Science.gov

Sample records for notional generation iv

  1. Sur la notion d'adequation explicative en phonologie generative (On the Notion of Explanatory Adequacy in Generative Phonology)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hind, A.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the notion of explanatory adequacy with reference to a theory of generative phonology. An approach is suggested which defines the notion of possible processes based on natural language rules, rather than one which defines the notion of possible rules based on universal processes. (Text is in French.) (CDSH/AM)

  2. An Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Generation IV Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy J. Leahy

    2010-06-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Early work of the RSWG focused on defining a safety philosophy founded on lessons learned from current and prior generations of nuclear technologies, and on identifying technology characteristics that may help achieve Generation IV safety goals. More recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. The methodology, tentatively called ISAM, is an integrated “toolkit” consisting of analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time.

  3. Automatic generation and analysis of solar cell IV curves

    DOEpatents

    Kraft, Steven M.; Jones, Jason C.

    2014-06-03

    A photovoltaic system includes multiple strings of solar panels and a device presenting a DC load to the strings of solar panels. Output currents of the strings of solar panels may be sensed and provided to a computer that generates current-voltage (IV) curves of the strings of solar panels. Output voltages of the string of solar panels may be sensed at the string or at the device presenting the DC load. The DC load may be varied. Output currents of the strings of solar panels responsive to the variation of the DC load are sensed to generate IV curves of the strings of solar panels. IV curves may be compared and analyzed to evaluate performance of and detect problems with a string of solar panels.

  4. Nuclear Data Needs for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rullhusen, Peter

    2006-04-01

    Nuclear data needs for generation IV systems. Future of nuclear energy and the role of nuclear data / P. Finck. Nuclear data needs for generation IV nuclear energy systems-summary of U.S. workshop / T. A. Taiwo, H. S. Khalil. Nuclear data needs for the assessment of gen. IV systems / G. Rimpault. Nuclear data needs for generation IV-lessons from benchmarks / S. C. van der Marck, A. Hogenbirk, M. C. Duijvestijn. Core design issues of the supercritical water fast reactor / M. Mori ... [et al.]. GFR core neutronics studies at CEA / J. C. Bosq ... [et al]. Comparative study on different phonon frequency spectra of graphite in GCR / Young-Sik Cho ... [et al.]. Innovative fuel types for minor actinides transmutation / D. Haas, A. Fernandez, J. Somers. The importance of nuclear data in modeling and designing generation IV fast reactors / K. D. Weaver. The GIF and Mexico-"everything is possible" / C. Arrenondo Sánchez -- Benmarks, sensitivity calculations, uncertainties. Sensitivity of advanced reactor and fuel cycle performance parameters to nuclear data uncertainties / G. Aliberti ... [et al.]. Sensitivity and uncertainty study for thermal molten salt reactors / A. Biduad ... [et al.]. Integral reactor physics benchmarks- The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPHEP) / J. B. Briggs, D. W. Nigg, E. Sartori. Computer model of an error propagation through micro-campaign of fast neutron gas cooled nuclear reactor / E. Ivanov. Combining differential and integral experiments on [symbol] for reducing uncertainties in nuclear data applications / T. Kawano ... [et al.]. Sensitivity of activation cross sections of the Hafnium, Tanatalum and Tungsten stable isotopes to nuclear reaction mechanisms / V. Avrigeanu ... [et al.]. Generating covariance data with nuclear models / A. J. Koning. Sensitivity of Candu-SCWR reactors physics calculations to nuclear data files / K. S

  5. Generation IV PR and PP Methods and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bari,R.A.

    2008-10-13

    This paper presents an evaluation methodology for proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP) of Generation IV nuclear energy systems (NESs). For a proposed NES design, the methodology defines a set of challenges, analyzes system response to these challenges, and assesses outcomes. The challenges to the NES are the threats posed by potential actors (proliferant States or sub-national adversaries). The characteristics of Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate the response of the system and determine its resistance against proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and terrorism threats. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of six measures for PR and three measures for PP, which are the high-level PR&PP characteristics of the NES. The methodology is organized to allow evaluations to be performed at the earliest stages of system design and to become more detailed and more representative as design progresses. Uncertainty of results are recognized and incorporated into the evaluation at all stages. The results are intended for three types of users: system designers, program policy makers, and external stakeholders. Particular current relevant activities will be discussed in this regard. The methodology has been illustrated in a series of demonstration and case studies and these will be summarized in the paper.

  6. An Economic Analysis of Generation IV Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J S; Lamont, A D; Rothwell, G S; Smith, C F; Greenspan, E; Brown, N; Barak, A

    2002-03-01

    This report examines some conditions necessary for Generation IV Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) to be competitive in the world energy market. The key areas that make nuclear reactors an attractive choice for investors are reviewed, and a cost model based on the ideal conditions is developed. Recommendations are then made based on the output of the cost model and on conditions and tactics that have proven successful in other industries. The Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS), a specific SMR design concept, is used to develop the cost model and complete the analysis because information about the ENHS design is readily available from the University of California at Berkeley Nuclear Engineering Department. However, the cost model can be used to analyze any of the current SMR designs being considered. On the basis of our analysis, we determined that the nuclear power industry can benefit from and SMRs can become competitive in the world energy market if a combination of standardization and simplification of orders, configuration, and production are implemented. This would require wholesale changes in the way SMRs are produced, manufactured and regulated, but nothing that other industries have not implemented and proven successful.

  7. Optical Harmonic Generation from Interfaces with Group IV Semiconductors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottomley, David John

    Nonlinear optical techniques have been used to investigate the symmetry properties of interfaces between media comprising at least one Group IV semiconductor. Second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) have been performed for s and p polarization states of the fundamental and harmonic beams as a function of sample azimuthal angle at a fixed fundamental wavelength of 775 nm. In addition to these experimental measurements, the thesis contains theoretical calculations of the optical harmonic response from such media with vicinal surfaces, that is surfaces miscut from a low-index face by {<}{~}10^ circ. The phenomenological theory of Sipe, Moss and van Driel (Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129 (1987)) for SHG and THG in reflection from the low-index faces of cubic centrosymmetric media has been extended to all faces of both cubic centrosymmetric and cubic noncentrosymmetric media. This theory is applied in many parts of the thesis to interpreting the symmetry information present in nonlinear optical data. Experimentally, measurements of SHG and THG from vicinal semiconductor wafers have been performed, and using the above theory the wafer orientations have been obtained to within +/-0.1^circ . In addition, the above theory has been applied to achieve an approximate separation of bulk and surface contributions to SHG measurements from vincinal Si(001) and Si(111) surfaces which Sipe et al. showed is not possible on the low-index faces. The SiO_2/Si interface on vicinal Si(001) has been studied with SHG, and evidence has been obtained for the presence of noncentrosymmetric phases of c-SiO_2 at this interface whose relative concentrations are influenced by the oxidation conditions. For oxidation temperatures below 600 ^circC, the SHG data is shown to be consistent with the presence of tridymite at the buried interface, whereas for oxidation at 900^ circC the SHG data is consistent with the presence of cristobalite. Finally, SHG has been measured from odd

  8. Group IV nanotube transistors for next generation ubiquitous computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahad, Hossain M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Sevilla Torres, Galo A.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.; Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2014-06-01

    Evolution in transistor technology from increasingly large power consuming single gate planar devices to energy efficient multiple gate non-planar ultra-narrow (< 20 nm) fins has enhanced the scaling trend to facilitate doubling performance. However, this performance gain happens at the expense of arraying multiple devices (fins) per operation bit, due to their ultra-narrow dimensions (width) originated limited number of charges to induce appreciable amount of drive current. Additionally arraying degrades device off-state leakage and increases short channel characteristics, resulting in reduced chip level energy-efficiency. In this paper, a novel nanotube device (NTFET) topology based on conventional group IV (Si, SiGe) channel materials is discussed. This device utilizes a core/shell dual gate strategy to capitalize on the volume-inversion properties of an ultra-thin (< 10 nm) group IV nanotube channel to minimize leakage and short channel effects while maximizing performance in an area-efficient manner. It is also shown that the NTFET is capable of providing a higher output drive performance per unit chip area than an array of gate-all-around nanowires, while maintaining the leakage and short channel characteristics similar to that of a single gate-all-around nanowire, the latter being the most superior in terms of electrostatic gate control. In the age of big data and the multitude of devices contributing to the internet of things, the NTFET offers a new transistor topology alternative with maximum benefits from performance-energy efficiency-functionality perspective.

  9. From NDE to Prognostics: A Revolution in Asset Management for Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2007-06-01

    For Generation IV nuclear power plants (NPP) to achieve operational goals it is necessary to adopt new on-line monitoring and prognostic methodologies, giving operators better plant situational awareness and reliable predictions of remaining service life. Such techniques can improve plant economics, reduce unplanned outages, improve safety and provide probabilistic risk assessments. This paper reviews the state of the art and the potential impact from monitoring, diagnostics and prognostics on advanced NPP, with a focus on the needs of Generation IV systems.

  10. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 5 Report: Generation IV Reactor Virtual Mockup Proof-of-Principle Study

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Task 5 report is part of a 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Created a virtual mockup of PBMR reactor cavity and discussed applications of virtual mockup technology to improve Gen IV design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning.

  11. College and Notions of "Asian American": Second-Generation Chinese and Korean Americans Negotiate Race and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibria, Nazli

    1999-01-01

    Uses data from a qualitative study of 64 postcollege, second-generation Chinese and Korean Americans to explore negotiations of race and identity during the college years. Participants were disengaged from pan-Asian student activities. Findings highlight the diversity of social patterns and experiences of this group. (SLD)

  12. A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    2003-03-01

    To meet future energy needs, ten countries--Argentina, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of South Africa, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States--have agreed on a framework for international cooperation in research for an advanced generation of nuclear energy systems, known as Generation IV. These ten countries have joined together to form the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) to develop future-generation nuclear energy systems that can be licensed, constructed, and operated in a manner that will provide competitively priced and reliable energy products while satisfactorily addressing nuclear safety, waste, proliferation, and public perception concerns. The objective for Generation IV nuclear energy systems is to be available for international deployment before the year 2030, when many of the world's currently operating nuclear power plants will be at or near the end of their operating licenses.

  13. [AN ENTRY FOR A "DICTIONARY OF GENETICS" GENERATION AND ASPECTS OF HEREDITY FROM THE PRESOCRATICS TO GALEN: THE MAIN NOTIONS AND THE TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY].

    PubMed

    Giorgianni, Franco; Provenza, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at dealing with the historical development and the terminology of the notion of generation in ancient Greece, taking as well into consideration several aspects of the notion of heredity, for, at present, research in this field lacks a consistent encyclopedic entry on such subjects. The Presocratic - mainly Empedoclean - notions of 'mixing' and 'separation' lurk behind the Hippocratic treatise De genitura/De natura pueri, in which the process of generation is explained through the 'mixing' mechanism of a female semen and a male one. Semen comes from each part of both parents, so it is sound from the sound parts, and unhealthy from the unhealthy parts. It is considered as the "foam of blood" (Diogenes, A 24 DK), gathering itself into a web of blood vessels that bring it to the genital organs. The mixed semen keeps on fixing itself in the womb thanks to pneuma ('breath'), until the embryo takes human shape. Generation is influenced by both the environment (Airs, Waters, Places) and dietetics (On Regimen, I). Male and female are on different levels in CH, since the former is characterized as hot and strong, and the latter is considered as cold and weak; as a consequence of this, the articulation takes longer in the case of a female embryo. On the other hand, the pangenesis and the preformism theory claim for a strong mutual relationship. Sex determination depends from the 'prevalence' of the male or female semen. The generation of twins of different sex depends from such 'prevalence', as well as from the conformation of the womb and its places (right/male, left/female). Both nature (physis) and use (nomos) have a role in the mechanism of inheritance, as the case of the Macrocephalians in Airs Waters Places shows. On the other hand, Plato's Timaeus exemplifies the theory according to which semen derives from the spinal marrow. The structures of the body - bones, flesh, nerves - aim at protecting marrow itself for the sake of maintaining the continuity

  14. A Synthetic High-Spin Oxoiron(IV) Complex: Generation, Spectroscopic Characterization, and Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    England, J.; Martinho, M; Farquhar, E; Frisch, J; Bominaar, E; Munck, E; Que, L

    2009-01-01

    The high-yield generation of a synthetic high-spin oxoiron(IV) complex, (Fe{sup IV}(O)(TMG{sub 3}tren)){sup 2+} (TMG{sub 3}tren = 1,1,1-tris{l_brace}2-(N2-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidino))ethyl{r_brace}amine), has been achieved by using the very bulky tetradentate TMG{sub 3}tren ligand, in order to both sterically protect the oxoiron(IV) moiety and enforce a trigonal bipyramidal geometry at the iron center, for which an S=2 ground state is favored.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK-BASED AND TECHNOLOGY-INDEPENDENT SAFETY CRITERIA FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    William E. Kastenberg; Edward Blandford; Lance Kim

    2009-03-31

    This project has developed quantitative safety goals for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. These safety goals are risk based and technology independent. The foundations for a new approach to risk analysis has been developed, along with a new operational definition of risk. This project has furthered the current state-of-the-art by developing quantitative safety goals for both Gen IV reactors and for the overall Gen IV nuclear fuel cycle. The risk analysis approach developed will quantify performance measures, characterize uncertainty, and address a more comprehensive view of safety as it relates to the overall system. Appropriate safety criteria are necessary to manage risk in a prudent and cost-effective manner. This study is also important for government agencies responsible for managing, reviewing, and for approving advanced reactor systems because they are charged with assuring the health and safety of the public.

  16. Design of Radiation-Tolerant Structural Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.R.; Was, G.S.; Bruemmer, S.M.; Gan, J.; Ukai, S.

    2005-12-28

    The objective of this program is to improve the radiation tolerance of both austenitic and ferritic-martensitic (F-M) alloys projected for use in Generation IV systems. The expected materials limitations of Generation IV components include: creep strength, dimensional stability, and corrosion/stress corrosion compatibility. The material design strategies to be tested fall into three main categories: (1) engineering grain boundaries; (2) alloying, by adding oversized elements to the matrix; and (3) microstructural/nanostructural design, such as adding matrix precipitates. These three design strategies were tested across both austenitic and ferritic-martensitic alloy classes

  17. Updated Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, William R; Burchell, Timothy D; Halsey, William; Hayner, George; Katoh, Yutai; Klett, James William; McGreevy, Timothy E; Nanstad, Randy K; Ren, Weiju; Snead, Lance Lewis; Stoller, Roger E; Wilson, Dane F

    2005-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Program will address the research and development (R&D) necessary to support next-generation nuclear energy systems. Such R&D will be guided by the technology roadmap developed for the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) over two years with the participation of over 100 experts from the GIF countries. The roadmap evaluated over 100 future systems proposed by researchers around the world. The scope of the R&D described in the roadmap covers the six most promising Generation IV systems. The effort ended in December 2002 with the issue of the final Generation IV Technology Roadmap [1.1]. The six most promising systems identified for next generation nuclear energy are described within the roadmap. Two employ a thermal neutron spectrum with coolants and temperatures that enable hydrogen or electricity production with high efficiency (the Supercritical Water Reactor - SCWR and the Very High Temperature Reactor - VHTR). Three employ a fast neutron spectrum to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel (the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor - GFR, the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor - LFR, and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor - SFR). The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs a circulating liquid fuel mixture that offers considerable flexibility for recycling actinides, and may provide an alternative to accelerator-driven systems. A few major technologies have been recognized by DOE as necessary to enable the deployment of the next generation of advanced nuclear reactors, including the development and qualification of the structural materials needed to ensure their safe and reliable operation. Accordingly, DOE has identified materials as one of the focus areas for Gen IV technology development.

  18. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Ten-Year Program Plan Fiscal Year 2005, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-01

    As reflected in the U.S. ''National Energy Policy'', nuclear energy has a strong role to play in satisfying our nation's future energy security and environmental quality needs. The desirable environmental, economic, and sustainability attributes of nuclear energy give it a cornerstone position, not only in the U.S. energy portfolio, but also in the world's future energy portfolio. Accordingly, on September 20, 2002, U.S. Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham announced that, ''The United States and nine other countries have agreed to develop six Generation IV nuclear energy concepts''. The Secretary also noted that the systems are expected to ''represent significant advances in economics, safety, reliability, proliferation resistance, and waste minimization''. The six systems and their broad, worldwide research and development (R&D) needs are described in ''A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems'' (hereafter referred to as the Generation IV Roadmap). The first 10 years of required U.S. R&D contributions to achieve the goals described in the Generation IV Roadmap are outlined in this Program Plan.

  19. The Generation in Between: A Perspective from the Keystone IV Conference.

    PubMed

    Chen, Frederick M; Bliss, Erika; Dunn, Aaron; Edgoose, Jennifer; Elliott, Tricia C; Maxwell, Lisa C; Morris, Carl G; Phillips, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Keystone IV affirmed the value of relationships in family medicine, but each generation of family physicians took away different impressions and lessons. "Generation III," between the Baby Boomers and Millennials, reported conflict between their professional ideal of family medicine and the realities of current practice. But the Keystone conference also helped them appreciate core values of family medicine, their shared experience, and new opportunities for leadership.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A METHODOLOGY TO ASSESS PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, R.; Bari, R.; Peterson, P.; Roglans-Ribas, J.; Kalenchuk, D.

    2004-10-06

    Enhanced proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP) is one of the technology goals for advanced nuclear concepts, such as Generation IV systems. Under the auspices of the Generation IV International Forum, the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology of the U.S. DOE, the Office of Nonproliferation Policy of the National Nuclear Security Administration, and participating organizations from six other countries are sponsoring an international working group to develop an evaluation methodology for PR&PP. This methodology will permit an objective PR&PP comparison between alternative nuclear systems (e.g., different reactor types or fuel cycles) and support design optimization to enhance robustness against proliferation, theft and sabotage. The paper summarizes the proposed assessment methodology including the assessment framework, measures used to express the PR&PP characteristics of the system, threat definition, system element and target identification, pathway identification and analysis, and estimation of the measures.

  1. Fundamental Understanding of Crack Growth in Structural Components of Generation IV Supercritical Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Iouri I. Balachov; Takao Kobayashi; Francis Tanzella; Indira Jayaweera; Palitha Jayaweera; Petri Kinnunen; Martin Bojinov; Timo Saario

    2004-11-17

    This work contributes to the design of safe and economical Generation-IV Super-Critical Water Reactors (SCWRs) by providing a basis for selecting structural materials to ensure the functionality of in-vessel components during the entire service life. During the second year of the project, we completed electrochemical characterization of the oxide film properties and investigation of crack initiation and propagation for candidate structural materials steels under supercritical conditions. We ranked candidate alloys against their susceptibility to environmentally assisted degradation based on the in situ data measure with an SRI-designed controlled distance electrochemistry (CDE) arrangement. A correlation between measurable oxide film properties and susceptibility of austenitic steels to environmentally assisted degradation was observed experimentally. One of the major practical results of the present work is the experimentally proven ability of the economical CDE technique to supply in situ data for ranking candidate structural materials for Generation-IV SCRs. A potential use of the CDE arrangement developed ar SRI for building in situ sensors monitoring water chemistry in the heat transport circuit of Generation-IV SCWRs was evaluated and proved to be feasible.

  2. Generation IV reactors and the ASTRID prototype: Lessons from the Fukushima accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauché, François

    2012-05-01

    In France, the ASTRID prototype is a sodium-cooled fast neutron industrial demonstrator, fulfilling the criteria for Generation IV reactors. ASTRID will meet safety requirements as stringent as for 3rd generation reactors, and take into account lessons from the Fukushima accident. The objectives are to reinforce the robustness of the safety demonstration for all safety functions. ASTRID will feature an innovative core with a negative sodium void coefficient, take advantage of the large thermal inertia of SFRs for decay heat removal, and provide for a design either eliminating the sodium-water reaction, or guaranteeing no consequences for safety in case such reaction would take place.

  3. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Final report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. Mockups applied to design review of AP600/1000, Construction planning for AP 600, and AP 1000 maintenance evaluation. Proof of concept study also performed for GenIV PBMR models.

  4. Did the Preservice Teacher-Generated Studies Constitute Actual Instances of Teacher-Researcher Studies, and Were They Consistent with Notions of Dewey?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Robert E.; Wang, Ye; Hartman, Maria C.

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that articles in an "American Annals of the Deaf" special issue on teacher action research constitute a 2-tiered metastudy: The first article serves as a literature review of the teacher-as-researcher notion; 5 subsequent articles form the data set for a higher-order teacher-as-researcher inquiry. It is maintained that the…

  5. A Project Management and Systems Engineering Structure for a Generation IV Very High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ed Gorski; Dennis Harrell; Finis Southworth

    2004-09-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) will be an advanced, very high temperature (approximately 1000o C. coolant outlet temperature), gas cooled nuclear reactor and is the nearest term of six Generation IV reactor technologies for nuclear assisted hydrogen production. In 2001, the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), a ten nation international forum working together with the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee (NERAC), agreed to proceed with the development of a technology roadmap and identified the next generation of nuclear reactor systems for producing new sources of power. Since a new reactor has not been licensed in the United States since the 1970s, the risks are too large for a single utility to assume in the development of an unprecedented Generation IV reactor. The government must sponsor and invest in the research to resolve major first of a kind (FOAK) issues through a full-scale demonstration prior to industry implementation. DOE’s primary mission for the VHTR is to demonstrate nuclear reactor assisted cogeneration of electricity and hydrogen while meeting the Generation IV goals for safety, sustainability, proliferation resistance and physical security and economics. The successful deployment of the VHTR as a demonstration project will aid in restarting the now atrophied U.S. nuclear power industry infrastructure. It is envisioned that VHTR project participants will include DOE Laboratories, industry partners such as designers, constructors, manufacturers, utilities, and Generation IV international countries. To effectively mange R&D, engineering, procurement, construction, and operation for this multi-organizational and technologically complex project, systems engineering will be used extensively to ensure delivery of the final product. Although the VHTR is an unprecedented FOAK system, the R&D, when assessed using the Office of Science and Technology Gate Model, falls primarily in the 3rd - Exploratory

  6. Status of advanced fuel candidates for Sodium Fast Reactor within the Generation IV International Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delage, F.; Carmack, J.; Lee, C. B.; Mizuno, T.; Pelletier, M.; Somers, J.

    2013-10-01

    The main challenge for fuels for future Sodium Fast Reactor systems is the development and qualification of a nuclear fuel sub-assembly which meets the Generation IV International Forum goals. The Advanced Fuel project investigates high burn-up minor actinide bearing fuels as well as claddings and wrappers to withstand high neutron doses and temperatures. The R&D outcome of national and collaborative programs has been collected and shared between the AF project members in order to review the capability of sub-assembly material and fuel candidates, to identify the issues and select the viable options. Based on historical experience and knowledge, both oxide and metal fuels emerge as primary options to meet the performance and the reliability goals of Generation IV SFR systems. There is a significant positive experience on carbide fuels but major issues remain to be overcome: strong in-pile swelling, atmosphere required for fabrication as well as Pu and Am losses. The irradiation performance database for nitride fuels is limited with longer term R&D activities still required. The promising core material candidates are Ferritic/Martensitic (F/M) and Oxide Dispersed Strengthened (ODS) steels.

  7. Did the preservice teacher-generated studies constitute actual instances of teacher-researcher studies, and were they consistent with notions of Dewey?

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Robert E; Wang, Ye; Hartman, Maria C

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that articles in an American Annals of the Deaf special issue on teacher action research constitute a 2-tiered metastudy: The first article serves as a literature review of the teacher-as-researcher notion; 5 subsequent articles form the data set for a higher-order teacher-as-researcher inquiry. It is maintained that the preservice teachers' work met the definition of teacher-as-researcher in that they systematically investigated their own teaching/learning practices through a reflective lens, with the twin purposes of modifying their own practices and contributing to the theoretical in situ knowledge base of learning and teaching in general. It is also argued that this body of work is consistent with the stance on inquiry advocated by Columbia University's Teachers College and its Program in the Education of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing, and that teacher research reflected Dewey's notions of pragmatism, functionalism, constructivism, communication, and social advocacy.

  8. EVALUATION METHODOLOGY FOR PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF GENERATION IV NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW.

    SciTech Connect

    BARI, R.; ET AL.

    2006-03-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: (1) System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. (2) Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. (3) Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include

  9. Evaluation Methodology For Proliferation Resistance And Physical Protection Of Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    T. Bjornard; R. Bari; R. Nishimura; P. Peterson; J. Roglans; D. Bley; J. Cazalet; G.G.M. Cojazzi; P. Delaune; M. Golay; G. Rendad; G. Rochau; M. Senzaki; I. Therios; M. Zentner

    2006-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: 1.System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. 2.Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. 3.Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include

  10. DESIGN AND LAYOUT CONCEPTS FOR COMPACT, FACTORY-PRODUCED, TRANSPORTABLE, GENERATION IV REACTOR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Mynatt Fred R.; Townsend, L.W.; Williamson, Martin; Williams, Wesley; Miller, Laurence W.; Khan, M. Khurram; McConn, Joe; Kadak, Andrew C.; Berte, Marc V.; Sawhney, Rapinder; Fife, Jacob; Sedler, Todd L.; Conway, Larry E.; Felde, Dave K.

    2003-11-12

    The purpose of this research project is to develop compact (100 to 400 MWe) Generation IV nuclear power plant design and layout concepts that maximize the benefits of factory-based fabrication and optimal packaging, transportation and siting. The reactor concepts selected were compact designs under development in the 2000 to 2001 period. This interdisciplinary project was comprised of three university-led nuclear engineering teams identified by reactor coolant type (water, gas, and liquid metal) and a fourth Industrial Engineering team. The reactors included a Modular Pebble Bed helium-cooled concept being developed at MIT, the IRIS water-cooled concept being developed by a team led by Westinghouse Electric Company, and a Lead-Bismuth-cooled concept developed by UT. In addition to the design and layout concepts this report includes a section on heat exchanger manufacturing simulations and a section on construction and cost impacts of proposed modular designs.

  11. Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan: Focus on Very High Temperature Reactor Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, William R; Burchell, Timothy D; Katoh, Yutai; McGreevy, Timothy E; Nanstad, Randy K; Ren, Weiju; Snead, Lance Lewis; Wilson, Dane F

    2008-08-01

    Since 2002, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems (Gen IV) Program has addressed the research and development (R&D) necessary to support next-generation nuclear energy systems. The six most promising systems identified for next-generation nuclear energy are described within this roadmap. Two employ a thermal neutron spectrum with coolants and temperatures that enable hydrogen or electricity production with high efficiency (the Supercritical Water Reactor-SCWR and the Very High Temperature Reactor-VHTR). Three employ a fast neutron spectrum to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel (the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor-GFR, the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor-LFR, and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor-SFR). The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs a circulating liquid fuel mixture that offers considerable flexibility for recycling actinides and may provide an alternative to accelerator-driven systems. At the inception of DOE's Gen IV program, it was decided to significantly pursue five of the six concepts identified in the Gen IV roadmap to determine which of them was most appropriate to meet the needs of future U.S. nuclear power generation. In particular, evaluation of the highly efficient thermal SCWR and VHTR reactors was initiated primarily for energy production, and evaluation of the three fast reactor concepts, SFR, LFR, and GFR, was begun to assess viability for both energy production and their potential contribution to closing the fuel cycle. Within the Gen IV Program itself, only the VHTR class of reactors was selected for continued development. Hence, this document will address the multiple activities under the Gen IV program that contribute to the development of the VHTR. A few major technologies have been recognized by DOE as necessary to enable the deployment of the next generation of advanced nuclear reactors, including the development and qualification of the structural

  12. Benchmark Development in Support of Generation-IV Reactor Validation (IRPhEP 2010 Handbook)

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs

    2010-06-01

    The March 2010 edition of the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) Handbook includes additional benchmark data that can be implemented in the validation of data and methods for Generation IV (GEN-IV) reactor designs. Evaluations supporting sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) efforts include the initial isothermal tests of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at the Hanford Site, the Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) 10B and 10C experiments at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the burn-up reactivity coefficient of Japan’s JOYO reactor. An assessment of Russia’s BFS-61 assemblies at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) provides additional information for lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) systems. Benchmarks in support of the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) project include evaluations of the HTR-PROTEUS experiments performed at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in Switzerland and the start-up core physics tests of Japan’s High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor. The critical configuration of the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the INL which used ternary ceramic fuel, U(18)O2-CaO-ZrO2, is of interest for fuel cycle research and development (FCR&D) and has some similarities to “inert-matrix” fuels that are of interest in GEN-IV advanced reactor design. Two additional evaluations were revised to include additional evaluated experimental data, in support of light water reactor (LWR) and heavy water reactor (HWR) research; these include reactor physics experiments at Brazil’s IPEN/MB-01 Research Reactor Facility and the French High Flux Reactor (RHF), respectively. The IRPhEP Handbook now includes data from 45 experimental series (representing 24 reactor facilities) and represents contributions from 15 countries. These experimental measurements represent large investments of infrastructure, experience, and cost that have been evaluated and preserved as benchmarks for the validation of methods and collection of

  13. Uncertainty Quantification in the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Generation IV Reactors: Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Vierow, Karen; Aldemir, Tunc

    2009-09-10

    The project entitled, “Uncertainty Quantification in the Reliability and Risk Assessment of Generation IV Reactors”, was conducted as a DOE NERI project collaboration between Texas A&M University and The Ohio State University between March 2006 and June 2009. The overall goal of the proposed project was to develop practical approaches and tools by which dynamic reliability and risk assessment techniques can be used to augment the uncertainty quantification process in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods and PRA applications for Generation IV reactors. This report is the Final Scientific/Technical Report summarizing the project.

  14. Lead-cooled system design and challenges in the frame of Generation IV International Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinotti, Luciano; Smith, Craig F.; Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Mansani, Luigi; Reale, Marco; Sienicki, James J.

    2011-08-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Technology Roadmap identified the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) as a technology well suited for electricity generation, hydrogen production and actinide management in a closed fuel cycle. One of the most important features of the LFR is the fact that lead is a relatively inert coolant, a feature that conveys significant advantages in terms of safety, system simplification, and the consequent potential for economic performance. In 2004, the GIF LFR Provisional System Steering Committee was organized and began to develop the LFR System Research Plan. The committee selected two pool-type reactor concepts as candidates for international cooperation and joint development in the GIF framework: these are the Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR); and the European Lead-cooled System (ELSY). The high boiling point (1745 °C) of lead has a beneficial impact to the safety of the system, whereas its high melting point (327.4 °C) requires new engineering strategies, especially for In-Service-Inspection and refuelling. Lead, especially at high temperatures, is also relatively corrosive towards structural materials. This necessitates that coolant purity and the level of dissolved oxygen be carefully controlled, in addition to the proper selection of structural materials. For the GIF LFR concepts, lead has been chosen as the coolant rather than Lead-Bismuth Eutectic primarily because of its greatly reduced generation of the alpha-emitting 210Po isotope formed in the coolant. This results in significantly reduced levels of radioactive contamination of the coolant while minimizing the effect of decay power in the coolant from such contaminants; an additional consideration is the desire to eliminate dependence on bismuth which might be a limited resource. This paper provides an overview of the historical development of the LFR, a summary of the advantages and challenges associated with heavy liquid metal coolants, and an

  15. Efficient Generation of Chemiluminescence during the reduction of manganese(IV) ions with lactic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaplev, Yu. B.

    2016-12-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of chemiluminescence during the reduction of manganese(IV) ions with lactic acid in an H2SO4-AcOH medium are studied. Kinetic spectrophotometric measurements are used to determine the profiles of change in the concentrations of Mn(IV) and Mn(III) ions during the reaction. The results from kinetic spectrophotometric measurements are compared to the light yield kinetics. The quantum chemiluminescence and chemiexcitation yields reach record values.

  16. Notions Catalog. Polish Functional Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woytak, Lidia

    The Polish notions catalog systematizes a variety of informational codes used in Polish, resulting in lists of notions, each presented from a structural perspective. Where applicable, they are accompanied by a morphological component, structural chart, semantic description, frequentative expressions, and related vocabulary items. The notions…

  17. Creep Behavior of High Temperature Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xingshuo

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is one of the leading concepts of the Generation IV nuclear reactor development, which is the core component of Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The major challenge in the research and development of NGNP is the performance and reliability of structure materials at high temperature. Alloy 617, with an exceptional combination of high temperature strength and oxidation resistance, has been selected as a primary candidate material for structural use, particularly in Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) which has an outlet temperature in the range of 850 to 950°C and an inner pressure from 5 to 20MPa. In order to qualify the material to be used at the operation condition for a designed service life of 60 years, a comprehensive scientific understanding of creep behavior at high temperature and low stress regime is necessary. In addition, the creep mechanism and the impact factors such as precipitates, grain size, and grain boundary characters need to be evaluated for the purpose of alloy design and development. In this study, thermomechanically processed specimens of alloy 617 with different grain sizes were fabricated, and creep tests with a systematic test matrix covering the temperatures of 850 to 1050°C and stress levels from 5 to 100MPa were conducted. Creep data was analyzed, and the creep curves were found to be unconventional without a well-defined steady-state creep. Very good linear relationships were determined for minimum creep rate versus stress levels with the stress exponents determined around 3-5 depending on the grain size and test condition. Activation energies were also calculated for different stress levels, and the values are close to 400kJ/mol, which is higher than that for self-diffusion in nickel. Power law dislocation climb-glide mechanism was proposed as the dominant creep mechanism in the test condition regime. Dynamic recrystallization happening at high strain range enhanced dislocation climb and

  18. Multiscale Modeling of the Deformation of Advanced Ferritic Steels for Generation IV Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Nasr M. Ghoniem; Nick Kioussis

    2009-04-18

    The objective of this project is to use the multi-scale modeling of materials (MMM) approach to develop an improved understanding of the effects of neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of high-temperature structural materials that are being developed or proposed for Gen IV applications. In particular, the research focuses on advanced ferritic/ martensitic steels to enable operation up to 650-700°C, compared to the current 550°C limit on high-temperature steels.

  19. A non-iterative technique for determination of solar cell parameters from the light generated I-V characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Gaurav; Panchal, Ashish K.

    2013-08-01

    Accurate information about electrical parameters of a photovoltaic (PV) cell is many times essential for evaluating the performance of the cell when delivering power at its full capacity. This paper presents a technique for determining the cell parameters from the light generated current-voltage (I-V) characteristic with a valid assumption for any kind of cells. The technique neither involves any initial approximations nor iteration processes. The technique is employed for various PV cell technologies such as silicon, copper indium gallium selenide, organic, dye sensitized solar cell, and organic tandem cells, previously available in the literatures. Obtained I-V characteristics for the cells using the present technique are in well agreement with those of reported in the literature. The technique is further extended for the analysis of a silicon cell and a silicon module tested in the laboratory and the results obtained are very close to those of the experimental data.

  20. The Notion of Technological Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Guy

    1984-01-01

    Rapid technological change is widely regarded as a primary cause of unemployment, especially in depressions. This article summarizes the diverse interpretations given to the notion of technological unemployment, critically examining the assumptions underlying those views. (Author/SSH)

  1. Mechanisms Governing the Creep Behavior of High Temperature Alloys for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, Vijay; Carroll, Laura; Sham, Sam

    2015-04-06

    This research project, which includes collaborators from INL and ORNL, focuses on the study of alloy 617 and alloy 800H that are candidates for applications as intermediate heat exchangers in GEN IV nuclear reactors, with an emphasis on the effects of grain size, grain boundaries and second phases on the creep properties; the mechanisms of dislocation creep, diffusional creep and cavitation; the onset of tertiary creep; and theoretical modeling for long-term predictions of materials behavior and for high temperature alloy design.

  2. Assessment of the Technical Maturity of Generation IV Concepts for Test or Demonstration Reactor Applications, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gougar, Hans David

    2015-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned a study the suitability of different advanced reactor concepts to support materials irradiations (i.e. a test reactor) or to demonstrate an advanced power plant/fuel cycle concept (demonstration reactor). As part of the study, an assessment of the technical maturity of the individual concepts was undertaken to see which, if any, can support near-term deployment. A Working Group composed of the authors of this document performed the maturity assessment using the Technical Readiness Levels as defined in DOE’s Technology Readiness Guide . One representative design was selected for assessment from of each of the six Generation-IV reactor types: gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR), lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR), molten salt reactor (MSR), supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), and very high temperature reactor (VHTR). Background information was obtained from previous detailed evaluations such as the Generation-IV Roadmap but other technical references were also used including consultations with concept proponents and subject matter experts. Outside of Generation IV activity in which the US is a party, non-U.S. experience or data sources were generally not factored into the evaluations as one cannot assume that this data is easily available or of sufficient quality to be used for licensing a US facility. The Working Group established the scope of the assessment (which systems and subsystems needed to be considered), adapted a specific technology readiness scale, and scored each system through discussions designed to achieve internal consistency across concepts. In general, the Working Group sought to determine which of the reactor options have sufficient maturity to serve either the test or demonstration reactor missions.

  3. The Next Generation of Platinum Drugs: Targeted Pt(II) Agents, Nanoparticle Delivery, and Pt(IV) Prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Timothy C.; Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    The platinum drugs, cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, prevail in the treatment of cancer,, but new platinum agents have been very slow to enter the clinic. Recently, however, there has been a surge of activity, based on a great deal of mechanistic information, aimed at developing non-classical platinum complexes that operate via mechanisms of action distinct from those of the approved drugs. The use of nanodelivery devices has also grown and many different strategies have been explored to incorporate platinum warheads into nanomedicine constructs. In this review, we discuss these efforts to create the next generation of platinum anticancer drugs. The introduction provides the reader with a brief overview of the use, development, and mechanism of action of the approved platinum drugs to provide the context in which more recent research has flourished. We then describe approaches that explore non-classical platinum(II) complexes with trans geometry and with a monofunctional coordination mode, polynuclear platinum(II) compounds, platinum(IV) prodrugs, dual-treat agents, and photoactivatable platinum(IV) complexes. Nanodelivery particles designed to deliver platinum(IV) complexes will also be discussed, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, upconversion nanoparticles, and polymeric micelles. Additional nanoformulations including supramolecular self-assembled structures, proteins, peptides, metal-organic frameworks, and coordination polymers will then be described. Finally, the significant clinical progress made by nanoparticle formulations of platinum(II) agents will be reviewed. We anticipate that such a synthesis of disparate research efforts will not only help to generate new drug development ideas and strategies, but also reflect our optimism that the next generation of platinum cancer drugs is about to arrive. PMID:26865551

  4. The Next Generation of Platinum Drugs: Targeted Pt(II) Agents, Nanoparticle Delivery, and Pt(IV) Prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Timothy C; Suntharalingam, Kogularamanan; Lippard, Stephen J

    2016-03-09

    The platinum drugs, cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, prevail in the treatment of cancer, but new platinum agents have been very slow to enter the clinic. Recently, however, there has been a surge of activity, based on a great deal of mechanistic information, aimed at developing nonclassical platinum complexes that operate via mechanisms of action distinct from those of the approved drugs. The use of nanodelivery devices has also grown, and many different strategies have been explored to incorporate platinum warheads into nanomedicine constructs. In this Review, we discuss these efforts to create the next generation of platinum anticancer drugs. The introduction provides the reader with a brief overview of the use, development, and mechanism of action of the approved platinum drugs to provide the context in which more recent research has flourished. We then describe approaches that explore nonclassical platinum(II) complexes with trans geometry or with a monofunctional coordination mode, polynuclear platinum(II) compounds, platinum(IV) prodrugs, dual-threat agents, and photoactivatable platinum(IV) complexes. Nanoparticles designed to deliver platinum(IV) complexes will also be discussed, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, quantum dots, upconversion nanoparticles, and polymeric micelles. Additional nanoformulations, including supramolecular self-assembled structures, proteins, peptides, metal-organic frameworks, and coordination polymers, will then be described. Finally, the significant clinical progress made by nanoparticle formulations of platinum(II) agents will be reviewed. We anticipate that such a synthesis of disparate research efforts will not only help to generate new drug development ideas and strategies, but also will reflect our optimism that the next generation of approved platinum cancer drugs is about to arrive.

  5. Generation mechanism of the slowly drifting narrowband structure in the type IV solar radio bursts observed by AMATERAS

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Y.; Nishimura, Y.; Kumamoto, A.; Ono, T.; Iwai, K.; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.

    2014-05-20

    We investigate the type IV burst event observed by AMATERAS on 2011 June 7, and reveal that the main component of the burst was emitted from the plasmoid eruption identified in the EUV images of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/AIA. We show that a slowly drifting narrowband structure (SDNS) appeared in the burst's spectra. Using statistical analysis, we reveal that the SDNS appeared for a duration of tens to hundreds of milliseconds and had a typical bandwidth of 3 MHz. To explain the mechanism generating the SDNS, we propose wave-wave coupling between Langmuir waves and whistler-mode chorus emissions generated in a post-flare loop, which were inferred from the similarities in the plasma environments of a post-flare loop and the equatorial region of Earth's inner magnetosphere. We assume that a chorus element with a rising tone is generated at the top of a post-flare loop. Using the magnetic field and plasma density models, we quantitatively estimate the expected duration of radio emissions generated from coupling between Langmuir waves and chorus emissions during their propagation in the post-flare loop, and we find that the observed duration and bandwidth properties of the SDNS are consistently explained by the proposed generation mechanism. While observations in the terrestrial magnetosphere show that the chorus emissions are a group of large-amplitude wave elements generated naturally and intermittently, the mechanism proposed in the present study can explain both the intermittency and the frequency drift in the observed spectra.

  6. Challenges to Integration of Safety and Reliability with Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    H. Khalil; P. F. Peterson; R. Bari; G. -L. Fiorini; T. Leahy; R. Versluis

    2012-07-01

    The optimization of a nuclear energy system's performance requires an integrated consideration of multiple design goals - sustainability, safety and reliability (S&R), proliferation resistance and physical protection (PR&PP), and economics - as well as careful evaluation of trade-offs for different system design and operating parameters. Design approaches motivated by each of the goal areas (in isolation from the other goal areas) may be mutually compatible or in conflict. However, no systematic methodology approach has yet been developed to identify and maximize synergies and optimally balance conflicts across the possible design configurations and operating modes of a nuclear energy system. Because most Generation IV systems are at an early stage of development, design, and assessment, designers and analysts are only beginning to identify synergies and conflicts between PR&PP, S&R, and economics goals. The close coupling between PR&PP and S&R goals has motivated early attention within the Generation IV International Forum to their integrated consideration to facilitate the optimization of their effects and the minimization of potential conflicts. This paper discusses the status of this work.

  7. Development of a High Fidelity System Analysis Code for Generation IV Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hongbin Zhang; Vincent Mousseau; Haihua Zhao

    2008-06-01

    Traditional nuclear reactor system analysis codes such as RELAP and TRAC employ an operator split methodology. In this approach, each of the physics (fluid flow, heat conduction and neutron diffusion) is solved separately and the coupling terms are done explicitly. This approach limits accuracy (first order in time at best) and makes the codes slow in running since the explicit coupling imposes stability restrictions on the time step size. These codes have been extensively tested and validated for the existing LWRs. However, for GEN IV nuclear reactor designs which tend to have long lasting transients resulting from passive safety systems, the performance is questionable and modern high fidelity simulation tools will be required. The requirement for accurate predictability is the motivation for a large scale overhaul of all of the models and assumptions in transient nuclear reactor safety simulation software. At INL we have launched an effort with the long term goal of developing a high fidelity system analysis code that employs modern physical models, numerical methods, and computer science for transient safety analysis of GEN IV nuclear reactors. Modern parallel solution algorithms will be employed through utilizing the nonlinear solution software package PETSc developed by Argonne National Laboratory. The physical models to be developed will have physically realistic length scales and time scales. The solution algorithm will be based on the physics-based preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov solution methods. In this approach all of the physical models are solved implicitly and simultaneously in a single nonlinear system. This includes the coolant flow, nonlinear heat conduction, neutron kinetics, and thermal radiation, etc. Including modern physical models and accurate space and time discretizations will allow the simulation capability to be second order accurate in space and in time. This paper presents the current status of the development efforts as

  8. Generator coordinate method and nuclear collective motions (IV)-TDGCM versus ATDHF

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, G.

    1982-04-01

    Considering the time-dependent generator coordinate method, the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for nuclear collective motions is obtained. It is then possible to obtain through the Wigner matrix a variational expression for mean collective properties q-bar(t) and p-bar(t) in classical limits. Under adiabatic approximation this is just the expression by which Villars has obtained the ATDHF results.

  9. validation and Enhancement of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer Predictive Capabilities for Generation IV Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Spall; Barton Smith; Thomas Hauser

    2008-12-08

    Nationwide, the demand for electricity due to population and industrial growth is on the rise. However, climate change and air quality issues raise serious questions about the wisdom of addressing these shortages through the construction of additional fossil fueled power plants. In 1997, the President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology Energy Research and Development Panel determined that restoring a viable nuclear energy option was essential and that the DOE should implement a R&D effort to address principal obstacles to achieving this option. This work has addressed the need for improved thermal/fluid analysis capabilities, through the use of computational fluid dynamics, which are necessary to support the design of generation IV gas-cooled and supercritical water reactors.

  10. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions Through the Use of Virtual Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Shaw; Vaugh Whisker

    2004-02-28

    The objective of this multi-phase project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. The project will test the suitability of immersive virtual reality technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups. This report presents the results of the completed project.

  11. A Comparison of the Safety Analysis Process and the Generation IV Proliferation Resistance/Physical Protection Assessment Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    T. A. Bjornard; M. D. Zentner

    2006-05-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is a vehicle for the cooperative international development of future nuclear energy systems. The Generation IV program has established primary objectives in the areas of sustainability, economics, safety and reliability, and Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR&PP). In order to help meet the latter objective a program was launched in December 2002 to develop a rigorous means to assess nuclear energy systems with respect to PR&PP. The study of Physical Protection of a facility is a relatively well established methodology, but an approach to evaluate the Proliferation Resistance of a nuclear fuel cycle is not. This paper will examine the Proliferation Resistance (PR) evaluation methodology being developed by the PR group, which is largely a new approach and compare it to generally accepted nuclear facility safety evaluation methodologies. Safety evaluation methods have been the subjects of decades of development and use. Further, safety design and analysis is fairly broadly understood, as well as being the subject of federally mandated procedures and requirements. It is therefore extremely instructive to compare and contrast the proposed new PR evaluation methodology process with that used in safety analysis. By so doing, instructive and useful conclusions can be derived from the comparison that will help to strengthen the PR methodological approach as it is developed further. From the comparison made in this paper it is evident that there are very strong parallels between the two processes. Most importantly, it is clear that the proliferation resistance aspects of nuclear energy systems are best considered beginning at the very outset of the design process. Only in this way can the designer identify and cost effectively incorporate intrinsic features that might be difficult to implement at some later stage. Also, just like safety, the process to implement proliferation resistance should be a dynamic

  12. Calculation of stellar structure. IV. Results using a detailed energy generation subroutine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, C. A.

    1995-12-01

    The results from two solar model calculations using the "energy.for" energy generation and neutrino flux code (Bahcall & Pinsonneault 1992) are presented. The models of the present Sun were generated using the program described in the first three papers of this series and using only the helium abundance profile from the Bahcall & Ulrich (1988) (BU) standard model in the present model structure calculations. One model is a simulation of the BU model and yields a ^37^Cl solar neutrino counting rate of 7.0SNU (compared to 7.9SNU for the BU model) and a ^71^Ga neutrino experiment counting rate between 112 and 137SNU (compared to 132SNU for the BU model). The second model has a postulated small high-Z core (Rouse 1983) and yields a ^37^Cl neutrino experiment counting rate of 2.45SNU that is within one sigma of the Homestake Collaboration observed rate of (2.55+/-0.25)SNU (see Parke 1995). It yields a ^71^Ga neutrino experiment counting rate between 89 and 103SNU that is within one sigma of the GALLEX Collaboration neutrino experiment observed rate of (79+/-12)SNU (see Parke 1995). The theoretical ^8^B solar neutrino flux and the observed Kamiokande ^8^B flux (Hirata et al. 1989) are discussed regarding the puzzle of explaining both the chlorine experiment results and the Kamiokande results. The modification of the energy.for code for use in the current Rouse program is described. Consistency of a high-Z core solar model with theories of star formation from pre-stellar nuclei (Krat 1952; Urey 1956; Huang 1957) is suggested.

  13. Managing Model Data Introduced Uncertainties in Simulator Predictions for Generation IV Systems via Optimum Experimental Design

    SciTech Connect

    Turinsky, Paul J; Abdel-Khalik, Hany S; Stover, Tracy E

    2011-03-01

    An optimization technique has been developed to select optimized experimental design specifications to produce data specifically designed to be assimilated to optimize a given reactor concept. Data from the optimized experiment is assimilated to generate posteriori uncertainties on the reactor concept’s core attributes from which the design responses are computed. The reactor concept is then optimized with the new data to realize cost savings by reducing margin. The optimization problem iterates until an optimal experiment is found to maximize the savings. A new generation of innovative nuclear reactor designs, in particular fast neutron spectrum recycle reactors, are being considered for the application of closing the nuclear fuel cycle in the future. Safe and economical design of these reactors will require uncertainty reduction in basic nuclear data which are input to the reactor design. These data uncertainty propagate to design responses which in turn require the reactor designer to incorporate additional safety margin into the design, which often increases the cost of the reactor. Therefore basic nuclear data needs to be improved and this is accomplished through experimentation. Considering the high cost of nuclear experiments, it is desired to have an optimized experiment which will provide the data needed for uncertainty reduction such that a reactor design concept can meet its target accuracies or to allow savings to be realized by reducing the margin required due to uncertainty propagated from basic nuclear data. However, this optimization is coupled to the reactor design itself because with improved data the reactor concept can be re-optimized itself. It is thus desired to find the experiment that gives the best optimized reactor design. Methods are first established to model both the reactor concept and the experiment and to efficiently propagate the basic nuclear data uncertainty through these models to outputs. The representativity of the experiment

  14. SVBR-100 module-type fast reactor of the IV generation for regional power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zrodnikov, A. V.; Toshinsky, G. I.; Komlev, O. G.; Stepanov, V. S.; Klimov, N. N.

    2011-08-01

    In the report the following is presented: basic conceptual provisions of the innovative nuclear power technology (NPT) based on modular fast reactors (FR) SVBR-100, summarized results of calculations of the reactor, analysis of the opportunities of multi-purpose application of such reactor facilities (RF) including export potentials with due account of nonproliferation requirements. The most important features of the proposed NPT analyzed in the report are as follows: (1) integral (monoblock) arrangement of the primary circuit equipment with entire elimination of the primary circuit pipelines and valves that considerably reduces the construction and assembly works period and coupling with high boiling point of lead-bismuth coolant (LBC) deterministically eliminates accidents of the LOCA type, (2) option for 100 MWe power and dimensions of the reactor provide: on the one hand, an opportunity to transport the reactor monoblock in factory-readiness by railway as well as other kinds of transport, on the other hand, core breeding ratio (CBR) exceeds 1 while MOX-fuel is used. The preferable area of application of RF SVBR-100 is regional and small power requiring power-units of electric power in a range of (100-600) MW, which could be used for cogeneration-based district heating while locating them nearby cities as well as for generation of electric power in a mode of load tracking in the regions with low network systems.

  15. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. IV. NGC 4216: A Bombarded Spiral in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Sanjaya; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Côté, Patrick; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Ferrarese, Laura; Ferriere, Etienne; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Mihos, J. Christopher; Vollmer, Bernd; Balogh, Michael L.; Carlberg, Ray G.; Boissier, Samuel; Boselli, Alessandro; Durrell, Patrick R.; Emsellem, Eric; MacArthur, Lauren A.; Mei, Simona; Michel-Dansac, Leo; van Driel, Wim

    2013-04-01

    The final stages of mass assembly of present-day massive galaxies are expected to occur through the accretion of multiple satellites. Cosmological simulations thus predict a high frequency of stellar streams resulting from this mass accretion around the massive galaxies in the Local Volume. Such tidal streams are difficult to observe, especially in dense cluster environments, where they are readily destroyed. We present an investigation into the origins of a series of interlaced narrow filamentary stellar structures, loops and plumes in the vicinity of the Virgo Cluster, edge-on spiral galaxy, NGC 4216 that were previously identified by the Blackbird telescope. Using the deeper, higher-resolution, and precisely calibrated optical CFHT/MegaCam images obtained as part of the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS), we confirm the previously identified features and identify a few additional structures. The NGVS data allowed us to make a physical study of these low surface brightness features and investigate their origin. The likely progenitors of the structures were identified as either already cataloged Virgo Cluster Catalog dwarfs or newly discovered satellites caught in the act of being destroyed. They have the same g - i color index and likely contain similar stellar populations. The alignment of three dwarfs along an apparently single stream is intriguing, and we cannot totally exclude that these are second-generation dwarf galaxies being born inside the filament from the debris of an original dwarf. The observed complex structures, including in particular a stream apparently emanating from a satellite of a satellite, point to a high rate of ongoing dwarf destruction/accretion in the region of the Virgo Cluster where NGC 4216 is located. We discuss the age of the interactions and whether they occurred in a group that is just falling into the cluster and shows signs of the so-called pre-processing before it gets affected by the cluster environment, or in a

  16. FLUOMEG: a planar finite difference mesh generator for fluid flow problems with parallel boundaries. [In FORTRAN IV

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinstreuer, C.; Patterson, M.R.

    1980-05-01

    A two- or three-dimensional finite difference mesh generator capable of discretizing subrectangular flow regions (planar coordinates) with arbitrarily shaped bottom contours (vertical dimension) was developed. This economical, interactive computer code, written in FORTRAN IV and employing DISSPLA software together with graphics terminal, generates first a planar rectangular grid of variable element density according to the geometry and local kinematic flow patterns of a given fluid flow problem. Then subrectangular areas are deleted to produce canals, tributaries, bays, and the like. For three-dimensional problems, arbitrary bathymetric profiles (river beds, channel cross section, ocean shoreline profiles, etc.) are approximated with grid lines forming steps of variable spacing. Furthermore, the code works as a preprocessor numbering the discrete elements and the nodal points. Prescribed values for the principal variables can be automatically assigned to solid as well as kinematic boundaries. Cabinet drawings aid in visualizing the complete flow domain. Input data requirements are necessary only to specify the spacing between grid lines, determine land regions that have to be excluded, and to identify boundary nodes. 15 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Hegel's notion of natural purpose.

    PubMed

    Michelini, Francesca

    2012-03-01

    This paper argues that the notion of natural purpose developed by Hegel can only be thoroughly grasped by considering its intimate connection with the idea of contradiction and, particularly, with what Hegel in his philosophy of nature called the 'activity of deficiency'. This expression is used by Hegel to denote the ontological situation of every living being, which is embodied most authentically in the concepts of need and drive. For Hegel, life itself is imbued with contradiction because it is inextricably bound up with what it lacks: its identity is at one with its negation. This paper defends the thesis that Hegel's philosophy-and not just his philosophy of nature-can be characterized as an 'ontology of life' (to use the same expression that Martin Heidegger applied to Aristotle's De Anima), or more precisely, as an ontology of living individuality.

  18. Physico-chemical properties of the new generation IV iron preparations ferumoxytol, iron isomaltoside 1000 and ferric carboxymaltose.

    PubMed

    Neiser, Susann; Rentsch, Daniel; Dippon, Urs; Kappler, Andreas; Weidler, Peter G; Göttlicher, Jörg; Steininger, Ralph; Wilhelm, Maria; Braitsch, Michaela; Funk, Felix; Philipp, Erik; Burckhardt, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    The advantage of the new generation IV iron preparations ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), ferumoxytol (FMX), and iron isomaltoside 1000 (IIM) is that they can be administered in relatively high doses in a short period of time. We investigated the physico-chemical properties of these preparations and compared them with those of the older preparations iron sucrose (IS), sodium ferric gluconate (SFG), and low molecular weight iron dextran (LMWID). Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy indicated akaganeite structures (β-FeOOH) for the cores of FCM, IIM and IS, and a maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) structure for that of FMX. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies confirmed the structure of the carbohydrate of FMX as a reduced, carboxymethylated, low molecular weight dextran, and that of IIM as a reduced Dextran 1000. Polarography yielded significantly different fingerprints of the investigated compounds. Reductive degradation kinetics of FMX was faster than that of FCM and IIM, which is in contrast to the high stability of FMX towards acid degradation. The labile iron content, i.e. the amount of iron that is only weakly bound in the polynuclear iron core, was assessed by a qualitative test that confirmed decreasing labile iron contents in the order SFG ≈ IS > LMWID ≥ FMX ≈ IIM ≈ FCM. The presented data are a step forward in the characterization of these non-biological complex drugs, which is a prerequisite to understand their cellular uptake mechanisms and the relationship between the structure and physiological safety as well as efficacy of these complexes.

  19. Notional Airspace Operations Demonstration Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trongale, Nicholas A.

    2006-01-01

    the NAS Preliminary planning for a notional mission to achieve the objectives and goals has been prepared. The planning is intended to serve as a guide for detailed planning of the AOD.

  20. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitory peptides generated by tryptic hydrolysis of a whey protein concentrate rich in β-lactoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Silvana T; Martínez-Maqueda, Daniel; Recio, Isidra; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca

    2013-11-15

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) is a serine protease involved in the degradation and inactivation of incretin hormones that act by stimulating glucose-dependent insulin secretion after meal ingestion. DPP-IV inhibitors have emerged as new and promising oral agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of β-lactoglobulin as natural source of DPP-IV inhibitory peptides. A whey protein concentrate rich in β-lactoglobulin was hydrolysed with trypsin and fractionated using a chromatographic separation at semipreparative scale. Two of the six collected fractions showed notable DPP-IV inhibitory activity. These fractions were analysed by HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to identify peptides responsible for the observed activity. The most potent fragment (IPAVF) corresponded to β-lactoglobulin f(78-82) which IC50 value was 44.7μM. The results suggest that peptides derived from β-lactoglobulin would be beneficial ingredients of foods against type 2 diabetes.

  1. Efficient generation of volatile cadmium species using Ti(III) and Ti(IV) and application to determination of cadmium by cold vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CVG-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Arslan, Zikri; Yilmaz, Vedat; Rose, LaKeysha

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a highly efficient chemical vapor generation (CVG) approach is reported for determination of cadmium (Cd). Titanium (III) and titanium (IV) were investigated for the first time as catalytic additives along with thiourea, L-cysteine and potassium cyanide (KCN) for generation of volatile Cd species. Both Ti(III) and Ti(IV) provided the highest enhancement with KCN. The improvement with thiourea was marginal (ca. 2-fold), while L-cysteine enhanced signal slightly only with Ti(III) in H2SO4. Optimum CVG conditions were 4% (v/v) HCl + 0.03 M Ti(III) + 0.16 M KCN and 2% (v/v) HNO3 + 0.03 M Ti(IV) + 0.16 M KCN with a 3% (m/v) NaBH4 solution. The sensitivity was improved about 40-fold with Ti(III) and 35-fold with Ti(IV). A limit of detection (LOD) of 3.2 ng L(-1) was achieved with Ti(III) by CVG-ICP-MS. The LOD with Ti(IV) was 6.4 ng L(-1) which was limited by the blank signals in Ti(IV) solution. Experimental evidence indicated that Ti(III) and Ti(IV) enhanced Cd vapor generation catalytically; for best efficiency mixing prior to reaction with NaBH4 was critical. The method was highly robust against the effects of transition metal ions. No significant suppression was observed in the presence of Co(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) up to 1.0 μg mL(-1). Among the hydride forming elements, no interference was observed from As(III) and Se(IV) at 0.5 μg mL(-1) level. The depressive effects from Pb(II) and Sb(III) were not significant at 0.1 μg mL(-1) while those from Bi(III) and Sn(II) were marginal. The procedures were validated with determination of Cd by CVG-ICP-MS in a number certified reference materials, including Nearshore seawater (CASS-4), Bone ash (SRM 1400), Dogfish liver (DOLT-4), Mussel tissue (SRM 2976) and Domestic Sludge (SRM 2781).

  2. Analysis of supercritical CO{sub 2} cycle control strategies and dynamic response for Generation IV Reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J.

    2011-04-12

    The analysis of specific control strategies and dynamic behavior of the supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle has been extended to the two reactor types selected for continued development under the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative; namely, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and the Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). Direct application of the standard S-CO{sub 2} recompression cycle to the VHTR was found to be challenging because of the mismatch in the temperature drop of the He gaseous reactor coolant through the He-to-CO{sub 2} reactor heat exchanger (RHX) versus the temperature rise of the CO{sub 2} through the RHX. The reference VHTR features a large temperature drop of 450 C between the assumed core outlet and inlet temperatures of 850 and 400 C, respectively. This large temperature difference is an essential feature of the VHTR enabling a lower He flow rate reducing the required core velocities and pressure drop. In contrast, the standard recompression S-CO{sub 2} cycle wants to operate with a temperature rise through the RHX of about 150 C reflecting the temperature drop as the CO{sub 2} expands from 20 MPa to 7.4 MPa in the turbine and the fact that the cycle is highly recuperated such that the CO{sub 2} entering the RHX is effectively preheated. Because of this mismatch, direct application of the standard recompression cycle results in a relatively poor cycle efficiency of 44.9%. However, two approaches have been identified by which the S-CO{sub 2} cycle can be successfully adapted to the VHTR and the benefits of the S-CO{sub 2} cycle, especially a significant gain in cycle efficiency, can be realized. The first approach involves the use of three separate cascaded S-CO{sub 2} cycles. Each S-CO{sub 2} cycle is coupled to the VHTR through its own He-to-CO{sub 2} RHX in which the He temperature is reduced by 150 C. The three respective cycles have efficiencies of 54, 50, and 44%, respectively, resulting in a net cycle

  3. DOS-HEATING6: A general conduction code with nuclear heat generation derived from DOT-IV transport calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.L.; Yuecel, A.; Nadkarny, S.

    1988-05-01

    The HEATING6 heat conduction code is modified to (a) read the multigroup particle fluxes from a two-dimensional DOT-IV neutron- photon transport calculation, (b) interpolate the fluxes from the DOT-IV variable (optional) mesh to the HEATING6 control volume mesh, and (c) fold the interpolated fluxes with kerma factors to obtain a nuclear heating source for the heat conduction equation. The modified HEATING6 is placed as a module in the ORNL discrete ordinates system (DOS), and has been renamed DOS-HEATING6. DOS-HEATING6 provides the capability for determining temperature distributions due to nuclear heating in complex, multi-dimensional systems. All of the original capabilities of HEATING6 are retained for the nuclear heating calculation; e.g., generalized boundary conditions (convective, radiative, finned, fixed temperature or heat flux), temperature and space dependent thermal properties, steady-state or transient analysis, general geometry description, etc. The numerical techniques used in the code are reviewed and the user input instructions and JCL to perform DOS-HEATING6 calculations are presented. Finally a sample problem involving coupled DOT-IV and DOS-HEATING6 calculations of a complex space-reactor configurations described, and the input and output of the calculations are listed. 10 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Generation of oxoiron (IV) tetramesitylporphyrin pi-cation radical complexes by m-CPBA oxidation of ferric tetramesitylporphyrin derivatives in butyronitrile at - 78 degrees C. Evidence for the formation of six-coordinate oxoiron (IV) tetramesitylporphyrin pi-cation radical complexes FeIV = O(tmp*)X (X = Cl-, Br-), by Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wolter, T; Meyer-Klaucke, W; Müther, M; Mandon, D; Winkler, H; Trautwein, A X; Weiss, R

    2000-01-30

    The generation of six-coordinate oxoiron (IV) tetramesitylporphyrin pi-caption radical complexes by m-CPBA (meta-chloroperbenzoic acid) oxidation of ferric tetramesitylporphyrin derivatives in butyronitrile at - 78 degrees C was investigated. UV-Vis and EPR spectroscopies indicate that the axial ligand present in the ferric starting derivatives is retained in the high-valent iron complexes. Indirect evidence for the formation of six-coordinate oxoiron (IV) tetramesitylporphyrin complexes FeIV = O(tmp*)X (X=Cl-, Br-) by m-CPBA oxidation of FeX(tmp) (X=Cl-, Br-) in butyronitrile at - 78 degrees C was also obtained by Mössbauer spectroscopy. Direct confirmation of the presence of a halide ion as second axial ligand of iron in these high-valent iron species was obtained by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The EXAFS spectra of the samples obtained by m-CPBA oxidation of FeX(tmp) (X=Cl-, Br-) were refined using two different coordination models including both four porphyrinato-nitrogens and the axial oxo group. The two models include (model I) or exclude (model II) the axial halogen. The statistical tests indicate the presence of a halide ion as second axial ligand of iron in both derivatives. The refinements led to the following bond distances: FeIV=O(tmp*)Cl(3):Fe-O=1.66(1),Fe-Cl=2.39(2) and Fe-Np=1.99(1) A;FeIV=O(tmp*)Br(4):Fe-O=1.65(1),Fe-Br=2.93(2), Fe-Np=2.02(1) A. The lengthening of the Fe-X(X=Cl-, Br-) distances relative to those occurring in the ferric precursor porphyrins is, most probably, related to the strong trans influence of the oxoiron(IV) fragment present in 3 or 4.

  5. Asteroids IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    . Asteroids, like planets, are driven by a great variety of both dynamical and physical mechanisms. In fact, images sent back by space missions show a collection of small worlds whose characteristics seem designed to overthrow our preconceived notions. Given their wide range of sizes and surface compositions, it is clear that many formed in very different places and at different times within the solar nebula. These characteristics make them an exciting challenge for researchers who crave complex problems. The return of samples from these bodies may ultimately be needed to provide us with solutions. In the book Asteroids IV, the editors and authors have taken major strides in the long journey toward a much deeper understanding of our fascinating planetary ancestors. This book reviews major advances in 43 chapters that have been written and reviewed by a team of more than 200 international authorities in asteroids. It is aimed to be as comprehensive as possible while also remaining accessible to students and researchers who are interested in learning about these small but nonetheless important worlds. We hope this volume will serve as a leading reference on the topic of asteroids for the decade to come. We are deeply indebted to the many authors and referees for their tremendous efforts in helping us create Asteroids IV. We also thank the members of the Asteroids IV scientific organizing committee for helping us shape the structure and content of the book. The conference associated with the book, "Asteroids Comets Meteors 2014" held June 30-July 4, 2014, in Helsinki, Finland, did an outstanding job of demonstrating how much progress we have made in the field over the last decade. We are extremely grateful to our host Karri Muinonnen and his team. The editors are also grateful to the Asteroids IV production staff, namely Renée Dotson and her colleagues at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, for their efforts, their invaluable assistance, and their enthusiasm; they made life as

  6. A typology of four notions of confounding in epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Tsuda, Toshihide; Yamamoto, Eiji

    2017-02-01

    Confounding is a major concern in epidemiology. Despite its significance, the different notions of confounding have not been fully appreciated in the literature, leading to confusion of causal concepts in epidemiology. In this article, we aim to highlight the importance of differentiating between the subtly different notions of confounding from the perspective of counterfactual reasoning. By using a simple example, we illustrate the significance of considering the distribution of response types to distinguish causation from association, highlighting that confounding depends not only on the population chosen as the target of inference, but also on the notions of confounding in distribution and confounding in measure. This point has been relatively underappreciated, partly because some literature on the concept of confounding has only used the exposed and unexposed groups as the target populations, while it would be helpful to use the total population as the target population. Moreover, to clarify a further distinction between confounding "in expectation" and "realized" confounding, we illustrate the usefulness of examining the distribution of exposure status in the target population. To grasp the explicit distinction between confounding in expectation and realized confounding, we need to understand the mechanism that generates exposure events, not the product of that mechanism. Finally, we graphically illustrate this point, highlighting the usefulness of directed acyclic graphs in examining the presence of confounding in distribution, in the notion of confounding in expectation.

  7. A typology of four notions of confounding in epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Tsuda, Toshihide; Yamamoto, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Confounding is a major concern in epidemiology. Despite its significance, the different notions of confounding have not been fully appreciated in the literature, leading to confusion of causal concepts in epidemiology. In this article, we aim to highlight the importance of differentiating between the subtly different notions of confounding from the perspective of counterfactual reasoning. By using a simple example, we illustrate the significance of considering the distribution of response types to distinguish causation from association, highlighting that confounding depends not only on the population chosen as the target of inference, but also on the notions of confounding in distribution and confounding in measure. This point has been relatively underappreciated, partly because some literature on the concept of confounding has only used the exposed and unexposed groups as the target populations, while it would be helpful to use the total population as the target population. Moreover, to clarify a further distinction between confounding “in expectation” and “realized” confounding, we illustrate the usefulness of examining the distribution of exposure status in the target population. To grasp the explicit distinction between confounding in expectation and realized confounding, we need to understand the mechanism that generates exposure events, not the product of that mechanism. Finally, we graphically illustrate this point, highlighting the usefulness of directed acyclic graphs in examining the presence of confounding in distribution, in the notion of confounding in expectation. PMID:28142011

  8. Molecular characterization and polyclonal antibody generation against core component CagX protein of Helicobacter pylori type IV secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Gopal Jee; Kumar, Awanish; Pal, Jagannath; Mukhopadhyay, Gauranga

    2014-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria Helicobacter pylori cause gastric ulcer, duodenal cancer, and found in almost half of the world’s residents. The protein responsible for this disease is secreted through type IV secretion system (TFSS) of H. pylori. TFSS is encoded by 40-kb region of chromosomal DNA known as cag-pathogenicity island (PAI). TFSS comprises of three major components: cytoplasmic/inner membrane ATPase, transmembrane core-complex and outer membranous pilli, and associated subunits. Core complex consists of CagX, CagT, CagM, and Cag3(δ) proteins as per existing knowledge. In this study, we have characterized one of the important component of core-complex forming sub-unit protein, i.e., CagX. Complete ORF of CagX except signal peptide coding region was cloned and expressed in pET28a vector. Purification of CagX protein was performed, and polyclonal anti-sera against full-length recombinant CagX were raised in rabbit model. We obtained a very specific and high titer, CagX anti-sera that were utilized to characterize endogenous CagX. Surface localization of CagX was also seen by immunofluorescence microscopy. In short for the first time a full-length CagX was characterized, and we showed that CagX is the part of high molecular weight core complex, which is important for assembly and function of H. pylori TFSS. PMID:24637488

  9. Investigation of a Novel NDE Method for Monitoring Thermomechanical Damage and Microstructure Evolution in Ferritic-Martensitic Steels for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Peter

    2013-09-30

    The main goal of the proposed project is the development of validated nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for in situ monitoring of ferritic-martensitic steels like Grade 91 9Cr-1Mo, which are candidate materials for Generation IV nuclear energy structural components operating at temperatures up to ~650{degree}C and for steam-generator tubing for sodium-cooled fast reactors. Full assessment of thermomechanical damage requires a clear separation between thermally activated microstructural evolution and creep damage caused by simultaneous mechanical stress. Creep damage can be classified as "negligible" creep without significant plastic strain and "ordinary" creep of the primary, secondary, and tertiary kind that is accompanied by significant plastic deformation and/or cavity nucleation and growth. Under negligible creep conditions of interest in this project, minimal or no plastic strain occurs, and the accumulation of creep damage does not significantly reduce the fatigue life of a structural component so that low-temperature design rules, such as the ASME Section III, Subsection NB, can be applied with confidence. The proposed research project will utilize a multifaceted approach in which the feasibility of electrical conductivity and thermo-electric monitoring methods is researched and coupled with detailed post-thermal/creep exposure characterization of microstructural changes and damage processes using state-of-the-art electron microscopy techniques, with the aim of establishing the most effective nondestructive materials evaluation technique for particular degradation modes in high-temperature alloys that are candidates for use in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) as well as providing the necessary mechanism-based underpinnings for relating the two. Only techniques suitable for practical application in situ will be considered. As the project evolves and results accumulate, we will also study the use of this technique for monitoring other GEN IV

  10. Young Adolescents' Knowledge and Notions of Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppen, Frans H.; Feinberg, Joseph R.; Arrowood-Schultheis, Chelsie M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the US naturalization test as a springboard to gauge the citizenship knowledge and notions of young adolescent students in Ohio and Georgia. The participants' citizenship knowledge was partially measured by administering questions from the US naturalization test in two case studies. Students from a range of…

  11. Titanium(IV) isopropoxide mediated solution phase reductive amination on an automated platform: application in the generation of urea and amide libraries.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, S; Fan, L; Vo, L; Labadie, J

    2000-04-01

    Amine libraries and their derivatives are important targets for high throughput synthesis because of their versatility as medicinal agents and agrochemicals. As a part of our efforts towards automated chemical library synthesis, a titanium(IV) isopropoxide mediated solution phase reductive amination protocol was successfully translated to automation on the Trident(TM) library synthesizer of Argonaut Technologies. An array of 24 secondary amines was prepared in high yield and purity from 4 primary amines and 6 carbonyl compounds. These secondary amines were further utilized in a split synthesis to generate libraries of ureas, amides and sulfonamides in solution phase on the Trident(TM). The automated runs included 192 reactions to synthesize 96 ureas in duplicate and 96 reactions to synthesize 48 amides and 48 sulfonamides. A number of polymer-assisted solution phase protocols were employed for parallel work-up and purification of the products in each step.

  12. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the use of Virtual Environments: Task 1 Completion Report

    SciTech Connect

    Whisker, V.E.; Baratta, A.J.; Shaw, T.S.; Winters, J.W.; Trikouros, N.; Hess, C.

    2002-11-26

    OAK B204 The objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. Specifically, this project will test the suitability of Immersive Projection Display (IPD) technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups.

  13. Development and Validation of Temperature Dependent Thermal Neutron Scattering Laws for Applications and Safety Implications in Generation IV Reactor Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Ayman Hawari

    2008-06-20

    The overall obljectives of this project are to critically review the currently used thermal neutron scattering laws for various moderators as a function of temperature, select as well documented and representative set of experimental data sensitive to the neutron spectra to generate a data base of benchmarks, update models and models parameters by introducing new developments in thermalization theory and condensed matter physics into various computational approaches in establishing the scattering laws, benchmark the results against the experimentatl set. In the case of graphite, a validation experiment is performed by observing nutron slowing down as a function of temperatures equal to or greater than room temperature.

  14. State-of-the-Art Assessment of Testing and Testability of Custom LSI/VLSI Circuits. Volume IV. Test Generation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    containing 240 gates and 36 flip-flops [Hill & Huey 1977]. It 13 S tart aults Fault (1)-AgorithmI (2) Sensitization Searchj o. , ye F nauls no -- - Delet...Conf., Cherry Hill, NJ, pp. 37-41, October 1979. [Lesser & Shedletsky 1980] J.D. Lesser & J.J. Shedletsky: "An experimental delay test generator for...patterns within a structured sequential logic network," Digest Semiconductor Test Symp., Cherry Hill, NJ, pp. 19-27, October 1977. [Yamada et al. 1977

  15. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Program (NERI) Quarterly Progress Report; New Design Equations for Swelling and Irradiation Creep in Generation IV Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfer, W G; Surh, M P; Garner, F A; Chrzan, D C; Schaldach, C; Sturgeon, J B

    2003-02-13

    The objectives of this research project are to significantly extend the theoretical foundation and the modeling of radiation-induced microstructural changes in structural materials used in Generation IV nuclear reactors, and to derive from these microstructure models the constitutive laws for void swelling, irradiation creep and stress-induced swelling, as well as changes in mechanical properties. The need for the proposed research is based on three major developments and advances over the past two decades. First, new experimental discoveries have been made on void swelling and irradiation creep which invalidate previous theoretical models and empirical constitutive laws for swelling and irradiation creep. Second, recent advances in computational methods and power make it now possible to model the complex processes of microstructure evolution over long-term neutron exposures. Third, it is now required that radiation-induced changes in structural materials over extended lifetimes be predicted and incorporated in the design of Generation IV reactors. Our approach to modeling and data analysis is a dual one in accord with both the objectives to simulate the evolution of the microstructure and to develop design equations for macroscopic properties. Validation of the models through data analysis is therefore carried out at both the microscopic and the macroscopic levels. For the microstructure models, we utilize the transmission electron microscopy results from steels irradiated in reactors and from model materials irradiated by neutrons as well as ion bombardments. The macroscopic constitutive laws will be tested and validated by analyzing density data, irradiation creep data, diameter changes of fuel elements, and post-irradiation tensile data. Validation of both microstructure models and macroscopic constitutive laws is a more stringent test of the internal consistency of the underlying science for radiation effects in structural materials for nuclear reactors.

  16. [Technology and notion of human life].

    PubMed

    Kakimoto, Yoshimi

    2013-12-01

    This article aims to examine the rules of robotics whose sense is modified in society and which change the notion of human body. Asimov proposed three rules of robotics in his novel of science fiction, which become the basis of the rules concerning the study of the development of robotics. These rules are created in order to avoid harming human beings and to mitigate the variant difficulties of being human being. As for latter, robotics has functioned as a meaning of extension of the physical faculty. Thus, technology develops in the direction of the enhancement of the capability of human body beyond the necessities of life. Robotics doesn't only suggest a rethinking of the notion of a human being but also changes our understanding of the human body.

  17. Regenerative Heater Optimization for Steam Turbo-Generation Cycles of Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants with a Comparison of Two Concepts for the Westinghouse International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.C.

    2002-08-01

    The intent of this study is to discuss some of the many factors involved in the development of the design and layout of a steam turbo-generation unit as part of a modular Generation IV nuclear power plant. Of the many factors involved in the design and layout, this research will cover feed water system layout and optimization issues. The research is arranged in hopes that it can be generalized to any Generation IV system which uses a steam powered turbo-generation unit. The research is done using the ORCENT-II heat balance codes and the Salisbury methodology to be reviewed herein. The Salisbury methodology is used on an original cycle design by Famiani for the Westinghouse IRIS and the effects due to parameter variation are studied. The vital parameters of the Salisbury methodology are the incremental heater surface capital cost (S) in $/ft{sup 2}, the value of incremental power (I) in $/kW, and the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) in Btu/ft{sup 2}-degrees Fahrenheit-hr. Each is varied in order to determine the effects on the cycles overall heat rate, output, as well as, the heater surface areas. The effects of each are shown. Then the methodology is then used to compare the optimized original Famiani design consisting of seven regenerative feedwater heaters with an optimized new cycle concept, INRC8, containing four regenerative heaters. The results are shown. It can be seen that a trade between the complexity of the seven stage regenerative Famiani cycle and the simplicity of the INRC8 cycle can be made. It is desired that this methodology can be used to show the ability to evaluate modularity through the value of size a complexity of the system as well as the performance. It also shows the effectiveness of the Salisbury methodology in the optimization of regenerative cycles for such an evaluation.

  18. Hydroxypyridinonate complex stability of group (IV) metals and tetravalent f-block elements: the key to the next generation of chelating agents for radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Sturzbecher-Hoehne, Manuel; Choi, Taylor A; Abergel, Rebecca J

    2015-04-06

    The solution thermodynamics of the water-soluble complexes formed between 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) and Zr(IV) or Pu(IV) were investigated to establish the metal coordination properties of this octadentate chelating agent. Stability constants log β110 = 43.1 ± 0.6 and 43.5 ± 0.7 were determined for [Zr(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))] and [Pu(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))], respectively, by spectrophotometric competition titrations against Ce(IV). Such high thermodynamic stabilities not only confirm the unparalleled Pu(IV) affinity of 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) as a decorporation agent but also corroborate the great potential of hydroxypyridinonate ligands as new (89)Zr-chelating platforms for immuno-PET applications. These experimental values are in excellent agreement with previous estimates and are discussed with respect to ionic radius and electronic configuration, in comparison with those of Ce(IV) and Th(IV). Furthermore, a liquid chromatography assay combined with mass spectrometric detection was developed to probe the separation of the neutral [M(IV)(3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO))] complex species (M = Zr, Ce, Th, and Pu), providing additional insight into the coordination differences between group IV and tetravalent f-block metals and on the role of d and f orbitals in bonding interactions.

  19. [The notion of task in focus groups].

    PubMed

    Dall'Agnol, Clarice Maria; de Magalhães, Ana Maria Müller; Mano, Gustavo Caetano de Mattos; Olschowsky, Agnes; da Silva, Flávia Pacheco

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to revisit the concept of task in light of Pichon-Riviére's referential and to discuss its application in research with focus groups. Focus groups are understood as a research technique which proposes to investigate a topic in depth, allowing the construction of new ideas and answers on the subject in focus. The presuppositions of operative groups were used to support the research practice with focus groups. In these, the notion of task has a key strategic position from which it seeks to intervene in society through dialogue and collective construction, unlike simple data collecting

  20. Little Jiffy, Mark IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Henry F.; Rice, John

    1974-01-01

    In this paper three changes and one new development for the method of exploratory factor analysis (a second generation Little Jiffy) developed by Kaiser are described. Following this short description a step-by-step computer algorithm of the revised method, dubbed Little Jiffy, Mark IV is presented. (MP)

  1. Notions of similarity for systems biology models.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Ron; Hoehndorf, Robert; Kacprowski, Tim; Knüpfer, Christian; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2016-10-14

    Systems biology models are rapidly increasing in complexity, size and numbers. When building large models, researchers rely on software tools for the retrieval, comparison, combination and merging of models, as well as for version control. These tools need to be able to quantify the differences and similarities between computational models. However, depending on the specific application, the notion of 'similarity' may greatly vary. A general notion of model similarity, applicable to various types of models, is still missing. Here we survey existing methods for the comparison of models, introduce quantitative measures for model similarity, and discuss potential applications of combined similarity measures. To frame model comparison as a general problem, we describe a theoretical approach to defining and computing similarities based on a combination of different model aspects. The six aspects that we define as potentially relevant for similarity are underlying encoding, references to biological entities, quantitative behaviour, qualitative behaviour, mathematical equations and parameters and network structure. We argue that future similarity measures will benefit from combining these model aspects in flexible, problem-specific ways to mimic users' intuition about model similarity, and to support complex model searches in databases.

  2. Welding IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding IV, a competency-based course in advanced arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with proficiency in: (1) single vee groove welding using code specifications established by the American Welding Society…

  3. I-V and DLTS study of generation and annihilation of deep-level defects in an oxygen-ion irradiated bipolar junction transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhu, K. V.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Ravindra, M.; Damle, R.

    A commercial bipolar junction transistor (2N 2219A, npn) irradiated with 84 MeV O6+-ions with fluence of the order of 1013 ions cm-2 is studied for radiation-induced gain degradation and deep-level defects or recombination centers. I-V measurements are made to study the gain degradation as a function of ion fluence. Properties such as activation energy, trap concentration and capture cross section of deep levels are studied by deep-level transient spectroscopy. Minority carrier trap energy levels with energies ranging from EC -0.17 eV to EC -0.55 eV are observed in the base-collector junction of the transistor. Majority carrier defect levels are also observed with energies ranging from EV +0.26 eV to EV +0.44 eV. The irradiated device is subjected to isothermal and isochronal annealing. The defects are seen to anneal above 250 °C. The defects generated in the base region of the transistor by displacement damage appear to be responsible for an increase in base current through Shockley-Read-Hall or multi-phonon recombination and consequent transistor gain degradation.

  4. SPECIATION OF SELENIUM AND ARSENIC COMPOUNDS BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS WITH HYDRODYNAMICALLY MODIFIED ELECTROOSMOTIC FLOW AND ON-LINE REDUCTION OF SELENIUM(VI) TO SELENIUM(IV) WITH HYDRIDE GENERATION INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRIC DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) with hydride generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to determine four arsenicals and two selenium species. Selenate (SeVI) was reduced on-line to selenite (SeIV') by mixing the CE effluent with concentrated HCl. A microporo...

  5. NUCLEAR ENERGY RESEARCH INITIATIVE (NERI) PROGRAM GRANT NUMBER DE-FG03-00SF22168 TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT (Nov. 15, 2001 - Feb. 15,2002) ''Design and Layout Concepts for Compact, Factory-Produced, Transportable, Generation IV Reactor Systems''

    SciTech Connect

    Fred R. Mynatt; Andy Kadak; Marc Berte; Larry Miller; Mohammed Khan; Joe McConn; Lawrence Townsend; Wesley Williams; Martin Williamson

    2002-03-15

    The objectives of this project are to develop and evaluate nuclear power plant designs and layout concepts to maximize the benefits of compact modular Generation IV reactor concepts including factory fabrication and packaging for optimal transportation and siting. Three nuclear power plant concepts are being studied representing water, helium and lead-bismuth coolants. This is the sixth quarterly progress report.

  6. IVS Organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    International VLBI Service (IVS) is an international collaboration of organizations which operate or support Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) components. The goals are: To provide a service to support geodetic, geophysical and astrometric research and operational activities. To promote research and development activities in all aspects of the geodetic and astrometric VLBI technique. To interact with the community of users of VLBI products and to integrate VLBI into a global Earth observing system.

  7. Superiority of second over first generation chemotherapy in a randomized trial for stage III-IV intermediate and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL): the 1980-1985 EORTC trial. The EORTC Lymphoma Group.

    PubMed

    Carde, P; Meerwaldt, J H; van Glabbeke, M; Somers, R; Monconduit, M; Thomas, J; de Wolf-Peeters, C; de Pauw, B; Tanguy, A; Kluin-Nelemans, J C

    1991-06-01

    A first-generation CHOP-like cyclic combination chemotherapy (CT) regimen using cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 IV d1, hydroxorubicin (doxorubicin) 50 mg/m2 IV d1, VM26 60 mg/m2 IV d1, and prednisone 40 mg/m2 PO d1-5 (CHVmP) was compared to a second-generation combination wherein vincristine 1.4 mg/m2 IV and bleomycin 6 mg/m2 IM/IV were added at mid-interval (d15) to the former drugs (CHVmP + VB) in the treatment of intermediate- and high-grade malignant NHL. From April 1980 to January 1986, 141 eligible patients with stage III-IV unfavorable histologies (except T lymphoblastic NHL) entered this EORTC randomized trial. In both arms adjuvant radiotherapy (30 Gy) was given in instances of bulky or residual disease. In all patient subsets the outcome favored the second-generation regimen. The difference was even greater in patients with Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma (DLCL). At 5 years, overall survival was 53% with CHVmP + VB versus 29% (p = 0.002). The advantage was due to a higher complete remission (CR) rate (80% versus 50%, p = 0.01). Indeed, once CR was achieved the relapse-free survival (RFS) was not significantly influenced (59% versus 49%). No significant additional toxicity could be attributed to vincristine and bleomycin. This study demonstrates a clear benefit for intermediate- and high-risk malignant NHL and particularly DLCL from intercalating non-myelotoxic drugs at mid-cycle intervals, without adverse effects.

  8. The Notion of Substance in Physical Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanzandt, Joseph David

    The thesis explores the philosophical consequences of adopting the view that the principle of non-contradiction, the principle of sufficient reason, and the monistic notion of substance are more closely linked than most modern and contemporary philosophers have supposed. This thesis is then applied to show the connections between the metaphysical views of Spinoza and the view of nature of Albert Einstein. The first chapter is an historical overview of the principles of sufficient reason and non-contradiction, and the notion of substance, followed by a presentation of the reasons that led the author to conclude that the usual treatment of these concepts requires revision. These reasons are based upon substantial cause theory, developed in the 1970s by Richard Cole. The second and third chapters are an interpretation of Book 1 of Spinoza's Ethics from the viewpoint presented in the first chapter. The implicit role of the principles of non-contradiction and sufficient reason in Spinoza's argument is drawn out through an examination of his definitions, axioms and propositions. The third and fourth chapters are an interpretation and criticism of Immanuel Kant. It is first shown that the common dismissal of Kant's philosophy based upon the discovery of non-Euclidean geometries and the denial of strict causality among some physical events is not well founded; ways in which Kant's framework can accommodate these problems are proposed. It is then argued that Kant's criticism of traditional metaphysics is not conclusive. In particular, Kant's arguments against the possibility of an ontological argument are examined and criticisms of his arguments are presented. The sixth and seventh chapters contain an historical account of the development of physics in the 20th century to illustrate the strong tendency toward unification found in science. It is suggested that this natural tendency to seek ever higher levels of unification is evidence that the principle of sufficient reason

  9. Notions of "Rhetoric as Epistemic" in Ancient Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.

    The notion that rhetoric (and to a lesser extent, argument) is epistemic is an increasingly popular one today, although it can be traced to ancient Greece. The notion holds that rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, creates and shapes knowledge. Two ancient authors--Aristophanes and Plato--provide evidence that others had notions of rhetoric as…

  10. Association of rat thoracic aorta dilatation by astragaloside IV with the generation of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors and nitric oxide, and the blockade of Ca2+ channels

    PubMed Central

    HU, GUANYING; LI, XIXIONG; ZHANG, SANYIN; WANG, XIN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the roles of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs) and nitric oxide (NO) in mediating the vasodilatation response to astragaloside IV and the effects of astragaloside IV on voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and receptor-operated Ca2+ channels in rat thoracic aortic rings precontracted with potassium chloride (KCl; 60 mM) or phenylephrine (PHE; 1 µM). The results showed that astragaloside IV (1×10−4-3×10−1 g/l) concentration-dependently relaxed the contraction induced by KCl (10–90 mM) or PHE (1×10−9-3×10−5 µM) and inhibited concentration-contraction curves for the two vasoconstrictors in the aortic rings. Preincubation with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 µM) significantly attenuated astragaloside IV-induced relaxation in the endothelium-intact and -denuded arterial rings precontracted with PHE. Astragaloside IV, following preincubation with L-NAME (100 µM) plus indomethacin (10 µM), exerted vasodilatation, which was depressed by tetraethtylamine (1 mM) and propargylglycine (100 µM), but not by carbenoxolone (10 µM), catalase (500 U/ml) or proadifen hydrochloride (10 µM). The action mode of astragaloside IV was evident in comparison to nifedipine. Inhibition of PHE-induced contraction by astragaloside IV (100 mg/l) was more potent compared to inhibition of KCl-induced contraction, while inhibition of KCl-induced contraction by nifedipine (100 mg/l) was more potent compared to inhibition of PHE-induced contraction by nifedipine (100 mg/l). In addition, the combination of astragaloside IV and nifedipine exhibited synergistic and additive inhibitory effects on contraction evoked by KCl, which was similar to PHE. In conclusion, astragaloside IV, as a Ca2+ antagonist, relaxes the vessels through the blockade of superior receptor-operated Ca2+ and inferior voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, which modulate NO from vascular endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, and

  11. Stabilization of higher-valent states of iron porphyrin by hydroxide and methoxide ligands: electrochemical generation of iron(IV)-oxo porphyrins.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, W A; Calderwood, T S; Bruice, T C

    1985-01-01

    An electrochemical study of hydroxide- and methoxide-ligated iron(III) tetraphenylporphyrins possessing ortho-phenyl substituents that block mu-oxo dimer formation has been carried out. Ligation by these strongly basic oxyanions promotes the formation of iron(IV)-oxo porphyrins upon one-electron oxidation. Further one-electron oxidation of the latter provides the iron(IV)-oxo porphyrin pi-cation radical. These results are discussed in terms of chemical model studies and the enzymatic intermediate compounds I and II of the peroxidases. PMID:3859865

  12. The notion of the Cambrian pananimalia genome.

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, S

    1996-01-01

    The toil by photosynthesizing cyanobacteria and blue-green algae of nearly three billion years appeared to have finally resulted in the sufficient accumulation of molecular oxygen. So, the stage was set for the emergence, at the ocean bottom, of diverse animals that were consumers of molecular oxygen. It now appears that this Cambrian explosion, during which nearly all the extant animal phyla have emerged, was of an astonishingly short duration, lasting only 6-10 million years. Inasmuch as only a 1% DNA base sequence change is expected in 10 million years under the standard spontaneous mutation rate, I propose that all those diverse animals of the early Cambrian period, some 550 million years ago, were endowed with nearly identical genomes, with differential usage of the same set of genes accounting for the extreme diversities of body forms. Some of the more pertinent genes that are thought to be included in the Cambrian pananimalia genome are as follows. (i) A gene for lysyloxidase that, in the presence of molecular oxygen, crosslinked collagen triple helices to produce ligaments and tendons, thus contributing to the stout bodies of the Cambrian animals. (ii) Genes for hemoglobin; these internal transporters of molecular oxygen are today seen sporadically in members of diverse animal phyla. (iii) The Pax-6 gene for eye formation; the eyes of a ribbon worm to a human are organized by this gene. In animals without eyes, the same gene organizes other sensory systems and organs. (iv) A series of Hox genes for the anterior-posterior (cranio-caudal) body plans: these genes are also present in all phyla of the kingdom Animalia. PMID:8710894

  13. The notion of the Cambrian pananimalia genome.

    PubMed

    Ohno, S

    1996-08-06

    The toil by photosynthesizing cyanobacteria and blue-green algae of nearly three billion years appeared to have finally resulted in the sufficient accumulation of molecular oxygen. So, the stage was set for the emergence, at the ocean bottom, of diverse animals that were consumers of molecular oxygen. It now appears that this Cambrian explosion, during which nearly all the extant animal phyla have emerged, was of an astonishingly short duration, lasting only 6-10 million years. Inasmuch as only a 1% DNA base sequence change is expected in 10 million years under the standard spontaneous mutation rate, I propose that all those diverse animals of the early Cambrian period, some 550 million years ago, were endowed with nearly identical genomes, with differential usage of the same set of genes accounting for the extreme diversities of body forms. Some of the more pertinent genes that are thought to be included in the Cambrian pananimalia genome are as follows. (i) A gene for lysyloxidase that, in the presence of molecular oxygen, crosslinked collagen triple helices to produce ligaments and tendons, thus contributing to the stout bodies of the Cambrian animals. (ii) Genes for hemoglobin; these internal transporters of molecular oxygen are today seen sporadically in members of diverse animal phyla. (iii) The Pax-6 gene for eye formation; the eyes of a ribbon worm to a human are organized by this gene. In animals without eyes, the same gene organizes other sensory systems and organs. (iv) A series of Hox genes for the anterior-posterior (cranio-caudal) body plans: these genes are also present in all phyla of the kingdom Animalia.

  14. Expanding Notions of Social Reproduction: Grandparents' Educational Attainment and Grandchildren's Cognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Jason L.; Ready, Douglas D.

    2011-01-01

    Inherited privilege and status remain powerful factors in the distribution of opportunity in American life. These transfers of socioeconomic resources across generations are facilitated by the links between adult educational attainment and children's cognitive skills. Our current study expands the notion of social reproduction beyond this narrow…

  15. Exploring the notion of space coupling propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1990-01-01

    All existing methods of space propulsion are based on expelling a reaction mass (propellant) to induce motion. Alternatively, 'space coupling propulsion' refers to speculations about reacting with space-time itself to generate propulsive forces. Conceivably, the resulting increases in payload, range, and velocity would constitute a breakthrough in space propulsion. Such speculations are still considered science fiction for a number of reasons: (1) it appears to violate conservation of momentum; (2) no reactive media appear to exist in space; (3) no 'Grand Uniform Theories' exist to link gravity, an acceleration field, to other phenomena of nature such as electrodynamics. The rationale behind these objectives is the focus of interest. Various methods to either satisfy or explore these issues are presented along with secondary considerations. It is found that it may be useful to consider alternative conventions of science to further explore speculations of space coupling propulsion.

  16. The Notions of Chance and Probabilities in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikiforidou, Zoi; Pange, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Chance, randomness and probability constitute statistical notions that are interrelated and characterize the logicomathematical thinking of children. Traditional theories support that probabilistic thinking evolves after the age of 7. However, recent research has underlined that children, as young as 4, may possess and develop basic notions,…

  17. Four Notions on the Qualities of Cooperating Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramo, Joseph Michael; Campbell, Mark Robin

    2016-01-01

    This article develops criteria for the selection, professional development, and assessment of cooperating teachers through four "notions." These notions suggest that cooperating teachers might (1) possess knowledge of educational theory and practice; (2) understand the importance of context in education; (3) understand narrative's role…

  18. What Is Reflection? Looking for Clarity in an Ambiguous Notion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarà, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The notion of reflection nowadays is considered crucial in the field of teaching and teacher education. However, although the great majority of approaches to reflection are grounded on the same main theoretical sources, the meaning of this notion is unanimously recognized in the field to be ambiguous. This article aims to look for clarity about…

  19. 26 CFR 1.446-3 - Notional principal contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... indebtedness under general principles of Federal income tax law is not a notional principal contract. An option... per bushel times a notional amount of 100,000 bushels of corn and J is obligated to make annual... of a one year forward for corn is $2.40 per bushel, of a two year forward $2.55 per bushel, and of...

  20. 26 CFR 1.446-3 - Notional principal contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... indebtedness under general principles of Federal income tax law is not a notional principal contract. An option... per bushel times a notional amount of 100,000 bushels of corn and J is obligated to make annual... of a one year forward for corn is $2.40 per bushel, of a two year forward $2.55 per bushel, and of...

  1. 26 CFR 1.446-3 - Notional principal contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... indebtedness under general principles of Federal income tax law is not a notional principal contract. An option... per bushel times a notional amount of 100,000 bushels of corn and J is obligated to make annual... of a one year forward for corn is $2.40 per bushel, of a two year forward $2.55 per bushel, and of...

  2. 26 CFR 1.446-3 - Notional principal contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... indebtedness under general principles of Federal income tax law is not a notional principal contract. An option... per bushel times a notional amount of 100,000 bushels of corn and J is obligated to make annual... of a one year forward for corn is $2.40 per bushel, of a two year forward $2.55 per bushel, and of...

  3. 26 CFR 1.446-3 - Notional principal contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... indebtedness under general principles of Federal income tax law is not a notional principal contract. An option... per bushel times a notional amount of 100,000 bushels of corn and J is obligated to make annual... of a one year forward for corn is $2.40 per bushel, of a two year forward $2.55 per bushel, and of...

  4. Exploring Notions of Freedom in and through Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Thomas W.; Harper, Helen J.

    2006-01-01

    This article offers teachers a critical framework for use and adaptation in organizing class discussions focused on notions of freedom in young adult literature. The authors open by discussing the notion of freedom, including concepts related to negative and positive freedom and to arguments advocating critical discussion of common assumptions…

  5. Analyzing Empirical Notions of Suffering: Advancing Youth Dialogue and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baring, Rito V.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the possibilities of advancing youth dialogue and education among the Filipino youth using empirical notions of students on suffering. Examining empirical data, this analysis exposes uncharted notions of suffering and shows relevant meanings that underscore the plausible trappings of youth dialogue and its benefits on…

  6. A Functional-Notional Syllabus for Adult Learners of Irish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David, Comp.; And Others

    The first functional-notional syllabus for adult learners of Irish, written in Irish and English, is presented. The syllabus begins with an introductory section about functional-notional syllabi, their definitions and implications, and the characteristics of this syllabus. The second section provides the general aims and specific behavioral…

  7. Students' Notions regarding "Covariance" of a Physical Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandyopadhyay, Atanu; Kumar, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    A physical theory is said to be covariant with respect to a certain class of transformations when its basic equations retain their "form" under those transformations. It is one of the basic notions encountered in physics, particularly in the domain of relativity. In this paper we study in some detail how students deal with this notion in different…

  8. Impact of commercial precooking of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) on the generation of peptides, after pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis, capable to inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase-IV.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Luis; Chen, Karen; de Mejía, Elvira González

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the bioactive properties of the released peptides from commercially available precook common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Bioactive properties and peptide profiles were evaluated in protein hydrolysates of raw and commercially precooked common beans. Five varieties (Black, Pinto, Red, Navy, and Great Northern) were selected for protein extraction, protein and peptide molecular mass profiles, and peptide sequences. Potential bioactivities of hydrolysates, including antioxidant capacity and inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), and angiotensin converting enzyme I (ACE) were analyzed after digestion with pepsin/pancreatin. Hydrolysates from Navy beans were the most potent inhibitors of DPP-IV with no statistical differences between precooked and raw (IC50 = 0.093 and 0.095 mg protein/mL, respectively). α-Amylase inhibition was higher for raw Red, Navy and Great Northern beans (36%, 31%, 27% relative to acarbose (rel ac)/mg protein, respectively). α-Glucosidase inhibition among all bean hydrolysates did not show significant differences; however, inhibition values were above 40% rel ac/mg protein. IC50 values for ACE were not significantly different among all bean hydrolysates (range 0.20 to 0.34 mg protein/mL), except for Red bean that presented higher IC50 values. Peptide molecular mass profile ranged from 500 to 3000 Da. A total of 11 and 17 biologically active peptide sequences were identified in raw and precooked beans, respectively. Peptide sequences YAGGS and YAAGS from raw Great Northern and precooked Pinto showed similar amino acid sequences and same potential ACE inhibition activity. Processing did not affect the bioactive properties of released peptides from precooked beans. Commercially precooked beans could contribute to the intake of bioactive peptides and promote health.

  9. Sur l'histoire de la notion du potentiel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurkina, M. I.

    1985-06-01

    Huygens undoubtedly used the notion of the potential in his well-known work “Discours de la cause de la pesanteur” (Leyden, 1690), investigating the Earth's figure by means of Newton's famous canals. Maupertuis used this notion in a similar work published in London in 1733. The notion of potential was used by Clairaut in the “Théorie de la figure de la Terre” (Paris, 1743) and by D'Alembert in many articles (1752, 1761, 1768, 1773, 1780). Euler used it also in many of his works since 1736. These examples of application of the potential were not noticed because of peculiarities of terminology.

  10. A theoretical investigation on the Strecker reaction catalyzed by a Ti(IV)-complex catalyst generated from a cinchona alkaloid, achiral substituted 2,2'-biphenol, and tetraisopropyl titanate.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhishan; Li, Weiyi; Wang, Jun; Hu, Changwei; Feng, Xiaoming

    2013-01-28

    The mechanism and the origin of selectivity of the asymmetric Strecker reaction catalyzed by a Ti(IV)-complex catalyst generated from a cinchona alkaloid, achiral substituted 2,2'-biphenol, and tetraisopropyl titanate have been investigated by DFT and ONIOM methods. The calculations indicate that the reaction proceeds through a dual activation mechanism, in which Ti(IV) acts as Lewis acid to activate the electrophile aldimine substrate, whereas the tertiary amine in cinchona alkaloid works as Lewis base to promote the activation and isomerization of HCN. The C-C bond formation step is predicted to be the selectivity-controlling step in the reaction with an energy barrier of 9.3 kcal mol(-1). The "asymmetric activation" is achieved by the transfer of asymmetry from the chiral cinchonine ligand to the axially flexible achiral biphenol ligand through coordination interaction with the central metal Ti(IV) . The large steric hindrance from the 3,3'-position substitute of biphenol, combined with the quinoline fragment of cinchona alkaloid and the orientation of hydrogen bonding of iPrOH, play a key role in controlling the stereoselectivity, which is in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  11. NUCLEAR ENERGY RESEARCH INITIATIVE (NERI) PROGRAM GRANT NUMBER DE-FG03-00SF22168 TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT (Aug 15, 2002 to Nov. 15, 2002) - DESIGN AND LAYOUT CONCEPTS FOR COMPACT, FACTORY-PRODUCED, TRANSPORTABLE GENERATION IV REACTOR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Fred R. Mynatt; Andy Kadak; Marc Berte; Larry Miller; Lawrence Townsend; Martin Williamson; Rupy Sawhney; Jacob Fife

    2002-12-15

    The objectives of this project are to develop and evaluate nuclear power plant designs and layout concepts to maximize the benefits of compact modular Generation IV reactor concepts including factory fabrication and packaging for optimal transportation and siting. This report covers the ninth quarter of the project. The three reactor concept teams have completed initial plant concept development, evaluation and layout. A significant design effort has proceeded with substantial change and evolution from original ideas. The concepts have been reviewed by the industry participants and improvements have been implemented. The third phase, industrial engineering simulation of reactor fabrication has begun.

  12. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the Use of Virtual Environments - Task 4 Report: Virtual Mockup Maintenance Task Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Shaw; Anthony Baratta; Vaughn Whisker

    2005-02-28

    Task 4 report of 3 year DOE NERI-sponsored effort evaluating immersive virtual reality (CAVE) technology for design review, construction planning, and maintenance planning and training for next generation nuclear power plants. Program covers development of full-scale virtual mockups generated from 3D CAD data presented in a CAVE visualization facility. This report focuses on using Full-scale virtual mockups for nuclear power plant training applications.

  13. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) processing speed scores as measures of noncredible responding: The third generation of embedded performance validity indicators.

    PubMed

    Erdodi, Laszlo A; Abeare, Christopher A; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D; Tyson, Bradley T; Kucharski, Brittany; Zuccato, Brandon G; Roth, Robert M

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests that select processing speed measures can also serve as embedded validity indicators (EVIs). The present study examined the diagnostic utility of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) subtests as EVIs in a mixed clinical sample of 205 patients medically referred for neuropsychological assessment (53.3% female, mean age = 45.1). Classification accuracy was calculated against 3 composite measures of performance validity as criterion variables. A PSI ≤79 produced a good combination of sensitivity (.23-.56) and specificity (.92-.98). A Coding scaled score ≤5 resulted in good specificity (.94-1.00), but low and variable sensitivity (.04-.28). A Symbol Search scaled score ≤6 achieved a good balance between sensitivity (.38-.64) and specificity (.88-.93). A Coding-Symbol Search scaled score difference ≥5 produced adequate specificity (.89-.91) but consistently low sensitivity (.08-.12). A 2-tailed cutoff on the Coding/Symbol Search raw score ratio (≤1.41 or ≥3.57) produced acceptable specificity (.87-.93), but low sensitivity (.15-.24). Failing ≥2 of these EVIs produced variable specificity (.81-.93) and sensitivity (.31-.59). Failing ≥3 of these EVIs stabilized specificity (.89-.94) at a small cost to sensitivity (.23-.53). Results suggest that processing speed based EVIs have the potential to provide a cost-effective and expedient method for evaluating the validity of cognitive data. Given their generally low and variable sensitivity, however, they should not be used in isolation to determine the credibility of a given response set. They also produced unacceptably high rates of false positive errors in patients with moderate-to-severe head injury. Combining evidence from multiple EVIs has the potential to improve overall classification accuracy. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  15. NEW APPROACHES: On the notion of internal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Marcelo; Finn, Edward J.

    1997-07-01

    The notion of internal energy at a level appropriate for students of the Introductory Physics Course (IPC) is examined. The methodology proposed offers a general frame for analysing practically any physical system or process in a system of particles, from thermal phenomena and phase transitions to chemical and nuclear reactions, including processes involving elementary particles. The role of interactions among particles in a system is emphasized. The notion of statistical equilibrium of a system is discussed in this context. Finally, two structure factors are introduced to show the relation between the kinetic, interaction and particle energies of a system in maintaining stable structures.

  16. Ovarian Cancer Stage IV

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1335 View Download Large: 2400x2670 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Description: Drawing of stage IV shows ...

  17. A Notional Matrix for Grammatical Forms: Teaching Question Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Carolyn L.

    This paper proposes a matrix of notional categories for classifying grammatical structures. The use of the matrix is illustrated through question forms. Communicative competence in a language presupposes mastery of the grammatical system of that language. Therefore, in adopting a communicatively appropriate syllabus, containing varieties of…

  18. The Transformation App Redux: The Notion of Linearity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenick, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The notion of linearity is perhaps the most fundamental idea in algebraic thinking. It sets the transition to functions and culminates with the instantaneous rate of change in calculus. Despite its simplicity, this concept poses complexities to a considerable number of first semester college algebra students. The purpose of this observational…

  19. Heresies of the New Unified Notion of Test Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuck, Ivan

    By focusing on "appropriateness" and "adequacy" of inference and action, unified validity may be misused in rejecting valid test outcomes. The notion of levels of validity is challenged, the necessity of assumption is argued, and experience is proposed as the basis of validity. "Consequential validity" is interpreted as an optional predictive…

  20. The Foreign Language Syllabus--Grammar, Notions and Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltarelli, Mario, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Papers in this journal issue concern various aspects of foreign language syllabus construction. Titles and authors are: "The Threshold Level: A Notional-Functional Syllabus" (Barbara F. Matthies); "Functions of Grammar in a Language Teaching Syllabus" (William E. Rutherford); "Communicative and Grammatical Syllabuses to…

  1. The Notion of Ubuntu and Communalism in African Educational Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venter, Elza

    2004-01-01

    The notion of "ubuntu" and "communalism" is of great importance in an African educational discourse, as well as in African Philosophy of Education and in African philosophical discourse. "Ubuntu" is a philosophy that promotes the common good of society and includes humanness as an essential element of human growth. In…

  2. Applying the Notion of Metaphor Types to Enhance Counseling Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the notion of metaphor types to show how the more nuanced aspects of metaphor theory can be applied to counseling practice. The author suggests that metaphor types can enhance existing interview protocols designed to help clients expand the source domain imagery of their metaphors and "bridge back" the expanded imagery to…

  3. The Notion of Reducing Abstraction in Quadratic Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eraslan, Ali

    2008-01-01

    One possible approach students can cope with abstract algebra concepts is reducing abstraction. This notion occurs when learners are unable to adopt mental strategies as they deal with abstraction level of a given task. To make these concepts mentally accessible for themselves, learners unconsciously reduce the level of the abstraction of the…

  4. Notion of time and the semiclassical regime of quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Castagnino, M.A.; Mazzitelli, F.D. Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab 1, 1428 Buenos Aires )

    1990-07-15

    Using the notion of {ital probabilistic} {ital time} introduced in a previous work, we analyze the perturbed minisuperspace models of quantum gravity. For Robertson-Walker minisuperspace we show that it is possible to derive the so-called self-consistent cosmology in the semiclassical regime. The generalization to models with several semiclassical variables is also discussed.

  5. Dewey's Notion of Imagination in Philosophy for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleazby, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    The imagination has traditionally been associated with unreality and is commonly thought to be the antithesis of reason. This is a notion of imagination that can be found in Plato's writing and has influenced modern Western epistemology and educational ideals. As such, traditional schooling, which has focused on the cultivation of reason and the…

  6. Unbecoming Teachers: Towards a More Dynamic Notion of Professional Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colley, Helen; James, David; Diment, Kim

    2007-01-01

    This article considers teacher professionalism from a neglected perspective. It analyses assumptions about the dynamics of professional participation implicit within competing academic and policy constructs of professionalism, including the currently iconic concept of "communities of practice". All entail notions of becoming and being a…

  7. High School Students' Knowledge and Notions of Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Joseph R.; Doppen, Frans H.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on high school students' knowledge and notions of citizenship after taking the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) Naturalization Test. The students' test results and responses show emerging support for the need to make changes to the test as well as the students' limited conceptions of citizenship. In…

  8. "Successful" Principals: A Contested Notion for Superintendents and Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribner, Samantha M. Paredes; Crow, Gary M.; Lopez, Gerardo R.; Murtadha, Khaula

    2011-01-01

    The notion of "success" is narrowly defined and appropriated within an educational context. Typically limited to objective measures of organizational productivity, effectiveness, and efficiency, "successful" principal practices, we argue, engender action and attention to a broader array of issues and interrelationships. In this study, we conducted…

  9. The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. IV - Generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes in laboratory experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huizinga, Bradley J.; Tannenbaum, Eli; Kaplan, Isaac R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of common sedimentary minerals (illite, Na-montmorillonite, or calcite) under different water concentrations on the generation and release of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and select alkenes from oil-prone kerogens was investigated. Matrices containing Green River Formation kerogen or Monterey Formation kerogen, alone or in the presence of minerals, were heated at 200 or 300 C for periods of up to 1000 hours, and the pyrolysis products were analyzed. The influence of the first two clay minerals was found to be critically dependent on the water content. Under the dry pyrolysis conditions, both minerals significantly reduced alkene formation; the C12+ n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids were mostly destroyed by montmorillonite, but underwent only minor alteration with illite. Under hydrous conditions (mineral/water of 2/1), the effects of both minerals were substantially reduced. Calcite had no significant effect on the thermal evolution of the hydrocarbons.

  10. The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. IV - Generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes in laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizinga, Bradley J.; Tannenbaum, Eli; Kaplan, Isaac R.

    1987-05-01

    The effect of common sedimentary minerals (illite, Na-montmorillonite, or calcite) under different water concentrations on the generation and release of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and select alkenes from oil-prone kerogens was investigated. Matrices containing Green River Formation kerogen or Monterey Formation kerogen, alone or in the presence of minerals, were heated at 200 or 300 C for periods of up to 1000 hours, and the pyrolysis products were analyzed. The influence of the first two clay minerals was found to be critically dependent on the water content. Under the dry pyrolysis conditions, both minerals significantly reduced alkene formation; the C12+ n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids were mostly destroyed by montmorillonite, but underwent only minor alteration with illite. Under hydrous conditions (mineral/water of 2/1), the effects of both minerals were substantially reduced. Calcite had no significant effect on the thermal evolution of the hydrocarbons.

  11. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  12. Interaction of radiation-generated radicals with myoglobin in aqueous solution—IV. Mechanism of interaction of hydroxyl radicals with oxymyoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitburn, Kevin D.; Hoffman, Morton Z.

    The interaction of radiation-generated ·OH/H· with oxymyoglobin (MbO 2) has been studied in the presence of catalase at pH 7.3 over the range of 5-510microM O 2. The conversion of MbO 2 to heme-modified products has been examined under conditions where depletion of O 2 in irradiated solutions both can and cannot be compensated by O 2-transfer across the solution phase boundary. In the theoretical limit of [O 2] → 0 in bulk solution, MbO 2 is converted stoichiometrically to ferri- and ferromyoglobin with G( MbO 2) ⋍ 6.0, G(ferroMb) ⋍ 3.0, and G(ferriMb) ⋍ 3.0. An increase in [O 2] in bulk solution beyond the zero-limit progressively suppresses the conversion of MbO 2 to the heme-modified derivatives. At [O 2] ⩾ 300 microM, an O 2-independent path of ferriMb formation with G ⋍ 0.6 is evident. Two sources of ferriMb induced by ·OH/H· are proposed: an O 2-independent path involving direct oxidative attack of ·OH at the oxyferroheme, and O 2-dependent paths of production of ferriMb and ferroMb involving the mediation of O 2-scavengable secondary hemeprotein radicals. It is suggested that the modifications of the heme group in the absence of O 2 are accompanied by redox modifications on the globin moiety. With increasing [O 2], similar redox modifications on the globin can occur without a mediating involvement of the prosthetic group. At high [O 2], involvement of the heme in modification of the globin is eliminated.

  13. The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter--IV. Generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes in laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Huizinga, B J; Tannenbaum, E; Kaplan, I R

    1987-01-01

    A series of pyrolysis experiments, utilizing two different immature oil-prone kerogens ("type I": Green River Formation kerogen; "Type II": Monterey Formation kerogen) mixed with common sedimentary minerals (calcite, illite, or Na-montmorillonite), was conducted to study the effects of minerals on the generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes during laboratory-simulated catagenesis of kerogen. The influence of clay minerals on the aliphatic hydrocarbons is critically dependent on the water concentration during laboratory thermal maturation. Under extremely low contents of water (i.e., dry pyrolysis, where only pyrolysate water is present), C12(+) -range n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids are mostly destroyed by montmorillonite but undergo only minor alteration with illite. Both clay minerals significantly reduce alkene formation during dry pyrolysis. Under hydrous conditions (mineral/water = 2:1), the effects of the clay minerals are substantially reduced. In addition, the dry pyrolysis experiments show that illite and montmorillonite preferentially retain large amounts of the polar constituents of bitumen, but not n-alkanes or acyclic isoprenoids. Therefore, bitumen fractionation according to polarity differences occurs in the presence of these clay minerals. By this process, n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids are concentrated in the bitumen fraction that is not strongly adsorbed on the clay matrices. The extent of these concentrations effects is greatly diminished during hydrous pyrolysis. In contrast, calcite has no significant influence on the thermal evolution of the hydrocarbons. In addition, calcite is incapable of retaining bitumen. Therefore, the fractionation of n-alkanes or acyclic isoprenoids relative to the polar constituents of bitumen is insignificant in the presence of calcite.

  14. Exploring Gendered Notions: Gender, Job Hunting and Web Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martey, R. M.

    Based on analysis of a series of interviews, this chapter suggests that in looking for jobs online, women confront gendered notions of the Internet as well as gendered notions of the jobs themselves. It argues that the social and cultural contexts of both the search tools and the search tasks should be considered in exploring how Web-based technologies serve women in a job search. For these women, the opportunities and limitations of online job-search tools were intimately related to their personal and social needs, especially needs for part-time work, maternity benefits, and career advancement. Although job-seeking services such as Monster.com were used frequently by most of these women, search services did not completely fulfill all their informational needs, and became an — often frustrating — initial starting point for a job search rather than an end-point.

  15. Clawing Back: Broadening the Notion of Metal Chelators in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Katherine J.

    2013-01-01

    The traditional notion of chelation therapy is the administration of a chemical agent to remove metals from the body. But formation of a metal-chelate can have biological ramifications that are much broader than metal elimination. Exploring these other possibilities could lead to pharmacological interventions that alter the concentration, distribution, or reactivity of metals in targeted ways for therapeutic benefit. This review highlights recent examples that showcase four general strategies of using principles of metal chelation in medicinal contexts beyond the traditional notion of chelation therapy. These strategies include altering metal biodistribution, inhibiting specific metalloenzymes associated with disease, enhancing the reactivity of a metal complex to promote cytotoxicity, and conversely, passivating the reactivity of metals by site-activated chelation to prevent cytotoxicity. PMID:23332666

  16. A notion of graph likelihood and an infinite monkey theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerji, Christopher R. S.; Mansour, Toufik; Severini, Simone

    2014-01-01

    We play with a graph-theoretic analogue of the folklore infinite monkey theorem. We define a notion of graph likelihood as the probability that a given graph is constructed by a monkey in a number of time steps equal to the number of vertices. We present an algorithm to compute this graph invariant and closed formulas for some infinite classes. We have to leave the computational complexity of the likelihood as an open problem.

  17. Energy levels and lifetimes of Nd IV, Pm IV, Sm IV, and Eu IV

    SciTech Connect

    Dzuba, V. A.; Safronova, U. I.; Johnson, W. R.

    2003-09-01

    To address the shortage of experimental data for electron spectra of triply ionized rare-earth elements we have calculated energy levels and lifetimes of 4f{sup n+1} and 4f{sup n}5d configurations of Nd IV (n=2), Pm IV (n=3), Sm IV (n=4), and Eu IV (n=5) using Hartree-Fock and configuration-interaction methods. To control the accuracy of our calculations we also performed similar calculations for Pr III, Nd III, and Sm III, for which experimental data are available. The results are important, in particular, for physics of magnetic garnets.

  18. "Phronesis" on tour: cultural adaptability of Aristotelian ethical notions.

    PubMed

    Polansky, R

    2000-12-01

    How might bioethics take account of cultural diversity? Can practical wisdom of an Aristotelian sort be applied across cultures? After showing that practical wisdom involves both intellectual cleverness and moral virtue, it is argued that both these components have universality. Hence practical wisdom must be universal as well. Hellenic ethical thought neither depended on outdated theoretical notions nor limited itself to the Greek world, but was in fact developed with constant awareness of cultural differences, so it arguably works as well in other times and places when formulated. Even the eudaemonistic setting for practical wisdom is unproblematic.

  19. Extended tensor products and generalization of the notion of entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrennikov, Andrei; Rosinger, Elemer E.

    2012-03-01

    Motivated by the novel applications of the mathematical formalism of quantum theory and its generalizations in cognitive science, psychology, social and political sciences, and economics, we extend the notion of the tensor product and entanglement. We also study the relation between conventional entanglement of complex qubits and our generalized entanglement. Our construction can also be used to describe entanglement in the framework of non-Archimedean physics. It is also possible to construct tensor products of non-Archimedean (e.g., p-adic) and complex Hilbert spaces.

  20. Evolution of the notion of time in hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    1986-10-01

    The AGU Hydrology Section sponsored a special session on History and Heritage of Hydrology between 8:30 A.M. and 12 noon on Monday, December 9, 1985, during the Fall Meeting at San Francisco. The session was chaired by T. N. Narasimhan of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (Berkeley, Calif.). The attendance of between 100 and 120 for each talk was indicative of a healthy interest among researchers on matters related to history.The first part of the session focused attention on the theme “The Evolution of the Notion of Time in Hydrogeology.” The last two speakers addressed topics outside of this theme. Simon Ince (University of Arizona, Tucson) presented a historical account of the contributions of 19th century French scientist Barre de Saint-Venant to transient flow of water in open channels. Olaf H. Pfannkuch (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis) presented a historical account of the Cult of Saint Barbara and the mining profession of medieval Europe. The following summary is restricted to an overview of those presentations that dealt with the evolution of the notion of time in hydrogeology.

  1. Vaccine Hesitancy: Clarifying a Theoretical Framework for an Ambiguous Notion

    PubMed Central

    Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Larson, Heidi J; Ward, Jeremy K.; Schulz, William S; Verger, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Today, according to many public health experts, public confidence in vaccines is waning. The term “vaccine hesitancy” (VH) is increasingly used to describe the spread of such vaccine reluctance. But VH is an ambiguous notion and its theoretical background appears uncertain. To clarify this concept, we first review the current definitions of VH in the public health literature and examine its most prominent characteristics. VH has been defined as a set of beliefs, attitudes, or behaviours, or some combination of them, shared by a large and heterogeneous portion of the population and including people who exhibit reluctant conformism (they may either decline a vaccine, delay it or accept it despite their doubts) and vaccine-specific behaviours. Secondly, we underline some of the ambiguities of this notion and argue that it is more a catchall category than a real concept. We also call into question the usefulness of understanding VH as an intermediate position along a continuum ranging from anti-vaccine to pro-vaccine attitudes, and we discuss its qualification as a belief, attitude or behaviour. Thirdly, we propose a theoretical framework, based on previous literature and taking into account some major structural features of contemporary societies, that considers VH as a kind of decision-making process that depends on people’s level of commitment to healthism/risk culture and on their level of confidence in the health authorities and mainstream medicine. PMID:25789201

  2. On remembering: the notion of memory without recollection.

    PubMed

    Botella, César

    2014-10-01

    The author begins by attempting to evaluate the notions of memory and remembering, taking into account their evolution in Freud's work and the current debates on their relative importance in conducting an analytic treatment. This leads the author to develop an extension of the theory which none the less remains Freudian, by introducing a series of notions (the main ones being the work of figurability, regredience, state of session, negative of trauma, and memory without recollection), and arguing in favour of a principle of convergence-coherence governing mental life. His thesis is the following: analytic practice contains a dimension of an archaeological order, as Freud described it, as well as - thanks to the contribution of contemporary practice denouncing its insufficiency - the complementary need for the analyst to work in a particular way in the session - that is to say, one that involves what he calls a regredience of his or her thought processes, allowing him or her to gain access to early psychic zones beyond the zone of represented memories. This is what he calls transformational psychoanalysis, complementary to archeological psychoanalysis. The author's theoretical and practical developments are backed up by a personal schema of mental functioning, an extension of Freud's schema in 1900, and the detailed description of an analytic treatment, in particular, the central session which played a crucial role in the success of this analysis.

  3. Vaccine hesitancy: clarifying a theoretical framework for an ambiguous notion.

    PubMed

    Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Larson, Heidi J; Ward, Jeremy K; Schulz, William S; Verger, Pierre

    2015-02-25

    Today, according to many public health experts, public confidence in vaccines is waning. The term "vaccine hesitancy" (VH) is increasingly used to describe the spread of such vaccine reluctance. But VH is an ambiguous notion and its theoretical background appears uncertain. To clarify this concept, we first review the current definitions of VH in the public health literature and examine its most prominent characteristics. VH has been defined as a set of beliefs, attitudes, or behaviours, or some combination of them, shared by a large and heterogeneous portion of the population and including people who exhibit reluctant conformism (they may either decline a vaccine, delay it or accept it despite their doubts) and vaccine-specific behaviours. Secondly, we underline some of the ambiguities of this notion and argue that it is more a catchall category than a real concept. We also call into question the usefulness of understanding VH as an intermediate position along a continuum ranging from anti-vaccine to pro-vaccine attitudes, and we discuss its qualification as a belief, attitude or behaviour. Thirdly, we propose a theoretical framework, based on previous literature and taking into account some major structural features of contemporary societies, that considers VH as a kind of decision-making process that depends on people's level of commitment to healthism/risk culture and on their level of confidence in the health authorities and mainstream medicine.

  4. IV treatment at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... venous catheter - home; Port - home; PICC line - home; Infusion therapy - home; Home health care - IV treatment ... is given quickly, all at once. A slow infusion, which means the medicine is given slowly over ...

  5. GCF Mark IV development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, L. O.

    1982-01-01

    The Mark IV ground communication facility (GCF) as it is implemented to support the network consolidation program is reviewed. Changes in the GCF are made in the area of increased capacity. Common carrier circuits are the medium for data transfer. The message multiplexing in the Mark IV era differs from the Mark III era, in that all multiplexing is done in a GCF computer under GCF software control, which is similar to the multiplexing currently done in the high speed data subsystem.

  6. Stem cells and the evolving notion of cellular identity.

    PubMed

    Daley, George Q

    2015-10-19

    Stem cells are but one class of the myriad types of cells within an organism. With potential to self-renew and capacity to differentiate, stem cells play essential roles at multiple stages of development. In the early embryo, pluripotent stem cells represent progenitors for all tissues while later in development, tissue-restricted stem cells give rise to cells with highly specialized functions. As best understood in the blood, skin and gut, stem cells are the seeds that sustain tissue homeostasis and regeneration, while in other tissues like the muscle, liver, kidney and lung, various stem or progenitor cells play facultative roles in tissue repair and response to injury. Here, I will provide a brief perspective on the evolving notion of cellular identity and how reprogramming and transcription factor-mediated conversions of one cell type into another have fundamentally altered our assumptions about the stability of cell identity, with profound long-term implications for biomedical research and regenerative medicine.

  7. A distributed control approach for power and energy management in a notional shipboard power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Qunying

    The main goal of this thesis is to present a power control module (PCON) based approach for power and energy management and to examine its control capability in shipboard power system (SPS). The proposed control scheme is implemented in a notional medium voltage direct current (MVDC) integrated power system (IPS) for electric ship. To realize the control functions such as ship mode selection, generator launch schedule, blackout monitoring, and fault ride-through, a PCON based distributed power and energy management system (PEMS) is developed. The control scheme is proposed as two-layer hierarchical architecture with system level on the top as the supervisory control and zonal level on the bottom as the decentralized control, which is based on the zonal distribution characteristic of the notional MVDC IPS that was proposed as one of the approaches for Next Generation Integrated Power System (NGIPS) by Norbert Doerry. Several types of modules with different functionalities are used to derive the control scheme in detail for the notional MVDC IPS. Those modules include the power generation module (PGM) that controls the function of generators, the power conversion module (PCM) that controls the functions of DC/DC or DC/AC converters, etc. Among them, the power control module (PCON) plays a critical role in the PEMS. It is the core of the control process. PCONs in the PEMS interact with all the other modules, such as power propulsion module (PPM), energy storage module (ESM), load shedding module (LSHED), and human machine interface (HMI) to realize the control algorithm in PEMS. The proposed control scheme is implemented in real time using the real time digital simulator (RTDS) to verify its validity. To achieve this, a system level energy storage module (SESM) and a zonal level energy storage module (ZESM) are developed in RTDS to cooperate with PCONs to realize the control functionalities. In addition, a load shedding module which takes into account the reliability

  8. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaris, A.; Bouratzis, C.; Nindos, A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts that extend to hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprises 48 interplanetary type IV bursts observed with the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) instrument onboard Wind in the 13.825 MHz - 20 kHz frequency range. The dynamic spectra of the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), the Nançay Decametric Array (DAM), the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l' Enregistrement Magnetique de l' Information Spectral (ARTEMIS-IV), the Culgoora, Hiraso, and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) Radio Spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona. These were supplemented with soft X-ray (SXR) flux-measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and coronal mass ejections (CME) data from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Positional information of the coronal bursts was obtained by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs, and SXR flares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact, their duration was on average 106 minutes. This type of events was, mostly, associated with M- and X-class flares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs, 32 of these events had CMEs faster than 1000 km s^{-1}. Furthermore, in 43 compact events the CME was possibly subjected to reduced aerodynamic drag as it was propagating in the wake of a previous CME. A minority (three) of long-lived type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts was detected, with durations from 960 minutes to 115 hours. These events are referred to as extended or long duration and appear to replenish their energetic electron content, possibly from electrons escaping from the corresponding coronal

  9. The Notional-Functional Approach: Teaching the Real Language in Its Natural Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Elaine

    This study of the notional-functional approach to second language teaching reviews the history and theoretical background of the method, current issues, and implementation of a notional-functional syllabus. Chapter 1 discusses the history and theory of the approach and the organization and advantages of the notional-functional syllabus. Chapter 2…

  10. "Dislocation", shelter, and crisis: Afghanistan's refugees and notions of home.

    PubMed

    Emmott, S

    1996-02-01

    Millions of people have become refugees or been displaced within Afghanistan during 17 years of war within the country. Conversations with women in a camp for the displaced reveal what it means for women to lose their homes, especially in the context of ongoing instability and conflict. Sections discuss homelessness in Kabul, linking psycho-social and practical needs, coping with dislocation, stability and land ownership, mobility and security, family breakdown, temporary and permanent settlements, and meeting needs versus creating dependency. The author concludes that among people displaced from their homes for so many years, their physical and spiritual homes nonetheless remain inseparable from their lives. It is important to maintain the individual notion of home if life is to be worth living and hope retained. Relief agencies must help in an appropriate manner and to an appropriate extent. Oxfam has been working beyond the refugee camps, in a return to the city of Kabul, since July 1995. When this article was written, the NGO was involved in a joint venture to restore the piped water supply which, like the electricity supply, was looted and damaged. It also plans to distribute plastic sheeting for use as roofs and floor covering during the winter. Oxfam currently plans discreet activities rather than an integrated approach.

  11. HIL range performance of notional hyperspectral imaging sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkin, Van A.; Howell, Christopher L.

    2016-05-01

    In the use of conventional broadband imaging systems, whether reflective or emissive, scene image contrasts are often so low that target discrimination is difficult or uncertain, and it is contrast that drives human-in-the-loop (HIL) sensor range performance. This situation can occur even when the spectral shapes of the target and background signatures (radiances) across the sensor waveband differ significantly from each other. The fundamental components of broadband image contrast are the spectral integrals of the target and background signatures, and this spectral integration can average away the spectral differences between scene objects. In many low broadband image contrast situations, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) can preserve a greater degree of the intrinsic scene spectral contrast for the display, and more display contrast means greater range performance by a trained observer. This paper documents a study using spectral radiometric signature modeling and the U.S. Army's Night Vision Integrated Performance Model (NV-IPM) to show how waveband selection by a notional HSI sensor using spectral contrast optimization can significantly increase HIL sensor range performance over conventional broadband sensors.

  12. Information flow and causality as rigorous notions ab initio.

    PubMed

    Liang, X San

    2016-11-01

    Information flow or information transfer the widely applicable general physics notion can be rigorously derived from first principles, rather than axiomatically proposed as an ansatz. Its logical association with causality is firmly rooted in the dynamical system that lies beneath. The principle of nil causality that reads, an event is not causal to another if the evolution of the latter is independent of the former, which transfer entropy analysis and Granger causality test fail to verify in many situations, turns out to be a proven theorem here. Established in this study are the information flows among the components of time-discrete mappings and time-continuous dynamical systems, both deterministic and stochastic. They have been obtained explicitly in closed form, and put to applications with the benchmark systems such as the Kaplan-Yorke map, Rössler system, baker transformation, Hénon map, and stochastic potential flow. Besides unraveling the causal relations as expected from the respective systems, some of the applications show that the information flow structure underlying a complex trajectory pattern could be tractable. For linear systems, the resulting remarkably concise formula asserts analytically that causation implies correlation, while correlation does not imply causation, providing a mathematical basis for the long-standing philosophical debate over causation versus correlation.

  13. Information flow and causality as rigorous notions ab initio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X. San

    2016-11-01

    Information flow or information transfer the widely applicable general physics notion can be rigorously derived from first principles, rather than axiomatically proposed as an ansatz. Its logical association with causality is firmly rooted in the dynamical system that lies beneath. The principle of nil causality that reads, an event is not causal to another if the evolution of the latter is independent of the former, which transfer entropy analysis and Granger causality test fail to verify in many situations, turns out to be a proven theorem here. Established in this study are the information flows among the components of time-discrete mappings and time-continuous dynamical systems, both deterministic and stochastic. They have been obtained explicitly in closed form, and put to applications with the benchmark systems such as the Kaplan-Yorke map, Rössler system, baker transformation, Hénon map, and stochastic potential flow. Besides unraveling the causal relations as expected from the respective systems, some of the applications show that the information flow structure underlying a complex trajectory pattern could be tractable. For linear systems, the resulting remarkably concise formula asserts analytically that causation implies correlation, while correlation does not imply causation, providing a mathematical basis for the long-standing philosophical debate over causation versus correlation.

  14. Stretching the Traditional Notion of Experiment in Computing: Explorative Experiments.

    PubMed

    Schiaffonati, Viola

    2016-06-01

    Experimentation represents today a 'hot' topic in computing. If experiments made with the support of computers, such as computer simulations, have received increasing attention from philosophers of science and technology, questions such as "what does it mean to do experiments in computer science and engineering and what are their benefits?" emerged only recently as central in the debate over the disciplinary status of the discipline. In this work we aim at showing, also by means of paradigmatic examples, how the traditional notion of controlled experiment should be revised to take into account a part of the experimental practice in computing along the lines of experimentation as exploration. Taking inspiration from the discussion on exploratory experimentation in the philosophy of science-experimentation that is not theory-driven-we advance the idea of explorative experiments that, although not new, can contribute to enlarge the debate about the nature and role of experimental methods in computing. In order to further refine this concept we recast explorative experiments as socio-technical experiments, that test new technologies in their socio-technical contexts. We suggest that, when experiments are explorative, control should be intended in a posteriori form, in opposition to the a priori form that usually takes place in traditional experimental contexts.

  15. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  16. IVS Technology Coordinator Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This report of the Technology Coordinator includes the following: 1) continued work to implement the new VLBI2010 system, 2) the 1st International VLBI Technology Workshop, 3) a VLBI Digital- Backend Intercomparison Workshop, 4) DiFX software correlator development for geodetic VLBI, 5) a review of progress towards global VLBI standards, and 6) a welcome to new IVS Technology Coordinator Bill Petrachenko.

  17. The PLATO IV Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifle, Jack

    The PLATO IV computer-based instructional system consists of a large scale centrally located CDC 6400 computer and a large number of remote student terminals. This is a brief and general description of the proposed input/output hardware necessary to interface the student terminals with the computer's central processing unit (CPU) using available…

  18. Reducing Nitrogen Oxide Emissions: 1996 Compliance with Title IV Limits

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize the existing federal nitrogen oxide (Nox) regulations and the 1996 performance of the 239 Title IV generating units. It also reviews the basics of low-Nox burner technology and presents cost and performance data for retrofits at Title IV units.

  19. A Miniaturized Class IV Flextensional Ultrasonic Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeney, Andrew; Tweedie, Andrew; Mathieson, Andrew; Lucas, Margaret

    The class V transducer has found popularity in a diverse range of applications such as surgical and underwater projection systems, where high vibration amplitude for relatively low piezoceramic volume is generated. The class IV transducer offers the potential to attain even higher performance per volume than the class V. In this research, a miniaturized class IV power ultrasonic flextensional transducer is proposed. Simulations were performed using PZFlex finite element analysis, and electrical impedance analysis and experimental modal analysis were conducted for validation, where a high correlation between simulation and experiment has been demonstrated.

  20. Laser flash photolysis generation and kinetic studies of porphyrin-manganese-oxo intermediates. Rate constants for oxidations effected by porphyrin-Mn(V)-oxo species and apparent disproportionation equilibrium constants for porphyrin-Mn(IV)-oxo species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Horner, John H; Newcomb, Martin

    2005-05-11

    Porphyrin-manganese(V)-oxo and porphyrin-manganese(IV)-oxo species were produced in organic solvents by laser flash photolysis (LFP) of the corresponding porphyrin-manganese(III) perchlorate and chlorate complexes, respectively, permitting direct kinetic studies. The porphyrin systems studied were 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP), 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin (TPFPP), and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-methylpyridinium)porphyrin (TMPyP). The order of reactivity for (porphyrin)Mn(V)(O) derivatives in self-decay reactions in acetonitrile and in oxidations of substrates was (TPFPP) > (TMPyP) > (TPP). Representative rate constants for reaction of (TPFPP)Mn(V)(O) in acetonitrile are k = 6.1 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) for cis-stilbene and k = 1.4 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) for diphenylmethane, and the kinetic isotope effect in oxidation of ethylbenzene and ethylbenzene-d(10) is k(H)/k(D) = 2.3. Competitive oxidation reactions conducted under catalytic conditions display approximately the same relative rate constants as were found in the LFP studies of (porphyrin)Mn(V)(O) derivatives. The apparent rate constants for reactions of (porphyrin)Mn(IV)(O) species show inverted reactivity order with (TPFPP) < (TMPyP) < (TPP) in reactions with cis-stilbene, triphenylamine, and triphenylphosphine. The inverted reactivity results because (porphyrin)Mn(IV)(O) disproportionates to (porphyrin)Mn(III)X and (porphyrin)Mn(V)(O), which is the primary oxidant, and the equilibrium constants for disproportionation of (porphyrin)Mn(IV)(O) are in the order (TPFPP) < (TMPyP) < (TPP). The fast comproportionation reaction of (TPFPP)Mn(V)(O) with (TPFPP)Mn(III)Cl to give (TPFPP)Mn(IV)(O) (k = 5 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1)) and disproportionation reaction of (TPP)Mn(IV)(O) to give (TPP)Mn(V)(O) and (TPP)Mn(III)X (k approximately 2.5 x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)) were observed. The relative populations of (porphyrin)Mn(V)(O) and (porphyrin)Mn(IV)(O) were determined from the ratios of observed rate constants for

  1. Religious Relationships with the Environment in a Tibetan Rural Community: Interactions and Contrasts with Popular Notions of Indigenous Environmentalism.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Emily; Mills, Martin A; McGowan, Philip J K; Milner-Gulland, E J

    Representations of Green Tibetans connected to Buddhism and indigenous wisdom have been deployed by a variety of actors and persist in popular consciousness. Through interviews, participatory mapping and observation, we explored how these ideas relate to people's notions about the natural environment in a rural community on the Eastern Tibetan plateau, in Sichuan Province, China. We found people to be orienting themselves towards the environment by means of three interlinked religious notions: (1) local gods and spirits in the landscape, which have become the focus of conservation efforts in the form of 'sacred natural sites;' (2) sin and karma related to killing animals and plants; (3) Buddhist moral precepts especially non-violence. We highlight the gaps between externally generated representations and local understandings, but also the dynamic, contested and plural nature of local relationships with the environment, which have been influenced and reshaped by capitalist development and commodification of natural resources, state environmental policies, and Buddhist modernist ideas.

  2. The notion of error in Langevin dynamics. I. Linear analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Bimal; Schlick, Tamar

    1996-07-01

    The notion of error in practical molecular and Langevin dynamics simulations of large biomolecules is far from understood because of the relatively large value of the timestep used, the short simulation length, and the low-order methods employed. We begin to examine this issue with respect to equilibrium and dynamic time-correlation functions by analyzing the behavior of selected implicit and explicit finite-difference algorithms for the Langevin equation. We derive: local stability criteria for these integrators; analytical expressions for the averages of the potential, kinetic, and total energy; and various limiting cases (e.g., timestep and damping constant approaching zero), for a system of coupled harmonic oscillators. These results are then compared to the corresponding exact solutions for the continuous problem, and their implications to molecular dynamics simulations are discussed. New concepts of practical and theoretical importance are introduced: scheme-dependent perturbative damping and perturbative frequency functions. Interesting differences in the asymptotic behavior among the algorithms become apparent through this analysis, and two symplectic algorithms, ``LIM2'' (implicit) and ``BBK'' (explicit), appear most promising on theoretical grounds. One result of theoretical interest is that for the Langevin/implicit-Euler algorithm (``LI'') there exist timesteps for which there is neither numerical damping nor shift in frequency for a harmonic oscillator. However, this idea is not practical for more complex systems because these special timesteps can account only for one frequency of the system, and a large damping constant is required. We therefore devise a more practical, delay-function approach to remove the artificial damping and frequency perturbation from LI. Indeed, a simple MD implementation for a system of coupled harmonic oscillators demonstrates very satisfactory results in comparison with the velocity-Verlet scheme. We also define a

  3. Notions and treatment of guinea worm in northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Bierlich, B

    1995-08-01

    Dracunculiasis, infection with Dracunculus medinensis or guinea worm, is widespread in the Northern Region of Ghana, where rural people drink from unprotected water sources such as ponds and small-scale dams. This paper discusses the results of an anthropological study of beliefs and practices concerning commonly occurring illnesses, such as infection with guinea worm (nierifu), in two rural Dagomba communities in the Northern Region of Ghana. The importance of knowing about local perceptions and treatment of guinea worm is stressed. Guinea worm is not attributed to water. The general understanding is that guinea worm is an innate part of human anatomy. It is not seen as an alien presence in the body. Guinea worm is rather said to be 'in people's blood', and sooner or later to 'stand up'. Guinea worm is considered an 'inevitable' feature of living. After a description of the background to the study, the methods are characterized. Brief background information on the people, their environment and their water sources are given. The central portion of the paper focuses on local perceptions of illness and notions of guinea worm ('guinea worm is in the human blood'), which are very different from those of biomedicine ('guinea worm is a disease'). Attention is also given to perceptions of water ('bitter' vs 'sweet') and the prevention of guinea worm. The social limitations to the filter technology are addressed. People's choice of therapy and the role of medicines (herbs and Western pharmaceuticals) in treatment of guinea worm are also considered. The paper concludes with a discussion of health education and stresses the importance of showing respect for the local view of guinea worm, which is said to be 'in the blood'. It is suggested that, since people are not adverse to the use of Western pharmaceuticals, the use of Western medicines to treat guinea worm should be further promoted. The social constraints on filtering must also be appreciated. These relate to the

  4. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    SciTech Connect

    N. E. Kramer

    1999-05-18

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the ''Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b) and (CRWMS M&O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as ''line load''. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding the 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.13) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and a drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance.

  5. A sputnik IV saga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Charles A.

    2009-12-01

    The Sputnik IV launch occurred on May 15, 1960. On May 19, an attempt to deorbit a 'space cabin' failed and the cabin went into a higher orbit. The orbit of the cabin was monitored and Moonwatch volunteer satellite tracking teams were alerted to watch for the vehicle demise. On September 5, 1962, several team members from Milwaukee, Wisconsin made observations starting at 4:49 a.m. of a fireball following the predicted orbit of Sputnik IV. Requests went out to report any objects found under the fireball path. An early morning police patrol in Manitowoc had noticed a metal object on a street and had moved it to the curb. Later the officers recovered the object and had it dropped off at the Milwaukee Journal. The Moonwarch team got the object and reported the situation to Moonwatch Headquarters at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. A team member flew to Cambridge with the object. It was a solid, 9.49 kg piece of steel with a slag-like layer attached to it. Subsequent analyses showed that it contained radioactive nuclei produced by cosmic ray exposure in space. The scientists at the Observatory quickly recognized that measurements of its induced radioactivity could serve as a calibration for similar measurements of recently fallen nickel-iron meteorites. Concurrently, the Observatory directorate informed government agencies that a fragment from Sputnik IV had been recovered. Coincidently, a debate in the UN Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space involved the issue of liability for damage caused by falling satellite fragments. On September 12, the Observatory delivered the bulk of the fragment to the US Delegation to the UN. Two days later, the fragment was used by US Ambassador Francis Plimpton as an exhibit that the time had come to agree on liability for damage from satellite debris. He offered the Sputnik IV fragment to USSR Ambassador P.D. Morozov, who refused the offer. On October 23, Drs. Alla Massevitch and E.K. Federov of the USSR visited the

  6. Early Warning System: a juridical notion to be built

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarelli, A.

    2007-12-01

    Early warning systems (EWS) are becoming effective tools for real time mitigation of the harmful effects arising from widely different hazards, which range from famine to financial crisis, malicious attacks, industrial accidents, natural catastrophes, etc. Early warning of natural catastrophic events allows to implement both alert systems and real time prevention actions for the safety of people and goods exposed to the risk However the effective implementation of early warning methods is hindered by the lack of a specific juridical frame. Under a juridical point of view, in fact, EWS and in general all the activities of prevention need a careful regulation, mainly with regards to responsibility and possible compensation for damage caused by the implemented actions. A preventive alarm, in fact, has an active influence on infrastructures in control of public services which in turn will suffer suspensions or interruptions because of the early warning actions. From here it is necessary to possess accurate normative references related to the typology of structures or infrastructures upon which the activity of readiness acts; the progressive order of suspension of public services; the duration of these suspensions; the corporate bodies or administrations that are competent to assume such decisions; the actors responsible for the consequences of false alarm, missed or delayed alarms; the mechanisms of compensation for damage; the insurance systems; etc In the European Union EWS are often quoted as preventive methods of mitigation of the risk. Nevertheless, a juridical notion of EWS of general use is not available. In fact, EW is a concept that finds application in many different circles, each of which require specific adaptations, and may concern subjects for which the European Union doesn't have exclusive competence as may be the responsibility of the member states to assign the necessary regulations. In so far as the juridical arrangement of the EWS, this must be

  7. Use of the IMPRINT-CGTME Model: Notional Acquisition Problem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Position Indicator (PPI), Maritime Moving Target Indicator (MMTI), and Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar ( ISAR ) modes. It also includes electro...of the line). Diamonds might be used to indicate objects in the water that are stopped or moving slowly. Switching the radar to ISAR mode and...pointing it at a particular target will generate an ISAR image that can be used to classify the target. The Common Operating Picture (COP, top center of

  8. PMD IVS Analysis Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tornatore, Vincenza

    2013-01-01

    The main activities carried out at the PMD (Politecnico di Milano DIIAR) IVS Analysis Center during 2012 are briefly higlighted, and future plans for 2013 are sketched out. We principally continued to process European VLBI sessions using different approaches to evaluate possible differences due to various processing choices. Then VLBI solutions were also compared to the GPS ones as well as the ones calculated at co-located sites. Concerning the observational aspect, several tests were performed to identify the most suitable method to achieve the highest possible accuracy in the determination of GNSS (GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM) satellite positions using the VLBI technique.

  9. Division Iv: Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbally, Christopher; D'Antona, Francesca; Spite, Monique; Asplund, Martin; Charbonnel, Corinne; Docobo, Jose Angel; Gray, Richard O.; Piskunov, Nikolai E.

    2012-04-01

    This Division IV was started on a trial basis at the General Assembly in The Hague 1994 and was formally accepted at the Kyoto General Assembly in 1997. Its broad coverage of ``Stars'' is reflected in its relatively large number of Commissions and so of members (1266 in late 2011). Its kindred Division V, ``Variable Stars'', has the same history of its beginning. The thinking at the time was to achieve some kind of balance between the number of members in each of the 12 Divisions. Amid the current discussion of reorganizing the number of Divisions into a more compact form it seems advisable to make this numerical balance less of an issue than the rationalization of the scientific coverage of each Division, so providing more effective interaction within a particular field of astronomy. After all, every star is variable to a certain degree and such variability is becoming an ever more powerful tool to understand the characteristics of every kind of normal and peculiar star. So we may expect, after hearing the reactions of members, that in the restructuring a single Division will result from the current Divisions IV and V.

  10. IVS contribution to ITRF2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Thaller, Daniela; Roggenbuck, Ole; Lösler, Michael; Messerschmitt, Linda

    2016-07-01

    Every few years the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) Center of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) decides to generate a new version of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). For the upcoming ITRF2014 the official contribution of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) comprises 5796 combined sessions in SINEX file format from 1979.6 to 2015.0 containing 158 stations, overall. Nine AC contributions were included in the combination process, using five different software packages. Station coordinate time series of the combined solution show an overall repeatability of 3.3 mm for the north, 4.3 mm for the east and 7.5 mm for the height component over all stations. The minimum repeatabilities are 1.5 mm for north, 2.1 mm for east and 2.9 mm for height. One of the important differences between the IVS contribution to the ITRF2014 and the routine IVS combination is the omission of the correction for non-tidal atmospheric pressure loading (NTAL). Comparisons between the amplitudes of the annual signals derived by the VLBI observations and the annual signals from an NTAL model show that for some stations, NTAL has a high impact on station height variation. For other stations, the effect of NTAL is low. Occasionally other loading effects have a higher influence (e.g. continental water storage loading). External comparisons of the scale parameter between the VTRF2014 (a TRF based on combined VLBI solutions), DTRF2008 (DGFI-TUM realization of ITRS) and ITRF2008 revealed a significant difference in the scale. A scale difference of 0.11 ppb (i.e. 0.7 mm on the Earth's surface) has been detected between the VTRF2014 and the DTRF2008, and a scale difference of 0.44 ppb (i.e. 2.8 mm on the Earth's surface) between the VTRF2014 and ITRF2008. Internal comparisons between the EOP of the combined solution and the individual solutions from the AC contributions show a WRMS in X- and Y-Pole between

  11. Generativity and Flourishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The psychological construct of "generativity" was introduced by Erik Erikson in "Childhood and Society" in 1950. This rich and complex notion encompasses the constellation of desires, concerns and commitments that motivate individuals and societies to pass on legacies to future generations. "Flourishing," which means,…

  12. Flexible Manufacturing System Handbook. Volume IV. Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    controls. (9) Sets of batteries (one set per vehicle per shift). (3) Battery chargers . (1) Frequency generator. Necessary area controllers. Necessary battery ...When Date Entered)__________________ REPOT DC -U171,NTATON AGEREAD INSTRUCTIONSREPOT DOIJIENTAION AGEBEFORE COMPLETING FORM I. REPORT NUb’EER 2.GOVT...Inc. Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 ii FMS Handbook, Volume IV PREFACE This is the fourth volume in a five-volume series designed to answer the

  13. 78 FR 2390 - CSOLAR IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC, CSOLAR IV North, LLC v...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission CSOLAR IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC, CSOLAR IV North, LLC v. California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of Complaint Take notice... IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC and CSOLAR IV North, LLC...

  14. The Notion of Diversity in Language Education: Policy and Practice at Primary Level in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helot, Christine; Young, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    This paper will present an analysis of the notion of cultural and linguistic diversity in the new curriculum for primary schools in France (MEN, 2003). First, it will explain how this notion is linked both to a wider choice of languages and to the teaching of one foreign or regional language only. We shall argue that, despite the wide theoretical…

  15. A Multidimensional Approach to Explore the Understanding of the Notion of Absolute Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagatsis, Athanasios; Panaoura, Areti

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate students' conceptions on the notion of absolute value and their abilities in applying the specific notion in routine and non-routine situations. A questionnaire was constructed and administered to 17-year-old students. Data were analysed using the hierarchical clustering of variables and the implicative method, while…

  16. Developing Understanding of Pupil Feedback Using Habermas' Notion of Communicative Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this article is to explore the notion of pupil feedback and the possible ways in which it can be understood and developed using Jürgen Habermas' theory of Communicative Action. The theoretical position adopted is framed within the concept of assessment for learning, and is particularly related to the notion of assessment as learning…

  17. Visual Criterion for Understanding the Notion of Convergence if Integrals in One Parameter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Francisco Regis Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Admittedly, the notion of generalized integrals in one parameter has a fundamental role. En virtue that, in this paper, we discuss and characterize an approach for to promote the visualization of this scientific mathematical concept. We still indicate the possibilities of graphical interpretation of formal properties related to notion of…

  18. Safe Autonomous Flight Environment (SAFE50) for the Notional Last 50 ft of Operation of 55 lb Class of UAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Kopardekar, Parimal; Ippolito, Corey; Melton, John E.; Stepanyan, Vahram; Sankararaman, Shankar; Nikaido, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The most difficult phase of small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) deployment is autonomous operations below the notional 50 ft in urban landscapes. Understanding the feasibility of safely flying sUAS autonomously below 50 ft is a game changer for many civilian applications. This paper outlines three areas of research currently underway which address key challenges for flight in the urban landscape. These are: (1) Off-line and On-board wind estimation and accommodation; (2) Real-time trajectory planning via characterization of obstacles using a LIDAR; (3) On-board information fusion for real-time decision-making and safe trajectory generation.

  19. Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Rittenhouse, P.; Ren, W.

    2005-03-29

    A Gen IV Materials Handbook is being developed to provide an authoritative single source of highly qualified structural materials information and materials properties data for use in design and analyses of all Generation IV Reactor Systems. The Handbook will be responsive to the needs expressed by all of the principal government, national laboratory, and private company stakeholders of Gen IV Reactor Systems. The Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan provided here addresses the purpose, rationale, attributes, and benefits of the Handbook and will detail its content, format, quality assurance, applicability, and access. Structural materials, both metallic and ceramic, for all Gen IV reactor types currently supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) will be included in the Gen IV Materials Handbook. However, initial emphasis will be on materials for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Descriptive information (e.g., chemical composition and applicable technical specifications and codes) will be provided for each material along with an extensive presentation of mechanical and physical property data including consideration of temperature, irradiation, environment, etc. effects on properties. Access to the Gen IV Materials Handbook will be internet-based with appropriate levels of control. Information and data in the Handbook will be configured to allow search by material classes, specific materials, specific information or property class, specific property, data parameters, and individual data points identified with materials parameters, test conditions, and data source. Details on all of these as well as proposed applicability and consideration of data quality classes are provided in the Implementation Plan. Website development for the Handbook is divided into six phases including (1) detailed product analysis and specification, (2) simulation and design, (3) implementation and testing, (4) product release, (5) project/product evaluation, and (6) product

  20. dBASE IV basics

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, P.

    1994-09-01

    This is a user`s manual for dBASE IV. dBASE IV is a popular software application that can be used on your personal computer to help organize and maintain your database files. It is actually a set of tools with which you can create, organize, select and manipulate data in a simple yet effective manner. dBASE IV offers three methods of working with the product: (1) control center: (2) command line; and (3) programming.

  1. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-29

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  2. Painlevé IV coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, David; Contreras-Astorga, Alonso; Fernández C, David J.

    2014-11-15

    A simple way to find solutions of the Painlevé IV equation is by identifying Hamiltonian systems with third-order differential ladder operators. Some of these systems can be obtained by applying supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY QM) to the harmonic oscillator. In this work, we will construct families of coherent states for such subset of SUSY partner Hamiltonians which are connected with the Painlevé IV equation. First, these coherent states are built up as eigenstates of the annihilation operator, then as displaced versions of the extremal states, both involving the related third-order ladder operators, and finally as extremal states which are also displaced but now using the so called linearized ladder operators. To each SUSY partner Hamiltonian corresponds two families of coherent states: one inside the infinite subspace associated with the isospectral part of the spectrum and another one in the finite subspace generated by the states created through the SUSY technique. - Highlights: • We use SUSY QM to obtain Hamiltonians with third-order differential ladder operators. • We show that these systems are related with the Painlevé IV equation. • We apply different definitions of coherent states to these Hamiltonians using the third-order ladder operators and some linearized ones. • We construct families of coherent states for such systems, which we called Painlevé IV coherent states.

  3. New Materials for NGNP/Gen IV

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W. Swindeman; Douglas L. Marriott

    2009-12-18

    The bounding conditions were briefly summarized for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) that is the leading candidate in the Department of Energy Generation IV reactor program. Metallic materials essential to the successful development and proof of concept for the NGNP were identified. The literature bearing on the materials technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors was reviewed with emphasis on the needs identified for the NGNP. Several materials were identified for a more thorough study of their databases and behavioral features relative to the requirements ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1, Subsection NH.

  4. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdnack, James A.; Zhou, Xiaobin; Larrabee, Glenn J.; Millis, Scott R.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory…

  5. Improving IV-A/IV-D Interface. Trainer Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Child Support Enforcement, Chevy Chase, MD.

    Effective interface between the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (IV-A) and the Child Support Enforcement (IV-D) programs is a key factor in assisting families in becoming self-sufficient, reducing welfare expenditures, and enforcing parental responsibility to support their children. Consequently, overcoming the procedural, technological,…

  6. Improving IV-A/IV-D Interface. Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Child Support Enforcement, Chevy Chase, MD.

    Effective interface between the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (IV-A) and the Child Support Enforcement (IV-D) programs is a key factor in assisting families in becoming self-sufficient, reducing welfare expenditures, and enforcing parental responsibility to support their children. Consequently, overcoming the procedural, technological,…

  7. Adverse environments and children's creativity development: transforming the notion of "success in adversity" in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important implications for China's future as it brings together one of China's core cultural values-"success in adversity"-the importance of creativity, and very real social and economic needs. "Success in adversity" reflects the strongly held belief that individuals who suffer adverse environments can rise to excellence and success through persistence, effort, and creativity. In this article, we briefly explore the historical sources of this belief and how it is closely related to the Chinese conception of creativity. We then present some studies on the creativity of some of China's migrant children. Findings show that while migrant children as a group may not generally exhibit higher creativity than their urban peers as hypothesized, indications of resilience and creative potential suggest that the notion of success in adversity may contribute to the positive development of China's migrant children more substantially when it is informed by research and augmented by research-supported policy.

  8. La formation aux techniques du travail universitaire et la notion de tache (Training in the Techniques of Academic Work and the Notion of Task).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, M. K.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses questions concerning training students in techniques of academic work and use of the English language in this context. These questions, currently researched at the English Language Center of King Abdulaziz University, focus on the notion of task as a minimal pedagogic unit, and on task-objective coordination criteria. Societe Nouvelle…

  9. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT IV

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Condition Report IV (NCCR IV) is the fourth in a series of environmental assessments of U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes. The report includes assessments of all the nation’s estuaries in the contiguous 48 states and Puerto Rico, south-eastern Alaska, ...

  10. The soft, fluctuating UVB at z ˜ 6 as traced by C IV, Si IV, and C II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlator, Kristian; Oppenheimer, B. D.; Davé, Romeel; Zackrisson, E.; Thompson, Robert; Huang, Shuiyao

    2016-07-01

    The sources that drove cosmological reionization left clues regarding their identity in the slope and inhomogeneity of the ultraviolet ionizing background (UVB): bright quasars (QSOs) generate a hard UVB with predominantly large-scale fluctuations while Population II stars generate a softer one with smaller scale fluctuations. Metal absorbers probe the UVB's slope because different ions are sensitive to different energies. Likewise, they probe spatial fluctuations because they originate in regions where a galaxy-driven UVB is harder and more intense. We take a first step towards studying the reionization-epoch UVB's slope and inhomogeneity by comparing observations of 12 metal absorbers at z ˜ 6 versus predictions from a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation using three different UVBs: a soft, spatially inhomogeneous `galaxies+QSOs' UVB; a homogeneous `galaxies+QSOs' UVB, and a `QSOs-only' model. All UVBs reproduce the observed column density distributions of C II, Si IV, and C IV reasonably well although high-column, high-ionization absorbers are underproduced, reflecting numerical limitations. With upper limits treated as detections, only a soft, fluctuating UVB reproduces both the observed Si IV/C IV and C II/C IV distributions. The QSOs-only UVB overpredicts both C IV/C II and C IV/Si IV, indicating that it is too hard. The Haardt & Madau (2012) UVB underpredicts C IV/Si IV, suggesting that it lacks amplifications near galaxies. Hence current observations prefer a soft, fluctuating UVB as expected from a predominantly Population II background although they cannot rule out a harder one. Future observations probing a factor of 2 deeper in metal column density will distinguish between the soft, fluctuating and QSOs-only UVBs.

  11. Aqueous complexation of thorium(IV), uranium(IV), neptunium(IV), plutonium(III/IV), and cerium(III/IV) with DTPA.

    PubMed

    Brown, M Alex; Paulenova, Alena; Gelis, Artem V

    2012-07-16

    Aqueous complexation of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(III/IV), and Ce(III/IV) with DTPA was studied by potentiometry, absorption spectrophotometry, and cyclic voltammetry at 1 M ionic strength and 25 °C. The stability constants for the 1:1 complex of each trivalent and tetravalent metal were calculated. From the potentiometric data, we report stability constant values for Ce(III)DTPA, Ce(III)HDTPA, and Th(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 20.01 ± 0.02, log β(111) = 22.0 ± 0.2, and log β(101) = 29.6 ± 1, respectively. From the absorption spectrophotometry data, we report stability constant values for U(IV)DTPA, Np(IV)DTPA, and Pu(IV)DTPA of log β(101) = 31.8 ± 0.1, 32.3 ± 0.1, and 33.67 ± 0.02, respectively. From the cyclic voltammetry data, we report stability constant values for Ce(IV) and Pu(III) of log β(101) = 34.04 ± 0.04 and 20.58 ± 0.04, respectively. The values obtained in this work are compared and discussed with respect to the ionic radius of each cationic metal.

  12. Gramatica generadora (Generative Grammar)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruset, Jose

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of describing the linguistic approach to the study of language to a non-linguist. Points out certain differences between traditional grammar, structural analysis and contemporary language analysis and gives a short description of the notion of generative grammar. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  13. Driver for solar cell I-V characteristic plots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, G. B. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A bipolar voltage ramp generator which applies a linear voltage through a resistor to a solar cell for plotting its current versus voltage (I-V) characteristic between short circuit and open circuit conditions is disclosed. The generator has automatic stops at the end points. The resistor serves the multiple purpose of providing a current sensing resistor, setting the full-scale current value, and providing a load line with a slope approximately equal to one, such that it will pass through the origin and the approximate center of the I-V curve with about equal distance from that center to each of the end points.

  14. [The characteristics of the notions used in forensic medicine and their logical basis].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, A V; Shmarov, L A; Ten'kov, A A

    2015-01-01

    The authors briefly characterize the formerly poorly defined notions used by forensic medical experts for the completion of the conclusions based on the results of primary forensic medical examinations of the corpses. The main errors made in the use of these notions encountered in the materials of primary forensic medical expertises of the corpses, the recommendations to avoid these mistakes are proposed. The present paper continues the series of specialized articles dealing with the main types of logical fallacies encountered in the expert conclusions with a view to further publication of the results of the in-depth analysis of logical mistakes in these documents.

  15. Normal for an Asperger: notions of the meanings of diagnoses among adults with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bertilsdotter Rosqvist, Hanna

    2012-04-01

    This study explores the production of a counterhegemonic discourse of "autistic normalcy" among adults with high-functioning autism by analyzing notions of diagnosis. The discourse analyses are based on material from ethnographic fieldwork in a Swedish educational setting. Study participants were 3 male and 9 female adults who had been diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. The notion of diagnosis comprises issues concerning coming out and knowledge production. The findings capture an ongoing reformulation process among people involved in the autistic self-advocacy movement when it comes to the meanings of Asperger syndrome and what it means to be a person with Asperger syndrome.

  16. INFLUENCE OF NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC ORGANIC LIGANDS ON THE STABILITY AND MOBILITY OF REDUCED TC(IV)

    SciTech Connect

    Nathalie A. Wall; Baohua Gu

    2012-12-20

    The primary objectives were (1) to quantify the interactions of organic ligands with Tc(IV) through the generation of thermodynamic (complexation) and kinetic parameters needed to assess and predict the mobility of reduced Tc(IV) at DOE contaminated sites; and (2) to determine the impact of organic ligands on the mobility and fate of reduced Tc(IV) under field geochemical conditions.

  17. Foreign Trip Report MATGEN-IV Sep 24- Oct 26, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    de Caro, M S

    2007-10-30

    Gen-IV activities in France, Japan and US focus on the development of new structural materials for Gen-IV nuclear reactors. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) F/M steels have raised considerable interest in nuclear applications. Promising collaborations can be established seeking fundamental knowledge of relevant Gen-IV ODS steel properties (see attached travel report on MATGEN- IV 'Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors'). Major highlights refer to results on future Ferritic/Martensitic steel cladding candidates (relevant to Gen-IV materials properties for LFR Materials Program) and on thermodynamic and mechanic behavior of metallic FeCr binary alloys, base matrix for future candidate steels (for the LLNL-LDRD project on Critical Issues on Materials for Gen-IV Reactors).

  18. Confirmatory factor analysis of the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV.

    PubMed

    Holdnack, James A; Xiaobin Zhou; Larrabee, Glenn J; Millis, Scott R; Salthouse, Timothy A

    2011-06-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-fourth edition (WMS-IV) were co-developed to be used individually or as a combined battery of tests. The independent factor structure of each of the tests has been identified; however, the combined factor structure has yet to be determined. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV Adult battery (i.e., age 16-69 years) co-norming sample (n = 900) to test 13 measurement models. The results indicated that two models fit the data equally well. One model is a seven-factor solution without a hierarchical general ability factor: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, Auditory Working Memory, Visual Working Memory, Auditory Memory, and Visual Memory. The second model is a five-factor model composed of Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Processing Speed, Working Memory, and Memory with a hierarchical general ability factor. Interpretative implications for each model are discussed.

  19. Contribution of alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) Collagen IV to the Mechanical Properties of the Glomerular Basement Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyoneva, Lazarina

    The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a vital part of the blood-urine filtration barrier in the kidneys. In healthy GBMs, the main tension-resisting component is alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) type IV collagen, but in some diseases it is replaced by other collagen IV isoforms. As a result, the GBM becomes leaky and disorganized, ultimately resulting in kidney failure. Our goal is to understanding the biomechanical aspects of the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains and how their absence could be responsible for (1) the initial injury to the GBM and (2) progression to kidney failure. A combination of experiments and computational models were designed for that purpose. A model basement membrane was used to compare experimentally the distensibility of tissues with the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains present and missing. The experiments showed basement membranes containing alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains were less distensible. It has been postulated that the higher level of lateral cross-linking (supercoiling) in the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks contributes additional strength/stability to basement membranes. In a computational model of supercoiled networks, we found that supercoiling greatly increased the stiffness of collagen IV networks but only minimally decreased the permeability, which is well suited for the needs of the GBM. It is also known that the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks are more protected from enzymatic degradation, and we explored their significance in GBM remodeling. Our simulations showed that the more protected network was needed to prevent the system from entering a dangerous feedback cycle due to autoregulation mechanisms in the kidneys. Overall, the work adds to the evidence of biomechanical differences between the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks and other collagen IV networks, points to supercoiling as the main source of biomechanical differences, discusses the suitability of alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV

  20. The MAX IV imaging concept.

    PubMed

    Matěj, Zdeněk; Mokso, Rajmund; Larsson, Krister; Hardion, Vincent; Spruce, Darren

    2017-01-01

    The MAX IV Laboratory is currently the synchrotron X-ray source with the beam of highest brilliance. Four imaging beamlines are in construction or in the project phase. Their common characteristic will be the high acquisition rates of phase-enhanced images. This high data flow will be managed at the local computing cluster jointly with the Swedish National Computing Infrastructure. A common image reconstruction and analysis platform is being designed to offer reliable quantification of the multidimensional images acquired at all the imaging beamlines at MAX IV.

  1. Understanding the Heterogeneous Nature of Science: A Comprehensive Notion of PCK for Scientific Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dijk, Esther M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the conceptualization of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching about the nature of science. In contrast to the view that science teachers need to develop a specific "PCK for nature of science," an alternative, more comprehensive notion of PCK for science teaching is suggested. The point of…

  2. Symbolic Representation in Early Years Learning: The Acquisition of Complex Notions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veraksa, Aleksander; Veraksa, Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    This article defines the concepts related to symbolic and sign representations, cognition and learning in the early years. The first study experiment of teaching 33 preschool children (19 boys and 14 girls; M = 68, 5 months) the notion of rainbow phenomenon proved the equal effectiveness of the use of both sign and symbolic tools. The second study…

  3. Normal for an Asperger: Notions of the Meanings of Diagnoses among Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosqvist, Hanna Bertilsdotter

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the production of a counterhegemonic discourse of "autistic normalcy" among adults with high-functioning autism by analyzing notions of diagnosis. The discourse analyses are based on material from ethnographic fieldwork in a Swedish educational setting. Study participants were 3 male and 9 female adults who had been…

  4. Insights from the Use of Gardner's Notions of Mindset: Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retna, Kala S.

    2015-01-01

    A body of literature asserts that group work can be beneficial in enhancing learning and in developing specific skills among students. This research builds on the literature and on Gardner's (2006a) five notions of mindsets: disciplined, synthesising, creation, ethical and respectful, as a descriptive framework to explore and understand the…

  5. The Influence of Teachers' Preexisting Notions about Students on Scholastic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirrone, Concetta

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines teachers' preexisting notion of the "weak" academic student, and the characteristics implicit in that stereotype. Extant literature demonstrates how the teacher's dichotomous conceptions of "strong" and "weak" academic students are predictive of scholastic success. The goal of this study was to…

  6. Notions of Sex, Sexuality and Relationships among Adolescent Boys in Rural Southeastern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izugbara, C. Otutubikey

    2004-01-01

    Although young people in Nigeria become sexually active at a very early age, little is known about how they view sex, sexuality, and relationships with the opposite sex. Yet knowledge of their notions and expectations regarding these issues has the potential to improve care and inform the development of sexuality education programmes. This paper…

  7. Decision Making, Structure and Institutional Notions of Quality: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Mimi

    Few studies have focused on the effects of systemic change and decentralized decision making on organizational structure and on an institution's notion of quality education. This study examined such interconnections at a community college given the pseudonym America Community College (ACC). ACC is a multi-campus metropolitan area college in a area…

  8. Generalization of the Wet-Bulb Temperature Notion to the Case of Electromagnetic Drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanas'ev, A. M.; Siplivyi, B. N.

    2016-05-01

    A method of estimating the stationary temperature of the surface a body blown over by air and subjected to the action of electromagnetic radiation, representing a generalization of the wet-bulb temperature notion to the case of electromagnetic drying, has been developed.

  9. A Functional-Notional Approach for English for Specific Purposes (ESP) Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Min

    English for Specific Purposes (ESP) programs, characterized by the special needs of the language learners, are described and a review of the literature on a functional-notional approach to the syllabus design of ESP programs is presented. It is suggested that effective ESP programs should teach the language skills necessary to function and perform…

  10. Social Investment or Private Profit? Diverging Notions of "Investment" in Early Childhood Education and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Elizabeth; Brennan, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, many OECD countries have adopted the notion of "social investment" to reframe traditional approaches to social welfare. Social investment strategies and policies focus on employment rather than welfare and promote public expenditure on skills and education throughout the life course, starting with early childhood…

  11. The Notion of Adminstrative Transparency among Academic Leaderships at Jordanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaradat, Mohammed Hasan

    2013-01-01

    The study aims at identifying the notion of transparency among academic leaderships at Jordanian universities. To this effect, the interview-based approach was used in order to delineate the concept of transparency. Eighty individual academic leaderships were interviewed across various schools in Jordan. Upon collection of data and information,…

  12. 26 CFR 1.1001-4 - Modifications of certain notional principal contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Modifications of certain notional principal contracts. 1.1001-4 Section 1.1001-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Determination of Amount of and Recognition of Gain Or...

  13. Politicised Notions of Professional Identity and Psychosocial Practice among Practitioners Working with Asylum Seekers and Refugees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apostolidou, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study undertaken in the UK that investigates the notion of professional identity among practitioners who work with asylum seekers and refugees. Drawing on a social constructionist epistemology and a Foucauldian theoretical and methodological framework of power and discourse, I analysed extracts from semi-structured interviews…

  14. [Notes for a discussion on the notion of resistance in psychopharmacology].

    PubMed

    Levin, Santiago

    2005-01-01

    The present work's purpose is to open a discussion on the notion of Resistance in Psychopharmacology. Despite the fact that the phenomenon is observable in psychiatric practice, its meaning and consequences for medical practice are not sufficiently established, so that a critical reformulation is required for the sake of greater conceptual clarity in this area.

  15. Motivating the Notion of Generic Design within Information Processing Theory: The Design Problem Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goel, Vinod; Pirolli, Peter

    The notion of generic design, while it has been around for 25 years, is not often articulated, especially within Newell and Simon's (1972) Information Processing Theory framework. Design is merely lumped in with other forms of problem solving activity. Intuitively it is felt that there should be a level of description of the phenomenon which…

  16. The Balance of Lifekind: An Introduction to the Notion of Human Environment. Environmental Education Series 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Science, Technical and Environmental Education.

    Based upon the notion that the study of the environment should include attempts to articulate concepts related to the natural, social and cultural dimensions of the human environment, this learning module was developed for Unesco's International Environmental Education Programme. It is intended for use at the secondary school level and contains…

  17. Exploring the Notion of Quality in Quality Higher Education Assessment in a Collaborative Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Kate; Gibbs, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to the debate on the notion of quality in higher education with particular focus on "objectifying through articulation" the assessment of quality by professional experts. The article gives an overview of the differentiations of quality as used in higher education. It explores a substantial…

  18. Inequality and Doctoral Education: Exploring the "Rules" of Doctoral Study through Bourdieu's Notion of Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopaul, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    While studies have examined a myriad of issues in doctoral study, much of this research has not employed the tools of major social and cultural thinkers to the dynamics of doctoral education. This paper explores the use of Bourdieu's notion of field to render visible the practices and contexts of doctoral education that produce inequalities across…

  19. Educational Policy and Notions of Citizenship in Four Asia-Pacific Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutch, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The future schooling scenarios prepared by the OECD/CERI (OECD, 2001) are the focus of this article, first because they provide a useful tool for futures thinking in educational settings and, second, because they provide an analytic framework to investigate how notions of citizenship are embedded in educational policies and in the organisation of…

  20. Using the Notion of "Wonder" to Develop Positive Conceptions of Science with Future Primary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A common challenge for many primary pre-service teacher educators is to rekindle interest in science content with future teachers who often express a lifetime of negative associations with school science. This pilot study investigated if the notion of wonder could be utilized with preservice teachers as a vehicle to develop more positive…

  1. Resettling Notions of Social Mobility: Locating Refugees as "Educable" and "Employable"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyama, Jill

    2013-01-01

    The global movement of people alters our understandings of social mobility. Here, I draw on ethnographic data collected since January 2011 and utilize the notion of "assemblage" to document and analyze how disparate people, their material objects, and discursive practices are brought together to render refugees as educable, productive,…

  2. Spanish Secondary School Students' Notions on the Causes and Consequences of Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punter, Pilar; Ochando-Pardo, Montserrat; Garcia, Javier

    2011-01-01

    This paper is part of an extensive study of secondary school students' preconceived ideas about climate change. Here, we undertake a survey in the province of Valencia (Spain) to ascertain secondary school students' notions of the causes and consequences of climate change. Results show, among other things, that students clearly relate the misuse…

  3. Perspectives of Education for Sustainable Development--Understanding and Introducing the Notion in Polish Educational Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czapla, Malgorzata; Berlinska, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present an analysis of formal educational documents in the context of the sustainable development notion. This goal was realised by an analysis of the National Curriculum Framework documents from 2002 in comparison with the newest document from 2008. In addition, seven teaching programmes were analysed. On the grounds…

  4. Bilingual Gestures: The "Manual" Way of Informing the Notion of "Balanced Bilinguals"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondermann, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Defining what makes a person bilingual is notoriously difficult and dependent on various factors like fluency, age of acquisition, and situational context, among others. The notion of a "balanced bilingual" is even more elusive and fraught with limitations regarding the proper assessment and linguistic profiling of bilinguals, leading to…

  5. Oxidation Resistance of Monolayer Group-IV Monochalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Zhou, Si; Bai, Yizhen; Zhao, Jijun

    2017-03-21

    Ridged, orthorhombic two-dimensional (2D) group-V elemental and group IV-VI compound analogues of phosphorene provide a versatile platform for nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, and clean energy. However, phosphorene is vulnerable to oxygen in ambient air, which is a major obstacle for its applications. Regarding this issue, here we explore the oxidation behavior of monolayer group-IV monochalcogenides (GeS, GeSe, SnS, and SnSe), in comparison to that of phosphorene and arsenene by first-principles calculations. We find superior oxidation resistance of the monolayer group-IV monochalcogenides, with activation energies for the chemisorption of O2 on the 2D sheets in the range of 1.26-1.60 eV, about twice of the values of phosphorene and arsenene. The distinct oxidation behaviors of monolayer group-IV monochalcogenides and group-V phosphorene analogues originate from their different bond natures. Moreover, the chemisorption of a moderate amount of oxygen atoms does not severely deteriorate the electronic band structures of the monolayer group-IV monochalcogenides. These results shine light on the utilization of the monolayer group-IV monochalcogenides for next-generation 2D electronics and optoelectronics with high performance and stability.

  6. Monitoring and control requirement definition study for dispersed storage and generation (DSG). Volume IV. Final report, Appendix C: identification from utility visits of present and future approaches to integration of DSG into distribution networks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    A major aim of the US National Energy Policy, as well as that of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, is to conserve energy and to shift from oil to more abundant domestic fuels and renewable energy sources. Dispersed Storage and Generation (DSG) is the term that characterizes the present and future dispersed, relatively small (<30 MW) energy systems, such as solar thermal electric, photovoltaic, wind, fuel cell, storage battery, hydro, and cogeneration, which can help achieve these national energy goals and can be dispersed throughout the distribution portion of an electric utility system. As a result of visits to four utilities concerned with the use of DSG power sources on their distribution networks, some useful impressions of present and future approaches to the integration of DSGs into electrical distribution network have been obtained. A more extensive communications and control network will be developed by utilities for control of such sources for future use. Different approaches to future utility systems with DSG are beginning to take shape. The new DSG sources will be in decentralized locations with some measure of centralized control. The utilities have yet to establish firmly the communication and control means or their organization. For the present, the means for integrating the DSGs and their associated monitoring and control equipment into a unified system have not been decided.

  7. Angiotensin IV possibly acts through PKMzeta in the hippocampus to regulate cognitive memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Chow, Lok-Hi; Tao, Pao-Luh; Chen, Yuan-Hao; Lin, Yu-Hui; Huang, Eagle Yi-Kung

    2015-10-01

    Ang IV is an endogenous peptide generated from the degradation of angiotensin II. Ang IV was found to enhance learning and memory in CNS. PKMzeta was identified to be a fragment of PKCzeta (protein kinase Czeta). Its continuous activation was demonstrated to be correlated with the formation of memory in the hippocampus. Therefore, we investigated whether PKMzeta participates in the effects of Ang IV on memory. We first examined the effect of Ang IV on non-spatial memory/cognition in modified object recognition test in rats. Our data showed that Ang IV could increase the exploration time on novel object. The co-administration of ZIP (PKMzeta inhibitor) with Ang IV significantly blocked the effect by Ang IV. The effects of Ang IV on hippocampal LTP at the CA1 region were also evaluated. Ang IV significantly increased the amplitude and slope of the EPSPs, which was consistent with other reports. Surprisingly, instead of potentiating LTP, Ang IV caused a failed maintenance of LTP. Moreover, there was no quantitative change in PKMzeta induced by Ang IV and/or ZIP after behavioral experiments. Taken together, our data re-confirmed the finding of the positive effect of Ang IV to enhance memory/cognition. The increased strength of EPSPs with Ang IV could also have certain functional relevance. Since the behavioral results suggested the involvement of PKMzeta, we hypothesized that the enhancement of memory/cognition by Ang IV may rely on an increase in PKMzeta activity. Overall, the present study provided important advances in our understanding of the action of Ang IV in the hippocampus.

  8. Effect of Supercoiling on the Mechanical and Permeability Properties of Model Collagen IV Networks.

    PubMed

    Gyoneva, Lazarina; Segal, Yoav; Dorfman, Kevin D; Barocas, Victor H

    2015-07-01

    Collagen IV networks in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) are essential for the maintenance and regulation of blood filtration in the kidneys. The GBM contains two different types of collagen IV networks: [α1(IV)]2α2(IV) and α3(IV)α4(IV)α5(IV), the latter of which has a higher number of supercoils (two or more collagens coiling around each other). To investigate the effects of supercoiling on the mechanical and permeability properties of collagen IV networks, we generated model collagen IV networks in the GBM and reconnected them to create different levels of supercoiling. We found that supercoiling greatly increases the stiffness of collagen IV networks but only minimally decreases the permeability. Also, doubling the amount of supercoils in a network had a bigger effect than doubling the stiffness of the supercoils. Our results suggest that the formation of supercoils is a specialized mechanism by the GBM that provides with a network stiff and strong enough to withstand the high hydrostatic pressures of filtration, yet porous enough that filtration is not hindered. Clinically, understanding the effects of supercoiling gives us insight into the mechanisms of GBM failure in some disease states where the normal collagen IV structure is disrupted.

  9. Influences of Mn(II) and V(IV) on Bacterial Surface Chemistry and Metal Reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, S.; Fakra, S.; Glasauer, S.

    2009-05-01

    Microorganisms in terrestrial and marine environments are typically bathed in solutions that contain a range of metal ions, toxic and beneficial. Bacteria such as Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 are metabolically versatile in their respiration, and the reductive dissolution of widely dispersed metals such as Fe(III), Mn(IV), or V(V) can present unique challenges if nearby bodies of water are used for irrigation or drinking. In redox transition zones, dissimilatory metal reduction (DMR) by bacteria can lead to generation of high concentrations of soluble metals. It has been shown that metals will associate with negatively charged bacterial membranes, and the mechanisms of metal reduction are well defined for many species of bacteria. The interaction of metals with the cell wall during DMR is, however, not well documented; very little is known about the interaction of respired transition metals with membrane lipids. Furthermore, bacterial surfaces tend to change in response to their immediate environments. Variations in conditions such as oxygen or metal presence may affect surface component composition, including availability of metal reactive sites. Our research seeks to characterize the biochemical nature of metal-membrane interactions, as well as identify the unique changes at the cell surface that arise as a result of metal presence in their environments. We have utilized scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) to examine the dynamics of soluble Mn(II) and V(IV) interactions with purified bacterial membranes rather than whole cells. This prevents intracellular interferences, and allows for near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopic analyses of cell surface and surface-associated components. NEXAFS spectra for carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen edges indicate that Mn(II) and V(IV) induce biological modifications of the cell membrane in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These changes depend not only on the metal, but also on the presence of

  10. Facile Routes to Th(IV), U(IV), and Np(IV) Phosphites and Phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Eric M.; Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2011-08-05

    Three actinide(IV) phosphites and a NpIV phosphate, AnIV(HPO₃)₂(H₂O)₂ (An = Th, U, Np) and Cs[Np(H1.5PO₄)(PO₄)]₂, respectively, were synthesized using mild hydrothermal conditions. The first three phases are isotypic and were obtained using similar reaction conditions. Cs[Np(H1.5PO₄)(PO₄)]₂ was synthesized using an analogous method to that of Np(HPO₃)₂(H₂O)₂. However, this fourth phase is quite different in comparison to the other phases in both composition and structure. The structure of Cs[Np(H1.5PO₄)(PO₄)]₂ is constructed from double layers of neptunium(IV) phosphate with caesium cations in the interlayer region. In contrast, An(HPO₃)₂(H₂O)₂ (An = Th, U, Np) form dense 3D networks. The actinide contraction is detected in variety of metrics obtained from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. Changes in the oxidation state of the neptunium starting materials yield different products.

  11. Complex oscillator and Painlevé IV equation

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández C, David J. González, J.C.

    2015-08-15

    Supersymmetric quantum mechanics is a powerful tool for generating exactly solvable potentials departing from a given initial one. In this article the first- and second-order supersymmetric transformations will be used to obtain new exactly solvable potentials departing from the complex oscillator. The corresponding Hamiltonians turn out to be ruled by polynomial Heisenberg algebras. By applying a mechanism to reduce to second the order of these algebras, the connection with the Painlevé IV equation is achieved, thus giving place to new solutions for the Painlevé IV equation.

  12. A multidimensional approach to explore the understanding of the notion of absolute value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagatsis, Athanasios; Panaoura, Areti

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to investigative students' conceptions on the notion of absolute value and their abilities in applying the specific notion in routine and non-routine situations. A questionnaire was constructed and administered to 17-year-old students. Data were analysed using the hierarchical clustering of variables and the implicative method, while the qualitative approach was used to identify and analyse students' errors. The results revealed students' strong tendency to use algorithmic processes even in situations in which this kind of reasoning was not suited. This tendency and students' errors in the tasks were assumed to occur primarily due to obstacles of didactic origin concerning the didactic contract and subsequently due to epistemological obstacles grounded in the history of mathematics.

  13. Notions of local controllability and optimal feedforward control for quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Raj

    2011-05-01

    Local controllability is an essential concept for regulation and control of time-varying nonlinear dynamical systems; in the classical control logic it is at the foundation of neighboring optimal feedback and feedforward control. We introduce notions of local controllability suited to feedforward control of classical input disturbances in bilinear quantum systems evolving on projective spaces and Lie groups. Tests for local controllability based on a Gramian matrix analogous to the nonlinear local controllability Gramian, which allow assessment of which trajectories can be regulated by perturbative feedforward in the presence of classical input noise, are presented. These notions explicitly incorporate system bilinearity and the geometry of quantum states into the definition of local controllability of quantum systems. Associated feedforward strategies are described.

  14. [Compassionate care, emergence of a notion in the light and shade of the care environment].

    PubMed

    Casagrande, Alice

    2016-05-01

    Compassionate care is a recent notion. It is based on a shared culture which focuses on promoting the rights of vulnerable people, integral to the quality of professionals' life at work. Tangible and part of day-to-day practice, it requires room to be set aside for discussion and ethical considerations, essential for ensuring the long-lasting creativity of caregivers, at the source of their mobilisation.

  15. Characterization of a Grape Class IV Chitinase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A chitinase was purified from Vitis vinifera Manzoni Bianco grape juice and characterized. On the basis of proteomic analysis of tryptic peptides, a significant match identified the enzyme as a type IV grape chitinase previously found in juices of other V. vinifera varieties. The optimal pH and temperature for activity toward colloidal chitin were found to be 6 and 30 °C, respectively. The enzyme was found to hydrolyze chitin and oligomers of N-acetylglucosamine, generating N,N′-diacetylchitobiose and N-acetylglucosamine as products, but was inactive toward N,N′-diacetylchitobiose. The enzyme exhibited both endo- and exochitinase activities. Because yeast contains a small amount of chitin in the cell wall, the possibility of growth inhibition was tested. At a concentration and pH expected in ripe grapes, no inhibition of wine yeast growth by the chitinase was observed. PMID:24845689

  16. [AIDS and social situations of women in Africa: from notions to research methods].

    PubMed

    Vidal, L; Loû, A D

    2001-01-01

    When researchers or actors intend to analyse women's situations in the context of AIDS in Africa, they are conducted to take into account the whole context these women live in: their access to care and prevention, their ability to make choices in their emotional, sexual and marital life, their access to education and to a gainful employment. It is also important in such an approach to define precisely the notions used. This paper proposes first to describe the several realities existing under the notions of vulnerability, autonomy, negotiation, sexuality, prostitution, motherhood and mother and child health. Through examples from researches conducted in Côte d'Ivoire and in other African countries, we enlighten how stereotypes are still used to describe women's situations in Africa. We insist on the need to propose fine-tuned and balanced analyses, in order to avoid sweeping generalisations that are harmful to women themselves. Secondly, we describe the methodological tools that can be used in this kind of analysis of notions and contexts in gender relations. We describe qualitative and quantitative survey techniques. For each one, we emphasise their requirements but also their effects on our research process on women's experiences facing AIDS.

  17. Endonuclease IV of Escherichia coli is induced by paraquat

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, E.; Weiss, B.

    1987-05-01

    The addition of paraquat (methyl viologen) to a growing culture of Escherichia coli K-12 led within 1 hr to a 10- to 20-fold increase in the level of endonuclease IV, a DNase for apurinic/apyrimidinic sites. The induction was blocked by chloramphenicol. Increases of 3-fold or more were also seen with plumbagin, menadione, and phenazine methosulfate. H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ produced no more than a 2-fold increase in endonuclease IV activity. The following agents had no significant effect: streptonigrin, nitrofurantoin, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, ..gamma.. rays, 260-nm UV radiation, methyl methanesulfonate, mitomycin C, and ascorbate. Paraquat, plumbagin, menadione, and phenazine methosulfate are known to generate superoxide radical anions via redox cycling in vivo. A mutant lacking superoxide dismutase was unusually sensitive to induction by paraquat. In addition, endonuclease IV could be induced by merely growing the mutant in pure O/sub 2/. The levels of endonuclease IV in uninduced or paraquat-treated cells were unaffected by mutations of oxyR, a H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-inducible gene that governs an oxidative-stress regulon. The results indicate that endonuclease IV is an inducible DNA-repair enzyme and that its induction can be mediated via the production of superoxide radicals.

  18. 21 CFR 1308.14 - Schedule IV.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule IV. 1308.14 Section 1308.14 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Schedules § 1308.14 Schedule IV. (a) Schedule IV shall consist of the drugs and other substances,...

  19. Generator Set, 100kW Frequency Converter. Volume IV.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    tests. 4) Waveform design. Inverter waveform design analyses in which the Input and output filters are considered In the harmonic content minimization...input Figure 14 drew, the variation in cost of the Inverter thyristor as- voltage or load . sumbly, plus output filter capacitors with increased use of...2 0 L a. Investigate the prthlema of design extrapolation for the rectifier- filter end — of the 100 kW Inverter . b. Identify problem areas for

  20. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a…

  1. Oxovanadium(IV) silsesquioxane complexes.

    PubMed

    Ohde, Christian; Limberg, Christian; Stösser, Reinhard; Demeshko, Serhiy

    2010-03-01

    In the context of a potential modeling of reduced oxovanadium species occurring on the surfaces of silica-supported vanadia catalysts in the course of its turnover, the incompletely condensed silsesquioxane H(3)(c-pentyl)T(7) was reacted with Cl(4)V(THF)(2) (where THF = tetrahydrofuran) in the presence of triethylamine. Precipitation of 3 equiv of HNEt(3)Cl seemed to point to the clean formation of [((c-pentyl)T(7))(V(IV)Cl)] (1), which was supported by electron paramagnetic resonance studies performed for the resulting solutions, but further analytical and spectroscopic investigations showed that the processes occurring at that stage are more complex than that and even include the formation of [((c-pentyl)T(7))(V(V)O)](2) as a side product. Storage of a red-brown hexane solution of this product mixture reproducibly led to the precipitation of blue crystals belonging to the chloride-free compound [((c-pentyl)T(7))(2)(V(IV)=O)(3)(THF)(2)] (2), as revealed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Performing the same reaction in the presence of 2 equiv of pyridine leads to an analogous product, where the THF ligands are replaced by pyridine. Subsequent investigations showed that the terminal oxo ligands at the vanadium centers are, on the one hand, due to the presence of adventitious water; on the other hand, the [(c-pentyl)T(7)](3-) ligand also acted as a source of O(2-). The results of SQUID measurements performed for 2 can be interpreted in terms of a ferromagnetic coupling between the vanadyl units. Exposing 2 to a dioxygen atmosphere resulted in its immediate oxidation to yield the V(V) complex [((c-pentyl)T(7))(V(V)O)](2), which may model a fast reoxidation reaction of oxovanadium(IV) trimers on silica surfaces.

  2. PREPARATION OF OXOPORPHINATOMANGANESE (IV) COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Willner, I.; Otvos, J.; Calvin, M.

    1980-07-01

    Oxo-manganese-tetraphenylporphyrin (O=Mn{sup IV}-TPP) has been prepared by an oxygen-transfer reaction from iodosylbenzene to MnIITPP and characterized by its i.r. and field desorption mass spectra, which are identical to those of the product obtained by direct oxidation of Mn{sup III}(TPP) in an aqueous medium; it transfers oxygen to triphenylphosphine to produce triphenylphosphine oxide, and it is suggested that similar intermediates are important in oxygen activation by cytochrome P-450 as well as in the photosynthetic evolution of oxygen.

  3. Various notions of positivity for bi-linear maps and applications to tri-partite entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Kyung Hoon; Kye, Seung-Hyeok

    2016-01-15

    We consider bi-linear analogues of s-positivity for linear maps. The dual objects of these notions can be described in terms of Schmidt ranks for tri-tensor products and Schmidt numbers for tri-partite quantum states. These tri-partite versions of Schmidt numbers cover various kinds of bi-separability, and so we may interpret witnesses for those in terms of bi-linear maps. We give concrete examples of witnesses for various kinds of three qubit entanglement.

  4. [Human dignity as a key notion in the UNESCO declaration on the human genome].

    PubMed

    Andorno, R

    2001-01-01

    The notion of human dignity plays an increasing role in the bioethical discussion. The UNESCO Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights is the best example of this phenomenon. This instrument is the first important step to establish international standards with regard to the ethical and legal problems raised by genetic advances. Nevertheless, the major work is still pending. First, because the concept of dignity requires a better characterization with reference to the new bioethical dilemmas. Second, because the principles enunciated at the international level should be concretized locally through well-crafted national law.

  5. A Spectrum of IV and V Modeling Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimdahl, Mats; Owen, David

    2004-01-01

    The aerospace industry in general and NASA in particular is using more (semi-formal) model-based software development. Model-based development produces a collection of artifacts, for example, state diagrams, module diagrams (such as class diagrams), control-block diagrams, etc. These artifacts may than be used as a basis for auto code generation for production use. Therefore, these models must be properly evaluated in the IV and V process. IV and V practitioners know how assess standard procedural systems. But what can we du about IV and V of model-based systems? The goal of the work outlined in this proposal is to use cost effective automated techniques to the largest extent possible during the IV and V process. Our working hypotheses are: 1. There exists a range of validation techniques that can assess models built using a range of modeling techniques of increasing cost and complexity. Specifically, we hypotesize that the "cheaper" techniques can find faults cheaply and early in a project. These early results are then used to predict if this is a problem system and if a more elaborate and expensive IV and V effort is justified. 2. There exists a set of migration procedures that let us seamlessly move from simple models using cheaper techniques into more elaborate models suitable for a more expensive and detailed analysis. 3. We further hypothesize that this migration process is much cheaper than simply remodeling the system under investigation from scratch when moving to models needed for the more detailed and expensive IV and V assessments.

  6. Titanium(IV) isopropoxide mediated synthesis of pyrimidin-4-ones.

    PubMed

    Ramanjulu, Joshi M; Demartino, Michael P; Lan, Yunfeng; Marquis, Robert

    2010-05-21

    A novel, one-step method for the synthesis of tri- and tetrasubstituted pyrimidin-4-ones is reported. This method involves a titanium(IV)-mediated cyclization involving two sequential condensations of primary and beta-ketoamides. The reaction is operationally facile, readily scalable, and offers rapid entry into differentially substituted pyrimidin-4-one scaffolds. The high functional group compatibility allows for substantial diversification in the products generated from this transformation.

  7. The specificity triad: notions of disease and therapeutic specificity in biomedical reasoning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Biomedicine is typically defined as the branch of medicine that is based on the principles of biology and biochemistry. A central tenet for biomedicine is the notion of disease and therapeutic specificity, i.e. the idea of tailored treatments for discrete disorders underpinned by specific pathologies. The present paper is concerned with how notions of disease and therapeutic specificity guide biomedical reasoning. To that end, the author proposes a model – the specificity triad – that draws on late philosopher and physician Ludwik Fleck’s concept of “style of thought” to offer a frame for investigating the intricate process through which links between disorders, mechanisms, and therapeutics are established by biomedicine. Next by applying the specificity triad model to scrutinize research efforts in two discrete areas of medicine—psychiatry and regenerative medicine—this paper seeks to stimulate pertinent discussions in and about biomedicine. These include discussions on the ambiguous epistemic status of psychiatry within contemporary biomedicine, as well as the relationship between developmental biology — historically relatively disjointed from biomedical enterprise — and the burgeoning field of regenerative medicine. PMID:25326797

  8. The specificity triad: notions of disease and therapeutic specificity in biomedical reasoning.

    PubMed

    Mulinari, Shai

    2014-10-18

    Biomedicine is typically defined as the branch of medicine that is based on the principles of biology and biochemistry. A central tenet for biomedicine is the notion of disease and therapeutic specificity, i.e. the idea of tailored treatments for discrete disorders underpinned by specific pathologies. The present paper is concerned with how notions of disease and therapeutic specificity guide biomedical reasoning. To that end, the author proposes a model - the specificity triad - that draws on late philosopher and physician Ludwik Fleck's concept of "style of thought" to offer a frame for investigating the intricate process through which links between disorders, mechanisms, and therapeutics are established by biomedicine. Next by applying the specificity triad model to scrutinize research efforts in two discrete areas of medicine-psychiatry and regenerative medicine-this paper seeks to stimulate pertinent discussions in and about biomedicine. These include discussions on the ambiguous epistemic status of psychiatry within contemporary biomedicine, as well as the relationship between developmental biology - historically relatively disjointed from biomedical enterprise - and the burgeoning field of regenerative medicine.

  9. Optical and Infrared Interferometry IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Jayadev K.; Creech-Eakman, Michelle J.; Malbet, Fabien

    2014-08-01

    Optical and IR Interferometry IV at the SPIE 2014 symposium in Montreal had a strong and vibrant program. After initial fears about budget cuts and travel-funding constraints, the Program Committee had to work hard to accommodate as many quality submissions as possible. Innovative, creative and visionary work ensured that the field has progressed well, despite the bleak funding climate felt in the US, Europe and elsewhere. Montreal proved an excellent venue for this, the largest of Interferometry conferences and the only one that brings together practitioners from the world over. Let us summarize a few highlights to convey a glimpse of the excitement that is detailed in the rest of these Proceedings.

  10. Solar cell dark I-V characteristics and their applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, M. S.; Brandtzaeg, P.; Miller, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of studies conducted to evaluate the feasibility of and to generate techniques for the use of dark forward current-voltage characteristics in the checkout of the Apollo Telescope Mount Solar Array. Methods for the determination of lumped series resistance and prediction of the illuminated I-V curve using the dark characteristics are also presented. The paper addresses itself primarily to the generation of a valid performance testing and flight readiness checkout technique using the forward characteristics of the solar cell.

  11. From solidarity to autonomy: towards a redefinition of the parameters of the notion of autonomy.

    PubMed

    Fainzang, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    Starting from examples of concrete situations in France, I show that autonomy and solidarity can coexist only if the parameters of autonomy are redefined. I show on the one hand that in situations where autonomy is encouraged, solidarity nevertheless remains at the foundation of their practices. On the other hand, in situations largely infused with family solidarity, the individual autonomy may be put in danger. Yet, based on my ethnographic observations regarding clinical encounters and medical secrecy, I show that while solidarity may endanger individual autonomy, it does not necessarily endanger autonomy itself. The social practices observable in France reflect the reality of an autonomy that goes beyond the individual, a reality that involves a collective subject and includes solidarity. The opposition between these two values can then be resolved if the content of the notion of autonomy is understood to be dependent on its cultural context of application and on its social use.

  12. From Freudian narcissism to the Buddhist notion of anatman, via Jung's idea of identity.

    PubMed

    Martin-Vallas, François

    2017-02-01

    Starting from the question the youthful Carl Gustav pondered as he sat on 'his' stone - 'Am I he who sits on the stone, or am I the stone on which he sits?' - the author has attempted to show that, for Jung, the idea of identity is founded on a wilful non-determination. This stance results in ethical and methodological repercussions that differentiate it both from the Freudian project and from Hindu and Buddhist thought, while at the same time having much in common with them. The paper refers to the notions of emergence and (Varela et al. 1992) enaction and argues that the concept of the archetype, especially in relation to the self, merits a re-evaluation in light of the new scientific paradigm.

  13. The enigmatic primitive streak: prevailing notions and challenges concerning the body axis of mammals

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Karen M.

    2010-01-01

    The primitive streak establishes the antero-posterior body axis in all amniote species. It is thought to be the conduit through which mesoderm and endoderm progenitors ingress and migrate to their ultimate destinations. Despite its importance, the streak remains poorly defined and one of the most enigmatic structures of the animal kingdom. In particular, the posterior end of the primitive streak has not been satisfactorily identified in any species. Unexpectedly, and contrary to prevailing notions, recent evidence suggests that the murine posterior primitive streak extends beyond the embryo proper. In its extraembryonic site, the streak creates a node-like cell reservoir from which the allantois, a universal caudal appendage of all amniotes and the future umbilical cord of placental mammals, emerges. This new insight into the fetal/umbilical relationship may explain the etiology of a large number of umbilical-associated birth defects, many of which are correlated with abnormalities of the embryonic midline. PMID:19609969

  14. Self-organization in macromolecular systems: the notion of adaptive value.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, L

    1984-10-01

    Self-organization in macromolecular systems refers to the transition from a random assembly of interacting oligomers to a system of stable heteropolymers. The concept of adaptive value describes the correlation between environmental variability and the variability in replication and mutation rates of the interacting oligomers. This paper describes a model of self-organization in macromolecular systems based on the concept of adaptive value. The equilibrium states of a set of interacting polymers are described by states that maximize the adaptive value. The analytic basis for this notion of equilibrium, which is called the adaptive value principle, is given and this principle is invoked to explain two examples of macromolecular self-assembly.

  15. Does culture impact on notions of criminal responsibility and action? The case of spirit possession.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ayesha; Dein, Simon

    2016-10-01

    Multicultural societies such as the United Kingdom are host to people with diverse belief systems and behavioral norms. Whilst a country requires that all members of society conform to standardized legal requirements, cases arise that involve certain complexities related to the cultural or religious context in which a certain action was committed. This paper addresses the impact of culture on notions of criminal responsibility and action. Through a case study of a recent event in the United Kingdom, we explore whether a cultural defense is relevant for contextualizing incidents in which an individual commits a criminal action during an alleged period of spirit possession From this analysis, we suggest that using a cultural defense can aid understanding of an individual's relationship to the society that he or she identifies with and facilitate the practice of justice in a multicultural society.

  16. The Notions of Science as human capital: An empirical analysis of economic growth and science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Russell D.

    This study was designed to determine the strength of the relationship between a nation's human capital in the form of the "Notions of Science" (NOS) and the growth rate of gross domestic product per capita for 43 countries during the years 1988 through 1998. This relationship was studied from two perspectives: first, the study sought to determine if there was a significant relationship between a country's NOS and its growth rate in gross domestic per capita; second, the study sought to determine if the NOS had a greater relationship with the growth rate of gross domestic product per capita than a more commonly used measure of human capital, amount of schooling. The NOS for the participating countries were proxied by the percentage of a country's science curriculum devoted to teaching the NOS. The science curricula used in this study were obtained from the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's (IEA) Curriculum Frameworks for Mathematics and Science. These curricular frameworks were written as one part of the Third International Math and Science Study (TIMSS). The NOS were extracted from the science curriculum frameworks through the construction of a content-by-cognitive-behavior-grid. The categories, or codes, for the NOS used in this grid were based on the work of Clarence Irving Lewis in Mind and the World Order. Holding several other explanatory variables constant, the NOS percentage for each country were regressed against each country's average growth rate of gross domestic product per capita for the period of 1988 through 1998. The results indicate that there was not a significant relationship between human capital, as proxied by the percentage of the curriculum devoted to the notions of science, and a country's economic growth rate. Because the regression coefficient for the NOS was not statistically significant, this study was not able to determine if the NOS had a stronger relationship with growth in GDP per capita than

  17. The notion of precariousness among older adults living alone in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Portacolone, Elena

    2013-04-01

    This paper argues that older adults living alone in the U.S. face a set of unique challenges, as they are likely to experience a sense of precariousness. The term precariousness points to an intrinsic sense of instability and insecurity stemming from a lack of, or difficulty to, access essential resources. During a two-year ethnography of 47 older solo dwellers, this term captured one of the distinctive traits of the experience of living alone in older age in the U.S. The findings from semi-structured interviews and participant observation highlight the emergence of the notion of precariousness along three levels of analysis. First, on the micro and subjective level of analysis, older solo dwellers may struggle to perform the chores related to their household as they may deal with a failing body, faltering memory, and fixed if not shrinking income. Second, on the meso and institutional level of analysis, older adults living alone need to navigate the complex, scattered, and ever-changing landscape of services and understand their eligibility criteria, accessibility, fees, and conditions. At the same time they may have to deal with family issues. Finally, the macro level examines the pressure on older solo dwellers of a prevalent ideology that prizes independent behaviors and personal responsibility. In conclusion, the notion of precariousness illustrates the unique position of older adults living alone as they face different type of challenges on a micro, meso, and macro dimension. The paper ends with an invitation to create social policies that accommodate the needs of a growing number of older adults living alone.

  18. Female adolescents and their sexuality: notions of honour, shame, purity and pollution during the floods.

    PubMed

    Rashid, S F; Michaud, S

    2000-03-01

    This paper explores the experiences of female adolescents during the 1998 floods in Bangladesh, focusing on the implications of socio-cultural norms related to notions of honour, shame, purity and pollution. These cultural notions are reinforced with greater emphasis as girls enter their adolescence, regulating their sexuality and gender relationships. In Bangladeshi society, adolescent girls are expected to maintain their virginity until marriage. Contact is limited to one's family and extended relations. Particularly among poorer families, adolescent girls tend to have limited mobility to safeguard their 'purity'. This is to ensure that the girl's reputation does not suffer, thus making it difficult for the girl to get married. For female adolescents in Bangladesh, a disaster situation is a uniquely vulnerable time. Exposure to the unfamiliar environment of flood shelters and relief camps, and unable to maintain their 'space' and privacy from male strangers, a number of the girls were vulnerable to sexual and mental harassment. With the floods, it became difficult for most of the girls to be appropriately 'secluded'. Many were unable to sleep, bathe or get access to latrines in privacy because so many houses and latrines were under the water. Some of the girls who had begun menstruation were distressed at not being able to keep themselves clean. Strong social taboos associated with menstruation and the dirty water that surrounded them made it difficult for the girls to wash their menstrual cloths or change them frequently enough. Many of them became separated from their social network of relations, which caused them a great deal of anxiety and stress. Their difficulty in trying to follow social norms have had far-reaching implications on their health, identity, family and community relations.

  19. 24 CFR Appendixes I-Iv to Subpart B - Appendixes I-IV to Subpart B

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Appendixes I-IV to Subpart B I Appendixes I-IV to Subpart B Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Appendixes I-IV to Subpart B Appendix I—Annual Contributions Contract “Special Provisions for Turnkey...

  20. 24 CFR Appendixes I-Iv to Subpart B - Appendixes I-IV to Subpart B

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Appendixes I-IV to Subpart B I Appendixes I-IV to Subpart B Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Appendixes I-IV to Subpart B Appendix I—Annual Contributions Contract “Special Provisions for Turnkey...

  1. Pol IV-Dependent siRNA Production is Reduced in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi; Kendall, Timmy; Mosher, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce a diverse array of small RNA molecules capable of gene regulation, including Pol IV-dependent short interfering (p4-si)RNAs that trigger transcriptional gene silencing. Small RNA transcriptomes are available for many plant species, but mutations affecting the synthesis of Pol IV-dependent siRNAs are characterized only in Arabidopsis and maize, leading to assumptions regarding nature of p4-siRNAs in all other species. We have identified a mutation in the largest subunit of Pol IV, NRPD1, that impacts Pol IV activity in Brassica rapa, an agriculturally important relative of the reference plant Arabidopsis. Using this mutation we characterized the Pol IV-dependent and Pol IV-independent small RNA populations in B. rapa. In addition, our analysis demonstrates reduced production of p4-siRNAs in B. rapa relative to Arabidopsis. B. rapa genomic regions are less likely to generate p4-siRNAs than Arabidopsis but more likely to generate Pol IV-independent siRNAs, including 24 nt RNAs mapping to transposable elements. These observations underscore the diversity of small RNAs produced by plants and highlight the importance of genetic studies during small RNA analysis. PMID:24833221

  2. Metsahovi Radio Observatory - IVS Network Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uunila, Minttu; Zubko, Nataliya; Poutanen, Markku; Kallunki, Juha; Kallio, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, Metsahovi Radio Observatory together with Finnish Geodetic Institute officially became an IVS Network Station. Eight IVS sessions were observed during the year. Two spacecraft tracking and one EVN X-band experiment were also performed. In 2012, the Metsahovi VLBI equipment was upgraded with a Digital Base Band Converter, a Mark 5B+, a FILA10G, and a FlexBuff.

  3. Improving Detection of IV Infiltrates in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, MD, Colleen; Langer, Melissa; Burke, Susan; El Metwally, MD, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Neonates and infants in the neonatal intensive care unit suffer significant morbidity when intravenous (IV) catheters infiltrate. The underreporting of adverse events through hospital voluntary reporting systems, such as ours, can complicate the monitoring of low incidence events, like IV infiltrates. Based on severe cases of IV infiltrates observed in our neonatal intensive care unit, we attempted to improve the detection of all infiltrates and reduce the incidence of Stage 4 infiltrates. We developed, and initiated the use of, an evidence-based guideline for the improved surveillance, prevention, and management of IV infiltrates, with corresponding educational interventions for faculty and staff. We instituted the use of a checklist for compliance with guidelines, and as a mechanism of surveillance. The baseline incidence rate of IV infiltrates, determined by the voluntary reporting system, was 5 per 1000 line days. Following initiation of the guidelines and checklist, the IV infiltrate rate increased to 9 per 1000 line days. In most months, the detection of IV infiltrates was improved by use of the checklist. During the post-intervention period the rate of Stage 4 infiltrates, as measured by usage of nitroglycerin ointment, was significantly reduced. In conclusion, the detection of IV infiltrates was improved following our quality improvement interventions. Further, use of an evidence-based guideline for managing infiltrates may reduce the most severe infiltrate injuries. PMID:26734388

  4. CHLORINE ABSORPTION IN S(IV) SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of measurements of the rate of Chlorine (Cl2) absorption into aqueous sulfite/bisulfite -- S(IV) -- solutions at ambient temperature using a highly characterized stirred-cell reactor. The reactor media were 0 to 10 mM S(IV) with pHs of 3.5-8.5. Experiment...

  5. IVS Working Group 4: VLBI Data Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gipson, John

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 the IVS Directing Board established IVS Working Group 4 on VLBI Data Structures. This note discusses the current VLBI data format, goals for a new format, the history and formation of the Working Group, and a timeline for the development of a new VLBI data format.

  6. Surprising Coordination Geometry Differences in Ce(IV)- and Pu(IV)-Maltol Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Raymond, Kenneth; Szigethy, Geza; Xu, Jide; Gorden, Anne E.V.; Teat, Simon J.; Shuh, David K.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-12

    As part of a study to characterize the detailed coordination behavior of Pu(IV), single crystal X-ray diffraction structures have been determined for Pu(IV) and Ce(IV) complexes with the naturally-occurring ligand maltol (3-hydroxy-2-methyl-pyran-4-one) and its derivative bromomaltol (5-bromo-3-hydroxy-2-methyl-pyran-4-one). Although Ce(IV) is generally accepted as a structural analog for Pu(IV), and the maltol complexes of these two metals are isostructural, the corresponding bromomaltol complexes are strikingly different with respect to ligand orientation about the metal ion: All complexes exhibit trigonal dodecahedral coordination geometry but the Ce(IV)-bromomaltol complex displays an uncommon ligand arrangement not mirrored in the Pu(IV) complex, although the two metal species are generally accepted to be structural analogs.

  7. Stage IV work hardening in cubic metals

    SciTech Connect

    Rollett, A.D.; Kocks, U.F.; Doherty, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The work hardening of fcc metals at large strains is discussed with reference to the linear stress-strain behavior often observed at large strains and known as Stage IV. The experimental evidence shows that Stage IV is a work hardening phenomenon that is found quite generally, even in pure fcc metals subjected to homogeneous deformation. A simple model for Stage IV in pure metals is presented, based on the accumulation of dislocation debris. Experiments are described for large strain torsion tests on four aluminum alloys. The level and extent of Stage IV scaled with the saturation stress that would represent the end of Stage III in the absence of a Stage IV. Reversing the torsion after large prestrains produced transient reductions in the work hardening. The strain rate sensitivity was also measured before and during the transient and found not to vary significantly. The microstructure observed at large strains in an Mg alloy suggest that Stage IV can occur in the absence of microband formation. Previous proposals for the cause of Stage IV are reviewed and found to be not supported by recent experimental data.

  8. Remembering Collective Violence: Broadening the Notion of Traumatic Memory in Post-Conflict Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Kevers, Ruth; Rober, Peter; Derluyn, Ilse; De Haene, Lucia

    2016-12-01

    In the aftermath of war and armed conflict, individuals and communities face the challenge of dealing with recollections of violence and atrocity. This article aims to contribute to a better understanding of processes of remembering and forgetting histories of violence in post-conflict communities and to reflect on related implications for trauma rehabilitation in post-conflict settings. Starting from the observation that memory operates at the core of PTSD symptomatology, we more closely explore how this notion of traumatic memory is conceptualized within PTSD-centered research and interventions. Subsequently, we aim to broaden this understanding of traumatic memory and post-trauma care by connecting to findings from social memory studies and transcultural trauma research. Drawing on an analysis of scholarly literature, this analysis develops into a perspective on memory that moves beyond a symptomatic framing toward an understanding of memory that emphasizes its relational, political, moral, and cultural nature. Post-conflict memory is presented as inextricably embedded in communal relations, involving ongoing trade-offs between individual and collective responses to trauma and a complex negotiation of speech and silence. In a concluding discussion, we develop implications of this broadened understanding for post-conflict trauma-focused rehabilitation.

  9. Relational Capacity: Broadening the Notion of Decision-Making Capacity in Paediatric Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Ruhe, Katharina M; De Clercq, Eva; Wangmo, Tenzin; Elger, Bernice S

    2016-12-01

    Problems arise when applying the current procedural conceptualization of decision-making capacity to paediatric healthcare: Its emphasis on content-neutrality and rational cognition as well as its implicit assumption that capacity is an ability that resides within a person jeopardizes children's position in decision-making. The purpose of the paper is to challenge this dominant account of capacity and provide an alternative for how capacity should be understood in paediatric care. First, the influence of developmental psychologist Jean Piaget upon the notion of capacity is discussed, followed by an examination of Vygostky's contextualist view on children's development, which emphasizes social interactions and learning for decision-making capacity. In drawing parallels between autonomy and capacity, substantive approaches to relational autonomy are presented that underline the importance of the content of a decision. The authors then provide a relational reconceptualization of capacity that leads the focus away from the individual to include important social others such as parents and physicians. Within this new approach, the outcome of adults' decision-making processes is accepted as a guiding factor for a good decision for the child. If the child makes a choice that is not approved by adults, the new conceptualization emphasizes mutual exchange and engagement by both parties.

  10. A foundational methodology for determining system static complexity using notional lunar oxygen production processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Nicholas James

    This thesis serves to develop a preliminary foundational methodology for evaluating the static complexity of future lunar oxygen production systems when extensive information is not yet available about the various systems under consideration. Evaluating static complexity, as part of a overall system complexity analysis, is an important consideration in ultimately selecting a process to be used in a lunar base. When system complexity is higher, there is generally an overall increase in risk which could impact the safety of astronauts and the economic performance of the mission. To evaluate static complexity in lunar oxygen production, static complexity is simplified and defined into its essential components. First, three essential dimensions of static complexity are investigated, including interconnective complexity, strength of connections, and complexity in variety. Then a set of methods is developed upon which to separately evaluate each dimension. Q-connectivity analysis is proposed as a means to evaluate interconnective complexity and strength of connections. The law of requisite variety originating from cybernetic theory is suggested to interpret complexity in variety. Secondly, a means to aggregate the results of each analysis is proposed to create holistic measurement for static complexity using the Single Multi-Attribute Ranking Technique (SMART). Each method of static complexity analysis and the aggregation technique is demonstrated using notional data for four lunar oxygen production processes.

  11. Constructing notions of healthcare productivity: the call for a new professionalism?

    PubMed

    Moffatt, Fiona; Martin, Paul; Timmons, Stephen

    2014-06-01

    Improving performance is an imperative for most healthcare systems in industrialised countries. This article considers one such system, the UK's National Health Service (NHS). Recent NHS reforms and strategies have advocated improved healthcare productivity as a fundamental objective of policy and professional work. This article explores the construction of productivity in contemporary NHS discourse, analysing it via the Foucauldian concept of governmentality. In this manner it is possible to investigate claims that the commodification of health work constitutes a threat to autonomy, and counter that with an alternative view from a perspective of neoliberal self-governance. Contemporary policy documents pertaining to NHS productivity were analysed using discourse analysis to examine the way in which productivity was framed and how responsibility for inefficient resource use, and possible solutions, were constructed. Data reveals the notion of productivity as problematic, with professionals as key protagonists. A common narrative identifies traditional NHS command/control principles as having failed to engage professionals or having been actively obstructed by them. In contrast, new productivity narratives are framed as direct appeals to professionalism. These new narratives do not support deprofessionalisation, but rather reconstruct responsibilities, what might be called 'new professionalism', in which productivity is identified as an individualised professional duty.

  12. The notion of hormesis and the dose-response theory: a unified approach.

    PubMed

    Murado, M A; Vázquez, J A

    2007-02-07

    According to an opinion which is vigorous and insistently defended for approximately one decade, hormesis (the response of a biological entity to an effector, with stimulatory results at low doses and inhibitory results at high doses) radically puts into question the classic theory of dose-response (DR) relationships and demands a profound revision of environmental protection policies. Herein we show that DR theory, with the modifications which we propose, allows the modelling of various kinds of biphasic responses which are phenomenologically similar to hormetic ones and of well-defined origin, as well as responses which have been treated as genuinely hormetic. Our descriptive approach may also represent a useful resource for experimental design, directed towards identifying some of the potentially heterogeneous mechanisms which underlie the hormetic phenomenon. Finally, it also allows to discuss some factors which prevent the use of the notion of hormesis-perhaps useful in a clinical context, under strictly controlled conditions-to make decisions on environmental protection measures.

  13. The "contemporary synthesis": when politically inclusive genomic science relies on biological notions of race.

    PubMed

    Fullwiley, Duana

    2014-12-01

    This essay outlines the emergence of a contemporary synthesis regarding racial thinking in genetic science and in society more broadly. A departure from what Julian Huxley in 1942 termed the "modern synthesis," the contemporary version does not purport to leave race thinking behind in favor of evolution, population genetics, and population-based accounts of natural selection and human diversity. Specifically, the contemporary synthesis blends old concepts (such as that of pure human "types," located within continental land masses) with new attitudes (democratic inclusion, multicultural diversity, and anti-racism). Through various examples, the essay shows how this new synthesis combines ideas about human biological difference that draw on measures of physical characteristics and human genetic material that are both race and population based, yet conflated. This specific amalgam allows old notions of racial types to thrive through conceptual framings that comprise ideas that were once imagined to have the potential to liberate society from racial thinking--and that today remain attached to ideas of progress. As an emergent dynamic, the contemporary synthesis holds the possibility of reinvigorating racism, while simultaneously possessing the potential to promote antiracist science education, disease awareness, and social justice efforts.

  14. On the Notion of Truth in Quantum Mechanics: a Category-Theoretic Standpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakostas, Vassilios; Zafiris, Elias

    The category-theoretic representation of quantum event structures provides a canonical setting for confronting the fundamental problem of truth valuation in quantum mechanics as exemplified, in particular, by Kochen-Specker's theorem. In the present study, this is realized on the basis of the existence of a categorical adjunction between the category of sheaves of variable local Boolean frames, constituting a topos, and the category of quantum event algebras. We show explicitly that the latter category is equipped with an object of truth values, or classifying object, which constitutes the appropriate tool for assigning truth values to propositions describing the behavior of quantum systems. Effectively, this category-theoretic representation scheme circumvents consistently the semantic ambiguity with respect to truth valuation that is inherent in conventional quantum mechanics by inducing an objective contextual account of truth in the quantum domain of discourse. The philosophical implications of the resulting account are analyzed. We argue that it subscribes neither to a pragmatic instrumental nor to a relative notion of truth. Such an account essentially denies that there can be a universal context of reference or an Archimedean standpoint from which to evaluate logically the totality of facts of nature. In this light, the transcendence condition of the usual conception of correspondence truth is superseded by a reflective-like transcendental reasoning of the proposed account of truth that is suitable to the quantum domain of discourse.

  15. Communicating genetic information in the family: enriching the debate through the notion of integrity.

    PubMed

    Boddington, Paula; Gregory, Maggie

    2008-12-01

    Genetic information about one individual often has medical and reproductive implications for that individual's relatives. There is a debate about whether policy on transmitting genetic information within the family should change to reflect this shared aspect of genetic information. Even if laws on medical confidentiality remain unchanged, there still remains the question of professional practice and whether, to what extent and by what means professionals should encourage disclosure within a family. The debate so far has tended to focus on who has a right to genetic information, or has a right to decline genetic information, frequently drawing on the notion of individual autonomy. There are significant divergences within this debate, and difficulties with the use of autonomy in this context have been noted. This paper draws on theoretical considerations as well as on qualitative empirical data to show that shifting from talk of autonomy to talk of integrity will greatly enrich and illuminate the issues. It becomes possible to gain deeper insights into the ethical significance of the timing and the manner of such communication, the character of recipients of knowledge, and the nuanced nature of communication and different levels of understanding within a family.

  16. Rediscovering Recovery: Reconceptualizing Underlying Assumptions of Citizenship and Interrelated Notions of Care and Support

    PubMed Central

    Vandekinderen, Caroline; Roets, Griet; Roose, Rudi; Van Hove, Geert

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few decades, research, policy, and practice in the field of mental health care and a complementary variety of social work and social service delivery have internationally concentrated on recovery as a promising concept. In this paper, a conceptual distinction is made between an individual approach and a social approach to recovery, and underlying assumptions of citizenship and interrelated notions and features of care and support are identified. It is argued that the conditionality of the individual approach to recovery refers to a conceptualization of citizenship as normative, based on the existence of a norm that operates in every domain of our society. We argue that these assumptions place a burden of self-governance on citizens with mental health problems and risk producing people with mental health problems as nonrecyclable citizens. The social approach to recovery embraces a different conceptualization of citizenship as relational and inclusive and embodies the myriad ways in which the belonging of people with mental health problems can be constructed in practice. As such, we hope to enable social services and professionals in the field to balance their role in the provision of care and support to service users with mental health problems. PMID:23326216

  17. On the notion of free will in the Free Will Theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsman, Klaas

    2017-02-01

    The (Strong) Free Will Theorem (FWT) of Conway and Kochen (2009) on the one hand follows from uncontroversial parts of modern physics and elementary mathematical and logical reasoning, but on the other hand seems predicated on an undefined notion of free will (allowing physicists to ;freely choose; the settings of their experiments). This makes the theorem philosophically vulnerable, especially if it is construed as a proof of indeterminism or even of libertarian free will (as Conway & Kochen suggest). However, Cator and Landsman (Foundations of Physics 44, 781-791, 2014) previously gave a reformulation of the FWT that does not presuppose indeterminism, but rather assumes a mathematically specific form of such ;free choices; even in a deterministic world (based on a non-probabilistic independence assumption). In the present paper, which is a philosophical sequel to the one just mentioned, I argue that the concept of free will used in the latter version of the FWT is essentially the one proposed by Lewis (1981), also known as 'local miracle compatibilism' (of which I give a mathematical interpretation that might be of some independent interest also beyond its application to the FWT). As such, the (reformulated) FWT in my view challenges compatibilist free will à la Lewis (albeit in a contrived way via bipartite EPR-type experiments), falling short of supporting libertarian free will.

  18. Coordination of tetravalent actinides (An = Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(IV)) with DOTA - from dimers to hexamers.

    PubMed

    Tamain, Christelle; Dumas, Thomas; Hennig, Christoph; Guilbaud, Philippe

    2017-03-10

    Three tetravalent actinide (An(IV)) hexanuclear clusters with the octahedral core [An6(OH)4O4]12+ (An(IV) = U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(IV)) were structurally characterized in solid state and in aqueous solution using single crystal X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption, IR, Raman and UV-Visible spectroscopy. The observed structure, [An6(OH)4O4(H2O)8(HDOTA)4].HCl/HNO3.nH2O (An = U (I), Np (II), Pu (III)), consists of a An(IV) hexanuclear pseudo-octahedral cluster stabilized by DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) ligands. The six actinide atoms are connected through alternative µ3-O2- and µ3-OH- groups. EXAFS investigations combined with UV-vis spectroscopy evidence the same local structure in moderate acidic and neutral aqueous solutions. The synthesis mechanism was partially elucidated and the main physicochemical properties (pH range stability, solubility and protonation constant) of the cluster were determined. The results underline the importance (i) to consider such polynuclear species in thermodynamic models and (ii) of competing reactions between hydrolysis and complexation. It is interesting to note that the same synthesis route with thorium(IV) leads to the formation of a dimer, Th2(H2O)10(H2DOTA)2.4NO3.xH2O (IV), which contrasts to the structure of the other An(IV) hexamers.

  19. Level III and IV Ecoregions by State

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information and links to downloadable maps and datasets for Level III and IV ecoregions, listed by state. Ecoregions are areas of general similarity in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources.

  20. The determination of uranium (IV) in apatite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, Roy S.; Altschuler, Zalman S.

    1956-01-01

    Geologic and mineralogic evidence indicate that the uranium present in apatite may proxy for calcium in the mineral structure as U(IV). An experimental investigation was conducted and chemical evidence was obtained that establishes the presence of U(IV) in apatite. The following analytical procedure was developed for the determination of U(IV). Carbonate-fluorapatite is dissolved in cold 1.5M orthophosphoric acid and fluorapatite is dissolved in cold 1.2M hydrochloric acid containing 1.5 g of hydroxylamine hydrochloride per 100 ml. Uranium (IV) is precipitated by cupferron using titanium as a carrier. The uranium in the precipitate is separated by use of the ethyl acetate extraction procedure and determined fluorimetrically. The validity and the limitations of the method have been established by spike experiments.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type IV

    MedlinePlus

    ... it is called MPS IV type A (MPS IVA), and when it is caused by mutations in ... Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Institute of ...

  2. Optimizing IV and V for Mature Organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhman, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    NASA is intending for its future software development agencies to have at least a Level 3 rating in the Carnegie Mellon University Capability Maturity Model (CMM). The CMM has built-in Verification and Validation (V&V) processes that support higher software quality. Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) of software developed by mature agencies can be therefore more effective than for software developed by less mature organizations. How is Independent V&V different with respect to the maturity of an organization? Knowing a priori the maturity of an organization's processes, how can IV&V planners better identify areas of need choose IV&V activities, etc? The objective of this research is to provide a complementary set of guidelines and criteria to assist the planning of IV&V activities on a project using a priori knowledge of the measurable levels of maturity of the organization developing the software.

  3. IV&V Project Assessment Process Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driskell, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) will launch NASA's Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). This launch vehicle will provide American launch capability for human exploration and travelling beyond Earth orbit. SLS is designed to be flexible for crew or cargo missions. The first test flight is scheduled for December 2017. The SLS SRR/SDR provided insight into the project development life cycle. NASA IV&V ran the standard Risk Based Assessment and Portfolio Based Risk Assessment to identify analysis tasking for the SLS program. This presentation examines the SLS System Requirements Review/System Definition Review (SRR/SDR), IV&V findings for IV&V process validation correlation to/from the selected IV&V tasking and capabilities. It also provides a reusable IEEE 1012 scorecard for programmatic completeness across the software development life cycle.

  4. Conflicting notions of citizenship in old age: An analysis of an activation practice.

    PubMed

    van Hees, Susan; Horstman, Klasien; Jansen, Maria; Ruwaard, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Ageing societies and increasing healthcare expenditures are inducing Western welfare states to reform their care arrangements. In a qualitative research project, we explored how citizenship in old age is constructed in a public innovative care practice situated in the southern part of the Netherlands: the shaping of 'life cycle robust neighbourhoods'. Life cycle robustness entails a further not formally defined ideal of age-friendly places, enabling older adults to live independently for longer periods of time. Participation is being presented as an important element towards life cycle robustness. We used ethnographic methods to understand different constructions of citizenship in old age. We analysed documents and interviewed local policymakers and civil servants, managers and directors in the fields of housing, care and welfare, professionals working for these organisations, and older adults living (independently) in these neighbourhoods (n=73). Additionally, we observed formal and informal meetings and organised focus groups. Our findings demonstrate conflicting notions of old age. Policymakers and civil servants, managers and directors, professionals, and even representatives of older adults share a belief an activation policy is necessary, although they differ in how they interpret this need. Policymakers and civil servants are convinced that societal and financial incentives necessitate current reforms, managers and directors talk about quality and organisational needs, while professionals mainly strive to empower older adults (as citizens). Simultaneously, older adults try to live their lives as independent as possible. We argue that, whereas old age became a distinct category in the last century, we now recognise a new period in which this category is being more and more de-categorised.

  5. Mechanisms Underlying the Bioindicator Notion: Spatial Association between Individual Sexual Performance and Community Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Laiolo, Paola; Bañuelos, María J.; Blanco-Fontao, Beatriz; García, Mónica; Gutiérrez, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    The bioindicator notion is an appealing concept that has received more support in applied than in basic ecology, mostly due to the difficulty in deriving general ecological rules applicable to all target organisms. However, recognizing the mechanisms that determine the association between a particular species and the well-being of many other species is important for understanding the functioning of ecosystems and the relationship among different biological levels. We examined here the processes at the individual level that cause an association between species performance and biodiversity value, by analyzing attributes that can be studied in a variety of animals with sexual reproduction, namely breeding site selection and condition-dependent sexual signals. Our study model was the Capercaillie, an indicator of forest functioning and diversity, and the associated bird community, used here as a surrogate of broader forest biodiversity. At a regional scale Capercaillie occurrence was not associated with the most diverse forest patches, but at the scale of male spring territories the sexual display grounds (arenas) were located in the oldest and less disturbed forest portions, which also hosted the richest local bird communities. Social mechanisms and conspecific cueing likely concurred with habitat-driven processes in determining the long-term persistence of traditional display grounds, which were appealing to many other species because of their structural composition. Characteristics of male vocal display that honestly advertize male quality (low frequencies and rapid song rates) were significantly correlated with high diversity values, resulting in a spatial association between individual and community performances. Costly or risky activities such as reproductive or social behaviors, which more than other attributes match gradients in habitat quality, are therefore contributing to functionally connect individuals with ecosystem health. PMID:21818374

  6. Couples’ Notions About Preconception Health: Implications for Framing Social Marketing Plans

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Megan A.; Mitchell, Elizabeth W.; Levis, Denise M.; Isenberg, Karen; Kish-Doto, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To understand couples’ notions of preconception health (PCH) and to inform the development of social marketing plans focused on PCH. Approach/Design We used a social marketing perspective to understand how couples considered PCH as a product, its potential price, how it should be promoted, and in what type of places it should be promoted. These variables are typically referred to as the four social marketing P’s. Setting Telephone interviews with couples recruited from a national database. Participants A total of 58 couples (116 individuals) were segmented by five couple segments based on pregnancy planning intention and current parental status in which the wife or partner was 18 to 44 years of age. The five segments were combined into three categories: couples who were planning pregnancies, couples who were not planning pregnancies, or couples who were recent parents (interconception). Method Couple-based structured interviews lasting approximately 45 to 60 minutes were conducted via telephone. Questions inquired about couples’ experience with PCH and the four social marketing P’s. Results Commonalities existed across the four social marketing P’s for the different couple segments. Notable couple-related themes that emerged included the importance of couple communication, support, and relationship quality. PCH was more relevant for couples planning a pregnancy, but nonplanning couples understood the benefits of PCH and related behaviors. Conclusion Couples may be an important target audience when considering social marketing approaches for PCH. Many couples perceived the relevance of the issue to important aspects of their lives, such as health, family, and their relationships. PMID:23286659

  7. Obesity and physical inactivity: the relevance of reconsidering the notion of sedentariness.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    The population statistics of most countries of the world are indicating that industrialization and computerization have been associated with an increase in sedentariness and more recently with a significant shift from healthy weight to overweight. In general, this change in the overweight/obesity prevalence is attributed by health professionals to suboptimal diet and physical activity practices. However, recent data raised the possibility that excess weight gain might also be the outcome of changes imposed by our '24-hour', hectic lifestyle. Parallel to an increase in body weight, one has observed a reduction in sleep time and an increase in knowledge-based work (KBW) that appear as a growing necessity in a context of economic competitiveness and globalization. Sleep and cognitive work both exert a trivial effect on energy expenditure and may thus be considered as sedentary activities. However, their respective effect on energy intake is opposite. Indeed, an increase in the practice of the most sedentary activity, i.e. sleep, is associated with a hormonal profile facilitating appetite control whereas KBW appears as a stimulus favoring a significant enhancing effect on food intake. Television viewing is another example of sedentary activity that has been shown to increase the intake of high-density foods. These observations demonstrate that the modern way of living has favored a change in human activities whose impact goes well beyond what has traditionally been attributed to a lack of physical exercise. Therefore, we will need to reconsider the notion of 'sedentariness' which includes several activities having opposing effects on energy balance.

  8. Ares I-X Range Safety Simulation Verification and Analysis IV and V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarpley, Ashley; Beaty, James; Starr, Brett

    2010-01-01

    NASA s ARES I-X vehicle launched on a suborbital test flight from the Eastern Range in Florida on October 28, 2009. NASA generated a Range Safety (RS) flight data package to meet the RS trajectory data requirements defined in the Air Force Space Command Manual 91-710. Some products included in the flight data package were a nominal ascent trajectory, ascent flight envelope trajectories, and malfunction turn trajectories. These data are used by the Air Force s 45th Space Wing (45SW) to ensure Eastern Range public safety and to make flight termination decisions on launch day. Due to the criticality of the RS data in regards to public safety and mission success, an independent validation and verification (IV&V) effort was undertaken to accompany the data generation analyses to ensure utmost data quality and correct adherence to requirements. Multiple NASA centers and contractor organizations were assigned specific products to IV&V. The data generation and IV&V work was coordinated through the Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel s Trajectory Working Group, which included members from the prime and IV&V organizations as well as the 45SW. As a result of the IV&V efforts, the RS product package was delivered with confidence that two independent organizations using separate simulation software generated data to meet the range requirements and yielded similar results. This document captures ARES I-X RS product IV&V analysis, including the methodology used to verify inputs, simulation, and output data for an RS product. Additionally a discussion of lessons learned is presented to capture advantages and disadvantages to the IV&V processes used.

  9. Observational properties of decameter type IV bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, Valentin; Brazhenko, Anatoly; Rucker, Helmut; Konovalenko, Alexander; Briand, Carine; Dorovskyy, Vladimir; Zarka, Philippe; Frantzusenko, Anatoly; Panchenko, Michael; Poedts, Stefan; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz; Shergelashvili, Bidzina

    2013-04-01

    Oscillations of decameter type IV bursts were registered during observations of solar radio emission by UTR-2, URAN-2 and NDA in 2011-2012. Large majority of these bursts were accompanied by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which were observed by SOHO and STEREO in the visible light. Only in some cases decameter type IV bursts were not associated with CMEs. The largest periods of oscillations P were some tens of minutes. There were some modes of long periods of oscillations simultaneously. Periods of oscillations in flux and in polarization profiles were close. Detailed properties of oscillations at different frequencies were analyzed on the example of two type IV bursts. One of them was observed on April 7, 2011 when a CME happened. Another one (August 1, 2011) was registered without any CME. The 7 April type IV burst had two periods in the frames 75-85 and 35-85 minutes. Interesting feature of these oscillations is decreasing periods with time. The observed decreasing rates dP/dt equaled 0.03-0.07. Concerning type IV burst observed on August 1, 2011 the period of its oscillations increases from 17 min. at 30 MHz to 44 min. at 10 MHz. Connection of type IV burst oscillations with oscillations of magnetic arches and CMEs at corresponding altitudes are discussed. The work is fulfilled in the frame of FP7 project "SOLSPANET".

  10. Inhibitory effect of collagen-derived tripeptides on dipeptidylpeptidase-IV activity.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Tadashi; Kawakami, Kayoko; Uraji, Misugi

    2014-12-01

    The collagen tripeptide fragments Gly-Ala-Hyp, Gly-Pro-Ala and Gly-Pro-Hyp were generated by hydrolyzing collagen from pig-skin, cattle-skin, fish-scales and chicken-feet, respectively, with Streptomyces collagenase. Collagenase treatment increased the concentration of tripeptides in the hydrolysates by 13-15% (w/w). Of the three peptides, Gly-Pro-Hyp was a true peptidic inhibitor of dipeptidylpeptidase-IV (DPP-IV), because DPP-IV could not hydrolyze the bond between Pro-Hyp. This tripeptide was a moderately competitive inhibitor (Ki=4.5 mM) of DPP-IV, and its level in the collagen hydrolysates could be greatly increased (4-9% [w/w]) using Streptomyces collagenase.

  11. The Effects of Formalism on Teacher Trainees' Algebraic and Geometric Interpretation of the Notions of Linear Dependency/Independency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertekin, E.; Solak, S.; Yazici, E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the effects of formalism in teaching on primary and secondary school mathematics teacher trainees' algebraic and geometric interpretations of the notions of linear dependency/independency. Quantitative research methods are drawn in order to determine differences in success levels between algebraic and geometric…

  12. "Science Capital": A Conceptual, Methodological, and Empirical Argument for Extending Bourdieusian Notions of Capital beyond the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise; Dawson, Emily; DeWitt, Jennifer; Seakins, Amy; Wong, Billy

    2015-01-01

    This paper sets out an argument and approach for moving beyond a primarily arts-based conceptualization of cultural capital, as has been the tendency within Bourdieusian approaches to date. We advance the notion that, in contemporary society, scientific forms of cultural and social capital can command a high symbolic and exchange value. Our…

  13. The Making of a Weak Teacher: A Preposterous Notion about the Role of Administrators in Crafting an Unsupportive Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruenert, Steve W.; McDaniel, Terry M.

    2009-01-01

    It would be difficult to imagine any first-year teacher had aspirations of becoming a weak teacher. Most individuals hired as teachers have the ability to do a good job and want to do a good job. So how is it that some become ineffective? The authors contend that school leaders make them that way. Consider this preposterous notion: School leaders…

  14. An Ethnographic Analysis of Adolescent Sexual Minority Website Usage: Exploring Notions of Information Seeking and Sexual Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulfridge, Rocky M.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this…

  15. Conceptualizations of Spirituality, Religion, and Faith: Comparing Biblical Notions with the Perspectives of Protestant Christian Students at a Lutheran College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Christy Moran; Rockenbach, Alyssa Bryant

    2011-01-01

    As part of a larger investigation into the spiritual climate at one Lutheran college, we interviewed Protestant Christian students in order to compare their conceptualizations of spirituality, religion, and faith with biblical notions of those concepts. We found that the students' understandings of those concepts only loosely reflected general…

  16. A New Formulation of the Ethical Self through Kierkegaard's Notion of Subjectivity: In Search of a New Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwak, Duck-Joo

    2001-01-01

    Essay on Kierkegaard's notion of subjectivity in the formulation of the ethical self. Suggests that Kierkegaard's self-reflecting ethical model offers an alternative approach to the teaching of moral education in South Korean schools, currently dominated by a theory-oriented, problem-solving paradigm. (PKP)

  17. Deconstructing the Notion of "Policy Hysteria": Five Readings, Some Unprincipled Coupling, and No Happy Endings. Re-draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclure, Maggie; Stronach, Ian

    This paper seeks to tell and untell five stories about the notion of "policy hysteria." The first story, about developments in vocationalism in the United Kingdom over the last decade, serves as illustration for the second story, which is a critical analysis of vocationalist discourse. It is alleged that vocationalist discourse is made…

  18. Psychology and the Notion of the Spirit: Implications of Max Scheler's Anthropological Philosophy in Theory of Psychology.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Olga V; Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2015-09-01

    After many decades with neglect Max Scheler and his anthropological contributions to the understanding of human existence, have gotten  more attention in psychology and other humanities. One factor is the actuality of his main project of revaluating the roles of values in philosophy and science. Yet another is the way individual scholars have applied Scheler's philosophy and terms on different fields and arenas. Viktor Frankl was one of these, and he brought Scheler's philosophical anthropology into psychotherapeutic practice, offering theoretical and empirical arguments for considering the notion of the spirit as an interdependent -yet separate- entity in regards to the psyche and the soma. During this commentary on Allyushin (Integrative Psychology Behaviour, 48, 503-523, 2014), we will discuss some general aspects of Scheler's contribution to phenomenology, but focus specifically on the implication of his notion of the spirit for psychological theory, acknowledging the work that has been done in the field for at least 60 years in logotherapy and existential analysis. With this purpose, we will highlight four other notions interrelated with the motivational quality of the notion of the spirit: resentment, axiology of values; self-detachment and self-transcendence.

  19. Correction of Erroneous Perceptions among Primary School Students regarding the Notions of Chance and Randomness in Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Robert; Ferland, Francine; Fournier, Patricia-Maude

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a gambling prevention program that aimed to correct the notions of chance and randomness among primary school students. The relative effectiveness of two prevention programs aiming to modify erroneous perceptions of gambling as well as the teacher's and specialist's on the psychology of gambling…

  20. IV and IP Administration of Rhodamine in Visualization of WBC-BBB Interactions in Cerebral Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongbo; Gaughan, John P.; Elliott, Melanie; Tuma, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Epi-illuminescence intravital fluorescence microscopy has been employed to study leukocyte-endothelial interactions in a number of brain pathologies. Historically, dyes such as Rhodamine 6G have been injected intravenously. However, intravenous injections can predispose experimental animals to a multitude of complications and requires a high degree of technical skill. Here we study the efficacy of injecting Rhodamine 6G into the peritoneum (IP) for the purpose of analyzing leukocyte-endothelial interactions through a cranial window during real time intravital microscopy. After examining the number of rolling and adherent leukocytes through a cranial window we found no advantage to the intravenous injection (IV). Additionally, we tested blood from both routes of injection by flow cytometry to gain a very precise picture of the two methods. The two routes of administration failed to show any difference in the ability to detect cells. The study supports the notion that IP Rhodamine 6G works as efficaciously as IV and should be considered a viable alternative in experimental design for investigations employing intravital microscopy. Facilitated intravital studies will allow for more exploration into cerebral pathologies and allow for more rapid translation from the laboratory to the patient with less chance of experimental error from failed IV access. PMID:26207355

  1. Formation of uranium(IV)-silica colloids at near-neutral pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreissig, Isabell; Weiss, Stephan; Hennig, Christoph; Bernhard, Gert; Zänker, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is provided by photon correlation spectroscopy, ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation that uranium(IV) can form silicate-containing colloids of a size of ⩽20 nm. A concentration of up to 10 -3 M of colloid-borne U(IV) was observed. The particles are generated in near-neutral to slightly alkaline solutions containing background chemicals of geogenic nature (carbonate, silicate, sodium ions). They remain stable in aqueous suspension over years. Electrostatic repulsion due to a negative zeta potential in the near-neutral to alkaline pH range caused by the silicate stabilizes the U(IV) colloids. The isoelectric point of the nanoparticles is shifted toward lower pH values by the silicate. The mechanism of the colloidal stabilization can be regarded as "sequestration" by silicate, a phenomenon well known from heavy metal ions of high ion potential such as iron(III) or manganese(III,IV), but never reported for uranium(IV) so far. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy showed that U-O-Si bonds, which increasingly replace the U-O-U bonds of the amorphous uranium(IV) oxyhydroxide with increasing silicate concentrations, make up the internal structure of the colloids. The next-neighbor coordination of U(IV) in the U(IV)-silica colloids is comparable with that of coffinite, USiO 4. The assessment of uranium behavior in the aquatic environment should take the possible existence of U(IV)-silica colloids into consideration. Their occurrence might influence uranium migration in anoxic waters.

  2. Indian childhood cirrhosis (ICC) & ICC-like diseases: the changing scenario of facts versus notions.

    PubMed

    Nayak, N C; Chitale, A R

    2013-06-01

    Indian childhood cirrhosis (ICC), a disease considered to have been endemic in and unique to India has now been documented in children of non-Indian origin from other countries. More recently available findings from a large multicentre study sponsored by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) have dispelled some of the generally accepted notions and have established several new facts on different aspects of the disease. All relevant reports on ICC and ICC-like diseases, till date, were reviewed to obtain a proper perspective on the current state of our understanding on this non-Wilsonian copper overload liver disease. A primary role of exogenous copper in causing the disease was earlier debated on the basis of studies in India but investigators abroad studying some sporadic cases and a series of endemic ICC-like diseases supported a hepatotoxic injury by ingested copper in genetically susceptible infants and children in ICC- like disease and in ICC. Epidemiologic and morphologic findings in the well controlled ICMR study based on 225 cases of ICC and 426 controls, all confirmed on liver biopsy, have however, convincingly refuted this concept. Additionally, this study revealed that unlike what has been believed earlier, older children more than 3 yr age can get the disease and that in its natural course the hepatic histology can transform between the characteristic one considered diagnostic and some other patterns, any one of which can be the morphologic manifestation at first presentation of the patient. Older children and cases with milder morphologic changes at presentation had longer survival. The overall inference from critical analysis of all available data is that ICC and ICC-like diseases clinically manifest in a child of any age though common in younger ones, and a clinical diagnosis must be made in any child with so-called 'cryptogenic cirrhosis'. Exposure to exogenous copper in food, milk and water should not be a prerequisite for this

  3. From Quantum Moment to Ritual Moment: Notions of Time and the Development of Theological Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, David Clifton

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of models in theology has become a significant issue since the mid nineteen eighties. Whether in matters of soteriology, ecclesiology, missiology, or liturgy, many theologians have begun to examine the model structures of their specialties. Such an examination can serve as the foundation for scholarly contact with other disciplines, both in the humanities and the sciences, where the analysis of models is already well established. To date, there has been no broadly interdisciplinary inspection of such models and their points of commonality with theological disciplines. This dissertation investigates models (specifically, temporal models) in six different fields: cognitive psychology, hermeneutics, quantum and relativity physics, the philosophy of history and narrative, music, and ritual studies. Within these fields, specific attention is given to the role of symbol systems and metaphoric language, as well as to the phenomenology of temporal experience, in the formulation and development of models of time. The intention is to develop a prospectus for a theological model of time that is epistemologically sound, linguistically clear, and experientially grounded. In the area of cognitive psychology, the work of the biogenetic structuralist school, and that of Jean Piaget, are highlighted. The hermeneutic discussion focuses on the metaphoric studies of George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, as well as the writings of Hans Georg Gadamer. In the areas of quantum and relativity physics, the primary figures considered are Mary Hesse, Ian Barbour, Stephen Hawking, and P. C. W. Davies. History and narrative are approached through the metaphoric and historical analyses of Paul Ricoeur. The phenomenological and musicological issues of musical time are explored, with emphasis on the work of Susannne Langer, Henri Bergson, Jonathan Kramer, and Olivier Messiaen. Ritual notions of time are investigated in the works of Mircea Eliade, Victor Turner, Clifford Geertz, Pierre

  4. Adverse Environments and Children's Creativity Development: Transforming the Notion of "Success in Adversity" in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important implications…

  5. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Delyana I.; Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Schindler, Dwayne; Messier, Claude

    2013-01-01

    New editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence and Memory scales are now available. Yet, given the significant changes in these new releases and the skepticism that has met them, independent evidence on their psychometric properties is much needed but currently lacking. We administered the WAIS-IV and the Older Adult version of the WMS-IV to 145…

  6. The Berkeley SETI program - SERENDIP IV instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werthimer, Dan; Bowyer, Stuart; Ng, David; Donnelly, Charles; Cobb, Jeff; Lampton, Michael; Airieau, Sabine

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the hardware design of SERENDIP IV, which will be deployed in early 1997 for a 21-cm sky survey at the National Astronomy and Ionospheric Center's 305-m radio telescope in Arecibo, Puerto Rico. SERENDIP IV is a 167 million channel spectrum analyzer, covering a 100-Mhz bandwidth, with 0.6-Hz resolution and a 1.7-s integration time. SERENDIP IV's modular design incorporates a bank of digital mixers and filters to separate the 100 MHz band into 40 2.5 MHz subbands. Each 2.5 MHz subband is further broken down into 0.6 Hz bins by means of a four million point fast Fourier transform. The resulting power spectra are analyzed by 40 high-speed processors. Narrowband signals having power significantly above background noise levels are recorded along with telescope coordinates, time, and frequency. The data are sent in real time to Berkeley for analysis.

  7. Seafloor earthquake measurement system, SEMS IV

    SciTech Connect

    Platzbecker, M.R.; Ehasz, J.P.; Franco, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    Staff of the Telemetry Technology Development Department (2664) have, in support of the U.S. Interior Department Mineral Management Services (MMS), developed and deployed the Seafloor Earthquake Measurement System IV (SEMS IV). The result of this development project is a series of three fully operational seafloor seismic monitor systems located at offshore platforms: Eureka, Grace, and Irene. The instrument probes are embedded from three to seven feet into the seafloor and hardwired to seismic data recorders installed top side at the offshore platforms. The probes and underwater cables were designed to survive the seafloor environment with an operation life of five years. The units have been operational for two years and have produced recordings of several minor earthquakes in that time. Sandia Labs will transfer operation of SEMS IV to MMS contractors in the coming months. 29 figs., 25 tabs.

  8. Oxygen Isotope Signatures of Biogenic Manganese(III/IV) Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, K. M.; Hansel, C. M.; Wankel, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) oxide minerals are pervasive throughout a number of surface earth environments as rock varnishes, ferromanganese nodules, crusts around deep-sea vents, and cave deposits among many other marine, freshwater, and terrestrial deposits. Mn(III,IV) oxides are also among the strongest sorbents and oxidants in surface earth environments and are crucial to understanding the fate of organic matter in sedimentary environments. The precipitation of Mn oxide minerals proceeds via both abiotic and biotic oxidation pathways, the latter due to the indirect or direct activity of Mn(II)- oxidizing microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi. Although the precipitation of Mn oxides is believed to be primarily controlled by Mn(II)-oxidizing organisms in most surface earth environments, confirmation of this generally held notion has remained illusive and limits our understanding of their formation on Earth and beyond (e.g., Mars). Previous work provided evidence that O atom incorporation by specific Mn oxidation pathways may exhibit unique and predictable isotopic fractionation. In this study, we expand upon this evidence by measuring the oxygen isotope signature of several biogenic and abiogenic Mn oxide minerals synthesized under a range of oxygen-18 labeled water. These results allow us to determine the relative amount oxygen atoms derived from water and molecular oxygen that are incorporated in the oxide and shed light on corresponding isotope fractionation factors. Additionally, we show that, once precipitated, Mn oxide isotope signatures are robust with respect to aqueous oxygen isotope exchange. The study provides a foundation on which to study and interpret Mn oxides in natural environments and determine which environmental controls may govern Mn(II) oxidation.

  9. 46 CFR Appendix IV to Part 150 - Data Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Data Sheet IV Appendix IV to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 150—Data Sheet EC02FE91.080 EC02FE91.081...

  10. 46 CFR Appendix IV to Part 150 - Data Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Data Sheet IV Appendix IV to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 150—Data Sheet EC02FE91.080 EC02FE91.081...

  11. 46 CFR Appendix IV to Part 150 - Data Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Data Sheet IV Appendix IV to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 150—Data Sheet EC02FE91.080 EC02FE91.081...

  12. 46 CFR Appendix IV to Part 150 - Data Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Data Sheet IV Appendix IV to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 150—Data Sheet EC02FE91.080 EC02FE91.081...

  13. 46 CFR Appendix IV to Part 150 - Data Sheet

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Data Sheet IV Appendix IV to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 150—Data Sheet EC02FE91.080 EC02FE91.081...

  14. 45 CFR 1355.21 - E and IV-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1996-10-01

    ... compliance with the Department's regulations listed in 45 CFR 1355.30. (c) The State plans and plan... requirements for titles IV PUBLIC WELFARE Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN.... 1355.21 State plan requirements for titles IV-E and IV-B. (a) The State plans for titles IV-E and...

  15. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors and diabetes therapy.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Christopher H S

    2008-01-01

    Current type 2 diabetes therapies are mainly targeted at stimulating pancreatic beta-cell secretion and reducing insulin resistance. A number of alternative therapies are currently being developed to take advantage of the actions of the incretin hormones Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) and Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide (GIP). These hormones are released from the small intestine in response to nutrient ingestion and stimulate insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. One approach to potentiating their actions is based on inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), the major enzyme responsible for degrading the incretins in vivo. DPP IV exhibits characteristics that have allowed the development of specific orally administered inhibitors with proven efficacy in improving glucose tolerance in animal models of diabetes. A number of clinical trials have demonstrated that DPP IV inhibitors are effective in improving glucose disposal and reducing hemoglobin A1c levels in type 2 diabetic patients and one inhibitor, sitagliptin, is now in therapeutic use, with others likely to receive FDA approval in the near future. Studies aimed at elucidating the mode of action of the inhibitors are still ongoing. Both enhancement of insulin secretion and reduction in glucagon secretion, resulting from the blockade of incretin degradation, are believed to play important roles in DPP IV inhibitor action. Preclinical studies indicate that increased levels of incretins improve beta-cell secretory function and exert effects on beta-cell mitogenesis and survival that can preserve beta-cell mass. Roles for other hormones, neuropeptides and cytokines in DPP IV inhibitor-medicated responses are also possible.

  16. Consistency of IVS nutation time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattano, César; Lambert, Sébastien; Bizouard, Christian

    2016-04-01

    We give a review of the various VLBI-derived nutation time series provided by the different operational analysis centers of the IVS and three combination centers (IVS, IERS EOP Center, and Rapid Service/Prediction Center). We focus on the stability of small nutation amplitudes, including the free core nutation and other atmospherically-driven nutations, that are of interest for improving Earth models. We discuss the possible origins of the differences (software packaged, inversion methods, analysis configuration including a priori and estimation strategy) and the consequences for scientific exploitation of the data, especially in terms of nutation modeling and inference of the Earth's internal structure.

  17. Quantum Bio-Informatics IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accardi, Luigi; Freudenberg, Wolfgang; Ohya, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    The QP-DYN algorithms / L. Accardi, M. Regoli and M. Ohya -- Study of transcriptional regulatory network based on Cis module database / S. Akasaka ... [et al.] -- On Lie group-Lie algebra correspondences of unitary groups in finite von Neumann algebras / H. Ando, I. Ojima and Y. Matsuzawa -- On a general form of time operators of a Hamiltonian with purely discrete spectrum / A. Arai -- Quantum uncertainty and decision-making in game theory / M. Asano ... [et al.] -- New types of quantum entropies and additive information capacities / V. P. Belavkin -- Non-Markovian dynamics of quantum systems / D. Chruscinski and A. Kossakowski -- Self-collapses of quantum systems and brain activities / K.-H. Fichtner ... [et al.] -- Statistical analysis of random number generators / L. Accardi and M. Gabler -- Entangled effects of two consecutive pairs in residues and its use in alignment / T. Ham, K. Sato and M. Ohya -- The passage from digital to analogue in white noise analysis and applications / T. Hida -- Remarks on the degree of entanglement / D. Chruscinski ... [et al.] -- A completely discrete particle model derived from a stochastic partial differential equation by point systems / K.-H. Fichtner, K. Inoue and M. Ohya -- On quantum algorithm for exptime problem / S. Iriyama and M. Ohya -- On sufficient algebraic conditions for identification of quantum states / A. Jamiolkowski -- Concurrence and its estimations by entanglement witnesses / J. Jurkowski -- Classical wave model of quantum-like processing in brain / A. Khrennikov -- Entanglement mapping vs. quantum conditional probability operator / D. Chruscinski ... [et al.] -- Constructing multipartite entanglement witnesses / M. Michalski -- On Kadison-Schwarz property of quantum quadratic operators on M[symbol](C) / F. Mukhamedov and A. Abduganiev -- On phase transitions in quantum Markov chains on Cayley Tree / L. Accardi, F. Mukhamedov and M. Saburov -- Space(-time) emergence as symmetry breaking effect / I. Ojima

  18. 78 FR 59710 - Golden Eagles; Programmatic Take Permit Application; Draft Environmental Assessment; Shiloh IV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...-megawatt (MW) commercial wind-energy facility, consisting of 50 wind turbines, each with a 2-MW generation... Kennetech wind turbines originally constructed in the late 1980s. The applicant submitted an ECP on August 3... Assessment; Shiloh IV Wind Project, Solano County, California AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service,...

  19. FORTRAN IV Compiler-Loader for the Wang 520/600 Calculator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    This paper describes a compiler system that will translate FORTRAN IV programs into programs that will run on the Wang 520/600 programmable ... calculator . The system includes an option to generate the Wang programs on punched cards that can be input into the 520 or 600 via a mark-sense card reader

  20. Conflicting Notions on Violence and PTSD in the Military: Institutional and Personal Narratives of Combat-Related Illness.

    PubMed

    Molendijk, Tine; Kramer, Eric-Hans; Verweij, Désirée

    2016-09-01

    Research indicates that soldiers struggling with PTSD under-utilize mental health care. Quantitative studies of barriers to care point to the importance of soldiers' beliefs about mental health and mental health interventions in their care-seeking behavior, yet these studies still struggle to understand the particular beliefs involved and the ways they impact care-seeking behavior. This preliminary study makes a start in examining these questions through qualitative literature analysis. It maps out dominant messages surrounding PTSD in military mental health interventions, and explores how they can both shape and conflict with soldiers' personal notions. It does so by analyzing these messages and notions as institutional and personal (illness) narratives. Institutional military PTSD-narratives, which draw on mainstream scientific and clinical models, appear to communicate contradictory notions on the meanings of violence and its psychological consequences, often without acknowledging these contradictions. As such, these narratives seem to shape struggles of soldiers, both within themselves and with the military institution. The identified conflicts indicate, contrary to the individualizing and decontextualizing focus of dominant PTSD-understandings, that soldiers' struggles also have social and moral dimensions. This has important implications for both research into PTSD-interventions and understandings of PTSD as such.

  1. Intravenous Fluid Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John; McKay, Terri; Brown, Daniel; Zoldak, John

    2013-01-01

    The ability to stabilize and treat patients on exploration missions will depend on access to needed consumables. Intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as required consumables. A review of the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) lists over 400 medical conditions that could present and require treatment during ISS missions. The Intravenous Fluid Generation System (IVGEN) technology provides the scalable capability to generate IV fluids from indigenous water supplies. It meets USP (U.S. Pharmacopeia) standards. This capability was performed using potable water from the ISS; water from more extreme environments would need preconditioning. The key advantage is the ability to filter mass and volume, providing the equivalent amount of IV fluid: this is critical for remote operations or resource- poor environments. The IVGEN technology purifies drinking water, mixes it with salt, and transfers it to a suitable bag to deliver a sterile normal saline solution. Operational constraints such as mass limitations and lack of refrigeration may limit the type and volume of such fluids that can be carried onboard the spacecraft. In addition, most medical fluids have a shelf life that is shorter than some mission durations. Consequently, the objective of the IVGEN experiment was to develop, design, and validate the necessary methodology to purify spacecraft potable water into a normal saline solution, thus reducing the amount of IV fluids that are included in the launch manifest. As currently conceived, an IVGEN system for a space exploration mission would consist of an accumulator, a purifier, a mixing assembly, a salt bag, and a sterile bag. The accumulator is used to transfer a measured amount of drinking water from the spacecraft to the purifier. The purifier uses filters to separate any air bubbles that may have gotten trapped during the drinking water transfer from flowing through a high-quality deionizing cartridge that removes the impurities in

  2. Intelsat IV-F5 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An Atlas-Centaur space vehicle lifted off at 5:53 p.m. EDT, June 13, 1972, from Complex 36B carrying an Intelsat Communications Satellite, (Intelsat IV-F5) into Earth orbit. Visible in the foreground is the lighthouse located at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  3. Day Camp Manual: Program. Book IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, William

    Book IV in a 5-book day camp manual discusses the camp program. Section I describes the organization, definition, and elements essential to successful day camp programs. Section II, which addresses the benefits and special considerations of mass programs, includes rainy day contingencies, materials to have on hand, and activity suggestions.…

  4. Leveraging Information Technology. Track IV: Support Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Seven papers from the 1987 CAUSE conference's Track IV, Support Services, are presented. They include: "Application Development Center" (John F. Leydon); "College Information Management System: The Design and Implementation of a Completely Integrated Office Automation and Student Information System" (Karen L. Miselis);…

  5. National Coastal Condition Report IV (2012)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The NCCR IV data shows an overall condition score of 3.0 for the nation’s coastal waters; although this score has improved substantially since 1990, the overall condition of the nation’s coastal resources continues to be rated fair.

  6. The carbonate complexation of plutonium(IV)

    SciTech Connect

    Hobart, D E; Palmer, P D; Newton, T W

    1985-01-01

    Plutonium(IV) carbonate complexes are expected to be of particular importance in typical groundwaters at the Yucca Mountain site of the candidate nuclear waste repository being studied by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project. The chemistry of these complexes is also important in the areas of nuclear fuel reprocessing and purification, actinide separations, and environmental studies. This report describes initial experiments performed to determine the identity and equilibrium quotients of plutonium(IV) carbonate complexes. These experiments were performed at pH values between 7.2 and 9.6 using a spectrophotometric method. In addition, a brief review of the published literature on Pu(IV) carbonate complexes is presented. Since Pu(IV) exhibits low solubility in the near-neutral pH range, a complex-competition reaction where citrate ligands compete with carbonate ions for the plutonium will be employed. This will permit us to study the pure carbonate system; study the mixed carbonate/citrate system, and confirm and extend the literature work on the pure citrate system. The current experiments have demonstrated the existence of at least three distinct species in the pH region studied. This work will continue in the extended study of the pure citrate system, followed by the investigation of the citrate/carbonate complex/competition reaction. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Periodontal Disease Part IV: Periodontal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    In Part IV of this article, the author describes two periodontal infections, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (trench mouth) and periodontal abscess, both acute painful conditions for which patients may seek advice from their family physician rather than their dentist. PMID:21253201

  8. WarpIV: In Situ Visualization and Analysis of Ion Accelerator Simulations.

    PubMed

    Rubel, Oliver; Loring, Burlen; Vay, Jean-Luc; Grote, David P; Lehe, Remi; Bulanov, Stepan; Vincenti, Henri; Bethel, E Wes

    2016-01-01

    The generation of short pulses of ion beams through the interaction of an intense laser with a plasma sheath offers the possibility of compact and cheaper ion sources for many applications--from fast ignition and radiography of dense targets to hadron therapy and injection into conventional accelerators. To enable the efficient analysis of large-scale, high-fidelity particle accelerator simulations using the Warp simulation suite, the authors introduce the Warp In situ Visualization Toolkit (WarpIV). WarpIV integrates state-of-the-art in situ visualization and analysis using VisIt with Warp, supports management and control of complex in situ visualization and analysis workflows, and implements integrated analytics to facilitate query- and feature-based data analytics and efficient large-scale data analysis. WarpIV enables for the first time distributed parallel, in situ visualization of the full simulation data using high-performance compute resources as the data is being generated by Warp. The authors describe the application of WarpIV to study and compare large 2D and 3D ion accelerator simulations, demonstrating significant differences in the acceleration process in 2D and 3D simulations. WarpIV is available to the public via https://bitbucket.org/berkeleylab/warpiv. The Warp In situ Visualization Toolkit (WarpIV) supports large-scale, parallel, in situ visualization and analysis and facilitates query- and feature-based analytics, enabling for the first time high-performance analysis of large-scale, high-fidelity particle accelerator simulations while the data is being generated by the Warp simulation suite. This supplemental material https://extras.computer.org/extra/mcg2016030022s1.pdf provides more details regarding the memory profiling and optimization and the Yee grid recentering optimization results discussed in the main article.

  9. The preparation for and survival of an EPA Title IV and Title V facility audit

    SciTech Connect

    Facca, G.L.; Faler, M.

    1999-07-01

    As part of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, major facilities are required to obtain federally enforceable operating permits (Title V). In a separate permitting action, the electric utilities with units generating more then 25 megawatts are required to obtain permits for NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, the emissions which contribute to acid rain (Title IV). The Title IV permit is included as part of the Title V permit. This paper will use an actual audit experience at a coal fired generation facility as a case study for the preparation for and outcome of an EPA Title IV Level 3 audit. The paper will document the procedures for preparation, the audit process, and the outcome. The audit is part of the EPA's process for review of the record keeping and instrument calibration methods outlined in Title IV. Both types of permits have many different record keeping and monitoring requirements as well as separate reporting requirements which are submitted to both federal; state and local regulatory agencies for review and evaluation. Title IV units include very specific instrument calibration/audit requirements, and Title V has compliance testing and monitoring requirements. Alliant Power was notified in August 1998 of the intent of EPA Region VII to conduct a Level 3 audit at the Lansing Generation Station. The US EPA and the State of Iowa intended to review all Title IV record keeping (Level 1), continuous emission monitoring calibrations and linearity testing (Level 2) and observe the annual Relative Accuracy Testing Audit performed by an outside contractor. In addition, during this facility site visit, the compliance with Title V permit requirements was also audited.

  10. WarpIV: In situ visualization and analysis of ion accelerator simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Rubel, Oliver; Loring, Burlen; Vay, Jean -Luc; Grote, David P.; Lehe, Remi; Bulanov, Stepan; Vincenti, Henri; Bethel, E. Wes

    2016-05-09

    The generation of short pulses of ion beams through the interaction of an intense laser with a plasma sheath offers the possibility of compact and cheaper ion sources for many applications--from fast ignition and radiography of dense targets to hadron therapy and injection into conventional accelerators. To enable the efficient analysis of large-scale, high-fidelity particle accelerator simulations using the Warp simulation suite, the authors introduce the Warp In situ Visualization Toolkit (WarpIV). WarpIV integrates state-of-the-art in situ visualization and analysis using VisIt with Warp, supports management and control of complex in situ visualization and analysis workflows, and implements integrated analytics to facilitate query- and feature-based data analytics and efficient large-scale data analysis. WarpIV enables for the first time distributed parallel, in situ visualization of the full simulation data using high-performance compute resources as the data is being generated by Warp. The authors describe the application of WarpIV to study and compare large 2D and 3D ion accelerator simulations, demonstrating significant differences in the acceleration process in 2D and 3D simulations. WarpIV is available to the public via https://bitbucket.org/berkeleylab/warpiv. The Warp In situ Visualization Toolkit (WarpIV) supports large-scale, parallel, in situ visualization and analysis and facilitates query- and feature-based analytics, enabling for the first time high-performance analysis of large-scale, high-fidelity particle accelerator simulations while the data is being generated by the Warp simulation suite. Furthermore, this supplemental material https://extras.computer.org/extra/mcg2016030022s1.pdf provides more details regarding the memory profiling and optimization and the Yee grid recentering optimization results discussed in the main article.

  11. WarpIV: In situ visualization and analysis of ion accelerator simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Rubel, Oliver; Loring, Burlen; Vay, Jean -Luc; ...

    2016-05-09

    The generation of short pulses of ion beams through the interaction of an intense laser with a plasma sheath offers the possibility of compact and cheaper ion sources for many applications--from fast ignition and radiography of dense targets to hadron therapy and injection into conventional accelerators. To enable the efficient analysis of large-scale, high-fidelity particle accelerator simulations using the Warp simulation suite, the authors introduce the Warp In situ Visualization Toolkit (WarpIV). WarpIV integrates state-of-the-art in situ visualization and analysis using VisIt with Warp, supports management and control of complex in situ visualization and analysis workflows, and implements integrated analyticsmore » to facilitate query- and feature-based data analytics and efficient large-scale data analysis. WarpIV enables for the first time distributed parallel, in situ visualization of the full simulation data using high-performance compute resources as the data is being generated by Warp. The authors describe the application of WarpIV to study and compare large 2D and 3D ion accelerator simulations, demonstrating significant differences in the acceleration process in 2D and 3D simulations. WarpIV is available to the public via https://bitbucket.org/berkeleylab/warpiv. The Warp In situ Visualization Toolkit (WarpIV) supports large-scale, parallel, in situ visualization and analysis and facilitates query- and feature-based analytics, enabling for the first time high-performance analysis of large-scale, high-fidelity particle accelerator simulations while the data is being generated by the Warp simulation suite. Furthermore, this supplemental material https://extras.computer.org/extra/mcg2016030022s1.pdf provides more details regarding the memory profiling and optimization and the Yee grid recentering optimization results discussed in the main article.« less

  12. Tornstam's notion of gerotranscendence: re-examining and questioning the theory.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Albert J

    2014-08-01

    Lars Tornstam's attractive theory that there is an ultimate developmental stage that is the perquisite of the very old has caused controversy and generated a large volume of literature. In this article, Tornstam's threefold categorisation of gerotranscendence (cosmic, coherence and solitude) and the relationship of his model with that of disengagement and with Erikson's developmental theory are examined. Consideration is given to the following questions: Is gerotranscendence really age-related, and is it really universal rather than culturally or personality dependent? The overlap of the theory with a multiplicity of other constructs is reviewed. In conclusion, criteria are identified for the creation of a revised and potentially more effective instrument to measure gerotranscendence.

  13. Towards a clean slit: how medicine and notions of normality are shaping female genital aesthetics.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Lindy Joan

    2013-01-01

    In the West, a specific ideal has emerged for female genitalia. The ideal is one of absence, a clean slit that can be attained through the removal of pubic hair and, increasingly, through female genital cosmetic surgery. This ideal is largely created in the media, which generates contradictory messages for women. The popular press, backed by medical opinion, explicitly acknowledges that a wide range of variation is normal--female genitals vary in appearance 'about as much as snowflakes'--but by showing only altered minimalist clean slits, it carries an implicit message that women should be worried if their genitals do not match up to this exacting ideal. Consequently, some women feel their genitals are not satisfactory and choose surgery. Using biomedicine to fix normal body parts in order to fashion desirable femininity, releases medicine from its rigid scientific underpinnings exposing it as an increasingly cultural and commercial pursuit.

  14. Impeding 99Tc(IV) mobility in novel waste forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mal-Soon; Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Kruger, Albert A.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra

    2016-06-01

    Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant, long-lived radioactive fission product whose mobility in the subsurface is largely governed by its oxidation state. Tc immobilization is crucial for radioactive waste management and environmental remediation. Tc(IV) incorporation in spinels has been proposed as a novel method to increase Tc retention in glass waste forms during vitrification. However, experiments under high-temperature and oxic conditions show reoxidation of Tc(IV) to volatile pertechnetate, Tc(VII). Here we examine this problem with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and propose that, at elevated temperatures, doping with first row transition metal can significantly enhance Tc retention in magnetite in the order Co>Zn>Ni. Experiments with doped spinels at 700 °C provide quantitative confirmation of the theoretical predictions in the same order. This work highlights the power of modern, state-of-the-art simulations to provide essential insights and generate theory-inspired design criteria of complex materials at elevated temperatures.

  15. Impeding 99Tc(IV) mobility in novel waste forms

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Mal-Soon; Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; ...

    2016-06-30

    Technetium (99Tc) is a long-lived radioactive fission product whose mobility in the subsurface is largely governed by its oxidation state1. Immobilization of Tc in mineral substrates is crucial for radioactive waste management and environmental remediation. Tc(IV) incorporation in spinels2, 3 has been proposed as a novel method to increase Tc retention in glass waste forms. However, experiments with Tc-magnetite under high temperature and oxic conditions showed re-oxidation of Tc(IV) to volatile pertechnetate Tc(VII)O4-.4, 5 Here we address this problem with large-scale ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and propose that elevated temperatures, 1st row transition metal dopants can significantly enhance Tcmore » retention in the order Co > Zn > Ni. Experiments with doped spinels at T=700 ºC provided quantitative confirmation of increased Tc retention in the same order predicted by theory. This work highlights the power of modern state-of-the-art simulations to provide essential insights and generate bottom-up design criteria of complex oxide materials at elevated temperatures.« less

  16. Impeding 99Tc(IV) mobility in novel waste forms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mal-Soon; Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Kruger, Albert A.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant, long-lived radioactive fission product whose mobility in the subsurface is largely governed by its oxidation state. Tc immobilization is crucial for radioactive waste management and environmental remediation. Tc(IV) incorporation in spinels has been proposed as a novel method to increase Tc retention in glass waste forms during vitrification. However, experiments under high-temperature and oxic conditions show reoxidation of Tc(IV) to volatile pertechnetate, Tc(VII). Here we examine this problem with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and propose that, at elevated temperatures, doping with first row transition metal can significantly enhance Tc retention in magnetite in the order Co>Zn>Ni. Experiments with doped spinels at 700 °C provide quantitative confirmation of the theoretical predictions in the same order. This work highlights the power of modern, state-of-the-art simulations to provide essential insights and generate theory-inspired design criteria of complex materials at elevated temperatures. PMID:27357121

  17. Origin and course of the coronary arteries in normal mice and in iv/iv mice

    PubMed Central

    ICARDO, JOSÉ M.; COLVEE, ELVIRA

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on the origin and distribution of the coronary arteries in normal mice and in mice of the iv/iv strain, which show situs inversus and heterotaxia. The coronary arteries were studied by direct observation of the aortic sinuses with the scanning electron microscope, and by examination of vascular corrosion casts. In the normal mouse, the left and right coronaries (LC, RC) arise from the respective Valsalva sinus and course along the ventricular borders to reach the heart apex. Along this course the coronary arteries give off small branches at perpendicular or acute angles to supply the ventricles. The ventricular septum is supplied by the septal artery, which arises as a main branch from the right coronary. Conus arteries arise from the main coronary trunks, from the septal artery and/or directly from the Valsalva sinus. The vascular casts demonstrate the presence of intercoronary anastomoses. The origin of the coronary arteries was found to be abnormal in 84% of the iv/iv mice. These anomalies included double origin, high take-off, slit-like openings and the presence of a single coronary orifice. These anomalies occurred singly or in any combination, and were independent of heart situs. The septal artery originated from RC in most cases of situs solitus but originated predominantly from LC in situs inversus hearts. Except for this anomalous origin no statistical correlation was found between the coronary anomalies and heart situs or a particular mode of heterotaxia. The coronary anomalies observed in the iv/iv mice are similar to those found in human hearts. Most coronary anomalies appear to be due to defective connections between the aortic root and the developing coronaries. iv/iv mice may therefore constitute a good model to study the development of similar anomalies in the human heart. PMID:11693308

  18. Annotations on Mexico's WISC-IV: a validity study.

    PubMed

    Fina, Anthony D; Sánchez-Escobedo, Pedro; Hollingworth, Liz

    2012-01-01

    This project seeks to provide evidence on the internal structure of the Escala Wechsler de Inteligencia para Niños-IV (EWIN-IV; Wechsler, 2007a ) through a confirmatory factor analysis and intercorrelational study. Also provided is information on the adaptation process and other sources of validity evidence in support of the EWIN-IV norms. The standardization data for the EWIN-IV were used for all analyses. The factor loadings and correlational patterns found on the EWIN-IV are comparable to those seen in the American versions of the test. The proposed factor and scoring structure of the EWIN-IV was supported.

  19. Ares I-X Range Safety Simulation and Analysis IV and V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merry, Carl M.; Brewer, Joan D.; Dulski, Matt B.; Gimenez, Adrian; Barron, Kyle; Tarpley, Ashley F.; Craig, A. Scott; Beaty, Jim R.; Starr, Brett R.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Ares I-X vehicle launched on a suborbital test flight from the Eastern Range in Florida on October 28, 2009. NASA generated a Range Safety (RS) product data package to meet the RS trajectory data requirements defined in the Air Force Space Command Manual (AFSPCMAN) 91-710. Some products included were a nominal ascent trajectory, ascent flight envelopes, and malfunction turn data. These products are used by the Air Force s 45th Space Wing (45SW) to ensure public safety and to make flight termination decisions on launch day. Due to the criticality of the RS data, an independent validation and verification (IV&V) effort was undertaken to accompany the data generation analyses to ensure utmost data quality and correct adherence to requirements. As a result of the IV&V efforts, the RS product package was delivered with confidence that two independent organizations using separate simulation software generated data to meet the range requirements and yielded similar results. This document captures the Ares I-X RS product IV&V analysis, including the methodology used to verify inputs, simulation, and output data for certain RS products. Additionally a discussion of lessons learned is presented to capture advantages and disadvantages to the IV&V processes used.

  20. Is the notion of central fatigue based on a solid foundation?

    PubMed

    Contessa, Paola; Puleo, Alessio; De Luca, Carlo J

    2016-02-01

    Exercise-induced muscle fatigue has been shown to be the consequence of peripheral factors that impair muscle fiber contractile mechanisms. Central factors arising within the central nervous system have also been hypothesized to induce muscle fatigue, but no direct empirical evidence that is causally associated to reduction of muscle force-generating capability has yet been reported. We developed a simulation model to investigate whether peripheral factors of muscle fatigue are sufficient to explain the muscle force behavior observed during empirical studies of fatiguing voluntary contractions, which is commonly attributed to central factors. Peripheral factors of muscle fatigue were included in the model as a time-dependent decrease in the amplitude of the motor unit force twitches. Our simulation study indicated that the force behavior commonly attributed to central fatigue could be explained solely by peripheral factors during simulated fatiguing submaximal voluntary contractions. It also revealed important flaws regarding the use of the interpolated twitch response from electrical stimulation of the muscle as a means for assessing central fatigue. Our analysis does not directly refute the concept of central fatigue. However, it raises important concerns about the manner in which it is measured and about the interpretation of the commonly accepted causes of central fatigue and questions the very need for the existence of central fatigue.

  1. Giant piezoelectricity of monolayer group IV monochalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Ruixiang; Li, Wenbin; Li, Ju; Yang, Li

    We predict enormous, anisotropic piezoelectric effects in intrinsic monolayer group IV monochalcogenides (MX, M =Sn or Ge, X =Se or S), including SnSe, SnS, GeSe, and GeS. Using first-principle simulations based on the modern theory of polarization, we find that their piezoelectric coefficients are about one to two orders of magnitude larger than those of other 2D materials, such as MoS2 and GaSe, and bulk quartz and AlN which are widely used in industry. This enhancement is a result of the unique ``puckered'' C2v symmetry and electronic structure of monolayer group IV monochalcogenides. Given the achieved experimental advances in the fabrication of monolayers, their flexible character, and ability to withstand enormous strain, these 2D structures with giant piezoelectric effects may be promising for a broad range of applications such as nano-sized sensors, piezotronics, and energy harvesting in portable electronic devices.

  2. Mariner IV Mission to Mars. Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Jack N.

    1965-01-01

    This technical report is a series of individual papers documenting the Mariner-Mars project from its beginning in 1962 following the successful Mariner-Venus mission. Part I is pre-encounter data. It includes papers on the design, development, and testing of Mariner IV, as well as papers detailing methods of maintaining communication with and obtaining data from the spacecraft during flight, and expected results during encounter with Mars. Part 11, post-encounter data, to be published later, will consist of documentation of the events taking place during Mariner IV's encounter with Mars and thereafter. The Mariner-Mars mission, the culmination of an era of spacecraft development, has contributed much new technology to be used in future projects.

  3. Spectroscopic and Electronic Structure Studies of Intermediate X in Ribonucleotide Reductase R2 and Two Variants: A Description of the FeIV-Oxo Bond in the FeIII-O-FeIV Dimer

    PubMed Central

    Mití, Nataša; Clay, Michael D.; Saleh, Lana; Solomon, Edward I.

    2008-01-01

    Spectroscopic and electronic structure studies of the class I Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) intermediate X and three computationally-derived model complexes are presented, compared and evaluated to determine the electronic and geometric structure of the FeIII-FeIV active site of intermediate X. Rapid freeze-quench (RFQ) EPR, absorption and MCD were used to trap intermediate X in R2 wild-type (WT) and two variants, W48A and Y122F/Y356F. RFQ-EPR spin quantitation was used to determine the relative contributions of intermediate X and radicals present, while RFQ-MCD was used to specifically probe the FeIII/FeIV active site, which displayed three FeIV d-d transitions between 16 700 – 22 600 cm-1, two FeIV d-d spin-flip transitions between 23 500 – 24 300 cm-1 and five oxo to FeIV and FeIII charge transfer (CT) transitions between 25 000 – 32 000 cm-1. The FeIV d-d transitions were perturbed in the two variants, confirming that all three d-d transitions derive from the d-π manifold. Furthermore, the FeIV d-π splittings in the WT are too large to correlate with a bis-μ-oxo structure. The assignment of the FeIV d-d transitions in WT intermediate X best correlates with a bridged μ-oxo/μ-hydroxo [FeIII(μ-O)(μ-OH)FeIV] structure. The μ-oxo/μ-hydroxo core structure provides an important σ/π superexchange pathway, which is not present in the bis-μ-oxo structure, to promote facile electron transfer from Y122 to the remote FeIV through the bent oxo bridge, thereby generating the tyrosyl radical for catalysis. PMID:17602477

  4. Examining Computational Assumptions For Godiva IV

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkland, Alexander Matthew; Jaegers, Peter James

    2016-08-11

    Over the course of summer 2016, the effects of several computational modeling assumptions with respect to the Godiva IV reactor were examined. The majority of these assumptions pertained to modeling errors existing in the control rods and burst rod. The Monte Carlo neutron transport code, MCNP, was used to investigate these modeling changes, primarily by comparing them to that of the original input deck specifications.

  5. The IVS data input to ITRF2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nothnagel, Axel; Alef, Walter; Amagai, Jun; Andersen, Per Helge; Andreeva, Tatiana; Artz, Thomas; Bachmann, Sabine; Barache, Christophe; Baudry, Alain; Bauernfeind, Erhard; Baver, Karen; Beaudoin, Christopher; Behrend, Dirk; Bellanger, Antoine; Berdnikov, Anton; Bergman, Per; Bernhart, Simone; Bertarini, Alessandra; Bianco, Giuseppe; Bielmaier, Ewald; Boboltz, David; Böhm, Johannes; Böhm, Sigrid; Boer, Armin; Bolotin, Sergei; Bougeard, Mireille; Bourda, Geraldine; Buttaccio, Salvo; Cannizzaro, Letizia; Cappallo, Roger; Carlson, Brent; Carter, Merri Sue; Charlot, Patrick; Chen, Chenyu; Chen, Maozheng; Cho, Jungho; Clark, Thomas; Collioud, Arnaud; Colomer, Francisco; Colucci, Giuseppe; Combrinck, Ludwig; Conway, John; Corey, Brian; Curtis, Ronald; Dassing, Reiner; Davis, Maria; de-Vicente, Pablo; De Witt, Aletha; Diakov, Alexey; Dickey, John; Diegel, Irv; Doi, Koichiro; Drewes, Hermann; Dube, Maurice; Elgered, Gunnar; Engelhardt, Gerald; Evangelista, Mark; Fan, Qingyuan; Fedotov, Leonid; Fey, Alan; Figueroa, Ricardo; Fukuzaki, Yoshihiro; Gambis, Daniel; Garcia-Espada, Susana; Gaume, Ralph; Gaylard, Michael; Geiger, Nicole; Gipson, John; Gomez, Frank; Gomez-Gonzalez, Jesus; Gordon, David; Govind, Ramesh; Gubanov, Vadim; Gulyaev, Sergei; Haas, Ruediger; Hall, David; Halsig, Sebastian; Hammargren, Roger; Hase, Hayo; Heinkelmann, Robert; Helldner, Leif; Herrera, Cristian; Himwich, Ed; Hobiger, Thomas; Holst, Christoph; Hong, Xiaoyu; Honma, Mareki; Huang, Xinyong; Hugentobler, Urs; Ichikawa, Ryuichi; Iddink, Andreas; Ihde, Johannes; Ilijin, Gennadiy; Ipatov, Alexander; Ipatova, Irina; Ishihara, Misao; Ivanov, D. V.; Jacobs, Chris; Jike, Takaaki; Johansson, Karl-Ake; Johnson, Heidi; Johnston, Kenneth; Ju, Hyunhee; Karasawa, Masao; Kaufmann, Pierre; Kawabata, Ryoji; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kawai, Eiji; Kaydanovsky, Michael; Kharinov, Mikhail; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Kokado, Kensuke; Kondo, Tetsuro; Korkin, Edward; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Krasna, Hana; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Kurdubov, Sergey; Kurihara, Shinobu; Kuroda, Jiro; Kwak, Younghee; La Porta, Laura; Labelle, Ruth; Lamb, Doug; Lambert, Sébastien; Langkaas, Line; Lanotte, Roberto; Lavrov, Alexey; Le Bail, Karine; Leek, Judith; Li, Bing; Li, Huihua; Li, Jinling; Liang, Shiguang; Lindqvist, Michael; Liu, Xiang; Loesler, Michael; Long, Jim; Lonsdale, Colin; Lovell, Jim; Lowe, Stephen; Lucena, Antonio; Luzum, Brian; Ma, Chopo; Ma, Jun; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Machida, Morito; MacMillan, Dan; Madzak, Matthias; Malkin, Zinovy; Manabe, Seiji; Mantovani, Franco; Mardyshkin, Vyacheslav; Marshalov, Dmitry; Mathiassen, Geir; Matsuzaka, Shigeru; McCarthy, Dennis; Melnikov, Alexey; Michailov, Andrey; Miller, Natalia; Mitchell, Donald; Mora-Diaz, Julian Andres; Mueskens, Arno; Mukai, Yasuko; Nanni, Mauro; Natusch, Tim; Negusini, Monia; Neidhardt, Alexander; Nickola, Marisa; Nicolson, George; Niell, Arthur; Nikitin, Pavel; Nilsson, Tobias; Ning, Tong; Nishikawa, Takashi; Noll, Carey; Nozawa, Kentarou; Ogaja, Clement; Oh, Hongjong; Olofsson, Hans; Opseth, Per Erik; Orfei, Sandro; Pacione, Rosa; Pazamickas, Katherine; Petrachenko, William; Pettersson, Lars; Pino, Pedro; Plank, Lucia; Ploetz, Christian; Poirier, Michael; Poutanen, Markku; Qian, Zhihan; Quick, Jonathan; Rahimov, Ismail; Redmond, Jay; Reid, Brett; Reynolds, John; Richter, Bernd; Rioja, Maria; Romero-Wolf, Andres; Ruszczyk, Chester; Salnikov, Alexander; Sarti, Pierguido; Schatz, Raimund; Scherneck, Hans-Georg; Schiavone, Francesco; Schreiber, Ulrich; Schuh, Harald; Schwarz, Walter; Sciarretta, Cecilia; Searle, Anthony; Sekido, Mamoru; Seitz, Manuela; Shao, Minghui; Shibuya, Kazuo; Shu, Fengchun; Sieber, Moritz; Skjaeveland, Asmund; Skurikhina, Elena; Smolentsev, Sergey; Smythe, Dan; Sousa, Don; Sovers, Ojars; Stanford, Laura; Stanghellini, Carlo; Steppe, Alan; Strand, Rich; Sun, Jing; Surkis, Igor; Takashima, Kazuhiro; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Takiguchi, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Tanabe, Tadashi; Tanir, Emine; Tao, An; Tateyama, Claudio; Teke, Kamil; Thomas, Cynthia; Thorandt, Volkmar; Thornton, Bruce; Tierno Ros, Claudia; Titov, Oleg; Titus, Mike; Tomasi, Paolo; Tornatore, Vincenza; Trigilio, Corrado; Trofimov, Dmitriy; Tsutsumi, Masanori; Tuccari, Gino; Tzioumis, Tasso; Ujihara, Hideki; Ullrich, Dieter; Uunila, Minttu; Venturi, Tiziana; Vespe, Francesco; Vityazev, Veniamin; Volvach, Alexandr; Vytnov, Alexander; Wang, Guangli; Wang, Jinqing; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Na; Wang, Shiqiang; Wei, Wenren; Weston, Stuart; Whitney, Alan; Wojdziak, Reiner; Yatskiv, Yaroslav; Yang, Wenjun; Ye, Shuhua; Yi, Sangoh; Yusup, Aili; Zapata, Octavio; Zeitlhoefler, Reinhard; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Xiuzhong; Zhao, Rongbing; Zheng, Weimin; Zhou, Ruixian; Zubko, Nataliya

    2015-01-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is a primary space-geodetic technique for determining precise coordinates on the Earth, for monitoring the variable Earth rotation and orientation with highest precision, and for deriving many other parameters of the Earth system. The International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS, http://ivscc.gsfc.nasa.gov/) is a service of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) and the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The datasets published here are the results of individual Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) sessions in the form of normal equations in SINEX 2.0 format (http://www.iers.org/IERS/EN/Organization/AnalysisCoordinator/SinexFormat/sinex.html, the SINEX 2.0 description is attached as pdf) provided by IVS as the input for the next release of the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRF): ITRF2014. This is a new version of the ITRF2008 release (Bockmann et al., 2009). For each session/ file, the normal equation systems contain elements for the coordinate components of all stations having participated in the respective session as well as for the Earth orientation parameters (x-pole, y-pole, UT1 and its time derivatives plus offset to the IAU2006 precession-nutation components dX, dY (https://www.iau.org/static/resolutions/IAU2006_Resol1.pdf). The terrestrial part is free of datum. The data sets are the result of a weighted combination of the input of several IVS Analysis Centers. The IVS contribution for ITRF2014 is described in Bachmann et al (2015), Schuh and Behrend (2012) provide a general overview on the VLBI method, details on the internal data handling can be found at Behrend (2013).

  6. What is new in Rome IV.

    PubMed

    Schmulson, Max J; Drossman, Douglas Arnold

    2017-03-09

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are diagnosed and classified using the Rome criteria; the criteria may change over time as new scientific data emerge. The Rome IV was released in May 2016. The aim is to review the main changes in Rome IV. FGIDs are now called disorders of gut-brain interaction (DGBI). Rome IV has a multicultural rather than a Western-culture focus. There are new chapters including multicultural, age-gender-women's health, intestinal microenvironment, biopsychosocial, and centrally mediated disorders. New disorders have been included although not truly FGIDs, but fit the new definition of DGBI including opioid-induced gastrointestinal hyperalgesia, opioid-induced constipation, and cannabinoid hyperemesis. Also, new FGIDs based on available evidence including reflux hypersensitivity and centrally mediatedabdominal pain syndrome. Using a normative survey to determine the frequency of normal bowel symptoms in the general population changes in the time frame for diagnosis were introduced. For irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) only pain is required and discomfort was eliminated because it is non-specific, having different meanings in different languages. Pain is now related to bowel movements rather than just improving with bowel movements (ie, can get worse with bowel movement). Functional bowel disorders (functional diarrhea, functional constipation, IBS with predominant diarrhea [IBS-D], IBS with predominant constipation [IBS-D], and mixed IBS) are considered to be on a continuum rather than as independent entities. Clinical applications such as diagnostic algorithms and the Multidimensional Clinical Profile have been updated. The new Rome IV iteration is evidence-based, multicultural oriented and with clinical applications. As new evidence become available, future updates are expected.

  7. What Is New in Rome IV

    PubMed Central

    Schmulson, Max J; Drossman, Douglas A

    2017-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are diagnosed and classified using the Rome criteria; the criteria may change over time as new scientific data emerge. The Rome IV was released in May 2016. The aim is to review the main changes in Rome IV. FGIDs are now called disorders of gut-brain interaction (DGBI). Rome IV has a multicultural rather than a Western-culture focus. There are new chapters including multicultural, age-gender-women’s health, intestinal microenvironment, biopsychosocial, and centrally mediated disorders. New disorders have been included although not truly FGIDs, but fit the new definition of DGBI including opioid-induced gastrointestinal hyperalgesia, opioid-induced constipation, and cannabinoid hyperemesis. Also, new FGIDs based on available evidence including reflux hypersensitivity and centrally mediated abdominal pain syndrome. Using a normative survey to determine the frequency of normal bowel symptoms in the general population changes in the time frame for diagnosis were introduced. For irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) only pain is required and discomfort was eliminated because it is non-specific, having different meanings in different languages. Pain is now related to bowel movements rather than just improving with bowel movements (ie, can get worse with bowel movement). Functional bowel disorders (functional diarrhea, functional constipation, IBS with predominant diarrhea [IBS-D], IBS with predominant constipation [IBS-C], and IBS with mixed bowel habits) are considered to be on a continuum rather than as independent entities. Clinical applications such as diagnostic algorithms and the Multidimensional Clinical Profile have been updated. The new Rome IV iteration is evidence-based, multicultural oriented and with clinical applications. As new evidence become available, future updates are expected. PMID:28274109

  8. I-V characterization of solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veissid, N.; Ranvaud, R.; Fonseca, F. J.

    1981-06-01

    Equivalent circuits were analysed and then I-V characteristics obtained from different solar cells were compared with those from the circuits. The measures were obtained under natural conditions and under artificial conditions (solar simulator made of easily obtained light sources and several filters). The identification of components in the equivalent circuit, together with the theory of photovoltaic conversion, is very important in the optimization of the cell design. A numeric method for determination of the series resistance is proposed.

  9. In vitro removal of actinide (IV) ions

    DOEpatents

    Weitl, Frederick L.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    1982-01-01

    A compound of the formula: ##STR1## wherein X is hydrogen or a conventional electron-withdrawing group, particularly --SO.sub.3 H or a salt thereof; n is 2, 3, or 4; m is 2, 3, or 4; and p is 2 or 3. The present compounds are useful as specific sequestering agents for actinide (IV) ions. Also described is a method for the 2,3-dihydroxybenzamidation of azaalkanes.

  10. Quicksilver IV: The Real Operation Fortitude

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    original research, primarily in the British National Archives at Kew Gardens . Chapter 1 provides a brief overview of the Allied deception campaign...Taxable and Glimmer Source: The National Archives, Kew In conjunction with the sea diversionary plans, the Allies also executed four airborne...operations (see figure 3). 18 Figure 3. The Airborne Diversions – Operations Titanic I-IV Source: The National Archives, Kew Titanic I worked

  11. DNA ligase IV syndrome; a review.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Thomas; Gennery, Andrew R

    2016-10-07

    DNA ligase IV deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency, LIG4 syndrome, often associated with other systemic features. DNA ligase IV is part of the non-homologous end joining mechanism, required to repair DNA double stranded breaks. Ubiquitously expressed, it is required to prevent mutagenesis and apoptosis, which can result from DNA double strand breakage caused by intracellular events such as DNA replication and meiosis or extracellular events including damage by reactive oxygen species and ionising radiation.Within developing lymphocytes, DNA ligase IV is required to repair programmed DNA double stranded breaks induced during lymphocyte receptor development.Patients with hypomorphic mutations in LIG4 present with a range of phenotypes, from normal to severe combined immunodeficiency. All, however, manifest sensitivity to ionising radiation. Commonly associated features include primordial growth failure with severe microcephaly and a spectrum of learning difficulties, marrow hypoplasia and a predisposition to lymphoid malignancy. Diagnostic investigations include immunophenotyping, and testing for radiosensitivity. Some patients present with microcephaly as a predominant feature, but seemingly normal immunity. Treatment is mainly supportive, although haematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used in a few cases.

  12. Endonuclease IV (nfo) mutant of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, R P; Saporito, S M; Spitzer, S G; Weiss, B

    1986-01-01

    A cloned gene, designated nfo, caused overproduction of an EDTA-resistant endonuclease specific for apurinic-apyrimidinic sites in DNA. The sedimentation coefficient of the enzyme was similar to that of endonuclease IV. An insertion mutation was constructed in vitro and transferred from a plasmid to the Escherichia coli chromosome. nfo mutants had an increased sensitivity to the alkylating agents methyl methanesulfonate and mitomycin C and to the oxidants tert-butyl hydroperoxide and bleomycin. The nfo mutation enhanced the killing of xth (exonuclease III) mutants by methyl methanesulfonate, H2O2, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, and gamma rays, and it enhanced their mutability by methyl methanesulfonate. It also increased the temperature sensitivity of an xth dut (dUTPase) mutant that is defective in the repair of uracil-containing DNA. These results are consistent with earlier findings that endonuclease IV and exonuclease III both cleave DNA 5' to an apurinic-apyrimidinic site and that exonuclease III is more active. However, nfo mutants were more sensitive to tert-butyl hydroperoxide and to bleomycin than were xth mutants, suggesting that endonuclease IV might recognize some lesions that exonuclease III does not. The mutants displayed no marked increase in sensitivity to 254-nm UV radiation, and the addition of an nth (endonuclease III) mutation to nfo or nfo xth mutants did not significantly increase their sensitivity to any of the agents tested. Images PMID:2430946

  13. Type IV Pilin Proteins: Versatile Molecular Modules

    PubMed Central

    Giltner, Carmen L.; Nguyen, Ylan

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Type IV pili (T4P) are multifunctional protein fibers produced on the surfaces of a wide variety of bacteria and archaea. The major subunit of T4P is the type IV pilin, and structurally related proteins are found as components of the type II secretion (T2S) system, where they are called pseudopilins; of DNA uptake/competence systems in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive species; and of flagella, pili, and sugar-binding systems in the archaea. This broad distribution of a single protein family implies both a common evolutionary origin and a highly adaptable functional plan. The type IV pilin is a remarkably versatile architectural module that has been adopted widely for a variety of functions, including motility, attachment to chemically diverse surfaces, electrical conductance, acquisition of DNA, and secretion of a broad range of structurally distinct protein substrates. In this review, we consider recent advances in this research area, from structural revelations to insights into diversity, posttranslational modifications, regulation, and function. PMID:23204365

  14. On the relation between the probabilistic characterization of the common cause and Bell's notion of local causality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer-Szabó, Gábor

    2015-02-01

    In this paper the relation between the standard probabilistic characterization of the common cause (used for the derivation of the Bell inequalities) and Bell's notion of local causality will be investigated in the isotone net framework borrowed from algebraic quantum field theory. The logical role of two components in Bell's definition will be scrutinized; namely that the common cause is localized in the intersection of the past of the correlated events; and that it provides a complete specification of the 'beables' of this intersection.

  15. Out of Flatland: The Role of the Notion of a Worldview in the Science of Well-being.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Danilo; Rosenberg, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the suggestion of the notion of a worldview as part of the Science of Well-Being. We present, at first, an allegoric comparison as to why the view of a ternary unity of being (i.e. a coherence of the three parts of the being, body, mind, and psyche to maximize well-being) is difficult to grasp. We also discuss that humans do have unique experiences and memories, but that we are also connected to both all living things and to our environment. Finally, we point to a ternary model of personality to increase our understanding of a person's well-being: Temperament, character, and identity.

  16. Spherical geodesic mesh generation

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Jimmy; Kenamond, Mark Andrew; Burton, Donald E.; Shashkov, Mikhail Jurievich

    2015-02-27

    In ALE simulations with moving meshes, mesh topology has a direct influence on feature representation and code robustness. In three-dimensional simulations, modeling spherical volumes and features is particularly challenging for a hydrodynamics code. Calculations on traditional spherical meshes (such as spin meshes) often lead to errors and symmetry breaking. Although the underlying differencing scheme may be modified to rectify this, the differencing scheme may not be accessible. This work documents the use of spherical geodesic meshes to mitigate solution-mesh coupling. These meshes are generated notionally by connecting geodesic surface meshes to produce triangular-prismatic volume meshes. This mesh topology is fundamentally different from traditional mesh topologies and displays superior qualities such as topological symmetry. This work describes the geodesic mesh topology as well as motivating demonstrations with the FLAG hydrocode.

  17. The Personal Doctoring Manifesto: A Perspective from the Keystone IV Conference.

    PubMed

    DeVoe, Jennifer E; Barnes, Kathleen; Morris, Carl; Campbell, Kendall; Morris-Singer, Andrew; Westfall, John M; Grumbach, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The Keystone IV Conference was a touchstone moment for multigenerational conversations regarding our health care system and an opportunity to reconnect with the values of personal doctoring as a vocation. It inspired participants to renew commitments to relationships, healthy communities, and social change. Keystone IV was also a stark reminder of the need to rekindle family medicine's counterculture flame in today's tumultuous health care environment and reclaim the role of personal doctors in American society. Reimagining and reigniting the fire of personal relationship is today's counterculture movement for primary care. Personal doctors must heed the call for immediate action, which requires defining when relationships matter most in health care and understanding how to harness paradigm shifts in information technology, team-based care, and population health to strengthen, rather than undermine, personal doctoring. Simultaneously, we must also invent a new notion of personal doctoring that creates partnerships with patients and families to drive forward a social movement demanding health care focused on the whole person in the context of his or her community. Change will occur when patients insist on a personal doctoring approach as an essential priority for what they expect from the health care system-that anything less is unacceptable.

  18. Voltage-dependent sodium (NaV) channels in group IV sensory afferents

    PubMed Central

    Elmslie, Keith S

    2016-01-01

    Patients with intermittent claudication suffer from both muscle pain and an exacerbated exercise pressor reflex. Excitability of the group III and group IV afferent fibers mediating these functions is controlled in part by voltage-dependent sodium (NaV) channels. We previously found tetrodotoxin-resistant NaV1.8 channels to be the primary type in muscle afferent somata. However, action potentials in group III and IV afferent axons are blocked by TTX, supporting a minimal role of NaV1.8 channels. To address these apparent differences in NaV channel expression between axon and soma, we used immunohistochemistry to identify the NaV channels expressed in group IV axons within the gastrocnemius muscle and the dorsal root ganglia sections. Positive labeling by an antibody against the neurofilament protein peripherin was used to identify group IV neurons and axons. We show that >67% of group IV fibers express NaV1.8, NaV1.6, or NaV1.7. Interestingly, expression of NaV1.8 channels in group IV somata was significantly higher than in the fibers, whereas there were no significant differences for either NaV1.6 or NaV1.7. When combined with previous work, our results suggest that NaV1.8 channels are expressed in most group IV axons, but that, under normal conditions, NaV1.6 and/or NaV1.7 play a more important role in action potential generation to signal muscle pain and the exercise pressor reflex. PMID:27385723

  19. Planning a Kinetic and Mechanistic Study with Cerium (IV)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Samir B.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Presents a kinetic study that utilizes a method for varying the concentrations of the possible Ce(IV) species and computing the concentration distribution of the sulfato and hydroxo species of Ce(IV). (MLH)

  20. Density diagnostics derived from the O iv and S iv intercombination lines observed by IRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polito, V.; Del Zanna, G.; Dudík, J.; Mason, H. E.; Giunta, A.; Reeves, K. K.

    2016-10-01

    The intensity of the O iv 2s2 2p 2P-2s2p24P and S iv 3 s2 3p 2P-3s 3p24 P intercombination lines around 1400 Å observed with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) provide a useful tool to diagnose the electron number density (Ne) in the solar transition region plasma. We measure the electron number density in a variety of solar features observed by IRIS, including an active region (AR) loop, plage and brightening, and the ribbon of the 22-June-2015 M 6.5 class flare. By using the emissivity ratios of O iv and S iv lines, we find that our observations are consistent with the emitting plasma being near isothermal (logT[K] ≈ 5) and iso-density (Ne ≈ 1010.6 cm-3) in the AR loop. Moreover, high electron number densities (Ne ≈ 1013 cm-3) are obtained during the impulsive phase of the flare by using the S iv line ratio. We note that the S iv lines provide a higher range of density sensitivity than the O iv lines. Finally, we investigate the effects of high densities (Ne ≳ 1011 cm-3) on the ionization balance. In particular, the fractional ion abundances are found to be shifted towards lower temperatures for high densities compared to the low density case. We also explored the effects of a non-Maxwellian electron distribution on our diagnostic method. The movie associated to Fig. 3 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  1. Expanding the ecological validity of WAIS-IV and WMS-IV with the Texas functional living scale.

    PubMed

    Whipple Drozdick, Lisa; Munro Cullum, C

    2011-06-01

    Assessment of functional status is an important aspect of clinical evaluation. As part of the standardization of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV), participants completed the Texas Functional Living Scale (TFLS), a measure of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. The relationships between TFLS and WAIS-IV and WMS-IV were examined in both normally developing and clinical samples. In general, the highest correlations were between TFLS and measures of general cognitive ability (WAIS-IV FSIQ [Full Scale IQ] and GAI [General Ability Index]) and working memory (WAIS-IV WMI [Working Memory Index] and WMS-IV VWMI [Visual Working Memory Index]). Across the clinical populations, working memory subtests were generally strongly related to TFLS performance, although this relationship was more consistent with WAIS-IV than WMS-IV. Contrast scaled scores are presented for the TFLS based on WAIS-IV or WMS-IV performance. These scores allow the evaluation of functional abilities within the context of cognitive and memory ability, enhancing and expanding the utility of the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV.

  2. A plant based protective antigen [PA(dIV)] vaccine expressed in chloroplasts demonstrates protective immunity in mice against anthrax.

    PubMed

    Gorantala, Jyotsna; Grover, Sonam; Goel, Divya; Rahi, Amit; Jayadev Magani, Sri Krishna; Chandra, Subhash; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2011-06-15

    The currently available anthrax vaccines are limited by being incompletely characterized, potentially reactogenic and have an expanded dosage schedule. Plant based vaccines offer safe alternative for vaccine production. In the present study, we expressed domain IV of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen gene [PA(dIV)] in planta (by nuclear agrobacterium and chloroplast transformation) and E. coli [rPA(dIV)]. The presence of transgene and the expression of PA(dIV) in planta was confirmed by molecular analysis. Expression levels up to 5.3% of total soluble protein (TSP) were obtained with AT rich (71.8% AT content) PA(dIV) gene in transplastomic plants while 0.8% of TSP was obtained in nuclear transformants. Further, we investigated the protective response of plant and E. coli derived PA(dIV) in mice by intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral immunizations with or without adjuvant. Antibody titers of >10(4) were induced upon i.p. and oral immunizations with plant derived PA(dIV) and oral immunization with E. coli derived PA(dIV). Intraperitoneal injections with adjuvanted E. coli derived PA(dIV), generated highest antibody titers of >10(5). All the immunized groups demonstrated predominant IgG1 titers over IgG2a indicating a polarized Th2 type response. We also evaluated the mucosal antibody response in orally immunized groups. When fecal extracts were analyzed, low sIgA titer was demonstrated in adjuvanted plant and E. coli derived PA(dIV) groups. Further, PA(dIV) antisera enhanced B. anthracis spore uptake by macrophages in vitro and also demonstrated an anti-germinating effect suggesting a potent role at mucosal surfaces. The antibodies from various groups were efficient in neutralizing the lethal toxin in vitro. When mice were challenged with B. anthracis, mice immunized with adjuvanted plant PA(dIV) imparted 60% and 40% protection while E. coli derived PA(dIV) conferred 100% and 80% protection upon i.p. and oral immunizations. Thus, our study is the first attempt in

  3. Cytotoxicity of a Ti(IV) compound is independent of serum proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tinoco, Arthur D.; Thomas, Horatio R.; Incarvito, Christopher D.; Saghatelian, Alan; Valentine, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Titanium(IV) compounds are excellent anticancer drug candidates, but they have yet to find success in clinical applications. A major limitation in developing further compounds has been a general lack of understanding of the mechanism governing their bioactivity. To determine factors necessary for bioactivity, we tested the cytotoxicity of different ligand compounds in conjunction with speciation studies and mass spectrometry bioavailability measurements. These studies demonstrated that the Ti(IV) compound of N,N′-di(o-hydroxybenzyl)ethylenediamine-N,N′-diacetic acid (HBED) is cytotoxic to A549 lung cancer cells, unlike those of citrate and naphthalene-2,3-diolate. Although serum proteins are implicated in the activity of Ti(IV) compounds, we found that these interactions do not play a role in [TiO(HBED)]− activity. Subsequent compound characterization revealed ligand properties necessary for activity. These findings establish the importance of the ligand in the bioactivity of Ti(IV) compounds, provides insights for developing next-generation Ti(IV) anticancer compounds, and reveal [TiO(HBED)]− as a unique candidate anticancer compound. PMID:22411801

  4. Kinetics of manganese(III) acetate in acetic acid: Generation of Mn(III) with Co(III), Ce(IV), and dibromide radicals; reactions of Mn(III) with Mn(II), Co(II), hydrogen bromide, and alkali bromides

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, X.D.; Espenson, J.H.

    2000-04-03

    The reaction of cobalt(III) acetate with excess manganese(II) acetate in acetic acid occurs in two stages, since the two forms Co(IIIc) and Co(IIIs) are not rapidly equilibrated and thus react independently. The rate constants at 24.5 C are {kappa}{sub c} = 37.1 {+-} 0.6 L mol{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} and {kappa}{sub s} = 6.8 {+-} 0.2 L mol{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} at 24.5 C in glacial acetic acid. The Mn(III) produced forms a dinuclear complex with the excess of Mn(II). This was studied independently and is characterized by the rate constant (3.43 {+-} 0.01) x 10{sup 2} L mol{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} at 24.5 C. A similar interaction between Mn(III) and Co(II) is substantially slower, with {kappa} = (3.73 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup {minus}1} L mol{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} at 24.5 C. Mn(II) is also oxidized by Ce(IV), according to the rate law {minus}d[Ce(IV)]/dt = {kappa}[Mn(II)]{sup 2}[Ce(IV)], where {kappa} = (6.0 {+-} 0.2) x 10{sup 4} L{sup 2} mol{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The reaction between Mn(II) and HBr{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}}, believed to be involved in the mechanism by which Mn(III) oxidizes HBr, was studied by laser photolysis; the rate constant is (1.48 {+-} 0.04) x 10{sup 8} L mol{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} at {approximately}23 C in HOAc. Oxidation of Co(II) by HBr{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}} has the rate constant (3.0 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup 7} L mol{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}. The oxidation of HBr by Mn(III) is second order with respect to [HBr]; {kappa} = (4.10 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 5} L{sup 2} mol{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} at 4.5 C in 10% aqueous HOAc. Similar reactions with alkali metal bromides were studied; their rate constants are 17--23 times smaller. This noncomplementary reaction is believed to follow that rate law so that HBr{sub 2}{sup {sm_bullet}} and not Br{sup {sm_bullet}} (higher in Gibbs energy by 0.3 V) can serve as the intermediate. The analysis of the reaction steps then requires that the oxidation of HBr{sub 2

  5. 78 FR 45592 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., 45 East Avenue... Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR 107.730). DeltaPoint Capital IV,...

  6. 34 CFR 85.1018 - Title IV, HEA transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... responsibility for a grant, loan, or work study assistance under a title IV, HEA program. Authority: E.O. 12549... disbursement or delivery of funds provided under a title IV, HEA program to a student or borrower; (b) A certification by an educational institution of eligibility for a loan under a title IV, HEA program;...

  7. 34 CFR 85.1018 - Title IV, HEA transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... responsibility for a grant, loan, or work study assistance under a title IV, HEA program. (Authority: E.O. 12549... disbursement or delivery of funds provided under a title IV, HEA program to a student or borrower; (b) A certification by an educational institution of eligibility for a loan under a title IV, HEA program;...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 600 - Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reserved IV Appendix IV to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Appendix IV to Part 600...

  9. Modelling of Safety Instrumented Systems by using Bernoulli trials: towards the notion of odds on for SIS failures analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauffriez, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the modeling of a random failures process of a Safety Instrumented System (SIS). It aims to identify the expected number of failures for a SIS during its lifecycle. Indeed, the fact that the SIS is a system being tested periodically gives the idea to apply Bernoulli trials to characterize the random failure process of a SIS and thus to verify if the PFD (Probability of Failing Dangerously) experimentally obtained agrees with the theoretical one. Moreover, the notion of "odds on" found in Bernoulli theory allows engineers and scientists determining easily the ratio between “outcomes with success: failure of SIS” and “outcomes with unsuccess: no failure of SIS” and to confirm that SIS failures occur sporadically. A Stochastic P-temporised Petri net is proposed and serves as a reference model for describing the failure process of a 1oo1 SIS architecture. Simulations of this stochastic Petri net demonstrate that, during its lifecycle, the SIS is rarely in a state in which it cannot perform its mission. Experimental results are compared to Bernoulli trials in order to validate the powerfulness of Bernoulli trials for the modeling of the failures process of a SIS. The determination of the expected number of failures for a SIS during its lifecycle opens interesting research perspectives for engineers and scientists by completing the notion of PFD.

  10. The value of an emergent notion of authenticity: Examples from two student/teacher-scientist partnership programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahm, Jrene; Miller, Heather C.; Hartley, Laurel; Moore, John C.

    2003-10-01

    We make the case for an emergent notion of authenticity of science based on systems theory and neo-Piagetian thought. We propose that authentic science is an emergent property of a dynamic system of learning precipitated by the interactions among students, teachers, and scientists that occur within the contexts defined by the internal and external constraints of the cultures of the schools and communities within which they operate. Authenticity as an emergent property of the learning process challenges the basis for many science curricula and current pedagogical practices that take scientists' science as their norm and that assume a priori that such is authentic, i.e., it practices preauthentication. We argue that what constitutes authentic science can be taught neither in the traditional didactic modes nor through simulations of scientists' science in the classroom. Instead, authenticity needs to be seen as emergent and as diverse in meaning. To illustrate this point, we draw from two different face-to-face, teacher/student-scientist partnership programs. Both studies support a notion of authenticity that emerges as teachers, students, and scientists come to interact, make meaning of, and come to own the activities they engage in collaboratively. We conclude by considering the implications of such an analysis for science education.

  11. α(1,3) Fucosyltransferases IV and VII are essential for the initial recruitment of basophils in chronic allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Kazumi; Satoh, Takahiro; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2013-09-01

    Basophils act as initiator cells for the development of IgE-mediated chronic allergic inflammation (IgE-CAI). However, detailed mechanisms of initial recruitment of basophils into the skin have yet to be clarified. Selectins mediate leukocyte capture and rolling on the vascular endothelium for extravasation. Counter-receptor activity of selectins is regulated by α(1, 3) fucosyltransferases (FTs) IV and VII. To clarify the contribution of selectin ligands regulated by FTs for initial basophil recruitment, IgE-CAI was induced in mice deficient in FT-IV and/or FT-VII genes. Although FT-IV(-/-) and FT-VII(-/-) mice exhibited comparable skin responses to wild-type mice, the FT-IV(-/-)/FT-VII(-/-) mice showed significantly impaired inflammation. Although the transfer of basophils to FcRγ(-/-) mice induced IgE-CAI, this induction was completely absent when basophils from FT-IV(-/-)/FT-VII(-/-) mice were transferred. L-selectin, but not P- and E-selectin, blocking Abs inhibited skin inflammation in vivo. P-selectin glycoprotein-1 (PSGL-1) antibody also ameliorated skin inflammation, and basophils were bound to L-selectin in a PSGL-1-dependent manner, which was regulated by FT-IV/VII. Functional PSGL-1 generated by basophil FT-IV/VII and its subsequent binding to L-selectin could be one of the essential steps required for initial basophil recruitment and the development of IgE-CAI in mice.

  12. Impacts of Title IV in Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwell, J.; Ellis, H.; Corio, L.; Seinfelt, J.

    1995-12-31

    The Maryland Department of Natural Resources` Power Plant Research Program has evaluated the environmental effects of acid deposition on Maryland`s air, land, water (especially the Chesapeake Bay), and human resources since the mid-1980`s. Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) has focused much attention on the mandated reductions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) to control acid deposition. Baseline data on acidic deposition and air emissions/pollution control for NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} acquired through PPRP studies have proved useful in evaluating the impacts of Title IV on Maryland power plants and resources. Three example programs are discussed: The first is an evaluation of SO{sub 2} emissions on ecosystems through the use of critical loads--the amount of acid rain that an ecosystem can tolerate without continuing to acidify. Results support the use of broadly based emissions trading scenarios: The second study is an evaluation of the potential for reducing nitrate loading in the Chesapeake Bay by reducing NO{sub x} emissions. Results indicate substantial NO{sub x} emission reductions could offer significant reductions in nitrate deposition to the Bay: The final study is a review of the impacts of Title IV on the Maryland coal industry and the prospects for coal cleaning and advanced combustion technologies. Current results indicate that Maryland coal will meet Phase 2 SO{sub 2} emission standards using advanced combustion techniques, such as fluidized bed technologies, but that additional emissions controls, such as a scrubber would be required in a conventional boiler.

  13. Topological characterisation and identification of critical domains within glucosyltransferase IV (GtrIV) of Shigella flexneri

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The three bacteriophage genes gtrA, gtrB and gtr(type) are responsible for O-antigen glucosylation in Shigella flexneri. Both gtrA and gtrB have been demonstrated to be highly conserved and interchangeable among serotypes while gtr(type) was found to be specific to each serotype, leading to the hypothesis that the Gtr(type) proteins are responsible for attaching glucosyl groups to the O-antigen in a site- and serotype- specific manner. Based on the confirmed topologies of GtrI, GtrII and GtrV, such interaction and attachment of the glucosyl groups to the O-antigen has been postulated to occur in the periplasm. Results In this study, the topology of GtrIV was experimentally determined by creating different fusions between GtrIV and a dual-reporter protein, PhoA/LacZ. This study shows that GtrIV consists of 8 transmembrane helices, 2 large periplasmic loops, 2 small cytoplasmic N- and C- terminal ends and a re-entrant loop that occurs between transmembrane helices III and IV. Though this topology differs from that of GtrI, GtrII, GtrV and GtrX, it is very similar to that of GtrIc. Furthermore, both the N-terminal periplasmic and the C-terminal periplasmic loops are important for GtrIV function as shown via a series of loop deletion experiments and the creation of chimeric proteins between GtrIV and its closest structural homologue, GtrIc. Conclusion The current study provides the basis for elucidating the structure and mechanism of action of this important O-antigen modifying glucosyltransferase. PMID:22188643

  14. Onsala Space Observatory: IVS Network Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Ruediger; Elgered, Gunnar; Loefgren, Johan; Ning, Tong; Scherneck, Hans-Georg

    2013-01-01

    During 2012 we participated in 40 IVS sessions. As in the previous four years, we used the majority of the sessions that involved both Onsala and Tsukuba to do ultra-rapid dUT1 observations together with our colleagues in Tsukuba. We observed one four-station ultra-rapid EOP session together with Tsukuba, Hobart, and HartRAO. We also observed the RadioAstron satellite and several GLONASS satellites using the Onsala 25-m telescope. The highlight in 2012 was that our proposal to the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation to establish a twin-telescope system at Onsala in accordance with the VLBI2010 recommendations was accepted.

  15. Reconstruction for Type IV Radial Polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Wall, Lindley B; Goldfarb, Charles A

    2015-09-01

    Type IV radial polydactyly represents a thumb with an extra proximal and distal phalanx. Assessment of the thumb for surgical reconstruction includes observing thumb function, evaluating thumb size and stability, and assessing the first web space. Reconstruction includes excision of the smaller thumb, typically the radial thumb, and re-creating thumb stability and alignment by addressing tendon insertion and joint orientation. Although surgical results are satisfying and complications are uncommon, additional surgical intervention may be required over time owing to thumb malalignment or instability.

  16. Gen IV Materials Handbook Functionalities and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Weiju

    2009-12-01

    This document is prepared for navigation and operation of the Gen IV Materials Handbook, with architecture description and new user access initiation instructions. Development rationale and history of the Handbook is summarized. The major development aspects, architecture, and design principles of the Handbook are briefly introduced to provide an overview of its past evolution and future prospects. Detailed instructions are given with examples for navigating the constructed Handbook components and using the main functionalities. Procedures are provided in a step-by-step fashion for Data Upload Managers to upload reports and data files, as well as for new users to initiate Handbook access.

  17. Selective type IV phosphodiesterase inhibitors as antiasthmatic agents. The syntheses and biological activities of 3-(cyclopentyloxy)-4-methoxybenzamides and analogues.

    PubMed

    Ashton, M J; Cook, D C; Fenton, G; Karlsson, J A; Palfreyman, M N; Raeburn, D; Ratcliffe, A J; Souness, J E; Thurairatnam, S; Vicker, N

    1994-05-27

    The syntheses and biological activities of a number of benzamide derivatives, designed from rolipram, which are selective inhibitors of cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE IV), are described. The effects of changes to the alkoxy groups, amide linkage, and benzamide N-phenyl ring on the inhibition of the cytosolic PDE IV from pig aorta have been investigated. As a result, some highly potent and selective PDE IV inhibitors have been identified. The most potent compounds have been further evaluated for their inhibitory potencies against PDE IV obtained from and superoxide O2- generation from guinea pig eosinophils in vitro. Selected compounds have also been examined for their activities in inhibiting histamine-induced bronchospasm in anaesthetized guinea pigs. 3-(Cyclopentyloxy)-N-(3,5-dichloro-4-pyridyl)-4-methoxybenzamide (15j) showed exceptional potency in all tests and may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of asthma.

  18. Predicting DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jie; Li, Chanjuan; Liu, Zhihong; Du, Jiewen; Ye, Jiming; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun

    2017-02-02

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a promising Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drug target. DPP-IV inhibitors prolong the action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), improve glucose homeostasis without weight gain, edema, and hypoglycemia. However, the marketed DPP-IV inhibitors have adverse effects such as nasopharyngitis, headache, nausea, hypersensitivity, skin reactions and pancreatitis. Therefore, it is still expected for novel DPP-IV inhibitors with minimal adverse effects. The scaffolds of existing DPP-IV inhibitors are structurally diversified. This makes it difficult to build virtual screening models based upon the known DPP-IV inhibitor libraries using conventional QSAR approaches. In this paper, we report a new strategy to predict DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches involving naïve Bayesian (NB) and recursive partitioning (RP) methods. We built 247 machine learning models based on 1307 known DPP-IV inhibitors with optimized molecular properties and topological fingerprints as descriptors. The overall predictive accuracies of the optimized models were greater than 80%. An external test set, composed of 65 recently reported compounds, was employed to validate the optimized models. The results demonstrated that both NB and RP models have a good predictive ability based on different combinations of descriptors. Twenty "good" and twenty "bad" structural fragments for DPP-IV inhibitors can also be derived from these models for inspiring the new DPP-IV inhibitor scaffold design.

  19. Predicting DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jie; Li, Chanjuan; Liu, Zhihong; Du, Jiewen; Ye, Jiming; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a promising Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drug target. DPP-IV inhibitors prolong the action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), improve glucose homeostasis without weight gain, edema, and hypoglycemia. However, the marketed DPP-IV inhibitors have adverse effects such as nasopharyngitis, headache, nausea, hypersensitivity, skin reactions and pancreatitis. Therefore, it is still expected for novel DPP-IV inhibitors with minimal adverse effects. The scaffolds of existing DPP-IV inhibitors are structurally diversified. This makes it difficult to build virtual screening models based upon the known DPP-IV inhibitor libraries using conventional QSAR approaches. In this paper, we report a new strategy to predict DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches involving naïve Bayesian (NB) and recursive partitioning (RP) methods. We built 247 machine learning models based on 1307 known DPP-IV inhibitors with optimized molecular properties and topological fingerprints as descriptors. The overall predictive accuracies of the optimized models were greater than 80%. An external test set, composed of 65 recently reported compounds, was employed to validate the optimized models. The results demonstrated that both NB and RP models have a good predictive ability based on different combinations of descriptors. Twenty "good" and twenty "bad" structural fragments for DPP-IV inhibitors can also be derived from these models for inspiring the new DPP-IV inhibitor scaffold design.

  20. Cognitive representations (Metaphorical Conceptualizations) of past, future, joy, sadness and happiness in depressive and non-depressive subjects: cognitive distortions in depression at the level of notion.

    PubMed

    Bartczak, Marlena; Bokus, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to see if and how the intensity of depression correlates with the cognitive representation of notions, and if any influence is reversed during remission. The cognitive representation indices used were the valence and number of metaphors produced for a notion. Three adult groups took part: persons with depression ([Formula: see text]), persons in remission ([Formula: see text]), and a control group ([Formula: see text]). Five notions were considered: PAST, FUTURE, JOY, SADNESS, and HAPPINESS. The Questionnaire of the Metaphorical Conceptualization of a Notion was used. The results showed that (a) depressive subjects did not have problems with metaphorical processing, (b) depressive subjects demonstrated strong interpretational negativism, (c) subjects during remission did not present distorted conceptual processing. The results are discussed in the context of theories of automatic metaphor processing, and conceptions of cognitive depressive distortions, in tasks requiring effort and substantial involvement of cognitive resources.

  1. Report for 2011 from the Bordeaux IVS Analysis Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlot, Patrick; Bellanger, Antoine; Bourda, Geraldine; Collioud, Arnaud; Baudry, Alain

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Bordeaux IVS Analysis Center during the year 2011. The work focused on (i) regular analysis of the IVS-R1 and IVS-R4 sessions with the GINS software package; (ii) systematic VLBI imaging of the RDV sessions and calculation of the corresponding source structure index and compactness values; (iii) imaging of the sources observed during the 2009 International Year of Astronomy IVS observing session; and (iv) continuation of our VLBI observational program to identify optically-bright radio sources suitable for the link with the future Gaia frame. Also of importance is the enhancement of the IVS LiveWeb site which now comprises all IVS sessions back to 2003, allowing one to search past observations for session-specific information (e.g. sources or stations).

  2. Current notions of genotype and phenotype vis-à-vis new experimental evidence in molecular biology. A methodological study instigated by the peculiar nature of the HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Torres, J M

    1993-01-01

    The strict separation of the biological roles of information and function as if they were two mutually exclusive aspects and the absolute identification of the former with nucleic acids and the latter with coded protein machinery has biased biological thinking to the extent that these notions act as very principles in contemporary biology. However, recent discoveries within the realm of RNA-viruses show the traditional application of such notions to be severely limited in conceptual terms.

  3. Correcting C IV-based virial black hole masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coatman, Liam; Hewett, Paul C.; Banerji, Manda; Richards, Gordon T.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2017-02-01

    The C IVλλ1498,1501 broad emission line is visible in optical spectra to redshifts exceeding z ∼ 5. C IV has long been known to exhibit significant displacements to the blue and these 'blueshifts' almost certainly signal the presence of strong outflows. As a consequence, single-epoch virial black hole (BH) mass estimates derived from C IV velocity widths are known to be systematically biased compared to masses from the hydrogen Balmer lines. Using a large sample of 230 high-luminosity (LBol = 1045.5-1048 erg s-1), redshift 1.5 < z < 4.0 quasars with both C IV and Balmer line spectra, we have quantified the bias in C IV BH masses as a function of the C IV blueshift. C IV BH masses are shown to be a factor of 5 larger than the corresponding Balmer-line masses at C IV blueshifts of 3000 km s-1and are overestimated by almost an order of magnitude at the most extreme blueshifts, ≳5000 km s-1. Using the monotonically increasing relationship between the C IV blueshift and the mass ratio BH(C IV)/BH(Hα), we derive an empirical correction to all C IV BH masses. The scatter between the corrected C IV masses and the Balmer masses is 0.24 dex at low C IV blueshifts (∼0 km s-1) and just 0.10 dex at high blueshifts (∼3000 km s-1), compared to 0.40 dex before the correction. The correction depends only on the C IV line properties - i.e. full width at half-maximum and blueshift - and can therefore be applied to all quasars where C IV emission line properties have been measured, enabling the derivation of unbiased virial BH-mass estimates for the majority of high-luminosity, high-redshift, spectroscopically confirmed quasars in the literature.

  4. Atmosphere of Mars: Mariner IV Models Compared.

    PubMed

    Fjeldbo, G; Fjeldbo, W C; Eshleman, V R

    1966-09-23

    Three classes of models for the atmosphere of Mars differ in identifying the main ionospheric layer measured by Mariner IV as being analogous to a terrestrial F(2), F(1), or E layer. At an altitude of several hundred kilometers, the relative atmospheric mass densities for these models (in the order named) are approximately 1, 10(2), and 10(4), and the temperatures are roughly 100 degrees , 200 degrees , and 400 degrees K. Theory and observation are in best agreement for an F, s model, for which photodissociation of CO(2), and diffusive separation result in an atomic-oxygen upper atmosphere, with O(+) being the principal ion in the isothermal topside of the ionosphere. The mesopause temperature minimum would be at or below the freezing point of CO(2), and dry ice particles would be expected to form. However, an F(1) model, with molecular ions in a mixed and warmer upper atmosphere, might result if photodissociation and diffusive separation are markedly less than would be expected from analogy with Earth's upper atmosphere. The E model proposed by Chamberlain and McElroy appears very unlikely; it is not compatible with the measured ionization profile unless rather unlikely assumptions are made about the values, and changes with height, of the effective recombination coefficient and the average ion mass. Moreover our theoretical heat-budget computations for the atmospheric region probed by Mariner IV indicate markedly lower temperatures and temperature gradients than were obtained for the E model.

  5. Concepts of “person” and “liberty,” and their implications to our fading notions of autonomy

    PubMed Central

    Takala, Tuija

    2007-01-01

    It is commonly held that respect for autonomy is one of the most important principles in medical ethics. However, there are a number of interpretations as to what that respect actually entails in practice and a number of constraints have been suggested even on our self‐regarding choices. These limits are often justified in the name of autonomy. In this paper, it is argued that these different interpretations can be explained and understood by looking at the discussion from the viewpoints of positive and negative liberty and the various notions of a “person” that lay beneath. It will be shown how all the appeals to positive liberty presuppose a particular value system and are therefore problematic in multicultural societies. PMID:17400622

  6. Talking about gendered headship: how do women and men working in schools conceive and articulate notions of gender?

    PubMed

    Fuller, Kay

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I explore how a woman secondary school headteacher and her colleagues talk about her gendered headship. To facilitate and contextualise the semi-structured interviews, participants were asked to categorise a range of attributes and qualities that have been seen as 'masculine' or 'feminine'. They attempted to plot their perceptions of her gendered headship on a continuum from 'extremely masculine' to 'extremely feminine' in relation to her appearance and interactions in various contexts. Their talk, as they explained and illustrated their thinking, reveals that even from a dualist starting point many have an understanding of the fluid nature of complex, subjective, gendered identities. The rejection of binary notions of gender by some participants disrupts the perpetuation of gender as a dualist concept. In particular, the headteacher forces open a space in which to consider the complexity of her own gendered headship.

  7. Adding source positions to the IVS combination—First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Thaller, Daniela

    2016-12-01

    The consistent estimation of terrestrial reference frames (TRF), celestial reference frames (CRF) and Earth orientation parameters (EOP) is still an open subject and offers a large field of investigations. Until now, source positions resulting from Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations are not routinely combined on the level of normal equations in the same way as it is a common process for station coordinates and EOPs. The combination of source positions based on VLBI observations is now integrated in the IVS combination process. We present the studies carried out to evaluate the benefit of the combination compared to individual solutions. On the level of source time series, improved statistics regarding weighted root mean square have been found for the combination in comparison with the individual contributions. In total, 67 stations and 907 sources (including 291 ICRF2 defining sources) are included in the consistently generated CRF and TRF covering 30 years of VLBI contributions. The rotation angles A_1 , A_2 and A_3 relative to ICRF2 are -12.7, 51.7 and 1.8 {μ} as, the drifts D_α and D_δ are -67.2 and 19.1 μ as/rad and the bias B_δ is 26.1 μ as. The comparison of the TRF solution with the IVS routinely combined quarterly TRF solution shows no significant impact on the TRF, when the CRF is estimated consistently with the TRF. The root mean square value of the post-fit station coordinate residuals is 0.9 cm.

  8. Classification of Liss IV Imagery Using Decision Tree Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Amit Kumar; Garg, P. K.; Prasad, K. S. Hari; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2016-06-01

    Image classification is a compulsory step in any remote sensing research. Classification uses the spectral information represented by the digital numbers in one or more spectral bands and attempts to classify each individual pixel based on this spectral information. Crop classification is the main concern of remote sensing applications for developing sustainable agriculture system. Vegetation indices computed from satellite images gives a good indication of the presence of vegetation. It is an indicator that describes the greenness, density and health of vegetation. Texture is also an important characteristics which is used to identifying objects or region of interest is an image. This paper illustrate the use of decision tree method to classify the land in to crop land and non-crop land and to classify different crops. In this paper we evaluate the possibility of crop classification using an integrated approach methods based on texture property with different vegetation indices for single date LISS IV sensor 5.8 meter high spatial resolution data. Eleven vegetation indices (NDVI, DVI, GEMI, GNDVI, MSAVI2, NDWI, NG, NR, NNIR, OSAVI and VI green) has been generated using green, red and NIR band and then image is classified using decision tree method. The other approach is used integration of texture feature (mean, variance, kurtosis and skewness) with these vegetation indices. A comparison has been done between these two methods. The results indicate that inclusion of textural feature with vegetation indices can be effectively implemented to produce classifiedmaps with 8.33% higher accuracy for Indian satellite IRS-P6, LISS IV sensor images.

  9. Computer Generation of Natural Language from a Deep Conceptual Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-01-01

    and conceptual domain. The final sentence generated is a result of a ’linearization’ of the syntax net by the grammar . Many paraphrases can be...notion of "performance" grammar . They have long since given up debugging their creation, and should not be hel liable for those "competence...limited to MACHINE generation» no attempt is made to cover the literature of generative grammar , as developed by theoretical linguistics over the

  10. The Design of the IGE Evaluation Project Phase IV Comparative Studies. Comparative Study of Phase IV IGE Evaluation Project. Phase IV, Project Paper 80-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    This paper outlines the design of two Comparative Studies of Phase IV of the Individually Guided Education (IGE) Evaluation Project. More than 2,000 elementary schools in 25 states use the IGE system. The Evaluation Project was designed to gain a comprehensive view of the system's operation and effectiveness. Phase IV investigated pupil outcomes,…

  11. Stabilization of polynuclear plutonium(IV) species by humic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsac, Rémi; Banik, Nidhu Lal; Marquardt, Christian Michael; Kratz, Jens Volker

    2014-04-01

    Although the formation of tetravalent plutonium (Pu(IV)) polymers with natural organic matter was previously observed by spectroscopy, there is no quantitative evidence of such reaction in batch experiments. In the present study, Pu(IV) interaction with humic acid (HA) was investigated at pH 1.8, 2.5 and 3, as a function of HA concentration and for Pu total concentration equal to 6 × 10-8 M. The finally measured Pu(IV) concentrations ([Pu(IV)]eq) are below Pu(IV) solubility limit. Pu(IV)-HA interaction can be explained by the complexation of Pu(IV) monomers by HA up to [Pu(IV)]eq ∼ 10-8 M. However, the slope of the log-log Pu(IV)-HA binding isotherm changes from ∼0.7 to ∼3.5 for higher [Pu(IV)]eq than ∼10-8 M and at any pH. This result suggests the stabilization of hydrolyzed polymeric Pu(IV) species by HA, with a 4:1 Pu:HA stoichiometry. This confirms, for the first time, previous observations made by spectroscopy in concentrated systems. The humic-ion binding model, Model VII, was introduced into the geochemical speciation program PHREEQC and was used to simulate Pu(IV) monomers binding to HA. The simulations are consistent with other tetravalent actinides-HA binding data from literature. The stabilization of a Pu tetramer (Pu4(OH)88+) by HA was proposed to illustrate the present experimental results for [Pu(IV)]eq > 10-8 M. Predictive simulations of Pu(IV) apparent solubility due to HA show that the chosen Pu(IV)-polymer has no impact for pH > 4. However, the comparison between these predictions and recent spectroscopic results suggest that more hydrolyzed polymeric Pu(IV) species can be stabilized by HA at pH > 4. Polymeric Pu(IV)-HA species might significantly enhance Pu(IV) apparent solubility due to humics, which support a colloid-facilitated transport of this low solubility element.

  12. Natural organic matter influences the dissolution and stability of reduced technetium(IV) and uranium(IV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, B.; Dong, W.; Liang, L.; Wall, N.

    2010-12-01

    Reductive precipitation and immobilization of soluble technetium (as pertechnetate, Tc(VII)O4-) and uranium (as uranyl, U(VI)O22+) to sparingly soluble Tc(IV) and U(IV) species have been proposed as one of the promising remediation technologies to immobilize uranium and technetium in situ in the subsurface. However, the dissolution and long-term stability of reduced Tc(IV) and U(IV) species are poorly understood, particularly in the presence of natural and synthetic organic ligands, which are known to form complexes with these metals or radionuclides and thus cause their mobilization. In this study, the kinetics of both ligand-promoted and oxidative dissolution of Tc(IV) and U(IV) solids are determined, and their mobility is evaluated in the presence of natural organic matter (e.g.,humic acid and fulvic acid) and synthetic ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA). We found that EDTA and the humic acid are among the most effective in promoting the ligand-induced dissolution of Tc(IV) and U(IV) by complexation. However, EDTA is found to suppress the oxidative dissoltuion of Tc(IV) and U(IV), whereas the humic acid enhances the oxidative dissolution due to its redox reactive functional properties. Furthermore, the oxidative dissolution is found to be much quicker than the ligand-promoted dissolution by humic substances. Studies of the dissolution and stability of reduced U(IV) in a contaminated sediment column confirms that both the synthetic and natural organic ligands can cause the mobilization of U(IV) although the dissolution rate is relatively slow. Because these organic ligands commonly co-exit at comtaminated sites, our results suggest that their presence can potentially impact the long-term stability and mobility of reduced Tc(IV) or U(IV) and should be considered in designing remediation strategies using the reductive precipitation approach.

  13. The MAX IV storage ring project

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Pedro F.; Leemann, Simon C.; Sjöström, Magnus; Andersson, Åke

    2014-01-01

    The MAX IV facility, currently under construction in Lund, Sweden, features two electron storage rings operated at 3 GeV and 1.5 GeV and optimized for the hard X-ray and soft X-ray/VUV spectral ranges, respectively. A 3 GeV linear accelerator serves as a full-energy injector into both rings as well as a driver for a short-pulse facility, in which undulators produce X-ray pulses as short as 100 fs. The 3 GeV ring employs a multibend achromat (MBA) lattice to achieve, in a relatively short circumference of 528 m, a bare lattice emittance of 0.33 nm rad, which reduces to 0.2 nm rad as insertion devices are added. The engineering implementation of the MBA lattice raises several technological problems. The large number of strong magnets per achromat calls for a compact design featuring small-gap combined-function magnets grouped into cells and sharing a common iron yoke. The small apertures lead to a low-conductance vacuum chamber design that relies on the chamber itself as a distributed copper absorber for the heat deposited by synchrotron radiation, while non-evaporable getter (NEG) coating provides for reduced photodesorption yields and distributed pumping. Finally, a low main frequency (100 MHz) is chosen for the RF system yielding long bunches, which are further elongated by passively operated third-harmonic Landau cavities, thus alleviating collective effects, both coherent (e.g. resistive wall instabilities) and incoherent (intrabeam scattering). In this paper, we focus on the MAX IV 3 GeV ring and present the lattice design as well as the engineering solutions to the challenges inherent to such a design. As the first realisation of a light source based on the MBA concept, the MAX IV 3 GeV ring offers an opportunity for validation of concepts that are likely to be essential ingredients of future diffraction-limited light sources. PMID:25177978

  14. Generational diversity.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions.

  15. Review of the BCI Competition IV

    PubMed Central

    Tangermann, Michael; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Aertsen, Ad; Birbaumer, Niels; Braun, Christoph; Brunner, Clemens; Leeb, Robert; Mehring, Carsten; Miller, Kai J.; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.; Nolte, Guido; Pfurtscheller, Gert; Preissl, Hubert; Schalk, Gerwin; Schlögl, Alois; Vidaurre, Carmen; Waldert, Stephan; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The BCI competition IV stands in the tradition of prior BCI competitions that aim to provide high quality neuroscientific data for open access to the scientific community. As experienced already in prior competitions not only scientists from the narrow field of BCI compete, but scholars with a broad variety of backgrounds and nationalities. They include high specialists as well as students. The goals of all BCI competitions have always been to challenge with respect to novel paradigms and complex data. We report on the following challenges: (1) asynchronous data, (2) synthetic, (3) multi-class continuous data, (4) session-to-session transfer, (5) directionally modulated MEG, (6) finger movements recorded by ECoG. As after past competitions, our hope is that winning entries may enhance the analysis methods of future BCIs. PMID:22811657

  16. Modcomp MAX IV System Processors reference guide

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, J.

    1990-10-01

    A user almost always faces a big problem when having to learn to use a new computer system. The information necessary to use the system is often scattered throughout many different manuals. The user also faces the problem of extracting the information really needed from each manual. Very few computer vendors supply a single Users Guide or even a manual to help the new user locate the necessary manuals. Modcomp is no exception to this, Modcomp MAX IV requires that the user be familiar with the system file usage which adds to the problem. At General Atomics there is an ever increasing need for new users to learn how to use the Modcomp computers. This paper was written to provide a condensed Users Reference Guide'' for Modcomp computer users. This manual should be of value not only to new users but any users that are not Modcomp computer systems experts. This Users Reference Guide'' is intended to provided the basic information for the use of the various Modcomp System Processors necessary to, create, compile, link-edit, and catalog a program. Only the information necessary to provide the user with a basic understanding of the Systems Processors is included. This document provides enough information for the majority of programmers to use the Modcomp computers without having to refer to any other manuals. A lot of emphasis has been placed on the file description and usage for each of the System Processors. This allows the user to understand how Modcomp MAX IV does things rather than just learning the system commands.

  17. 78 FR 21491 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption... that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P. and DeltaPoint Capital IV (New York), L.P., 45 East Avenue, 6th Floor... Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and Regulations (13 CFR 107.730). DeltaPoint Capital IV,...

  18. SOLAR TRANSITION REGION LINES OBSERVED BY THE INTERFACE REGION IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH: DIAGNOSTICS FOR THE O IV AND Si IV LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Dudík, J.; Del Zanna, G.; Mason, H. E.; Dzifčáková, E.; Golub, L.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of the transition region O IV and Si IV lines observable by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) is investigated for both Maxwellian and non-Maxwellian conditions characterized by a κ-distribution exhibiting a high-energy tail. The Si IV lines are formed at lower temperatures than the O IV lines for all κ. In non-Maxwellian situations with lower κ, the contribution functions are shifted to lower temperatures. Combined with the slope of the differential emission measure, it is possible for the Si IV lines to be formed at very different regions of the solar transition region than the O IV lines; possibly close to the solar chromosphere. Such situations might be discernible by IRIS. It is found that photoexcitation can be important for the Si IV lines, but is negligible for the O IV lines. The usefulness of the O IV ratios for density diagnostics independently of κ is investigated and it is found that the O IV 1404.78 Å/1399.77 Å ratio provides a good density diagnostics except for very low T combined with extreme non-Maxwellian situations.

  19. Synthesis and reactivity of a mononuclear non-haem cobalt(IV)-oxo complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Lee, Yong-Min; Tcho, Woon-Young; Tussupbayev, Samat; Kim, Seoung-Tae; Kim, Yujeong; Seo, Mi Sook; Cho, Kyung-Bin; Dede, Yavuz; Keegan, Brenna C.; Ogura, Takashi; Kim, Sun Hee; Ohta, Takehiro; Baik, Mu-Hyun; Ray, Kallol; Shearer, Jason; Nam, Wonwoo

    2017-03-01

    Terminal cobalt(IV)-oxo (CoIV-O) species have been implicated as key intermediates in various cobalt-mediated oxidation reactions. Herein we report the photocatalytic generation of a mononuclear non-haem [(13-TMC)CoIV(O)]2+ (2) by irradiating [CoII(13-TMC)(CF3SO3)]+ (1) in the presence of [RuII(bpy)3]2+, Na2S2O8, and water as an oxygen source. The intermediate 2 was also obtained by reacting 1 with an artificial oxidant (that is, iodosylbenzene) and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. In particular, the resonance Raman spectrum of 2 reveals a diatomic Co-O vibration band at 770 cm-1, which provides the conclusive evidence for the presence of a terminal Co-O bond. In reactivity studies, 2 was shown to be a competent oxidant in an intermetal oxygen atom transfer, C-H bond activation and olefin epoxidation reactions. The present results lend strong credence to the intermediacy of CoIV-O species in cobalt-catalysed oxidation of organic substrates as well as in the catalytic oxidation of water that evolves molecular oxygen.

  20. Proton or Deuteron Transfer in Phase IV of Solid Hydrogen and Deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hanyu; Ma, Yanming

    2013-01-01

    The recent discovery of phase IV of solid hydrogen and deuterium consisting of two alternate layers of graphenelike three-molecule rings and unbound H2 molecules have generated great interest. However, the vibrational nature of phase IV remains poorly understood. Here, we report a peculiar proton or deuteron transfer and a simultaneous rotation of three-molecule rings in graphenelike layers predicted by ab initio variable-cell molecular dynamics simulations for phase IV of solid hydrogen and deuterium at pressure ranges of 250-350 GPa and temperature range of 300-500 K. This proton or deuteron transfer is intimately related to the particular elongation of molecules in graphenelike layers, and it becomes more pronounced with increasing pressure at the course of larger elongation of molecules. As the consequence of proton transfer, hydrogen molecules in graphenelike layers are short lived and hydrogen vibration is strongly anharmonic. Our findings provide direct explanations on the observed abrupt increase of Raman width at the formation of phase IV and its large increase with pressure.

  1. [The Origin of Scientific Notions in the Circle of the Roman Accademiadella Virt¾ around 1550].

    PubMed

    Kulawik, Bernd

    2015-06-01

    The Origin of Scientific Notions in the Circle of the Roman Accademia della Virtù around 1550. Between c. 1537 and 1555 a group of humanists, clerics, architects and philologists known as the so-called Accademia della Virtù got together in Rome to work on a program which was formulated in a letter by the Sienese humanist Claudio Tolomei in 1542 and published in 1547. Starting out with the intention to understand the only surviving antique book on architecture and architectural theory - Vitruvius' De architectura libri decem - the program describes a series of 24 books, eleven containing the classical text and its translation with commentaries, 13 books systematically illustrating and documenting all known and available material remains from Roman antiquity. This program for a scientific classical archaeology in a modern sense was not only intended to serve the intellectual curiosity of some humanist antiquarians but to help architects and their patrons to develop a new architecture of the same high quality as the idealized Roman examples. To achieve this practical as well as theoretical goal it was obviously necessary to re-create the antique vocabulary of architecture and its rules as well as to unify the contemporary usage of notions and norms in a canon. The first results of this project seem to be the In decem Libros M. Vitruvii Pollionis de Architectura Annotationes by Guillaume Philandrier (Rome, 1544) - up to this day a very valuable explanation of ambiguous parts in the Vitruvian text. Until the 1980s, it was believed that this book was the only outcome of the ambitious project; but then two codices of drawings after antique reliefs were identified as preparations for one of the other 23 volumes - and, because of their systematic approach, regarded as the 'first systematic archaeological book'. Now it seems that there are some other corpora of manuscripts and drawings documenting antique artifacts that should be regarded as results of the Accademia's work

  2. Critical role of promoter IV-driven BDNF transcription in GABAergic transmission and synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Kazuko; Woo, Newton H; Martinowich, Keri; Greene, Joshua S; Schloesser, Robert J; Shen, Liya; Lu, Bai

    2009-04-07

    Transcription of Bdnf is controlled by multiple promoters, which drive expression of multiple transcripts encoding for the same protein. Promoter IV contributes significantly to activity-dependent brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcription. We have generated promoter IV mutant mice (BDNF-KIV) by inserting a GFP-STOP cassette within the Bdnf exon IV locus. This genetic manipulation results in disruption of promoter IV-mediated Bdnf expression. BDNF-KIV animals exhibited significant deficits in GABAergic interneurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), particularly those expressing parvalbumin, a subtype implicated in executive function and schizophrenia. Moreover, disruption of promoter IV-driven Bdnf transcription impaired inhibitory but not excitatory synaptic transmission recorded from layer V pyramidal neurons in the PFC. The attenuation of GABAergic inputs resulted in an aberrant appearance of spike-timing-dependent synaptic potentiation (STDP) in PFC slices derived from BDNF-KIV, but not wild-type littermates. These results demonstrate the importance of promoter IV-dependent Bdnf transcription in GABAergic function and reveal an unexpected regulation of STDP in the PFC by BDNF.

  3. DNA Ligase IV regulates XRCC4 nuclear localization.

    PubMed

    Francis, Dailia B; Kozlov, Mikhail; Chavez, Jose; Chu, Jennifer; Malu, Shruti; Hanna, Mary; Cortes, Patricia

    2014-09-01

    DNA Ligase IV, along with its interacting partner XRCC4, are essential for repairing DNA double strand breaks by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Together, they complete the final ligation step resolving the DNA break. Ligase IV is regulated by XRCC4 and XLF. However, the mechanism(s) by which Ligase IV control the NHEJ reaction and other NHEJ factor(s) remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that a C-terminal region of Ligase IV (aa 620-800), which encompasses a NLS, the BRCT I, and the XRCC4 interacting region (XIR), is essential for nuclear localization of its co-factor XRCC4. In Ligase IV deficient cells, XRCC4 showed deregulated localization remaining in the cytosol even after induction of DNA double strand breaks. DNA Ligase IV was also required for efficient localization of XLF into the nucleus. Additionally, human fibroblasts that harbor hypomorphic mutations within the Ligase IV gene displayed decreased levels of XRCC4 protein, implicating that DNA Ligase IV is also regulating XRCC4 stability. Our results provide evidence for a role of DNA Ligase IV in controlling the cellular localization and protein levels of XRCC4.

  4. Structural dynamic testing of the Engineering Test Satellite-IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraki, K.; Mitsuma, H.; Matsushita, T.; Izumi, H.

    The Engineering Test Satellite-IV (ETS-IV) was the first large scale spacecraft developed and launched successfully in Japan on a new N-II launch vehicle. This paper presents an approach taken for the structural development of the ETS-IV. Extensive structural tests were performed to demonstrate that the ETS-IV spacecraft meets all design requirements and will survive all critical environments. Details of the static load test, vibration tests, acoustic test, and pyrotechnic shock test were described. The test results were compared with analyses and measured flight data.

  5. DNA Ligase IV regulates XRCC4 nuclear localization

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Dailia B.; Kozlov, Mikhail; Chavez, Jose; Chu, Jennifer; Malu, Shruti; Hanna, Mary; Cortes, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    DNA Ligase IV, along with its interacting partner XRCC4, are essential for repairing DNA double strand breaks by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Together, they complete the final ligation step resolving the DNA break. Ligase IV is regulated by XRCC4 and XLF. However, the mechanism(s) by which Ligase IV control the NHEJ reaction and other NHEJ factor(s) remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that a C-terminal region of Ligase IV (aa 620 to 800), which encompasses a NLS, the BRCT I, and the XRCC4 interacting region (XIR), is essential for nuclear localization of its co-factor XRCC4. In Ligase IV deficient cells, XRCC4 showed deregulated localization remaining in the cytosol even after induction of DNA double strand breaks. DNA Ligase IV was also required for efficient localization of XLF into the nucleus. Additionally, human fibroblasts that harbor hypomorphic mutations within the Ligase IV gene displayed decreased levels of XRCC4 protein, implicating that DNA Ligase IV is also regulating XRCC4 stability. Our results provide evidence for a role of DNA Ligase IV in controlling the cellular localization and protein levels of XRCC4. PMID:24984242

  6. The case for diffuse, collisionally ionized interstellar C IV and SI IV below Z = 1 KPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Alan W.; Bromage, Gordon E.

    1986-09-01

    The results of a study of highly ionized gas in the galactic disc and disc/halo interface region are presented, based on IUE observations of C IV and Si IV absorption in a specially selected set of 19 co-directional sight-lines to early-type stars. Evidence is presented for a generally distributed, collisionally ionized phase of this gas having a density in the plane of ≡3×10-9cm-3 and a scale height in the range of 1 - 3 kpc. It is shown that the use in a restricted range of sight-line directions in studies such as this may reduce confusion resulting from inhomogeneities in the distribution of the highly ionized medium.

  7. Collagen-IV supported embryoid bodies formation and differentiation from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Taru Sharma, G.; Dubey, Pawan K.; Verma, Om Prakash; Pratheesh, M.D.; Nath, Amar; Sai Kumar, G.

    2012-08-03

    Graphical abstract: EBs formation, characterization and expression of germinal layers marker genes of in vivo developed teratoma using four different types of extracellular matrices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV matrix is found cytocompatible for EBs formation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Established 3D microenvironment for ES cells development and differentiation into three germ layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV may be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications. -- Abstract: Embryoid bodies (EBs) are used as in vitro model to study early extraembryonic tissue formation and differentiation. In this study, a novel method using three dimensional extracellular matrices for in vitro generation of EBs from buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells and its differentiation potential by teratoma formation was successfully established. In vitro derived inner cell masses (ICMs) of hatched buffalo blastocyst were cultured on buffalo fetal fibroblast feeder layer for primary cell colony formation. For generation of EBs, pluripotent ES cells were seeded onto four different types of extracellular matrices viz; collagen-IV, laminin, fibronectin and matrigel using undifferentiating ES cell culture medium. After 5 days of culture, ESCs gradually grew into aggregates and formed simple EBs having circular structures. Twenty-six days later, they formed cystic EBs over collagen matrix with higher EBs formation and greater proliferation rate as compared to other extracellular matrices. Studies involving histological observations, fluorescence microscopy and RT-PCR analysis of the in vivo developed teratoma revealed that presence of all the three germ layer derivatives viz. ectoderm (NCAM), mesoderm (Flk-1) and endoderm (AFP). In conclusion, the method described here demonstrates a simple and cost-effective way of generating EBs from buffalo ES cells. Collagen-IV matrix was found cytocompatible as it

  8. Self-organized perturbations enhance class IV behavior and 1/f power spectrum in elementary cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kohei; Haruna, Taichi

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a new class of cellular automata based on the modification of its state space. It is introduced to model a computation which is exposed to an environment. We formalized the computation as extension and projection processes of its state space and resulting misidentifications of the state. This is motivated to embed the role of an environment into the system itself, which naturally induces self-organized internal perturbations rather than the usual external perturbations. Implementing this structure into the elementary cellular automata, we characterized its effect by means of input entropy and power spectral analysis. As a result, the cellular automata with this structure showed robust class IV behavior and a 1/f power spectrum in a wide range of rule space comparative to the notion of the edge of chaos.

  9. [Is it Possible to Experiment with Thought? Ernst Mach's Notion of Thought Experiment and its Pedagogical Context around 1900. ].

    PubMed

    Bauer, Julian

    2015-03-01

    Is it Possible to Experiment with Thought? Ernst Mach's Notion of Thought Experiment and its Pedagogical Context around 1900. The article tries to establish the crucial importance of the pedagogical dimension of Ernst Mach's ideas on experimenting with thought. The focus on contemporary pedagogics demonstrates, first, that Mach's didactic approach to physics is part of a much broader stream of pedagogical writings that transcends national and disciplinary borders and comprises a diversity of authors, e.g. Wilhelm Jerusalem, William James or Alfred N. Whitehead; second, that the much-heralded controversy between Mach and the French philosopher of science Pierre Duhem about thought experiments does not only revolve around epistemological issues but rather stems from their antagonist vision of teaching physics; and finally, third, that G. Stanley Hall's psychogenetic theory of pedagogics bears a strong resemblance with the evolutionary naturalism of Machian epistemology and helps explaining key tenets of Mach's conception of thought experiment. By establishing a broad convergence between the work of all these authors despite their different academic upbringing, background and nationality the article argues for a complex and historically fine-grained vision of the relations between natural, social and human sciences going beyond dichotomies like 'Erklären' and 'Verstehen' or the 'Two Cultures'.

  10. Does perceived risk influence the effects of message framing? A new investigation of a widely held notion.

    PubMed

    Van 't Riet, Jonathan; Cox, Anthony D; Cox, Dena; Zimet, Gregory D; De Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Van den Putte, Bas; De Vries, Hein; Werrij, Marieke Q; Ruiter, Robert A C

    2014-01-01

    Health-promoting messages can be framed in terms of the beneficial consequences of healthy behaviour (gain-framed messages) or the detrimental consequences of unhealthy behaviour (loss-framed messages). An influential notion holds that the perceived risk associated with the recommended behaviour determines the relative persuasiveness of gain- and loss-framed messages. This 'risk-framing hypothesis', as we call it, was derived from prospect theory, has been central to health message framing research for the last two decades, and does not cease to appeal to researchers. The present paper examines the validity of the risk-framing hypothesis. We performed six empirical studies on the interaction between perceived risk and message framing. These studies were conducted in two different countries and employed framed messages targeting skin cancer prevention and detection, physical activity, breast self-examination and vaccination behaviour. Behavioural intention served as the outcome measure. None of these studies found evidence in support of the risk-framing hypothesis. We conclude that the empirical evidence in favour of the hypothesis is weak and discuss the ramifications of this for future message framing research.

  11. Fractionating the unitary notion of dissociation: disembodied but not embodied dissociative experiences are associated with exocentric perspective-taking

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Jason J.; James, Kelly; Dewe, Hayley; Medford, Nick; Takahashi, Chie; Kessler, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that hallucinations which appear to involve shifts in egocentric perspective (e.g., the out-of-body experience, OBE) reflect specific biases in exocentric perspective-taking processes. Via a newly devised perspective-taking task, we examined whether such biases in perspective-taking were present in relation to specific dissociative anomalous body experiences (ABE) – namely the OBE. Participants also completed the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS; Sierra and Berrios, 2000) which provided measures of additional embodied ABE (unreality of self) and measures of derealization (unreality of surroundings). There were no reliable differences in the level of ABE, emotional numbing, and anomalies in sensory recall reported between the OBE and control group as measured by the corresponding CDS subscales. In contrast, the OBE group did provide significantly elevated measures of derealization (“alienation from surroundings” CDS subscale) relative to the control group. At the same time we also found that the OBE group was significantly more efficient at completing all aspects of the perspective-taking task relative to controls. Collectively, the current findings support fractionating the typically unitary notion of dissociation by proposing a distinction between embodied dissociative experiences and disembodied dissociative experiences – with only the latter being associated with exocentric perspective-taking mechanisms. Our findings – obtained with an ecologically valid task and a homogeneous OBE group – also call for a re-evaluation of the relationship between OBEs and perspective-taking in terms of facilitated disembodied experiences. PMID:24198776

  12. Pressed flowers: notions of indigenous and alien vegetation in South Africa's Western Cape, c. 1902-1945.

    PubMed

    Pooley, Simon

    2010-01-01

    In the early twentieth century, botanists in South Africa's Western Cape sought urgently to popularise and protect the region's unique indigenous Fynbos flora. Plants imported from the 1840s, some of which proved invasive, became a physical and symbolic focus for their advocacy. The botanists' efforts resonated with political attempts to forge a common white South African national identity that drew on notions of landscape and the indigenous flora for symbolism and that consciously exploited the politically integrative potential of the new science of ecology. Introduced by overseas-trained experts, ecological theory was, however, inappropriate for the local flora, and had unfortunate consequences for the scientifically-informed research and management particularly of the fire-maintained Fynbos. While botanists and conservationists were united in defending the local flora against invasive introduced plants, they drew distinctions between what was 'indigenous' and what was 'natural' that further complicated their attitudes to the local flora. These historical debates illuminate agendas and policies on introduced ('alien') and indigenous flora in the region today.

  13. Point to string transformation, or framedependent notion of ``locality'': An attempt to finitize field theories including gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Kunio

    1991-01-01

    A novel approach has been made to the divergence problem in local field theories, in which the notion of “locality” is still retained but loses its absolute meaning, just like “simultaneity”. The basic idea is to introduce a pure-imaginary elementary length into 3-dimensional space, while keeping “time” structureless so as to retain the unitarity of theS-matrix. Consequently, light becomes dispersive at sufficiently short wavelengths, and Lorentz transformation becomes a point-to-string transformation. When reformulated to meet the new Lorentz invariance, all the localfield (in the above sense) theories in a flat space become finite,while retaining their conventional form. This has been demonstrated by the derivation of finitized Coulomb potential and correct high-momentum behavior of quantum-electrodynamic coupling constant. For diagrams including gravitons, evaluation of the superficial degrees of divergence shows that only a restricted number of 1-(and 2-) loop diagrams might be divergent, while those of more than 3 loops are definitely convergent, thus indicating possible renormalizability (or something better) of quantum gravity in Einstein's formalism of general relativity. Since 4-dimensional simple supergravity removes 1-and 2-loop divergence, a combination of the theory and the present one might lead to a more interesting result.

  14. Foucault's notion of problematization: a methodological discussion of the application of Foucault's later work to nursing research.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Kirsten; Lomborg, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten

    2015-09-01

    This study takes its point of departure in an oft-voiced critique that the French philosopher Michel Foucault gives discourse priority over practice, thereby being deterministic and leaving little space for the individual to act as an agent. Based on an interpretation of the latter part of Foucault's oeuvre, we argue against this critique and provide a methodological discussion of the perception that Foucault's method constitutes, primarily, discourse analysis. We argue that it is possible to overcome this critique of Foucault's work by the application of methodological tools adapted from Foucault's later writings and his diagnosis of his own work as studies of forms of problematization. To shed light on the possibilities that this approach offers to the researcher, we present a reading of aspects of Foucault's work, with a focus on his notion of forms of problematization. Furthermore, we elaborate on concepts from his so-called genealogical period, namely 'the dispositive', strategy and tactics. Our interpretation is supported by examples from a study of the emergence of Danish nursing education, which is based on an analytical framework that we developed in the light of an interpretation of aspects of Foucault's work.

  15. Fractionating the unitary notion of dissociation: disembodied but not embodied dissociative experiences are associated with exocentric perspective-taking.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, Jason J; James, Kelly; Dewe, Hayley; Medford, Nick; Takahashi, Chie; Kessler, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that hallucinations which appear to involve shifts in egocentric perspective (e.g., the out-of-body experience, OBE) reflect specific biases in exocentric perspective-taking processes. Via a newly devised perspective-taking task, we examined whether such biases in perspective-taking were present in relation to specific dissociative anomalous body experiences (ABE) - namely the OBE. Participants also completed the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS; Sierra and Berrios, 2000) which provided measures of additional embodied ABE (unreality of self) and measures of derealization (unreality of surroundings). There were no reliable differences in the level of ABE, emotional numbing, and anomalies in sensory recall reported between the OBE and control group as measured by the corresponding CDS subscales. In contrast, the OBE group did provide significantly elevated measures of derealization ("alienation from surroundings" CDS subscale) relative to the control group. At the same time we also found that the OBE group was significantly more efficient at completing all aspects of the perspective-taking task relative to controls. Collectively, the current findings support fractionating the typically unitary notion of dissociation by proposing a distinction between embodied dissociative experiences and disembodied dissociative experiences - with only the latter being associated with exocentric perspective-taking mechanisms. Our findings - obtained with an ecologically valid task and a homogeneous OBE group - also call for a re-evaluation of the relationship between OBEs and perspective-taking in terms of facilitated disembodied experiences.

  16. Distinct expression patterns of alpha1 (IV) and alpha5 (IV) collagen chains in cylindroma and malignant cylindroma.

    PubMed

    Quatresooz, Pascale; Piérard, Gérald E

    2005-01-01

    Cutaneous cylindromas are considered to derive from cells of the sweat gland apparatus. The composition of the thick hyaline eosinophilic basement membrane (BM)-like zone surrounding epithelial aggregates in cylindromas is similar to that of the dermo-epidermal junction. The presence of type IV collagen has been documented, but the distribution of the different constitutive a chains of collagen IV has not been studied so far. Alterations in the expression of these alpha chains have been described in some other conditions including basal cell carcinomas, testes with spermatogenic dysfunction and colorectal carcinomas. The aim was to study the distribution of the alpha1 (IV) and alpha5 (IV) collagen chains in cylindromas and malignant cylindroma, and to compare it with the BM of sweat glands. Seven cylindromas and one malignant cylindroma were studied. They were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded before processing for immunohistochemistry. Immunostaining was assessed using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase technique with antibodies directed to the alpha1 (IV) and alpha5 (IV) collagen chains. In all cylindromas, a thin continuous and sharply limited immunolabelling for the alpha1 (IV) collagen chain was abutted to the tumoral cell aggregates. A speckled immunoreactivity was found in the rest of the hyaline sheath. Globular structures encased in the cell aggregates also exhibited a thin peripheral rim positive for the alpha1 (IV) collagen chain. The immunoreactivity was faint and granular in the center of the globules. With the antibody directed against the alpha5 (IV) collagen chain, 3 cylindromas did not show any staining, 2 cases presented discrete focal positivity in the mid-part of the BM-like zone, and 2 cases exhibited a positive staining pattern similar to that observed for the alpha1 (IV) collagen chain, but with a focal and more discrete intensity. The malignant cylindroma showed a linear immunoreactivity for the alpha1 (IV) collagen chain undistinguishable from

  17. New mono-organotin (IV) dithiocarbamate complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Muthalib, Amirah Faizah Abdul; Baba, Ibrahim

    2014-09-03

    Eighteen new mono-organotin dithiocarbamate compounds derived each nine from methyltin(IV) and phenyltin(IV) reacted using in-situ method with various type of N-dialkylamine together with carbon disulphide with the ratio of 1:3:3. Elemental and gravimetric analysis showed that the general formula of these compounds were RSnCl[S{sub 2}CNR′R″]{sub 2} (R= Ph, CH{sub 3}, R′ = CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7} and R″ = C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 6}H{sub 11}, iC{sub 3}H{sub 7}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7}). These compounds had been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectra of these compounds showed three important peaks indicating the formation of dithiocarbamate compounds, ν(CN), ν(CS) and ν(Sn-S) band which present in the region of 1444–1519, 954–1098 and 318–349 cm{sup −1} respectively. The ultraviolet-visible spectra showed an absorption band for the π - π* transition of NCS group in the range of 253 – 259 nm due to the intramolecular charge transfer of the ligand. The {sup 13}C NMR spectra showed an important shift for δ(N{sup 13}CS{sub 2}) in the range of 196.8 – 201.9 ppm.. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed three new structures with the general formula of PhSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Et)(i−Pr)]{sub 2}, MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Me)(Cy)]{sub 2} and MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(i−Pr)(CH{sub 2}Ph)]{sub 2}. All structures having a distorted octahedral geometry set by CClS{sub 4} donor atom from the two chelating dithiocarbamate ligands.

  18. Toward Phase IV, Populating the WOVOdat Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratdomopurbo, A.; Newhall, C. G.; Schwandner, F. M.; Selva, J.; Ueda, H.

    2009-12-01

    One of challenges for volcanologists is the fact that more and more people are likely to live on volcanic slopes. Information about volcanic activity during unrest should be accurate and rapidly distributed. As unrest may lead to eruption, evacuation may be necessary to minimize damage and casualties. The decision to evacuate people is usually based on the interpretation of monitoring data. Over the past several decades, monitoring volcanoes has used more and more sophisticated instruments. A huge volume of data is collected in order to understand the state of activity and behaviour of a volcano. WOVOdat, The World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) Database of Volcanic Unrest, will provide context within which scientists can interpret the state of their own volcano, during and between crises. After a decision during the 2000 IAVCEI General Assembly to create WOVOdat, development has passed through several phases, from Concept Development (Phase-I in 2000-2002), Database Design (Phase-II, 2003-2006) and Pilot Testing (Phase-III in 2007-2008). For WOVOdat to be operational, there are still two (2) steps to complete, which are: Database Population (Phase-IV) and Enhancement and Maintenance (Phase-V). Since January 2009, the WOVOdat project is hosted by Earth Observatory of Singapore for at least a 5-year period. According to the original planning in 2002, this 5-year period will be used for completing the Phase-IV. As the WOVOdat design is not yet tested for all types of data, 2009 is still reserved for building the back-end relational database management system (RDBMS) of WOVOdat and testing it with more complex data. Fine-tuning of the WOVOdat’s RDBMS design is being done with each new upload of observatory data. The next and main phase of WOVOdat development will be data population, managing data transfer from multiple observatory formats to WOVOdat format. Data population will depend on two important things, the availability of SQL database in volcano

  19. New mono-organotin (IV) dithiocarbamate complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthalib, Amirah Faizah Abdul; Baba, Ibrahim

    2014-09-01

    Eighteen new mono-organotin dithiocarbamate compounds derived each nine from methyltin(IV) and phenyltin(IV) reacted using in-situ method with various type of N-dialkylamine together with carbon disulphide with the ratio of 1:3:3. Elemental and gravimetric analysis showed that the general formula of these compounds were RSnCl[S2CNR'R″]2 (R= Ph, CH3, R' = CH3, C2H5, C7H7 and R″ = C2H5, C6H11, iC3H7, C7H7). These compounds had been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, 1H, 13C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectra of these compounds showed three important peaks indicating the formation of dithiocarbamate compounds, ν(CN), ν(CS) and ν(Sn-S) band which present in the region of 1444-1519, 954-1098 and 318-349 cm-1 respectively. The ultraviolet-visible spectra showed an absorption band for the π - π* transition of NCS group in the range of 253 - 259 nm due to the intramolecular charge transfer of the ligand. The 13C NMR spectra showed an important shift for δ(N13CS2) in the range of 196.8 - 201.9 ppm.. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed three new structures with the general formula of PhSnCl[S2CN(Et)(i-Pr)]2, MeSnCl[S2CN(Me)(Cy)]2 and MeSnCl[S2CN(i-Pr)(CH2Ph)]2. All structures having a distorted octahedral geometry set by CClS4 donor atom from the two chelating dithiocarbamate ligands.

  20. Synthesis, immunomodulation and cytotoxic effects of vanadium (IV) complexes.

    PubMed

    Ashiq, Uzma; Jamal, Rifat Ara; Mesaik, Mohammad Ahmed; Mahroof-Tahir, Muhammad; Shahid, Saba; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

    2014-05-01

    Vanadium is known to exhibit several bioactivities and shows potential as a pharmaceutical drug. The current studies were conducted with the goal of synthesizing a new generation of oxovanadium(IV) complexes, investigating their effects on cancer cell proliferation and their immunomodulatory properties, and predicting possible structure activity relationships. The elucidation of the structures of the synthesized complexes was achieved using elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, magnetic property measurements, and IR and electronic spectroscopies. These studies suggest that the synthesized complexes have a binuclear structure. All of the complexes were evaluated on different cancer cell lines, including HeLa, PC-3, and C33A, and on the normal 3T3 fibroblast cells. Some of the compounds exhibited prominent inhibitory activities on the cervical cancer cell lines and the prostate cancer PC-3 cells. The immunomodulatory activity of the vanadium compounds was evaluated on human phagocytes for ROS (reactive oxygen species) production using luminol- and lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assays. No potent effect was exerted by the majority of the tested compounds on whole blood oxidative burst activity. A study of human T-cells proliferation in vitro on vanadium complexes was also conducted. The majority of the compounds were observed to exhibit potent inhibitory effects. The superoxide, nitric oxide and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging properties were also determined.

  1. Comparison of FLAASH and QUAC atmospheric correction methods for Resourcesat-2 LISS-IV data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, V.; Tiwari, R. K.; Gupta, R. P.

    2016-05-01

    The LISS-IV sensor aboard Resourcesat-2 is a modern relatively high resolution multispectral sensor having immense potential for generation of good quality land use land cover maps. It generates data in high (10-bit) radiometric resolution and 5.8 m spatial resolution and has three bands in the visible-near infrared region. This is of particular importance to global community as the data are provided at highly competitive prices. However, no literature describing the atmospheric correction of Resourcesat-2-LISS-IV data could be found. Further, without atmospheric correction full radiometric potential of any remote sensing data remains underutilized. The FLAASH and QUAC module of ENVI software are highly used by researchers for atmospheric correction of popular remote sensing data such as Landsat, SPOT, IKONOS, LISS-I, III etc. This article outlines a methodology for atmospheric correction of Resourcesat-2-LISS-IV data. Also, a comparison of reflectance from different atmospheric correction modules (FLAASH and QUAC) with TOA and standard data has been made to determine the best suitable method for reflectance estimation for this sensor.

  2. The Mosaic Type IV Secretion Systems

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative and -positive bacteria employ type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) to translocate DNA and protein substrates, generally by contact-dependent mechanisms, to other cells. The T4SSs functionally encompass two major subfamilies, the conjugation systems and the effector translocators. The conjugation systems are responsible for interbacterial transfer of antibiotic resistance genes, virulence determinants, and genes encoding other traits of potential benefit to the bacterial host. The effector translocators are used by many Gram-negative pathogens for delivery of potentially hundreds of virulence proteins termed effectors to eukaryotic cells during infection. In E. coli and other species of Enterobacteriaceae, T4SSs identified to date function exclusively in conjugative DNA transfer. In these species, the plasmid-encoded systems can be classified as the P, F, and I types. The P-type systems are the simplest in terms of subunit composition and architecture, and members of this subfamily share features in common with the paradigmatic Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB/VirD4 T4SS. This review will summarize our current knowledge of the E. coli systems and the A. tumefaciens P-type system, with emphasis on the structural diversity of the T4SSs. Ancestral P-, F-, and I-type systems were adapted throughout evolution to yield the extant effector translocators, and information about well-characterized effector translocators also is included to further illustrate the adaptive and mosaic nature of these highly versatile machines. PMID:27735785

  3. LSPRAY-IV: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    LSPRAY-IV is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type for the gas flow grid representation. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray. Some important research areas covered as a part of the code development are: (1) the extension of combined CFD/scalar-Monte- Carlo-PDF method to spray modeling, (2) the multi-component liquid spray modeling, and (3) the assessment of various atomization models used in spray calculations. The current version contains the extension to the modeling of superheated sprays. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers.

  4. Conference Report: Masters Forum IV, February 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, Todd

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the APPL Masters Forum is to bring together some of the best project managers at NASA, as well as those in industry and other government agencies, for 2 1/2 days of knowledge sharing. The project managers come eager to reflect on their project experiences, to learn new things from one another--and to unlearn a few things, too. This was the fourth Masters Forum, and the first one held outside Washington, DC. Fifty participants from across the country came to Dallas at the American Airlines Conference Center, a wonderful facility that was conveniently located by the airport and yet still seemed isolated from the rest of the world. Masters Forum IV was also the first one held during the winter. Previous Masters Forums have been during the summer. Hot, sticky Washington, D.C. in the summer may sound unpleasant, but frankly the popularity of earlier Forums is what led to this annual event becoming a semiannual one.

  5. GSK3 inactivation is involved in mitochondrial complex IV defect in transforming growth factor (TGF) {beta}1-induced senescence

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, Hae-Ok; Jung, Hyun-Jung; Seo, Yong-Hak; Lee, Young-Kyoung; Hwang, Sung-Chul; Seong Hwang, Eun; Yoon, Gyesoon

    2012-09-10

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF {beta}1) induces Mv1Lu cell senescence by persistently producing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) through decreased complex IV activity. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of TGF {beta}1 on mitochondrial complex IV activity. TGF {beta}1 progressively phosphorylated the negative regulatory sites of both glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) {alpha} and {beta}, corresponding well to the intracellular ROS generation profile. Pre-treatment of N-acetyl cysteine, an antioxidant, did not alter this GSK3 phosphorylation (inactivation), whereas pharmacological inhibition of GSK3 by SB415286 significantly increased mitochondrial ROS, implying that GSK3 phosphorylation is an upstream event of the ROS generation. GSK3 inhibition by SB415286 decreased complex IV activity and cellular O{sub 2} consumption rate and eventually induced senescence of Mv1Lu cell. Similar results were obtained with siRNA-mediated knockdown of GSK3. Moreover, we found that GSK3 not only exists in cytosol but also in mitochondria of Mv1Lu cell and the mitochondrial GSK3 binds complex IV subunit 6b which has no electron carrier and is topologically located in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Involvement of subunit 6b in controlling complex IV activity and overall respiration rate was proved with siRNA-mediated knockdown of subunit 6b. Finally, TGF {beta}1 treatment decreased the binding of the subunit 6b to GSK3 and subunit 6b phosphorylation. Taken together, our results suggest that GSK3 inactivation is importantly involved in TGF {beta}1-induced complex IV defects through decreasing phosphorylation of the subunit 6b, thereby contributing to senescence-associated mitochondrial ROS generation.

  6. Apolipoprotein A-IV: a protein intimately involved in metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Kohan, Alison B.; Lo, Chun-Min; Liu, Min; Howles, Philip; Tso, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of the physiological roles of apoA-IV in metabolism, and to underscore the potential for apoA-IV to be a focus for new therapies aimed at the treatment of diabetes and obesity-related disorders. ApoA-IV is primarily synthesized by the small intestine, attached to chylomicrons by enterocytes, and secreted into intestinal lymph during fat absorption. In circulation, apoA-IV is associated with HDL and chylomicron remnants, but a large portion is lipoprotein free. Due to its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, and because it can mediate reverse-cholesterol transport, proposed functions of circulating apoA-IV have been related to protection from cardiovascular disease. This review, however, focuses primarily on several properties of apoA-IV that impact other metabolic functions related to food intake, obesity, and diabetes. In addition to participating in triglyceride absorption, apoA-IV can act as an acute satiation factor through both peripheral and central routes of action. It also modulates glucose homeostasis through incretin-like effects on insulin secretion, and by moderating hepatic glucose production. While apoA-IV receptors remain to be conclusively identified, the latter modes of action suggest that this protein holds therapeutic promise for treating metabolic disease. PMID:25640749

  7. Beyond the DSM-IV: Assumptions, Alternatives, and Alterations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Shane J.; Edwards, Lisa M.; Pedrotti, Jennifer Teramoto; Prosser, Ellie C.; LaRue, Stephanie; Spalitto, Susan Vehige; Ulven, Jon C.

    2006-01-01

    Current diagnostic processes reflect the limitations and utility of the framework of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Clinical information in the DSM-IV's 5-axis system almost exclusively focuses on weaknesses and pathology and is summarized in a flawed…

  8. On the ion chromatographic determination of S(IV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    Ion Chromatographie determination of S(IV) is described with special reference to the determination of SO 2(g) and/or aerosol S(IV) along with chloride, nitrate and sulfate in particulate matter. A method is presented for the baseline separation of the above species. The Chromatographic behavior of hydroxymethanesulfonate under various eluent conditions is discussed.

  9. CDDIS Data Center Summary for the IVS 2012 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes activities during 2012 and future plans of the Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS) with respect to the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). Included in this report are background information about the CDDIS, the computer architecture, staff supporting the system, archive contents, and future plans for the CDDIS within the IVS.

  10. CDDIS Data Center Summary for the 2003 IVS Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes activities during the year 2003 and future plans of the Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS) with respect to the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). Included in this report are background information about the CDDIS, the computer architecture, staffing supporting the system, archive contents, and future plans for the CDDIS within the IVS.

  11. 2 CFR 3485.1018 - Title IV, HEA transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... program to a student or borrower; (b) A certification by an educational institution of eligibility for a loan under a title IV, HEA program; (c) Guaranteeing a loan made under a title IV, HEA program; and (d) The acquisition or exercise of any servicing responsibility for a grant, loan, or work...

  12. 2 CFR 3485.1018 - Title IV, HEA transaction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... program to a student or borrower; (b) A certification by an educational institution of eligibility for a loan under a title IV, HEA program; (c) Guaranteeing a loan made under a title IV, HEA program; and (d) The acquisition or exercise of any servicing responsibility for a grant, loan, or work...

  13. 29 CFR 4022.63 - Estimated title IV benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Estimated title IV benefit. 4022.63 Section 4022.63 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Benefit Reductions in Terminating Plans § 4022.63 Estimated title IV benefit. (a) General. If...

  14. 29 CFR 4022.63 - Estimated title IV benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Estimated title IV benefit. 4022.63 Section 4022.63 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Benefit Reductions in Terminating Plans § 4022.63 Estimated title IV benefit. (a) General. If...

  15. 29 CFR 4022.63 - Estimated title IV benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Estimated title IV benefit. 4022.63 Section 4022.63 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Benefit Reductions in Terminating Plans § 4022.63 Estimated title IV benefit. (a) General. If...

  16. 29 CFR 4022.63 - Estimated title IV benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Estimated title IV benefit. 4022.63 Section 4022.63 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Benefit Reductions in Terminating Plans § 4022.63 Estimated title IV benefit. (a) General. If...

  17. 29 CFR 4022.63 - Estimated title IV benefit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Estimated title IV benefit. 4022.63 Section 4022.63 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Benefit Reductions in Terminating Plans § 4022.63 Estimated title IV benefit. (a) General. If...

  18. 30 CFR 57.22226 - Testing for methane (IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing for methane (IV mines). 57.22226... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22226 Testing for methane (IV mines). Tests for methane shall be conducted in the mine atmosphere by a competent person— (a) At least...

  19. CDDIS Data Center Summary for the 2004 IVS Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes activities during the year 2004 and future plans of the Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS) with respect to the International VLBI service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS). Included in this report are background information about the CDDIS, the computer architecture, staffing the support system, archive contents, and future plans for the CDDIS within the IVS.

  20. 32 CFR 2003.4 - Membership (Article IV).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Membership (Article IV). 2003.4 Section 2003.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE...) BYLAWS, RULES, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES Bylaws § 2003.4 Membership (Article IV). (a) Member...

  1. 30 CFR 57.22226 - Testing for methane (IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Testing for methane (IV mines). 57.22226... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22226 Testing for methane (IV mines). Tests for methane shall be conducted in the mine atmosphere by a competent person— (a) At least...

  2. 30 CFR 57.22226 - Testing for methane (IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Testing for methane (IV mines). 57.22226... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22226 Testing for methane (IV mines). Tests for methane shall be conducted in the mine atmosphere by a competent person— (a) At least...

  3. 30 CFR 57.22226 - Testing for methane (IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Testing for methane (IV mines). 57.22226... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22226 Testing for methane (IV mines). Tests for methane shall be conducted in the mine atmosphere by a competent person— (a) At least...

  4. The PCP SYS IV Management System: Technical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, John T.; Felty, J. Michael

    This paper is the second in a three-part series on SYS IV, an instructional management system developed by the PLATO Curriculum Project (PCP) that incorporates some of the features of the previous SYS systems. Focus is primarily on the new features that make the system unique. Following a brief background section explaining the purpose of SYS IV,…

  5. 30 CFR 57.22226 - Testing for methane (IV mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing for methane (IV mines). 57.22226... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22226 Testing for methane (IV mines). Tests for methane shall be conducted in the mine atmosphere by a competent person— (a) At least...

  6. CALIBRATING C-IV-BASED BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Daeseong; Woo, Jong-Hak; Shin, Jaejin; Denney, Kelly D. E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr E-mail: kelly@dark-cosmology.dk

    2013-06-20

    We present the single-epoch black hole mass estimators based on the C IV {lambda}1549 broad emission line, using the updated sample of the reverberation-mapped active galactic nuclei and high-quality UV spectra. By performing multi-component spectral fitting analysis, we measure the C IV line widths (FWHM{sub C{sub IV}} and line dispersion, {sigma}{sub C{sub IV}}) and the continuum luminosity at 1350 A (L{sub 1350}) to calibrate the C-IV-based mass estimators. By comparing with the H{beta} reverberation-based masses, we provide new mass estimators with the best-fit relationships, i.e., M{sub BH}{proportional_to}L{sub 1350}{sup 0.50{+-}0.07}{sigma}{sub C{sub IV}{sup 2}} and M{sub BH}{proportional_to}L{sub 1350}{sup 0.52{+-}0.09} FWHM{sub C{sub IV}{sup 0.56{+-}0.48}}. The new C-IV-based mass estimators show significant mass-dependent systematic difference compared to the estimators commonly used in the literature. Using the published Sloan Digital Sky Survey QSO catalog, we show that the black hole mass of high-redshift QSOs decreases on average by {approx}0.25 dex if our recipe is adopted.

  7. 32 CFR 2003.4 - Membership (Article IV).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Membership (Article IV). 2003.4 Section 2003.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE...) BYLAWS, RULES, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES Bylaws § 2003.4 Membership (Article IV). (a) Member...

  8. Area 4 has layer IV in adult primates

    PubMed Central

    García-Cabezas, Miguel Ángel; Barbas, Helen

    2014-01-01

    There are opposing views about the status of layer IV in primary motor cortex (area 4). Cajal described a layer IV in area 4 of adult humans. In contrast, Brodmann found layer IV in development but not in adult primates and called area 4 ‘agranular’. We addressed this issue in rhesus monkeys using the neural marker SMI-32, which labels neurons in lower layer III and upper V, but not in layer IV. SMI-32 delineated a central unlabeled cortical stripe in area 4 that corresponds to layer IV, which was populated with small interneurons also found in layer IV in ‘granular’ areas (such as area 46). We distinguished layer IV interneurons from projection neurons in the layers above and below using cellular criteria. The commonly used term ‘agranular’ for area 4 is also used for the phylogenetically ancient limbic cortices, confusing areas that differ markedly in laminar structure. This issue pertains to the systematic variation in the architecture across cortices, traced from limbic cortices through areas with increasingly more elaborate laminar structure. The principle of systematic variation can be used to predict laminar patterns of connections across cortical systems. This principle places area 4 and agranular anterior cingulate cortices at opposite poles of the graded laminar differentiation of motor cortices. The status of layer IV in area 4 thus pertains to core organizational features of the cortex, its connections and evolution. PMID:24735460

  9. Calibrating C-IV-based Black Hole Mass Estimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Daeseong; Woo, Jong-Hak; Denney, Kelly D.; Shin, Jaejin

    2013-06-01

    We present the single-epoch black hole mass estimators based on the C IV λ1549 broad emission line, using the updated sample of the reverberation-mapped active galactic nuclei and high-quality UV spectra. By performing multi-component spectral fitting analysis, we measure the C IV line widths (FWHMC IV and line dispersion, σC IV ) and the continuum luminosity at 1350 Å (L 1350) to calibrate the C-IV-based mass estimators. By comparing with the Hβ reverberation-based masses, we provide new mass estimators with the best-fit relationships, i.e., M_BH \\propto L_{1350}^{0.50+/- 0.07} \\sigma _{C\\,\\scriptsize{IV}}^{2} and M_BH \\propto L_{1350}^{0.52+/- 0.09}\\,FWHM_{C\\,\\scriptsize{IV}}^{0.56+/- 0.48}. The new C-IV-based mass estimators show significant mass-dependent systematic difference compared to the estimators commonly used in the literature. Using the published Sloan Digital Sky Survey QSO catalog, we show that the black hole mass of high-redshift QSOs decreases on average by ~0.25 dex if our recipe is adopted.

  10. Equilibrium between Different Coordination Geometries in Oxidovanadium(IV) Complexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugone, Valeria; Garribba, Eugenio; Micera, Giovanni; Sanna, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory activity, the equilibrium between square pyramidal and octahedral V(IV)O[superscript 2+] complexes is described. We propose a set of experiments to synthesize and characterize two types of V(IV)O[superscript 2+] complexes. The experiment allows great flexibility and may be effectively used at a variety of levels and the activity…

  11. FORTRAN IV Digital Filter Design Programs. Digital Systems Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuss, E.; And Others

    The goals of the Digital Systems Education Project (DISE) include the development and distribution of educational/instructional materials in the digital systems area. Toward that end, this document contains three reports: (1) A FORTRAN IV Design Program for Low-Pass Butterworth and Chebychev Digital Filters; (2) A FORTRAN IV Design Program for…

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Cerium(IV) Metallocenes

    DOE PAGES

    Sutton, Andrew; Clark, David Lewis; Scott, Brian Lindley; ...

    2015-12-11

    In this study, by applying a salt metathesis approach between Ce(OtBu3)2(NO3)2(THF)2 and the potassium salts of mono- and ditrimethylsilyl substituted cyclopentadienes, we were able to isolate two new Ce(IV) metallocenes, including to the best of our knowledge, the first structurally characterized bis-cyclopentadiene Ce(IV) compound.

  13. SCR7 is neither a selective nor a potent inhibitor of human DNA ligase IV.

    PubMed

    Greco, George E; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Brooks, Rhys C; Lu, Zhengfei; Lieber, Michael R; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2016-07-01

    DNA ligases are attractive therapeutics because of their involvement in completing the repair of almost all types of DNA damage. A series of DNA ligase inhibitors with differing selectivity for the three human DNA ligases were identified using a structure-based approach with one of these inhibitors being used to inhibit abnormal DNA ligase IIIα-dependent repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB)s in breast cancer, neuroblastoma and leukemia cell lines. Raghavan and colleagues reported the characterization of a derivative of one of the previously identified DNA ligase inhibitors, which they called SCR7 (designated SCR7-R in our experiments using SCR7). SCR7 appeared to show increased selectivity for DNA ligase IV, inhibit the repair of DSBs by the DNA ligase IV-dependent non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway, reduce tumor growth, and increase the efficacy of DSB-inducing therapeutic modalities in mouse xenografts. In attempting to synthesize SCR7, we encountered problems with the synthesis procedures and discovered discrepancies in its reported structure. We determined the structure of a sample of SCR7 and a related compound, SCR7-G, that is the major product generated by the published synthesis procedure for SCR7. We also found that SCR7-G has the same structure as the compound (SCR7-X) available from a commercial vendor (XcessBio). The various SCR7 preparations had similar activity in DNA ligation assay assays, exhibiting greater activity against DNA ligases I and III than DNA ligase IV. Furthermore, SCR7-R failed to inhibit DNA ligase IV-dependent V(D)J recombination in a cell-based assay. Based on our results, we conclude that SCR7 and the SCR7 derivatives are neither selective nor potent inhibitors of DNA ligase IV.

  14. Drug interactions with Bacillus anthracis topoisomerase IV: biochemical basis for quinolone action and resistance.

    PubMed

    Aldred, Katie J; McPherson, Sylvia A; Wang, Pengfei; Kerns, Robert J; Graves, David E; Turnbough, Charles L; Osheroff, Neil

    2012-01-10

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is considered a serious threat as a bioweapon. The drugs most commonly used to treat anthrax are quinolones, which act by increasing the levels of DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase IV and gyrase. Quinolone resistance most often is associated with specific serine mutations in these enzymes. Therefore, to determine the basis for quinolone action and resistance, we characterized wild-type B. anthracis topoisomerase IV, the GrlA(S81F) and GrlA(S81Y) quinolone-resistant mutants, and the effects of quinolones and a related quinazolinedione on these enzymes. Ser81 is believed to anchor a water-Mg(2+) bridge that coordinates quinolones to the enzyme through the C3/C4 keto acid. Consistent with this hypothesized bridge, ciprofloxacin required increased Mg(2+) concentrations to support DNA cleavage by GrlA(S81F) topoisomerase IV. The three enzymes displayed similar catalytic activities in the absence of drugs. However, the resistance mutations decreased the affinity of topoisomerase IV for ciprofloxacin and other quinolones, diminished quinolone-induced inhibition of DNA religation, and reduced the stability of the enzyme-quinolone-DNA ternary complex. Wild-type DNA cleavage levels were generated by mutant enzymes at high quinolone concentrations, suggesting that increased drug potency could overcome resistance. 8-Methyl-quinazoline-2,4-dione, which lacks the quinolone keto acid (and presumably does not require the water-Mg(2+) bridge to mediate protein interactions), was more potent than quinolones against wild-type topoisomerase IV and was equally efficacious. Moreover, it maintained high potency and efficacy against the mutant enzymes, effectively inhibited DNA religation, and formed stable ternary complexes. Our findings provide an underlying biochemical basis for the ability of quinazolinediones to overcome clinically relevant quinolone resistance mutations in bacterial type II topoisomerases.

  15. Breakdown voltage and triggering probability of SiPM from IV curves at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinu, N.; Nagai, A.; Para, A.

    2017-02-01

    This work presents a physical model describing the IV curves of SiPM detectors allowing to easily determine important device parameters like breakdown voltage VBD and the shape of Geiger triggering probability PGeiger. We measured IV curves and tested our IV model in a temperature range - 35 ° C < T < + 35 ° C on various SiPMs from two vendors (Hamamatsu devices of 3 × 3mm2 total area and 50 × 50 μm2 μcell size, 2011 and 2015 year production runs and KETEK devices of 0.5 × 0.5mm2 total area and 50 × 50 μm2 μcell size, 2015 production run). The shape of IV curve can be described in terms of Geiger probability and afterpulsing in a very large current range of 10-12 A IV curves is slightly higher (few hundred mV) than the "breakdown voltage" determined from the usual method of linear fit of gain as a function of bias voltage, this discrepancy reflecting the fundamental difference in the physical significance of the "breakdown voltage" determined by these two methods. The recent generation of SiPMs have very wide working range and there is an evidence phenomena beyond afterpulsing like heating or non-quenched pulses contributing to the fast increase of the current at high bias voltages.

  16. Behavioral, Neurophysiological, and Synaptic Impairment in a Transgenic Neuregulin1 (NRG1-IV) Murine Schizophrenia Model

    PubMed Central

    Papaleo, Francesco; Yang, Feng; Paterson, Clare; Palumbo, Sara; Carr, Gregory V.; Wang, Yanhong; Floyd, Kirsten; Huang, Wenwei; Thomas, Craig J.; Chen, Jingshan; Weinberger, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    report of a newly generated humanized transgenic mouse model engineered to express human NRG1-IV, an isoform of the NRG1 (Neuregulin 1) gene that is increased in the brains of patients with schizophrenia in association with genetic risk. Using behavioral neuroscience, molecular biology, electrophysiology, and pharmacology, we identify a role for NRG1-IV in learning, memory, and cognition and determine that this relates to brain excitatory–inhibitory balance and changes in ErbB4/PI3K/AKT signaling. Moreover, the study further highlights the potential of targeting the PI3K pathway for the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:27122041

  17. Vanadium(iv and v) complexes of pyrazolone based ligands: Synthesis, structural characterization and catalytic applications.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Mannar R; Sarkar, Bithika; Avecilla, Fernando; Correia, Isabel

    2016-11-01

    The ONO donor ligands obtained from the condensation of 4-benzoyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-5-one (Hbp) with benzoylhydrazide (H2bp-bhz I), furoylhydrazide (H2bp-fah II), nicotinoylhydrazide (H2bp-nah III) and isonicotinoylhydrazide (H2bp-inh IV), upon treatment with [V(IV)O(acac)2], lead to the formation of [V(IV)O(bp-bhz)(H2O)] 1, [V(IV)O(bp-fah)(H2O)] 2, [V(IV)O(bp-nah)(H2O)] 3 and [V(IV)O(bp-inh)(H2O)] 4, respectively. At neutral pH the in situ generated aqueous K[H2V(V)O4] reacts with ligands I and II, forming potassium salts, K(H2O)2[V(V)O2(bp-bhz)] 5 and K(H2O)2[V(V)O2(bp-fah)] 6, while ligands III and IV give neutral complexes, [V(V)O2(Hbp-nah)] 9 and [V(V)O2(Hbp-inh)] 10, respectively. Acidification of aqueous solutions of 5 and 6 with HCl also gives neutral complexes [V(V)O2(Hbp-bhz)] 7 and [V(V)O2(Hbp-fah)] 8, respectively. Complexes 1-4, upon slow aerial oxidation in methanol, convert into monooxidovanadium(v) complexes, [V(V)O(bp-bhz)(OMe)] 11, [V(V)O(bp-fah)(OMe)] 12, [V(V)O(bp-nah)(OMe)] 13 and [V(V)O(bp-inh)(OMe)] 14, respectively. All complexes were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques like FT-IR, UV-visible, EPR (for complexes 1-4) and NMR ((1)H, (13)C and (51)V), elemental analysis, thermogravimetry and single crystal X-ray diffraction (for complexes 5-10 and 12). In the solid state, all complexes characterized by X-ray diffraction show the metal ion 5-coordinated in a distorted square pyramidal geometry. Complexes 11-14 were tested as catalysts for the one-pot three-component (ethylacetoacetate, benzaldehyde and ammonium acetate) dynamic covalent assembly, via Hantzsch reaction, using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant in solution and under solvent-free conditions. The complexes are also active catalysts for the oxidation of tetralin to tetralone with H2O2 as oxidant. The influence of the amounts of catalyst and oxidant, and solvent, temperature and time on the catalyzed reactions was investigated.

  18. Hippocampal volume is as variable in young as in older adults: implications for the notion of hippocampal atrophy in humans.

    PubMed

    Lupien, S J; Evans, A; Lord, C; Miles, J; Pruessner, M; Pike, B; Pruessner, J C

    2007-01-15

    Previous studies in humans have shown the presence of an age-related reduction of hippocampal (HC) volume, as well as the presence of reduced HC volume in psychiatric populations suffering from schizophrenia, depression or post-traumatic stress disorder. Altogether, these data suggested that aging or psychiatric disease can have neurotoxic effects on the hippocampus, and lead to HC atrophy. However, these two sets of findings imply that HC volume in young healthy adults should present less variability than HC volume in older adults and psychiatric populations. In the present study, we assessed HC volume in 177 healthy men and women aged from 18 to 85 years of age. We show that the dispersion around the mean of HC volume is not different in young and older adults, so that 25% of young healthy adults present HC volume as small as the average participants aged 60 to 75 years. This shows that HC volume is as variable in young as in older adults and suggests that smaller HC volume attributed to the aging process in previous studies could in fact represent HC volume determined early in life. We also report that within similar age groups, the percentage of difference in HC volume between the individuals with the smallest HC volume (smallest quartile) and the group average is greater than the percentage of difference reported to exist between psychiatric populations and normal control in recent meta-analyses. Taken together, these results confront the notion of hippocampal atrophy in humans and raise the possibility that pre-determined inter-individual differences in HC volume in humans may determine the vulnerability for age-related cognitive impairments or psychopathology throughout the lifetime.

  19. Development of Methodologies for IV and V of Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian; Darrah, Marjorie

    2003-01-01

    Non-deterministic systems often rely upon neural network (NN) technology to "lean" to manage flight systems under controlled conditions using carefully chosen training sets. How can these adaptive systems be certified to ensure that they will become increasingly efficient and behave appropriately in real-time situations? The bulk of Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V) research of non-deterministic software control systems such as Adaptive Flight Controllers (AFC's) addresses NNs in well-behaved and constrained environments such as simulations and strict process control. However, neither substantive research, nor effective IV&V techniques have been found to address AFC's learning in real-time and adapting to live flight conditions. Adaptive flight control systems offer good extensibility into commercial aviation as well as military aviation and transportation. Consequently, this area of IV&V represents an area of growing interest and urgency. ISR proposes to further the current body of knowledge to meet two objectives: Research the current IV&V methods and assess where these methods may be applied toward a methodology for the V&V of Neural Network; and identify effective methods for IV&V of NNs that learn in real-time, including developing a prototype test bed for IV&V of AFC's. Currently. no practical method exists. lSR will meet these objectives through the tasks identified and described below. First, ISR will conduct a literature review of current IV&V technology. TO do this, ISR will collect the existing body of research on IV&V of non-deterministic systems and neural network. ISR will also develop the framework for disseminating this information through specialized training. This effort will focus on developing NASA's capability to conduct IV&V of neural network systems and to provide training to meet the increasing need for IV&V expertise in such systems.

  20. Expanding the Ecological Validity of WAIS-IV and WMS-IV with the Texas Functional Living Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drozdick, Lisa Whipple; Cullum, C. Munro

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of functional status is an important aspect of clinical evaluation. As part of the standardization of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV), participants completed the Texas Functional Living Scale (TFLS), a measure of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. The…

  1. Means of Instruction Variables. Comparative Study of Phase IV IGE Evaluation Project. Phase IV Project Paper, 80-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerenz, Anne G.; Webb, Norman L.

    This is one of a series of reports which provide definitions of and descriptive data on the variables used in the Comparative Study of Phase IV of the Individually Guided Education (IEG) Evaluation Project. Phase IV investigated three curriculum programs specifically designed to be compatible with instructional programming for the individual…

  2. Actinide Corroles: Synthesis and Characterization of Thorium(IV) and Uranium(IV) bis(-chloride) Dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Ashleigh L.; Buckley, Heather L.; Gryko, Daniel T.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Arnold, John

    2013-12-01

    The first synthesis and structural characterization of actinide corroles is presented. Thorium(IV) and uranium(IV) macrocycles of Mes2(p-OMePh)corrole were synthesised and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, UV-Visible spectroscopy, variable-temperature 1H NMR, ESI mass spectrometry and cyclic voltammetry.

  3. Wind Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  4. Group IV photonics for the mid infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soref, Richard

    2013-02-01

    This paper outlines the challenges and benefits of applying silicon-based photonic techniques in the 2 to 5 μm midinfrared (MIR) wavelength range for chem.-bio-physical sensing, medical diagnostics, industrial process control, environmental monitoring, secure communications, Ladar, active imaging, and high-speed communications at 2 μm. Onchip passive and active components, mostly waveguided, will enable opto-electronic CMOS or BiCMOS integrated "circuits" for system-on-a-chip applications such as spectroscopy and lab-on-a-chip. Volume manufacture in a silicon foundry is expected to yield low-cost (or even disposable) chips with benefits in size-weight-power and ruggedness. This is "long-wavelength optoelectronic integration on silicon" which we call LIOS. Room temperature operation appears feasible, albeit with performance compromises at 4 to 5 μm. In addition to the electronics layer (which may include RF wireless), a 3-D LIOS chip can include several inter-communicating layers utilizing the photonic, plasmonic, photoniccrystal and opto-electro-mechanical technologies. The LIOS challenge can be met by (1) discovering new physics, (2) employing "new" IV and III-V alloys, (3) scaling-up and modifying telecom components, and (4) applying nonlinearoptical wavelength conversion in some cases. This paper presents proposals for MIR chip spectrometers employing frequency-comb and Ge blackbody sources. Active heterostructures employing Si, Ge, SiGe, GeSn and SiGeSn are key for laser diodes, photodetectors, LEDs, switches, amplifiers, and modulators that provide totally monolithic foundry integration, while numerous III-V semiconductor MIR devices within the InGaAsSb and InGaAsP families offer practical hybrid integration on Si PICs. Interband cascade and quantum cascade lasers on Ge waveguides are important in this context.

  5. Generation X

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    service or government agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT GENERATION X BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL NEIL YAMASHIRO United States Army National Guard CVI...WAR COLLEGE, CARLISLE BARRACKS, PA 17013-5050 ■"""" mimmm n USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT Generation X by LTC Neil Yamashiro COL Paul...is unlimited. 11 ABSTRACT AUTHOR: LTC Neil Yamashiro TITLE: Generation X FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 7 April 1998 PAGES: 26

  6. Search for alpha variation in UVES spectra: Analysis of C IV and Si IV doublets towards QSO 1101-264

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Fiorenzano, A. F.; Vladilo, G.; Bonifacio, P.

    Motivated by previous studies of QSO spectra that reported a variation of the fine structure constant alpha , a search for C IV and Si IV doublets was conducted in the absorption spectrum toward QSO 1101-264, obtained by VLT-UVES during the Science Verification. Seven C IV and two Si IV systems were identified and accurate measurements of wavelengths over the redshift range 1.1862 < z < 1.8377 were performed. After a careful selection of pairs of lines, the ``Alkali Doublet" method with a derived analitical expression for the error analysis was applied to compute the alpha variation. The result according in magnitud order with previous doublets measurements, corresponds to one Si IV system: Delta alpha /alpha = (- 3.09 +/- 8.46) x 10-5. Data from UVES-VLT.

  7. Structure activity relationship modelling of milk protein-derived peptides with dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Nongonierma, Alice B; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2016-05-01

    Quantitative structure activity type models were developed in an attempt to predict the key features of peptide sequences having dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory activity. The models were then employed to help predict the potential of peptides, which are currently reported in the literature to be present in the intestinal tract of humans following milk/dairy product ingestion, to act as inhibitors of DPP-IV. Two models (z- and v-scale) for short (2-5 amino acid residues) bovine milk peptides, behaving as competitive inhibitors of DPP-IV, were developed. The z- and the v-scale models (p<0.05, R(2) of 0.829 and 0.815, respectively) were then applied to 56 milk protein-derived peptides previously reported in the literature to be found in the intestinal tract of humans which possessed a structural feature of DPP-IV inhibitory peptides (P at the N2 position). Ten of these peptides were synthetized and tested for their in vitro DPP-IV inhibitory properties. There was no agreement between the predicted and experimentally determined DPP-IV half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for the competitive peptide inhibitors. However, the ranking for DPP-IV inhibitory potency of the competitive peptide inhibitors was conserved. Furthermore, potent in vitro DPP-IV inhibitory activity was observed with two peptides, LPVPQ (IC50=43.8±8.8μM) and IPM (IC50=69.5±8.7μM). Peptides present within the gastrointestinal tract of human may have promise for the development of natural DPP-IV inhibitors for the management of serum glucose.

  8. The Council of Newton: A Pedagogical Exercise for Understanding Conceptual and Historical Difference with Respect to Intra-Religious Notions of Divinity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karapanagiotis, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine the following pedagogical question: how can we unlock students' mistaken notions that religious "traditions" are monoliths, and instead help them to recognize, puzzle over, and appreciate the complex multiplicity and vibrant set of doctrinal and ritual conversations that characterize religious traditions? More…

  9. Examining Competing Notions of Social Justice at the Intersections of High-Stakes Testing Practices and Parents' Rights: An Inclusive Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waitoller, Federico R.; Pazey, Barbara L.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we examine tensions that can materialize at the intersection of high-stakes accountability assessments and the rights of parents of students with dis/abilities. We bring to the surface and analyze the competing notions of social justice that have fueled the implementation of both high-stakes testing and the inclusion of students…

  10. Satisfied Fools: Using J. S. Mill's Notion of Utility to Analyse the Impact of Vocationalism in Education within a Democratic Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrant, Iona; Tarrant, James

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a new interpretation of John Stuart Mill's notion of utility, which is used to provide a utilitarian justification for an eclectic, rather than a vocational, education. Vocational education is strongly promoted in recent policy documents, which makes it important to raise the question of justification. Many existing…

  11. The French School System and the Universalist Metanarrative (1880-2000s): Some Reflections about So-Called Explanatory Historical Notions Such as "La Forme Scolaire"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Andre D.

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to question the relevance of notions such as "laforme scolair"' in the account of the French state action in keeping up with the development of mass schooling, over a long historical process (from the late nineteenth century to the present day). Through its origin, this model is linked to a Universalist philosophical…

  12. Mask free intravenous 3D digital subtraction angiography (IV 3D-DSA) from a single C-arm acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yinsheng; Niu, Kai; Yang, Pengfei; Aagaard-Kienitz, Beveley; Niemann, David B.; Ahmed, Azam S.; Strother, Charles; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Currently, clinical acquisition of IV 3D-DSA requires two separate scans: one mask scan without contrast medium and a filled scan with contrast injection. Having two separate scans adds radiation dose to the patient and increases the likelihood of suffering inadvertent patient motion induced mis-registration and the associated mis-registraion artifacts in IV 3D-DSA images. In this paper, a new technique, SMART-RECON is introduced to generate IV 3D-DSA images from a single Cone Beam CT (CBCT) acquisition to eliminate the mask scan. Potential benefits of eliminating mask scan would be: (1) both radiation dose and scan time can be reduced by a factor of 2; (2) intra-sweep motion can be eliminated; (3) inter-sweep motion can be mitigated. Numerical simulations were used to validate the algorithm in terms of contrast recoverability and the ability to mitigate limited view artifacts.

  13. Light regulated I-V hysteresis loop of Ag/BiFeO3/FTO thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lujun; Sun, Bai; Zhao, Wenxi; Li, Hongwei; Chen, Peng

    2017-01-01

    A hysteresis loop of current-voltage characteristics based multiferroic BiFeO3 nanoribbons memory device is observed. Moreover, the white-light can greatly regulate both the current-voltage hysteresis loop and the ferroelectric hysteresis loop. The stored space charges within the electrodes/BiFeO3 interface can lead to hysteresis-type I-V characteristics of Ag/BiFeO3/FTO devices. The white-light controlled I-V loop and ferroelectric loop result from photon-generated carries. Since the I-V hysteresis loop and ferroelectric hysteresis loop have a potential application prospect to the memory devices, these two white-light controlled the hysteresis loops curves are likely to provide promising opportunity for developing the multi-functional memory devices.

  14. Dissimilatory Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Lovley, D R

    1991-01-01

    The oxidation of organic matter coupled to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) is one of the most important biogeochemical reactions in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater. This process, which may have been the first globally significant mechanism for the oxidation of organic matter to carbon dioxide, plays an important role in the oxidation of natural and contaminant organic compounds in a variety of environments and contributes to other phenomena of widespread significance such as the release of metals and nutrients into water supplies, the magnetization of sediments, and the corrosion of metal. Until recently, much of the Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction in sedimentary environments was considered to be the result of nonenzymatic processes. However, microorganisms which can effectively couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) have recently been discovered. With Fe(III) or Mn(IV) as the sole electron acceptor, these organisms can completely oxidize fatty acids, hydrogen, or a variety of monoaromatic compounds. This metabolism provides energy to support growth. Sugars and amino acids can be completely oxidized by the cooperative activity of fermentative microorganisms and hydrogen- and fatty-acid-oxidizing Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reducers. This provides a microbial mechanism for the oxidation of the complex assemblage of sedimentary organic matter in Fe(III)- or Mn(IV)-reducing environments. The available evidence indicates that this enzymatic reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) accounts for most of the oxidation of organic matter coupled to reduction of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) in sedimentary environments. Little is known about the diversity and ecology of the microorganisms responsible for Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction, and only preliminary studies have been conducted on the physiology and biochemistry of this process. PMID:1886521

  15. Second Generation Decline? Children of Immigrants, Past and Present--A Reconsideration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldinger, Roger; Perlmann, Joel

    1997-01-01

    Examines second-generation immigrant upward mobility in the past and provides comparisons with the present. It argues against the notion of the American economic context and racial origins of today's immigration will result in a much less favorable future for the second generation. (GR)

  16. Radionuclide Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rösch, F.; Knapp, F. F. (Russ)

    Radionuclide generator systems continue to play a key role in providing both diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides for various applications in nuclear medicine, oncology, and interventional cardiology. Although many parent/daughter pairs have been evaluated as radionuclide generator systems, there are a relatively small number of generators, which are currently in routine clinical and research use. Essentially every conceivable approach has been used for parent/separation strategies, including sublimation, thermochromatographic separation, solvent extraction, and adsorptive column chromatography. The most widely used radionuclide generator for clinical applications is the 99Mo/99mTc generator system, but recent years have seen an enormous increase in the use of generators to provide therapeutic radionuclides, which has paralleled the development of complementary technologies for targeting agents for therapy and in the general increased interest in the use of unsealed therapeutic radioactive sources. More recently, use of the 68Ge/68Ga generator is showing great potential as a source of positron-emitting 68Ga for positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging. Key advantages for the use of radionuclide generators include reasonable costs, the convenience of obtaining the desired daughter radionuclide on demand, and availability of the daughter radionuclide in high specific activity, no-carrier added form.

  17. Generative Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagha, Karim Nazari

    2011-01-01

    Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of…

  18. Long-Term IQ Stability Using the WISC-IV and WAIS-IV among a Sample of Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Hayley

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the stability of scores on the WISC-IV and WAIS-IV over an approximate six-year period. Previous research using older versions of the WISC and WAIS have suggested that these scales demonstrate strong stability of scores. Since research that has compared the stability of scores between the WISC-IV and the WAIS-IV is…

  19. Spectrophotometric determination of uranium(IV) with Arsenazo III

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, E.W.

    1980-07-01

    A spectrophotometric procedure was developed for determining U(IV) in the presence of U(VI) by forming a colored complex with Arsenazo III in 4M HCl. The results compare satisfactorily with U(IV) determinations by ceric titration. Total uranium can be determined after reduction of U(VI) with metallic zinc. The concentration range for the absorbance cell solution is 0 to 2 ..mu..g U(IV)/mL. Other tetravalent ions, such as thorium, zirconium, hafnium, plutonium, and neptunium, will interfere.

  20. PREFACE: Progress in Nonequilibrium Green's Functions IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonitz, Michael; Balzer, Karsten

    2010-04-01

    This is the fourth volume1 of articles on the theory of Nonequilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) and their modern application in various fields such as plasma physics, semiconductor physics, molecular electronics and high energy physics. It contains 23 articles written by experts in many-body theory and quantum transport who summarize recent progress in their respective area of research. The articles are based on talks given at the interdisciplinary conference Progress in Nonequilibrium Green's functions IV which was held 17-21 August 2009 at the University of Glasgow, Scotland. This conference continues the tradition of the previous meetings which started in 1999 and which aimed at an informal exchange across field boundaries. The previous meetings and the earlier proceedings proved to be very stimulating not only for young researchers but also for experienced scientists, and we are convinced that this fourth volume will be as successful as the previous ones. As before, this volume includes only extended review-type papers which are written in a way that they are understandable to a broad interdisciplinary audience. All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administrated by the Editors assuring highest scientific standards. In the review process some papers were substantially revised and improved and some were rejected. This conference would not have been possible without the remarkable work of the local organizing team around John Barker and Scott Roy and the generous financial support from the University of Glasgow and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft via SFB-Transregio 24. Michael Bonitz and Karsten Balzer Kiel, February 2010 1 The first two volumes are Progress in Nonequilibrium Green's functions, M Bonitz (ed) and Progress in Nonequilibrium Green's functions II, M Bonitz and D Semkat (eds), which were published by World Scientific (Singapore), in 2000 and 2003, respectively (ISBN

  1. Energy generator

    SciTech Connect

    Krisko, P.

    1989-08-01

    The patent describes a power booster. It comprises: at least one pendulum means suspended at one end to oscillate about the point of suspension; power generating means; mass means connected to one end of the pendulum means; spring means disposed in operative cooperation with the mass means to impart energy into the pendulum means and assist the pendulum means in oscillating about the point of suspension; and energy transfer linkage means between the pendulum means and the power generating means for transferring energy between the pendulum means and the power generating means.

  2. Characteristics and influence factors of pathologic transformation in the subclasses of class IV lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian-jun; Cai, Guang-yan; Liu, Shu-wen; Tang, Li; Zhang, Xue-guang; Yang, Yang; Chen, Pu; Liu, Shu-xin; Ji, Jia-yao; Shi, Suo-zhu; Yin, Zhong; Chen, Xiang-mei

    2012-06-01

    The study explored the characteristics and correlation factors of transformation in subclasses of class IV lupus nephritis. Patients with class IV lupus nephritis were subjected to repeat biopsies after 6 months of induction treatment. Transformation rate between two subclasses, class IV-S and class IV-G, was compared. Influence Factors of transformation were evaluated. Class IV-G had more severe hypertension and higher score of immunofluorescence index, glomerular active lesions, tubular and vascular lesions. Class IV-S had a higher percentage of glomerular fibrinoid necrosis. Class IV-S appeared a higher rate of transformation to class II than class IV-G (57% vs. 27%). In each subclass, active lesion also showed a higher rate of transformation to class II than active/chronic lesion (IV-G: 41.2% vs. 12.5%; IV-S: 71.4% vs. 42.8%). Patients who maintained class IV had higher blood pressure, obvious proteinuria, declined kidney function, and lower C3 level. Immunosuppressive therapy, urine protein, and vascular lesions were independent risk factors for the pathologic transformation. The rate of transformation in class IV-S was higher than that in class IV-G. The transformation is most likely to benefit from immunosuppressive therapy. Urine protein and vascular lesions are correlated with the transformation in class IV lupus nephritis.

  3. Crystal structure of ammonium octacyanomolybdate(IV) and rubidium octacyanomolybdate(IV)

    SciTech Connect

    Semenishin, D.I.; Glovyak, T.; Mys'kiv, M.G.

    1985-11-01

    The crystal structure of ammonium octacyanomolybdate(IV) and rubidium octacyanomolybdate(IV) has been determined by the single-crystal method on a Syntex P2/sub 1/ automatic diffractometer: ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 4/ Mo(CN)/sub 4/) 0.5H/sub 2/O (I) (space group Pma2, a = 15.550(3), b = 14.118(3), c = 7.438(1) A, Z = 4, R = 0.062) and Rb/sub 4/(Mo(CN)/sub 8/). 3H/sub 2/O (II) (space group P4/sub 1/2/sub 1/2, a = 9.300(10, c = 21.807(3) A, Z = 4, R = 0.065). The Mo atoms in structure I occupy two special positions (2(b) and 2(c)) and are each surrounded by eight CN ligands. The mean value of the Mo-C distances for Mo(1) is equal to 2.216 A, and the corresponding value for Mo(2) is 2.235 A. The mean Mo-N lengths are practically identical in both molybdenum anions and are equal to 3.353 A. The mean values of the C identical with N bond lengths in the Mo(1) and Mo(2) anions are 1.118 and 1.137 A, respectively. The MoCn angles vary from 175.0 to 178.4/sup 0/. The coordination sphere of the Mo(1) atom corresponds to a dodecahedron with a single twofold symmetry axis, and the coordination polyhedron of the Mo(2) atom in an antiprism of m symmetry. In structure II the Mo-C distances are within the 2.130-2.160-A range, and the Mo-N distances range from 3.290 to 3.307 A. The MoCN angles vary from 176.0 to 179.3/sup 0/, and the coordination polyhedron of (MoC/sub 8/) is a dodecahedron of 2 symmetry. The existence of two types of coordination of Mo in structure I is presently the only example among the structurally studied octahyanomolybdates(IV).

  4. The BALDER Beamline at the MAX IV Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klementiev, K.; Norén, K.; Carlson, S.; Sigfridsson Clauss, K. G. V.; Persson, I.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) includes well-established methods to study the local structure around the absorbing element - extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and the effective oxidation number or to quantitatively determine the speciation of an element in a complex matrix - X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). The increased brilliance and intensities available at the new generation of synchrotron light sources makes it possible to study, in-situ and in-operando, much more dilute systems with relevance for natural systems, as well as the micro-scale variability and dynamics of chemical reactions on the millisecond time-scale. The design of the BALDER beamline at the MAX IV Laboratory 3 GeV ring has focused on a high flux of photons in a wide energy range, 2.4-40 keV, where the K-edge is covered for the elements S to La, and the L 3-edge for all elements heavier than Sb. The overall design of the beamline will allow large flexibility in energy range, beam size and data collection time. The other focus of the beamline design is the possibility to perform multi-technique analyses on samples. Development of sample environment requires focus on implementation of auxiliary methods in such a way that techniques like Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and/or mass spectrometry can be performed simultaneously as the XAS study. It will be a flexible system where different instruments can be plugged in and out depending on the needs for the particular investigation. Many research areas will benefit from the properties of the wiggler based light source and the capabilities to perform in-situ and in-operando measurements, for example environmental and geochemical sciences, nuclear chemistry, catalysis, materials sciences, and cultural heritage.

  5. Phase IV Land Disposal Restrictions Rule - Clarification of Effective Dates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Memo to clarify the effective dates for the major provisions of the Phase IV rule. It is supplemental to the final rule preamble at page 28556 (“Effective Dates”) and pages 28634-5 (“State Authority”).

  6. Complexation of Plutonium (IV) With Sulfate At Variable Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Xia; J.I. Friese; D.A> Moore; P.P. Bachelor; L. Rao

    2006-10-05

    The complexation of plutonium(IV) with sulfate at variable temperatures has been investigated by solvent extraction method. A NaBrO{sub 3} solution was used as holding oxidant to maintain the plutonium(IV) oxidation state throughout the experiments. The distribution ratio of Pu(IV) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentrations of sulfate were increased. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 Pu(IV)-HSO{sub 4}{sup -} complexes, dominant in the aqueous phase, were calculated from the effect of [HSO{sub 4}{sup -}] on the distribution ratio. The enthalpy and entropy of complexation were calculated from the stability constants at different temperatures using the Van't Hoff equation.

  7. Complexation of Plutonium (IV) with Fluoride at Variable Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Yuanxian; Rao, Linfeng; Friese, Judah I.; Moore, Dean A.; Bachelor, Paula P.

    2010-02-02

    The complexation of Pu(IV) with fluoride at elevated temperatures was studied by solvent extraction technique. A solution of NaBrO3 was used as holding oxidant to maintain the oxidation state of plutonium throughout the experiments. The distribution ratio of Pu(IV) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentrations of fluoride were increased. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 Pu(IV)-F- complexes, dominant in the aqueous phase under the experimental conditions, were calculated from the effect of fluoride ions on the distribution ratio. The thermodynamic parameters, including enthalpy and entropy of complexation between Pu(IV) and fluoride at 25 degrees C - 55 degrees C were calculated from the stability constants at different temperatures by using the Van’t Hoff equation.

  8. Level III and IV Ecoregions by EPA Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information and downloadable maps and datasets for Level III and IV ecoregions, listed by EPA region. Ecoregions are areas of general similarity in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources.

  9. History into Drama: The Perspective of "1 Henry IV."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Larry S.

    1978-01-01

    Contrasts Shakespeare's "Henry V" and "Henry IV" series, in which human interaction becomes history, with plays such as "Julius Caesar," which focus on psychological analysis and the internalized protagonist. (MB)

  10. RNA polymerase IV functions in paramutation in Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Erhard, Karl F; Stonaker, Jennifer L; Parkinson, Susan E; Lim, Jana P; Hale, Christopher J; Hollick, Jay B

    2009-02-27

    Plants have distinct RNA polymerase complexes (Pol IV and Pol V) with largely unknown roles in maintaining small RNA-associated gene silencing. Curiously, the eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana is not affected when either function is lost. By use of mutation selection and positional cloning, we showed that the largest subunit of the presumed maize Pol IV is involved in paramutation, an inherited epigenetic change facilitated by an interaction between two alleles, as well as normal maize development. Bioinformatics analyses and nuclear run-on transcription assays indicate that Pol IV does not engage in the efficient RNA synthesis typical of the three major eukaryotic DNA-dependent RNA polymerases. These results indicate that Pol IV employs abnormal RNA polymerase activities to achieve genome-wide silencing and that its absence affects both maize development and heritable epigenetic changes.

  11. Level III and IV Ecoregions of the Continental United States

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information and downloadable maps and datasets for Level III and IV ecoregions of the continental United States. Ecoregions are areas of general similarity in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources.

  12. Significant errors and misdirection in class IV laser therapy study.

    PubMed

    Carroll, James D

    2014-04-01

    This Correspondence relates to the article by Ottaviani et al (Effect of Class IV Laser Therapy on Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis: A Clinical and Experimental Study. Am J Pathol 2013, 183:1747-1757.).

  13. Genetics Home Reference: glycogen storage disease type IV

    MedlinePlus

    ... and can lead to joint stiffness (arthrogryposis) after birth. Infants with the fatal perinatal neuromuscular type of GSD IV have very low muscle tone (severe hypotonia) and muscle wasting (atrophy). ...

  14. Two distinct variants of erythrocyte spectrin beta IV domain.

    PubMed

    Pothier, B; Alloisio, N; Morlé, L; Maréchal, J; Barthélemy, H; Ducluzeau, M T; Dorier, A; Delaunay, J

    1989-11-01

    We report two distinct variants affecting the beta IV domain of erythrocyte spectrin, designated spectrin Saint-Chamond and spectrin Tlemcen. They were discovered in a French family and an Algerian individual, respectively. They appeared clinically and morphologically asymptomatic in the heterozygous state. In two-dimensional maps of spectrin partial digests, both mutants were manifested by cathodic shifts (with no change of the molecular weights) of the peptides that cover the N-terminal region of spectrin beta IV domain. The relevance of the abnormal peptides to the beta IV domain was established by quantitative analysis and by Western blotting using anti-beta IV domain-specific antibodies. These two variants are thus far the most distal variants of spectrin to be defined on an unequivocal structural basis.

  15. 77 FR 16508 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ...: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether Polyols Production... pollutants: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...: Group IV Polymers and Resins; Pesticide Active Ingredient Production; and Polyether Polyols...

  16. Transferable tight binding model for strained group IV and III-V heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yaohua; Povolotskyi, Micheal; Kubis, Tillmann; Boykin, Timothy; Klimeck, Gerhard

    Modern semiconductor devices have reached critical device dimensions in the range of several nanometers. For reliable prediction of device performance, it is critical to have a numerical efficient model that are transferable to material interfaces. In this work, we present an empirical tight binding (ETB) model with transferable parameters for strained IV and III-V group semiconductors. The ETB model is numerically highly efficient as it make use of an orthogonal sp3d5s* basis set with nearest neighbor inter-atomic interactions. The ETB parameters are generated from HSE06 hybrid functional calculations. Band structures of strained group IV and III-V materials by ETB model are in good agreement with corresponding HSE06 calculations. Furthermore, the ETB model is applied to strained superlattices which consist of group IV and III-V elements. The ETB model turns out to be transferable to nano-scale hetero-structure. The ETB band structures agree with the corresponding HSE06 results in the whole Brillouin zone. The ETB band gaps of superlattices with common cations or common anions have discrepancies within 0.05eV.

  17. Hydrogen generator

    SciTech Connect

    Adlhart, O. J.

    1985-04-23

    This disclosure relates to a replaceable cartridge hydrogen generator of the type which relies at least partially on the process of anodic corrosion to produce hydrogen. A drum contains a plurality of the cartridges.

  18. Generation Wrecked.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Noshua

    2002-01-01

    Young adults in Generation X are facing financial problems. Because of their college and credit card debt, many in worse financial shape than anyone since the Depression and have little or no retirement savings. (JOW)

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Cerium(IV) Metallocenes

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, Andrew; Clark, David Lewis; Scott, Brian Lindley; Gordon, John Cameron

    2015-12-11

    In this study, by applying a salt metathesis approach between Ce(OtBu3)2(NO3)2(THF)2 and the potassium salts of mono- and ditrimethylsilyl substituted cyclopentadienes, we were able to isolate two new Ce(IV) metallocenes, including to the best of our knowledge, the first structurally characterized bis-cyclopentadiene Ce(IV) compound.

  20. Molecular characterization of collagen IV evidences early transcription expression related to the immune response against bacterial infection in the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    PubMed

    Chovar-Vera, Ornella; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-02-01

    Collagen IV has been described as a structural protein of the basement membrane, which as a whole forms a specialized extracellular matrix. Recent studies have indicated a possible relationship between collagen IV and the innate immune response of invertebrate organisms. The present study characterized the alpha-1 chain of collagen IV in the red abalone Haliotis rufescens (Hr-ColIV) and evaluated its association with the innate immune response against Vibrio anguillarum. To further evidence the immune response, the matrix metalloproteinase-1 (Hr-MMP-1) and C-type lectin (Hr-CLEC) genes were also assessed. The complete sequence of Hr-ColIV was composed of 6658 bp, with a 5'UTR of 154 bp, a 3'UTR of 1177 bp, and an ORF of 5327 bp that coded for 1776 amino acids. The innate immune response generated against V. anguillarum resulted in a significant increase in the transcript levels of Hr-ColIV between 3 and 6 hpi, whereas Hr-MMP-1 and Hr-CLEC had the highest transcript activity 6 and 12 hpi, respectively. The results obtained in this study propose a putative biological function for collagen IV involved in the early innate immune response of the red abalone H. rufescens.