase reductive amination protocol was successfully translated to automation on the Trident(TM) library synthesizer of Argonaut Technologies. An array of 24 secondary amines was prepared in high yield and purity from 4 primary amines and 6 carbonyl compounds. These secondary amines were further utilized in a split synthesis to generate libraries of ureas, amides and sulfonamides in solution phase on the Trident(TM). The automated runs included 192 reactions to synthesize 96 ureas in duplicate and 96 reactions to synthesize 48 amides and 48 sulfonamides. A number of polymer-assisted solution phase protocols were employed for parallel work-up and purification of the products in each step.

  19. Generation of a Mn(IV)-Peroxo or Mn(III)-Oxo-Mn(III) Species upon Oxygenation of Mono- and Binuclear Thiolate-Ligated Mn(II) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chien-Ming; Wu, Wun-Yan; Chiang, Ming-Hsi; Bohle, D Scott; Lee, Gene-Hsiang

    2017-09-05

    A thiolate-bridged binuclear complex [PPN]2[(Mn(II)((TMS)PS3))2] (1, PPN = bis(triphenylphosphine)iminium and (TMS)PS3H3 = (2,2',2″-trimercapto-3,3',3″-tris(trimethylsilyl)triphenylphosphine)), prepared from the reaction of MnCl2/[PPN]Cl and Li3[(TMS)PS3], converts into a mononuclear complex [PPN][Mn(II)((TMS)PS3)(DABCO)] (2) in the presence of excess amounts of DABCO (DABCO = 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane). Variable temperature studies of solution containing 1 and DABCO by UV-vis spectroscopy indicate that 1 and 2 exist in significant amounts in equilibrium and mononuclear 2 is favored at low temperature. Treatment of 1 or 2 with the monomeric O2-side-on-bound [PPN][Mn(IV)(O2)((TMS)PS3)] (3) produces the mono-oxo-bridged dimer [PPN]2[(Mn(III)((TMS)PS3))2(μ-O)] (4). The electrochemistry of 1 and 2 reveals anodic peak(s) for a Mn(III/)Mn(II) redox couple at shifted potentials against Fc/Fc(+), indicating that both complexes can be oxidized by dioxygen. The O2 activation mediated by 1 and 2 is investigated in both solution and the solid state. Microcrystals of 2 rapidly react with air or dry O2 to generate the Mn(IV)-peroxo 3 in high yield, revealing a solid-to-solid transformation and two-electron reduction of O2. Oxygenation of 1 or 2 in solution, however, is affected by diffusion and transient concentration of dioxygen in the two different substrates, leading to generation of 3 and 4 in variable ratios.

  20. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Program (NERI) Quarterly Progress Report; New Design Equations for Swelling and Irradiation Creep in Generation IV Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfer, W G; Surh, M P; Garner, F A; Chrzan, D C; Schaldach, C; Sturgeon, J B

    2003-02-13

    The objectives of this research project are to significantly extend the theoretical foundation and the modeling of radiation-induced microstructural changes in structural materials used in Generation IV nuclear reactors, and to derive from these microstructure models the constitutive laws for void swelling, irradiation creep and stress-induced swelling, as well as changes in mechanical properties. The need for the proposed research is based on three major developments and advances over the past two decades. First, new experimental discoveries have been made on void swelling and irradiation creep which invalidate previous theoretical models and empirical constitutive laws for swelling and irradiation creep. Second, recent advances in computational methods and power make it now possible to model the complex processes of microstructure evolution over long-term neutron exposures. Third, it is now required that radiation-induced changes in structural materials over extended lifetimes be predicted and incorporated in the design of Generation IV reactors. Our approach to modeling and data analysis is a dual one in accord with both the objectives to simulate the evolution of the microstructure and to develop design equations for macroscopic properties. Validation of the models through data analysis is therefore carried out at both the microscopic and the macroscopic levels. For the microstructure models, we utilize the transmission electron microscopy results from steels irradiated in reactors and from model materials irradiated by neutrons as well as ion bombardments. The macroscopic constitutive laws will be tested and validated by analyzing density data, irradiation creep data, diameter changes of fuel elements, and post-irradiation tensile data. Validation of both microstructure models and macroscopic constitutive laws is a more stringent test of the internal consistency of the underlying science for radiation effects in structural materials for nuclear reactors.

  1. [Technology and notion of human life].

    PubMed

    Kakimoto, Yoshimi

    2013-12-01

    This article aims to examine the rules of robotics whose sense is modified in society and which change the notion of human body. Asimov proposed three rules of robotics in his novel of science fiction, which become the basis of the rules concerning the study of the development of robotics. These rules are created in order to avoid harming human beings and to mitigate the variant difficulties of being human being. As for latter, robotics has functioned as a meaning of extension of the physical faculty. Thus, technology develops in the direction of the enhancement of the capability of human body beyond the necessities of life. Robotics doesn't only suggest a rethinking of the notion of a human being but also changes our understanding of the human body.

  2. Regenerative Heater Optimization for Steam Turbo-Generation Cycles of Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants with a Comparison of Two Concepts for the Westinghouse International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.C.

    2002-08-01

    The intent of this study is to discuss some of the many factors involved in the development of the design and layout of a steam turbo-generation unit as part of a modular Generation IV nuclear power plant. Of the many factors involved in the design and layout, this research will cover feed water system layout and optimization issues. The research is arranged in hopes that it can be generalized to any Generation IV system which uses a steam powered turbo-generation unit. The research is done using the ORCENT-II heat balance codes and the Salisbury methodology to be reviewed herein. The Salisbury methodology is used on an original cycle design by Famiani for the Westinghouse IRIS and the effects due to parameter variation are studied. The vital parameters of the Salisbury methodology are the incremental heater surface capital cost (S) in $/ft{sup 2}, the value of incremental power (I) in $/kW, and the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) in Btu/ft{sup 2}-degrees Fahrenheit-hr. Each is varied in order to determine the effects on the cycles overall heat rate, output, as well as, the heater surface areas. The effects of each are shown. Then the methodology is then used to compare the optimized original Famiani design consisting of seven regenerative feedwater heaters with an optimized new cycle concept, INRC8, containing four regenerative heaters. The results are shown. It can be seen that a trade between the complexity of the seven stage regenerative Famiani cycle and the simplicity of the INRC8 cycle can be made. It is desired that this methodology can be used to show the ability to evaluate modularity through the value of size a complexity of the system as well as the performance. It also shows the effectiveness of the Salisbury methodology in the optimization of regenerative cycles for such an evaluation.

  3. [The notion of task in focus groups].

    PubMed

    Dall'Agnol, Clarice Maria; de Magalhães, Ana Maria Müller; Mano, Gustavo Caetano de Mattos; Olschowsky, Agnes; da Silva, Flávia Pacheco

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to revisit the concept of task in light of Pichon-Riviére's referential and to discuss its application in research with focus groups. Focus groups are understood as a research technique which proposes to investigate a topic in depth, allowing the construction of new ideas and answers on the subject in focus. The presuppositions of operative groups were used to support the research practice with focus groups. In these, the notion of task has a key strategic position from which it seeks to intervene in society through dialogue and collective construction, unlike simple data collecting

  4. Hydroxypyridinonate complex stability of group (IV) metals and tetravalent f-block elements: the key to the next generation of chelating agents for radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Choi, Taylor A; Abergel, Rebecca J

    2015-04-06

    The solution thermodynamics of the water-soluble complexes formed between 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) and Zr(IV) or Pu(IV) were investigated to establish the metal coordination properties of this octadentate chelating agent. Stability constants log β110 = 43.1 ± 0.6 and 43.5 ± 0.7 were determined for [Zr(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))] and [Pu(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))], respectively, by spectrophotometric competition titrations against Ce(IV). Such high thermodynamic stabilities not only confirm the unparalleled Pu(IV) affinity of 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) as a decorporation agent but also corroborate the great potential of hydroxypyridinonate ligands as new (89)Zr-chelating platforms for immuno-PET applications. These experimental values are in excellent agreement with previous estimates and are discussed with respect to ionic radius and electronic configuration, in comparison with those of Ce(IV) and Th(IV). Furthermore, a liquid chromatography assay combined with mass spectrometric detection was developed to probe the separation of the neutral [M(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))] complex species (M = Zr, Ce, Th, and Pu), providing additional insight into the coordination differences between group IV and tetravalent f-block metals and on the role of d and f orbitals in bonding interactions.

  5. Notions of similarity for systems biology models.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Ron; Hoehndorf, Robert; Kacprowski, Tim; Knüpfer, Christian; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2016-10-14

    Systems biology models are rapidly increasing in complexity, size and numbers. When building large models, researchers rely on software tools for the retrieval, comparison, combination and merging of models, as well as for version control. These tools need to be able to quantify the differences and similarities between computational models. However, depending on the specific application, the notion of 'similarity' may greatly vary. A general notion of model similarity, applicable to various types of models, is still missing. Here we survey existing methods for the comparison of models, introduce quantitative measures for model similarity, and discuss potential applications of combined similarity measures. To frame model comparison as a general problem, we describe a theoretical approach to defining and computing similarities based on a combination of different model aspects. The six aspects that we define as potentially relevant for similarity are underlying encoding, references to biological entities, quantitative behaviour, qualitative behaviour, mathematical equations and parameters and network structure. We argue that future similarity measures will benefit from combining these model aspects in flexible, problem-specific ways to mimic users' intuition about model similarity, and to support complex model searches in databases.

  6. Little Jiffy, Mark IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Henry F.; Rice, John

    1974-01-01

    In this paper three changes and one new development for the method of exploratory factor analysis (a second generation Little Jiffy) developed by Kaiser are described. Following this short description a step-by-step computer algorithm of the revised method, dubbed Little Jiffy, Mark IV is presented. (MP)

  7. I-V and DLTS study of generation and annihilation of deep-level defects in an oxygen-ion irradiated bipolar junction transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhu, K. V.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Ravindra, M.; Damle, R.

    A commercial bipolar junction transistor (2N 2219A, npn) irradiated with 84 MeV O6+-ions with fluence of the order of 1013 ions cm-2 is studied for radiation-induced gain degradation and deep-level defects or recombination centers. I-V measurements are made to study the gain degradation as a function of ion fluence. Properties such as activation energy, trap concentration and capture cross section of deep levels are studied by deep-level transient spectroscopy. Minority carrier trap energy levels with energies ranging from EC -0.17 eV to EC -0.55 eV are observed in the base-collector junction of the transistor. Majority carrier defect levels are also observed with energies ranging from EV +0.26 eV to EV +0.44 eV. The irradiated device is subjected to isothermal and isochronal annealing. The defects are seen to anneal above 250 °C. The defects generated in the base region of the transistor by displacement damage appear to be responsible for an increase in base current through Shockley-Read-Hall or multi-phonon recombination and consequent transistor gain degradation.

  8. Welding IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding IV, a competency-based course in advanced arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with proficiency in: (1) single vee groove welding using code specifications established by the American Welding Society…

  9. Welding IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding IV, a competency-based course in advanced arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with proficiency in: (1) single vee groove welding using code specifications established by the American Welding Society…

  10. SPECIATION OF SELENIUM AND ARSENIC COMPOUNDS BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS WITH HYDRODYNAMICALLY MODIFIED ELECTROOSMOTIC FLOW AND ON-LINE REDUCTION OF SELENIUM(VI) TO SELENIUM(IV) WITH HYDRIDE GENERATION INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) with hydride generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine four arsenicals and two selenium species. Selenate (SeVI) was reduced on-line to selenite (SeIV') by mixing the CE effluent with concentrated HCl. A microporo...

  11. NUCLEAR ENERGY RESEARCH INITIATIVE (NERI) PROGRAM GRANT NUMBER DE-FG03-00SF22168 TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT (Nov. 15, 2001 - Feb. 15,2002) ''Design and Layout Concepts for Compact, Factory-Produced, Transportable, Generation IV Reactor Systems''

    SciTech Connect

    Fred R. Mynatt; Andy Kadak; Marc Berte; Larry Miller; Mohammed Khan; Joe McConn; Lawrence Townsend; Wesley Williams; Martin Williamson

    2002-03-15

    The objectives of this project are to develop and evaluate nuclear power plant designs and layout concepts to maximize the benefits of compact modular Generation IV reactor concepts including factory fabrication and packaging for optimal transportation and siting. Three nuclear power plant concepts are being studied representing water, helium and lead-bismuth coolants. This is the sixth quarterly progress report.

  12. SPECIATION OF SELENIUM AND ARSENIC COMPOUNDS BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS WITH HYDRODYNAMICALLY MODIFIED ELECTROOSMOTIC FLOW AND ON-LINE REDUCTION OF SELENIUM(VI) TO SELENIUM(IV) WITH HYDRIDE GENERATION INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) with hydride generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine four arsenicals and two selenium species. Selenate (SeVI) was reduced on-line to selenite (SeIV') by mixing the CE effluent with concentrated HCl. A microporo...

  13. Superiority of second over first generation chemotherapy in a randomized trial for stage III-IV intermediate and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL): the 1980-1985 EORTC trial. The EORTC Lymphoma Group.

    PubMed

    Carde, P; Meerwaldt, J H; van Glabbeke, M; Somers, R; Monconduit, M; Thomas, J; de Wolf-Peeters, C; de Pauw, B; Tanguy, A; Kluin-Nelemans, J C

    1991-06-01

    A first-generation CHOP-like cyclic combination chemotherapy (CT) regimen using cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 IV d1, hydroxorubicin (doxorubicin) 50 mg/m2 IV d1, VM26 60 mg/m2 IV d1, and prednisone 40 mg/m2 PO d1-5 (CHVmP) was compared to a second-generation combination wherein vincristine 1.4 mg/m2 IV and bleomycin 6 mg/m2 IM/IV were added at mid-interval (d15) to the former drugs (CHVmP + VB) in the treatment of intermediate- and high-grade malignant NHL. From April 1980 to January 1986, 141 eligible patients with stage III-IV unfavorable histologies (except T lymphoblastic NHL) entered this EORTC randomized trial. In both arms adjuvant radiotherapy (30 Gy) was given in instances of bulky or residual disease. In all patient subsets the outcome favored the second-generation regimen. The difference was even greater in patients with Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma (DLCL). At 5 years, overall survival was 53% with CHVmP + VB versus 29% (p = 0.002). The advantage was due to a higher complete remission (CR) rate (80% versus 50%, p = 0.01). Indeed, once CR was achieved the relapse-free survival (RFS) was not significantly influenced (59% versus 49%). No significant additional toxicity could be attributed to vincristine and bleomycin. This study demonstrates a clear benefit for intermediate- and high-risk malignant NHL and particularly DLCL from intercalating non-myelotoxic drugs at mid-cycle intervals, without adverse effects.

  14. The Notion of Substance in Physical Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanzandt, Joseph David

    The thesis explores the philosophical consequences of adopting the view that the principle of non-contradiction, the principle of sufficient reason, and the monistic notion of substance are more closely linked than most modern and contemporary philosophers have supposed. This thesis is then applied to show the connections between the metaphysical views of Spinoza and the view of nature of Albert Einstein. The first chapter is an historical overview of the principles of sufficient reason and non-contradiction, and the notion of substance, followed by a presentation of the reasons that led the author to conclude that the usual treatment of these concepts requires revision. These reasons are based upon substantial cause theory, developed in the 1970s by Richard Cole. The second and third chapters are an interpretation of Book 1 of Spinoza's Ethics from the viewpoint presented in the first chapter. The implicit role of the principles of non-contradiction and sufficient reason in Spinoza's argument is drawn out through an examination of his definitions, axioms and propositions. The third and fourth chapters are an interpretation and criticism of Immanuel Kant. It is first shown that the common dismissal of Kant's philosophy based upon the discovery of non-Euclidean geometries and the denial of strict causality among some physical events is not well founded; ways in which Kant's framework can accommodate these problems are proposed. It is then argued that Kant's criticism of traditional metaphysics is not conclusive. In particular, Kant's arguments against the possibility of an ontological argument are examined and criticisms of his arguments are presented. The sixth and seventh chapters contain an historical account of the development of physics in the 20th century to illustrate the strong tendency toward unification found in science. It is suggested that this natural tendency to seek ever higher levels of unification is evidence that the principle of sufficient reason

  15. IVS Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    International VLBI Service (IVS) is an international collaboration of organizations which operate or support Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) components. The goals are: To provide a service to support geodetic, geophysical and astrometric research and operational activities. To promote research and development activities in all aspects of the geodetic and astrometric VLBI technique. To interact with the community of users of VLBI products and to integrate VLBI into a global Earth observing system.

  16. Notions of "Rhetoric as Epistemic" in Ancient Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.

    The notion that rhetoric (and to a lesser extent, argument) is epistemic is an increasingly popular one today, although it can be traced to ancient Greece. The notion holds that rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, creates and shapes knowledge. Two ancient authors--Aristophanes and Plato--provide evidence that others had notions of rhetoric as…

  17. Notions of "Rhetoric as Epistemic" in Ancient Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.

    The notion that rhetoric (and to a lesser extent, argument) is epistemic is an increasingly popular one today, although it can be traced to ancient Greece. The notion holds that rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, creates and shapes knowledge. Two ancient authors--Aristophanes and Plato--provide evidence that others had notions of rhetoric as…

  18. Hermeneutic notions augment cultural safety education.

    PubMed

    Spence, Deb G

    2005-09-01

    Nurses are beginning to demand educational approaches that confront racism, rather than teach cultural diversity. One example of the latter approach is the introduction of kawa whakaruruhau, or cultural safety, in nursing and midwifery education in New Zealand. In the nursing and midwifery context of kawa whakaruruhau, nurses and midwives recognize, respect, and nurture the unique cultural identity of New Zealand's indigenous people, the tangata whenua, and safely meets their needs, expectations, and rights. In this article, I integrate literature pertaining to the implementation of cultural safety with the findings of a hermeneutic project that described the experience of nursing people from cultures other than one's own, and argue that the Gadamerian notions of "horizon," "prejudice," and "play" can be used to facilitate understanding of the tensions and contradictions inherent in cross-cultural practice. In addition, I recommend strategies that enable students to explore the prejudices, paradoxes, and possibilities experienced personally and professionally. As Gadamer noted, the art is in seeing what is questionable. There is also art in knowing how to question in a manner that makes new understanding possible.

  19. Stabilization of higher-valent states of iron porphyrin by hydroxide and methoxide ligands: electrochemical generation of iron(IV)-oxo porphyrins.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, W A; Calderwood, T S; Bruice, T C

    1985-01-01

    An electrochemical study of hydroxide- and methoxide-ligated iron(III) tetraphenylporphyrins possessing ortho-phenyl substituents that block mu-oxo dimer formation has been carried out. Ligation by these strongly basic oxyanions promotes the formation of iron(IV)-oxo porphyrins upon one-electron oxidation. Further one-electron oxidation of the latter provides the iron(IV)-oxo porphyrin pi-cation radical. These results are discussed in terms of chemical model studies and the enzymatic intermediate compounds I and II of the peroxidases. PMID:3859865

  20. The notion of the Cambrian pananimalia genome.

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, S

    1996-01-01

    The toil by photosynthesizing cyanobacteria and blue-green algae of nearly three billion years appeared to have finally resulted in the sufficient accumulation of molecular oxygen. So, the stage was set for the emergence, at the ocean bottom, of diverse animals that were consumers of molecular oxygen. It now appears that this Cambrian explosion, during which nearly all the extant animal phyla have emerged, was of an astonishingly short duration, lasting only 6-10 million years. Inasmuch as only a 1% DNA base sequence change is expected in 10 million years under the standard spontaneous mutation rate, I propose that all those diverse animals of the early Cambrian period, some 550 million years ago, were endowed with nearly identical genomes, with differential usage of the same set of genes accounting for the extreme diversities of body forms. Some of the more pertinent genes that are thought to be included in the Cambrian pananimalia genome are as follows. (i) A gene for lysyloxidase that, in the presence of molecular oxygen, crosslinked collagen triple helices to produce ligaments and tendons, thus contributing to the stout bodies of the Cambrian animals. (ii) Genes for hemoglobin; these internal transporters of molecular oxygen are today seen sporadically in members of diverse animal phyla. (iii) The Pax-6 gene for eye formation; the eyes of a ribbon worm to a human are organized by this gene. In animals without eyes, the same gene organizes other sensory systems and organs. (iv) A series of Hox genes for the anterior-posterior (cranio-caudal) body plans: these genes are also present in all phyla of the kingdom Animalia. PMID:8710894

  1. The notion of the Cambrian pananimalia genome.

    PubMed

    Ohno, S

    1996-08-06

    The toil by photosynthesizing cyanobacteria and blue-green algae of nearly three billion years appeared to have finally resulted in the sufficient accumulation of molecular oxygen. So, the stage was set for the emergence, at the ocean bottom, of diverse animals that were consumers of molecular oxygen. It now appears that this Cambrian explosion, during which nearly all the extant animal phyla have emerged, was of an astonishingly short duration, lasting only 6-10 million years. Inasmuch as only a 1% DNA base sequence change is expected in 10 million years under the standard spontaneous mutation rate, I propose that all those diverse animals of the early Cambrian period, some 550 million years ago, were endowed with nearly identical genomes, with differential usage of the same set of genes accounting for the extreme diversities of body forms. Some of the more pertinent genes that are thought to be included in the Cambrian pananimalia genome are as follows. (i) A gene for lysyloxidase that, in the presence of molecular oxygen, crosslinked collagen triple helices to produce ligaments and tendons, thus contributing to the stout bodies of the Cambrian animals. (ii) Genes for hemoglobin; these internal transporters of molecular oxygen are today seen sporadically in members of diverse animal phyla. (iii) The Pax-6 gene for eye formation; the eyes of a ribbon worm to a human are organized by this gene. In animals without eyes, the same gene organizes other sensory systems and organs. (iv) A series of Hox genes for the anterior-posterior (cranio-caudal) body plans: these genes are also present in all phyla of the kingdom Animalia.

  2. Expanding Notions of Social Reproduction: Grandparents' Educational Attainment and Grandchildren's Cognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Jason L.; Ready, Douglas D.

    2011-01-01

    Inherited privilege and status remain powerful factors in the distribution of opportunity in American life. These transfers of socioeconomic resources across generations are facilitated by the links between adult educational attainment and children's cognitive skills. Our current study expands the notion of social reproduction beyond this narrow…

  3. Exploring the notion of space coupling propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1990-01-01

    All existing methods of space propulsion are based on expelling a reaction mass (propellant) to induce motion. Alternatively, 'space coupling propulsion' refers to speculations about reacting with space-time itself to generate propulsive forces. Conceivably, the resulting increases in payload, range, and velocity would constitute a breakthrough in space propulsion. Such speculations are still considered science fiction for a number of reasons: (1) it appears to violate conservation of momentum; (2) no reactive media appear to exist in space; (3) no 'Grand Uniform Theories' exist to link gravity, an acceleration field, to other phenomena of nature such as electrodynamics. The rationale behind these objectives is the focus of interest. Various methods to either satisfy or explore these issues are presented along with secondary considerations. It is found that it may be useful to consider alternative conventions of science to further explore speculations of space coupling propulsion.

  4. The Functional-Notional Approach: From Theory to Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finocchiaro, Mary; Brumfit, Christopher

    Both the theoretical basis of functional-notionalism and its practical classroom applications are discussed in this text. The major characteristic of the functional-notional approach to language teaching is a sensitivity to the individual needs of students. Based on the idea that the ability to use real, appropriate language to communicate with…

  5. The Notions of Chance and Probabilities in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikiforidou, Zoi; Pange, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Chance, randomness and probability constitute statistical notions that are interrelated and characterize the logicomathematical thinking of children. Traditional theories support that probabilistic thinking evolves after the age of 7. However, recent research has underlined that children, as young as 4, may possess and develop basic notions,…

  6. What Is Reflection? Looking for Clarity in an Ambiguous Notion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarà, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The notion of reflection nowadays is considered crucial in the field of teaching and teacher education. However, although the great majority of approaches to reflection are grounded on the same main theoretical sources, the meaning of this notion is unanimously recognized in the field to be ambiguous. This article aims to look for clarity about…

  7. 26 CFR 1.446-3 - Notional principal contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Methods of Accounting § 1.446-3 Notional principal contracts. (a) Table... principal contracts. (a) Table of contents. (b) Purpose. (c) Definitions and scope. (1) Notional principal... principal contracts. (d) Taxable year of inclusion and deduction. (e) Periodic payments. (1) Definition. (2...

  8. 26 CFR 1.446-3 - Notional principal contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Methods of Accounting § 1.446-3 Notional principal contracts. (a) Table of contents... contracts. (a) Table of contents. (b) Purpose. (c) Definitions and scope. (1) Notional principal contract... principal contracts. (d) Taxable year of inclusion and deduction. (e) Periodic payments. (1) Definition. (2...

  9. Students' Notions regarding "Covariance" of a Physical Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Atanu; Kumar, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    A physical theory is said to be covariant with respect to a certain class of transformations when its basic equations retain their "form" under those transformations. It is one of the basic notions encountered in physics, particularly in the domain of relativity. In this paper we study in some detail how students deal with this notion in different…

  10. What Is Reflection? Looking for Clarity in an Ambiguous Notion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarà, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The notion of reflection nowadays is considered crucial in the field of teaching and teacher education. However, although the great majority of approaches to reflection are grounded on the same main theoretical sources, the meaning of this notion is unanimously recognized in the field to be ambiguous. This article aims to look for clarity about…

  11. Four Notions on the Qualities of Cooperating Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramo, Joseph Michael; Campbell, Mark Robin

    2016-01-01

    This article develops criteria for the selection, professional development, and assessment of cooperating teachers through four "notions." These notions suggest that cooperating teachers might (1) possess knowledge of educational theory and practice; (2) understand the importance of context in education; (3) understand narrative's role…

  12. 26 CFR 1.446-3 - Notional principal contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... indebtedness under general principles of Federal income tax law is not a notional principal contract. An option... per bushel times a notional amount of 100,000 bushels of corn and J is obligated to make annual... of a one year forward for corn is $2.40 per bushel, of a two year forward $2.55 per bushel, and of a...

  13. 26 CFR 1.446-3 - Notional principal contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... indebtedness under general principles of Federal income tax law is not a notional principal contract. An option... per bushel times a notional amount of 100,000 bushels of corn and J is obligated to make annual... of a one year forward for corn is $2.40 per bushel, of a two year forward $2.55 per bushel, and of a...

  14. 26 CFR 1.446-3 - Notional principal contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... indebtedness under general principles of Federal income tax law is not a notional principal contract. An option... per bushel times a notional amount of 100,000 bushels of corn and J is obligated to make annual... of a one year forward for corn is $2.40 per bushel, of a two year forward $2.55 per bushel, and of a...

  15. Students' Notions regarding "Covariance" of a Physical Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Atanu; Kumar, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    A physical theory is said to be covariant with respect to a certain class of transformations when its basic equations retain their "form" under those transformations. It is one of the basic notions encountered in physics, particularly in the domain of relativity. In this paper we study in some detail how students deal with this notion in different…

  16. The Notions of Chance and Probabilities in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikiforidou, Zoi; Pange, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Chance, randomness and probability constitute statistical notions that are interrelated and characterize the logicomathematical thinking of children. Traditional theories support that probabilistic thinking evolves after the age of 7. However, recent research has underlined that children, as young as 4, may possess and develop basic notions,…

  17. Analyzing Empirical Notions of Suffering: Advancing Youth Dialogue and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baring, Rito V.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the possibilities of advancing youth dialogue and education among the Filipino youth using empirical notions of students on suffering. Examining empirical data, this analysis exposes uncharted notions of suffering and shows relevant meanings that underscore the plausible trappings of youth dialogue and its benefits on…

  18. A Functional-Notional Syllabus for Adult Learners of Irish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David, Comp.; And Others

    The first functional-notional syllabus for adult learners of Irish, written in Irish and English, is presented. The syllabus begins with an introductory section about functional-notional syllabi, their definitions and implications, and the characteristics of this syllabus. The second section provides the general aims and specific behavioral…

  19. Exploring Notions of Freedom in and through Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Thomas W.; Harper, Helen J.

    2006-01-01

    This article offers teachers a critical framework for use and adaptation in organizing class discussions focused on notions of freedom in young adult literature. The authors open by discussing the notion of freedom, including concepts related to negative and positive freedom and to arguments advocating critical discussion of common assumptions…

  20. Four Notions on the Qualities of Cooperating Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramo, Joseph Michael; Campbell, Mark Robin

    2016-01-01

    This article develops criteria for the selection, professional development, and assessment of cooperating teachers through four "notions." These notions suggest that cooperating teachers might (1) possess knowledge of educational theory and practice; (2) understand the importance of context in education; (3) understand narrative's role…

  1. Exploring Notions of Freedom in and through Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Thomas W.; Harper, Helen J.

    2006-01-01

    This article offers teachers a critical framework for use and adaptation in organizing class discussions focused on notions of freedom in young adult literature. The authors open by discussing the notion of freedom, including concepts related to negative and positive freedom and to arguments advocating critical discussion of common assumptions…

  2. Analyzing Empirical Notions of Suffering: Advancing Youth Dialogue and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baring, Rito V.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the possibilities of advancing youth dialogue and education among the Filipino youth using empirical notions of students on suffering. Examining empirical data, this analysis exposes uncharted notions of suffering and shows relevant meanings that underscore the plausible trappings of youth dialogue and its benefits on…

  3. A Functional-Notional Syllabus for Adult Learners of Irish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David, Comp.; And Others

    The first functional-notional syllabus for adult learners of Irish, written in Irish and English, is presented. The syllabus begins with an introductory section about functional-notional syllabi, their definitions and implications, and the characteristics of this syllabus. The second section provides the general aims and specific behavioral…

  4. Discovering How a Communicative Notion Is Expressed in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Graeme D.

    A study to develop a methodology for discovering how one important notion or semantic category, "frequency of occurrence," is expressed in words, phrases, or other linguistic devices in academic English began with a search for devices expressing that notion, by analyzing text from a news magazine, a New Zealand geography textbook, and a…

  5. The CCTC Quick-Reacting General War Gaming System (QUICK). Volume IV. Sortie Generation Subsystem. Parts I and II. Program Maintenance Manual. Change 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-03

    No. Change No. Title Page, Part I 0 215 1 ii 2 216-260 0 iii-viii 2 260.1-260.2 2 ix 0 Title Page, Part II 0 1-1.2 2 ii -iii 2 2 2 iv 1 3 0 v 2 4-b 1 vi...Page ACKNOWLEDGMENT ......................................... ii ABSTRACT .................... ....................... ix 1. GENERAL...260.1 DD Form 1473 ............. . .......... .... .. .............. .. 260.3 Part II 4. PLANOUT MODULE

  6. Molecular characterization of the operon comprising the spoIV gene of Bacillus megaterium DSM319 and generation of a deletion mutant.

    PubMed

    Wittchen, Klaus-Detlev; Strey, Jan; Bültmann, Andreas

    1998-10-01

    According to sequence analysis, the spoIV-locus of Bacillus megaterium DSM 319 is 1,185 bp long; it is the second gene of a sporulation operon, which altogether contains three open reading frames. The ORF preceding spoIV encodes a putative polypeptide with 94 amino acids; the 3rd ORF of the operon has 972 bp corresponding to 324 amino acids. The operon is flanked on both sides by palindromic sequences, probably representing Rho-independent terminators. A primer extension analysis revealed that mRNA synthesis starts immediately downstream of a promoter, which is similar to the consensus sequence of Bacillus subtilis sigma(E) dependent promoters. Both the -35 and the -10 region are within the terminator region of the preceding operon. Gene knockout experiments and reporter gene assays with a newly developed system based on the heterologous Paenibacillus macerans glucanase gene (bgl) confirmed sigma(E)-dependent transcription. Two open reading frames of a further upstream operon were also identified. Northern analysis revealed that transcription of these ORFs comes about in late sporulation phases. The genetic organization of the spoIV comprising operon and adjacent loci clearly resembles that of the B. subtilis yqfa-phoH gene cluster. Thus our findings are of general significance for endospore-forming bacteria.

  7. Formalism and the notion of truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Joseph M.

    The most widely acknowledged conceptions of truth take some kind of relation to be at truth's core. This dissertation attempts to establish that an adequate conception of this relation begins with an investigation of the entanglement of the formal and the material as set forth in the model theoretical development of set theoretical mathematics. Truth concerns first and most crucially a certain commerce across the border between the formal and the material, between the ideal and the real. The entanglement of the formal and the material must be thought in itself, apart from or prior to any assimilation into philosophical schemas committed to larger metaphysical claims. This is accomplished in model theory. The twentieth century witnessed two attempts at bringing model theoretical mathematics to bear on accounting philosophically for the concept of truth: that of Alfred Tarski, and that of Alain Badiou. In order to investigate the relevance of model theory to the task of working out a philosophical conception of truth, this dissertation investigates, through comparative work, these two thinkers. It is necessary to see where their projects converge in important ways, as well as where their projects diverge in equally important ways. What brings their work into close proximity is their shared conviction that truth must be thought in light of model theory. Nonetheless, the two do not agree about exactly how model theory sheds light on truth. Comparative study thus reveals both a shared site for thinking and a struggle over the significance of that site. Agreement between Tarski and Badiou concerns the excess of the purely formal over itself, marked by the generation of an undecidable statement within formal systems of a certain level of complexity. Both thinkers determine that this formal excess touches on the material, and both further determine that the consequent entanglement of the formal and the material provides the basic frame for any philosophical consideration

  8. Impact of commercial precooking of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) on the generation of peptides, after pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis, capable to inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase-IV.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Luis; Chen, Karen; de Mejía, Elvira González

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the bioactive properties of the released peptides from commercially available precook common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Bioactive properties and peptide profiles were evaluated in protein hydrolysates of raw and commercially precooked common beans. Five varieties (Black, Pinto, Red, Navy, and Great Northern) were selected for protein extraction, protein and peptide molecular mass profiles, and peptide sequences. Potential bioactivities of hydrolysates, including antioxidant capacity and inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), and angiotensin converting enzyme I (ACE) were analyzed after digestion with pepsin/pancreatin. Hydrolysates from Navy beans were the most potent inhibitors of DPP-IV with no statistical differences between precooked and raw (IC50 = 0.093 and 0.095 mg protein/mL, respectively). α-Amylase inhibition was higher for raw Red, Navy and Great Northern beans (36%, 31%, 27% relative to acarbose (rel ac)/mg protein, respectively). α-Glucosidase inhibition among all bean hydrolysates did not show significant differences; however, inhibition values were above 40% rel ac/mg protein. IC50 values for ACE were not significantly different among all bean hydrolysates (range 0.20 to 0.34 mg protein/mL), except for Red bean that presented higher IC50 values. Peptide molecular mass profile ranged from 500 to 3000 Da. A total of 11 and 17 biologically active peptide sequences were identified in raw and precooked beans, respectively. Peptide sequences YAGGS and YAAGS from raw Great Northern and precooked Pinto showed similar amino acid sequences and same potential ACE inhibition activity. Processing did not affect the bioactive properties of released peptides from precooked beans. Commercially precooked beans could contribute to the intake of bioactive peptides and promote health.

  9. Sur l'histoire de la notion du potentiel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurkina, M. I.

    1985-06-01

    Huygens undoubtedly used the notion of the potential in his well-known work “Discours de la cause de la pesanteur” (Leyden, 1690), investigating the Earth's figure by means of Newton's famous canals. Maupertuis used this notion in a similar work published in London in 1733. The notion of potential was used by Clairaut in the “Théorie de la figure de la Terre” (Paris, 1743) and by D'Alembert in many articles (1752, 1761, 1768, 1773, 1780). Euler used it also in many of his works since 1736. These examples of application of the potential were not noticed because of peculiarities of terminology.

  10. Bulky N(,N)-(di)alkylethane-1,2-diamineplatinum(II) compounds as precursors for generating unsymmetrically substituted platinum(IV) complexes.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Verena; Göschl, Simone; Meier, Samuel M; Roller, Alexander; Jakupec, Michael A; Galanski, Markus; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2013-07-15

    Investigations of the influence of bulky groups in the equatorial ligand sphere of platinum(IV) compounds on the complexes' stability and reaction pattern were performed. Four dihydroxidoplatinum(IV) complexes were reacted with anhydrides, cinnamoyl chloride, and n-propyl isocyanate and yielded the symmetric dicarboxylated products or, if steric hindrance was observed, unsymmetrically substituted monocarboxylated analogues. With the aim of raising the steric demand, the following ligands were chosen: N-cyclohexylethane-1,2-diamine, N,N-dimethylethane-1,2-diamine, N,N-diethylethane-1,2-diamine, and N,N-diisopropylethane-1,2-diamine. All of the novel complexes were characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and reversed-phase HPLC; complexes B3, C3, C6, and D4 were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Additionally, the cytotoxicities of 10 compounds toward the cisplatin-sensitive cell line CH1 and the intrinsically cisplatin-resistant cell lines A549 and SW480 were investigated, and IC50 values down to the nanomolar range were found. To aid in the interpretation of structure-activity relationships, log k(w) values as a measure for the lipophilicity were determined for all of the new complexes, and the rates of reduction of C1, C3, and C4 relative to satraplatin were determined by means of NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS.

  11. A theoretical investigation on the Strecker reaction catalyzed by a Ti(IV)-complex catalyst generated from a cinchona alkaloid, achiral substituted 2,2'-biphenol, and tetraisopropyl titanate.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhishan; Li, Weiyi; Wang, Jun; Hu, Changwei; Feng, Xiaoming

    2013-01-28

    The mechanism and the origin of selectivity of the asymmetric Strecker reaction catalyzed by a Ti(IV)-complex catalyst generated from a cinchona alkaloid, achiral substituted 2,2'-biphenol, and tetraisopropyl titanate have been investigated by DFT and ONIOM methods. The calculations indicate that the reaction proceeds through a dual activation mechanism, in which Ti(IV) acts as Lewis acid to activate the electrophile aldimine substrate, whereas the tertiary amine in cinchona alkaloid works as Lewis base to promote the activation and isomerization of HCN. The C-C bond formation step is predicted to be the selectivity-controlling step in the reaction with an energy barrier of 9.3 kcal mol(-1). The "asymmetric activation" is achieved by the transfer of asymmetry from the chiral cinchonine ligand to the axially flexible achiral biphenol ligand through coordination interaction with the central metal Ti(IV) . The large steric hindrance from the 3,3'-position substitute of biphenol, combined with the quinoline fragment of cinchona alkaloid and the orientation of hydrogen bonding of iPrOH, play a key role in controlling the stereoselectivity, which is in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  12. NUCLEAR ENERGY RESEARCH INITIATIVE (NERI) PROGRAM GRANT NUMBER DE-FG03-00SF22168 TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT (Aug 15, 2002 to Nov. 15, 2002) - DESIGN AND LAYOUT CONCEPTS FOR COMPACT, FACTORY-PRODUCED, TRANSPORTABLE GENERATION IV REACTOR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Fred R. Mynatt; Andy Kadak; Marc Berte; Larry Miller; Lawrence Townsend; Martin Williamson; Rupy Sawhney; Jacob Fife

    2002-12-15

    The objectives of this project are to develop and evaluate nuclear power plant designs and layout concepts to maximize the benefits of compact modular Generation IV reactor concepts including factory fabrication and packaging for optimal transportation and siting. This report covers the ninth quarter of the project. The three reactor concept teams have completed initial plant concept development, evaluation and layout. A significant design effort has proceeded with substantial change and evolution from original ideas. The concepts have been reviewed by the industry participants and improvements have been implemented. The third phase, industrial engineering simulation of reactor fabrication has begun.

  13. Recovery, viscoelastic and functional properties of Barbel skin gelatine: investigation of anti-DPP-IV and anti-prolyl endopeptidase activities of generated gelatine polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Sila, Assaâd; Martinez-Alvarez, Oscar; Haddar, Anissa; Gómez-Guillén, M Carmen; Nasri, Moncef; Montero, M Pilar; Bougatef, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The characteristics and functional properties of gelatine from freshwater fish skin (Barbus callensis) were investigated. The gelatine extraction efficiency was improved by an acid-swelling process in the presence of barbel crude acid protease extract. Barbel skin gelatine (BSG) contained 92.15% protein, 0.31% lipid and 0.72% ash. The amino acid profile of BSG showed a high percentage of imino acids. The electrophoretic profile showed that BSG is mainly composed of α- and β-components. BSG showed an excellent solubility and possessed interfacial properties, which were governed by the protein concentration. Biological activities of the hydrolysates obtained after digestion of BSG with several commercial proteases were evaluated. The results suggested that these hydrolysates are a good source of natural inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV and prolyl endopeptidase and could potentially be used as dietary ingredients in the management of type 2-diabetes and/or neuropathological disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 4 Report: Virtual Mockup Maintenance Task Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Task 4 report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. This report focuses on using Full-scale virtual mockups for nuclear power plant training applications.

  15. Hermeneutic notions illuminate cross-cultural nursing experiences.

    PubMed

    Spence, D G

    2001-08-01

    To articulate selected hermeneutic notions for the purpose of extending current understanding of cross-cultural nursing practice. This paper builds upon the findings of a New Zealand project that explored the experience of nursing people from cultures other than one's own (Spence 1999). The project asserted that the notions of prejudice, paradox and possibility portray a nursing view of this phenomenon. The discussion is based on philosophical hermeneutics as interpreted from the works of Gadamer (1996), Taylor (1985a, 1985b, 1995) and Lampert (1997). However the emphasis in this paper, rather than being methodological, is on showing how specific hermeneutic notions contribute to deeper understanding of the nature of cross-cultural practice. It is argued that contact with, and the capacity to explore, the play of conflicting prejudices and possibilities enhances understanding of the complex and paradoxical nature of cross-cultural nursing.

  16. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) processing speed scores as measures of noncredible responding: The third generation of embedded performance validity indicators.

    PubMed

    Erdodi, Laszlo A; Abeare, Christopher A; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D; Tyson, Bradley T; Kucharski, Brittany; Zuccato, Brandon G; Roth, Robert M

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests that select processing speed measures can also serve as embedded validity indicators (EVIs). The present study examined the diagnostic utility of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests as EVIs in a mixed clinical sample of 205 patients medically referred for neuropsychological assessment (53.3% female, mean age = 45.1). Classification accuracy was calculated against 3 composite measures of performance validity as criterion variables. A PSI ≤79 produced a good combination of sensitivity (.23-.56) and specificity (.92-.98). A Coding scaled score ≤5 resulted in good specificity (.94-1.00), but low and variable sensitivity (.04-.28). A Symbol Search scaled score ≤6 achieved a good balance between sensitivity (.38-.64) and specificity (.88-.93). A Coding-Symbol Search scaled score difference ≥5 produced adequate specificity (.89-.91) but consistently low sensitivity (.08-.12). A 2-tailed cutoff on the Coding/Symbol Search raw score ratio (≤1.41 or ≥3.57) produced acceptable specificity (.87-.93), but low sensitivity (.15-.24). Failing ≥2 of these EVIs produced variable specificity (.81-.93) and sensitivity (.31-.59). Failing ≥3 of these EVIs stabilized specificity (.89-.94) at a small cost to sensitivity (.23-.53). Results suggest that processing speed based EVIs have the potential to provide a cost-effective and expedient method for evaluating the validity of cognitive data. Given their generally low and variable sensitivity, however, they should not be used in isolation to determine the credibility of a given response set. They also produced unacceptably high rates of false positive errors in patients with moderate-to-severe head injury. Combining evidence from multiple EVIs has the potential to improve overall classification accuracy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. NEW APPROACHES: On the notion of internal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Marcelo; Finn, Edward J.

    1997-07-01

    The notion of internal energy at a level appropriate for students of the Introductory Physics Course (IPC) is examined. The methodology proposed offers a general frame for analysing practically any physical system or process in a system of particles, from thermal phenomena and phase transitions to chemical and nuclear reactions, including processes involving elementary particles. The role of interactions among particles in a system is emphasized. The notion of statistical equilibrium of a system is discussed in this context. Finally, two structure factors are introduced to show the relation between the kinetic, interaction and particle energies of a system in maintaining stable structures.

  18. Some modern notions on oil and gas reservoir production regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lohrenz, J.; Monash, E.A.

    1980-05-21

    The historic rhetoric of oil and gas reservoir production regulations has been burdened with misconceptions. One was that most reservoirs are rate insensitive. Another was that a reservoir's decline is primarily a function of reservoir mechaism rather than a choice unconstrained by the laws of physics. Relieved of old notions like these, we introduce some modern notions, the most basic being that production regulation should have the purpose of obtaining the highest value from production per irreversible diminution of thermodynamically available energy. The laws of thermodynamics determine the available energy. What then is value. Value may include contributions other than production per se and purely monetary economic outcomes.

  19. Mechanism of assembly of the dimanganese-tyrosyl radical cofactor of class Ib ribonucleotide reductase: Enzymatic generation of superoxide is required for tyrosine oxidation via a Mn(III)Mn(IV) intermediate

    PubMed Central

    Cotruvo, Joseph A.; Stich, Troy A.; Britt, R. David; Stubbe, JoAnne

    2013-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) utilize radical chemistry to reduce nucleotides to deoxynucleotides in all organisms. In the class Ia and Ib RNRs, this reaction requires a stable tyrosyl radical (Y•) generated by oxidation of a reduced dinuclear metal cluster. The FeIII2-Y• cofactor in the NrdB subunit of the class Ia RNRs can be generated by self-assembly from FeII2-NrdB, O2, and a reducing equivalent. By contrast, the structurally homologous class Ib enzymes require a MnIII2-Y• cofactor in their NrdF subunit. MnII2-NrdF does not react with O2, but it binds the reduced form of a conserved flavodoxin-like protein, NrdIhq, which, in the presence of O2, reacts to form the MnIII2-Y• cofactor. Here we investigate the mechanism of assembly of the MnIII2-Y• cofactor in Bacillus subtilis NrdF. Cluster assembly from MnII2-NrdF, NrdIhq, and O2 has been studied by stopped flow absorption and rapid freeze quench EPR spectroscopies. The results support a mechanism in which NrdIhq reduces O2 to O2•− (40-48 s−1, 0.6 mM O2), the O2•− channels to and reacts with MnII2-NrdF to form a MnIIIMnIV intermediate (2.2 ± 0.4 s−1), and the MnIIIMnIV species oxidizes tyrosine to Y• (0.08-0.15 s−1). Controlled production of O2•− by NrdIhq during class Ib RNR cofactor assembly both circumvents the unreactivity of the MnII2 cluster with O2 and satisfies the requirement for an “extra” reducing equivalent in Y• generation. PMID:23402532

  20. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  1. Dewey's Notion of Imagination in Philosophy for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleazby, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    The imagination has traditionally been associated with unreality and is commonly thought to be the antithesis of reason. This is a notion of imagination that can be found in Plato's writing and has influenced modern Western epistemology and educational ideals. As such, traditional schooling, which has focused on the cultivation of reason and the…

  2. Unbecoming Teachers: Towards a More Dynamic Notion of Professional Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colley, Helen; James, David; Diment, Kim

    2007-01-01

    This article considers teacher professionalism from a neglected perspective. It analyses assumptions about the dynamics of professional participation implicit within competing academic and policy constructs of professionalism, including the currently iconic concept of "communities of practice". All entail notions of becoming and being a…

  3. Trainee Teachers' Cognitive Styles and Notions of Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Carol; Waring, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the cognitive styles of trainee teachers with their notions of differentiation and perceptions of its place/location within their teaching and learning during a PGCE programme of ITE. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 80 trainee teachers completed the Cognitive Style Index (CSI) at the…

  4. Moffett's Structural Curriculum and the Notional-Functional Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, John C.

    English for native speakers is compared and contrasted with English for non-native speakers by examining the influence of Moffett's (1968) structural curriculum for native speakers and the notional functional syllabus approach for second language learners. Both approaches are more rhetorical and less grammatical then the approaches that preceded…

  5. The Notion of Reducing Abstraction in Quadratic Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eraslan, Ali

    2008-01-01

    One possible approach students can cope with abstract algebra concepts is reducing abstraction. This notion occurs when learners are unable to adopt mental strategies as they deal with abstraction level of a given task. To make these concepts mentally accessible for themselves, learners unconsciously reduce the level of the abstraction of the…

  6. Unbecoming Teachers: Towards a More Dynamic Notion of Professional Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colley, Helen; James, David; Diment, Kim

    2007-01-01

    This article considers teacher professionalism from a neglected perspective. It analyses assumptions about the dynamics of professional participation implicit within competing academic and policy constructs of professionalism, including the currently iconic concept of "communities of practice". All entail notions of becoming and being a…

  7. High School Students' Knowledge and Notions of Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Joseph R.; Doppen, Frans H.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on high school students' knowledge and notions of citizenship after taking the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) Naturalization Test. The students' test results and responses show emerging support for the need to make changes to the test as well as the students' limited conceptions of citizenship. In…

  8. Applying the Notion of Metaphor Types to Enhance Counseling Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the notion of metaphor types to show how the more nuanced aspects of metaphor theory can be applied to counseling practice. The author suggests that metaphor types can enhance existing interview protocols designed to help clients expand the source domain imagery of their metaphors and "bridge back" the expanded imagery to…

  9. The Notion of Ubuntu and Communalism in African Educational Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venter, Elza

    2004-01-01

    The notion of "ubuntu" and "communalism" is of great importance in an African educational discourse, as well as in African Philosophy of Education and in African philosophical discourse. "Ubuntu" is a philosophy that promotes the common good of society and includes humanness as an essential element of human growth. In…

  10. The Notion of Reducing Abstraction in Quadratic Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eraslan, Ali

    2008-01-01

    One possible approach students can cope with abstract algebra concepts is reducing abstraction. This notion occurs when learners are unable to adopt mental strategies as they deal with abstraction level of a given task. To make these concepts mentally accessible for themselves, learners unconsciously reduce the level of the abstraction of the…

  11. Notion of time and the semiclassical regime of quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Castagnino, M.A.; Mazzitelli, F.D. Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab 1, 1428 Buenos Aires )

    1990-07-15

    Using the notion of {ital probabilistic} {ital time} introduced in a previous work, we analyze the perturbed minisuperspace models of quantum gravity. For Robertson-Walker minisuperspace we show that it is possible to derive the so-called self-consistent cosmology in the semiclassical regime. The generalization to models with several semiclassical variables is also discussed.

  12. The Transformation App Redux: The Notion of Linearity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenick, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The notion of linearity is perhaps the most fundamental idea in algebraic thinking. It sets the transition to functions and culminates with the instantaneous rate of change in calculus. Despite its simplicity, this concept poses complexities to a considerable number of first semester college algebra students. The purpose of this observational…

  13. "Successful" Principals: A Contested Notion for Superintendents and Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribner, Samantha M. Paredes; Crow, Gary M.; Lopez, Gerardo R.; Murtadha, Khaula

    2011-01-01

    The notion of "success" is narrowly defined and appropriated within an educational context. Typically limited to objective measures of organizational productivity, effectiveness, and efficiency, "successful" principal practices, we argue, engender action and attention to a broader array of issues and interrelationships. In this study, we conducted…

  14. A Notional Matrix for Grammatical Forms: Teaching Question Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Carolyn L.

    This paper proposes a matrix of notional categories for classifying grammatical structures. The use of the matrix is illustrated through question forms. Communicative competence in a language presupposes mastery of the grammatical system of that language. Therefore, in adopting a communicatively appropriate syllabus, containing varieties of…

  15. Heresies of the New Unified Notion of Test Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuck, Ivan

    By focusing on "appropriateness" and "adequacy" of inference and action, unified validity may be misused in rejecting valid test outcomes. The notion of levels of validity is challenged, the necessity of assumption is argued, and experience is proposed as the basis of validity. "Consequential validity" is interpreted as an optional predictive…

  16. The Foreign Language Syllabus--Grammar, Notions and Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltarelli, Mario, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Papers in this journal issue concern various aspects of foreign language syllabus construction. Titles and authors are: "The Threshold Level: A Notional-Functional Syllabus" (Barbara F. Matthies); "Functions of Grammar in a Language Teaching Syllabus" (William E. Rutherford); "Communicative and Grammatical Syllabuses to…

  17. The Notion of Ubuntu and Communalism in African Educational Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venter, Elza

    2004-01-01

    The notion of "ubuntu" and "communalism" is of great importance in an African educational discourse, as well as in African Philosophy of Education and in African philosophical discourse. "Ubuntu" is a philosophy that promotes the common good of society and includes humanness as an essential element of human growth. In…

  18. "Successful" Principals: A Contested Notion for Superintendents and Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribner, Samantha M. Paredes; Crow, Gary M.; Lopez, Gerardo R.; Murtadha, Khaula

    2011-01-01

    The notion of "success" is narrowly defined and appropriated within an educational context. Typically limited to objective measures of organizational productivity, effectiveness, and efficiency, "successful" principal practices, we argue, engender action and attention to a broader array of issues and interrelationships. In this study, we conducted…

  19. Neural Representation. A Survey-Based Analysis of the Notion

    PubMed Central

    Vilarroya, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    The word representation (as in “neural representation”), and many of its related terms, such as to represent, representational and the like, play a central explanatory role in neuroscience literature. For instance, in “place cell” literature, place cells are extensively associated with their role in “the representation of space.” In spite of its extended use, we still lack a clear, universal and widely accepted view on what it means for a nervous system to represent something, on what makes a neural activity a representation, and on what is re-presented. The lack of a theoretical foundation and definition of the notion has not hindered actual research. My aim here is to identify how active scientists use the notion of neural representation, and eventually to list a set of criteria, based on actual use, that can help in distinguishing between genuine or non-genuine neural-representation candidates. In order to attain this objective, I present first the results of a survey of authors within two domains, place-cell and multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) research. Based on the authors’ replies, and on a review of neuroscientific research, I outline a set of common properties that an account of neural representation seems to require. I then apply these properties to assess the use of the notion in two domains of the survey, place-cell and MVPA studies. I conclude by exploring a shift in the notion of representation suggested by recent literature. PMID:28900406

  20. Neural Representation. A Survey-Based Analysis of the Notion.

    PubMed

    Vilarroya, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    The word representation (as in "neural representation"), and many of its related terms, such as to represent, representational and the like, play a central explanatory role in neuroscience literature. For instance, in "place cell" literature, place cells are extensively associated with their role in "the representation of space." In spite of its extended use, we still lack a clear, universal and widely accepted view on what it means for a nervous system to represent something, on what makes a neural activity a representation, and on what is re-presented. The lack of a theoretical foundation and definition of the notion has not hindered actual research. My aim here is to identify how active scientists use the notion of neural representation, and eventually to list a set of criteria, based on actual use, that can help in distinguishing between genuine or non-genuine neural-representation candidates. In order to attain this objective, I present first the results of a survey of authors within two domains, place-cell and multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) research. Based on the authors' replies, and on a review of neuroscientific research, I outline a set of common properties that an account of neural representation seems to require. I then apply these properties to assess the use of the notion in two domains of the survey, place-cell and MVPA studies. I conclude by exploring a shift in the notion of representation suggested by recent literature.

  1. Applying the Notion of Metaphor Types to Enhance Counseling Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the notion of metaphor types to show how the more nuanced aspects of metaphor theory can be applied to counseling practice. The author suggests that metaphor types can enhance existing interview protocols designed to help clients expand the source domain imagery of their metaphors and "bridge back" the expanded imagery to…

  2. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  3. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  4. Ovarian Cancer Stage IV

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1335 View Download Large: 2400x2670 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Description: Drawing of stage IV shows ...

  5. The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. IV - Generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes in laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizinga, Bradley J.; Tannenbaum, Eli; Kaplan, Isaac R.

    1987-05-01

    The effect of common sedimentary minerals (illite, Na-montmorillonite, or calcite) under different water concentrations on the generation and release of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and select alkenes from oil-prone kerogens was investigated. Matrices containing Green River Formation kerogen or Monterey Formation kerogen, alone or in the presence of minerals, were heated at 200 or 300 C for periods of up to 1000 hours, and the pyrolysis products were analyzed. The influence of the first two clay minerals was found to be critically dependent on the water content. Under the dry pyrolysis conditions, both minerals significantly reduced alkene formation; the C12+ n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids were mostly destroyed by montmorillonite, but underwent only minor alteration with illite. Under hydrous conditions (mineral/water of 2/1), the effects of both minerals were substantially reduced. Calcite had no significant effect on the thermal evolution of the hydrocarbons.

  6. The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. IV - Generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes in laboratory experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huizinga, Bradley J.; Tannenbaum, Eli; Kaplan, Isaac R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of common sedimentary minerals (illite, Na-montmorillonite, or calcite) under different water concentrations on the generation and release of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and select alkenes from oil-prone kerogens was investigated. Matrices containing Green River Formation kerogen or Monterey Formation kerogen, alone or in the presence of minerals, were heated at 200 or 300 C for periods of up to 1000 hours, and the pyrolysis products were analyzed. The influence of the first two clay minerals was found to be critically dependent on the water content. Under the dry pyrolysis conditions, both minerals significantly reduced alkene formation; the C12+ n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids were mostly destroyed by montmorillonite, but underwent only minor alteration with illite. Under hydrous conditions (mineral/water of 2/1), the effects of both minerals were substantially reduced. Calcite had no significant effect on the thermal evolution of the hydrocarbons.

  7. The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. IV - Generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes in laboratory experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huizinga, Bradley J.; Tannenbaum, Eli; Kaplan, Isaac R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of common sedimentary minerals (illite, Na-montmorillonite, or calcite) under different water concentrations on the generation and release of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and select alkenes from oil-prone kerogens was investigated. Matrices containing Green River Formation kerogen or Monterey Formation kerogen, alone or in the presence of minerals, were heated at 200 or 300 C for periods of up to 1000 hours, and the pyrolysis products were analyzed. The influence of the first two clay minerals was found to be critically dependent on the water content. Under the dry pyrolysis conditions, both minerals significantly reduced alkene formation; the C12+ n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids were mostly destroyed by montmorillonite, but underwent only minor alteration with illite. Under hydrous conditions (mineral/water of 2/1), the effects of both minerals were substantially reduced. Calcite had no significant effect on the thermal evolution of the hydrocarbons.

  8. Interaction of radiation-generated radicals with myoglobin in aqueous solution—IV. Mechanism of interaction of hydroxyl radicals with oxymyoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitburn, Kevin D.; Hoffman, Morton Z.

    The interaction of radiation-generated ·OH/H· with oxymyoglobin (MbO 2) has been studied in the presence of catalase at pH 7.3 over the range of 5-510microM O 2. The conversion of MbO 2 to heme-modified products has been examined under conditions where depletion of O 2 in irradiated solutions both can and cannot be compensated by O 2-transfer across the solution phase boundary. In the theoretical limit of [O 2] → 0 in bulk solution, MbO 2 is converted stoichiometrically to ferri- and ferromyoglobin with G( MbO 2) ⋍ 6.0, G(ferroMb) ⋍ 3.0, and G(ferriMb) ⋍ 3.0. An increase in [O 2] in bulk solution beyond the zero-limit progressively suppresses the conversion of MbO 2 to the heme-modified derivatives. At [O 2] ⩾ 300 microM, an O 2-independent path of ferriMb formation with G ⋍ 0.6 is evident. Two sources of ferriMb induced by ·OH/H· are proposed: an O 2-independent path involving direct oxidative attack of ·OH at the oxyferroheme, and O 2-dependent paths of production of ferriMb and ferroMb involving the mediation of O 2-scavengable secondary hemeprotein radicals. It is suggested that the modifications of the heme group in the absence of O 2 are accompanied by redox modifications on the globin moiety. With increasing [O 2], similar redox modifications on the globin can occur without a mediating involvement of the prosthetic group. At high [O 2], involvement of the heme in modification of the globin is eliminated.

  9. The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter--IV. Generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes in laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Huizinga, B J; Tannenbaum, E; Kaplan, I R

    1987-01-01

    A series of pyrolysis experiments, utilizing two different immature oil-prone kerogens ("type I": Green River Formation kerogen; "Type II": Monterey Formation kerogen) mixed with common sedimentary minerals (calcite, illite, or Na-montmorillonite), was conducted to study the effects of minerals on the generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes during laboratory-simulated catagenesis of kerogen. The influence of clay minerals on the aliphatic hydrocarbons is critically dependent on the water concentration during laboratory thermal maturation. Under extremely low contents of water (i.e., dry pyrolysis, where only pyrolysate water is present), C12(+) -range n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids are mostly destroyed by montmorillonite but undergo only minor alteration with illite. Both clay minerals significantly reduce alkene formation during dry pyrolysis. Under hydrous conditions (mineral/water = 2:1), the effects of the clay minerals are substantially reduced. In addition, the dry pyrolysis experiments show that illite and montmorillonite preferentially retain large amounts of the polar constituents of bitumen, but not n-alkanes or acyclic isoprenoids. Therefore, bitumen fractionation according to polarity differences occurs in the presence of these clay minerals. By this process, n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids are concentrated in the bitumen fraction that is not strongly adsorbed on the clay matrices. The extent of these concentrations effects is greatly diminished during hydrous pyrolysis. In contrast, calcite has no significant influence on the thermal evolution of the hydrocarbons. In addition, calcite is incapable of retaining bitumen. Therefore, the fractionation of n-alkanes or acyclic isoprenoids relative to the polar constituents of bitumen is insignificant in the presence of calcite.

  10. Exploring Gendered Notions: Gender, Job Hunting and Web Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martey, R. M.

    Based on analysis of a series of interviews, this chapter suggests that in looking for jobs online, women confront gendered notions of the Internet as well as gendered notions of the jobs themselves. It argues that the social and cultural contexts of both the search tools and the search tasks should be considered in exploring how Web-based technologies serve women in a job search. For these women, the opportunities and limitations of online job-search tools were intimately related to their personal and social needs, especially needs for part-time work, maternity benefits, and career advancement. Although job-seeking services such as Monster.com were used frequently by most of these women, search services did not completely fulfill all their informational needs, and became an — often frustrating — initial starting point for a job search rather than an end-point.

  11. Objects and processes: Two notions for understanding biological information.

    PubMed

    Mercado-Reyes, Agustín; Padilla-Longoria, Pablo; Arroyo-Santos, Alfonso

    2015-09-07

    In spite of being ubiquitous in life sciences, the concept of information is harshly criticized. Uses of the concept other than those derived from Shannon׳s theory are denounced as metaphoric. We perform a computational experiment to explore whether Shannon׳s information is adequate to describe the uses of said concept in commonplace scientific practice. Our results show that semantic sequences do not have unique complexity values different from the value of meaningless sequences. This result suggests that quantitative theoretical frameworks do not account fully for the complex phenomenon that the term "information" refers to. We propose a restructuring of the concept into two related, but independent notions, and conclude that a complete theory of biological information must account completely not only for both notions, but also for the relationship between them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Clawing Back: Broadening the Notion of Metal Chelators in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Katherine J.

    2013-01-01

    The traditional notion of chelation therapy is the administration of a chemical agent to remove metals from the body. But formation of a metal-chelate can have biological ramifications that are much broader than metal elimination. Exploring these other possibilities could lead to pharmacological interventions that alter the concentration, distribution, or reactivity of metals in targeted ways for therapeutic benefit. This review highlights recent examples that showcase four general strategies of using principles of metal chelation in medicinal contexts beyond the traditional notion of chelation therapy. These strategies include altering metal biodistribution, inhibiting specific metalloenzymes associated with disease, enhancing the reactivity of a metal complex to promote cytotoxicity, and conversely, passivating the reactivity of metals by site-activated chelation to prevent cytotoxicity. PMID:23332666

  13. [Federation of parts. On Virchow's notion of individuality].

    PubMed

    Caianiello, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    An introductory essay to the Italian translation of R. Virchow's "Atoms and Individuals", the paper presents his notion of organic individuality as an outcome of his new cell theory. Virchow's stress on the federal structure of the biological individual as composed of "cell-territories" supersedes the previous cellular atomism, and can be considered a turning point in the establishment of a modular approach to the organism.

  14. A notion of graph likelihood and an infinite monkey theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerji, Christopher R. S.; Mansour, Toufik; Severini, Simone

    2014-01-01

    We play with a graph-theoretic analogue of the folklore infinite monkey theorem. We define a notion of graph likelihood as the probability that a given graph is constructed by a monkey in a number of time steps equal to the number of vertices. We present an algorithm to compute this graph invariant and closed formulas for some infinite classes. We have to leave the computational complexity of the likelihood as an open problem.

  15. Towards Enhanced Affective Design: Rethinking the Notion of Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, SuKyoung; Cho, Youngil

    2017-09-01

    Design disciplines have been contributing to shaping the life of human beings, as well as fostering culture and heritage. Design disciplines and research have been rapidly transforming, and not only objects but also services are target of design. This paper reviews design disciplines towards enhanced affective design, which attributes to intuitive knowledge. It aims at rethinking the notion of design to propose a conceptual framework for integrating user experience into objects that strengthen the form and function based design with pleasing.

  16. La notion de spectre angulaire sphérique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellat-Finet, Pierre; Durand, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2006-04-01

    The notion of a spherical angular spectrum leads to the representation of an electromagnetic wave as a superposition of spherical waves. It provides a direct way of interpreting the role of the pupil in the theory of image formation. The spherical angular spectrum propagation takes the same form as the field amplitude transfer from a spherical emitter to a spherical receiver. To cite this article: P. Pellat-Finet, P.-E. Durand, C. R. Physique 7 (2006).

  17. Generational Myth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidhyanathan, Siva

    2008-01-01

    College students in America are not as "digital" as one might wish to pretend. And even at elite universities, many are not rich enough. All the mystical talk about a generational shift and all the claims that kids won't read books are not true. In this article, the author challenges the notion of "digital natives." The author argues that the term…

  18. Energy levels and lifetimes of Nd IV, Pm IV, Sm IV, and Eu IV

    SciTech Connect

    Dzuba, V. A.; Safronova, U. I.; Johnson, W. R.

    2003-09-01

    To address the shortage of experimental data for electron spectra of triply ionized rare-earth elements we have calculated energy levels and lifetimes of 4f{sup n+1} and 4f{sup n}5d configurations of Nd IV (n=2), Pm IV (n=3), Sm IV (n=4), and Eu IV (n=5) using Hartree-Fock and configuration-interaction methods. To control the accuracy of our calculations we also performed similar calculations for Pr III, Nd III, and Sm III, for which experimental data are available. The results are important, in particular, for physics of magnetic garnets.

  19. Extended tensor products and generalization of the notion of entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrennikov, Andrei; Rosinger, Elemer E.

    2012-03-01

    Motivated by the novel applications of the mathematical formalism of quantum theory and its generalizations in cognitive science, psychology, social and political sciences, and economics, we extend the notion of the tensor product and entanglement. We also study the relation between conventional entanglement of complex qubits and our generalized entanglement. Our construction can also be used to describe entanglement in the framework of non-Archimedean physics. It is also possible to construct tensor products of non-Archimedean (e.g., p-adic) and complex Hilbert spaces.

  20. "Phronesis" on tour: cultural adaptability of Aristotelian ethical notions.

    PubMed

    Polansky, R

    2000-12-01

    How might bioethics take account of cultural diversity? Can practical wisdom of an Aristotelian sort be applied across cultures? After showing that practical wisdom involves both intellectual cleverness and moral virtue, it is argued that both these components have universality. Hence practical wisdom must be universal as well. Hellenic ethical thought neither depended on outdated theoretical notions nor limited itself to the Greek world, but was in fact developed with constant awareness of cultural differences, so it arguably works as well in other times and places when formulated. Even the eudaemonistic setting for practical wisdom is unproblematic.

  1. The generation of gravitational waves. IV - Bremsstrahlung

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovacs, S. J., Jr.; Thorne, K. S.

    1978-01-01

    Previously derived waveforms for gravitational bremsstrahlung are discussed along with their spectra and their limiting structure at high and low relative velocities. Waveforms and spectra are presented for a low-velocity bremsstrahlung encounter, and waveforms are given for encounters of arbitrary relative velocity. Limiting forms for the gravitational-wave amplitudes in the 'forward', 'intermediate', and 'backward' regions are derived in the high-velocity limit. The energy spectra seen by observers in the three regions are computed for arbitrary and high velocities. Simpler methods for analyzing special cases of the bremsstrahlung problem are examined, and the results of those methods are compared with the present results. Those methods include the quadrupole-moment and post-Newtonian formalisms, linear perturbations of the Schwarzschild metric, the method of colliding plane waves, the method of virtual quanta, and the zero-frequency limit. Classical gravitational bremsstrahlung is then compared with classical electromagnetic bremsstrahlung.

  2. Using PLATO IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meller, David V.

    This beginning reference manual describes PLATO IV hardware for prospective users and provides an introduction to PLATO for new authors. The PLATO terminal is described in detail in Chapter 1. Chapter 2 provides a block diagram of the PLATO IV system. Procedures for getting on line are described in Chapter 3, and Chapter 4 provides references to…

  3. Accounting for EBM: notions of evidence in medicine.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Helen

    2006-06-01

    This paper takes as a focus of anthropological enquiry the set of techniques and practices for the appraisal and clinical application of research evidence that has become known as evidence-based medicine (EBM) (or, more recently, evidence-based health care). It first delineates and classifies the criticisms of EBM emerging from within the health professions. It then charts the evolution of EBM in responding to these criticisms and uncovers its character as a pedagogical innovation aimed at transforming clinical practice. It identifies EBM as an indeterminate and malleable range of techniques and practices characterised not by particular kinds of methodological rigour, but by the pursuit of a new approach to medical knowledge and authority. It situates this characterisation within a contemporaneous political and economic climate of declining trust and growing accountability. This analysis provides a basis from which to consider the notions of evidence implicit in EBM itself and also in the qualitative social sciences, including anthropology, which not only critique but also contribute to these notions themselves. Finally, the paper considers possible future trajectories for EBM with regard to the incorporation of cultural and structural dimensions of health and the inclusion of qualitative material in the evidence base.

  4. Vaccine hesitancy: clarifying a theoretical framework for an ambiguous notion.

    PubMed

    Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Larson, Heidi J; Ward, Jeremy K; Schulz, William S; Verger, Pierre

    2015-02-25

    Today, according to many public health experts, public confidence in vaccines is waning. The term "vaccine hesitancy" (VH) is increasingly used to describe the spread of such vaccine reluctance. But VH is an ambiguous notion and its theoretical background appears uncertain. To clarify this concept, we first review the current definitions of VH in the public health literature and examine its most prominent characteristics. VH has been defined as a set of beliefs, attitudes, or behaviours, or some combination of them, shared by a large and heterogeneous portion of the population and including people who exhibit reluctant conformism (they may either decline a vaccine, delay it or accept it despite their doubts) and vaccine-specific behaviours. Secondly, we underline some of the ambiguities of this notion and argue that it is more a catchall category than a real concept. We also call into question the usefulness of understanding VH as an intermediate position along a continuum ranging from anti-vaccine to pro-vaccine attitudes, and we discuss its qualification as a belief, attitude or behaviour. Thirdly, we propose a theoretical framework, based on previous literature and taking into account some major structural features of contemporary societies, that considers VH as a kind of decision-making process that depends on people's level of commitment to healthism/risk culture and on their level of confidence in the health authorities and mainstream medicine.

  5. Evolution of the notion of time in hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    1986-10-01

    The AGU Hydrology Section sponsored a special session on History and Heritage of Hydrology between 8:30 A.M. and 12 noon on Monday, December 9, 1985, during the Fall Meeting at San Francisco. The session was chaired by T. N. Narasimhan of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (Berkeley, Calif.). The attendance of between 100 and 120 for each talk was indicative of a healthy interest among researchers on matters related to history.The first part of the session focused attention on the theme “The Evolution of the Notion of Time in Hydrogeology.” The last two speakers addressed topics outside of this theme. Simon Ince (University of Arizona, Tucson) presented a historical account of the contributions of 19th century French scientist Barre de Saint-Venant to transient flow of water in open channels. Olaf H. Pfannkuch (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis) presented a historical account of the Cult of Saint Barbara and the mining profession of medieval Europe. The following summary is restricted to an overview of those presentations that dealt with the evolution of the notion of time in hydrogeology.

  6. On remembering: the notion of memory without recollection.

    PubMed

    Botella, César

    2014-10-01

    The author begins by attempting to evaluate the notions of memory and remembering, taking into account their evolution in Freud's work and the current debates on their relative importance in conducting an analytic treatment. This leads the author to develop an extension of the theory which none the less remains Freudian, by introducing a series of notions (the main ones being the work of figurability, regredience, state of session, negative of trauma, and memory without recollection), and arguing in favour of a principle of convergence-coherence governing mental life. His thesis is the following: analytic practice contains a dimension of an archaeological order, as Freud described it, as well as - thanks to the contribution of contemporary practice denouncing its insufficiency - the complementary need for the analyst to work in a particular way in the session - that is to say, one that involves what he calls a regredience of his or her thought processes, allowing him or her to gain access to early psychic zones beyond the zone of represented memories. This is what he calls transformational psychoanalysis, complementary to archeological psychoanalysis. The author's theoretical and practical developments are backed up by a personal schema of mental functioning, an extension of Freud's schema in 1900, and the detailed description of an analytic treatment, in particular, the central session which played a crucial role in the success of this analysis.

  7. The notion of "double consciousness" in Alfred Binet's psychological experimentalism.

    PubMed

    Foschi, Renato; Cicciola, Elisabetta

    2006-01-01

    Between 1889 and 1892, Binet published two remarkable essays, On Double Consciousness and Les alterations de la personnalité, which marked the end of a period of researches and interests closely linked to the doctrines on hypnosis and hysteria elaborated by the Ecole de la Salpêtrière. Later on, Binet was to abandon the utilization of hypnosis as a technique of experimentation, after he realized that the suggestibility of the "subjects" of these experiences had led to major experimental mistakes. However, during the years of his work at the Salpêtrière, he elaborated the notion of "double consciousness," which can be considered an alternative both to Ribot's idea of dissociation and to Janet's idea of disaggregation. The notion of double consciousness reveals both the originality of Binet's psychology--which was elaborated at the end of the nineteenth century--and its verifiable link to twentieth-century psychology. Unlike Janet, in fact, Binet did not support a theory of psychological deficiency or "misery," or of the retraction of the sphere of consciousness, which a normal capacity for psychological synthesis would oppose. On the contrary, Binet's psychology resulted in a theory stating that the duality of consciousness works in a perfect and autonomous way within the individual and, thanks to hypnosis, can be investigated in a laboratory.

  8. Vaccine Hesitancy: Clarifying a Theoretical Framework for an Ambiguous Notion

    PubMed Central

    Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Larson, Heidi J; Ward, Jeremy K.; Schulz, William S; Verger, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Today, according to many public health experts, public confidence in vaccines is waning. The term “vaccine hesitancy” (VH) is increasingly used to describe the spread of such vaccine reluctance. But VH is an ambiguous notion and its theoretical background appears uncertain. To clarify this concept, we first review the current definitions of VH in the public health literature and examine its most prominent characteristics. VH has been defined as a set of beliefs, attitudes, or behaviours, or some combination of them, shared by a large and heterogeneous portion of the population and including people who exhibit reluctant conformism (they may either decline a vaccine, delay it or accept it despite their doubts) and vaccine-specific behaviours. Secondly, we underline some of the ambiguities of this notion and argue that it is more a catchall category than a real concept. We also call into question the usefulness of understanding VH as an intermediate position along a continuum ranging from anti-vaccine to pro-vaccine attitudes, and we discuss its qualification as a belief, attitude or behaviour. Thirdly, we propose a theoretical framework, based on previous literature and taking into account some major structural features of contemporary societies, that considers VH as a kind of decision-making process that depends on people’s level of commitment to healthism/risk culture and on their level of confidence in the health authorities and mainstream medicine. PMID:25789201

  9. K2 ZnSn3 Se8 : A Non-Centrosymmetric Zinc Selenidostannate(IV) Featuring Interesting Covalently Bonded [ZnSn3 Se8 ](2-) Layer and Exhibiting Intriguing Second Harmonic Generation Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Molin; Jiang, Xingxing; Yang, Yi; Guo, Yangwu; Lin, Zheshuai; Yao, JJiyong; Wu, Yicheng

    2017-06-19

    Non-centrosymmetric zinc selenidostannate(IV) K2 ZnSn3 Se8 was synthesized. It features interesting covalently bonded [ZnSn3 Se8 ](2-) layers with K(+) cations filling in the interlayer voids. The phonon spectrum was calculated to clarify its structural stability. Based on the X-ray diffraction data along with the Raman spectrum, the major bonding features of the title compound were identified. According to the UV/vis-NIR spectroscopy, K2 ZnSn3 Se8 possesses a typical direct band gap of 2.10 eV, which is in good agreement with the band structure calculations. Moreover, our experimental measurements and detailed theoretical calculations reveal that K2 ZnSn3 Se8 is a new phase-matchable nonlinear optical material with a powder second harmonic generation (SHG) signal about 0.6 times of that of AgGaS2 . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Stem cells and the evolving notion of cellular identity.

    PubMed

    Daley, George Q

    2015-10-19

    Stem cells are but one class of the myriad types of cells within an organism. With potential to self-renew and capacity to differentiate, stem cells play essential roles at multiple stages of development. In the early embryo, pluripotent stem cells represent progenitors for all tissues while later in development, tissue-restricted stem cells give rise to cells with highly specialized functions. As best understood in the blood, skin and gut, stem cells are the seeds that sustain tissue homeostasis and regeneration, while in other tissues like the muscle, liver, kidney and lung, various stem or progenitor cells play facultative roles in tissue repair and response to injury. Here, I will provide a brief perspective on the evolving notion of cellular identity and how reprogramming and transcription factor-mediated conversions of one cell type into another have fundamentally altered our assumptions about the stability of cell identity, with profound long-term implications for biomedical research and regenerative medicine.

  11. Notions of the ergodic hierarchy for curved statistical manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Ignacio S.

    2017-10-01

    We present an extension of the ergodic, mixing, and Bernoulli levels of the ergodic hierarchy for statistical models on curved manifolds, making use of elements of the information geometry. This extension focuses on the notion of statistical independence between the microscopical variables of the system. Moreover, we establish an intimately relationship between statistical models and families of probability distributions belonging to the canonical ensemble, which for the case of the quadratic Hamiltonian systems provides a closed form for the correlations between the microvariables in terms of the temperature of the heat bath as a power law. From this, we obtain an information geometric method for studying Hamiltonian dynamics in the canonical ensemble. We illustrate the results with two examples: a pair of interacting harmonic oscillators presenting phase transitions and the 2 × 2 Gaussian ensembles. In both examples the scalar curvature results a global indicator of the dynamics.

  12. On the notion of 'software independence' in voting systems.

    PubMed

    Rivest, Ronald L

    2008-10-28

    This paper defines and explores the notion of 'software independence' in voting systems: 'A voting system is software independent if an (undetected) change or error in its software cannot cause an undetectable change or error in an election outcome'. For example, optical scan and some cryptographically based voting systems are software independent. Variations and implications of this definition are explored. It is proposed that software-independent voting systems should be preferred, and software-dependent voting systems should be avoided.An initial version of this paper was prepared for use by the Technical Guidelines Development Committee in their development of the Voluntary Voting System Guidelines, which will specify the requirements that the USA voting systems must meet to receive certification.

  13. A distributed control approach for power and energy management in a notional shipboard power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Qunying

    The main goal of this thesis is to present a power control module (PCON) based approach for power and energy management and to examine its control capability in shipboard power system (SPS). The proposed control scheme is implemented in a notional medium voltage direct current (MVDC) integrated power system (IPS) for electric ship. To realize the control functions such as ship mode selection, generator launch schedule, blackout monitoring, and fault ride-through, a PCON based distributed power and energy management system (PEMS) is developed. The control scheme is proposed as two-layer hierarchical architecture with system level on the top as the supervisory control and zonal level on the bottom as the decentralized control, which is based on the zonal distribution characteristic of the notional MVDC IPS that was proposed as one of the approaches for Next Generation Integrated Power System (NGIPS) by Norbert Doerry. Several types of modules with different functionalities are used to derive the control scheme in detail for the notional MVDC IPS. Those modules include the power generation module (PGM) that controls the function of generators, the power conversion module (PCM) that controls the functions of DC/DC or DC/AC converters, etc. Among them, the power control module (PCON) plays a critical role in the PEMS. It is the core of the control process. PCONs in the PEMS interact with all the other modules, such as power propulsion module (PPM), energy storage module (ESM), load shedding module (LSHED), and human machine interface (HMI) to realize the control algorithm in PEMS. The proposed control scheme is implemented in real time using the real time digital simulator (RTDS) to verify its validity. To achieve this, a system level energy storage module (SESM) and a zonal level energy storage module (ZESM) are developed in RTDS to cooperate with PCONs to realize the control functionalities. In addition, a load shedding module which takes into account the reliability

  14. IV treatment at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... venous catheter - home; Port - home; PICC line - home; Infusion therapy - home; Home health care - IV treatment ... is given quickly, all at once. A slow infusion, which means the medicine is given slowly over ...

  15. GCF Mark IV development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, L. O.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark IV ground communication facility (GCF) as it is implemented to support the network consolidation program is reviewed. Changes in the GCF are made in the area of increased capacity. Common carrier circuits are the medium for data transfer. The message multiplexing in the Mark IV era differs from the Mark III era, in that all multiplexing is done in a GCF computer under GCF software control, which is similar to the multiplexing currently done in the high speed data subsystem.

  16. 26 CFR 1.1001-4 - Modifications of certain notional principal contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Modifications of certain notional principal... § 1.1001-4 Modifications of certain notional principal contracts. (a) Dealer assignments. For purposes... notional principal contract (as defined in § 1.446-3(c)(1)), is not treated as a deemed exchange by the...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1001-4 - Modifications of certain notional principal contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Modifications of certain notional principal... Gain Or Loss § 1.1001-4 Modifications of certain notional principal contracts. (a) Dealer assignments..., or other notional principal contract (as defined in § 1.446-3(c)(1)), is not treated as a deemed...

  18. The Notional-Functional Approach: Teaching the Real Language in Its Natural Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Elaine

    This study of the notional-functional approach to second language teaching reviews the history and theoretical background of the method, current issues, and implementation of a notional-functional syllabus. Chapter 1 discusses the history and theory of the approach and the organization and advantages of the notional-functional syllabus. Chapter 2…

  19. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaris, A.; Bouratzis, C.; Nindos, A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts that extend to hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprises 48 interplanetary type IV bursts observed with the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) instrument onboard Wind in the 13.825 MHz - 20 kHz frequency range. The dynamic spectra of the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), the Nançay Decametric Array (DAM), the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l' Enregistrement Magnetique de l' Information Spectral (ARTEMIS-IV), the Culgoora, Hiraso, and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) Radio Spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona. These were supplemented with soft X-ray (SXR) flux-measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and coronal mass ejections (CME) data from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Positional information of the coronal bursts was obtained by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs, and SXR flares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact, their duration was on average 106 minutes. This type of events was, mostly, associated with M- and X-class flares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs, 32 of these events had CMEs faster than 1000 km s^{-1}. Furthermore, in 43 compact events the CME was possibly subjected to reduced aerodynamic drag as it was propagating in the wake of a previous CME. A minority (three) of long-lived type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts was detected, with durations from 960 minutes to 115 hours. These events are referred to as extended or long duration and appear to replenish their energetic electron content, possibly from electrons escaping from the corresponding coronal

  20. HIL range performance of notional hyperspectral imaging sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkin, Van A.; Howell, Christopher L.

    2016-05-01

    In the use of conventional broadband imaging systems, whether reflective or emissive, scene image contrasts are often so low that target discrimination is difficult or uncertain, and it is contrast that drives human-in-the-loop (HIL) sensor range performance. This situation can occur even when the spectral shapes of the target and background signatures (radiances) across the sensor waveband differ significantly from each other. The fundamental components of broadband image contrast are the spectral integrals of the target and background signatures, and this spectral integration can average away the spectral differences between scene objects. In many low broadband image contrast situations, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) can preserve a greater degree of the intrinsic scene spectral contrast for the display, and more display contrast means greater range performance by a trained observer. This paper documents a study using spectral radiometric signature modeling and the U.S. Army's Night Vision Integrated Performance Model (NV-IPM) to show how waveband selection by a notional HSI sensor using spectral contrast optimization can significantly increase HIL sensor range performance over conventional broadband sensors.

  1. "Dislocation", shelter, and crisis: Afghanistan's refugees and notions of home.

    PubMed

    Emmott, S

    1996-02-01

    Millions of people have become refugees or been displaced within Afghanistan during 17 years of war within the country. Conversations with women in a camp for the displaced reveal what it means for women to lose their homes, especially in the context of ongoing instability and conflict. Sections discuss homelessness in Kabul, linking psycho-social and practical needs, coping with dislocation, stability and land ownership, mobility and security, family breakdown, temporary and permanent settlements, and meeting needs versus creating dependency. The author concludes that among people displaced from their homes for so many years, their physical and spiritual homes nonetheless remain inseparable from their lives. It is important to maintain the individual notion of home if life is to be worth living and hope retained. Relief agencies must help in an appropriate manner and to an appropriate extent. Oxfam has been working beyond the refugee camps, in a return to the city of Kabul, since July 1995. When this article was written, the NGO was involved in a joint venture to restore the piped water supply which, like the electricity supply, was looted and damaged. It also plans to distribute plastic sheeting for use as roofs and floor covering during the winter. Oxfam currently plans discreet activities rather than an integrated approach.

  2. Information flow and causality as rigorous notions ab initio.

    PubMed

    Liang, X San

    2016-11-01

    Information flow or information transfer the widely applicable general physics notion can be rigorously derived from first principles, rather than axiomatically proposed as an ansatz. Its logical association with causality is firmly rooted in the dynamical system that lies beneath. The principle of nil causality that reads, an event is not causal to another if the evolution of the latter is independent of the former, which transfer entropy analysis and Granger causality test fail to verify in many situations, turns out to be a proven theorem here. Established in this study are the information flows among the components of time-discrete mappings and time-continuous dynamical systems, both deterministic and stochastic. They have been obtained explicitly in closed form, and put to applications with the benchmark systems such as the Kaplan-Yorke map, Rössler system, baker transformation, Hénon map, and stochastic potential flow. Besides unraveling the causal relations as expected from the respective systems, some of the applications show that the information flow structure underlying a complex trajectory pattern could be tractable. For linear systems, the resulting remarkably concise formula asserts analytically that causation implies correlation, while correlation does not imply causation, providing a mathematical basis for the long-standing philosophical debate over causation versus correlation.

  3. Information flow and causality as rigorous notions ab initio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X. San

    2016-11-01

    Information flow or information transfer the widely applicable general physics notion can be rigorously derived from first principles, rather than axiomatically proposed as an ansatz. Its logical association with causality is firmly rooted in the dynamical system that lies beneath. The principle of nil causality that reads, an event is not causal to another if the evolution of the latter is independent of the former, which transfer entropy analysis and Granger causality test fail to verify in many situations, turns out to be a proven theorem here. Established in this study are the information flows among the components of time-discrete mappings and time-continuous dynamical systems, both deterministic and stochastic. They have been obtained explicitly in closed form, and put to applications with the benchmark systems such as the Kaplan-Yorke map, Rössler system, baker transformation, Hénon map, and stochastic potential flow. Besides unraveling the causal relations as expected from the respective systems, some of the applications show that the information flow structure underlying a complex trajectory pattern could be tractable. For linear systems, the resulting remarkably concise formula asserts analytically that causation implies correlation, while correlation does not imply causation, providing a mathematical basis for the long-standing philosophical debate over causation versus correlation.

  4. Stretching the Traditional Notion of Experiment in Computing: Explorative Experiments.

    PubMed

    Schiaffonati, Viola

    2016-06-01

    Experimentation represents today a 'hot' topic in computing. If experiments made with the support of computers, such as computer simulations, have received increasing attention from philosophers of science and technology, questions such as "what does it mean to do experiments in computer science and engineering and what are their benefits?" emerged only recently as central in the debate over the disciplinary status of the discipline. In this work we aim at showing, also by means of paradigmatic examples, how the traditional notion of controlled experiment should be revised to take into account a part of the experimental practice in computing along the lines of experimentation as exploration. Taking inspiration from the discussion on exploratory experimentation in the philosophy of science-experimentation that is not theory-driven-we advance the idea of explorative experiments that, although not new, can contribute to enlarge the debate about the nature and role of experimental methods in computing. In order to further refine this concept we recast explorative experiments as socio-technical experiments, that test new technologies in their socio-technical contexts. We suggest that, when experiments are explorative, control should be intended in a posteriori form, in opposition to the a priori form that usually takes place in traditional experimental contexts.

  5. Two notions of conspicuity and the classification of phyllotaxis.

    PubMed

    Reick, Christian H

    2002-04-07

    Invoking cylindrical Bravais lattices, Adler (1974, 1977) proposed a mathematically precise definition for the botanical classification of phyllotaxis. It is based on opposed pairs of parastichy families, that are conspicuous and visible. Jean (1988) generalized this concept to non-opposed pairs of parastichy families. In the present paper it is shown that this generalization implies a notion of conspicuity different from Adler's. This is made obvious by redefining the key terms of the two approaches. Both classifications are well defined. For Adler's, this is shown by presenting a general proof for his conjecture that conspicuous (in the sense of Adler) opposed pairs of parastichy families are visible. There are indications that in applications to models of phyllotaxis (van Iterson model, inhibitor models) their solutions are better characterized by Jean's classification. The differences between Adler's and Jean's classification show up only in very rare cases, so that the practice of pattern determination is only insignificantly touched by the present results. It turns out that the widely used contact parastichy method to determine phyllotactic patterns gives results according to Jean's classification rather than Adler's. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The PLATO IV Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifle, Jack

    The PLATO IV computer-based instructional system consists of a large scale centrally located CDC 6400 computer and a large number of remote student terminals. This is a brief and general description of the proposed input/output hardware necessary to interface the student terminals with the computer's central processing unit (CPU) using available…

  7. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  8. IVS Technology Coordinator Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This report of the Technology Coordinator includes the following: 1) continued work to implement the new VLBI2010 system, 2) the 1st International VLBI Technology Workshop, 3) a VLBI Digital- Backend Intercomparison Workshop, 4) DiFX software correlator development for geodetic VLBI, 5) a review of progress towards global VLBI standards, and 6) a welcome to new IVS Technology Coordinator Bill Petrachenko.

  9. Religious Relationships with the Environment in a Tibetan Rural Community: Interactions and Contrasts with Popular Notions of Indigenous Environmentalism.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Emily; Mills, Martin A; McGowan, Philip J K; Milner-Gulland, E J

    Representations of Green Tibetans connected to Buddhism and indigenous wisdom have been deployed by a variety of actors and persist in popular consciousness. Through interviews, participatory mapping and observation, we explored how these ideas relate to people's notions about the natural environment in a rural community on the Eastern Tibetan plateau, in Sichuan Province, China. We found people to be orienting themselves towards the environment by means of three interlinked religious notions: (1) local gods and spirits in the landscape, which have become the focus of conservation efforts in the form of 'sacred natural sites;' (2) sin and karma related to killing animals and plants; (3) Buddhist moral precepts especially non-violence. We highlight the gaps between externally generated representations and local understandings, but also the dynamic, contested and plural nature of local relationships with the environment, which have been influenced and reshaped by capitalist development and commodification of natural resources, state environmental policies, and Buddhist modernist ideas.

  10. Notions and treatment of guinea worm in northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Bierlich, B

    1995-08-01

    Dracunculiasis, infection with Dracunculus medinensis or guinea worm, is widespread in the Northern Region of Ghana, where rural people drink from unprotected water sources such as ponds and small-scale dams. This paper discusses the results of an anthropological study of beliefs and practices concerning commonly occurring illnesses, such as infection with guinea worm (nierifu), in two rural Dagomba communities in the Northern Region of Ghana. The importance of knowing about local perceptions and treatment of guinea worm is stressed. Guinea worm is not attributed to water. The general understanding is that guinea worm is an innate part of human anatomy. It is not seen as an alien presence in the body. Guinea worm is rather said to be 'in people's blood', and sooner or later to 'stand up'. Guinea worm is considered an 'inevitable' feature of living. After a description of the background to the study, the methods are characterized. Brief background information on the people, their environment and their water sources are given. The central portion of the paper focuses on local perceptions of illness and notions of guinea worm ('guinea worm is in the human blood'), which are very different from those of biomedicine ('guinea worm is a disease'). Attention is also given to perceptions of water ('bitter' vs 'sweet') and the prevention of guinea worm. The social limitations to the filter technology are addressed. People's choice of therapy and the role of medicines (herbs and Western pharmaceuticals) in treatment of guinea worm are also considered. The paper concludes with a discussion of health education and stresses the importance of showing respect for the local view of guinea worm, which is said to be 'in the blood'. It is suggested that, since people are not adverse to the use of Western pharmaceuticals, the use of Western medicines to treat guinea worm should be further promoted. The social constraints on filtering must also be appreciated. These relate to the

  11. The notion of error in Langevin dynamics. I. Linear analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Bimal; Schlick, Tamar

    1996-07-01

    The notion of error in practical molecular and Langevin dynamics simulations of large biomolecules is far from understood because of the relatively large value of the timestep used, the short simulation length, and the low-order methods employed. We begin to examine this issue with respect to equilibrium and dynamic time-correlation functions by analyzing the behavior of selected implicit and explicit finite-difference algorithms for the Langevin equation. We derive: local stability criteria for these integrators; analytical expressions for the averages of the potential, kinetic, and total energy; and various limiting cases (e.g., timestep and damping constant approaching zero), for a system of coupled harmonic oscillators. These results are then compared to the corresponding exact solutions for the continuous problem, and their implications to molecular dynamics simulations are discussed. New concepts of practical and theoretical importance are introduced: scheme-dependent perturbative damping and perturbative frequency functions. Interesting differences in the asymptotic behavior among the algorithms become apparent through this analysis, and two symplectic algorithms, ``LIM2'' (implicit) and ``BBK'' (explicit), appear most promising on theoretical grounds. One result of theoretical interest is that for the Langevin/implicit-Euler algorithm (``LI'') there exist timesteps for which there is neither numerical damping nor shift in frequency for a harmonic oscillator. However, this idea is not practical for more complex systems because these special timesteps can account only for one frequency of the system, and a large damping constant is required. We therefore devise a more practical, delay-function approach to remove the artificial damping and frequency perturbation from LI. Indeed, a simple MD implementation for a system of coupled harmonic oscillators demonstrates very satisfactory results in comparison with the velocity-Verlet scheme. We also define a

  12. Laser flash photolysis generation and kinetic studies of porphyrin-manganese-oxo intermediates. Rate constants for oxidations effected by porphyrin-Mn(V)-oxo species and apparent disproportionation equilibrium constants for porphyrin-Mn(IV)-oxo species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Horner, John H; Newcomb, Martin

    2005-05-11

    Porphyrin-manganese(V)-oxo and porphyrin-manganese(IV)-oxo species were produced in organic solvents by laser flash photolysis (LFP) of the corresponding porphyrin-manganese(III) perchlorate and chlorate complexes, respectively, permitting direct kinetic studies. The porphyrin systems studied were 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP), 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin (TPFPP), and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-methylpyridinium)porphyrin (TMPyP). The order of reactivity for (porphyrin)Mn(V)(O) derivatives in self-decay reactions in acetonitrile and in oxidations of substrates was (TPFPP) > (TMPyP) > (TPP). Representative rate constants for reaction of (TPFPP)Mn(V)(O) in acetonitrile are k = 6.1 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) for cis-stilbene and k = 1.4 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) for diphenylmethane, and the kinetic isotope effect in oxidation of ethylbenzene and ethylbenzene-d(10) is k(H)/k(D) = 2.3. Competitive oxidation reactions conducted under catalytic conditions display approximately the same relative rate constants as were found in the LFP studies of (porphyrin)Mn(V)(O) derivatives. The apparent rate constants for reactions of (porphyrin)Mn(IV)(O) species show inverted reactivity order with (TPFPP) < (TMPyP) < (TPP) in reactions with cis-stilbene, triphenylamine, and triphenylphosphine. The inverted reactivity results because (porphyrin)Mn(IV)(O) disproportionates to (porphyrin)Mn(III)X and (porphyrin)Mn(V)(O), which is the primary oxidant, and the equilibrium constants for disproportionation of (porphyrin)Mn(IV)(O) are in the order (TPFPP) < (TMPyP) < (TPP). The fast comproportionation reaction of (TPFPP)Mn(V)(O) with (TPFPP)Mn(III)Cl to give (TPFPP)Mn(IV)(O) (k = 5 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1)) and disproportionation reaction of (TPP)Mn(IV)(O) to give (TPP)Mn(V)(O) and (TPP)Mn(III)X (k approximately 2.5 x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)) were observed. The relative populations of (porphyrin)Mn(V)(O) and (porphyrin)Mn(IV)(O) were determined from the ratios of observed rate constants for

  13. An Overview of the Scientific and Space Weather Motivation for the "Notional" Geospace Dynamics Constellation Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaff, R. F., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    The Geospace Dynamics Constellation (GDC) is a strategic mission recommended as NASA's next major Living With a Star (LWS) initiative by the NAS/NRC Committee on a Decadal Strategy for Solar and Space Physics. GDC will characterize and understand the global dynamics and momentum exchange between ionized/neutral gases at all latitudes including their coupling and feedback to the magnetosphere and their response to forcing from below. A comprehensive mission is envisioned in which measurements are continuously gathered of state parameters and their drivers on multiple, identical satellites with near-polar, circular orbits evenly spaced in local time. (Notionally, we consider 6 satellites providing measurements of 12 local times every 90 min.) Furthermore, GDC will carry out these measurements at low altitudes (i.e., 300-400 km) where the neutral and plasma gases are strongly coupled through dynamical and chemical processes. GDC will reveal the global dynamics of the gas populations and how they influence their number density and composition. It will carry out this in-depth investigation during both quiet and disturbed conditions, promising to reveal, in particular, how the ionosphere/upper atmosphere responds at all latitudes during storms. It will provide the global patterns and interplay of mid- and low-latitude plasma drifts and winds as a function of magnetic activity and IMF, both above and below the F-peak. Continuous sampling at high rates addresses shorter scale, highly dynamic phenomena. An overview of the notional GDC mission is presented, including remarks on the number of satellites and time constants needed to capture key global processes. Notional instruments include in situ probes to measure neutral and ion gas properties, fields, and energetic particles. Sounders, Fabry-Perot interferometers and other instruments are candidates as well. Key mission elements include a strong ground-based component, as well as a strong theory and modeling component

  14. A Miniaturized Class IV Flextensional Ultrasonic Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeney, Andrew; Tweedie, Andrew; Mathieson, Andrew; Lucas, Margaret

    The class V transducer has found popularity in a diverse range of applications such as surgical and underwater projection systems, where high vibration amplitude for relatively low piezoceramic volume is generated. The class IV transducer offers the potential to attain even higher performance per volume than the class V. In this research, a miniaturized class IV power ultrasonic flextensional transducer is proposed. Simulations were performed using PZFlex finite element analysis, and electrical impedance analysis and experimental modal analysis were conducted for validation, where a high correlation between simulation and experiment has been demonstrated.

  15. Reducing Nitrogen Oxide Emissions: 1996 Compliance with Title IV Limits

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize the existing federal nitrogen oxide (Nox) regulations and the 1996 performance of the 239 Title IV generating units. It also reviews the basics of low-Nox burner technology and presents cost and performance data for retrofits at Title IV units.

  16. Early Warning System: a juridical notion to be built

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarelli, A.

    2007-12-01

    Early warning systems (EWS) are becoming effective tools for real time mitigation of the harmful effects arising from widely different hazards, which range from famine to financial crisis, malicious attacks, industrial accidents, natural catastrophes, etc. Early warning of natural catastrophic events allows to implement both alert systems and real time prevention actions for the safety of people and goods exposed to the risk However the effective implementation of early warning methods is hindered by the lack of a specific juridical frame. Under a juridical point of view, in fact, EWS and in general all the activities of prevention need a careful regulation, mainly with regards to responsibility and possible compensation for damage caused by the implemented actions. A preventive alarm, in fact, has an active influence on infrastructures in control of public services which in turn will suffer suspensions or interruptions because of the early warning actions. From here it is necessary to possess accurate normative references related to the typology of structures or infrastructures upon which the activity of readiness acts; the progressive order of suspension of public services; the duration of these suspensions; the corporate bodies or administrations that are competent to assume such decisions; the actors responsible for the consequences of false alarm, missed or delayed alarms; the mechanisms of compensation for damage; the insurance systems; etc In the European Union EWS are often quoted as preventive methods of mitigation of the risk. Nevertheless, a juridical notion of EWS of general use is not available. In fact, EW is a concept that finds application in many different circles, each of which require specific adaptations, and may concern subjects for which the European Union doesn't have exclusive competence as may be the responsibility of the member states to assign the necessary regulations. In so far as the juridical arrangement of the EWS, this must be

  17. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    SciTech Connect

    N. E. Kramer

    1999-05-18

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the ''Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b) and (CRWMS M&O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as ''line load''. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding the 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.13) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and a drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance.

  18. Use of the IMPRINT-CGTME Model: Notional Acquisition Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Position Indicator (PPI), Maritime Moving Target Indicator (MMTI), and Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar ( ISAR ) modes. It also includes electro...of the line). Diamonds might be used to indicate objects in the water that are stopped or moving slowly. Switching the radar to ISAR mode and...pointing it at a particular target will generate an ISAR image that can be used to classify the target. The Common Operating Picture (COP, top center of

  19. [On the notions of "maturity" and "maturation" of a newborn infant in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Efimov, A A; Nekliudov, Iu A

    2012-01-01

    The notions of "maturity" and "maturation" of newborn infants are discussed in the context of forensic medical expertise based on the publications of the authors studying this problem. It is suggested that "maturation" should be considered to be a morphological notion in contrast to "maturity" to be regarded as a chronological notion. From this point of view, the solution of the maturity problem during forensic medical examination of the infant's corpse is beyond the scope of competence of the forensic medical expert. The authors emphasize the importance of differentiation between the above notions for the unambiguous interpretation of the results of examination by different experts.

  20. A sputnik IV saga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Charles A.

    2009-12-01

    The Sputnik IV launch occurred on May 15, 1960. On May 19, an attempt to deorbit a 'space cabin' failed and the cabin went into a higher orbit. The orbit of the cabin was monitored and Moonwatch volunteer satellite tracking teams were alerted to watch for the vehicle demise. On September 5, 1962, several team members from Milwaukee, Wisconsin made observations starting at 4:49 a.m. of a fireball following the predicted orbit of Sputnik IV. Requests went out to report any objects found under the fireball path. An early morning police patrol in Manitowoc had noticed a metal object on a street and had moved it to the curb. Later the officers recovered the object and had it dropped off at the Milwaukee Journal. The Moonwarch team got the object and reported the situation to Moonwatch Headquarters at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. A team member flew to Cambridge with the object. It was a solid, 9.49 kg piece of steel with a slag-like layer attached to it. Subsequent analyses showed that it contained radioactive nuclei produced by cosmic ray exposure in space. The scientists at the Observatory quickly recognized that measurements of its induced radioactivity could serve as a calibration for similar measurements of recently fallen nickel-iron meteorites. Concurrently, the Observatory directorate informed government agencies that a fragment from Sputnik IV had been recovered. Coincidently, a debate in the UN Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space involved the issue of liability for damage caused by falling satellite fragments. On September 12, the Observatory delivered the bulk of the fragment to the US Delegation to the UN. Two days later, the fragment was used by US Ambassador Francis Plimpton as an exhibit that the time had come to agree on liability for damage from satellite debris. He offered the Sputnik IV fragment to USSR Ambassador P.D. Morozov, who refused the offer. On October 23, Drs. Alla Massevitch and E.K. Federov of the USSR visited the

  1. Generativity and Flourishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The psychological construct of "generativity" was introduced by Erik Erikson in "Childhood and Society" in 1950. This rich and complex notion encompasses the constellation of desires, concerns and commitments that motivate individuals and societies to pass on legacies to future generations. "Flourishing," which means,…

  2. Generativity and Flourishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The psychological construct of "generativity" was introduced by Erik Erikson in "Childhood and Society" in 1950. This rich and complex notion encompasses the constellation of desires, concerns and commitments that motivate individuals and societies to pass on legacies to future generations. "Flourishing," which means,…

  3. Adding source positions to the IVS Combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, S.; Thaller, D.

    2016-12-01

    Simultaneous estimation of source positions, Earth orientation parameters (EOPs) and station positions in one common adjustment is crucial for a consistent generation of celestial and terrestrial reference frame (CRF and TRF, respectively). VLBI is the only technique to guarantee this consistency. Previous publications showed that the VLBI intra-technique combination could improve the quality of the EOPs and station coordinates compared to the individual contributions. By now, the combination of EOP and station coordinates is well established within the IVS and in combination with other space geodetic techniques (e.g. inter-technique combined TRF like the ITRF). Most of the contributing IVS Analysis Centers (AC) now provide source positions as a third parameter type (besides EOP and station coordinates), which have not been used for an operational combined solution yet. A strategy for the combination of source positions has been developed and integrated into the routine IVS combination. Investigations are carried out to compare the source positions derived from different IVS ACs with the combined estimates to verify whether the source positions are improved by the combination, as it has been proven for EOP and station coordinates. Furthermore, global solutions of source positions, i.e., so-called catalogues describing a CRF, are generated consistently with the TRF similar to the IVS operational combined quarterly solution. The combined solutions of the source positions time series and the consistently generated TRF and CRF are compared internally to the individual solutions of the ACs as well as to external CRF catalogues and TRFs. Additionally, comparisons of EOPs based on different CRF solutions are presented as an outlook for consistent EOP, CRF and TRF realizations.

  4. PMD IVS Analysis Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tornatore, Vincenza

    2013-01-01

    The main activities carried out at the PMD (Politecnico di Milano DIIAR) IVS Analysis Center during 2012 are briefly higlighted, and future plans for 2013 are sketched out. We principally continued to process European VLBI sessions using different approaches to evaluate possible differences due to various processing choices. Then VLBI solutions were also compared to the GPS ones as well as the ones calculated at co-located sites. Concerning the observational aspect, several tests were performed to identify the most suitable method to achieve the highest possible accuracy in the determination of GNSS (GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM) satellite positions using the VLBI technique.

  5. A Multidimensional Approach to Explore the Understanding of the Notion of Absolute Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagatsis, Athanasios; Panaoura, Areti

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate students' conceptions on the notion of absolute value and their abilities in applying the specific notion in routine and non-routine situations. A questionnaire was constructed and administered to 17-year-old students. Data were analysed using the hierarchical clustering of variables and the implicative method, while…

  6. Visual Criterion for Understanding the Notion of Convergence if Integrals in One Parameter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Francisco Regis Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Admittedly, the notion of generalized integrals in one parameter has a fundamental role. En virtue that, in this paper, we discuss and characterize an approach for to promote the visualization of this scientific mathematical concept. We still indicate the possibilities of graphical interpretation of formal properties related to notion of…

  7. A Multidimensional Approach to Explore the Understanding of the Notion of Absolute Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagatsis, Athanasios; Panaoura, Areti

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate students' conceptions on the notion of absolute value and their abilities in applying the specific notion in routine and non-routine situations. A questionnaire was constructed and administered to 17-year-old students. Data were analysed using the hierarchical clustering of variables and the implicative method, while…

  8. The Acquisition of Notions of Qualitative Speed: The Importance of Spatial and Temporal Alignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Bruce; Obenauf, Patricia

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study which investigated the order of acquisition of intuitive notions of qualitative speed. Results indicated that an array of prerequisites, equivalent, and independent relationships existed among the tasks administered. Confirmed the evolution of reasoning for notions of qualitative speed found by Piaget. (Author/TW)

  9. Implications of R. S. Peters' Notion of "Cognitive Perspective" for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses R.S. Peters' notion of "cognitive perspective," which, through careful reading, can be interpreted as a wider perspective resulting from an awareness of the relationships of one's knowledge and understanding to one's own life. This interpretation makes cognitive perspective a holistic notion akin to that of…

  10. Developing Understanding of Pupil Feedback Using Habermas' Notion of Communicative Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this article is to explore the notion of pupil feedback and the possible ways in which it can be understood and developed using Jürgen Habermas' theory of Communicative Action. The theoretical position adopted is framed within the concept of assessment for learning, and is particularly related to the notion of assessment as learning…

  11. Examining the Notion of Listening Subskill Divisibility and Its Implications for Second Language Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Christine C. M.; Aryadoust, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    The testing and teaching of listening has been partially guided by the notion of subskills, or a set of listening abilities that are needed for achieving successful comprehension and utilization of the information from listening texts. Although this notion came about mainly through applications of theoretical perspectives from psychology and…

  12. The Notion of Diversity in Language Education: Policy and Practice at Primary Level in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helot, Christine; Young, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    This paper will present an analysis of the notion of cultural and linguistic diversity in the new curriculum for primary schools in France (MEN, 2003). First, it will explain how this notion is linked both to a wider choice of languages and to the teaching of one foreign or regional language only. We shall argue that, despite the wide theoretical…

  13. Developing Understanding of Pupil Feedback Using Habermas' Notion of Communicative Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this article is to explore the notion of pupil feedback and the possible ways in which it can be understood and developed using Jürgen Habermas' theory of Communicative Action. The theoretical position adopted is framed within the concept of assessment for learning, and is particularly related to the notion of assessment as learning…

  14. Safe Autonomous Flight Environment (SAFE50) for the Notional Last 50 ft of Operation of 55 lb Class of UAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Kopardekar, Parimal; Ippolito, Corey; Melton, John E.; Stepanyan, Vahram; Sankararaman, Shankar; Nikaido, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The most difficult phase of small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) deployment is autonomous operations below the notional 50 ft in urban landscapes. Understanding the feasibility of safely flying sUAS autonomously below 50 ft is a game changer for many civilian applications. This paper outlines three areas of research currently underway which address key challenges for flight in the urban landscape. These are: (1) Off-line and On-board wind estimation and accommodation; (2) Real-time trajectory planning via characterization of obstacles using a LIDAR; (3) On-board information fusion for real-time decision-making and safe trajectory generation.

  15. Division Iv: Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbally, Christopher; D'Antona, Francesca; Spite, Monique; Asplund, Martin; Charbonnel, Corinne; Docobo, Jose Angel; Gray, Richard O.; Piskunov, Nikolai E.

    2012-04-01

    This Division IV was started on a trial basis at the General Assembly in The Hague 1994 and was formally accepted at the Kyoto General Assembly in 1997. Its broad coverage of ``Stars'' is reflected in its relatively large number of Commissions and so of members (1266 in late 2011). Its kindred Division V, ``Variable Stars'', has the same history of its beginning. The thinking at the time was to achieve some kind of balance between the number of members in each of the 12 Divisions. Amid the current discussion of reorganizing the number of Divisions into a more compact form it seems advisable to make this numerical balance less of an issue than the rationalization of the scientific coverage of each Division, so providing more effective interaction within a particular field of astronomy. After all, every star is variable to a certain degree and such variability is becoming an ever more powerful tool to understand the characteristics of every kind of normal and peculiar star. So we may expect, after hearing the reactions of members, that in the restructuring a single Division will result from the current Divisions IV and V.

  16. IVS contribution to ITRF2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Thaller, Daniela; Roggenbuck, Ole; Lösler, Michael; Messerschmitt, Linda

    2016-07-01

    Every few years the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) Center of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) decides to generate a new version of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). For the upcoming ITRF2014 the official contribution of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) comprises 5796 combined sessions in SINEX file format from 1979.6 to 2015.0 containing 158 stations, overall. Nine AC contributions were included in the combination process, using five different software packages. Station coordinate time series of the combined solution show an overall repeatability of 3.3 mm for the north, 4.3 mm for the east and 7.5 mm for the height component over all stations. The minimum repeatabilities are 1.5 mm for north, 2.1 mm for east and 2.9 mm for height. One of the important differences between the IVS contribution to the ITRF2014 and the routine IVS combination is the omission of the correction for non-tidal atmospheric pressure loading (NTAL). Comparisons between the amplitudes of the annual signals derived by the VLBI observations and the annual signals from an NTAL model show that for some stations, NTAL has a high impact on station height variation. For other stations, the effect of NTAL is low. Occasionally other loading effects have a higher influence (e.g. continental water storage loading). External comparisons of the scale parameter between the VTRF2014 (a TRF based on combined VLBI solutions), DTRF2008 (DGFI-TUM realization of ITRS) and ITRF2008 revealed a significant difference in the scale. A scale difference of 0.11 ppb (i.e. 0.7 mm on the Earth's surface) has been detected between the VTRF2014 and the DTRF2008, and a scale difference of 0.44 ppb (i.e. 2.8 mm on the Earth's surface) between the VTRF2014 and ITRF2008. Internal comparisons between the EOP of the combined solution and the individual solutions from the AC contributions show a WRMS in X- and Y-Pole between

  17. Flexible Manufacturing System Handbook. Volume IV. Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    controls. (9) Sets of batteries (one set per vehicle per shift). (3) Battery chargers . (1) Frequency generator. Necessary area controllers. Necessary battery ...When Date Entered)__________________ REPOT DC -U171,NTATON AGEREAD INSTRUCTIONSREPOT DOIJIENTAION AGEBEFORE COMPLETING FORM I. REPORT NUb’EER 2.GOVT...Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 ii FMS Handbook, Volume IV PREFACE This is the fourth volume in a five-volume series designed to answer the

  18. A Mn(IV)/Fe(IV) Intermediate in Assembly of the Mn(IV)/Fe(III) Cofactor of Chlamydia trachomatis Ribonucleotide Reductase†

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Hoffart, Lee M.; Krebs, Carsten; Bollinger, J. Martin

    2008-01-01

    We recently showed that the class Ic ribonucleotide reductase from the human pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis, uses a MnIV/FeIII cofactor to generate protein and substrate radicals in its catalytic mechanism [Jiang, W., Yun, D., Saleh, L., Barr, E. W., Xing, G., Hoffart, L. M., Maslak, M.-A., Krebs, C., and Bollinger, J. M., Jr. (2007) Science 316, 1188-1191]. Here, we have dissected the mechanism of formation of this novel heterobinuclear redox cofactor from the MnII/FeII cluster and O2. An intermediate with a g = 2 EPR signal that shows hyperfine coupling to both 55Mn and 57Fe accumulates almost quantitatively in a second order reaction between O2 and the reduced R2 complex. The otherwise slow decay of the intermediate to the active MnIV/FeIII-R2 complex is accelerated by the presence of the one-electron reductant, ascorbate, implying that the intermediate is more oxidized than MnIV/FeIII. Mössbauer spectra show that the intermediate contains a high-spin FeIV center. Its chemical and spectroscopic properties establish that the intermediate is a MnIV/FeIV-R2 complex with an S = 1/2 electronic ground state arising from antiferromagnetic coupling between the MnIV (SMn = 3/2) and high-spin FeIV (SFe = 2) sites. PMID:17616152

  19. Adverse environments and children's creativity development: transforming the notion of "success in adversity" in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important implications for China's future as it brings together one of China's core cultural values-"success in adversity"-the importance of creativity, and very real social and economic needs. "Success in adversity" reflects the strongly held belief that individuals who suffer adverse environments can rise to excellence and success through persistence, effort, and creativity. In this article, we briefly explore the historical sources of this belief and how it is closely related to the Chinese conception of creativity. We then present some studies on the creativity of some of China's migrant children. Findings show that while migrant children as a group may not generally exhibit higher creativity than their urban peers as hypothesized, indications of resilience and creative potential suggest that the notion of success in adversity may contribute to the positive development of China's migrant children more substantially when it is informed by research and augmented by research-supported policy.

  20. 78 FR 2390 - CSOLAR IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC, CSOLAR IV North, LLC v...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission CSOLAR IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC, CSOLAR IV North, LLC v. California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of Complaint Take notice... IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC and CSOLAR IV North, LLC (collectively...

  1. Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rittenhouse, P.; Ren, W.

    2005-03-29

    A Gen IV Materials Handbook is being developed to provide an authoritative single source of highly qualified structural materials information and materials properties data for use in design and analyses of all Generation IV Reactor Systems. The Handbook will be responsive to the needs expressed by all of the principal government, national laboratory, and private company stakeholders of Gen IV Reactor Systems. The Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan provided here addresses the purpose, rationale, attributes, and benefits of the Handbook and will detail its content, format, quality assurance, applicability, and access. Structural materials, both metallic and ceramic, for all Gen IV reactor types currently supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) will be included in the Gen IV Materials Handbook. However, initial emphasis will be on materials for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Descriptive information (e.g., chemical composition and applicable technical specifications and codes) will be provided for each material along with an extensive presentation of mechanical and physical property data including consideration of temperature, irradiation, environment, etc. effects on properties. Access to the Gen IV Materials Handbook will be internet-based with appropriate levels of control. Information and data in the Handbook will be configured to allow search by material classes, specific materials, specific information or property class, specific property, data parameters, and individual data points identified with materials parameters, test conditions, and data source. Details on all of these as well as proposed applicability and consideration of data quality classes are provided in the Implementation Plan. Website development for the Handbook is divided into six phases including (1) detailed product analysis and specification, (2) simulation and design, (3) implementation and testing, (4) product release, (5) project/product evaluation, and (6) product

  2. dBASE IV basics

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, P.

    1994-09-01

    This is a user`s manual for dBASE IV. dBASE IV is a popular software application that can be used on your personal computer to help organize and maintain your database files. It is actually a set of tools with which you can create, organize, select and manipulate data in a simple yet effective manner. dBASE IV offers three methods of working with the product: (1) control center: (2) command line; and (3) programming.

  3. La formation aux techniques du travail universitaire et la notion de tache (Training in the Techniques of Academic Work and the Notion of Task).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, M. K.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses questions concerning training students in techniques of academic work and use of the English language in this context. These questions, currently researched at the English Language Center of King Abdulaziz University, focus on the notion of task as a minimal pedagogic unit, and on task-objective coordination criteria. Societe Nouvelle…

  4. New Materials for NGNP/Gen IV

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Swindeman; Douglas L. Marriott

    2009-12-18

    The bounding conditions were briefly summarized for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) that is the leading candidate in the Department of Energy Generation IV reactor program. Metallic materials essential to the successful development and proof of concept for the NGNP were identified. The literature bearing on the materials technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors was reviewed with emphasis on the needs identified for the NGNP. Several materials were identified for a more thorough study of their databases and behavioral features relative to the requirements ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1, Subsection NH.

  5. Painlevé IV coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, David; Contreras-Astorga, Alonso; Fernández C, David J.

    2014-11-15

    A simple way to find solutions of the Painlevé IV equation is by identifying Hamiltonian systems with third-order differential ladder operators. Some of these systems can be obtained by applying supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY QM) to the harmonic oscillator. In this work, we will construct families of coherent states for such subset of SUSY partner Hamiltonians which are connected with the Painlevé IV equation. First, these coherent states are built up as eigenstates of the annihilation operator, then as displaced versions of the extremal states, both involving the related third-order ladder operators, and finally as extremal states which are also displaced but now using the so called linearized ladder operators. To each SUSY partner Hamiltonian corresponds two families of coherent states: one inside the infinite subspace associated with the isospectral part of the spectrum and another one in the finite subspace generated by the states created through the SUSY technique. - Highlights: • We use SUSY QM to obtain Hamiltonians with third-order differential ladder operators. • We show that these systems are related with the Painlevé IV equation. • We apply different definitions of coherent states to these Hamiltonians using the third-order ladder operators and some linearized ones. • We construct families of coherent states for such systems, which we called Painlevé IV coherent states.

  6. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-29

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  7. Improving IV-A/IV-D Interface. Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Child Support Enforcement, Chevy Chase, MD.

    Effective interface between the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (IV-A) and the Child Support Enforcement (IV-D) programs is a key factor in assisting families in becoming self-sufficient, reducing welfare expenditures, and enforcing parental responsibility to support their children. Consequently, overcoming the procedural, technological,…

  8. Improving IV-A/IV-D Interface. Trainer Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Child Support Enforcement, Chevy Chase, MD.

    Effective interface between the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (IV-A) and the Child Support Enforcement (IV-D) programs is a key factor in assisting families in becoming self-sufficient, reducing welfare expenditures, and enforcing parental responsibility to support their children. Consequently, overcoming the procedural, technological,…

  9. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdnack, James A.; Zhou, Xiaobin; Larrabee, Glenn J.; Millis, Scott R.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory…

  10. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdnack, James A.; Zhou, Xiaobin; Larrabee, Glenn J.; Millis, Scott R.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory…

  11. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT IV

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Condition Report IV (NCCR IV) is the fourth in a series of environmental assessments of U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes. The report includes assessments of all the nation’s estuaries in the contiguous 48 states and Puerto Rico, south-eastern Alaska, ...

  12. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT IV

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Condition Report IV (NCCR IV) is the fourth in a series of environmental assessments of U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes. The report includes assessments of all the nation’s estuaries in the contiguous 48 states and Puerto Rico, south-eastern Alaska, ...

  13. The soft, fluctuating UVB at z ˜ 6 as traced by C IV, Si IV, and C II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlator, Kristian; Oppenheimer, B. D.; Davé, Romeel; Zackrisson, E.; Thompson, Robert; Huang, Shuiyao

    2016-07-01

    The sources that drove cosmological reionization left clues regarding their identity in the slope and inhomogeneity of the ultraviolet ionizing background (UVB): bright quasars (QSOs) generate a hard UVB with predominantly large-scale fluctuations while Population II stars generate a softer one with smaller scale fluctuations. Metal absorbers probe the UVB's slope because different ions are sensitive to different energies. Likewise, they probe spatial fluctuations because they originate in regions where a galaxy-driven UVB is harder and more intense. We take a first step towards studying the reionization-epoch UVB's slope and inhomogeneity by comparing observations of 12 metal absorbers at z ˜ 6 versus predictions from a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation using three different UVBs: a soft, spatially inhomogeneous `galaxies+QSOs' UVB; a homogeneous `galaxies+QSOs' UVB, and a `QSOs-only' model. All UVBs reproduce the observed column density distributions of C II, Si IV, and C IV reasonably well although high-column, high-ionization absorbers are underproduced, reflecting numerical limitations. With upper limits treated as detections, only a soft, fluctuating UVB reproduces both the observed Si IV/C IV and C II/C IV distributions. The QSOs-only UVB overpredicts both C IV/C II and C IV/Si IV, indicating that it is too hard. The Haardt & Madau (2012) UVB underpredicts C IV/Si IV, suggesting that it lacks amplifications near galaxies. Hence current observations prefer a soft, fluctuating UVB as expected from a predominantly Population II background although they cannot rule out a harder one. Future observations probing a factor of 2 deeper in metal column density will distinguish between the soft, fluctuating and QSOs-only UVBs.

  14. Gramatica generadora (Generative Grammar)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruset, Jose

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of describing the linguistic approach to the study of language to a non-linguist. Points out certain differences between traditional grammar, structural analysis and contemporary language analysis and gives a short description of the notion of generative grammar. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  15. Gramatica generadora (Generative Grammar)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruset, Jose

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of describing the linguistic approach to the study of language to a non-linguist. Points out certain differences between traditional grammar, structural analysis and contemporary language analysis and gives a short description of the notion of generative grammar. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  16. Aqueous complexation of thorium(IV), uranium(IV), neptunium(IV), plutonium(III/IV), and cerium(III/IV) with DTPA.

    PubMed

    Brown, M Alex; Paulenova, Alena; Gelis, Artem V

    2012-07-16

    Aqueous complexation of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(III/IV), and Ce(III/IV) with DTPA was studied by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, and cyclic voltammetry at 1 M ionic strength and 25 °C. The stability constants for the 1:1 complex of each trivalent and tetravalent metal were calculated. From the potentiometric data, we report stability constant values for Ce(III)DTPA, Ce(III)HDTPA, and Th(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 20.01 ± 0.02, log β(111) = 22.0 ± 0.2, and log β(101) = 29.6 ± 1, respectively. From the absorption spectrophotometry data, we report stability constant values for U(IV)DTPA, Np(IV)DTPA, and Pu(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 31.8 ± 0.1, 32.3 ± 0.1, and 33.67 ± 0.02, respectively. From the cyclic voltammetry data, we report stability constant values for Ce(IV) and Pu(III) of log β(101) = 34.04 ± 0.04 and 20.58 ± 0.04, respectively. The values obtained in this work are compared and discussed with respect to the ionic radius of each cationic metal.

  17. [The characteristics of the notions used in forensic medicine and their logical basis].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, A V; Shmarov, L A; Ten'kov, A A

    2015-01-01

    The authors briefly characterize the formerly poorly defined notions used by forensic medical experts for the completion of the conclusions based on the results of primary forensic medical examinations of the corpses. The main errors made in the use of these notions encountered in the materials of primary forensic medical expertises of the corpses, the recommendations to avoid these mistakes are proposed. The present paper continues the series of specialized articles dealing with the main types of logical fallacies encountered in the expert conclusions with a view to further publication of the results of the in-depth analysis of logical mistakes in these documents.

  18. On the debate about teleology in biology: the notion of "teleological obstacle".

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Manuel Gustavo Leitão; Larentis, Ariane Leites; Caldas, Lúcio Ayres; Garcia, Tomás Coelho; Terra, Letícia Labati; Herbst, Marcelo Hawrylak; Almeida, Rodrigo Volcan

    2015-12-01

    Among the epistemological obstacles described by Gaston Bachelard, we contend that unitary and pragmatic knowledge is correlated to the teleological categories of Ernst Mayr and is the basis for prevailing debate on the notion of "function" in biology. Given the proximity of the aspects highlighted by these authors, we propose to associate the role of teleological thinking in biology and the notion of unitary and pragmatic knowledge as an obstacle to scientific knowledge. Thus, teleological thinking persists acting as an epistemological obstacle in biology, according to Bachelardian terminology. Our investigation led us to formulate the "teleological obstacle," which we consider important for the future of biology and possibly other sciences.

  19. Normal for an Asperger: notions of the meanings of diagnoses among adults with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bertilsdotter Rosqvist, Hanna

    2012-04-01

    This study explores the production of a counterhegemonic discourse of "autistic normalcy" among adults with high-functioning autism by analyzing notions of diagnosis. The discourse analyses are based on material from ethnographic fieldwork in a Swedish educational setting. Study participants were 3 male and 9 female adults who had been diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. The notion of diagnosis comprises issues concerning coming out and knowledge production. The findings capture an ongoing reformulation process among people involved in the autistic self-advocacy movement when it comes to the meanings of Asperger syndrome and what it means to be a person with Asperger syndrome.

  20. Driver for solar cell I-V characteristic plots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, G. B. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A bipolar voltage ramp generator which applies a linear voltage through a resistor to a solar cell for plotting its current versus voltage (I-V) characteristic between short circuit and open circuit conditions is disclosed. The generator has automatic stops at the end points. The resistor serves the multiple purpose of providing a current sensing resistor, setting the full-scale current value, and providing a load line with a slope approximately equal to one, such that it will pass through the origin and the approximate center of the I-V curve with about equal distance from that center to each of the end points.

  1. Using the Notion of "Wonder" to Develop Positive Conceptions of Science with Future Primary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A common challenge for many primary pre-service teacher educators is to rekindle interest in science content with future teachers who often express a lifetime of negative associations with school science. This pilot study investigated if the notion of wonder could be utilized with preservice teachers as a vehicle to develop more positive…

  2. Constructing Knowledge about the Notion of Limit in the Definition of the Horizontal Asymptote

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidron, Ivy

    2011-01-01

    Processes of knowledge construction are investigated. A learner is constructing knowledge about the notion of limit in the definition of the horizontal asymptote. The analysis is based on the dynamically nested epistemic action model for abstraction in context. Different tasks are offered to the learner. In her effort to perform the different…

  3. VAKing out Learning Styles--Why the Notion of "Learning Styles" Is Unhelpful to Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Shirley

    2006-01-01

    The notion of learning styles, and the multiple intelligence theory from which some of this derives, has come to be one of the dominant themes in the discourse on learning and teaching. This article argues that much of the language associated with this recent educational phenomenon is misleading for teachers. The author argues that instead of…

  4. Perspectives of Education for Sustainable Development--Understanding and Introducing the Notion in Polish Educational Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czapla, Malgorzata; Berlinska, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present an analysis of formal educational documents in the context of the sustainable development notion. This goal was realised by an analysis of the National Curriculum Framework documents from 2002 in comparison with the newest document from 2008. In addition, seven teaching programmes were analysed. On the grounds…

  5. Understanding the Heterogeneous Nature of Science: A Comprehensive Notion of PCK for Scientific Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dijk, Esther M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the conceptualization of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching about the nature of science. In contrast to the view that science teachers need to develop a specific "PCK for nature of science," an alternative, more comprehensive notion of PCK for science teaching is suggested. The point of…

  6. Perspectives of Education for Sustainable Development--Understanding and Introducing the Notion in Polish Educational Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czapla, Malgorzata; Berlinska, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present an analysis of formal educational documents in the context of the sustainable development notion. This goal was realised by an analysis of the National Curriculum Framework documents from 2002 in comparison with the newest document from 2008. In addition, seven teaching programmes were analysed. On the grounds…

  7. Spanish Secondary School Students' Notions on the Causes and Consequences of Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punter, Pilar; Ochando-Pardo, Montserrat; Garcia, Javier

    2011-01-01

    This paper is part of an extensive study of secondary school students' preconceived ideas about climate change. Here, we undertake a survey in the province of Valencia (Spain) to ascertain secondary school students' notions of the causes and consequences of climate change. Results show, among other things, that students clearly relate the misuse…

  8. Spanish Secondary School Students' Notions on the Causes and Consequences of Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punter, Pilar; Ochando-Pardo, Montserrat; Garcia, Javier

    2011-01-01

    This paper is part of an extensive study of secondary school students' preconceived ideas about climate change. Here, we undertake a survey in the province of Valencia (Spain) to ascertain secondary school students' notions of the causes and consequences of climate change. Results show, among other things, that students clearly relate the misuse…

  9. Politicised Notions of Professional Identity and Psychosocial Practice among Practitioners Working with Asylum Seekers and Refugees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apostolidou, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study undertaken in the UK that investigates the notion of professional identity among practitioners who work with asylum seekers and refugees. Drawing on a social constructionist epistemology and a Foucauldian theoretical and methodological framework of power and discourse, I analysed extracts from semi-structured interviews…

  10. The Notion of Proof in the Context of Elementary School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianides, Andreas J.

    2007-01-01

    Despite increased appreciation of the role of "proof" in students' mathematical experiences across "all" grades, little research has focused on the issue of understanding and characterizing the notion of proof at the elementary school level. This paper takes a step toward addressing this limitation, by examining the characteristics of four major…

  11. Resettling Notions of Social Mobility: Locating Refugees as "Educable" and "Employable"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyama, Jill

    2013-01-01

    The global movement of people alters our understandings of social mobility. Here, I draw on ethnographic data collected since January 2011 and utilize the notion of "assemblage" to document and analyze how disparate people, their material objects, and discursive practices are brought together to render refugees as educable, productive,…

  12. [Notes for a discussion on the notion of resistance in psychopharmacology].

    PubMed

    Levin, Santiago

    2005-01-01

    The present work's purpose is to open a discussion on the notion of Resistance in Psychopharmacology. Despite the fact that the phenomenon is observable in psychiatric practice, its meaning and consequences for medical practice are not sufficiently established, so that a critical reformulation is required for the sake of greater conceptual clarity in this area.

  13. Motivating the Notion of Generic Design within Information Processing Theory: The Design Problem Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goel, Vinod; Pirolli, Peter

    The notion of generic design, while it has been around for 25 years, is not often articulated, especially within Newell and Simon's (1972) Information Processing Theory framework. Design is merely lumped in with other forms of problem solving activity. Intuitively it is felt that there should be a level of description of the phenomenon which…

  14. Towards a Politicized Notion of Citizenship for Science Education: Engaging the Social through Dissensus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    This theoretical article draws from the political thought of Jacques Rancière to trouble some taken-for-granted conceptions of citizenship education. Rancière's notion of politics and dissensus (as opposed to consensus) can lay the groundwork for a version of citizenship that challenges what is deemed sensible, visible, who is counted in…

  15. Insights from the Use of Gardner's Notions of Mindset: Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retna, Kala S.

    2015-01-01

    A body of literature asserts that group work can be beneficial in enhancing learning and in developing specific skills among students. This research builds on the literature and on Gardner's (2006a) five notions of mindsets: disciplined, synthesising, creation, ethical and respectful, as a descriptive framework to explore and understand the…

  16. Educational Policy and Notions of Citizenship in Four Asia-Pacific Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutch, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The future schooling scenarios prepared by the OECD/CERI (OECD, 2001) are the focus of this article, first because they provide a useful tool for futures thinking in educational settings and, second, because they provide an analytic framework to investigate how notions of citizenship are embedded in educational policies and in the organisation of…

  17. Normal for an Asperger: Notions of the Meanings of Diagnoses among Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosqvist, Hanna Bertilsdotter

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the production of a counterhegemonic discourse of "autistic normalcy" among adults with high-functioning autism by analyzing notions of diagnosis. The discourse analyses are based on material from ethnographic fieldwork in a Swedish educational setting. Study participants were 3 male and 9 female adults who had been…

  18. Revisiting Learning in Higher Education--Framing Notions Redefined through an Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damsa, Crina; Jornet, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    This article employs an ecological perspective as a means of revisiting the notion of learning, with a particular focus on learning in higher education. Learning is reconceptualised as a process entailing mutually constitutive, epistemic, social and affective relations in which knowledge, identity and agency become collective achievements of whole…

  19. Social Investment or Private Profit? Diverging Notions of "Investment" in Early Childhood Education and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Elizabeth; Brennan, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, many OECD countries have adopted the notion of "social investment" to reframe traditional approaches to social welfare. Social investment strategies and policies focus on employment rather than welfare and promote public expenditure on skills and education throughout the life course, starting with early childhood…

  20. Decision Making, Structure and Institutional Notions of Quality: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Mimi

    Few studies have focused on the effects of systemic change and decentralized decision making on organizational structure and on an institution's notion of quality education. This study examined such interconnections at a community college given the pseudonym America Community College (ACC). ACC is a multi-campus metropolitan area college in a area…

  1. Notions of Sex, Sexuality and Relationships among Adolescent Boys in Rural Southeastern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izugbara, C. Otutubikey

    2004-01-01

    Although young people in Nigeria become sexually active at a very early age, little is known about how they view sex, sexuality, and relationships with the opposite sex. Yet knowledge of their notions and expectations regarding these issues has the potential to improve care and inform the development of sexuality education programmes. This paper…

  2. Resettling Notions of Social Mobility: Locating Refugees as "Educable" and "Employable"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyama, Jill

    2013-01-01

    The global movement of people alters our understandings of social mobility. Here, I draw on ethnographic data collected since January 2011 and utilize the notion of "assemblage" to document and analyze how disparate people, their material objects, and discursive practices are brought together to render refugees as educable, productive,…

  3. Politicised Notions of Professional Identity and Psychosocial Practice among Practitioners Working with Asylum Seekers and Refugees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apostolidou, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study undertaken in the UK that investigates the notion of professional identity among practitioners who work with asylum seekers and refugees. Drawing on a social constructionist epistemology and a Foucauldian theoretical and methodological framework of power and discourse, I analysed extracts from semi-structured interviews…

  4. Exploring the Notion of Quality in Quality Higher Education Assessment in a Collaborative Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Kate; Gibbs, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to the debate on the notion of quality in higher education with particular focus on "objectifying through articulation" the assessment of quality by professional experts. The article gives an overview of the differentiations of quality as used in higher education. It explores a substantial…

  5. A Functional-Notional Approach for English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Min

    English for Specific Purposes (ESP) programs, characterized by the special needs of the language learners, are described and a review of the literature on a functional-notional approach to the syllabus design of ESP programs is presented. It is suggested that effective ESP programs should teach the language skills necessary to function and perform…

  6. Inequality and Doctoral Education: Exploring the "Rules" of Doctoral Study through Bourdieu's Notion of Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopaul, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    While studies have examined a myriad of issues in doctoral study, much of this research has not employed the tools of major social and cultural thinkers to the dynamics of doctoral education. This paper explores the use of Bourdieu's notion of field to render visible the practices and contexts of doctoral education that produce inequalities across…

  7. The Balance of Lifekind: An Introduction to the Notion of Human Environment. Environmental Education Series 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Science, Technical and Environmental Education.

    Based upon the notion that the study of the environment should include attempts to articulate concepts related to the natural, social and cultural dimensions of the human environment, this learning module was developed for Unesco's International Environmental Education Programme. It is intended for use at the secondary school level and contains…

  8. Exploring the Notion of Quality in Quality Higher Education Assessment in a Collaborative Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Kate; Gibbs, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to the debate on the notion of quality in higher education with particular focus on "objectifying through articulation" the assessment of quality by professional experts. The article gives an overview of the differentiations of quality as used in higher education. It explores a substantial…

  9. A Functional-Notional Approach for English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Min

    English for Specific Purposes (ESP) programs, characterized by the special needs of the language learners, are described and a review of the literature on a functional-notional approach to the syllabus design of ESP programs is presented. It is suggested that effective ESP programs should teach the language skills necessary to function and perform…

  10. On the ambiguity in the notion of transverse traceless modes of gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Bonga, Béatrice

    2017-09-01

    Somewhat surprisingly, in many of the widely used monographs and review articles the term Transverse-Traceless modes of linearized gravitational waves is used to denote two entirely different notions. These treatments generally begin with a decomposition of the metric perturbation that is local in the momentum space (and hence non-local in physical space), and denote the resulting transverse traceless modes by h_{ab}^{TT}. However, while discussing gravitational waves emitted by an isolated system—typically in a later section—the relevant modes are extracted using a `projection operator' that is local in physical space. These modes are also called transverse-traceless and again labeled h_{ab}^{TT}, implying that this is just a reformulation of the previous notion. But the two notions are conceptually distinct and the difference persists even in the asymptotic region. We show that this confusion arises already in Maxwell theory that is often discussed as a prelude to the gravitational case. Finally, we discuss why the distinction has nonetheless remained largely unnoticed, and also point out that there are some important physical effects where only one of the notions gives the correct answer.

  11. The Notion of "Phonology" in Dyslexia Research: Cognitivism--and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uppstad, Per Henning; Tonnessen, Finn Egil

    2007-01-01

    Phonology has been a central concept in the scientific study of dyslexia over the past decades. Despite its central position, however, it is a concept with no precise definition or status. The present article investigates the notion of "phonology" in the tradition of cognitive psychology. An attempt is made to characterize the basic assumptions of…

  12. Motivating the Notions of Binary Operation and Group in an Abstract Algebra Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullinane, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics majors' study of abstract algebra should provide these students with opportunities to connect what they are learning to their prior experiences with algebra in high school. This paper illustrates how such connections can be used to motivate the notion of binary operation and the axioms for a group.

  13. The Balance of Lifekind: An Introduction to the Notion of Human Environment. Environmental Education Series 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Science, Technical and Environmental Education.

    Based upon the notion that the study of the environment should include attempts to articulate concepts related to the natural, social and cultural dimensions of the human environment, this learning module was developed for Unesco's International Environmental Education Programme. It is intended for use at the secondary school level and contains…

  14. The Influence of Teachers' Preexisting Notions about Students on Scholastic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirrone, Concetta

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines teachers' preexisting notion of the "weak" academic student, and the characteristics implicit in that stereotype. Extant literature demonstrates how the teacher's dichotomous conceptions of "strong" and "weak" academic students are predictive of scholastic success. The goal of this study was to…

  15. Notions of Sex, Sexuality and Relationships among Adolescent Boys in Rural Southeastern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izugbara, C. Otutubikey

    2004-01-01

    Although young people in Nigeria become sexually active at a very early age, little is known about how they view sex, sexuality, and relationships with the opposite sex. Yet knowledge of their notions and expectations regarding these issues has the potential to improve care and inform the development of sexuality education programmes. This paper…

  16. The Notion of Adminstrative Transparency among Academic Leaderships at Jordanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaradat, Mohammed Hasan

    2013-01-01

    The study aims at identifying the notion of transparency among academic leaderships at Jordanian universities. To this effect, the interview-based approach was used in order to delineate the concept of transparency. Eighty individual academic leaderships were interviewed across various schools in Jordan. Upon collection of data and information,…

  17. Grotesque Gestures or Sensuous Signs? Rethinking Notions of Apprenticeship in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Deleuze asserts that education is a mass of signs. Children learn to decode these signs, albeit in randomized and individual ways, displaying great skill in decoding some signs but not others, and demonstrating different acuities with different clusters of signs. Deleuzian notions of apprenticeship, a fluid becoming to knowledges as formal…

  18. Symbolic Representation in Early Years Learning: The Acquisition of Complex Notions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veraksa, Aleksander; Veraksa, Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    This article defines the concepts related to symbolic and sign representations, cognition and learning in the early years. The first study experiment of teaching 33 preschool children (19 boys and 14 girls; M = 68, 5 months) the notion of rainbow phenomenon proved the equal effectiveness of the use of both sign and symbolic tools. The second study…

  19. Normal for an Asperger: Notions of the Meanings of Diagnoses among Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosqvist, Hanna Bertilsdotter

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the production of a counterhegemonic discourse of "autistic normalcy" among adults with high-functioning autism by analyzing notions of diagnosis. The discourse analyses are based on material from ethnographic fieldwork in a Swedish educational setting. Study participants were 3 male and 9 female adults who had been…

  20. Bilingual Gestures: The "Manual" Way of Informing the Notion of "Balanced Bilinguals"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondermann, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Defining what makes a person bilingual is notoriously difficult and dependent on various factors like fluency, age of acquisition, and situational context, among others. The notion of a "balanced bilingual" is even more elusive and fraught with limitations regarding the proper assessment and linguistic profiling of bilinguals, leading to…

  1. Insights from the Use of Gardner's Notions of Mindset: Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retna, Kala S.

    2015-01-01

    A body of literature asserts that group work can be beneficial in enhancing learning and in developing specific skills among students. This research builds on the literature and on Gardner's (2006a) five notions of mindsets: disciplined, synthesising, creation, ethical and respectful, as a descriptive framework to explore and understand the…

  2. Inequality and Doctoral Education: Exploring the "Rules" of Doctoral Study through Bourdieu's Notion of Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopaul, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    While studies have examined a myriad of issues in doctoral study, much of this research has not employed the tools of major social and cultural thinkers to the dynamics of doctoral education. This paper explores the use of Bourdieu's notion of field to render visible the practices and contexts of doctoral education that produce inequalities across…

  3. Symbolic Representation in Early Years Learning: The Acquisition of Complex Notions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veraksa, Aleksander; Veraksa, Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    This article defines the concepts related to symbolic and sign representations, cognition and learning in the early years. The first study experiment of teaching 33 preschool children (19 boys and 14 girls; M = 68, 5 months) the notion of rainbow phenomenon proved the equal effectiveness of the use of both sign and symbolic tools. The second study…

  4. Social Investment or Private Profit? Diverging Notions of "Investment" in Early Childhood Education and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Elizabeth; Brennan, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, many OECD countries have adopted the notion of "social investment" to reframe traditional approaches to social welfare. Social investment strategies and policies focus on employment rather than welfare and promote public expenditure on skills and education throughout the life course, starting with early childhood…

  5. Understanding the Heterogeneous Nature of Science: A Comprehensive Notion of PCK for Scientific Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dijk, Esther M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the conceptualization of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching about the nature of science. In contrast to the view that science teachers need to develop a specific "PCK for nature of science," an alternative, more comprehensive notion of PCK for science teaching is suggested. The point of…

  6. Bilingual Gestures: The "Manual" Way of Informing the Notion of "Balanced Bilinguals"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondermann, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Defining what makes a person bilingual is notoriously difficult and dependent on various factors like fluency, age of acquisition, and situational context, among others. The notion of a "balanced bilingual" is even more elusive and fraught with limitations regarding the proper assessment and linguistic profiling of bilinguals, leading to…

  7. Generalization of the Wet-Bulb Temperature Notion to the Case of Electromagnetic Drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanas'ev, A. M.; Siplivyi, B. N.

    2016-05-01

    A method of estimating the stationary temperature of the surface a body blown over by air and subjected to the action of electromagnetic radiation, representing a generalization of the wet-bulb temperature notion to the case of electromagnetic drying, has been developed.

  8. The Notion of Adminstrative Transparency among Academic Leaderships at Jordanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaradat, Mohammed Hasan

    2013-01-01

    The study aims at identifying the notion of transparency among academic leaderships at Jordanian universities. To this effect, the interview-based approach was used in order to delineate the concept of transparency. Eighty individual academic leaderships were interviewed across various schools in Jordan. Upon collection of data and information,…

  9. Characterization of Caramel Colour IV.

    PubMed

    Licht, B H; Shaw, K; Smith, C; Mendoza, M; Orr, J; Myers, D V

    1992-05-01

    A large number of commercial Caramel Colour IV samples were characterized in order to assess the uniformity of the class and to provide data to be used in specifications development. Owing to the chemical and physical complexity of caramel colour it was not feasible to perform detailed analysis of all constituents for assessment of uniformity. Instead, selected parameters were evaluated and judgements were made with respect to compositional uniformity based on the similarities of these parameters among the various samples. As Caramel Colour IV is required by the food industry in a range of colour intensities, there must be a range of properties that differ from sample to sample, but that are sufficiently similar for the material to still be considered as part of the Caramel Colour IV class. Fractions as well as whole caramel were analysed using selected spectrophotometric, chromatographic and chemical techniques. Samples were fractionated based on molecular weight and polarity. The data presented here provide evidence for the uniformity in composition of Caramel Colour IV with respect to molecular weight distribution, to nitrogen and sulphur content and their distribution throughout the fractions, to absorbance properties and to specific low molecular weight compounds. Thus, it can be concluded that Caramel Colour IV exhibits compositional uniformity within the range of colour intensity required by the food industry worldwide.

  10. Role of accessory cells in B cell activation. IV. Ia+ accessory cells are required for the in vitro generation of thymic independent type 2 antibody responses to polysaccharide antigens.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, P J; Boswell, H S; Scher, I; Singer, A

    1981-10-01

    It has been previously shown that the in vitro antibody response to TNP-Ficoll requires the presence of adherent accessory cells. In order to determine if this characteristic was unique to TNP-Ficoll or a general feature of the TI-2 antibody responses, responses to the polysaccharide antigens TNP-Levan and TNP-Dextran were studied. Also, it was determined if the functionally relevant accessory cell expresses Ia determinants. Passage of spleen cells over Sephadex G-10 abrogated the response to TNP-Levan and TNP-Dextran as well as to TNP-Ficoll. Addition of adherent accessory cells to the G-10 passed spleen cells reconstituted the response to all 3 antigens. Pretreatment of the adherent accessory cells with a specific anti-Ia serum plus complement abrogated the ability of these cells to provide accessory cell function in the responses to all 3 antigens. Thus, an Ia-positive adherent accessory cell is required for the generation of TI-2 antibody responses to these polysaccharide antigens. This raises the possibility that genetic restrictions may exist between the Ia-positive accessory cell and the lymphocytes involved in the responses to TNP-Ficoll, TNP-Dextran, and TNP-Levan.

  11. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for dispersed storage and generation (DSG). Volume IV. Final report, Appendix C: identification from utility visits of present and future approaches to integration of DSG into distribution networks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    A major aim of the US National Energy Policy, as well as that of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, is to conserve energy and to shift from oil to more abundant domestic fuels and renewable energy sources. Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG) is the term that characterizes the present and future dispersed, relatively small (<30 MW) energy systems, such as solar thermal electric, photovoltaic, wind, fuel cell, storage battery, hydro, and cogeneration, which can help achieve these national energy goals and can be dispersed throughout the distribution portion of an electric utility system. As a result of visits to four utilities concerned with the use of DSG power sources on their distribution networks, some useful impressions of present and future approaches to the integration of DSGs into electrical distribution network have been obtained. A more extensive communications and control network will be developed by utilities for control of such sources for future use. Different approaches to future utility systems with DSG are beginning to take shape. The new DSG sources will be in decentralized locations with some measure of centralized control. The utilities have yet to establish firmly the communication and control means or their organization. For the present, the means for integrating the DSGs and their associated monitoring and control equipment into a unified system have not been decided.

  12. INFLUENCE OF NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC LIGANDS ON THE STABILITY AND MOBILITY OF REDUCED TC(IV)

    SciTech Connect

    Nathalie A. Wall; Baohua Gu

    2012-12-20

    The primary objectives were (1) to quantify the interactions of organic ligands with Tc(IV) through the generation of thermodynamic (complexation) and kinetic parameters needed to assess and predict the mobility of reduced Tc(IV) at DOE contaminated sites; and (2) to determine the impact of organic ligands on the mobility and fate of reduced Tc(IV) under field geochemical conditions.

  13. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV

    PubMed Central

    Holdnack, James A.; Zhou, Xiaobin; Larrabee, Glenn J.; Millis, Scott R.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale–fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV Adult battery (i.e., age 16-69 years) co-norming sample (n = 900) to test 13 measurement models. The results indicated that two models fit the data equally well. One model is a seven-factor solution without a hierarchical general ability factor: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, Auditory Working Memory, Visual Working Memory, Auditory Memory, and Visual Memory. The second model is a five-factor model composed of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, Working Memory, and Memory with a hierarchical general ability factor. Interpretative implications for each model are discussed. PMID:21208975

  14. Confirmatory factor analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV.

    PubMed

    Holdnack, James A; Xiaobin Zhou; Larrabee, Glenn J; Millis, Scott R; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2011-06-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV Adult battery (i.e., age 16-69 years) co-norming sample (n = 900) to test 13 measurement models. The results indicated that two models fit the data equally well. One model is a seven-factor solution without a hierarchical general ability factor: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, Auditory Working Memory, Visual Working Memory, Auditory Memory, and Visual Memory. The second model is a five-factor model composed of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, Working Memory, and Memory with a hierarchical general ability factor. Interpretative implications for each model are discussed.

  15. The MAX IV imaging concept.

    PubMed

    Matěj, Zdeněk; Mokso, Rajmund; Larsson, Krister; Hardion, Vincent; Spruce, Darren

    2017-01-01

    The MAX IV Laboratory is currently the synchrotron X-ray source with the beam of highest brilliance. Four imaging beamlines are in construction or in the project phase. Their common characteristic will be the high acquisition rates of phase-enhanced images. This high data flow will be managed at the local computing cluster jointly with the Swedish National Computing Infrastructure. A common image reconstruction and analysis platform is being designed to offer reliable quantification of the multidimensional images acquired at all the imaging beamlines at MAX IV.

  16. Foreign Trip Report MATGEN-IV Sep 24- Oct 26, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    de Caro, M S

    2007-10-30

    Gen-IV activities in France, Japan and US focus on the development of new structural materials for Gen-IV nuclear reactors. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) F/M steels have raised considerable interest in nuclear applications. Promising collaborations can be established seeking fundamental knowledge of relevant Gen-IV ODS steel properties (see attached travel report on MATGEN- IV 'Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors'). Major highlights refer to results on future Ferritic/Martensitic steel cladding candidates (relevant to Gen-IV materials properties for LFR Materials Program) and on thermodynamic and mechanic behavior of metallic FeCr binary alloys, base matrix for future candidate steels (for the LLNL-LDRD project on Critical Issues on Materials for Gen-IV Reactors).

  17. Contribution of alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) Collagen IV to the Mechanical Properties of the Glomerular Basement Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyoneva, Lazarina

    The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a vital part of the blood-urine filtration barrier in the kidneys. In healthy GBMs, the main tension-resisting component is alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) type IV collagen, but in some diseases it is replaced by other collagen IV isoforms. As a result, the GBM becomes leaky and disorganized, ultimately resulting in kidney failure. Our goal is to understanding the biomechanical aspects of the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains and how their absence could be responsible for (1) the initial injury to the GBM and (2) progression to kidney failure. A combination of experiments and computational models were designed for that purpose. A model basement membrane was used to compare experimentally the distensibility of tissues with the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains present and missing. The experiments showed basement membranes containing alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains were less distensible. It has been postulated that the higher level of lateral cross-linking (supercoiling) in the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks contributes additional strength/stability to basement membranes. In a computational model of supercoiled networks, we found that supercoiling greatly increased the stiffness of collagen IV networks but only minimally decreased the permeability, which is well suited for the needs of the GBM. It is also known that the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks are more protected from enzymatic degradation, and we explored their significance in GBM remodeling. Our simulations showed that the more protected network was needed to prevent the system from entering a dangerous feedback cycle due to autoregulation mechanisms in the kidneys. Overall, the work adds to the evidence of biomechanical differences between the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks and other collagen IV networks, points to supercoiling as the main source of biomechanical differences, discusses the suitability of alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV

  18. Oxidation Resistance of Monolayer Group-IV Monochalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Zhou, Si; Bai, Yizhen; Zhao, Jijun

    2017-03-21

    Ridged, orthorhombic two-dimensional (2D) group-V elemental and group IV-VI compound analogues of phosphorene provide a versatile platform for nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, and clean energy. However, phosphorene is vulnerable to oxygen in ambient air, which is a major obstacle for its applications. Regarding this issue, here we explore the oxidation behavior of monolayer group-IV monochalcogenides (GeS, GeSe, SnS, and SnSe), in comparison to that of phosphorene and arsenene by first-principles calculations. We find superior oxidation resistance of the monolayer group-IV monochalcogenides, with activation energies for the chemisorption of O2 on the 2D sheets in the range of 1.26-1.60 eV, about twice of the values of phosphorene and arsenene. The distinct oxidation behaviors of monolayer group-IV monochalcogenides and group-V phosphorene analogues originate from their different bond natures. Moreover, the chemisorption of a moderate amount of oxygen atoms does not severely deteriorate the electronic band structures of the monolayer group-IV monochalcogenides. These results shine light on the utilization of the monolayer group-IV monochalcogenides for next-generation 2D electronics and optoelectronics with high performance and stability.

  19. Title IV: Improving Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Kipp A.

    The Indian Education Act of 1972, Title IV, has improved Native American education by emphasizing Native American control; it comes after 400 years of Euro-American involvement in Indian education during which assimilation was the primary goal. In 1568 Jesuit priests began "civilizing" and Christianizing the "savage" Indians;…

  20. The PLATO IV Communications System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Bruce Arne; Stifle, Jack

    The PLATO IV computer-based educational system contains its own communications hardware and software for operating plasma-panel graphics terminals. Key echoing is performed by the central processing unit: every key pressed at a terminal passes through the entire system before anything appears on the terminal's screen. Each terminal is guaranteed…

  1. Radiation Monitor,IV-TEPC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-30

    View of radiation monitor,Intra-Vehicular Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (IV-TEPC),relocated to NOD2 P3,Part Number (P/N): SEG33120960-301,Serial Number (S/N): 1002,in the Node 2. Photo was taken during Expedition 34.

  2. A multidimensional approach to explore the understanding of the notion of absolute value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagatsis, Athanasios; Panaoura, Areti

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to investigative students' conceptions on the notion of absolute value and their abilities in applying the specific notion in routine and non-routine situations. A questionnaire was constructed and administered to 17-year-old students. Data were analysed using the hierarchical clustering of variables and the implicative method, while the qualitative approach was used to identify and analyse students' errors. The results revealed students' strong tendency to use algorithmic processes even in situations in which this kind of reasoning was not suited. This tendency and students' errors in the tasks were assumed to occur primarily due to obstacles of didactic origin concerning the didactic contract and subsequently due to epistemological obstacles grounded in the history of mathematics.

  3. [Using the notion of vulnerability in the production of knowledge about tuberculosis: integrative review].

    PubMed

    Maffacciolli, Rosana; Hahn, Giselda Veronice; Rossetto, Maíra; Almeida, Carlos Podalirio Borges de; Manica, Silvia Troyahn; Paiva, Tiago Sousa; Oliveira, Dora Lucia Leidens Correa de

    2015-01-01

    to identify how the notion of vulnerability is used in national and international scientific publications that address the problem of tuberculosis. an integrative review of literature published in the databases of the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, the United States National Library of Medicine and the Biblioteca Digital Brasileira de Teses e Dissertações, considering the descriptors Tuberculosis and Vulnerability in Portuguese and English. we selected fifty-eight studies published between 1992 and February 2014, which resulted in three categories of analysis. CONCLUSION the link between tuberculosis and the notion of vulnerability has not been sufficiently consolidated in national and international literature. This creates an obstacle for the achievement of the epistemological transformations and pragmatic measures that are required to obtain better results from interventions in the field.

  4. Notions of local controllability and optimal feedforward control for quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Raj

    2011-05-01

    Local controllability is an essential concept for regulation and control of time-varying nonlinear dynamical systems; in the classical control logic it is at the foundation of neighboring optimal feedback and feedforward control. We introduce notions of local controllability suited to feedforward control of classical input disturbances in bilinear quantum systems evolving on projective spaces and Lie groups. Tests for local controllability based on a Gramian matrix analogous to the nonlinear local controllability Gramian, which allow assessment of which trajectories can be regulated by perturbative feedforward in the presence of classical input noise, are presented. These notions explicitly incorporate system bilinearity and the geometry of quantum states into the definition of local controllability of quantum systems. Associated feedforward strategies are described.

  5. Something Blossoms in Between: Silence-Phenomena as a Bordering Notions in Psychology.

    PubMed

    Lehmann Oliveros, Olga V

    2016-03-01

    Mysterious yet unavoidable, silence-phenomena appear to us in inherent ambiguity. In its plurality of meanings, phenomena related to silence are often perceived as overwhelming because they transcend the communicative capacity of language making it a challenge for cultural psychology to understand its involvement in our processes of making sense of experience and existence. Human growth and development involve processes where presence, void and content, voice, sound and noise, motion, transition and stillness, have dialectic interactions. In this article I discuss silence-phenomena as a bordering notion in terms of its discursive quality, the silent quality of speech, and the awareness of the ineffable. In addition, I highlight the possible implications of such notion in the understanding of affect from the perspective of Semiotic Cultural Psychology. I also emphasize the importance of considering psychological borders as multi-dimensional, taking the phenomenological experience of temporality as an illustration, which is also related to high emotional involvement of attention.

  6. The notion of "killing". Causality, intention, and motivation in active and passive euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, T

    1998-01-01

    As a new approach to the still unsettled problem of a morally significant difference between active and passive euthanasia, the meanings of the notion of killing are distinguished on the levels of causality, intention, and motivation. This distinction allows a thorough analysis and refutation of arguments for the equality of killing and letting die which are often put forward in the euthanasia debate. Moreover, an investigation into the structure of the physician's action on those three levels yields substantial differences between the two ways of acting. As can be demonstrated, only a teleological notion of the organism is able to grasp the characteristic feature of active euthanasia. On this basis it is argued that an action against the organism as a whole must, on the interpersonal level, be at once directed against the patient as a person himself.

  7. [Compassionate care, emergence of a notion in the light and shade of the care environment].

    PubMed

    Casagrande, Alice

    2016-05-01

    Compassionate care is a recent notion. It is based on a shared culture which focuses on promoting the rights of vulnerable people, integral to the quality of professionals' life at work. Tangible and part of day-to-day practice, it requires room to be set aside for discussion and ethical considerations, essential for ensuring the long-lasting creativity of caregivers, at the source of their mobilisation.

  8. Angiotensin IV possibly acts through PKMzeta in the hippocampus to regulate cognitive memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Chow, Lok-Hi; Tao, Pao-Luh; Chen, Yuan-Hao; Lin, Yu-Hui; Huang, Eagle Yi-Kung

    2015-10-01

    Ang IV is an endogenous peptide generated from the degradation of angiotensin II. Ang IV was found to enhance learning and memory in CNS. PKMzeta was identified to be a fragment of PKCzeta (protein kinase Czeta). Its continuous activation was demonstrated to be correlated with the formation of memory in the hippocampus. Therefore, we investigated whether PKMzeta participates in the effects of Ang IV on memory. We first examined the effect of Ang IV on non-spatial memory/cognition in modified object recognition test in rats. Our data showed that Ang IV could increase the exploration time on novel object. The co-administration of ZIP (PKMzeta inhibitor) with Ang IV significantly blocked the effect by Ang IV. The effects of Ang IV on hippocampal LTP at the CA1 region were also evaluated. Ang IV significantly increased the amplitude and slope of the EPSPs, which was consistent with other reports. Surprisingly, instead of potentiating LTP, Ang IV caused a failed maintenance of LTP. Moreover, there was no quantitative change in PKMzeta induced by Ang IV and/or ZIP after behavioral experiments. Taken together, our data re-confirmed the finding of the positive effect of Ang IV to enhance memory/cognition. The increased strength of EPSPs with Ang IV could also have certain functional relevance. Since the behavioral results suggested the involvement of PKMzeta, we hypothesized that the enhancement of memory/cognition by Ang IV may rely on an increase in PKMzeta activity. Overall, the present study provided important advances in our understanding of the action of Ang IV in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mature care and nursing in psychiatry: notions regarding reciprocity in asymmetric professional relationships.

    PubMed

    Hem, Marit Helene; Pettersen, Tove

    2011-03-01

    The idea behind this article is to discuss the importance and to develop the concept of reciprocity in asymmetric professional relationships. As an empirical starting point for an examination of the possible forms of reciprocity between patients and nurses in psychiatry, we chose two qualitative in-depth interviews with two different patients. The manners in which these two patients relate to medical personnel--one is dependent, the other is independent--show that this presents challenges to nurses. The theoretical context is provided by the notion of mature care as it has been developed by feminist-oriented ethics of care, in contrast to the notion of altruistic care. In relation to the concept of mature care, we discuss how nursing can be perceived in demanding relationships with patients in psychiatry. Reciprocity implies that, in principle, the interests of the nurses also matter in a nurse-patient relationship. We show that reciprocity--in practice--is complicated and challenging in a number of different ways. Mature care--with its systematic inclusion of relationships and reciprocity--provides an alternative understanding of what takes place between patients and nurses compared with an altruistic notion of care. As such, mature care can be regarded as an useful paradigm for nurse-patient relationships in psychiatry.

  10. An Ontological Consideration on Essential Properties of the Notion of ``Service"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumita, Kouhei; Kitamura, Yoshinobu; Sasajima, Munehiko; Takfuji, Sunao; Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    Although many definitions of services have been proposed in Service Science and Service Engineering, essentialities of the notion of ``service" remain unclear. Especially, some existing definitions of service are similar to the definition of function of artifacts, and there is no clear distinction between them. Thus, aiming at an ontological conceptualization of service, we have made an ontological investigation into the distinction between service and artifact function. In this article, we reveal essential properties of service and propose a model and a definition of service. Firstly, we extract 42 properties of service from 15 articles in different disciplines in order to find out fundamental concepts of service. Then we show that the notion of function shares the extracted foundational concepts of service and thus point out the necessity of the distinction between them. Secondly, we propose a multi-layered model of services, which is based on the conceptualization of goal-oriented effects at the base-level and at the upper-level. Thirdly, based on the model, we clarify essential properties of service which can distinguish artifact function. The conceptualization of upper-effects (upper-service) enables us to show that upper-services include various effects such as sales and manufacturing. Lastly, we propose a definition of the notion of service based on the essential properties and show its validity using some examples.

  11. [AIDS and social situations of women in Africa: from notions to research methods].

    PubMed

    Vidal, L; Loû, A D

    2001-01-01

    When researchers or actors intend to analyse women's situations in the context of AIDS in Africa, they are conducted to take into account the whole context these women live in: their access to care and prevention, their ability to make choices in their emotional, sexual and marital life, their access to education and to a gainful employment. It is also important in such an approach to define precisely the notions used. This paper proposes first to describe the several realities existing under the notions of vulnerability, autonomy, negotiation, sexuality, prostitution, motherhood and mother and child health. Through examples from researches conducted in Côte d'Ivoire and in other African countries, we enlighten how stereotypes are still used to describe women's situations in Africa. We insist on the need to propose fine-tuned and balanced analyses, in order to avoid sweeping generalisations that are harmful to women themselves. Secondly, we describe the methodological tools that can be used in this kind of analysis of notions and contexts in gender relations. We describe qualitative and quantitative survey techniques. For each one, we emphasise their requirements but also their effects on our research process on women's experiences facing AIDS.

  12. Problematisations of Complexity: On the Notion and Production of Diverse Complexities in Healthcare Interventions and Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Broer, Tineke; Bal, Roland; Pickersgill, Martyn

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Within the literature on the evaluation of health (policy) interventions, complexity is a much-debated issue. In particular, many claim that so-called ‘complex interventions’ pose different challenges to evaluation studies than apparently ‘simple interventions’ do. Distinct ways of doing evaluation entail particular ontologies and epistemologies of complexity. They differ in terms of whether they define complexity as a quantitative trait of interventions, whether they see evaluation as part of or outside the intervention, and whether complexity can be regarded as an emergent property of the intervention and its evaluation. In practice, evaluators and commissioners of large health care improvement programmes rely on different, sometimes contradictory, repertoires about what it means to conduct a ‘good’ evaluation. This is an ongoing matter negotiated between and among commissioners, researchers, and—sometimes—programme managers. In particular, notions of evaluability, usefulness and distance/independence are problematised in different ways and with diverse consequences, which, in turn, produce other notions and layers of complexity such as temporal, institutional and affective complexities. When (social science) researchers claim that one method or another is better able to grasp complexity, they elide the issue that any methodological choice emphasises some complexities and lets others fade into the background. Analysing the practicalities and emotions involved in evaluation studies opens up the notion of complexity to analytical scrutiny, and suggests a basis for co-theorising between biomedical, public health and social scientists (including Science and Technology Studies scholars). PMID:28515573

  13. Problematisations of Complexity: On the Notion and Production of Diverse Complexities in Healthcare Interventions and Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Broer, Tineke; Bal, Roland; Pickersgill, Martyn

    2017-04-03

    Within the literature on the evaluation of health (policy) interventions, complexity is a much-debated issue. In particular, many claim that so-called 'complex interventions' pose different challenges to evaluation studies than apparently 'simple interventions' do. Distinct ways of doing evaluation entail particular ontologies and epistemologies of complexity. They differ in terms of whether they define complexity as a quantitative trait of interventions, whether they see evaluation as part of or outside the intervention, and whether complexity can be regarded as an emergent property of the intervention and its evaluation. In practice, evaluators and commissioners of large health care improvement programmes rely on different, sometimes contradictory, repertoires about what it means to conduct a 'good' evaluation. This is an ongoing matter negotiated between and among commissioners, researchers, and-sometimes-programme managers. In particular, notions of evaluability, usefulness and distance/independence are problematised in different ways and with diverse consequences, which, in turn, produce other notions and layers of complexity such as temporal, institutional and affective complexities. When (social science) researchers claim that one method or another is better able to grasp complexity, they elide the issue that any methodological choice emphasises some complexities and lets others fade into the background. Analysing the practicalities and emotions involved in evaluation studies opens up the notion of complexity to analytical scrutiny, and suggests a basis for co-theorising between biomedical, public health and social scientists (including Science and Technology Studies scholars).

  14. Effect of Supercoiling on the Mechanical and Permeability Properties of Model Collagen IV Networks.

    PubMed

    Gyoneva, Lazarina; Segal, Yoav; Dorfman, Kevin D; Barocas, Victor H

    2015-07-01

    Collagen IV networks in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) are essential for the maintenance and regulation of blood filtration in the kidneys. The GBM contains two different types of collagen IV networks: [α1(IV)]2α2(IV) and α3(IV)α4(IV)α5(IV), the latter of which has a higher number of supercoils (two or more collagens coiling around each other). To investigate the effects of supercoiling on the mechanical and permeability properties of collagen IV networks, we generated model collagen IV networks in the GBM and reconnected them to create different levels of supercoiling. We found that supercoiling greatly increases the stiffness of collagen IV networks but only minimally decreases the permeability. Also, doubling the amount of supercoils in a network had a bigger effect than doubling the stiffness of the supercoils. Our results suggest that the formation of supercoils is a specialized mechanism by the GBM that provides with a network stiff and strong enough to withstand the high hydrostatic pressures of filtration, yet porous enough that filtration is not hindered. Clinically, understanding the effects of supercoiling gives us insight into the mechanisms of GBM failure in some disease states where the normal collagen IV structure is disrupted.

  15. Influences of Mn(II) and V(IV) on Bacterial Surface Chemistry and Metal Reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, S.; Fakra, S.; Glasauer, S.

    2009-05-01

    Microorganisms in terrestrial and marine environments are typically bathed in solutions that contain a range of metal ions, toxic and beneficial. Bacteria such as Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 are metabolically versatile in their respiration, and the reductive dissolution of widely dispersed metals such as Fe(III), Mn(IV), or V(V) can present unique challenges if nearby bodies of water are used for irrigation or drinking. In redox transition zones, dissimilatory metal reduction (DMR) by bacteria can lead to generation of high concentrations of soluble metals. It has been shown that metals will associate with negatively charged bacterial membranes, and the mechanisms of metal reduction are well defined for many species of bacteria. The interaction of metals with the cell wall during DMR is, however, not well documented; very little is known about the interaction of respired transition metals with membrane lipids. Furthermore, bacterial surfaces tend to change in response to their immediate environments. Variations in conditions such as oxygen or metal presence may affect surface component composition, including availability of metal reactive sites. Our research seeks to characterize the biochemical nature of metal-membrane interactions, as well as identify the unique changes at the cell surface that arise as a result of metal presence in their environments. We have utilized scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) to examine the dynamics of soluble Mn(II) and V(IV) interactions with purified bacterial membranes rather than whole cells. This prevents intracellular interferences, and allows for near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopic analyses of cell surface and surface-associated components. NEXAFS spectra for carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen edges indicate that Mn(II) and V(IV) induce biological modifications of the cell membrane in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These changes depend not only on the metal, but also on the presence of

  16. Facile Routes to Th(IV), U(IV), and Np(IV) Phosphites and Phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Eric M.; Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2011-08-05

    Three actinide(IV) phosphites and a NpIV phosphate, AnIV(HPO₃)₂(H₂O)₂ (An = Th, U, Np) and Cs[Np(H1.5PO₄)(PO₄)]₂, respectively, were synthesized using mild hydrothermal conditions. The first three phases are isotypic and were obtained using similar reaction conditions. Cs[Np(H1.5PO₄)(PO₄)]₂ was synthesized using an analogous method to that of Np(HPO₃)₂(H₂O)₂. However, this fourth phase is quite different in comparison to the other phases in both composition and structure. The structure of Cs[Np(H1.5PO₄)(PO₄)]₂ is constructed from double layers of neptunium(IV) phosphate with caesium cations in the interlayer region. In contrast, An(HPO₃)₂(H₂O)₂ (An = Th, U, Np) form dense 3D networks. The actinide contraction is detected in variety of metrics obtained from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. Changes in the oxidation state of the neptunium starting materials yield different products.

  17. Complex oscillator and Painlevé IV equation

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández C, David J. González, J.C.

    2015-08-15

    Supersymmetric quantum mechanics is a powerful tool for generating exactly solvable potentials departing from a given initial one. In this article the first- and second-order supersymmetric transformations will be used to obtain new exactly solvable potentials departing from the complex oscillator. The corresponding Hamiltonians turn out to be ruled by polynomial Heisenberg algebras. By applying a mechanism to reduce to second the order of these algebras, the connection with the Painlevé IV equation is achieved, thus giving place to new solutions for the Painlevé IV equation.

  18. I. Generation and mechanistic study of t-butyl exo-methylene-substituted 2,3-dimethylene-2,3-dihydrofurans and a thiophene analogue. II. Generation and study of the dimerization of alkyl ring-substituted 2,3-dimethylene-2,3-dihydrofurans. III. Diels-alder reaction of 2,3-dimethylene-2,3-dihydrofuran and o-xylylene. IV. Formation of the 2,5-dimethylene-2,5-dihydrothiophene trimer and its synthetic application

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.J.

    1987-01-01

    In Section I, the generation and a mechanistic study of t-butyl exo-methylene-substituted 2,3-dimethylene-2,3-dihydrofurans and a thiophene analogue are reported. The results not only unambiguously support the previous proposed two-step mechanism for the dimerization of 2,3-dimethylene-2,3-dihydrofuran (1), they also provide them with two of the most unreactive o-quinodimethanes, namely, 2-methylene-3-t-butylmethylene-2,3-dihydrofuran (2), and 2,3-di-t-butylmethylene-2,3-dihydrofuran. In Section II, the preparation and the dimerization of a series of alkyl ring-substituted and carbomethoxy ring-substituted derivatives of 1 are presented. This study concludes that bulky alkyl substituents on the ring of furan monomers do not promote the (4 + 2) dimerization process. In Section III, a Diels-Alder reaction of 1 and its two deuterated analogues with methyl acrylate reveals the presence of a secondary deuterium isotope effect which strongly supports a stepwise mechanism. This conclusion is further strengthened by the fact that the Diels-Alder reaction of 1 with cis dienophiles proceeds non-stereospecifically. A comparison study of o-xylylene with dienophiles reaches the same conclusion. In Section IV, a convenient synthesis of cyclooctadecane from the thiophene trimer of 2,5-dimethylene-2,5-dihydrothiophene is described. This synthesis offers an efficient alternative to existing routes.

  19. Generator Set, 100kW Frequency Converter. Volume IV.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    in the commutation network is used more efficiently. Experiments conducted during this program at power levels up to 30 kW are described on Pages 9 and...Figures * • 9 and 10, respectively. The nominal input do voltage to the Inverter will be 450 Vdc with a full load do input current of about 230A rms...WrTHOU 1 ~ /- PA~,5 D(OD~ H 1 1 I1 •1II I .I URU mmli . U. H 0 • ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 9 . .: S~ VOLT~1Gt. AC~~O~~~ C, .(loov /DI L/. S~rv) s/ Ds v.) Ioco

  20. Characterization of a Grape Class IV Chitinase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A chitinase was purified from Vitis vinifera Manzoni Bianco grape juice and characterized. On the basis of proteomic analysis of tryptic peptides, a significant match identified the enzyme as a type IV grape chitinase previously found in juices of other V. vinifera varieties. The optimal pH and temperature for activity toward colloidal chitin were found to be 6 and 30 °C, respectively. The enzyme was found to hydrolyze chitin and oligomers of N-acetylglucosamine, generating N,N′-diacetylchitobiose and N-acetylglucosamine as products, but was inactive toward N,N′-diacetylchitobiose. The enzyme exhibited both endo- and exochitinase activities. Because yeast contains a small amount of chitin in the cell wall, the possibility of growth inhibition was tested. At a concentration and pH expected in ripe grapes, no inhibition of wine yeast growth by the chitinase was observed. PMID:24845689

  1. Ratchet model for type IV pilus retraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindén, Martin; Tuohimaa, Tomi; Jonsson, Ann-Beth; Wallin, Mats

    2004-03-01

    Type IV pilus rectraction is required for twitching motility in a wide range of bacteriae, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Myxococcus xanthus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The mechanism of retraction is believed to be filament disassembly mediated by PilT, a member of the AAA family of motor proteins. Recent laser tweezer measurements of the force-velocity relation of PilT in N. gonorrhoeae, reveal that single PilT complexes generate forces of over 100 pN. We assume that PilT forms a cyclic ATPase surrounding the base of the pilus and formulate a model of retraction in terms of coupled flashing ratchets. We obtain a force-velocity relation by numerical simulation of the model which is in qualitative agreement with the experimental results.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type IV

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS IV does not affect intelligence. The life expectancy of individuals with MPS IV ... qualified healthcare professional . About Selection Criteria for Links Data Files & API Site Map Customer Support USA.gov ...

  3. A Computationally Based Study of Polycyclic Nitramines and Their Precursors: Comparisons between Known and Notional Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    energy approximation with correct asymptotic- behavior. Physical Review A. 1988;38:3098–3100. Becke AD. Density-functional thermochemistry . 3. The role...of exact exchange. Journal of Chemical Physics. 1993;98:5648–5652. 42 Becke AD. Density-functional thermochemistry . IV. A new dynamical

  4. Endonuclease IV of Escherichia coli is induced by paraquat

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, E.; Weiss, B.

    1987-05-01

    The addition of paraquat (methyl viologen) to a growing culture of Escherichia coli K-12 led within 1 hr to a 10- to 20-fold increase in the level of endonuclease IV, a DNase for apurinic/apyrimidinic sites. The induction was blocked by chloramphenicol. Increases of 3-fold or more were also seen with plumbagin, menadione, and phenazine methosulfate. H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ produced no more than a 2-fold increase in endonuclease IV activity. The following agents had no significant effect: streptonigrin, nitrofurantoin, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, ..gamma.. rays, 260-nm UV radiation, methyl methanesulfonate, mitomycin C, and ascorbate. Paraquat, plumbagin, menadione, and phenazine methosulfate are known to generate superoxide radical anions via redox cycling in vivo. A mutant lacking superoxide dismutase was unusually sensitive to induction by paraquat. In addition, endonuclease IV could be induced by merely growing the mutant in pure O/sub 2/. The levels of endonuclease IV in uninduced or paraquat-treated cells were unaffected by mutations of oxyR, a H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-inducible gene that governs an oxidative-stress regulon. The results indicate that endonuclease IV is an inducible DNA-repair enzyme and that its induction can be mediated via the production of superoxide radicals.

  5. [Human dignity as a key notion in the UNESCO declaration on the human genome].

    PubMed

    Andorno, R

    2001-01-01

    The notion of human dignity plays an increasing role in the bioethical discussion. The UNESCO Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights is the best example of this phenomenon. This instrument is the first important step to establish international standards with regard to the ethical and legal problems raised by genetic advances. Nevertheless, the major work is still pending. First, because the concept of dignity requires a better characterization with reference to the new bioethical dilemmas. Second, because the principles enunciated at the international level should be concretized locally through well-crafted national law.

  6. Various notions of positivity for bi-linear maps and applications to tri-partite entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Kyung Hoon; Kye, Seung-Hyeok

    2016-01-15

    We consider bi-linear analogues of s-positivity for linear maps. The dual objects of these notions can be described in terms of Schmidt ranks for tri-tensor products and Schmidt numbers for tri-partite quantum states. These tri-partite versions of Schmidt numbers cover various kinds of bi-separability, and so we may interpret witnesses for those in terms of bi-linear maps. We give concrete examples of witnesses for various kinds of three qubit entanglement.

  7. Stage IV-S neuroblastoma. Results with definitive therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, S.H.; Thomas, P.R.; Perez, C.A.; Vietti, T.J.

    1984-05-15

    The results of management of 14 patients with Stage IV-S neuroblastoma are reported. The treatment policy, although not consistent over this time span, in general used a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy or infrequently one modality alone. Twelve of 14 (86%) survived more than 6 years. One patient, with a solitary mediastinal primary tumor, died of rapidly progressive disease at three months. The other death occurred in a 4.5-year-old presenting with hepatomegaly at diagnosis followed by skeletal dissemination 2.5 years later. Thirteen of the patients were younger than 1 year of age. Of the 11 patients that received radiotherapy, 4 experienced mild asymptomatic scoliosis or kyphoscoliosis at 3 to 12 years after initial therapy. A review of the literature indicates that spontaneous regression in this tumor is very frequent; therefore, it is recommended that for the common presentation of massive hepatomegaly in an infant, close observation is warranted, unless life threatening complications occur. However, initial therapeutic intervention may be indicated in those patients with life threatening presentations. This data did not substantiate the necessity for complete surgical excision of the primary tumor, as has been suggested by others.

  8. Oxovanadium(IV) silsesquioxane complexes.

    PubMed

    Ohde, Christian; Limberg, Christian; Stösser, Reinhard; Demeshko, Serhiy

    2010-03-01

    In the context of a potential modeling of reduced oxovanadium species occurring on the surfaces of silica-supported vanadia catalysts in the course of its turnover, the incompletely condensed silsesquioxane H(3)(c-pentyl)T(7) was reacted with Cl(4)V(THF)(2) (where THF = tetrahydrofuran) in the presence of triethylamine. Precipitation of 3 equiv of HNEt(3)Cl seemed to point to the clean formation of [((c-pentyl)T(7))(V(IV)Cl)] (1), which was supported by electron paramagnetic resonance studies performed for the resulting solutions, but further analytical and spectroscopic investigations showed that the processes occurring at that stage are more complex than that and even include the formation of [((c-pentyl)T(7))(V(V)O)](2) as a side product. Storage of a red-brown hexane solution of this product mixture reproducibly led to the precipitation of blue crystals belonging to the chloride-free compound [((c-pentyl)T(7))(2)(V(IV)=O)(3)(THF)(2)] (2), as revealed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Performing the same reaction in the presence of 2 equiv of pyridine leads to an analogous product, where the THF ligands are replaced by pyridine. Subsequent investigations showed that the terminal oxo ligands at the vanadium centers are, on the one hand, due to the presence of adventitious water; on the other hand, the [(c-pentyl)T(7)](3-) ligand also acted as a source of O(2-). The results of SQUID measurements performed for 2 can be interpreted in terms of a ferromagnetic coupling between the vanadyl units. Exposing 2 to a dioxygen atmosphere resulted in its immediate oxidation to yield the V(V) complex [((c-pentyl)T(7))(V(V)O)](2), which may model a fast reoxidation reaction of oxovanadium(IV) trimers on silica surfaces.

  9. PREPARATION OF OXOPORPHINATOMANGANESE (IV) COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Willner, I.; Otvos, J.; Calvin, M.

    1980-07-01

    Oxo-manganese-tetraphenylporphyrin (O=Mn{sup IV}-TPP) has been prepared by an oxygen-transfer reaction from iodosylbenzene to MnIITPP and characterized by its i.r. and field desorption mass spectra, which are identical to those of the product obtained by direct oxidation of Mn{sup III}(TPP) in an aqueous medium; it transfers oxygen to triphenylphosphine to produce triphenylphosphine oxide, and it is suggested that similar intermediates are important in oxygen activation by cytochrome P-450 as well as in the photosynthetic evolution of oxygen.

  10. The specificity triad: notions of disease and therapeutic specificity in biomedical reasoning.

    PubMed

    Mulinari, Shai

    2014-10-18

    Biomedicine is typically defined as the branch of medicine that is based on the principles of biology and biochemistry. A central tenet for biomedicine is the notion of disease and therapeutic specificity, i.e. the idea of tailored treatments for discrete disorders underpinned by specific pathologies. The present paper is concerned with how notions of disease and therapeutic specificity guide biomedical reasoning. To that end, the author proposes a model - the specificity triad - that draws on late philosopher and physician Ludwik Fleck's concept of "style of thought" to offer a frame for investigating the intricate process through which links between disorders, mechanisms, and therapeutics are established by biomedicine. Next by applying the specificity triad model to scrutinize research efforts in two discrete areas of medicine-psychiatry and regenerative medicine-this paper seeks to stimulate pertinent discussions in and about biomedicine. These include discussions on the ambiguous epistemic status of psychiatry within contemporary biomedicine, as well as the relationship between developmental biology - historically relatively disjointed from biomedical enterprise - and the burgeoning field of regenerative medicine.

  11. The specificity triad: notions of disease and therapeutic specificity in biomedical reasoning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Biomedicine is typically defined as the branch of medicine that is based on the principles of biology and biochemistry. A central tenet for biomedicine is the notion of disease and therapeutic specificity, i.e. the idea of tailored treatments for discrete disorders underpinned by specific pathologies. The present paper is concerned with how notions of disease and therapeutic specificity guide biomedical reasoning. To that end, the author proposes a model – the specificity triad – that draws on late philosopher and physician Ludwik Fleck’s concept of “style of thought” to offer a frame for investigating the intricate process through which links between disorders, mechanisms, and therapeutics are established by biomedicine. Next by applying the specificity triad model to scrutinize research efforts in two discrete areas of medicine—psychiatry and regenerative medicine—this paper seeks to stimulate pertinent discussions in and about biomedicine. These include discussions on the ambiguous epistemic status of psychiatry within contemporary biomedicine, as well as the relationship between developmental biology — historically relatively disjointed from biomedical enterprise — and the burgeoning field of regenerative medicine. PMID:25326797

  12. [The notion of decision making capacity in medical and legal practice].

    PubMed

    Bórquez E, Gladys; Raineri B, Gina; Horwitz C, Nina; Huepe O, Gabriela

    2007-09-01

    The relationship between patients and health professionals emphasizes deliberation and joint decision making, that derives in the informed consent. To evaluate decision making of patients in health care and to identify the notion of capacity for decision making, according to lawyers and physicians. A semi-structured interview about procedures to assess decision making capacity was applied to 27 selected physicians and lawyers, considering their experience in this area. A qualitative analysis of answers was performed. Several differences were observed between physicians and lawyers, probably originated in their respective disciplines as well as the context of their professional practice. For physicians the notion of capacity is associated to comprehension of the information, it is not absolute, and it must consider the intellectual maturity of the teenager and the autonomy of the elderly. This evaluation is frequently performed in the clinical interview and standardized protocols do not exist. For lawyers, capacity is established by age and is associated to rights and obligations, as determined by law. When it is assessed by experts, including physicians, it becomes evidence. These professionals assume that experts will use standardized assessment instruments. Capacity has significance in the legal system. Since there are substantial consequences when a person is deemed incompetent, it is necessary to distinguish between health capacity and legal capacity, and to inverted exclamation markink the informed consent with the fundamental rights of citizens, such as taking decisions about our own health.

  13. The notion of 'phonology' in dyslexia research: cognitivism--and beyond.

    PubMed

    Uppstad, Per Henning; Tønnessen, Finn Egil

    2007-08-01

    Phonology has been a central concept in the scientific study of dyslexia over the past decades. Despite its central position, however, it is a concept with no precise definition or status. The present article investigates the notion of 'phonology' in the tradition of cognitive psychology. An attempt is made to characterize the basic assumptions of the phonological approach to dyslexia and to evaluate these assumptions on the basis of commonly accepted standards of empirical science. First, the core assumptions of phonological awareness are outlined and discussed. Second, the position of Paula Tallal is presented and discussed in order to shed light on an attempt to stretch the cognitive-psychological notion of 'phonology' towards auditory and perceptual aspects. Both the core assumptions and Tallal's position are rejected as unfortunate, albeit for different reasons. Third, the outcome of this discussion is a search for what is referred to as a 'vulnerable theory' within this field. The present article claims that phonological descriptions must be based on observable linguistic behaviour, so that hypotheses can be falsified by data. Consequently, definitions of 'dyslexia' must be based on symptoms; causal aspects should not be included. In fact, we claim that causal aspects, such as 'phonological deficit', both exclude other causal hypotheses and lead to circular reasoning. If we are to use terms such as 'phonology' and 'phoneme' in dyslexia research, we must have more precise operationalizations of them.

  14. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a…

  15. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a…

  16. Estimation of K-WAIS-IV Premorbid Intelligence in South Korea: Development of the KPIE-IV.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Geon; Lee, Eun-Ho; Hwang, Soon-Taeg; Park, Kwangbai; Chey, Jeanyung; Hong, Sang-Hwang; Kim, Ji-Hae

    2015-01-01

    The accurate estimation of premorbid intellectual functioning in patients with known or suspected cognitive impairment is crucial for clinicians. However, there is no reliable method for estimating premorbid intelligence in South Korea. The purpose of this study was to develop the Korea Premorbid Intelligence Estimate (KPIE) as an estimate of the premorbid intellectual functioning. Data from the Korean WAIS-IV standardization sample were used to generate several Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) estimation formulas using demographic variables and current WAIS-IV subtest performance. The standardization sample (N = 1216) was randomly divided into two groups: the first group was used to develop the formulas and the second group was used to validate the prediction equations. Age, education, gender, region of the country, and select subtest raw scores (Vocabulary, Information, Matrix Reasoning, and Visual Puzzle) were used as predictor variables. Five KPIE-4 equations were generated. Estimated FSIQ derived from the KPIE-4 equation is highly correlated with K-WAIS-IV FSIQ. The resulting formulas for estimating premorbid FSIQ were highly significant and precise in predicting FSIQ scores of participants in the K-WAIS-IV normative sample. These equations provide a means for clinicians to estimate intellectual functioning in adults, and can be utilized as a method of estimating individuals premorbid functioning.

  17. A Spectrum of IV and V Modeling Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimdahl, Mats; Owen, David

    2004-01-01

    The aerospace industry in general and NASA in particular is using more (semi-formal) model-based software development. Model-based development produces a collection of artifacts, for example, state diagrams, module diagrams (such as class diagrams), control-block diagrams, etc. These artifacts may than be used as a basis for auto code generation for production use. Therefore, these models must be properly evaluated in the IV and V process. IV and V practitioners know how assess standard procedural systems. But what can we du about IV and V of model-based systems? The goal of the work outlined in this proposal is to use cost effective automated techniques to the largest extent possible during the IV and V process. Our working hypotheses are: 1. There exists a range of validation techniques that can assess models built using a range of modeling techniques of increasing cost and complexity. Specifically, we hypotesize that the "cheaper" techniques can find faults cheaply and early in a project. These early results are then used to predict if this is a problem system and if a more elaborate and expensive IV and V effort is justified. 2. There exists a set of migration procedures that let us seamlessly move from simple models using cheaper techniques into more elaborate models suitable for a more expensive and detailed analysis. 3. We further hypothesize that this migration process is much cheaper than simply remodeling the system under investigation from scratch when moving to models needed for the more detailed and expensive IV and V assessments.

  18. Titanium(IV) isopropoxide mediated synthesis of pyrimidin-4-ones.

    PubMed

    Ramanjulu, Joshi M; Demartino, Michael P; Lan, Yunfeng; Marquis, Robert

    2010-05-21

    A novel, one-step method for the synthesis of tri- and tetrasubstituted pyrimidin-4-ones is reported. This method involves a titanium(IV)-mediated cyclization involving two sequential condensations of primary and beta-ketoamides. The reaction is operationally facile, readily scalable, and offers rapid entry into differentially substituted pyrimidin-4-one scaffolds. The high functional group compatibility allows for substantial diversification in the products generated from this transformation.

  19. Titanium(IV) and vitamin C: aqueous complexes of a bioactive form of Ti(IV).

    PubMed

    Buettner, Katherine M; Collins, Joseph M; Valentine, Ann M

    2012-10-15

    Ascorbic acid is among the biorelevant ligands that render Ti(IV) stable in aqueous solution. A series of pH-dependent titanium(IV) coordination complexes of L-ascorbic acid is described. Directed by spectropotentiometric methods, important aspects of the aqueous interactions in this system are investigated, including ligand binding mode, pH-dependent metal-ligand stoichiometry, and the importance of metal ion-promoted hydrolysis and the binding of hydroxide. Stability constants are determined for all metal ion-ligand-proton complexes by a process of model optimization and nonlinear least-squares fitting of the combined spectropotentiometric titration data to the log β(MLH) values in the model. A speciation diagram is generated from the set of stability constants described in the model. In the range pH 3-10, the aqueous speciation is characterized by the sequential appearance of the following complexes as a function of added base: Ti(asc)(2)(0) → Ti(asc)(3)(2-) → Ti(asc)(2)(OH)(2)(2-) → Ti(asc)(OH)(4)(2-). These species dominate the speciation at pH < 3, pH 4-5, pH ~ 8, and pH > 10, respectively, with minimum log stability constants (β values) of 25.70, 36.91, 16.43, and -6.91. Results from electrospray mass spectrometry, metal-ligand binding experiments, and kinetics measurements support the speciation, which is characterized by bidentate chelation of the ascorbate dianion to the titanium(IV) ion via proton displacement, and a pH-dependent metal-ligand binding motif of ligand addition followed by metal ion-promoted hydrolysis, stepwise ligand dissociation, and the concomitant binding of hydroxide ion. Additionally, the kinetics of ligand exchange of titanium ascorbate with citrate are reported to understand better the possible fate of titanium ascorbate under biologically relevant conditions.

  20. The enigmatic primitive streak: prevailing notions and challenges concerning the body axis of mammals

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Karen M.

    2010-01-01

    The primitive streak establishes the antero-posterior body axis in all amniote species. It is thought to be the conduit through which mesoderm and endoderm progenitors ingress and migrate to their ultimate destinations. Despite its importance, the streak remains poorly defined and one of the most enigmatic structures of the animal kingdom. In particular, the posterior end of the primitive streak has not been satisfactorily identified in any species. Unexpectedly, and contrary to prevailing notions, recent evidence suggests that the murine posterior primitive streak extends beyond the embryo proper. In its extraembryonic site, the streak creates a node-like cell reservoir from which the allantois, a universal caudal appendage of all amniotes and the future umbilical cord of placental mammals, emerges. This new insight into the fetal/umbilical relationship may explain the etiology of a large number of umbilical-associated birth defects, many of which are correlated with abnormalities of the embryonic midline. PMID:19609969

  1. Does culture impact on notions of criminal responsibility and action? The case of spirit possession.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ayesha; Dein, Simon

    2016-10-01

    Multicultural societies such as the United Kingdom are host to people with diverse belief systems and behavioral norms. Whilst a country requires that all members of society conform to standardized legal requirements, cases arise that involve certain complexities related to the cultural or religious context in which a certain action was committed. This paper addresses the impact of culture on notions of criminal responsibility and action. Through a case study of a recent event in the United Kingdom, we explore whether a cultural defense is relevant for contextualizing incidents in which an individual commits a criminal action during an alleged period of spirit possession From this analysis, we suggest that using a cultural defense can aid understanding of an individual's relationship to the society that he or she identifies with and facilitate the practice of justice in a multicultural society.

  2. Self-organization in macromolecular systems: the notion of adaptive value.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, L

    1984-10-01

    Self-organization in macromolecular systems refers to the transition from a random assembly of interacting oligomers to a system of stable heteropolymers. The concept of adaptive value describes the correlation between environmental variability and the variability in replication and mutation rates of the interacting oligomers. This paper describes a model of self-organization in macromolecular systems based on the concept of adaptive value. The equilibrium states of a set of interacting polymers are described by states that maximize the adaptive value. The analytic basis for this notion of equilibrium, which is called the adaptive value principle, is given and this principle is invoked to explain two examples of macromolecular self-assembly.

  3. From Freudian narcissism to the Buddhist notion of anatman, via Jung's idea of identity.

    PubMed

    Martin-Vallas, François

    2017-02-01

    Starting from the question the youthful Carl Gustav pondered as he sat on 'his' stone - 'Am I he who sits on the stone, or am I the stone on which he sits?' - the author has attempted to show that, for Jung, the idea of identity is founded on a wilful non-determination. This stance results in ethical and methodological repercussions that differentiate it both from the Freudian project and from Hindu and Buddhist thought, while at the same time having much in common with them. The paper refers to the notions of emergence and (Varela et al. 1992) enaction and argues that the concept of the archetype, especially in relation to the self, merits a re-evaluation in light of the new scientific paradigm.

  4. From solidarity to autonomy: towards a redefinition of the parameters of the notion of autonomy.

    PubMed

    Fainzang, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    Starting from examples of concrete situations in France, I show that autonomy and solidarity can coexist only if the parameters of autonomy are redefined. I show on the one hand that in situations where autonomy is encouraged, solidarity nevertheless remains at the foundation of their practices. On the other hand, in situations largely infused with family solidarity, the individual autonomy may be put in danger. Yet, based on my ethnographic observations regarding clinical encounters and medical secrecy, I show that while solidarity may endanger individual autonomy, it does not necessarily endanger autonomy itself. The social practices observable in France reflect the reality of an autonomy that goes beyond the individual, a reality that involves a collective subject and includes solidarity. The opposition between these two values can then be resolved if the content of the notion of autonomy is understood to be dependent on its cultural context of application and on its social use.

  5. [The early reception of the notion of schizophrenia of Eugen Bleuler in Austria].

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Eberhard

    2012-01-01

    The 100th anniversary of Eugen Bleulers "Dementia praecox oder Gruppe der Schizophrenien" (Dementia praecox oder Gruppe der Schizophrenien. Leipzig: Deuticke; 1911) motivates a retrospective description of the early reception of the word and its meaning. It occurred in two phases: 1911-1914 (focus of that paper) and 1918-1929. The protagonists were Erwin Stransky (mainly in the first phase), Josef Berze (mainly in the second), Julius Wagner-Jauregg and Carl Meyer, leading motives criticisms of the further expansion of the earlier Kraepelinian notion of dementia praecox and of Bleulers' psychoanalytical interpreting of the disorder, but acceptance of the neologism 'schizophrenia' because of its meaning ("dissociative character") and the possibility to derive an adjective. The new word replaced the old denomination after world war I during the 1920s.

  6. Optical and Infrared Interferometry IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Jayadev K.; Creech-Eakman, Michelle J.; Malbet, Fabien

    2014-08-01

    Optical and IR Interferometry IV at the SPIE 2014 symposium in Montreal had a strong and vibrant program. After initial fears about budget cuts and travel-funding constraints, the Program Committee had to work hard to accommodate as many quality submissions as possible. Innovative, creative and visionary work ensured that the field has progressed well, despite the bleak funding climate felt in the US, Europe and elsewhere. Montreal proved an excellent venue for this, the largest of Interferometry conferences and the only one that brings together practitioners from the world over. Let us summarize a few highlights to convey a glimpse of the excitement that is detailed in the rest of these Proceedings.

  7. Rhenium(IV) sulfide nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Brorson, Michael; Hansen, Thomas W; Jacobsen, Claus J H

    2002-10-02

    Rhenium(IV) sulfide, ReS(2), has been prepared with nanotubular morphology by carbon nanotube templating. A multiwall carbon nanotube material was impregnated with solutions of NH(4)ReO(4) or ReCl(5), followed by drying and sulfidation with H(2)S at 1000 degrees C. The composite material synthesized was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. Like previously described MS(2) nanotube compounds, ReS(2) has a layered structure consisting of S-M-S layers. Re atoms in ordinary ReS(2) are octahedrally coordinated with S, and tetranuclear metal clusters are present as a consequence of metal-metal bonds.

  8. Female adolescents and their sexuality: notions of honour, shame, purity and pollution during the floods.

    PubMed

    Rashid, S F; Michaud, S

    2000-03-01

    This paper explores the experiences of female adolescents during the 1998 floods in Bangladesh, focusing on the implications of socio-cultural norms related to notions of honour, shame, purity and pollution. These cultural notions are reinforced with greater emphasis as girls enter their adolescence, regulating their sexuality and gender relationships. In Bangladeshi society, adolescent girls are expected to maintain their virginity until marriage. Contact is limited to one's family and extended relations. Particularly among poorer families, adolescent girls tend to have limited mobility to safeguard their 'purity'. This is to ensure that the girl's reputation does not suffer, thus making it difficult for the girl to get married. For female adolescents in Bangladesh, a disaster situation is a uniquely vulnerable time. Exposure to the unfamiliar environment of flood shelters and relief camps, and unable to maintain their 'space' and privacy from male strangers, a number of the girls were vulnerable to sexual and mental harassment. With the floods, it became difficult for most of the girls to be appropriately 'secluded'. Many were unable to sleep, bathe or get access to latrines in privacy because so many houses and latrines were under the water. Some of the girls who had begun menstruation were distressed at not being able to keep themselves clean. Strong social taboos associated with menstruation and the dirty water that surrounded them made it difficult for the girls to wash their menstrual cloths or change them frequently enough. Many of them became separated from their social network of relations, which caused them a great deal of anxiety and stress. Their difficulty in trying to follow social norms have had far-reaching implications on their health, identity, family and community relations.

  9. The Notions of Science as human capital: An empirical analysis of economic growth and science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Russell D.

    This study was designed to determine the strength of the relationship between a nation's human capital in the form of the "Notions of Science" (NOS) and the growth rate of gross domestic product per capita for 43 countries during the years 1988 through 1998. This relationship was studied from two perspectives: first, the study sought to determine if there was a significant relationship between a country's NOS and its growth rate in gross domestic per capita; second, the study sought to determine if the NOS had a greater relationship with the growth rate of gross domestic product per capita than a more commonly used measure of human capital, amount of schooling. The NOS for the participating countries were proxied by the percentage of a country's science curriculum devoted to teaching the NOS. The science curricula used in this study were obtained from the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's (IEA) Curriculum Frameworks for Mathematics and Science. These curricular frameworks were written as one part of the Third International Math and Science Study (TIMSS). The NOS were extracted from the science curriculum frameworks through the construction of a content-by-cognitive-behavior-grid. The categories, or codes, for the NOS used in this grid were based on the work of Clarence Irving Lewis in Mind and the World Order. Holding several other explanatory variables constant, the NOS percentage for each country were regressed against each country's average growth rate of gross domestic product per capita for the period of 1988 through 1998. The results indicate that there was not a significant relationship between human capital, as proxied by the percentage of the curriculum devoted to the notions of science, and a country's economic growth rate. Because the regression coefficient for the NOS was not statistically significant, this study was not able to determine if the NOS had a stronger relationship with growth in GDP per capita than

  10. The notion of precariousness among older adults living alone in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Portacolone, Elena

    2013-04-01

    This paper argues that older adults living alone in the U.S. face a set of unique challenges, as they are likely to experience a sense of precariousness. The term precariousness points to an intrinsic sense of instability and insecurity stemming from a lack of, or difficulty to, access essential resources. During a two-year ethnography of 47 older solo dwellers, this term captured one of the distinctive traits of the experience of living alone in older age in the U.S. The findings from semi-structured interviews and participant observation highlight the emergence of the notion of precariousness along three levels of analysis. First, on the micro and subjective level of analysis, older solo dwellers may struggle to perform the chores related to their household as they may deal with a failing body, faltering memory, and fixed if not shrinking income. Second, on the meso and institutional level of analysis, older adults living alone need to navigate the complex, scattered, and ever-changing landscape of services and understand their eligibility criteria, accessibility, fees, and conditions. At the same time they may have to deal with family issues. Finally, the macro level examines the pressure on older solo dwellers of a prevalent ideology that prizes independent behaviors and personal responsibility. In conclusion, the notion of precariousness illustrates the unique position of older adults living alone as they face different type of challenges on a micro, meso, and macro dimension. The paper ends with an invitation to create social policies that accommodate the needs of a growing number of older adults living alone.

  11. Solar cell dark I-V characteristics and their applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, M. S.; Brandtzaeg, P.; Miller, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of studies conducted to evaluate the feasibility of and to generate techniques for the use of dark forward current-voltage characteristics in the checkout of the Apollo Telescope Mount Solar Array. Methods for the determination of lumped series resistance and prediction of the illuminated I-V curve using the dark characteristics are also presented. The paper addresses itself primarily to the generation of a valid performance testing and flight readiness checkout technique using the forward characteristics of the solar cell.

  12. Level IV Ecoregions of Nevada

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  13. Level IV Ecoregions of Wyoming

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  14. Level IV Ecoregions of California

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  15. Level IV Ecoregions of Georgia

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  16. Level IV Ecoregions of Louisiana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  17. Level IV Ecoregions of Oklahoma

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  18. Level IV Ecoregions of Wisconsin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  19. Level IV Ecoregions of Nebraska

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  20. Level IV Ecoregions of Idaho

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  1. Level IV Ecoregions of Utah

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  2. Level IV Ecoregions of Kansas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  3. Level IV Ecoregions of Colorado

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  4. Level IV Ecoregions of Oregon

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of patterns of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels for ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997). At Level III, the continental United States contains 105 regions whereas the conterminous United States has 85 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2011). Level IV ecoregions are further subdivisions of Level III eco

  5. Metsahovi Radio Observatory - IVS Network Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uunila, Minttu; Zubko, Nataliya; Poutanen, Markku; Kallunki, Juha; Kallio, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, Metsahovi Radio Observatory together with Finnish Geodetic Institute officially became an IVS Network Station. Eight IVS sessions were observed during the year. Two spacecraft tracking and one EVN X-band experiment were also performed. In 2012, the Metsahovi VLBI equipment was upgraded with a Digital Base Band Converter, a Mark 5B+, a FILA10G, and a FlexBuff.

  6. IVS Working Group 4: VLBI Data Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gipson, John

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 the IVS Directing Board established IVS Working Group 4 on VLBI Data Structures. This note discusses the current VLBI data format, goals for a new format, the history and formation of the Working Group, and a timeline for the development of a new VLBI data format.

  7. CHLORINE ABSORPTION IN S(IV) SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of measurements of the rate of Chlorine (Cl2) absorption into aqueous sulfite/bisulfite -- S(IV) -- solutions at ambient temperature using a highly characterized stirred-cell reactor. The reactor media were 0 to 10 mM S(IV) with pHs of 3.5-8.5. Experiment...

  8. Improving Detection of IV Infiltrates in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, MD, Colleen; Langer, Melissa; Burke, Susan; El Metwally, MD, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Neonates and infants in the neonatal intensive care unit suffer significant morbidity when intravenous (IV) catheters infiltrate. The underreporting of adverse events through hospital voluntary reporting systems, such as ours, can complicate the monitoring of low incidence events, like IV infiltrates. Based on severe cases of IV infiltrates observed in our neonatal intensive care unit, we attempted to improve the detection of all infiltrates and reduce the incidence of Stage 4 infiltrates. We developed, and initiated the use of, an evidence-based guideline for the improved surveillance, prevention, and management of IV infiltrates, with corresponding educational interventions for faculty and staff. We instituted the use of a checklist for compliance with guidelines, and as a mechanism of surveillance. The baseline incidence rate of IV infiltrates, determined by the voluntary reporting system, was 5 per 1000 line days. Following initiation of the guidelines and checklist, the IV infiltrate rate increased to 9 per 1000 line days. In most months, the detection of IV infiltrates was improved by use of the checklist. During the post-intervention period the rate of Stage 4 infiltrates, as measured by usage of nitroglycerin ointment, was significantly reduced. In conclusion, the detection of IV infiltrates was improved following our quality improvement interventions. Further, use of an evidence-based guideline for managing infiltrates may reduce the most severe infiltrate injuries. PMID:26734388

  9. CHLORINE ABSORPTION IN S(IV) SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of measurements of the rate of Chlorine (Cl2) absorption into aqueous sulfite/bisulfite -- S(IV) -- solutions at ambient temperature using a highly characterized stirred-cell reactor. The reactor media were 0 to 10 mM S(IV) with pHs of 3.5-8.5. Experiment...

  10. 24 CFR Appendixes I-Iv to Subpart B - Appendixes I-IV to Subpart B

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Appendixes I-IV to Subpart B I Appendixes I-IV to Subpart B Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Appendixes I-IV to Subpart B Appendix I—Annual Contributions Contract “Special Provisions for Turnkey...

  11. 24 CFR Appendixes I-Iv to Subpart B - Appendixes I-IV to Subpart B

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Appendixes I-IV to Subpart B I Appendixes I-IV to Subpart B Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Appendixes I-IV to Subpart B Appendix I—Annual Contributions Contract “Special Provisions for Turnkey...

  12. Remembering Collective Violence: Broadening the Notion of Traumatic Memory in Post-Conflict Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kevers, Ruth; Rober, Peter; Derluyn, Ilse; De Haene, Lucia

    2016-12-01

    In the aftermath of war and armed conflict, individuals and communities face the challenge of dealing with recollections of violence and atrocity. This article aims to contribute to a better understanding of processes of remembering and forgetting histories of violence in post-conflict communities and to reflect on related implications for trauma rehabilitation in post-conflict settings. Starting from the observation that memory operates at the core of PTSD symptomatology, we more closely explore how this notion of traumatic memory is conceptualized within PTSD-centered research and interventions. Subsequently, we aim to broaden this understanding of traumatic memory and post-trauma care by connecting to findings from social memory studies and transcultural trauma research. Drawing on an analysis of scholarly literature, this analysis develops into a perspective on memory that moves beyond a symptomatic framing toward an understanding of memory that emphasizes its relational, political, moral, and cultural nature. Post-conflict memory is presented as inextricably embedded in communal relations, involving ongoing trade-offs between individual and collective responses to trauma and a complex negotiation of speech and silence. In a concluding discussion, we develop implications of this broadened understanding for post-conflict trauma-focused rehabilitation.

  13. Rediscovering Recovery: Reconceptualizing Underlying Assumptions of Citizenship and Interrelated Notions of Care and Support

    PubMed Central

    Vandekinderen, Caroline; Roets, Griet; Roose, Rudi; Van Hove, Geert

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few decades, research, policy, and practice in the field of mental health care and a complementary variety of social work and social service delivery have internationally concentrated on recovery as a promising concept. In this paper, a conceptual distinction is made between an individual approach and a social approach to recovery, and underlying assumptions of citizenship and interrelated notions and features of care and support are identified. It is argued that the conditionality of the individual approach to recovery refers to a conceptualization of citizenship as normative, based on the existence of a norm that operates in every domain of our society. We argue that these assumptions place a burden of self-governance on citizens with mental health problems and risk producing people with mental health problems as nonrecyclable citizens. The social approach to recovery embraces a different conceptualization of citizenship as relational and inclusive and embodies the myriad ways in which the belonging of people with mental health problems can be constructed in practice. As such, we hope to enable social services and professionals in the field to balance their role in the provision of care and support to service users with mental health problems. PMID:23326216

  14. Quantum entanglement of identical particles by standard information-theoretic notions

    PubMed Central

    Lo Franco, Rosario; Compagno, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Quantum entanglement of identical particles is essential in quantum information theory. Yet, its correct determination remains an open issue hindering the general understanding and exploitation of many-particle systems. Operator-based methods have been developed that attempt to overcome the issue. Here we introduce a state-based method which, as second quantization, does not label identical particles and presents conceptual and technical advances compared to the previous ones. It establishes the quantitative role played by arbitrary wave function overlaps, local measurements and particle nature (bosons or fermions) in assessing entanglement by notions commonly used in quantum information theory for distinguishable particles, like partial trace. Our approach furthermore shows that bringing identical particles into the same spatial location functions as an entangling gate, providing fundamental theoretical support to recent experimental observations with ultracold atoms. These results pave the way to set and interpret experiments for utilizing quantum correlations in realistic scenarios where overlap of particles can count, as in Bose-Einstein condensates, quantum dots and biological molecular aggregates. PMID:26857475

  15. Quantum entanglement of identical particles by standard information-theoretic notions.

    PubMed

    Lo Franco, Rosario; Compagno, Giuseppe

    2016-02-09

    Quantum entanglement of identical particles is essential in quantum information theory. Yet, its correct determination remains an open issue hindering the general understanding and exploitation of many-particle systems. Operator-based methods have been developed that attempt to overcome the issue. Here we introduce a state-based method which, as second quantization, does not label identical particles and presents conceptual and technical advances compared to the previous ones. It establishes the quantitative role played by arbitrary wave function overlaps, local measurements and particle nature (bosons or fermions) in assessing entanglement by notions commonly used in quantum information theory for distinguishable particles, like partial trace. Our approach furthermore shows that bringing identical particles into the same spatial location functions as an entangling gate, providing fundamental theoretical support to recent experimental observations with ultracold atoms. These results pave the way to set and interpret experiments for utilizing quantum correlations in realistic scenarios where overlap of particles can count, as in Bose-Einstein condensates, quantum dots and biological molecular aggregates.

  16. The "contemporary synthesis": when politically inclusive genomic science relies on biological notions of race.

    PubMed

    Fullwiley, Duana

    2014-12-01

    This essay outlines the emergence of a contemporary synthesis regarding racial thinking in genetic science and in society more broadly. A departure from what Julian Huxley in 1942 termed the "modern synthesis," the contemporary version does not purport to leave race thinking behind in favor of evolution, population genetics, and population-based accounts of natural selection and human diversity. Specifically, the contemporary synthesis blends old concepts (such as that of pure human "types," located within continental land masses) with new attitudes (democratic inclusion, multicultural diversity, and anti-racism). Through various examples, the essay shows how this new synthesis combines ideas about human biological difference that draw on measures of physical characteristics and human genetic material that are both race and population based, yet conflated. This specific amalgam allows old notions of racial types to thrive through conceptual framings that comprise ideas that were once imagined to have the potential to liberate society from racial thinking--and that today remain attached to ideas of progress. As an emergent dynamic, the contemporary synthesis holds the possibility of reinvigorating racism, while simultaneously possessing the potential to promote antiracist science education, disease awareness, and social justice efforts.

  17. Distinguishability notion based on Wootters statistical distance: Application to discrete maps.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Ignacio S; Portesi, M; Lamberti, P W

    2017-08-01

    We study the distinguishability notion given by Wootters for states represented by probability density functions. This presents the particularity that it can also be used for defining a statistical distance in chaotic unidimensional maps. Based on that definition, we provide a metric d¯ for an arbitrary discrete map. Moreover, from d¯, we associate a metric space with each invariant density of a given map, which results to be the set of all distinguished points when the number of iterations of the map tends to infinity. Also, we give a characterization of the wandering set of a map in terms of the metric d¯, which allows us to identify the dissipative regions in the phase space. We illustrate the results in the case of the logistic and the circle maps numerically and analytically, and we obtain d¯ and the wandering set for some characteristic values of their parameters. Finally, an extension of the metric space associated for arbitrary probability distributions (not necessarily invariant densities) is given along with some consequences. The statistical properties of distributions given by histograms are characterized in terms of the cardinal of the associated metric space. For two conjugate variables, the uncertainty principle is expressed in terms of the diameters of the associated metric space with those variables.

  18. Relational Capacity: Broadening the Notion of Decision-Making Capacity in Paediatric Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Ruhe, Katharina M; De Clercq, Eva; Wangmo, Tenzin; Elger, Bernice S

    2016-12-01

    Problems arise when applying the current procedural conceptualization of decision-making capacity to paediatric healthcare: Its emphasis on content-neutrality and rational cognition as well as its implicit assumption that capacity is an ability that resides within a person jeopardizes children's position in decision-making. The purpose of the paper is to challenge this dominant account of capacity and provide an alternative for how capacity should be understood in paediatric care. First, the influence of developmental psychologist Jean Piaget upon the notion of capacity is discussed, followed by an examination of Vygostky's contextualist view on children's development, which emphasizes social interactions and learning for decision-making capacity. In drawing parallels between autonomy and capacity, substantive approaches to relational autonomy are presented that underline the importance of the content of a decision. The authors then provide a relational reconceptualization of capacity that leads the focus away from the individual to include important social others such as parents and physicians. Within this new approach, the outcome of adults' decision-making processes is accepted as a guiding factor for a good decision for the child. If the child makes a choice that is not approved by adults, the new conceptualization emphasizes mutual exchange and engagement by both parties.

  19. Notionally steady background noise acts primarily as a modulation masker of speech.

    PubMed

    Stone, Michael A; Füllgrabe, Christian; Moore, Brian C J

    2012-07-01

    Stone et al. [J. Acoust. Soc Am. 130, 2874-2881 (2011)], using vocoder processing, showed that the envelope modulations of a notionally steady noise were more effective than the envelope energy as a masker of speech. Here the same effect is demonstrated using non-vocoded signals. Speech was filtered into 28 channels. A masker centered on each channel was added to the channel signal at a target-to-background ratio of -5 or -10 dB. Maskers were sinusoids or noise bands with bandwidth 1/3 or 1 ERB(N) (ERB(N) being the bandwidth of "normal" auditory filters), synthesized with Gaussian (GN) or low-noise (LNN) statistics. To minimize peripheral interactions between maskers, odd-numbered channels were presented to one ear and even to the other. Speech intelligibility was assessed in the presence of each "steady" masker and that masker 100% sinusoidally amplitude modulated (SAM) at 8 Hz. Intelligibility decreased with increasing envelope fluctuation of the maskers. Masking release, the difference in intelligibility between the SAM and its "steady" counterpart, increased with bandwidth from near-zero to around 50 percentage points for the 1-ERB(N) GN. It is concluded that the sinusoidal and GN maskers behaved primarily as energetic and modulation maskers, respectively.

  20. Communicating genetic information in the family: enriching the debate through the notion of integrity.

    PubMed

    Boddington, Paula; Gregory, Maggie

    2008-12-01

    Genetic information about one individual often has medical and reproductive implications for that individual's relatives. There is a debate about whether policy on transmitting genetic information within the family should change to reflect this shared aspect of genetic information. Even if laws on medical confidentiality remain unchanged, there still remains the question of professional practice and whether, to what extent and by what means professionals should encourage disclosure within a family. The debate so far has tended to focus on who has a right to genetic information, or has a right to decline genetic information, frequently drawing on the notion of individual autonomy. There are significant divergences within this debate, and difficulties with the use of autonomy in this context have been noted. This paper draws on theoretical considerations as well as on qualitative empirical data to show that shifting from talk of autonomy to talk of integrity will greatly enrich and illuminate the issues. It becomes possible to gain deeper insights into the ethical significance of the timing and the manner of such communication, the character of recipients of knowledge, and the nuanced nature of communication and different levels of understanding within a family.

  1. Constructing notions of healthcare productivity: the call for a new professionalism?

    PubMed

    Moffatt, Fiona; Martin, Paul; Timmons, Stephen

    2014-06-01

    Improving performance is an imperative for most healthcare systems in industrialised countries. This article considers one such system, the UK's National Health Service (NHS). Recent NHS reforms and strategies have advocated improved healthcare productivity as a fundamental objective of policy and professional work. This article explores the construction of productivity in contemporary NHS discourse, analysing it via the Foucauldian concept of governmentality. In this manner it is possible to investigate claims that the commodification of health work constitutes a threat to autonomy, and counter that with an alternative view from a perspective of neoliberal self-governance. Contemporary policy documents pertaining to NHS productivity were analysed using discourse analysis to examine the way in which productivity was framed and how responsibility for inefficient resource use, and possible solutions, were constructed. Data reveals the notion of productivity as problematic, with professionals as key protagonists. A common narrative identifies traditional NHS command/control principles as having failed to engage professionals or having been actively obstructed by them. In contrast, new productivity narratives are framed as direct appeals to professionalism. These new narratives do not support deprofessionalisation, but rather reconstruct responsibilities, what might be called 'new professionalism', in which productivity is identified as an individualised professional duty.

  2. On the notion of free will in the Free Will Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsman, Klaas

    2017-02-01

    The (Strong) Free Will Theorem (FWT) of Conway and Kochen (2009) on the one hand follows from uncontroversial parts of modern physics and elementary mathematical and logical reasoning, but on the other hand seems predicated on an undefined notion of free will (allowing physicists to ;freely choose; the settings of their experiments). This makes the theorem philosophically vulnerable, especially if it is construed as a proof of indeterminism or even of libertarian free will (as Conway & Kochen suggest). However, Cator and Landsman (Foundations of Physics 44, 781-791, 2014) previously gave a reformulation of the FWT that does not presuppose indeterminism, but rather assumes a mathematically specific form of such ;free choices; even in a deterministic world (based on a non-probabilistic independence assumption). In the present paper, which is a philosophical sequel to the one just mentioned, I argue that the concept of free will used in the latter version of the FWT is essentially the one proposed by Lewis (1981), also known as 'local miracle compatibilism' (of which I give a mathematical interpretation that might be of some independent interest also beyond its application to the FWT). As such, the (reformulated) FWT in my view challenges compatibilist free will à la Lewis (albeit in a contrived way via bipartite EPR-type experiments), falling short of supporting libertarian free will.

  3. The notion of hormesis and the dose-response theory: a unified approach.

    PubMed

    Murado, M A; Vázquez, J A

    2007-02-07

    According to an opinion which is vigorous and insistently defended for approximately one decade, hormesis (the response of a biological entity to an effector, with stimulatory results at low doses and inhibitory results at high doses) radically puts into question the classic theory of dose-response (DR) relationships and demands a profound revision of environmental protection policies. Herein we show that DR theory, with the modifications which we propose, allows the modelling of various kinds of biphasic responses which are phenomenologically similar to hormetic ones and of well-defined origin, as well as responses which have been treated as genuinely hormetic. Our descriptive approach may also represent a useful resource for experimental design, directed towards identifying some of the potentially heterogeneous mechanisms which underlie the hormetic phenomenon. Finally, it also allows to discuss some factors which prevent the use of the notion of hormesis-perhaps useful in a clinical context, under strictly controlled conditions-to make decisions on environmental protection measures.

  4. A foundational methodology for determining system static complexity using notional lunar oxygen production processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Nicholas James

    This thesis serves to develop a preliminary foundational methodology for evaluating the static complexity of future lunar oxygen production systems when extensive information is not yet available about the various systems under consideration. Evaluating static complexity, as part of a overall system complexity analysis, is an important consideration in ultimately selecting a process to be used in a lunar base. When system complexity is higher, there is generally an overall increase in risk which could impact the safety of astronauts and the economic performance of the mission. To evaluate static complexity in lunar oxygen production, static complexity is simplified and defined into its essential components. First, three essential dimensions of static complexity are investigated, including interconnective complexity, strength of connections, and complexity in variety. Then a set of methods is developed upon which to separately evaluate each dimension. Q-connectivity analysis is proposed as a means to evaluate interconnective complexity and strength of connections. The law of requisite variety originating from cybernetic theory is suggested to interpret complexity in variety. Secondly, a means to aggregate the results of each analysis is proposed to create holistic measurement for static complexity using the Single Multi-Attribute Ranking Technique (SMART). Each method of static complexity analysis and the aggregation technique is demonstrated using notional data for four lunar oxygen production processes.

  5. Distinguishability notion based on Wootters statistical distance: Application to discrete maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Ignacio S.; Portesi, M.; Lamberti, P. W.

    2017-08-01

    We study the distinguishability notion given by Wootters for states represented by probability density functions. This presents the particularity that it can also be used for defining a statistical distance in chaotic unidimensional maps. Based on that definition, we provide a metric d ¯ for an arbitrary discrete map. Moreover, from d ¯ , we associate a metric space with each invariant density of a given map, which results to be the set of all distinguished points when the number of iterations of the map tends to infinity. Also, we give a characterization of the wandering set of a map in terms of the metric d ¯ , which allows us to identify the dissipative regions in the phase space. We illustrate the results in the case of the logistic and the circle maps numerically and analytically, and we obtain d ¯ and the wandering set for some characteristic values of their parameters. Finally, an extension of the metric space associated for arbitrary probability distributions (not necessarily invariant densities) is given along with some consequences. The statistical properties of distributions given by histograms are characterized in terms of the cardinal of the associated metric space. For two conjugate variables, the uncertainty principle is expressed in terms of the diameters of the associated metric space with those variables.

  6. On the Notion of Truth in Quantum Mechanics: a Category-Theoretic Standpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakostas, Vassilios; Zafiris, Elias

    The category-theoretic representation of quantum event structures provides a canonical setting for confronting the fundamental problem of truth valuation in quantum mechanics as exemplified, in particular, by Kochen-Specker's theorem. In the present study, this is realized on the basis of the existence of a categorical adjunction between the category of sheaves of variable local Boolean frames, constituting a topos, and the category of quantum event algebras. We show explicitly that the latter category is equipped with an object of truth values, or classifying object, which constitutes the appropriate tool for assigning truth values to propositions describing the behavior of quantum systems. Effectively, this category-theoretic representation scheme circumvents consistently the semantic ambiguity with respect to truth valuation that is inherent in conventional quantum mechanics by inducing an objective contextual account of truth in the quantum domain of discourse. The philosophical implications of the resulting account are analyzed. We argue that it subscribes neither to a pragmatic instrumental nor to a relative notion of truth. Such an account essentially denies that there can be a universal context of reference or an Archimedean standpoint from which to evaluate logically the totality of facts of nature. In this light, the transcendence condition of the usual conception of correspondence truth is superseded by a reflective-like transcendental reasoning of the proposed account of truth that is suitable to the quantum domain of discourse.

  7. Couples' notions about preconception health: implications for framing social marketing plans.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Megan A; Mitchell, Elizabeth W; Levis, Denise M; Isenberg, Karen; Kish-Doto, Julia

    2013-01-01

    To understand couples' notions of preconception health (PCH) and to inform the development of social marketing plans focused on PCH. APPROACH/DESIGN: We used a social marketing perspective to understand how couples considered PCH as a product, its potential price, how it should be promoted, and in what type of places it should be promoted. These variables are typically referred to as the four social marketing P's. Telephone interviews with couples recruited from a national database. A total of 58 couples (116 individuals) were segmented by five couple segments based on pregnancy planning intention and current parental status in which the wife or partner was 18 to 44 years of age. The five segments were combined into three categories: couples who were planning pregnancies, couples who were not planning pregnancies, or couples who were recent parents (interconception). Couple-based structured interviews lasting approximately 45 to 60 minutes were conducted via telephone. Questions inquired about couples' experience with PCH and the four social marketing P's. Commonalities existed across the four social marketing P's for the different couple segments. Notable couple-related themes that emerged included the importance of couple communication, support, and relationship quality. PCH was more relevant for couples planning a pregnancy, but nonplanning couples understood the benefits of PCH and related behaviors. Couples may be an important target audience when considering social marketing approaches for PCH. Many couples perceived the relevance of the issue to important aspects of their lives, such as health, family, and their relationships.

  8. Pol IV-Dependent siRNA Production is Reduced in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi; Kendall, Timmy; Mosher, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce a diverse array of small RNA molecules capable of gene regulation, including Pol IV-dependent short interfering (p4-si)RNAs that trigger transcriptional gene silencing. Small RNA transcriptomes are available for many plant species, but mutations affecting the synthesis of Pol IV-dependent siRNAs are characterized only in Arabidopsis and maize, leading to assumptions regarding nature of p4-siRNAs in all other species. We have identified a mutation in the largest subunit of Pol IV, NRPD1, that impacts Pol IV activity in Brassica rapa, an agriculturally important relative of the reference plant Arabidopsis. Using this mutation we characterized the Pol IV-dependent and Pol IV-independent small RNA populations in B. rapa. In addition, our analysis demonstrates reduced production of p4-siRNAs in B. rapa relative to Arabidopsis. B. rapa genomic regions are less likely to generate p4-siRNAs than Arabidopsis but more likely to generate Pol IV-independent siRNAs, including 24 nt RNAs mapping to transposable elements. These observations underscore the diversity of small RNAs produced by plants and highlight the importance of genetic studies during small RNA analysis. PMID:24833221

  9. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT IV | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Coastal Condition Report IV (NCCR IV) is the fourth in a series of environmental assessments of U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes. The report includes assessments of all the nation’s estuaries in the contiguous 48 states and Puerto Rico, south-eastern Alaska, Hawaii, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa. The NCCR IV presents four main types of data: (1) coastal monitoring data, (2) coastal ocean/ offshore monitoring data, (3) offshore fisheries data, and (4) assessment and advisory data (new to NCCR IV). The NCCR IV relies heavily on coastal monitoring data from EPA’s National Coastal Assessment (NCA) to assess coastal condition by evaluating five indicators of condition—water quality, sediment quality, benthic community condition, coastal habitat loss, and fish tissue contaminants. To assess and report on the condition of the nation's coastal resources

  10. Topoisomerase IV, not gyrase, decatenates products of site-specific recombination in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Zechiedrich, E. Lynn; Khodursky, Arkady B.; Cozzarelli, Nicholas R.

    1997-01-01

    DNA replication and recombination generate intertwined DNA intermediates that must be decatenated for chromosome segregation to occur. We showed recently that topoisomerase IV (topo IV) is the only important decatenase of DNA replication intermediates in bacteria. Earlier results, however, indicated that DNA gyrase has the primary role in unlinking the catenated products of site-specific recombination. To address this discordance, we constructed a set of isogenic strains that enabled us to inhibit selectively with the quinolone norfloxacin topo IV, gyrase, both enzymes, or neither enzyme in vivo. We obtained identical results for the decatenation of the products of two different site-specific recombination enzymes, phage λ integrase and transposon Tn3 resolvase. Norfloxacin blocked decatenation in wild-type strains, but had no effect in strains with drug-resistance mutations in both gyrase and topo IV. When topo IV alone was inhibited, decatenation was almost completely blocked. If gyrase alone were inhibited, most of the catenanes were unlinked. We showed that topo IV is the primary decatenase in vivo and that this function is dependent on the level of DNA supercoiling. We conclude that the role of gyrase in decatenation is to introduce negative supercoils into DNA, which makes better substrates for topo IV. We also discovered that topo IV has an unexpectedly strong DNA relaxation activity that, together with gyrase and topo I, is able to set the supercoiling levels in Escherichia coli. PMID:9334322

  11. Platinum(IV) Carboxylate Prodrug Complexes as Versatile Platforms for Targeted Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ong, Jun Xiang; Yap, Siew Qi; Wong, Daniel Yuan Qiang; Chin, Chee Fei; Ang, Wee Han

    2015-01-01

    Kinetically-inert Pt(IV) carboxylate complexes have emerged in recent years as candidates for the development of next-generation platinum anticancer drugs. Being native prodrugs of clinically-important Pt(II) chemotherapeutic agents, the Pt(IV) scaffold can be exploited to incorporate additional functionalities while keeping the Pt(II) pharmacophore intact. This mini-review examines recent work performed to illuminate the mechanism of Pt(IV) prodrug activation and their use as versatile platforms for targeted chemotherapy.

  12. [The possible temporal lobe syndrome of Ivan IV the Terrible].

    PubMed

    Espinoza G, Ricardo; Benavides S, Evelyn

    2006-11-01

    Ivan IV "The Terrible" was the first Tsar of all Russias and was crowned in 1547. He extended Russian territories and opened the route to Siberia in successful campaigns against Tartars. He increased his personal power to the point of generating an autocracy that isolated him progressively from the council of Boyars. He had a complex personality and his acts were impregnated by a profound religiousness, episodes of rage, mood changes and a sense of "personal fate". All these traits configure the controversial "temporal lobe personality". The possible association between these personality traits and the eventual epilepsy that Ivan IV could suffer, is discussed. This association is called "temporal lobe syndrome". Considering the mood changes, with severe irritability and episodes of control loss alternated with feelings of guilt, sadness and isolation, another possibility is that the Tsar had an affective bipolar disorder or, less probably, a personality disorder.

  13. Summary of miscellaneous hazard environments for hypothetical Space Shuttle and Titan IV launch abort accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, M.; Mukunda, M.

    1989-01-01

    The various analyses described here were aimed at obtaining a more comprehensive understanding and definition of the environments in the vicinity of the Radioisotope Thermal Generator (RTG) during certain Space Transportation System (STS) and Titan IV launch abort accidents. Addressed here are a number of issues covering explosion environments and General Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) responses to those environments.

  14. STUDIES IN METABOLIC SPECTRA IV.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lorraine; Snell, J. F.

    1962-01-01

    Cheng, Lorraine (Radiobiochemistry Department, Chas. Pfizer & Co., Inc., Maywood, N. J.) and J. F. Snell. Studies in metabolic spectra. IV. Effects of tetracyclines, some of their derivatives, and chloramphenicol on accumulation of glutamic acid in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 83:711–719. 1962.—Escherichia coli strain 21 was incubated in the Warburg apparatus at 37 C with sodium acetate-2-C14 and 0.1 μmole/ml of various test compounds. Up to 1 hr, de novo C14-glutamic acid (synthesized from the C14-acetate precursor) accumulation in the fermentation broth was found to be a common phenomenon for the control cells and cells treated with oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol. Subsequently, C14-glutamic acid continued to accumulate in the broth of the inhibited cells, but began to disappear from the broth of the control cells. During the first half hour, the rate of accumulation was most rapid in the presence of oxytetracycline. At 3 hr the total de nova C14-glutamic acid was found to be the same whether cells were treated with oxytetracycline or not. However, the distribution of this glutamic acid was different. In the oxytetracycline-treated cells, more than 87% of the total de nova C14-glutamic acid was in the broth, and only 13% was incorporated into the cell residue. In the control cells, no C14-glutamic acid was found in the broth, although 67% was in the cell residue. The possibility that the tetracyclines and chloramphenicol have different modes of action, and that oxytetracycline inhibits the incorporation of d-glutamic acid into the cell wall and membrane material in E. coli 21, was discussed. PMID:13878663

  15. Surprising Coordination Geometry Differences in Ce(IV)- and Pu(IV)-Maltol Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Raymond, Kenneth; Szigethy, Geza; Xu, Jide; Gorden, Anne E.V.; Teat, Simon J.; Shuh, David K.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-12

    As part of a study to characterize the detailed coordination behavior of Pu(IV), single crystal X-ray diffraction structures have been determined for Pu(IV) and Ce(IV) complexes with the naturally-occurring ligand maltol (3-hydroxy-2-methyl-pyran-4-one) and its derivative bromomaltol (5-bromo-3-hydroxy-2-methyl-pyran-4-one). Although Ce(IV) is generally accepted as a structural analog for Pu(IV), and the maltol complexes of these two metals are isostructural, the corresponding bromomaltol complexes are strikingly different with respect to ligand orientation about the metal ion: All complexes exhibit trigonal dodecahedral coordination geometry but the Ce(IV)-bromomaltol complex displays an uncommon ligand arrangement not mirrored in the Pu(IV) complex, although the two metal species are generally accepted to be structural analogs.

  16. Mechanisms Underlying the Bioindicator Notion: Spatial Association between Individual Sexual Performance and Community Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Laiolo, Paola; Bañuelos, María J.; Blanco-Fontao, Beatriz; García, Mónica; Gutiérrez, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    The bioindicator notion is an appealing concept that has received more support in applied than in basic ecology, mostly due to the difficulty in deriving general ecological rules applicable to all target organisms. However, recognizing the mechanisms that determine the association between a particular species and the well-being of many other species is important for understanding the functioning of ecosystems and the relationship among different biological levels. We examined here the processes at the individual level that cause an association between species performance and biodiversity value, by analyzing attributes that can be studied in a variety of animals with sexual reproduction, namely breeding site selection and condition-dependent sexual signals. Our study model was the Capercaillie, an indicator of forest functioning and diversity, and the associated bird community, used here as a surrogate of broader forest biodiversity. At a regional scale Capercaillie occurrence was not associated with the most diverse forest patches, but at the scale of male spring territories the sexual display grounds (arenas) were located in the oldest and less disturbed forest portions, which also hosted the richest local bird communities. Social mechanisms and conspecific cueing likely concurred with habitat-driven processes in determining the long-term persistence of traditional display grounds, which were appealing to many other species because of their structural composition. Characteristics of male vocal display that honestly advertize male quality (low frequencies and rapid song rates) were significantly correlated with high diversity values, resulting in a spatial association between individual and community performances. Costly or risky activities such as reproductive or social behaviors, which more than other attributes match gradients in habitat quality, are therefore contributing to functionally connect individuals with ecosystem health. PMID:21818374

  17. Couples’ Notions About Preconception Health: Implications for Framing Social Marketing Plans

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Megan A.; Mitchell, Elizabeth W.; Levis, Denise M.; Isenberg, Karen; Kish-Doto, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To understand couples’ notions of preconception health (PCH) and to inform the development of social marketing plans focused on PCH. Approach/Design We used a social marketing perspective to understand how couples considered PCH as a product, its potential price, how it should be promoted, and in what type of places it should be promoted. These variables are typically referred to as the four social marketing P’s. Setting Telephone interviews with couples recruited from a national database. Participants A total of 58 couples (116 individuals) were segmented by five couple segments based on pregnancy planning intention and current parental status in which the wife or partner was 18 to 44 years of age. The five segments were combined into three categories: couples who were planning pregnancies, couples who were not planning pregnancies, or couples who were recent parents (interconception). Method Couple-based structured interviews lasting approximately 45 to 60 minutes were conducted via telephone. Questions inquired about couples’ experience with PCH and the four social marketing P’s. Results Commonalities existed across the four social marketing P’s for the different couple segments. Notable couple-related themes that emerged included the importance of couple communication, support, and relationship quality. PCH was more relevant for couples planning a pregnancy, but nonplanning couples understood the benefits of PCH and related behaviors. Conclusion Couples may be an important target audience when considering social marketing approaches for PCH. Many couples perceived the relevance of the issue to important aspects of their lives, such as health, family, and their relationships. PMID:23286659

  18. Genus Epidemicus: Are Notions of Entanglement Relevant to the Homeopathic Understanding of Epidemic Disease?

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Lionel R

    2016-01-01

    Patient-practitioner-remedy (PPR) entanglement postulates non-local triadic interaction between patient (Px), practitioner (Pr) and potentised medicine (Rx), resulting in the patient's journey to cure; the in-depth homeopathic interview is considered a major contributing factor in this process. Also, by modelling entelechy, a quantised gyroscopic analogue of the Vital Force (Vf) has been developed. To discover whether entanglement notions explain the mode of action of homeopathy during the treatment of epidemic diseases, when the individualising in-depth homeopathic interview is neither possible nor necessary. The current Vf wave equation applies specifically to the in-depth patient/practitioner consultation in chronic dis-ease. A generalised form of the Vf wave equation, an earlier hypothesis based on quantum field theory (QFT) and PPR entanglement were all re-investigated. The generalised Vf wave equation was found applicable in 3 main conditions: acute self-limiting, chronic and epidemic dis-ease. In the latter, a single, coherent Vf epidemic 'wave function' covering all susceptible beings could be identified, which, after practitioner intervention, disappears. Analogies were drawn between groups of atoms in a p-doped semiconductor and a collection of susceptible beings in an epidemic. Here, genus epidemicus is likened to an 'n-type dopant', which forms a 'p-n junction' with the dis-ease. Using the QFT hypothesis/metaphor, genus epidemicus acts as a 'gauge field' restoring 'global invariance' to the symmetry-broken, symptom-expressing Vf, i.e., restoring health. Entanglement hypotheses/metaphors may have application in the homeopathic therapeutic process beyond the one-to-one in-depth interview, and so are relevant to describing the mode of action of homeopathy during treatment of epidemic disease. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  19. Obesity and physical inactivity: the relevance of reconsidering the notion of sedentariness.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    The population statistics of most countries of the world are indicating that industrialization and computerization have been associated with an increase in sedentariness and more recently with a significant shift from healthy weight to overweight. In general, this change in the overweight/obesity prevalence is attributed by health professionals to suboptimal diet and physical activity practices. However, recent data raised the possibility that excess weight gain might also be the outcome of changes imposed by our '24-hour', hectic lifestyle. Parallel to an increase in body weight, one has observed a reduction in sleep time and an increase in knowledge-based work (KBW) that appear as a growing necessity in a context of economic competitiveness and globalization. Sleep and cognitive work both exert a trivial effect on energy expenditure and may thus be considered as sedentary activities. However, their respective effect on energy intake is opposite. Indeed, an increase in the practice of the most sedentary activity, i.e. sleep, is associated with a hormonal profile facilitating appetite control whereas KBW appears as a stimulus favoring a significant enhancing effect on food intake. Television viewing is another example of sedentary activity that has been shown to increase the intake of high-density foods. These observations demonstrate that the modern way of living has favored a change in human activities whose impact goes well beyond what has traditionally been attributed to a lack of physical exercise. Therefore, we will need to reconsider the notion of 'sedentariness' which includes several activities having opposing effects on energy balance.

  20. The notion of snow grain shape: Ambiguous definitions, retrievalfrom tomography and implications on remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krol, Q. E.; Loewe, H.

    2016-12-01

    Grain shape is known to influence the effective physical properties of snow and therefore included in the international classification of seasonal snow. Accordingly, snowpack models account for phenomenological shape parameters (sphericity, dendricity) to capture shape variations. These parameters are however difficult to validate due to the lack of clear-cut definitions from the 3D microstucture and insufficient links to physical properties. While the definition of traditional shape was tailored to the requirements of observers, a more objective definition should be tailored to the requirements of physical properties, by analyzing geometrical (shape) corrections in existing theoretical formulations directly. To this end we revisited the autocorrelation function (ACF) and the chord length distribution (CLD) of snow. Both functions capture size distributions of the microstructure, can be calculated from X-ray tomography and are related to various physical properties. Both functions involve the optical equivalent diameter as dominant quantity, however the respective higher-order geometrical correction differ. We have analyzed these corrections, namely interfacial curvatures for the ACF and the second moment for the CLD, using an existing data set of 165 tomography samples. To unify the notion of shape, we derived various statistical relations between the length scales. Our analysis bears three key practical implications. First, we derived a significantly improved relation between the exponential correlation length and the optical diameter by taking curvatures into account. This adds to the understanding of linking "microwave grain size" and "optical grain size" of snow for remote sensing. Second, we retrieve the optical shape parameter (commonly referred to as B) from tomography images via the moment of the CLD. Third, shape variations seen by observers do not necessarily correspond to shape variations probed by physical properties.

  1. Palliative care clients' and caregivers' notion of fear and their strategies for overcoming it.

    PubMed

    Penman, Joy; Ellis, Bronwyn

    2015-06-01

    This paper aims to clarify our understanding of fear and explore the strategies employed by people with life-limiting conditions and their caregivers in addressing the emotion of fear as they journey through the dying process. The role of fear is discussed: different kinds of fear, the tangible and intangible measures by which people manage their fear, and the ways of transcending fear. The findings of a larger research project funded by the Australian Department of Health and Ageing are drawn upon. In-depth interviews were conducted with clients and caregivers relating to the psychosocial and emotional issues in palliative care. Secondary analysis was utilized to examine the perceptions of fear in this cohort. While there were many other findings, the results highlighted in this paper relate to the notion of fear among interview participants. Interview data showed that people with life-limiting conditions and their caregivers had different types of fear and employed a variety of strategies to deal with fear. Four themes emerged embodying these strategies: calling on their own resilience and inner resources, maintaining human relationships, gaining the ability to "keep one step ahead" in the dying process, and engaging in spirituality and religion. The implications of the findings for healthcare professionals are highlighted. The recognition of emotions is embedded in palliative care; healthcare professionals should view the management of emotions as an integral part of professional practice. Addressing fear is essential because unresolved fear can impinge on one's ability to cope. Our paper brings together different perspectives on fear and how vulnerable individuals attempt to cope with it while at the same time providing a view of the challenges confronting healthcare professionals who are engaged with them and committed to optimizing health outcomes for palliative care clients and their caregivers.

  2. Conflicting notions of citizenship in old age: An analysis of an activation practice.

    PubMed

    van Hees, Susan; Horstman, Klasien; Jansen, Maria; Ruwaard, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Ageing societies and increasing healthcare expenditures are inducing Western welfare states to reform their care arrangements. In a qualitative research project, we explored how citizenship in old age is constructed in a public innovative care practice situated in the southern part of the Netherlands: the shaping of 'life cycle robust neighbourhoods'. Life cycle robustness entails a further not formally defined ideal of age-friendly places, enabling older adults to live independently for longer periods of time. Participation is being presented as an important element towards life cycle robustness. We used ethnographic methods to understand different constructions of citizenship in old age. We analysed documents and interviewed local policymakers and civil servants, managers and directors in the fields of housing, care and welfare, professionals working for these organisations, and older adults living (independently) in these neighbourhoods (n=73). Additionally, we observed formal and informal meetings and organised focus groups. Our findings demonstrate conflicting notions of old age. Policymakers and civil servants, managers and directors, professionals, and even representatives of older adults share a belief an activation policy is necessary, although they differ in how they interpret this need. Policymakers and civil servants are convinced that societal and financial incentives necessitate current reforms, managers and directors talk about quality and organisational needs, while professionals mainly strive to empower older adults (as citizens). Simultaneously, older adults try to live their lives as independent as possible. We argue that, whereas old age became a distinct category in the last century, we now recognise a new period in which this category is being more and more de-categorised.

  3. Querying Provenance Information: Basic Notions and an Example from Paleoclimate Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stodden, V.; Ludaescher, B.; Bocinsky, K.; Kintigh, K.; Kohler, T.; McPhillips, T.; Rush, J.

    2016-12-01

    Computational models are used to reconstruct and explain past environments and to predict likely future environments. For example, Bocinsky and Kohler have performed a 2,000-year reconstruction of the rain-fed maize agricultural niche in the US Southwest. The resulting academic publications not only contain traditional method descriptions, figures, etc. but also links to code and data for basic transparency and reproducibility. Examples include ResearchCompendia.org and the new project "Merging Science and Cyberinfrastructure Pathways: The Whole Tale." Provenance information provides a further critical element to understand a published study and to possibly extend or challenge the findings of the original authors. We present different notions and uses of provenance information using a computational archaeology example, e.g., the common use of "provenance for others" (for transparency and reproducibility), but also the more elusive but equally important use of "provenance for self". To this end, we distinguish prospective provenance (a.k.a. workflow) from retrospective provenance (a.k.a. data lineage) and show how combinations of both forms of provenance can be used to answer different kinds of important questions about a workflow and its execution. Since many workflows are developed using scripting or special purpose languages such as Python and R, we employ an approach and toolkit called YesWorkflow that brings provenance modeling, capture, and querying into the realm of scripting. YesWorkflow employs the basic W3C PROV standard, as well as the ProvONE extension for sharing and exchanging retrospective and prospective provenance information, respectively. Finally, we argue that the utility of provenance information should be maximized by developing different kinds provenance questions and queries during the early phases of computational workflow design and implementation.

  4. Stage IV work hardening in cubic metals

    SciTech Connect

    Rollett, A.D.; Kocks, U.F.; Doherty, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The work hardening of fcc metals at large strains is discussed with reference to the linear stress-strain behavior often observed at large strains and known as Stage IV. The experimental evidence shows that Stage IV is a work hardening phenomenon that is found quite generally, even in pure fcc metals subjected to homogeneous deformation. A simple model for Stage IV in pure metals is presented, based on the accumulation of dislocation debris. Experiments are described for large strain torsion tests on four aluminum alloys. The level and extent of Stage IV scaled with the saturation stress that would represent the end of Stage III in the absence of a Stage IV. Reversing the torsion after large prestrains produced transient reductions in the work hardening. The strain rate sensitivity was also measured before and during the transient and found not to vary significantly. The microstructure observed at large strains in an Mg alloy suggest that Stage IV can occur in the absence of microband formation. Previous proposals for the cause of Stage IV are reviewed and found to be not supported by recent experimental data.

  5. Coordination of tetravalent actinides (An = Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(IV)) with DOTA - from dimers to hexamers.

    PubMed

    Tamain, Christelle; Dumas, Thomas; Hennig, Christoph; Guilbaud, Philippe

    2017-03-10

    Three tetravalent actinide (An(IV)) hexanuclear clusters with the octahedral core [An6(OH)4O4]12+ (An(IV) = U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(IV)) were structurally characterized in solid state and in aqueous solution using single crystal X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption, IR, Raman and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The observed structure, [An6(OH)4O4(H2O)8(HDOTA)4].HCl/HNO3.nH2O (An = U (I), Np (II), Pu (III)), consists of a An(IV) hexanuclear pseudo-octahedral cluster stabilized by DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) ligands. The six actinide atoms are connected through alternative µ3-O2- and µ3-OH- groups. EXAFS investigations combined with UV-vis spectroscopy evidence the same local structure in moderate acidic and neutral aqueous solutions. The synthesis mechanism was partially elucidated and the main physicochemical properties (pH range stability, solubility and protonation constant) of the cluster were determined. The results underline the importance (i) to consider such polynuclear species in thermodynamic models and (ii) of competing reactions between hydrolysis and complexation. It is interesting to note that the same synthesis route with thorium(IV) leads to the formation of a dimer, Th2(H2O)10(H2DOTA)2.4NO3.xH2O (IV), which contrasts to the structure of the other An(IV) hexamers.

  6. An Ethnographic Analysis of Adolescent Sexual Minority Website Usage: Exploring Notions of Information Seeking and Sexual Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulfridge, Rocky M.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this…

  7. Deconstructing the Notion of "Policy Hysteria": Five Readings, Some Unprincipled Coupling, and No Happy Endings. Re-draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclure, Maggie; Stronach, Ian

    This paper seeks to tell and untell five stories about the notion of "policy hysteria." The first story, about developments in vocationalism in the United Kingdom over the last decade, serves as illustration for the second story, which is a critical analysis of vocationalist discourse. It is alleged that vocationalist discourse is made…

  8. A New Formulation of the Ethical Self through Kierkegaard's Notion of Subjectivity: In Search of a New Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwak, Duck-Joo

    2001-01-01

    Essay on Kierkegaard's notion of subjectivity in the formulation of the ethical self. Suggests that Kierkegaard's self-reflecting ethical model offers an alternative approach to the teaching of moral education in South Korean schools, currently dominated by a theory-oriented, problem-solving paradigm. (PKP)

  9. "Science Capital": A Conceptual, Methodological, and Empirical Argument for Extending Bourdieusian Notions of Capital beyond the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise; Dawson, Emily; DeWitt, Jennifer; Seakins, Amy; Wong, Billy

    2015-01-01

    This paper sets out an argument and approach for moving beyond a primarily arts-based conceptualization of cultural capital, as has been the tendency within Bourdieusian approaches to date. We advance the notion that, in contemporary society, scientific forms of cultural and social capital can command a high symbolic and exchange value. Our…

  10. The Functional-Notional Approach to Second Language Learning and Teaching: Starting with the Learner's Communicative Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trabert, Judith A.

    This paper describes the functional-notional approach to language teaching and learning in terms of the ways it can be used to meet the communicative needs of the potential language learners, particularly adults, who vary in what they want to do in the target language. It contrasts the functional system with conventional approaches, illustrates…

  11. Conceptualizations of Spirituality, Religion, and Faith: Comparing Biblical Notions with the Perspectives of Protestant Christian Students at a Lutheran College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Christy Moran; Rockenbach, Alyssa Bryant

    2011-01-01

    As part of a larger investigation into the spiritual climate at one Lutheran college, we interviewed Protestant Christian students in order to compare their conceptualizations of spirituality, religion, and faith with biblical notions of those concepts. We found that the students' understandings of those concepts only loosely reflected general…

  12. A New Formulation of the Ethical Self through Kierkegaard's Notion of Subjectivity: In Search of a New Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwak, Duck-Joo

    2001-01-01

    Essay on Kierkegaard's notion of subjectivity in the formulation of the ethical self. Suggests that Kierkegaard's self-reflecting ethical model offers an alternative approach to the teaching of moral education in South Korean schools, currently dominated by a theory-oriented, problem-solving paradigm. (PKP)

  13. Uprooting and Replacing Positivism, the Melting Pot, Multiculturalism, and Other Impotent Notions in Educational Leadership through an African American Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dantley, Michael E.

    2002-01-01

    Examines traditional notions of positivism and rational-linear thinking that have guided public school practice, interrogating modernist concepts of the melting pot and multiculturalism through an African American and critical theoretical voice. Offers a postmodernist perspective grounded in spirituality that welcomes involving the whole self in…

  14. Multicultural Education and the Notion of Privilege: An Examination of White Student Attitude Shift and Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Cheree

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the process of White attitude change around the notion of White privilege spanning the duration of a multicultural education course. Making use of constructivist grounded theory, nineteen intensive, semi-structured interviews were completed with 5 White undergraduate students enrolled in one of two sections of a multicultural…

  15. An Ethnographic Analysis of Adolescent Sexual Minority Website Usage: Exploring Notions of Information Seeking and Sexual Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulfridge, Rocky M.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this…

  16. Conceptualizations of Spirituality, Religion, and Faith: Comparing Biblical Notions with the Perspectives of Protestant Christian Students at a Lutheran College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Christy Moran; Rockenbach, Alyssa Bryant

    2011-01-01

    As part of a larger investigation into the spiritual climate at one Lutheran college, we interviewed Protestant Christian students in order to compare their conceptualizations of spirituality, religion, and faith with biblical notions of those concepts. We found that the students' understandings of those concepts only loosely reflected general…

  17. "Science Capital": A Conceptual, Methodological, and Empirical Argument for Extending Bourdieusian Notions of Capital beyond the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise; Dawson, Emily; DeWitt, Jennifer; Seakins, Amy; Wong, Billy

    2015-01-01

    This paper sets out an argument and approach for moving beyond a primarily arts-based conceptualization of cultural capital, as has been the tendency within Bourdieusian approaches to date. We advance the notion that, in contemporary society, scientific forms of cultural and social capital can command a high symbolic and exchange value. Our…

  18. The Effects of Formalism on Teacher Trainees' Algebraic and Geometric Interpretation of the Notions of Linear Dependency/Independency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertekin, E.; Solak, S.; Yazici, E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the effects of formalism in teaching on primary and secondary school mathematics teacher trainees' algebraic and geometric interpretations of the notions of linear dependency/independency. Quantitative research methods are drawn in order to determine differences in success levels between algebraic and geometric…

  19. The Making of a Weak Teacher: A Preposterous Notion about the Role of Administrators in Crafting an Unsupportive Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruenert, Steve W.; McDaniel, Terry M.

    2009-01-01

    It would be difficult to imagine any first-year teacher had aspirations of becoming a weak teacher. Most individuals hired as teachers have the ability to do a good job and want to do a good job. So how is it that some become ineffective? The authors contend that school leaders make them that way. Consider this preposterous notion: School leaders…

  20. The Making of a Weak Teacher: A Preposterous Notion about the Role of Administrators in Crafting an Unsupportive Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruenert, Steve W.; McDaniel, Terry M.

    2009-01-01

    It would be difficult to imagine any first-year teacher had aspirations of becoming a weak teacher. Most individuals hired as teachers have the ability to do a good job and want to do a good job. So how is it that some become ineffective? The authors contend that school leaders make them that way. Consider this preposterous notion: School leaders…

  1. Correction of Erroneous Perceptions among Primary School Students regarding the Notions of Chance and Randomness in Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Robert; Ferland, Francine; Fournier, Patricia-Maude

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a gambling prevention program that aimed to correct the notions of chance and randomness among primary school students. The relative effectiveness of two prevention programs aiming to modify erroneous perceptions of gambling as well as the teacher's and specialist's on the psychology of gambling…

  2. Psychology and the Notion of the Spirit: Implications of Max Scheler's Anthropological Philosophy in Theory of Psychology.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Olga V; Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2015-09-01

    After many decades with neglect Max Scheler and his anthropological contributions to the understanding of human existence, have gotten  more attention in psychology and other humanities. One factor is the actuality of his main project of revaluating the roles of values in philosophy and science. Yet another is the way individual scholars have applied Scheler's philosophy and terms on different fields and arenas. Viktor Frankl was one of these, and he brought Scheler's philosophical anthropology into psychotherapeutic practice, offering theoretical and empirical arguments for considering the notion of the spirit as an interdependent -yet separate- entity in regards to the psyche and the soma. During this commentary on Allyushin (Integrative Psychology Behaviour, 48, 503-523, 2014), we will discuss some general aspects of Scheler's contribution to phenomenology, but focus specifically on the implication of his notion of the spirit for psychological theory, acknowledging the work that has been done in the field for at least 60 years in logotherapy and existential analysis. With this purpose, we will highlight four other notions interrelated with the motivational quality of the notion of the spirit: resentment, axiology of values; self-detachment and self-transcendence.

  3. The determination of uranium (IV) in apatite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, Roy S.; Altschuler, Zalman S.

    1956-01-01

    Geologic and mineralogic evidence indicate that the uranium present in apatite may proxy for calcium in the mineral structure as U(IV). An experimental investigation was conducted and chemical evidence was obtained that establishes the presence of U(IV) in apatite. The following analytical procedure was developed for the determination of U(IV). Carbonate-fluorapatite is dissolved in cold 1.5M orthophosphoric acid and fluorapatite is dissolved in cold 1.2M hydrochloric acid containing 1.5 g of hydroxylamine hydrochloride per 100 ml. Uranium (IV) is precipitated by cupferron using titanium as a carrier. The uranium in the precipitate is separated by use of the ethyl acetate extraction procedure and determined fluorimetrically. The validity and the limitations of the method have been established by spike experiments.

  4. Level III and IV Ecoregions by State

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information and links to downloadable maps and datasets for Level III and IV ecoregions, listed by state. Ecoregions are areas of general similarity in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources.

  5. Optimizing IV and V for Mature Organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhman, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    NASA is intending for its future software development agencies to have at least a Level 3 rating in the Carnegie Mellon University Capability Maturity Model (CMM). The CMM has built-in Verification and Validation (V&V) processes that support higher software quality. Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) of software developed by mature agencies can be therefore more effective than for software developed by less mature organizations. How is Independent V&V different with respect to the maturity of an organization? Knowing a priori the maturity of an organization's processes, how can IV&V planners better identify areas of need choose IV&V activities, etc? The objective of this research is to provide a complementary set of guidelines and criteria to assist the planning of IV&V activities on a project using a priori knowledge of the measurable levels of maturity of the organization developing the software.

  6. Optimizing IV and V for Mature Organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhman, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    NASA is intending for its future software development agencies to have at least a Level 3 rating in the Carnegie Mellon University Capability Maturity Model (CMM). The CMM has built-in Verification and Validation (V&V) processes that support higher software quality. Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) of software developed by mature agencies can be therefore more effective than for software developed by less mature organizations. How is Independent V&V different with respect to the maturity of an organization? Knowing a priori the maturity of an organization's processes, how can IV&V planners better identify areas of need choose IV&V activities, etc? The objective of this research is to provide a complementary set of guidelines and criteria to assist the planning of IV&V activities on a project using a priori knowledge of the measurable levels of maturity of the organization developing the software.

  7. IV&V Project Assessment Process Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driskell, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) will launch NASA's Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). This launch vehicle will provide American launch capability for human exploration and travelling beyond Earth orbit. SLS is designed to be flexible for crew or cargo missions. The first test flight is scheduled for December 2017. The SLS SRR/SDR provided insight into the project development life cycle. NASA IV&V ran the standard Risk Based Assessment and Portfolio Based Risk Assessment to identify analysis tasking for the SLS program. This presentation examines the SLS System Requirements Review/System Definition Review (SRR/SDR), IV&V findings for IV&V process validation correlation to/from the selected IV&V tasking and capabilities. It also provides a reusable IEEE 1012 scorecard for programmatic completeness across the software development life cycle.

  8. The Sortie-Generation Model System. Volume IV. Sortie-Generation Model Programmer’s Manual,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    z OC- Ce) c CL. cr. w to- I m- 6 za SI.. La U -at co - :N L.0 P-U - -L 0 Z .. - -1- 0r. LI 0 SSG@ 0A L ILL 9- 0 L t > cc ( Z ) Ii w w9 atJ...0 2’-Ia CL LL. z LA- 4z m o zi L so is is z L 1-6 numbers placed under the figures at the appropriate positions on the time line. Each of those...a description of each routine. F,.CiU T I NE DE’=;CF I FI TI ON CNNN:A -- MOIVE 1:HARAC TER ’.I’TRINO. Fr:CO::E - C:LIJ;E-CIiJ- A FILE. MEM.S I Z

  9. From Quantum Moment to Ritual Moment: Notions of Time and the Development of Theological Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, David Clifton

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of models in theology has become a significant issue since the mid nineteen eighties. Whether in matters of soteriology, ecclesiology, missiology, or liturgy, many theologians have begun to examine the model structures of their specialties. Such an examination can serve as the foundation for scholarly contact with other disciplines, both in the humanities and the sciences, where the analysis of models is already well established. To date, there has been no broadly interdisciplinary inspection of such models and their points of commonality with theological disciplines. This dissertation investigates models (specifically, temporal models) in six different fields: cognitive psychology, hermeneutics, quantum and relativity physics, the philosophy of history and narrative, music, and ritual studies. Within these fields, specific attention is given to the role of symbol systems and metaphoric language, as well as to the phenomenology of temporal experience, in the formulation and development of models of time. The intention is to develop a prospectus for a theological model of time that is epistemologically sound, linguistically clear, and experientially grounded. In the area of cognitive psychology, the work of the biogenetic structuralist school, and that of Jean Piaget, are highlighted. The hermeneutic discussion focuses on the metaphoric studies of George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, as well as the writings of Hans Georg Gadamer. In the areas of quantum and relativity physics, the primary figures considered are Mary Hesse, Ian Barbour, Stephen Hawking, and P. C. W. Davies. History and narrative are approached through the metaphoric and historical analyses of Paul Ricoeur. The phenomenological and musicological issues of musical time are explored, with emphasis on the work of Susannne Langer, Henri Bergson, Jonathan Kramer, and Olivier Messiaen. Ritual notions of time are investigated in the works of Mircea Eliade, Victor Turner, Clifford Geertz, Pierre

  10. Indian childhood cirrhosis (ICC) & ICC-like diseases: the changing scenario of facts versus notions.

    PubMed

    Nayak, N C; Chitale, A R

    2013-06-01

    Indian childhood cirrhosis (ICC), a disease considered to have been endemic in and unique to India has now been documented in children of non-Indian origin from other countries. More recently available findings from a large multicentre study sponsored by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) have dispelled some of the generally accepted notions and have established several new facts on different aspects of the disease. All relevant reports on ICC and ICC-like diseases, till date, were reviewed to obtain a proper perspective on the current state of our understanding on this non-Wilsonian copper overload liver disease. A primary role of exogenous copper in causing the disease was earlier debated on the basis of studies in India but investigators abroad studying some sporadic cases and a series of endemic ICC-like diseases supported a hepatotoxic injury by ingested copper in genetically susceptible infants and children in ICC- like disease and in ICC. Epidemiologic and morphologic findings in the well controlled ICMR study based on 225 cases of ICC and 426 controls, all confirmed on liver biopsy, have however, convincingly refuted this concept. Additionally, this study revealed that unlike what has been believed earlier, older children more than 3 yr age can get the disease and that in its natural course the hepatic histology can transform between the characteristic one considered diagnostic and some other patterns, any one of which can be the morphologic manifestation at first presentation of the patient. Older children and cases with milder morphologic changes at presentation had longer survival. The overall inference from critical analysis of all available data is that ICC and ICC-like diseases clinically manifest in a child of any age though common in younger ones, and a clinical diagnosis must be made in any child with so-called 'cryptogenic cirrhosis'. Exposure to exogenous copper in food, milk and water should not be a prerequisite for this

  11. Observational properties of decameter type IV bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, Valentin; Brazhenko, Anatoly; Rucker, Helmut; Konovalenko, Alexander; Briand, Carine; Dorovskyy, Vladimir; Zarka, Philippe; Frantzusenko, Anatoly; Panchenko, Michael; Poedts, Stefan; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz; Shergelashvili, Bidzina

    2013-04-01

    Oscillations of decameter type IV bursts were registered during observations of solar radio emission by UTR-2, URAN-2 and NDA in 2011-2012. Large majority of these bursts were accompanied by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which were observed by SOHO and STEREO in the visible light. Only in some cases decameter type IV bursts were not associated with CMEs. The largest periods of oscillations P were some tens of minutes. There were some modes of long periods of oscillations simultaneously. Periods of oscillations in flux and in polarization profiles were close. Detailed properties of oscillations at different frequencies were analyzed on the example of two type IV bursts. One of them was observed on April 7, 2011 when a CME happened. Another one (August 1, 2011) was registered without any CME. The 7 April type IV burst had two periods in the frames 75-85 and 35-85 minutes. Interesting feature of these oscillations is decreasing periods with time. The observed decreasing rates dP/dt equaled 0.03-0.07. Concerning type IV burst observed on August 1, 2011 the period of its oscillations increases from 17 min. at 30 MHz to 44 min. at 10 MHz. Connection of type IV burst oscillations with oscillations of magnetic arches and CMEs at corresponding altitudes are discussed. The work is fulfilled in the frame of FP7 project "SOLSPANET".

  12. Ares I-X Range Safety Simulation Verification and Analysis IV and V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarpley, Ashley; Beaty, James; Starr, Brett

    2010-01-01

    NASA s ARES I-X vehicle launched on a suborbital test flight from the Eastern Range in Florida on October 28, 2009. NASA generated a Range Safety (RS) flight data package to meet the RS trajectory data requirements defined in the Air Force Space Command Manual 91-710. Some products included in the flight data package were a nominal ascent trajectory, ascent flight envelope trajectories, and malfunction turn trajectories. These data are used by the Air Force s 45th Space Wing (45SW) to ensure Eastern Range public safety and to make flight termination decisions on launch day. Due to the criticality of the RS data in regards to public safety and mission success, an independent validation and verification (IV&V) effort was undertaken to accompany the data generation analyses to ensure utmost data quality and correct adherence to requirements. Multiple NASA centers and contractor organizations were assigned specific products to IV&V. The data generation and IV&V work was coordinated through the Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel s Trajectory Working Group, which included members from the prime and IV&V organizations as well as the 45SW. As a result of the IV&V efforts, the RS product package was delivered with confidence that two independent organizations using separate simulation software generated data to meet the range requirements and yielded similar results. This document captures ARES I-X RS product IV&V analysis, including the methodology used to verify inputs, simulation, and output data for an RS product. Additionally a discussion of lessons learned is presented to capture advantages and disadvantages to the IV&V processes used.

  13. Fluoroquinolones inhibit preferentially Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA topoisomerase IV than DNA gyrase native proteins.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Moreira, E; Balas, D; Gonzalez, I; de la Campa, A G

    2000-01-01

    The genes encoding the subunits of DNA topoisomerase IV (parC and parE) and DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) of Streptococcus pneumoniae were cloned and overproduced in Escherichia coli by using the T7promoter-T7 RNA polymerase system. The four subunits were separately purified to near homogeneity by column chromatography. Protein purification was achieved by DEAE-sepharose, heparin-agarose, and hydroxylapatite chromatography. DNA topoisomerase IV was reconstituted when ParC and ParE were combined at a 3.8-fold excess of ParE. The reconstituted topoisomerase IV showed to generate efficient ATP-dependent DNA decatenation activity. The DNA gyrase ATP-dependent supercoiling activity was reconstituted by mixing equimolar amounts of the two gyrase subunits. The inhibitory effects of four representative fluoroquinolones on the DNA decatenation activity of topoisomerase IV and DNA supercoiling of gyrase have been examined and compared. All four compounds were more active in inhibiting topoisomerase IV than gyrase. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the inhibitory activity against topoisomerase IV decatenation and DNA gyrase supercoiling. The classification of the four fluoroquinolones, considering their inhibitory activities in decatenation, supercoiling and growth was the following: clinafloxacin > trovafloxacin > sparfloxacin > ciprofloxacin. These results suggest these drugs primarily target topoisomerase IV of S. pneumoniae, and gyrase secondarily, in agreement with genetic data.

  14. Adverse Environments and Children's Creativity Development: Transforming the Notion of "Success in Adversity" in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important implications…

  15. Adverse Environments and Children's Creativity Development: Transforming the Notion of "Success in Adversity" in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important implications…

  16. Technology Transience and Learner Data: Shifting Notions of Privacy in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennen, Vanessa P.

    2015-01-01

    The technologies that support online learning are continuously evolving, providing instructors and students with a continuous stream of new tools, features, and functionalities for existing tools. During an online course, instructors and students generate and share a tremendous amount of data using these tools. These data are often created in…

  17. Inhibitory effect of collagen-derived tripeptides on dipeptidylpeptidase-IV activity.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Tadashi; Kawakami, Kayoko; Uraji, Misugi

    2014-12-01

    The collagen tripeptide fragments Gly-Ala-Hyp, Gly-Pro-Ala and Gly-Pro-Hyp were generated by hydrolyzing collagen from pig-skin, cattle-skin, fish-scales and chicken-feet, respectively, with Streptomyces collagenase. Collagenase treatment increased the concentration of tripeptides in the hydrolysates by 13-15% (w/w). Of the three peptides, Gly-Pro-Hyp was a true peptidic inhibitor of dipeptidylpeptidase-IV (DPP-IV), because DPP-IV could not hydrolyze the bond between Pro-Hyp. This tripeptide was a moderately competitive inhibitor (Ki=4.5 mM) of DPP-IV, and its level in the collagen hydrolysates could be greatly increased (4-9% [w/w]) using Streptomyces collagenase.

  18. IV and IP Administration of Rhodamine in Visualization of WBC-BBB Interactions in Cerebral Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongbo; Gaughan, John P.; Elliott, Melanie; Tuma, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Epi-illuminescence intravital fluorescence microscopy has been employed to study leukocyte-endothelial interactions in a number of brain pathologies. Historically, dyes such as Rhodamine 6G have been injected intravenously. However, intravenous injections can predispose experimental animals to a multitude of complications and requires a high degree of technical skill. Here we study the efficacy of injecting Rhodamine 6G into the peritoneum (IP) for the purpose of analyzing leukocyte-endothelial interactions through a cranial window during real time intravital microscopy. After examining the number of rolling and adherent leukocytes through a cranial window we found no advantage to the intravenous injection (IV). Additionally, we tested blood from both routes of injection by flow cytometry to gain a very precise picture of the two methods. The two routes of administration failed to show any difference in the ability to detect cells. The study supports the notion that IP Rhodamine 6G works as efficaciously as IV and should be considered a viable alternative in experimental design for investigations employing intravital microscopy. Facilitated intravital studies will allow for more exploration into cerebral pathologies and allow for more rapid translation from the laboratory to the patient with less chance of experimental error from failed IV access. PMID:26207355

  19. Formation of uranium(IV)-silica colloids at near-neutral pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreissig, Isabell; Weiss, Stephan; Hennig, Christoph; Bernhard, Gert; Zänker, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is provided by photon correlation spectroscopy, ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation that uranium(IV) can form silicate-containing colloids of a size of ⩽20 nm. A concentration of up to 10 -3 M of colloid-borne U(IV) was observed. The particles are generated in near-neutral to slightly alkaline solutions containing background chemicals of geogenic nature (carbonate, silicate, sodium ions). They remain stable in aqueous suspension over years. Electrostatic repulsion due to a negative zeta potential in the near-neutral to alkaline pH range caused by the silicate stabilizes the U(IV) colloids. The isoelectric point of the nanoparticles is shifted toward lower pH values by the silicate. The mechanism of the colloidal stabilization can be regarded as "sequestration" by silicate, a phenomenon well known from heavy metal ions of high ion potential such as iron(III) or manganese(III,IV), but never reported for uranium(IV) so far. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy showed that U-O-Si bonds, which increasingly replace the U-O-U bonds of the amorphous uranium(IV) oxyhydroxide with increasing silicate concentrations, make up the internal structure of the colloids. The next-neighbor coordination of U(IV) in the U(IV)-silica colloids is comparable with that of coffinite, USiO 4. The assessment of uranium behavior in the aquatic environment should take the possible existence of U(IV)-silica colloids into consideration. Their occurrence might influence uranium migration in anoxic waters.

  20. Beyond the Standard Model IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunion, John F.; Han, Tao; Ohnemus, James

    1995-08-01

    Supersymmetry * A Fourth Family in the MSSM? * Multi-channel Search for Supergravity at the Large Hadron Collider * Precise Predictions for Masses and Couplings in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model * Radiative b Decays and the Detection of Supersymmetric Dark Matter * Bounds on ΔB = 1 Couplings in the Supersymmetric Standard Model * Testing Supersymmetry at the Next Linear Collider * SUSY Phenomenology II * Is There a Light Gluino Window? * Soft Supersymmetry Breaking and Finiteness * Consequences of Low Energy Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking * String Model Theory and Phenomenology * Z2 × Z2 Orbifold Compactification - the Origin of Realistic Free Fermionic Models * Effective Supergravity from 4-D Fermionic Strings * String Models Featuring Direct Product Unification * Hadronic and Non-Perturbative Physics * Salient Features of High-Energy Multiparticle Distributions: 1-d Ising Model Captures Them All * Pion Fusion in the Equivalent Pion Approximation * Deterministic Theory of Atomic Structure * Disoriented Chiral Condensate * Higgs Physics * The LHC Phenomenology of the CP-Odd Scalar in Two-Doublet Models * Detection of Minimal Supersymmetric Model Higgs Bosons in γγ Collisions: Influence of SUSY Decay Modes * Electroweak Corrections to the Charged Higgs Production Cross-Section * A Comparison of Higgs Mass Bounds in the SM and the MSSM * Searching for Higgs Bosons on LHC Using b-Tagging * Top Quark and Flavor Physics * Flavor Mixing, CP Violation and a Heavy Top * New Fermion Families and Precision Electroweak Data * Dipole Operator Phenomenology and Quark Mass Generation: An Update * Possible Higgs Boson Effects on the Running of Third and Fourth Generation Quark Masses and Mixings * How the Top Family Differs * Fermion Masses in Extended Technicolour * New Developments in Perturbative QCD * Efficient Analytic Computation of Higher-Order QCD Amplitudes * Use of Recursion Relations to Compute One-Loop Helicity Amplitudes * Gluon Radiation Patterns in Hard

  1. Formation of recombinant triple-helical [alpha 1(IV)]2 alpha 2(IV) collagen molecules in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, K; Hori, H; Utani, A; Burbelo, P D; Yamada, Y

    1997-02-03

    Collagen IV molecules represent a major structural component of basement membranes providing a network of support for the supramolecular structure. Like other collagens, collagen IV forms a triple-helical molecule composed of three alpha chains. Six different alpha chains exist for collagen IV, although the most common isoform consists of two alpha 1(IV) and one alpha 2(IV) chain. To understand the molecular mechanism of triple-helical formation of collagen IV, we expressed recombinant alpha 1(IV) and alpha 2(IV) mouse collagen chains in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. An expression vector containing the full length cDNA for the mouse alpha 1(IV) chain was stably transfected into CHO cells and a cell line, A222, which expressed recombinant alpha 1(IV) chains was selected. These A222 cells were then infected with a retroviral expression vector containing the mouse alpha 2(IV) chain and a cell line, A222-A2, stably expressing both recombinant alpha 1(IV) and alpha 2(IV) chains was obtained. Immunoprecipitation of A222 cell lysates revealed a high level of alpha 1(IV) chain monomer, which was unable to form a homotrimer. Analysis of A222-A2 cell lysates revealed the presence of both monomeric alpha 2(IV) and alpha 1(IV) chains as well as a higher molecular weight collagen IV species. Second dimensional SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that the high molecular weight species was a heterotrimer consisting of two alpha 1(IV) and one alpha 2(IV) chain. This heterotrimer collagen IV species was pepsin-resistant indicating the formation of a stable triple-helical structure. Pulse-chase experiments showed that the monomer alpha 1(IV) chain was secreted, but at a much slower rate than the heterotrimer. Together these results demonstrate that the alpha 1(IV) chain is not capable of forming homotrimers and suggest that the coexpression with the alpha 2(IV) chain is necessary to form a triple-helical structure.

  2. Conflicting Notions on Violence and PTSD in the Military: Institutional and Personal Narratives of Combat-Related Illness.

    PubMed

    Molendijk, Tine; Kramer, Eric-Hans; Verweij, Désirée

    2016-09-01

    Research indicates that soldiers struggling with PTSD under-utilize mental health care. Quantitative studies of barriers to care point to the importance of soldiers' beliefs about mental health and mental health interventions in their care-seeking behavior, yet these studies still struggle to understand the particular beliefs involved and the ways they impact care-seeking behavior. This preliminary study makes a start in examining these questions through qualitative literature analysis. It maps out dominant messages surrounding PTSD in military mental health interventions, and explores how they can both shape and conflict with soldiers' personal notions. It does so by analyzing these messages and notions as institutional and personal (illness) narratives. Institutional military PTSD-narratives, which draw on mainstream scientific and clinical models, appear to communicate contradictory notions on the meanings of violence and its psychological consequences, often without acknowledging these contradictions. As such, these narratives seem to shape struggles of soldiers, both within themselves and with the military institution. The identified conflicts indicate, contrary to the individualizing and decontextualizing focus of dominant PTSD-understandings, that soldiers' struggles also have social and moral dimensions. This has important implications for both research into PTSD-interventions and understandings of PTSD as such.

  3. Oxygen Isotope Signatures of Biogenic Manganese(III/IV) Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, K. M.; Hansel, C. M.; Wankel, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) oxide minerals are pervasive throughout a number of surface earth environments as rock varnishes, ferromanganese nodules, crusts around deep-sea vents, and cave deposits among many other marine, freshwater, and terrestrial deposits. Mn(III,IV) oxides are also among the strongest sorbents and oxidants in surface earth environments and are crucial to understanding the fate of organic matter in sedimentary environments. The precipitation of Mn oxide minerals proceeds via both abiotic and biotic oxidation pathways, the latter due to the indirect or direct activity of Mn(II)- oxidizing microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi. Although the precipitation of Mn oxides is believed to be primarily controlled by Mn(II)-oxidizing organisms in most surface earth environments, confirmation of this generally held notion has remained illusive and limits our understanding of their formation on Earth and beyond (e.g., Mars). Previous work provided evidence that O atom incorporation by specific Mn oxidation pathways may exhibit unique and predictable isotopic fractionation. In this study, we expand upon this evidence by measuring the oxygen isotope signature of several biogenic and abiogenic Mn oxide minerals synthesized under a range of oxygen-18 labeled water. These results allow us to determine the relative amount oxygen atoms derived from water and molecular oxygen that are incorporated in the oxide and shed light on corresponding isotope fractionation factors. Additionally, we show that, once precipitated, Mn oxide isotope signatures are robust with respect to aqueous oxygen isotope exchange. The study provides a foundation on which to study and interpret Mn oxides in natural environments and determine which environmental controls may govern Mn(II) oxidation.

  4. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Delyana I.; Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Schindler, Dwayne; Messier, Claude

    2013-01-01

    New editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence and Memory scales are now available. Yet, given the significant changes in these new releases and the skepticism that has met them, independent evidence on their psychometric properties is much needed but currently lacking. We administered the WAIS-IV and the Older Adult version of the WMS-IV to 145…

  5. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Delyana I.; Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Schindler, Dwayne; Messier, Claude

    2013-01-01

    New editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence and Memory scales are now available. Yet, given the significant changes in these new releases and the skepticism that has met them, independent evidence on their psychometric properties is much needed but currently lacking. We administered the WAIS-IV and the Older Adult version of the WMS-IV to 145…

  6. Intravenous Fluid Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John; McKay, Terri; Brown, Daniel; Zoldak, John

    2013-01-01

    The ability to stabilize and treat patients on exploration missions will depend on access to needed consumables. Intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as required consumables. A review of the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) lists over 400 medical conditions that could present and require treatment during ISS missions. The Intravenous Fluid Generation System (IVGEN) technology provides the scalable capability to generate IV fluids from indigenous water supplies. It meets USP (U.S. Pharmacopeia) standards. This capability was performed using potable water from the ISS; water from more extreme environments would need preconditioning. The key advantage is the ability to filter mass and volume, providing the equivalent amount of IV fluid: this is critical for remote operations or resource- poor environments. The IVGEN technology purifies drinking water, mixes it with salt, and transfers it to a suitable bag to deliver a sterile normal saline solution. Operational constraints such as mass limitations and lack of refrigeration may limit the type and volume of such fluids that can be carried onboard the spacecraft. In addition, most medical fluids have a shelf life that is shorter than some mission durations. Consequently, the objective of the IVGEN experiment was to develop, design, and validate the necessary methodology to purify spacecraft potable water into a normal saline solution, thus reducing the amount of IV fluids that are included in the launch manifest. As currently conceived, an IVGEN system for a space exploration mission would consist of an accumulator, a purifier, a mixing assembly, a salt bag, and a sterile bag. The accumulator is used to transfer a measured amount of drinking water from the spacecraft to the purifier. The purifier uses filters to separate any air bubbles that may have gotten trapped during the drinking water transfer from flowing through a high-quality deionizing cartridge that removes the impurities in

  7. The Berkeley SETI program - SERENDIP IV instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werthimer, Dan; Bowyer, Stuart; Ng, David; Donnelly, Charles; Cobb, Jeff; Lampton, Michael; Airieau, Sabine

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the hardware design of SERENDIP IV, which will be deployed in early 1997 for a 21-cm sky survey at the National Astronomy and Ionospheric Center's 305-m radio telescope in Arecibo, Puerto Rico. SERENDIP IV is a 167 million channel spectrum analyzer, covering a 100-Mhz bandwidth, with 0.6-Hz resolution and a 1.7-s integration time. SERENDIP IV's modular design incorporates a bank of digital mixers and filters to separate the 100 MHz band into 40 2.5 MHz subbands. Each 2.5 MHz subband is further broken down into 0.6 Hz bins by means of a four million point fast Fourier transform. The resulting power spectra are analyzed by 40 high-speed processors. Narrowband signals having power significantly above background noise levels are recorded along with telescope coordinates, time, and frequency. The data are sent in real time to Berkeley for analysis.

  8. Seafloor earthquake measurement system, SEMS IV

    SciTech Connect

    Platzbecker, M.R.; Ehasz, J.P.; Franco, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    Staff of the Telemetry Technology Development Department (2664) have, in support of the U.S. Interior Department Mineral Management Services (MMS), developed and deployed the Seafloor Earthquake Measurement System IV (SEMS IV). The result of this development project is a series of three fully operational seafloor seismic monitor systems located at offshore platforms: Eureka, Grace, and Irene. The instrument probes are embedded from three to seven feet into the seafloor and hardwired to seismic data recorders installed top side at the offshore platforms. The probes and underwater cables were designed to survive the seafloor environment with an operation life of five years. The units have been operational for two years and have produced recordings of several minor earthquakes in that time. Sandia Labs will transfer operation of SEMS IV to MMS contractors in the coming months. 29 figs., 25 tabs.

  9. Quantum Bio-Informatics IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardi, Luigi; Freudenberg, Wolfgang; Ohya, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    The QP-DYN algorithms / L. Accardi, M. Regoli and M. Ohya -- Study of transcriptional regulatory network based on Cis module database / S. Akasaka ... [et al.] -- On Lie group-Lie algebra correspondences of unitary groups in finite von Neumann algebras / H. Ando, I. Ojima and Y. Matsuzawa -- On a general form of time operators of a Hamiltonian with purely discrete spectrum / A. Arai -- Quantum uncertainty and decision-making in game theory / M. Asano ... [et al.] -- New types of quantum entropies and additive information capacities / V. P. Belavkin -- Non-Markovian dynamics of quantum systems / D. Chruscinski and A. Kossakowski -- Self-collapses of quantum systems and brain activities / K.-H. Fichtner ... [et al.] -- Statistical analysis of random number generators / L. Accardi and M. Gabler -- Entangled effects of two consecutive pairs in residues and its use in alignment / T. Ham, K. Sato and M. Ohya -- The passage from digital to analogue in white noise analysis and applications / T. Hida -- Remarks on the degree of entanglement / D. Chruscinski ... [et al.] -- A completely discrete particle model derived from a stochastic partial differential equation by point systems / K.-H. Fichtner, K. Inoue and M. Ohya -- On quantum algorithm for exptime problem / S. Iriyama and M. Ohya -- On sufficient algebraic conditions for identification of quantum states / A. Jamiolkowski -- Concurrence and its estimations by entanglement witnesses / J. Jurkowski -- Classical wave model of quantum-like processing in brain / A. Khrennikov -- Entanglement mapping vs. quantum conditional probability operator / D. Chruscinski ... [et al.] -- Constructing multipartite entanglement witnesses / M. Michalski -- On Kadison-Schwarz property of quantum quadratic operators on M[symbol](C) / F. Mukhamedov and A. Abduganiev -- On phase transitions in quantum Markov chains on Cayley Tree / L. Accardi, F. Mukhamedov and M. Saburov -- Space(-time) emergence as symmetry breaking effect / I. Ojima

  10. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors and diabetes therapy.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Christopher H S

    2008-01-01

    Current type 2 diabetes therapies are mainly targeted at stimulating pancreatic beta-cell secretion and reducing insulin resistance. A number of alternative therapies are currently being developed to take advantage of the actions of the incretin hormones Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) and Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide (GIP). These hormones are released from the small intestine in response to nutrient ingestion and stimulate insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. One approach to potentiating their actions is based on inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), the major enzyme responsible for degrading the incretins in vivo. DPP IV exhibits characteristics that have allowed the development of specific orally administered inhibitors with proven efficacy in improving glucose tolerance in animal models of diabetes. A number of clinical trials have demonstrated that DPP IV inhibitors are effective in improving glucose disposal and reducing hemoglobin A1c levels in type 2 diabetic patients and one inhibitor, sitagliptin, is now in therapeutic use, with others likely to receive FDA approval in the near future. Studies aimed at elucidating the mode of action of the inhibitors are still ongoing. Both enhancement of insulin secretion and reduction in glucagon secretion, resulting from the blockade of incretin degradation, are believed to play important roles in DPP IV inhibitor action. Preclinical studies indicate that increased levels of incretins improve beta-cell secretory function and exert effects on beta-cell mitogenesis and survival that can preserve beta-cell mass. Roles for other hormones, neuropeptides and cytokines in DPP IV inhibitor-medicated responses are also possible.

  11. Consistency of IVS nutation time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattano, César; Lambert, Sébastien; Bizouard, Christian

    2016-04-01

    We give a review of the various VLBI-derived nutation time series provided by the different operational analysis centers of the IVS and three combination centers (IVS, IERS EOP Center, and Rapid Service/Prediction Center). We focus on the stability of small nutation amplitudes, including the free core nutation and other atmospherically-driven nutations, that are of interest for improving Earth models. We discuss the possible origins of the differences (software packaged, inversion methods, analysis configuration including a priori and estimation strategy) and the consequences for scientific exploitation of the data, especially in terms of nutation modeling and inference of the Earth's internal structure.

  12. CAPE-2 Cubesat - ELaNa IV

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-25

    CAPE-2: Cajun Advanced Picosatellite Experiment – ELaNa IV CAPE-2 was developed by students from the University of Louisiana Lafayette to engage, inspire and educate K-12 students to encourage them to pursue STEM careers. The secondary focus is the technology demonstration of deployed solar panels to support the following payloads: text to speech, voice repeater, tweeting, email, file transfer and data collection from buoys. Launched by NASA’s CubeSat Launch Initiative on the ELaNa IV mission as an auxiliary payload aboard the U.S. Air Force-led Operationally Responsive Space (ORS-3) Mission on November 19, 2013.

  13. 45 CFR 1355.21 - E and IV-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1996-10-01

    ... compliance with the Department's regulations listed in 45 CFR 1355.30. (c) The State plans and plan... requirements for titles IV PUBLIC WELFARE Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN.... 1355.21 State plan requirements for titles IV-E and IV-B. (a) The State plans for titles IV-E and...

  14. 46 CFR Appendix IV to Part 150 - Data Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Data Sheet IV Appendix IV to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 150—Data Sheet EC02FE91.080 EC02FE91.081 ...

  15. 46 CFR Appendix IV to Part 150 - Data Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Data Sheet IV Appendix IV to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 150—Data Sheet EC02FE91.080 EC02FE91.081 ...

  16. 46 CFR Appendix IV to Part 150 - Data Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Data Sheet IV Appendix IV to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 150—Data Sheet EC02FE91.080 EC02FE91.081 ...

  17. 46 CFR Appendix IV to Part 150 - Data Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Data Sheet IV Appendix IV to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 150—Data Sheet EC02FE91.080 EC02FE91.081 ...

  18. 46 CFR Appendix IV to Part 150 - Data Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Data Sheet IV Appendix IV to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 150—Data Sheet EC02FE91.080 EC02FE91.081 ...

  19. 40 CFR 144.13 - Prohibition of Class IV wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibition of Class IV wells. 144.13... IV wells. (a) The following are prohibited, except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section: (1) The construction of any Class IV well. (2) The operation or maintenance of any Class IV well not in...

  20. 40 CFR 144.13 - Prohibition of Class IV wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of Class IV wells. 144.13... IV wells. (a) The following are prohibited, except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section: (1) The construction of any Class IV well. (2) The operation or maintenance of any Class IV well not in...