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Sample records for nouveau cadre legal

  1. Analyse de la prise en charge du nouveau-né dans le cadre de la stratégie nationale de subvention des accouchements et des soins obstétricaux et néonatals d'urgence au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pédiatrique Charles de Gaulle, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Solange Odile Yugbaré; Yougbaré, Nestor; Kouéta, Fla; Dao; Ouédraogo, Moussa; Lougué, Claudine; Ludovic, Kam; Traoré, Ramata Ouédraogo; Yé, Diarra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Il s'agit d'analyser la prise en charge du nouveau-né dans le cadre de la stratégie na-tionale de subvention des accouchements et des soins obstétricaux et néonatals d'urgence mis en place par le gouvernement du Burkina Faso en 2006. Méthodes Nous avons menée une étude à visée descriptive et analytique comportant un volet ré-trospectif du 01 janvier 2006 au 31 décembre 2010 portant sur les paramètres épidémiologiques, cliniques des nouveau-nés hospitalisés et un volet prospectif du 3 octobre 2011 au 29 février 2012 par une entrevue des accompagnateurs des nouveau-nés et des prestataires des services de santé. Résultats Les hospitalisations ont augmenté de 43,65% entre 2006 à 2010 Le taux de mortalité néo-natale hospitalière qui était de 11,04% a connu une réduction moyenne annuelle de 3,95%. L'entrevue a porté sur 110 accompagnateurs et 76 prestataires. La majorité des prestataires (97,44%) et des ac-compagnateurs (88,18%) étaient informés de la stratégie mais n'avait pas une connaissance exacte de sa définition. Les prestataires (94,74%) ont signalé des ruptures de médicaments, consommables médicaux et des pannes d’ appareils de laboratoire et d'imagerie. Parmi les accompagnateurs (89%) disaient être satisfaits des services offerts et (72,89%) trouvaient les coûts abordables mais évoquaient les difficultés du transport. Conclusion: La subvention a amélioré la prise en charge du nou-veau-né mais son optimisation nécessiterait une meilleur information et implication de tous les acteurs. Conclusion La subvention a amélioré la prise en charge du nouveau-né mais son optimisation nécessiterait une meilleur information et implication de tous les acteurs. PMID:26161166

  2. Elegant Art Nouveau

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Kris

    2005-01-01

    Gustav Klimt (1862-1918), a Viennese painter, was the founder of the Vienna Secession, the Austrian Art Nouveau movement. Art Nouveau is characterised by flowing lines and flat designs based on organic structures. This style is found in the symbolic aspect of Klimt's later work, and in the works of other artists of the late 1890s and early 1900s…

  3. The Impact of Cadres on School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompsett, Bruce A.; Doyle, Wayne J.

    This paper assesses the impact of cross-role grouping on the social systems of participating schools. Data were gathered informally through conversations and interviews with members of cadres, cadre presentations, liaison and research evaluation personnel in specific cadres, and direct observation in some situations. The study covers three…

  4. [Art nouveau: pharmacy shops in Nancy].

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Florence; Labrude, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, an important artistic activity develops in Nancy. The "Ecole de Nancy" transforms a provincial city into one of the metropolis of "Art Nouveau". The pharmacists participate at the activity of their town and eight of them choose the new style for their pharmacy. In 1902, Rosfelder is the first to modify his shop, and later, Jacques, Delidon, Mouzin, Godfrin brothers, Monal and Fandre, before, during and after the First World War, have a same step. For the ornament, the artists use plants derived from local medicinal flora. "Art Nouveau", adept of curves, appears to be ideal to symbolize vegetable kingdom. In these pharmacy shops, fine arts join materia medica.

  5. Some Aspects of Art Nouveau in Arts and Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vajda, Gyorgy M.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the background to and the stylistic characteristics of the Art Nouveau movement in its literary and artistic manifestations, emphasizing its nature as a synthesis of various contemporary, artistic, and intellectual trends. (SJL)

  6. Space Cadre, the Warfighter’s ’Samurai Sword’

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    samurai sword. It might be interesting to think of the approximately 2,500 space warriors as the “ samurai swords” of the Army bringing their own...Cadre as one would a samurai sword so that the Cadre remains relevant and keeps its sharp edge. Space Cadre, the Warfighter’s “ Samurai Sword...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Space Cadre, the Warfighter’s ’ Samurai Sword’ 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  7. IBA of iridescent Art Nouveau glass - comparative studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäder, M.; Jembrih-Simbürger, D.; Neelmeijer, C.; Schreiner, Manfred

    2005-09-01

    Simultaneous PIXE, PIGE, and RBS in air were employed to characterise the surface structure of iridescent Art Nouveau glass artefacts produced around 1900 by Tiffany, USA and Loetz, Austria. Using PIXE and PIGE, the chemical composition of the bulk glass and the overlays was determined in a non-destructive manner. Furthermore, the combination of PIXE and RBS enabled the layer structure of the analysed glasses (bulk, overlays, and iridescent layers) and the thicknesses of the thin layers in the near-surface domain to be determined. The measurement and evaluation procedure is demonstrated on blue iridescent glass fragments of Tiffany and Loetz by way of example. The initial results showing similarities but also differences in the layered glass structure of Tiffany and Loetz objects are presented.

  8. Science Cadre Training in Russia and Abroad (A Comparative Analysis)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismailov, E. E.

    2010-01-01

    Today the scientific potential of any country, its science cadres, the volume and scale of the research being conducted, the number of science centers, the quality and subject matter of the research, the level of the material and technical equipment of its research laboratories, and other aspects constitute a most important factor in ensuring…

  9. Therapeutic drug monitoring of psychotropic drugs. TDM "nouveau".

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Finn

    2004-04-01

    TDM applied in psychiatry dates back several decades. The reason for this is that, after the advent of modern clinical psychopharmacology around the middle of the past century, an insight came to common knowledge about the existence of (1) a large interindividual pharmacokinetic (PK) variability for virtually all psychoactive drugs and (2) a worse clinical efficacy not only in inadequate drug concentrations but also in excessively high concentrations. From this concept, the definition of a therapeutic concentration "window" was evidenced for a substantial number of, primarily, antidepressant drugs. However, with the further extensive development of the clinically available pharmacopoeia of psychoactive drugs from the later 1980s until today, the concept of less toxic compounds than before has commonly been launched in the marketing strategies for these newer drugs. This concept also led to the idea that TDM was no longer necessary for the newer types of psychoactive drugs, a position backed up by difficulties in unraveling concentration-effect relationships generally for these drugs in clinical trials. The present survey summarizes the background history for TDM in psychiatry and makes a critical appraisal of why a "lack" of definition of concentration-effect relationships for newer psychoactive drugs is now common. This survey also provides the reader with a novel concept challenging ambient TDM strategies (referred to as TDM "traditionelle") in psychiatry by forwarding a theoretical model called TDM "nouveau." In this model both inter- and intraindividual (over time) PK variation is suggested to be used for dose optimization by TDM in a naturalistic clinical setting. The previous concept of a simple, common concentration "window" existing for all such drugs is questioned by promotion of the use of available PK data merely as "guiding principles" rather than as "reference values" when interpreting the TDM outcome in individual cases.

  10. Legal Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baril, Cecile; Couchman, Ian S. B.

    1976-01-01

    The legal processes following a rape charge mortify, denigrate and transfer guilt to the victim. Rape laws reinforce traditional sex roles and restrict the options available to women in defining their personal and sexual careers. (Author/AM)

  11. Adjacent segment disease and C-ADR: promises fulfilled?

    PubMed Central

    Riew, K Daniel; Schenk-Kisser, Jeannette M.; Skelly, Andrea C.

    2012-01-01

    Study design: Systematic review. Clinical question: Do the rates and timing of adjacent segment disease (ASD) differ between cervical total disc arthroplasty (C-ADR) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in patients treated for cervical degenerative disc disease? Methods: A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed and bibliographies of key articles was done to identify studies with long-term follow-up for symptomatic and/or radiographic ASD comparing C-ADR with fusion for degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine. The focus was on studies with longer follow-up (48–60 months) of primary US Food and Drug Administration trials of Prestige ST, Prodisc-C, and Bryan devices as available. Trials of other discs with a minimum of 24 months follow-up were considered for inclusion. Studies evaluating lordosis/angle changes at adjacent segments and case series were excluded. Results: From 14 citations identified, four reports from three randomized controlled trials and four nonrandomized studies are summarized. Risk differences between C-ADR and ACF for symptomatic ASD were 1.5%–2.3% and were not significant across RCT reports. Time to development of ASD did not significantly differ between treatments. Rates of radiographic ASD were variable. No meaningful comparison of ASD rates based on disc design was possible. No statistical differences in adjacent segment range of motion were noted between treatment groups. Conclusion: Our analysis reveals that, to date, there is no evidence that arthroplasty decreases ASD compared with ACDF; the promise of arthroplasty decreasing ASD has not been fulfilled. PMID:23236312

  12. Large loop conformation sampling using the activation relaxation technique, ART-nouveau method.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand

    2012-07-01

    We present an adaptation of the ART-nouveau energy surface sampling method to the problem of loop structure prediction. This method, previously used to study protein folding pathways and peptide aggregation, is well suited to the problem of sampling the conformation space of large loops by targeting probable folding pathways instead of sampling exhaustively that space. The number of sampled conformations needed by ART nouveau to find the global energy minimum for a loop was found to scale linearly with the sequence length of the loop for loops between 8 and about 20 amino acids. Considering the linear scaling dependence of the computation cost on the loop sequence length for sampling new conformations, we estimate the total computational cost of sampling larger loops to scale quadratically compared to the exponential scaling of exhaustive search methods.

  13. Legal Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Brooke; Hodge, James G.; Toner, Eric S.; Roxland, Beth E.; Penn, Matthew S.; Devereaux, Asha V.; Dichter, Jeffrey R.; Kissoon, Niranjan; Christian, Michael D.; Powell, Tia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Significant legal challenges arise when health-care resources become scarce and population-based approaches to care are implemented during severe disasters and pandemics. Recent emergencies highlight the serious legal, economic, and health impacts that can be associated with responding in austere conditions and the critical importance of comprehensive, collaborative health response system planning. This article discusses legal suggestions developed by the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) Task Force for Mass Critical Care to support planning and response efforts for mass casualty incidents involving critically ill or injured patients. The suggestions in this chapter are important for all of those involved in a pandemic or disaster with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. METHODS Following the CHEST Guidelines Oversight Committee’s methodology, the Legal Panel developed 35 key questions for which specific literature searches were then conducted. The literature in this field is not suitable to provide support for evidence-based recommendations. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process resulting in seven final suggestions. RESULTS Acceptance is widespread for the health-care community’s duty to appropriately plan for and respond to severe disasters and pandemics. Hospitals, public health entities, and clinicians have an obligation to develop comprehensive, vetted plans for mass casualty incidents involving critically ill or injured patients. Such plans should address processes for evacuation and limited appeals and reviews of care decisions. To legitimize responses, deter independent actions, and trigger liability protections, mass critical care (MCC) plans should be formally activated when facilities and practitioners shift to providing MCC. Adherence to official MCC plans should

  14. Syndrome de Chilaiditi chez un nouveau-né, à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Cedrick, Sangwa Milindi; Maruis, Kitembo Feruzi; Mireille, Kakinga Zabibu; Nelly, Mukonda Sompo; Patience, Muhau Pfutila; Shem, Mapatano; Chamy, Cham Lubamba; Josephine, Monga Kalenga

    2014-01-01

    L'interposition du colon ou du grêle dans l'espace interhepatodiagramatique est une affection rare. Souvent asymptomatique et de découverte fortuite à la radiographie de l'abdomen, elle est plus rencontrée chez l'adulte de sexe masculin. Dans cet article, les auteurs présentent un cas exceptionnel d'un nouveau- né de sexe féminin porteur de cette anomalie. PMID:25848454

  15. Wisconsin Vocational Equity Leadership Cadre Support Project. Final Report. FY96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Linda L.

    A project provided technical assistance and support to the Wisconsin Vocational Equity Leadership Cadre to enable them to assist local districts in meeting the equity assurances in the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act of 1990. Approximately 80 members of the cadre, educators responsible for providing regional…

  16. Coming Soon: CADRE (Career Advancement and Development Resources and Education) website for all APS members

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Council of the American Phytopathological Society (APS) approved an initiative in February 2013 to create a web resource called CADRE (Career Advancement and Development Resources and Education). CADRE is to provide APS members an archive of articles, videos, and webinars about a variety of prof...

  17. Communist Cadres and Market Opportunities: Entry into Self-employment in China, 1978-1996

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaogang

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the patterns of entry into self-employment in urban and rural China and across different reform stages, focusing on how communist cadres have responded to new market opportunities. Analysis of data from a national representative survey shows that both education and cadre status deter people from entry into self-employment in…

  18. In situ Micrometeorological Measurements during RxCADRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, C. B.; Hiers, J. K.; Strenfel, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Prescribed Fire Combustion and Atmospheric Dynamics Research Experiment (RxCADRE) was a collaborative research project designed to fully instrument prescribed fires in the Southeastern United States. Data were collected on pre-burn fuel loads, post burn consumption, ambient weather, in situ atmospheric dynamics, plume dynamics, radiant heat release (both from in-situ and remote sensors), in-situ fire behavior, and select fire effects. The sampling was conducted at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, and the Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center in Newton, Georgia, from February 29 to March 6, 2008. Data were collected on 5 prescribed burns, totaling 4458 acres. The largest aerial ignition totaled 2,290 acres and the smallest ground ignition totaled 104 acres. Quantifying fire-atmospheric interactions is critical for understanding wildland fire dynamics and enhancing modeling of smoke plumes. During Rx-CADRE, atmospheric soundings using radiosondes were made at each burn prior to ignition. In situ micrometeorological measurements were made within each burn unit using five portable, 10-m towers equipped with sonic and prop anemometers, fine-wire thermocouples, and a carbon dioxide probes. The towers were arranged within the burn units to capture the wind and temperature fields as the fire front and plume passed the towers. Due to the interaction of fire lines following ignition, several of the fire fronts that passed the towers were backing fires and thus less intense. Preliminary results indicate that the average vertical velocities associated with the fire front passage were on the order of 3-5 m s-1 and average plume temperatures were on the order of 30-50 °C above ambient. During two of the experimental burns, radiosondes were released into the fire plumes to determine the vertical structure of the plume temperature, humidity, and winds. A radiosonde released into the plume during the burn conducted on 3 March 2008 indicated a definite plume boundary in the

  19. L’éléphantiasis vulvo-clitoridien: à propos d'un nouveau cas

    PubMed Central

    Sine, Babacar; Bagayogo, Ndeye Aissatou; Thiam, Amath; Sarr, Alioune; Sow, Yaya; Fall, Boubacar; Zakou, Abdou Razak Hamidou; Faye, Samba Thiapato; Diao, Babacar; Fall, Papa Ahmed; Ndoye, Alain khassim; Ba, Mamadou

    2015-01-01

    L’éléphantiasis vulvo-clitoridien d'origine filarienne est une affection très rare. Nous rapportons un nouveau cas chez une femme de 33 ans suivie dans un service de Maladies Infectieuses pour filariose lymphatique. Elle avait une masse vulvo-clitoridienne qui évoluait depuis plus de 10 ans. Une résection clitoridienne et une plastie vulvaire a été réalisée. Les résultats fonctionnels et esthétiques étaient satisfaisants. PMID:26889314

  20. [Establishing legal system completely and controlling the excessive population growth].

    PubMed

    Zou, P

    1988-05-01

    China during the early years of Socialism concentrated on economic development. Population problems were given a low priority. But now, at this point in China's history, it is necessary to maintain the stability and uniformity of the birth policy through legislation, alter attitudes toward childbearing through legal education, and protect through laws the enthusiastic nature of family planning work of cadres. Without legislation, family planning work cannot endure. It is the proper time to promulgate "Family Planning Law", the body of laws written by the State Council after 5 years of research in family planning work. Critics of this view feel that conditions in rural areas are not ripe for such a law, or that because China is large and populous, laws are not the proper method for controlling population, or that legal restrictions would bring unforeseen consequences in the future. But China's population problem is immediate and dire, and conditions are indeed ripe for passing this law.

  1. Expression of cadR Enhances its Specific Activity for Cd Detoxification and Accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingrui; Wei, Xuezhi; Yu, Pengli; Deng, Xin; Xu, Wenxiu; Ma, Mi; Zhang, Haiyan

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a transition metal that is highly toxic in biological systems. Anthropogenic emissions of Cd have increased biogeochemical cycling and the amount of Cd in the biosphere. Here we studied the utility of a bacterial Cd-binding protein, CadR, for the remediation of Cd contamination. CadR was successfully targeted to chloroplasts using a constitutive Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter or a shoot-specific Chl a/b-binding protein 2 gene (CAB2) promoter and an RbcS (small subunit of the Rubisco complex) transit peptide. Under short-term (2 d) exposure to Cd, the cadR transgenic plants showed up to a 2.9-fold Cd accumulation in roots compared with untransformed plants. Under medium term (7 d) exposure to Cd, the concentrations of Cd in leaves began to increase but there were no differences between the wild type and the cadR transgenic plants. Under long-term (16 d) exposure to Cd, the cadR transgenic plants accumulated greater amounts of Cd in leaves than the untransformed plants. Total Cd accumulation (µg per plant) in shoots and roots of the plants expressing cadR were significantly higher (up to 3.5-fold in shoots and 5.2-fold in roots) than those of the untransformed plants. We also found that targeting CadR to chloroplasts facilitated chloroplastic metal homeostasis and Chl b accumulation. Our results demonstrate that manipulating chelating capacity in chloroplasts or in the cytoplasm may be effective in modifying both the accumulation of and resistance to Cd.

  2. Mid-level cadre providing eye care in the context of Vision 2020.

    PubMed

    du Toit, Renee; Brian, Garry

    2009-03-13

    The contribution of the mid-level cadre of eye care providers is an essential component of the Vision 2020: The Right To Sight initiative, to eliminate avoidable blindness by 2020. However, for the past 20 years the functions of this cadre have not been definitively outlined, or universally accepted. Consequently, the competencies they require to provide high quality comprehensive eye care have not been established. This has had implications for both training programmes and the subsequent deployment of the graduates of these programmes. This paper examines, mainly through a review of World Health Organization (WHO) documentation, the progress that has been made in defining the role and outlining appropriately enabling training of this cadre of mid-level personnel. As a result of this analysis, recommendations are made concerning the development of this cadre to provide eye care in the context of Vision 2020: *Develop consistent and widely applicable nomenclature *Outline workplace functions and job descriptions, so that personnel can be categorised by their competencies and functions. *Develop curricula based on the competency requirements of job descriptions and that will prepare personnel for those jobs. *Establish and/or develop training centres, including those capable of training trainers. *Establish government recognition, resources, support, and evaluation and feedback systems to ensure that this mid-level cadre can implement their training, and have the opportunity of providing high quality eye care.

  3. Legal and Administrative Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Hans

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)

  4. The Principal's Legal Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, William E., Ed.; And Others

    The principal is faced with myriad legal issues on a daily basis, making it imperative that he or she keep abreast with developing legal issues. The first of four sections, "Students and the Law," surveys federal statutes and landmark Supreme Court decisions pertaining to the rights of students. It addresses legal issues regarding search and…

  5. Managing Legal Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Richard H.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses school administrators' legal-affairs management responsibilities regarding legal advice, law versus ethics, and sources of law. Suggests strategies for retaining and managing legal counsel and avoiding situations involving litigation, torts, and conflict resolution. Explains general counsel services; outlines education,…

  6. Association sarcoïdose et cirrhose biliaire primitive: à propos d'un nouveau cas

    PubMed Central

    Aqodad, Nourdin; Loukili, Bouchra; Gallouj, Salim; Harmouch, Taoufik; Amarti, Afaf; Mernissi, FZ; Ibrahimi, Adil

    2014-01-01

    La sarcoïdose est une maladie systémique d’étiologie inconnue. Elle est caractérisée par la présence de lésions granulomateuses, non caséeuses, au niveau des organes atteints. La cirrhose biliaire primitive (CBP) est une hépatopathie cholestatique auto-immune chronique, caractérisée par une destruction des canalicules biliaires et la présence d'anticorps antimitchondries type M2. L'association sarcoïdose et CBP est rare. Nous rapportons un nouveau cas de cette association avec revue de la littérature. PMID:25489373

  7. X-ray fluorescence and ion beam analysis of iridescent Art Nouveau glass - authenticity and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jembrih-Simbürger, D.; Neelmeijer, C.; Mäder, M.; Schreiner, M.

    2004-11-01

    EDXRF analysis with subsequent multivariate data analysis proves useful for the determination of the authenticity of iridescent glass artifacts. Thus, clusters of the glass groups investigated were formed which can be associated with the glass manufacturers. By means of ion beam analysis with the external proton beam the producing technology of iridescent glass objects of the Art Nouveau glass manufacturer Loetz/Austria with so-called Papillon pattern was characterised in a non-destructive way. Due to the simultaneous application of PIXE and RBS the glass structure including a sequence of glass layers covered with a SnO 2-layer of approximately 50 nm thickness on the surface could be described.

  8. Legally high? Legal considerations of Salvia divinorum.

    PubMed

    Griffin, O Hayden; Miller, Bryan Lee; Khey, David N

    2008-06-01

    The legal status of the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum has been rapidly changing. Legal prohibitions on this plant native to Oaxaca, Mexico have emerged at the state level, a phenomenon that has not occurred since the passage of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Included will be a brief description of the plant that has only recently crept into the popular American consciousness, and a review of the different legal mechanisms through which states have controlled the plant and the pending legislation proposing controls. Lastly, the implications of various state laws are discussed.

  9. Dementia and legal competency.

    PubMed

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task

  10. Wisconsin Vocational Equity Leadership Cadre Support Project. FY 95. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Linda L.

    A project was developed to provide technical assistance and staff development to the Wisconsin Vocational Equity Leadership Cadre to enable them to assist local districts in meeting the equity assurances in the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act of 1990 as well as Wisconsin's equity goals as prescribed in state law.…

  11. Education for Better Governance: A Look at the Ongoing Cadre Political Education in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Shucheng

    The evolution of cadre (political elite and bureaucratic functionaries) education in China from 1949 to the present was evaluated in terms of leadership development and the underlying interests of the Chinese Communist Party as it integrates more fully into the world economy. Historic achievements include: (1) increased knowledge about market…

  12. State Scan--Residential Placements: Blind/VI and Deaf/HI. Information Research Cadre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    In this Information Research Cadre, Teresa Blythe responds to the following research question: For those states that have residential schools for the Blind/VI and Deaf/HI students, have they developed policies and procedures for residential placement of these students? To develop this response Blythe conducted web research utilizing numerous…

  13. The Evolution of the State's Cadre Policy in the Sphere of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dezhina, I.

    2007-01-01

    In the period after the collapse of the Soviet Union, cadre problems in Russian science gradually came to be included among the problems that are the most pressing and whose solutions need to be given top priority. The mass exodus of young and middle-aged qualified specialists from scientific research institutes, design bureaus, and scientific…

  14. Les transfusions de globules rouges chez le nouveau-né : Des directives révisées

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    En général, depuis dix ans, les professionnels de la santé qui soignent des nouveau-nés à haut risque dans des unités de soins intensifs néonatals sont plus restrictifs dans leur utilisation de transfusions de globules rouges. Le présent énoncé est conçu pour ceux qui soignent des nouveau-nés à haut risque (des prématurés aux nouveau-nés d’un mois). Il vise à fournir des directives pour réduire l’incidence d’anémie chez les nourrissons prématurés et à terme, à repérer des stratégies pour réduire le besoin de transfusions de globules rouges et à limiter l’exposition à des donneurs au sein de cette population. Des recommandations portant sur les transfusions de globules rouges sont incluses.

  15. Legal responsibility and accountability.

    PubMed

    Cox, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Shifting boundaries in healthcare roles have led to anxiety among some nurses about their legal responsibilities and accountabilities. This is partly because of a lack of education about legal principles that underpin healthcare delivery. This article explains the law in terms of standards of care, duty of care, vicarious liability and indemnity insurance.

  16. Learning the Legalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Victoria

    1987-01-01

    Certain types of crises cry out for legal counsel. Becoming familiar with the basics of media law is suggested for public relations offices. Three types of crises that call for legal advice include: litigation or potential litigation; a violation of a law or regulation; or incidents with any hint of liability. (MLW)

  17. Legal Commission Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The Legal Commission of the International Non-Governmental Organizations Conference on Discrimination Against Indigenous Populations adopted the following agenda: legal status of indigenous populations; the land question; indigenous laws and courts; discrimination against indigenous peoples in existing laws and their application; and creation of…

  18. Should Drugs Be Legalized?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…

  19. Accreditation's Legal Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graca, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Like most issues in higher education, the accreditation paradigm in the United States is defined in large measure by the legal and political climate in which the academy finds itself. In the case of accreditation in particular, the legal substrate is of particular importance given the central role of accreditation in a college's ability to receive…

  20. Database Reviews: Legal Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiser, Virginia

    Detailed reviews of two legal information databases--"Laborlaw I" and "Legal Resource Index"--are presented in this paper. Each database review begins with a bibliographic entry listing the title; producer; vendor; cost per hour contact time; offline print cost per citation; time period covered; frequency of updates; and size…

  1. A Legal Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincinnati Public Schools, OH.

    This publication was developed by the Cincinnati (Ohio) Public Schools for use as a resource in adult basic education classes. It presents, in simple format, the basic legal rights of citizens of the United States and points out legal problem areas that average adults may encounter in daily life. The book is organized into nine parts containing 2…

  2. Maladie de kaposi classique avec atteinte surrénalienne: un nouveau cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouzidi, Hanae; Gallouj, Salim; Krich, Sanae; Mernissi, Fatima Zahra

    2014-01-01

    La maladie de kaposi est une pathologie connue généralement dans sa forme épidémique associée au sida ou celle endémique présente dans l'Afrique subsaharienne. La forme classique de cette maladie ou dite également méditerranéenne n'est pas bien connue étant assez rare. Elle touche les hommes âgés HIV séronégatifs originaires de l'Europe centrale, l'Europe de l'Est et les méditerranéens. Elle se manifeste essentiellement par une atteinte cutanée, éventuellement muqueuse mais l'atteinte viscérale reste moins fréquente, dominée par l'atteinte osseuse, pulmonaire et gastrique. La localisation surrénalienne est inhabituelle et très rare. Nous rapportons ce nouveau cas pour mettre le point sur cette pathologie rare et signaler cette localisation atypique. PMID:25170378

  3. Iridescent Art Nouveau glass - IBA and XPS for the characterisation of thin iridescent layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jembrih, D.; Neelmeijer, C.; Schreiner, M.; Mäder, M.; Ebel, M.; Svagera, R.; Peev, M.

    2001-07-01

    The external proton beam of the Tandem accelerator of the Research Centre in Rossendorf/Germany was used to carry out non-destructive particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) measurements simultaneously on Art Nouveau artifacts produced around 1900 by Tiffany/USA and Loetz/Austria. These studies should proof the technology of producing an iridescent layer on a glass surface. By means of the yield ratio Y(Si-K)/ Y(Si-γ) of both characteristic X-radiation (Si-K) and γ-radiation (Si-γ) of the element silicon it could be shown that a thin top layer is present on the glass surface due to the treatment of the heated artifacts (about 500°C) with an alcoholic solution of SnCl 2[1]. Combined evaluation of the PIXE and RBS spectra resulted in a thickness of 20-300 nm for this top layer. In addition, a transition region between the iridescent layer and the bulk glass was obtained by RUMP simulations. Approximately 80% of the total amount of the Sn were found to be present in this transition layer and only 10-20% in the outermost surface region. XPS studies showed that the outermost layer consists of SnO 2. The formation of other Sn compounds in the outermost near-surface region based on Sn-Si-O during the manufacturing process can be excluded.

  4. Un nouveau cristal laser largement accordable le BOYS dopé à l'ytterbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chénais, S.; Druon, F.; Balembois, F.; Georges, P.; Gaumé, R.; Aka, G.; Viana, B.; Vivien, D.

    2002-06-01

    Nous avons étudié les performances laser en pompage par diode de puissance d'un nouveau cristal : le Sr3Y(BO3)3 (acronyme : BOYS), dopé à l'ytterbium. Son spectre d'émission particulièrement large en fait un matériau particulièrement prometteur pour la réalisation de lasers femtosecondes directement pompés par diode. Ses performances ont été comparées à celles d'un verre phosphate ainsi qu'à celles du cristal d' Yb:GdCOB dans les mêmes conditions. Nous démontrons que, tant du point de vue de l'efficacité laser que de la tenue aux fortes puissances, GdCOB et BOYS sont supérieurs au verre ; le BOYS est de surcroît plus accordable (sur 50 nm), mais son comportement thermique limite a priori son usage à des puissances de pompe modérées.

  5. Moral Discourse and Legalism in Legal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, James R.

    1982-01-01

    Legal education fails to prepare students to engage in moral discourse, exploring the ethical/moral dimension of the profession. Moral discourse suggests that the lawyer's professional ethos is problematic for the good person, and moves the profession to confront more directly the public image of lawyers. (MSE)

  6. Legal Issues in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branton, Wiley A.

    1984-01-01

    Legal problems that colleges and universities might avoid are identified. Colleges are being sued over a broad range of legal issues and are expending money for legal and court fees, settlements, and judgments. Legal problems include right of admission to particular colleges, the right to stay in school, questions of faculty promotion and tenure,…

  7. MONOX: un nouveau spectrogoniomètre pour le rayonnement X mou et X-UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, J.-M.; Avila, A.; Barchewitz, R.; Benbalagh, R.; Delaunay, R.; Druart, D.; Fontaine, M.-F.; Ringuenet, H.

    2004-11-01

    Un spectrogoniomètre de laboratoire utilisant comme source un tube émettant des radiations caractéristiques dans le domaine X mou et X-UV a été développé au Laboratoire de Chimie Physique (CNRS/UPMC) dans le cadre de l'Action Coordonnée Optique du CNRS. L'appareil comprend un monochromateur de type “double-cristaux" équipé de miroirs multicouches ou de cristaux de grande période et un goniomètre θ-2θ . Il permet des mesures de pouvoir réflecteur et de diffusion de dispositifs optiques, en particulier de miroirs et réseaux multicouches. Dans un futur proche il sera aussi destiné à la caractérisation de nouvelles sources et de détecteurs X-UV. L'appareil peut aussi être utilisé comme spectromètre à cristal plan si l'anode est remplacée par l'échantillon à analyser. Différents exemples des possibilités offertes par cet instrument opérant en mode “réflectométrie" ou en mode “spectrométrie" sont présentés.

  8. Legal Services: Judge Advocate Legal Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    page 22 The Commandant, The Judge Advocate General’s School , U.S. Army. • 10–2, page 22 Technical supervision • 10–3, page 23 Implementation • 10–4...Advocate General’s Funded Legal Education Program, page 37 General Duties • 14–1, page 37 Nonwaivable eligibility requirements • 14–2, page 37 Law School ...Admission Test • 14–3, page 37 Procedures • 14–4, page 37 Selection of law school • 14–5, page 38 Assignments • 14–6, page 38 Evaluation reports • 14–7

  9. Mediation and Legal Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Elizabeth C.

    2010-01-01

    This study uses fieldwork to investigate the sponsorship of legal literacy within a court mediation program. This examination of institutional involvement in literacy sponsorship demonstrates the ideological nature of literacy by showing the importance of context, investigating literacy-based relationships, and uncovering the intertwined nature of…

  10. Analysis: A Legal Perspective.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jack

    2016-01-01

    This commentary summarizes the uncertain state of the law regarding consent for posthumous gamete retrieval. The emergence of a legal framework will be aided by the kind of ethical analysis prompted by this family's request for removal and preservation of a deceased patient's ovaries.

  11. Legal Policy Optimizing Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Stuart; Neef, Marian

    1977-01-01

    The use of mathematical models originally developed by economists and operations researchers is described for legal process research. Situations involving plea bargaining, arraignment, and civil liberties illustrate the applicability of decision theory, inventory modeling, and linear programming in operations research. (LBH)

  12. A Legal Constant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    The 21st century has brought many technological, social, and economic changes--nearly all of which have affected schools and the students, administrators, and faculty members who are in them. Luckily, as some things change, other things remain the same. Such is true with the fundamental legal principles that guide school administrators' actions…

  13. Roundtable: Legal Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…

  14. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  15. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    PubMed

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice.

  16. Legal Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyward, Salome

    2011-01-01

    For legal issues in the field of disability compliance, this is an exciting time in postsecondary education. The twentieth anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) signals a reawakening of the commitment to provide equal access to individuals with disabilities. This chapter explores three of the compliance issues that will be of…

  17. Legal Issues in Clinical Supervision. ACA Legal Series, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disney, M. Janelle; Stephens, Anthony M.

    In recent decades, mental health professionals have expanded their role in the legal process. This monograph tries to help clinical supervisors avoid legal pitfalls by explaining some of the legal principles involved in their work. Although familiarity with relevant ethical standards is important, a discussion of these standards is presented only…

  18. Legal abortion in Europe.

    PubMed

    1978-01-01

    Abortion on medical and eugenic grounds has been legal in most European countries for several years. In Austria, abortions are performed following obligatory counseling, and physicians can abstain conscientiously from performing them. In Denmark, first trimester abortion is performed on request for women over age 17. Abortion has been legal in Finland since 1950; the abortion rate reached its peak in 1973, and has been declining since then. First trimester abortion is legal in France, but a woman seeking admission to a hospital must present a physician's certificate, a counselor's certificate, and her own written consent. Delays in the processing of the application are not unusual and the whole procedure can be lengthy and discouraging. First trimester abortion was legalized in the German Democratic Republic in 1972, and in 1973 in the Federal Republic of Germany, where 79% of abortions are requested on grave social grounds. Applications for abortions are seldom refused in Hungary, where the abortion rate reached 81.1/1000 women in 1971. Abortion on request is expected to be legalized shortly in Norway, while it prevails in Poland, where 98% of abortions are performed for social indications. In Sweden, abortion is performed only in public hospitals, and contraceptive advice and fitting is free. The availability of abortion in the United Kingdom is limited by the restrictive attitude of some National Health Service physicians, and nearly all abortions on nonresidents (32% in 1973) are performed on private premises. In Yugoslavia, abortion is the constitutional right of every woman, but only the Republic of Slovenia has, so far, legislated fertility regulation as a whole, and termination of pregnancy can be performed only with the approval of a special committee.

  19. Legal Challenges to Christian Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, W. Richard

    Legal challenges faced by Christian liberal arts colleges affiliated with the Christian College Coalition were studied in 1983. Fifty-one of the 70 college presidents that were contacted returned questionnaires. The following areas were assessed: direct legal involvements during the past 5 years, threatened legal involvements, expected types of…

  20. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  1. Méningite à streptocoque du groupe A chez le nouveau né: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    El Youssi, Hind; Touaoussa, Aziz; Deham, Hanouf; Yahyaoui, Ghita; Mahmoud, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    Bien qu'une augmentation de l'incidence et de la sévérité des infections invasives au streptocoque du groupe A (SGA) durant ces dernières décades ait été constatée par plusieurs auteurs, les méningites dues à cette bactérie restent exceptionnelles chez le nouveau né et leur physiopathologie est encore mal connue. A travers ce travail nous allons rapporter le cas d'une méningite néonatale à SGA diagnostiquée au sein de notre formation, avec revue de la littérature s'intéressant à ces méningites. PMID:26185565

  2. Immigrant health: legal tools/legal barriers.

    PubMed

    Moua, Mee; Guerra, Fernando A; Moore, Jill D; Valdiserri, Ronald O

    2002-01-01

    The United States is a country of immigrants, our government having been formed by recent arrivals. This trend has continued throughout our history; according to the Center for Immigration Studies, more than 26 million immigrants have settled in the United States since 1970, and approximately one million new immigrants come to the United States each year. The immigrant population faces highly diverse health issues that states, cities, and counties must address, many of which pose significant legal and policy issues. Social, cultural, and linguistic factors complicate those challenges, as does the overlay of federal immigration and health policy. Two federal laws, the Welfare Reform Act of 1996 and Title VI of the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964, have affected immigrants in two very different ways. The former made it difficult for immigrants to qualify for publicly funded benefits. In contrast, Title VI made it easier for immigrants to obtain benefits by requiring federally funded service providers to offer translating services to persons with limited English language skills. Tuberculosis treatment is perhaps the most pressing health need among recent arrivals to the United States. Methods to slow down and hopefully eliminate this disease are underway, but a more comprehensive approach to not only tuberculosis but to immigrant health in general is needed. Indeed, it will benefit those directly affected by tuberculosis and will have serious implications for the entire population for generations to come.

  3. Legal Translator Training: Partnership between Teachers of English for Legal Purposes and Legal Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northcott, Jill; Brown, Gillian

    2006-01-01

    Training legal English specialists is one area in which cooperation between discipline and language specialists is particularly valuable. Seven short excerpts from a short training course run jointly by teachers of English for legal purposes and legal specialists are presented and analysed to illustrate the contribution an ESP oriented approach,…

  4. Legal abortion mortality.

    PubMed

    Kestelman, P

    1978-04-01

    Statistics on legal abortion in Britain between 1968-1974 are presented. There was a mortality rate of 10+ or -2 per 100,000 abortions: 27+ or -11 in 1968-1969, 12+ or -4 in 1970-1972, and 6+ or -3 in 1973-1974. Legal abortion mortality increased from 4+ or -3 when performed at gestation under 9 weeks to 5+ or -2 at 9-12 weeks, 13+ or -7 at 13-16 weeks, and 62+ or -33 at 17 weeks and over. The ratio was 11+ or -6 for women under 20 years of age, increasing to 5+ or -3 at age 20-29, 10+ or -6 at age 30-39, and 23+ or -19 at age 40 and over. The parity had little influence on abortion mortality, but the technique used had a great influence. Hysterotomy, hypertonic saline, and abortifacient paste were the most dangerous, in increasing order, with mortality rates of 39+ or -30, 106+ or -75, and 152+ or -89, respectively. The rates for aspiration and curretage were 4+ or -2 and 4+ or -3, respectively. There was a higher mortality risk with abortion with sterilization. The main causes of legal abortion mortality were infection, pulmonary embolism, and complications of general anesthesia. The high incidence of mortality associated with legal abortion in Britain is partially caused by: 1) high incidence of concurrent sterilization, 2) former use of dangerous techniques, 3) significant incidence of second trimester abortion, 4) routine use of general anesthesia, and 5) previous ill health of some of the women.

  5. Quels sont les problemes ethiques souleves par l’augmentation des capacites cognitives dans le cadre de la defense : cadre legal francais, position ethique du service de sante des armees francais

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    ethical principles for conducting researches on humans as animals has been defined in 1988 and confirmed in the bioethical law in 1994 [3]. Some...animals has been defined in 1988 and confirmed in the bioethical law in 1994 [3]. Some modifications were added in 2004 in accordance with European texts...Royaume-Uni, le Nuffield Council on Bioethics , organisme privé qui a pour mission d’examiner les questions bioéthiques pour le gouvernement, a publié

  6. School/University Partnerships and the UNI Teaching Associates Cadre Model: Professional Benefits to PreK-12 Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selke, Mary J.; Kueter, Roger A.

    The implementation of the University of Northern Iowa's (UNI) Teaching Associates Cadre Model (TAC) Professional Development School (PDS) program is discussed within the context of Kagan's six stages of collaborative relationships: formation, conceptualization, development, implementation, evaluation, and termination or reformation. The TAC was…

  7. Return to work rates and activity profiles: are there differences between those receiving C-ADR and ACDF?

    PubMed Central

    Traynelis, Vincent C.; Leigh, Barbara C.; Skelly, Andrea C.

    2012-01-01

    Study design: Comparative effectiveness review. Study rationale: The ability of a patient to return to work and the speed with which this occurs are important outcome metrics for the assessment of patients undergoing spinal surgery. Clinical questions: In patients with degenerative disease of the cervical spine, does cervical artificial disc replacement (C-ADR) lead to better work-related outcomes than fusion? Does return to work after surgery differ based on gender, age, smoking, litigation status, workers’ compensation status, or other sociodemographic factors? Methods: A systematic search and review of the English-language literature was undertaken to identify studies published through October 2, 2011. PubMed, Cochrane, National Guideline Clearinghouse Databases, and bibliographies of key articles were searched. Two individuals independently reviewed articles based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, which were set a priori. Each article was evaluated using a predefined quality-rating scheme. Results: For follow-up periods of more than 6 months, there was no significant difference in work status between disc replacement and fusion patients; however, C-ADR patients began working sooner after surgery. Statistical significance for earlier return was not reached in all studies. Conclusions: Most patients undergoing cervical decompression and fusion or C-ADR return to work. The rates are equivalent at 6 months but patients treated with C-ADR resumed work sooner. PMID:23236313

  8. Young People's Attitude toward Education as a Factor in Improving the Effectiveness of Training Highly Qualified Cadres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubok, Iu. A.; Chuprov, V. I.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that in contemporary Russian society there is an increasingly acute contradiction between society's need for the training of professional cadres who are able to meet modern standards, and young people's attitudes toward education. Resolving this contradiction will require both changes in the system of education in Russia and changes…

  9. Evaluation of a Well-Established Task-Shifting Initiative: The Lay Counselor Cadre in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Ledikwe, Jenny H.; Kejelepula, Mable; Maupo, Kabelo; Sebetso, Siwulani; Thekiso, Mothwana; Smith, Monica; Mbayi, Bagele; Houghton, Nankie; Thankane, Kabo; O’Malley, Gabrielle; Semo, Bazghina-werq

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence supports the implementation of task shifting to address health worker shortages that are common in resource-limited settings. However, there is need to learn from established programs to identify ways to achieve the strongest, most sustainable impact. This study examined the Botswana lay counselor cadre, a task shifting initiative, to explore effectiveness and contribution to the health workforce. Methods This evaluation used multiple methods, including a desk review, a national lay counselor survey (n = 385; response = 94%), in-depth interviews (n = 79), lay counselors focus group discussions (n = 7), lay counselors observations (n = 25), and client exit interviews (n = 47). Results Interview and focus group data indicate that lay counselors contribute to essentially all HIV-related programs in Botswana and they conduct the majority of HIV tests and related counseling at public health facilities throughout the country. Interviews showed that the lay counselor cadre is making the workload of more skilled health workers more manageable and increasing HIV acceptance in communities. The average score on a work-related knowledge test was 74.5%. However for 3 questions, less than half answered correctly. During observations, lay counselors demonstrated average competence for most skills assessed and clients (97.9%) were satisfied with services received. From the survey, lay counselors generally reported being comfortable with their duties; however, some reported clinical duties that extended beyond their training and mandate. Multiple factors affecting the performance of the lay counselors were identified, including insufficient resources, such as private counseling space and HIV test kits; and technical, administrative, and supervisory support. Conclusion Lay counselors are fulfilling an important role in Botswana's healthcare system, serving as the entry point into HIV care, support, and treatment services. Recommendation

  10. Argumentation in Legal Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni

    A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.

  11. Screening: the legal view.

    PubMed

    Eaden, J; Mayberry, M K; Sherr, A; Mayberry, J F

    2001-05-01

    Screening has become central to the effective prevention of several diseases, but implementation suffers from difficulties with targeting and rates of compliance. Such issues are also complicated by the need to consider legal provisions regarding confidentiality of patients and other human rights issues. Screening has been an inexact science in relation to, e.g., faecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer, false positive and false negative tests for HIV, and there have been inadequate quality controls in breast cancer screening programmes. The public need to be made aware of what the screening programmes really offer, balanced against the expectations they may have. There needs to be a clearer understanding of the nature of the contractual and other legal rights of patients/consumers as against providers. A positive screening test may carry adverse consequences as well as benefits. It could alert an insurance company to a risk and lead to additional weighting or even outright rejection for life insurance policies. Job prospects may also be affected for employees. The method of informing patients in relation to screening and screening failure has already been considered by the courts. Realistic information about both screening and treatment efficiency needs to be offered to patients so that they can have a real understanding of what can and cannot be achieved by current science. The development of understanding of the human genome makes the need for clearer legislation in this are more urgent.

  12. Pathways to legal immigration

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.; MALONE, NOLAN

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use the New Immigrant Survey Pilot Study (NISP) to describe the amount and kind of experience that immigrants accumulate in the United States before they become permanent resident aliens. The NISP surveyed a representative sample of legal immigrants who acquired residence papers during July and August of 1996, yielding a completed sample of 1,135 adults. Our analysis revealed that roughly two-thirds of these newly arrived immigrants had prior experience in the United States within one of six basic categories: illegal border-crossers, visa abusers, non-resident visitors, non-resident workers, students or exchange visitors, and refugees/asylees. Each of these pathways to legal immigration was associated with a different profile with respect to nationality, social background, and economic status. Using simple earnings regressions we demonstrate how these differences can yield misleading conclusions about the process of immigrant adaptation and assimilation, even if measured effects are reasonably accurate. We suggest that social scientists should change the way they think and ask about immigrants’ arrival in the United States. PMID:20830313

  13. To Legalize or not to Legalize? That is the Question

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    To Legalize or not to legalize? That is the question 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...10 Evaluation of Eradication Strategy...welfare and the welfare of their families. David Mansfield and Adam Pain of the Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit capture this dilemma succinctly

  14. Legality Principle of Crimes and Punishments in Iranian Legal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habibzadeh, Mohammad Ja'far

    2006-01-01

    The Principle of legality of crimes and punishments (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege) refers to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, unless the Legislator determines and announces the criminal title and its penalty before. The legality principle protects individual security by ensuring basic individual…

  15. Representation of Legal Knowledge for Conceptual Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, George R.; deBessonet, Cary G.

    1985-01-01

    Describes traditional legal information retrieval systems--Juris, Lexis, Westlaw--and several new rule-based, knowledge-based, legal knowledge reasoning, and analytical legal information systems--Waterman and Peterson's Legal Decisionmaking System, Hafner's Legal Information Retrieval System, McCarty's TAXMAN, and the deBessonet representation of…

  16. Legal Aspects of the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

  17. Legal Citation at a Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bast, Carol; Harrell, Susan W.

    2004-01-01

    Legal citation, seemingly unchanged for years, has approached a crossroads. The year 2003 marked the publication of the second edition of the "ALWD Citation Manual: A Professional System of Citation." This new citation manual may soon be preferred over "The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation" as the primary reference in legal writing classes…

  18. The Legal Audit: Preventing Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Daniel H.

    1987-01-01

    Suffolk University initiated two audits that proved beneficial: a legal audit and an insurance audit. A legal audit involves having an attorney review a college's contracts, personnel handbooks, catalogs, etc., in order to anticipate and prevent problems. An insurance audit reviews an institution's risk coverage. (MLW)

  19. The Trouble with Legal Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, William H.

    1991-01-01

    The conceptions of legal ethics or professional responsibility as (1) disciplinary rules or codes; and (2) as the personal moralities of individual lawyers prevail. However, it is the application of general norms to specific circumstances through complex, creative judgment that is the ethical component of the ideal of legal professionalism. (MSE)

  20. Legal Guide for Alaska Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, Buell, Ed.; And Others

    This legal guide, developed by the Alaska Congress of Parents and Teachers, is intended for young citizens and parents to advise youth of their civil rights and explain what constitutes a criminal offense. The aim is to objectively state the law in understandable terms. The book is arranged in four sections. Section one explains the legal rights…

  1. Legal Reasoning and Jury Deliberations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Hurlbert, Mike J.

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of a study examining the relationship of legal reasoning abilities and dominance in jury deliberations. Explains that the study considered both reasoning scores and verbal behavior during deliberations. Concludes that jury deliberations reflect the talking and opinions of members holding the most advanced legal reasoning possible.…

  2. Marijuana legalization: solution or dissolution.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S

    1981-01-01

    What is being suggested as the most feasible course now is a standfast position on the legal front; an aggressive, directed research program planned to answer the critical questions about marijuana; and a discouragement policy for adolescents. Legalization is not seen as a tenable solution for many reasons, and it is one that may be irreversible and regretted.

  3. 29 CFR 1471.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including a proceeding under the Program Fraud...

  4. Best Practices in Organizing a Cadre of Undergraduate Science Outreach Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, S. M.; Walker, C. E.; Sparks, R.

    2011-12-01

    Engaging future scientists, while they are undergraduates, in education and public outreach is an effective strategy for ensuring future participation in high-quality education and public outreach. Since 2003, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory has organized undergraduate science students for education and public outreach work. This outreach cadre has proven remarkably successful at running star parties, working with schools and afterschool programs such as at the Boys and Girls Clubs, conducting special projects related to Spanish language astronomy education materials, and in building kits for use in outreach. They have also done programs with portable planetariums and have even fixed a planetarium projector. Students have also played integral roles in several NSF-funded education projects such as Hands-On Optics. We explain our model for recruiting, training, and organizing our team of 5-7 students. These students are paid for their work but also are mentored in science, their coursework, and in other skills critical for professional success. Notably, a large number of these students have gone on to pursue graduate work. We also describe our use of undergraduate students who participated in our outreach work as part of the Collaboration to Advance Teaching Technology and Science NSF GK-12 project.

  5. Implementation of the Community Health Assistant (CHA) Cadre in Zambia: A Process Evaluation to Guide Future Scale-Up Decisions.

    PubMed

    Shelley, Katharine D; Belete, Yekoyesew W; Phiri, Sydney Chauwa; Musonda, Mutinta; Kawesha, Elizabeth Chizema; Muleya, Evelyn Mutinta; Chibawe, Caroline Phiri; van den Broek, Jan Willem; Vosburg, Kathryn Bradford

    2016-04-01

    Universal health coverage requires an adequate health workforce, including community health workers (CHWs) to reach rural communities. To improve healthcare access in rural areas, in 2010 the Government of Zambia implemented a national CHW strategy that introduced a new cadre of healthcare workers called community health assistants (CHAs). After 1 year of training the pilot class of 307 CHAs deployed in September 2012. This paper presents findings from a process evaluation of the barriers and facilitators of implementation of the CHA pilot, along with how evidence was used to guide ongoing implementation and scale-up decisions. Qualitative inquiry was used to assess implementation during the first 6 months of the program rollout, with 43 in-depth individual and 32 small group interviews across five respondent types: CHAs, supervisors, volunteer CHWs, community members, and district leadership. Potential 'implementation moderators' were explored using deductive coding and thematic analysis of participant perspectives on community acceptance of CHAs, supervision support mechanisms, and coordination with volunteer CHWs, and health system integration of a new cadre. Community acceptance of CHAs was generally high, but coordination between CHAs and existing volunteer CHWs presented some challenges. The supervision support system was found to be inconsistent, limiting assurance of consistent quality care delivered by CHAs. Underlying health system weaknesses regarding drug supply and salary payments furthermore hindered incorporation of a new cadre within the national health system. Recommendations for implementation and future scale based on the process evaluation findings are discussed.

  6. Attitudes to legalizing cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jenny; van Ours, Jan C; Grossman, Michael

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between cannabis use and attitudes to legalizing the use of cannabis. Predictions from theory provide a means of learning about the roles of information, self interest and regret in explaining differences in attitudes to legalization between those who currently use, those who have used in the past and those who have never used. Our empirical investigation suggests that users have a greater awareness of cannabis not being as harmful as abstainers think it is. This may explain why individuals are more inclined to be in favor of legalizing cannabis once they have used it themselves. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Business School Internships: Legal Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Cathy Owens; Kent, Russell

    1999-01-01

    Explores legal issues involved in business student internships for employers (compensation, workers' compensation, unemployment insurance, termination, equal-opportunities legislation, general liability) and for business schools (equal opportunities-legislation, general liability). (SK)

  8. Rape: medical and legal information.

    PubMed

    Price, H R

    1998-01-01

    The author explores the topic of rape in order to help security directors and rape victims better understand the medical and legal procedures a victim might experience. He describes how a rape case might be handled and what to expect.

  9. [Biopiracy: about its legal meanings].

    PubMed

    Ramírez García, Hugo Saúl

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the legal meanings of biopiracy concept, linked to subjects such as intellectual property rights on genetic resources, bioprospecting contracts, right to food, and food security. It overcomes the critical function of biopiracy concept related to world-wide extended tendencies: privatization and technification. Likewise, protectionism shows the opportunity that biopiracy concept represents for the enrichment of the legal interpretation related to the bioethical statue of biotech developments.

  10. 38 CFR 13.58 - Legal custodian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal custodian. 13.58... ADMINISTRATION, FIDUCIARY ACTIVITIES § 13.58 Legal custodian. (a) Authority. The Veterans Service Center Manager is authorized to make determinations as to the person or legal entity to be appointed legal...

  11. 38 CFR 13.58 - Legal custodian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal custodian. 13.58... ADMINISTRATION, FIDUCIARY ACTIVITIES § 13.58 Legal custodian. (a) Authority. The Veterans Service Center Manager is authorized to make determinations as to the person or legal entity to be appointed legal...

  12. Legal Typewriting, Business Education: 7705.35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missirlian, Melanie

    The course is designed to help the student qualify for employment as a typist in a legal office. Instruction is given to enable the student to prepare all types of legal documents, spell and use legal terminology correctly, and transfer legal information from one document to another. The course description includes: (1) equipment and supplies, (2)…

  13. Reversing the Trend: Creating a Growing and Sustainable Cadre of Safeguards Experts in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, Dunbar; Mathews, Caroline E.; Seward, Amy M.

    2008-07-17

    In October 2007, the National Nuclear Security Administration’s (NNSA) Office of Non-Proliferation and International Security (NA-24) completed a wide-ranging study on international safeguards issues that found, inter alia, that the human capital base in the United States must be revitalized and expanded to ensure a seamless succession from the current generation of safeguards experts. Many current safeguards experts will soon retire and a new generation of talent with capabilities that cover the full spectrum of safeguards-relevant disciplines is needed. The success of this effort will have direct bearing on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). An effective international safeguards system that responds to current and future nonproliferation challenges requires a cadre of skilled safeguards specialists. However, a number of factors have converged in recent years that have challenged the IAEA’s ability to effectively carry out its safeguards mission, e.g. flat funding, expanding responsibilities, and several ad hoc high profile investigations. In the near future, the Agency will require increased numbers of qualified staff to address the expansion and evolution of its mission and anticipated worldwide growth in nuclear energy production. Without a large-scale effort to address this requirement in the near future, the international community will have far less confidence that nuclear material in civil programs is not being diverted for nuclear weapons and the risks of nuclear proliferation will increase around the world. This paper will describe in detail NNSA’s efforts, in coordination with other federal agencies, to address the safeguards human resources challenge, focusing on the recommendations of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI).

  14. Accountable care organizations: legal concerns.

    PubMed

    Sanbar, S Sandy

    2011-01-01

    The Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) shared savings program has serious concerns about anti-trust and anti-fraud laws. Additionally, ACOs present several other legal concerns relating to the duties and responsibilities of the physician-hospital partnership. The federal regulations hold physicians who participate in the ACO shared savings program to the highest standards of care without offering them protection from liability. The structure and procedures required of ACOs may be detrimental and may significantly impact the liability of its contracting physicians. Therefore, it behooves physicians to obtain legal advice regarding one's estate planning and legal asset protection or wealth management techniques, and to thoroughly review the agreement with one's attorney before signing a contract with an ACO.

  15. [Legal aspects of toxicological care].

    PubMed

    Teijeira, R

    2003-01-01

    The care of poisoned patients in the sphere of the hospital emergency services is an increasingly frequent phenomenon. Any patient, whether or not they die, who is subjected to medical care in the course of a poisoning generates certain obligations from the medical-legal point of view. This paper reviews the most frequent causes of medical care in living patients, or in those who have died because of a poisoning, the legal obligations that care gives rise to, and the suitable form for approaching and resolving these.

  16. Ethical & Legal Issues in School Counseling. Chapter 3: Legal Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remley, Theodore P., Jr.; And Others

    This document contains chapter 3 (7 articles) of a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "The Law and Ethical Practices in Elementary and Middle Schools" (Theodore P.…

  17. Avoiding the Legal “Blemish”

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, Brent D.; Momin, Saira B.

    2009-01-01

    In today’s legal environment, it is unlikely that a physician will complete a medical career without being introduced to the legal system in some way. Despite this, medical education often does not incorporate a basic teaching of general legal principles, and many physicians are left unaware of some of the important legal aspects of practicing medicine. The purpose of this article is to provide a background of the essential legal principles of a malpractice action as well as review the fundamentals of the legal process, provide published caselaw of prior dermatological pitfalls, and ultimately, provide suggestions to better prepare the dermatologist to practice medicine. PMID:20725583

  18. Networks for the Legal Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgeson, Earl C.; Freeman, Peter

    There is a great temptation not to talk about information networks for the legal profession because there exists a well organized publishing industry meeting the historical and contemporary research needs in areas of statutory and case law, and even for administrative regulations. This is an information network. There also exists a strong, closely…

  19. PLATO, EDUCOM, and Legal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Robert J.; Noah, Dennis

    1979-01-01

    The use of the PLATO and EDUCOM systems in legal education are described. Teaching techniques (simulation and gaming), their role in law school curricula, and a survey of uses nationwide are discussed. Available at 675 S. Westmoreland Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90005. (MSE)

  20. Legality of Student Disciplinary Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolmeier, Edward C.

    This book describes and analyzes recent court cases involving the broad topic of student discipline in an attempt to aid school officials in understanding and complying with the underlying legal principles governing this area of school law. Individual chapters focus on the topics of the in loco parentis doctrine, due process and student…

  1. Legal Handbook on School Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Council of School Attorneys.

    In a recent opinion the Supreme Court of the United States recognized that for many communities "school sports play a prominent role." Whatever purpose they serve, school sports also raise a number of legal issues that a school district must carefully handle in order to operate its athletics program with minimal risk of liability. This handbook is…

  2. Program Review of Legal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Marilyn V.

    This report presents results of a follow-up review, conducted by the State University System of Florida Board of Regents, of the law schools at the University of Florida and Florida State University. The review first provides a summary of the original 1985 and 1990 studies, as well as a description of Florida's legal education contained in the…

  3. [Legal aspects of ritual circumcision].

    PubMed

    Schreiber, M; Schott, G E; Rascher, W; Bender, A W

    2009-12-01

    Female circumcision (genital mutilation) is a criminal violation of human rights under German law. Even with consent of the person to be circumcised and/or her legal representative this procedure must not be carried out since a consent to female circumcision is unethical and therefore void. As much consent as there is on female circumcision the legal situation with ritual male circumcision is very unclear. In practice and unnoticed by the public male circumcision is carried out - be it for medical or ritual reasons - without deeper-going reflexions on the clearness of the medical indication or the legal situation with ritual circumcision. From the medical aspect there are big differences between female and male circumcision but also certain parallels. Various reasons, partly founded in prejudice and misinformation, make people refrain from regarding circumcision of boys also as illegal. Contrary to the prevailing opinion male circumcision also represents a bodily harm which a doctor can only carry out after a preoperative interview and with the consent of the affected person. Since ritual male circumcision does not serve the wellbeing of a child it is not possible for the parents to give their consent to the circumcision in lieu of the child. Male circumcision is only permitted if the child has given his consent and is thus only legally permitted if the child has reached an age at which he is mature enough to understand the meaning and extent of such an action which is hardly the case before he has completed his 16 (th) year.

  4. Legal Aspects of Fuel Shortage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Frederick W.

    1974-01-01

    School administrators are advised to get legal authorization now for as much maneuvering room as can be worked out with vendors of heating fuels and gasoline for school buses. Safeguards for saving gasoline and anti-freeze are outlined. (Author/MF)

  5. Legal Issues Surrounding Safe Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Reed B.

    This handbook provides an overview of legal issues pertaining to the safety of public schools. Following the introduction, chapter 2 describes the governance model and philosophy on which American education is based. Court decisions and federal and state legislation that mandate the right to a safe school are discussed in chapter 3. The fourth…

  6. The Legality of Chicano Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floca, Kathryn Priscilla Haines

    The thesis briefly analyzed the laws of the State of Texas and of the United States which directly affect the education of Texas Mexican Americans. The legal-political history of "Chicano" education in Texas was traced from the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 to August 1971. The educational "problems" of…

  7. 75 FR 3893 - Legal Processes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce...

  8. Legal Exchange: Necessity and Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norberg, Charles R.

    1975-01-01

    The International Legal Exchange Program (ILEP) arranges for lawyers from the U.S. or foreign countries to have several months of training in countries different from their own. The program offers an opportunity to strengthen world order under law through better understanding. (Author/PG)

  9. Legal Scholarship as a Vocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luban, David

    2001-01-01

    Explores the more purely theoretical side of the legal scholar's vocation, using Max Weber's text on the scholar's role titled "Science as a Vocation." Discusses the consequences of the tension between law schools' generalist "pretensions" and increasingly specialist character, and Weber's fact/value distinction. (EV)

  10. Legal Issues in Nursing Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapp, Marshall B.

    This paper examines the variety of legal rules and processes which have been established to assess and ensure that the quality of care provided in nursing homes satisfies an acceptable level. It begins with a general overview of nursing home law. Areas discussed in this section include: (1) sources of nursing home law; (2) theories of liability;…

  11. 22 CFR 208.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 208.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including a proceeding under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act (31...

  12. 21 CFR 1404.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including a proceeding under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act (31...

  13. 22 CFR 208.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 208.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including a proceeding under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act (31...

  14. Same-Sex Couples: Legal Complexities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Ramona Faith; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a typology for organizing our current knowledge regarding same-sex couples in the United States who have and have not established legal ties between partners. This framework is complemented by a discussion of key rulings that define what is legally possible as well as the introduction of "legal consciousness,"…

  15. A New Approach to Campus Legal Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roster, Michael; Woodward, Linda

    1996-01-01

    Stanford University (California) restructured its legal services office, for both cost containment and service improvement, by outsourcing legal work. The new system consists of a smaller in-house legal staff, for largely preventive work (academic and medical affairs, policy formation), and contracts with three outside law firms to work in…

  16. Language and Legal Speech Acts: Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kevelson, Roberta

    The first part of this essay argues specifically that legal speech acts are not statements but question/answer constructions. The focus in this section is on the underlying interrogative structure of the legal decision. The second part of the paper touches on significant topics related to the concept of legal speech acts, including the philosophic…

  17. 31 CFR 3.3 - Legal review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 3.3 Legal review. Any... that is likely to result in multiple claimants, shall be forwarded to the legal division of the bureau... employee and the investigation, shall be reviewed in the legal division which shall thereupon make...

  18. A Storytelling Learning Model for Legal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuano, Nicola; De Maio, Carmen; Gaeta, Angelo; Mangione, Giuseppina Rita; Salerno, Saverio; Fratesi, Eleonora

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a learning model based on "Storytelling" and its application in the context of legal education helping build challenging training resources that explain, to common citizens with little or no background about legal topics, concepts related to "Legal Mediation" in general and in specific…

  19. 21 CFR 1404.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal proceedings. 1404.965 Section 1404.965 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or...

  20. Towards Automated Training of Legal Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muntjewerff, Antoinette J.

    An examination of Dutch research on legal case solving revealed that few law students get systematic instruction or testing in the technique of legal problem solving. The research being conducted at the Department of Computer Science and Law at the University of Amsterdam focuses on identifying the different functions in legal reasoning tasks in…

  1. What is legal medicine--are legal and forensic medicine the same?

    PubMed

    Beran, Roy G

    2010-04-01

    Some consider the terms "forensic" and "legal" medicine to be synonymous but this is counter to the title of the Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine or the dual strands for progression to fellowship of the Australian College of Legal Medicine. The paper examines a very brief historical background to legal medicine and develops a definition of the strands thereof, namely legal and forensic medicine. It demonstrates that the two are different components of the application of medical knowledge upon the legal system. Legal medicine has greater relevance to civil and tort law, impacting upon patient care, whereas forensic medicine relates to criminal law and damage to, or by, patients.

  2. Legal briefing: Healthcare ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2011-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers recent legal developments involving institutional healthcare ethics committees. This topic has been the subject of recent articles in JCE. Healthcare ethics committees have also recently been the subject of significant public policy attention. Disturbingly, Bobby Schindler and others have described ethics committees as "death panels." But most of the recent attention has been positive. Over the past several months, legislatures and courts have expanded the use of ethics committees and clarified their roles concerning both end-of-life treatment and other issues. These developments are usefully grouped into the following eight categories: 1. Existence and availability. 2. Membership and composition. 3. Operating procedures. 4. Advisory roles. 5. Decision-making and gate-keeping roles. 6. Confidentiality. 7. Immunity. 8. Litigation and court cases.

  3. Digital Identity - The Legal Person?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Clare

    This paper examines the concept of digital identity which the author asserts is now evident in the United Kingdom as a consequence of the Identity Cards Act (UK) 2006 and the National Identity Scheme it establishes. The nature and functions of the concept, particularly the set of information which constitutes an individual’s transactional identity, are examined. The paper then considers the central question of who, or what, is the legal person in a transaction i.e. who or what enters into legal relations. The analysis presents some intriguing results which were almost certainly not envisaged by the legislature. The implications extend beyond the United Kingdom to similar schemes in other jurisdictions, and to countries, like Australia, which may implement such a scheme.

  4. Skilled birth attendants in Tanzania: a descriptive study of cadres and emergency obstetric care signal functions performed.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Etsuko; Adegoke, Adetoro A; Masenga, Gileard; Fimbo, Janeth; Msuya, Sia E

    2015-01-01

    Although most developing countries monitor the proportion of births attended by skilled birth attendants (SBA), they lack information on the availability and performance of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) signal functions by different cadres of health care providers (HCPs). The World Health Organisation signal functions are set of key interventions that targets direct obstetric causes of maternal deaths. Seven signal functions are required for health facilities providing basic EmOC and nine for facilities providing comprehensive EmOC. Our objectives were to describe cadres of HCPs who are considered SBAs in Tanzania, the EmOC signal functions they perform and challenges associated with performance of EmOC signal functions. We conducted a cross-sectional study of HCPs offering maternity care services at eight health facilities in Moshi Urban District in northern Tanzania. A questionnaire and health facility assessment forms were used to collect information from participants and health facilities. A total of 199 HCPs working at eight health facilities in Moshi Urban District met the inclusion criteria. Out of 199, 158 participated, giving a response rate of 79.4 %. Ten cadres of HCPs were identified as conducting deliveries regardless of the level of health facilities. Most of the participants (81 %) considered themselves SBAs, although some were not considered SBAs by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW). Only two out of the eight facilities provided all of the required EmOC signal functions. While Assistant Medical Officers are expected to perform all the signal functions, only 38 % and 13 % had performed vacuum extraction or caesarean sections respectively. Very few registered and enrolled nurse-midwives had performed removal of retained products (22 %) or assisted vaginal delivery (24 and 11 %). Inadequate equipment and supplies, and lack of knowledge and skills in performing EmOC were two main challenges identified by health care providers in all

  5. Legal aspects of satellite teleconferencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. D.

    1971-01-01

    The application of satellite communications for teleconferencing purposes is discussed. The legal framework within which such a system or series of systems could be developed is considered. The analysis is based on: (1) satellite teleconferencing regulation, (2) the options available for such a system, (3) regulatory alternatives, and (4) ownership and management aspects. The system is designed to provide a capability for professional education, remote medical diagnosis, business conferences, and computer techniques.

  6. Are xenotransplantation safeguards legally viable?

    PubMed

    Florencio, P S; Ramanathan, E D

    2001-01-01

    Scientists agree on the need for robust public health safeguards to accompany the imminent introduction of xenotransplantation--clinical transplantation of animal tissue into humans. To protect society in the event of emerging infectious diseases, governments must devise a legally effective means of ensuring compliance with such safeguards. Neither consent law, the law of contracts, nor existing public health legislation can adequately enforce such compliance. Consent law serves as a mechanism of communicating the momentary waiver of legal rights, not as a durable enforcement doctrine. Because it would be essential for recipients personally to comply with public safety measures, the law of contracts would also be unable to compel compliance. Existing public health legislation would also likely be ineffective because it would need to be substantially amended to incorporate the heightened powers necessary for the periodic examination of asymptomatic xenotransplant recipients. Xenotransplantation-specific legislation would be a legally effective means of enforcing public health safeguards since it could require conforming behaviors and could impose monetary fines on those recipients who, having benefited from life-saving intervention, fail to comply. This Article argues that legislation implementing a post-xenotransplantation surveillance system should withstand constitutional scrutiny because it would not be discriminatory and because, although it would violate fundamental rights of recipients, such violations would be justified under existing constitutional doctrines.

  7. A Global Soil Moisture Data Assimilation System for the USDA-FAS Crop Assessment Data Retrieval and Evaluation (CADRE) Decision Support System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) system has been designed to integrate soil moisture retrievals from the EOS Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) into the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Crop Assessment Data Retrieval and Evaluation (CADRE) Decision Support System (DSS). The operati...

  8. A Modest Proposal: For Preventing Space Operations from Being a Burden to the Navy, and for Making the Space Cadre Beneficial to the Community

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    effects, acquisition and requirements definition. 96 Zigmond Leszczynski , Commander, U.S. Navy...for the Navy Space Cadre, the establishment of a Navy Space TYCOM and 100 Zigmond Leszczynski ...138 Zigmond Leszczynski , Commander, U.S. Navy. EISENHOWER Strike Group End-Of-Deployment Report, Space

  9. The legal self: executive processes and legal theory.

    PubMed

    Hirstein, William; Sifferd, Katrina

    2011-03-01

    When laws or legal principles mention mental states such as intentions to form a contract, knowledge of risk, or purposely causing a death, what parts of the brain are they speaking about? We argue here that these principles are tacitly directed at our prefrontal executive processes. Our current best theories of consciousness portray it as a workspace in which executive processes operate, but what is important to the law is what is done with the workspace content rather than the content itself. This makes executive processes more important to the law than consciousness, since they are responsible for channelling conscious decision-making into intentions and actions, or inhibiting action. We provide a summary of the current state of our knowledge about executive processes, which consists primarily of information about which portions of the prefrontal lobes perform which executive processes. Then we describe several examples in which legal principles can be understood as tacitly singling out executive processes, including principles regarding defendants' intentions or plans to commit crimes and their awareness that certain facts are the case (for instance, that a gun is loaded), as well as excusatory principles which result in lesser responsibility for those who are juveniles, mentally ill, sleepwalking, hypnotized, or who suffer from psychopathy.

  10. Legal challenges in neurological practice

    PubMed Central

    Jayalakshmi, Sita; Vooturi, Sudhindra

    2016-01-01

    Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients’ relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward “rating” and “feedback” has made this doctor–patient relationship, a consumer–service provider relationship. This perhaps is due to commercialization of health that usually accompanies globalization. Moreover, a rapid influx of information from potential erroneous sources such as the Internet has also made patient and caregivers not being hesitant to taking legal course in the case of adverse events during treatment or simply because of dissatisfaction. The purpose of the legal process initiated by patients with neurological ailments is more often to compensate for the income lost, physical and psychological anguish that accompanies disease and its treatment, and to fund treatment or rehabilitation requirements. However, it is not clearly established if monetary benefits acquired lead to better opportunities for recovery of the patient. The consumer protection act and commercialization of medical services may well have an adverse effect on the doctor and patient relationship. Hence, there is a great need for all medical professionals to mutually complement and update each other. This review examines legal (litigation) processes with special interest on medicolegal system in patients with neurological ailments and the challenges faced by the neurologist during day-to-day clinical practice. PMID:27891018

  11. Legality in Cyberspace: An Adversary View

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Legality in Cyberspace: An Adversary View 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...participation in national security policy formulation. iii Strategic Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press LEGALITY IN CYBERSPACE: AN... legality of hostile cyber activity at a state lev- el remains imperfectly defined. While there is broad agreement among the United States and its allies

  12. Investigating legal aspects of cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H

    2012-11-01

    In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.

  13. Key legal principles for hospitalists.

    PubMed

    Alpers, A

    2001-12-21

    In a hospitalist system, when a patient leaves the hospital, he or she will return to a primary care provider (PCP) for follow-up and continuing care. The hand-off after discharge can compromise communication with the PCP. Physicians have a legal duty to provide follow-up care to patients with whom they have a relationship. The obligation to provide follow-up care endures even when the patient misses a scheduled appointment or does not adhere to the follow-up regimen. In general, the physician who began the care must fulfill that obligation. An essential component of follow-up care includes educating the patient about what symptoms require follow-up care and why it is important. The duty to provide adequate follow-up care is shared by the hospitalist and the PCP. Virtually no malpractice case law considers the obligations and practices of hospitalists. This article uses cases involving follow-up care for patients treated in an emergency department and general cases regarding liability for follow-up care to examine the potential legal obligations of both hospitalists and PCPs for follow-up care, including circumstances involving pending test results and incidental findings.

  14. Key legal principles for hospitalists.

    PubMed

    Alpers, Ann

    2002-04-01

    In a hospitalist system, when a patient leaves the hospital, he or she will return to a primary care provider (PCP) for follow-up and continuing care. The hand-off after discharge can compromise communication with the PCP. Physicians have a legal duty to provide follow-up care to patients with whom they have a relationship. The obligation to provide follow-up care endures even when the patient misses a scheduled appointment or does not adhere to the follow-up regimen. In general, the physician who began the care must fulfill that obligation. An essential component of follow-up care includes educating the patient about what symptoms require follow-up care and why it is important. The duty to provide adequate follow-up care is shared by the hospitalist and the PCP. Virtually no malpractice case law considers the obligations and practices of hospitalists. This article uses cases involving follow-up care for patients treated in an emergency department and general cases regarding liability for follow-up care to examine the potential legal obligations of both hospitalists and PCPs for follow-up care, including circumstances involving pending test results and incidental findings.

  15. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    PubMed

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional.

  16. Attitudes towards drug legalization among drug users.

    PubMed

    Trevino, Roberto A; Richard, Alan J

    2002-01-01

    Research shows that support for legalization of drugs varies significantly among different sociodemographic and political groups. Yet there is little research examining the degree of support for legalization of drugs among drug users. This paper examines how frequency and type of drug use affect the support for legalization of drugs after adjusting for the effects of political affiliation and sociodemographic characteristics. A sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users were asked whether they would support the legalization of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Respondents reported their use of marijuana, crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines during the previous 30 days. Support for legalization of drugs was analyzed by estimating three separate logistic regressions. The results showed that the support for the legalization of drugs depended on the definition of "drug user" and the type of drug. In general, however, the results showed that marijuana users were more likely to support legalizing marijuana, but they were less likely to support the legalization of cocaine and heroin. On the other hand, users of crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines were more likely to support legalizing all drugs including cocaine and heroin.

  17. The Legal Ethical Backbone of Conscientious Refusal.

    PubMed

    Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals' conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment, and this requirement is found to create serious problems for those wishing to defend the idea under consideration. We conclude that the notion of a legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession is either fundamentally incompatible with elementary legal ethical requirements, or implausible because it undermines the functioning of a related professional sector (healthcare) or even of society as a whole.

  18. Planetary protection - some legal questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasan, E.

    2004-01-01

    When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lexlata, theexistingapplicableLaw, especially Space Law, and also lexferenda, whatshouldbethe law . With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of the notions "Planetary", and "Protection". About " Planetary": Our own Earth is our most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. But what is further meant by "Planetary"? Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B.)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN, etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites, etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protectionfrom what ? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B.Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits.Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there, etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from electronic "noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then, we have to

  19. Planetary protection - some legal questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasan, E.

    When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lex lata, the existing applicable Law, especially Space Law, and also lex ferenda, what should be the law. With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of "Planetary", and of "Protection". About "Planetary": Our own Earth is the most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. Then, we have to discuss what is further meant by "Planetary": Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protection from what? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B. Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits. Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from Electronic "Noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then

  20. Evaluation d'une approche pedagogique respectant les facons d'apprendre des filles en sciences et en TIC en 9e annee au Nouveau-Brunswick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lirette-Pitre, Nicole T.

    2009-07-01

    La reussite scolaire des filles les amene de plus en plus a poursuivre une formation postsecondaire et a exercer des professions qui demandent un haut niveau de connaissances et d'expertise scientifique. Toutefois, les filles demeurent toujours tres peu nombreuses a envisager une carriere en sciences (chimie et physique), en ingenierie ou en TIC (technologie d'information et de la communication), soit une carriere reliee a la nouvelle economie. Pour plusieurs filles, les sciences et les TIC ne sont pas des matieres scolaires qu'elles trouvent interessantes meme si elles y reussissent tres bien. Ces filles admettent que leurs experiences d'apprentissage en sciences et en TIC ne leur ont pas permis de developper un interet ni de se sentir confiante en leurs habiletes a reussir dans ces matieres. Par consequent, peu de filles choisissent de poursuivre leurs etudes postsecondaires dans ces disciplines. La theorie sociocognitive du choix carriere a ete choisie comme modele theorique pour mieux comprendre quelles variables entrent en jeu lorsque les filles choisissent leur carriere. Notre etude a pour objet la conception et l'evaluation de l'efficacite d'un materiel pedagogique concu specifiquement pour ameliorer les experiences d'apprentissage en sciences et en TIC des filles de 9e annee au Nouveau-Brunswick. L'approche pedagogique privilegiee dans notre materiel a mis en oeuvre des strategies pedagogiques issues des meilleures pratiques que nous avons identifiees et qui visaient particulierement l'augmentation du sentiment d'auto-efficacite et de l'interet des filles pour ces disciplines. Ce materiel disponible par Internet a l'adresse http://www.umoncton.ca/lirettn/scientic est directement en lien avec le programme d'etudes en sciences de la nature de 9e annee du Nouveau-Brunswick. L'evaluation de l'efficacite de notre materiel pedagogique a ete faite selon deux grandes etapes methodologiques: 1) l'evaluation de l'utilisabilite et de la convivialite du materiel et 2

  1. [Is the legally responsible party indeed responsible? An ethical-legal question on the term].

    PubMed

    Fontana-Rosa, Júlio César; Oliveira, Reinaldo Ayer de

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss the legal and ethical meaning of the expression "Third-Party Consent" by questioning its limits. It is indeed shown that it does not satisfactorily meet what is called third-party consent because this would require legal endorsement by legal codes and norms which, in fact does not occur. As such, the expression "third-party consent", whenever used, may not provide the professional with the normative, ethical and legal support needed for professional performance.

  2. Constitutionally-Legal Policy as Base Type of Legal Policy of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anichkin, Eugene S.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with reasons for formation, nature and specifics of the constitutionally legal policy of modern Russia. The special attention is spared to the exposure of the aim, long-term and short-term tasks, and principles of national constitutionally legal policy. The functions of constitutionally legal policy are separately considered:…

  3. 22 CFR 92.84 - Legal process defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal process defined. 92.84 Section 92.84 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Quasi-Legal Services § 92.84 Legal process defined. Legal process means a writ, warrant, mandate, or other...

  4. Tuberculosis: Medico-Legal Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Vetrugno, G.; De-Giorgio, F.; D’Alessandro, F.; Scafetta, I.; Berloco, F.; Buonsenso, D.; Abbate, F.; Scalise, G.; Pascali, V.L.; Valentini, P

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a diffusive infectious disease whose typical behaviour differentiates it from other infectious diseases spread by human-to-human transmission (flu, chicken pox, cholera, etc.) that follow a classic epidemic pattern. Indeed, in the presence of a known source of Koch bacilli that is capable of spreading the bacteria by air, not all exposed individuals inhale the bacteria, not all those who inhale them absorb them, not all those who absorb the bacteria are unable to eliminate them, not all who are able to eliminate them do so using delayed hypersensitivity, not all those who react with delayed hypersensitivity suffer lasting tissue damage (among other things, minor), not all who suffer tissue damage have anatomical sequelae, and not all those who have anatomical sequelae, however minimal, become carriers of bacilli in the latent period. The vast majority (90–95%) of the latter – which are in any case a portion, not the totality of those exposed – remain asymptomatic throughout their lives and never develop active tuberculosis. Based on these biological characteristics and the legal concepts of “epidemic” and “disease,” it becomes highly problematic, if not impossible, to assert both that tuberculosis can cause events of sufficient magnitude to be associated with the crime of “epidemic,” and that the mere diagnosis of a latent tuberculosis infection is sufficient to assume the presence of an illness legally prosecutable in criminal proceedings or a disability prosecutable in civil proceedings. Furthermore, clinically apparent tuberculosis is a temporarily—and in some cases permanently—disabling condition, and in certain work environments, even with the difficulties caused by the lack of available effective diagnostic tools and the insidious behaviour of the disease in the early stages, targeted monitoring to identify other persons who may become ill is appropriate. PMID:24804006

  5. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations....

  6. 32 CFR 215.4 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal considerations. 215.4 Section 215.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EMPLOYMENT OF MILITARY RESOURCES IN THE EVENT OF CIVIL DISTURBANCES § 215.4 Legal...

  7. 40 CFR 52.324 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.324 Section 52.324 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.324 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f)...

  8. Legal Weapons of Mass Destruction Consequence Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    LEGAL WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION CONSEQUENCE MANAGEMENT SEMINAR REPORT Defense Threat Reduction Agency Advanced Systems ...guidance documents pertinent to WMD CM ; • Contribute to the development of a Federal Legal Reference Deskbook for WMD consequence management . The...of medical responders during a Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)–Consequence Management ( CM ) event. Use of the Military Posse Comitatus

  9. The Employment and Wages of Legalized Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borjas, George J.; Tienda, Marta

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes employment and wages of recently legalized immigrants using the Legalization Application Processing System file which is based on individual records of amnesty applicants and draws comparisons with sample of foreign-born population from Current Population Surveys of 1983, 1986, and 1988. Among demographic differences of total foreign-born…

  10. American Legal Education and Professional Despair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, David

    2011-01-01

    Lawyers are among the most unhappy, least respected wealthy people in America. There are, no doubt, many reasons for the morale crisis in the legal profession. After all, not many people like lawyers. Further, many aspects of legal work are objectively stressful. Litigation is rife with conflict even in the most courteous jurisdictions, and trials…

  11. A Legal Guide for the Software Developer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Small Business Assistance Office, St. Paul.

    This booklet has been prepared to familiarize the inventor, creator, or developer of a new computer software product or software invention with the basic legal issues involved in developing, protecting, and distributing the software in the United States. Basic types of software protection and related legal matters are discussed in detail,…

  12. Legalizing the Intolerable Is a Bad Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    History reveals that drug legalization accelerates new use and contributes to a larger population of chronic users. When states energetically enforce antidrug laws and policies, illegal drug use is reduced and eliminated. Drug use is incompatible with healthy child development and learning. Legalizing drugs is the shallowest response to the…

  13. Advice for the New Legal Studies Professor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    The transition into academia from law school or legal practice is a significant and exciting shift in one's legal career. This transition, however, can also be one that presents numerous challenges. Preparing a syllabus and drafting lecture material can seem like a daunting task. Writing an academic article for the first time involves learning a…

  14. Legalization of marijuana: potential impact on youth.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Alain; Yancy, W Samuel

    2004-06-01

    This technical report provides historical perspectives and comparisons of various approaches to the legal status of marijuana to aid in forming public policy. Information on the impact that decriminalization and legalization of marijuana could have on adolescents, in addition to concerns surrounding medicinal use of marijuana, are also addressed in this report. Recommendations are included in the accompanying policy statement.

  15. 40 CFR 52.225 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.225 Section 52.225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.225 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of §...

  16. 40 CFR 52.225 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.225 Section 52.225 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.225 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of §...

  17. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations....

  18. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations....

  19. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations....

  20. 32 CFR 637.12 - Legal considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Legal considerations. 637.12 Section 637.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.12 Legal considerations....

  1. 28 CFR 540.19 - Legal correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Legal correspondence. 540.19 Section 540... WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.19 Legal correspondence. (a) Staff shall mark each.... (b) The inmate is responsible for advising any attorney that correspondence will be handled...

  2. 28 CFR 540.19 - Legal correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Legal correspondence. 540.19 Section 540... WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.19 Legal correspondence. (a) Staff shall mark each.... (b) The inmate is responsible for advising any attorney that correspondence will be handled...

  3. 28 CFR 540.19 - Legal correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal correspondence. 540.19 Section 540... WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.19 Legal correspondence. (a) Staff shall mark each.... (b) The inmate is responsible for advising any attorney that correspondence will be handled...

  4. 28 CFR 540.19 - Legal correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal correspondence. 540.19 Section 540... WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.19 Legal correspondence. (a) Staff shall mark each.... (b) The inmate is responsible for advising any attorney that correspondence will be handled...

  5. 28 CFR 540.19 - Legal correspondence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Legal correspondence. 540.19 Section 540... WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Correspondence § 540.19 Legal correspondence. (a) Staff shall mark each.... (b) The inmate is responsible for advising any attorney that correspondence will be handled...

  6. Legal Guidelines for Curbing School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Jonathan A.; Dowling, Ruth T.; Horton, Janet L.; Howie, Margaret-Ann F.; Majestic, Ann L.; Schwartz, Richard A.; Shaw, Brian C.; Smith, Bruce W.

    This publication contains articles that focus on the legal issues that confront schools when they use various means to maintain order and safeguard student well being, and examine the liability that may be imposed if they fail to do so. Following the foreword and the introduction, the articles include: (1) "Legal and Policy Issues in Curbing…

  7. Abortion Legalization and Life-Cycle Fertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gruber, Jonathan; Levine, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to compare the lifetime fertility of women born in early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years occurred in the…

  8. Exploring Technological Frontiers: Autonomy in Legal Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Lyria Bennett

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, Barton Beebe critiqued a "golden age" of space law in the 1950s and 1960s in which obscure legal issues concerning space exploration and aliens were addressed. This article describes a more recent "golden age" in legal scholarship, namely that relating to virtual worlds such as World of Warcraft and Second Life. The author examines the…

  9. LEGAL ISSUES OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Legal issues are becoming as important as any other in promoting or limiting the development of GIS technology. Certainly legal considerations must now be kept in mind during the creation and implementation of large public and private GIS projects. Debate focuses on a number of...

  10. 16 CFR 600.2 - Legal effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal effect. 600.2 Section 600.2 Commercial... INTERPRETATIONS § 600.2 Legal effect. (a) The interpretations in the Commentary are not trade regulation rules or regulations, and, as provided in § 1.73 of the Commission's rules, they do not have the force or effect...

  11. 16 CFR 698.2 - Legal effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Legal effect. 698.2 Section 698.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT MODEL FORMS AND DISCLOSURES § 698.2 Legal effect. These model forms and disclosures prescribed by the FTC do not constitute a trade regulation...

  12. 16 CFR 698.2 - Legal effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Legal effect. 698.2 Section 698.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT MODEL FORMS AND DISCLOSURES § 698.2 Legal effect. These model forms and disclosures prescribed by the FTC do not constitute a trade regulation...

  13. 16 CFR 698.2 - Legal effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Legal effect. 698.2 Section 698.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT MODEL FORMS AND DISCLOSURES § 698.2 Legal effect. These model forms and disclosures prescribed by the FTC do not constitute a trade regulation...

  14. 16 CFR 698.2 - Legal effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal effect. 698.2 Section 698.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT MODEL FORMS AND DISCLOSURES § 698.2 Legal effect. These model forms and disclosures prescribed by the FTC do not constitute a trade regulation...

  15. 16 CFR 698.2 - Legal effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Legal effect. 698.2 Section 698.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT MODEL FORMS AND DISCLOSURES § 698.2 Legal effect. These model forms and disclosures prescribed by the FTC do not constitute a trade regulation...

  16. 16 CFR 600.2 - Legal effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Legal effect. 600.2 Section 600.2 Commercial... INTERPRETATIONS § 600.2 Legal effect. (a) The interpretations in the Commentary are not trade regulation rules or regulations, and, as provided in § 1.73 of the Commission's rules, they do not have the force or effect...

  17. Legal challenges in realizing interstellar initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Suzanne M.; Osmond, Elizabeth B.; Urrutia, Manuel C.

    Legal aspects of interstellar exploration and travel are examined. The concept of a space management and legal infrastructure is discussed. Attention is given to space law applicable to social customs, birth, citizenship, ownership, the right to protect one's property and life through insurance, commercial endeavors, colonial government, law and order, space debris, hazardous wastes, and burial and inheritance.

  18. 20 CFR 410.391 - Legal impediment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal impediment. 410.391 Section 410.391 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and Dependency § 410.391 Legal impediment. For purposes...

  19. 20 CFR 410.391 - Legal impediment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Legal impediment. 410.391 Section 410.391 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and Dependency § 410.391 Legal impediment. For purposes...

  20. New Directions in Legal Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chien, R. T.; And Others

    The paper discusses some new developments that should evolve during the next decade in automating the handling of legal information. These new developments include: automated question-answering systems to provide quick and inexpensive answers to many non-controversial, but not necessarily simple legal questions to aid lawyers, social and welfare…

  1. Are You a Legally Literate School Counselor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kimberly R.; Rushing, Jeri L.; Beale, Andrew V.

    2010-01-01

    This exercise is designed to assist school counselors in assessing their knowledge of prevalent ethical and legal issues within the school setting. The aim is to highlight emerging legal and ethical dilemmas and motivate counselors to stay abreast of specific school rules and policies, as well as keep a basic understanding of state and federal…

  2. Legal aspects of clinical ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, J

    2001-04-01

    In an increasingly litigious society where ritual demands for accountability and "taking responsibility" are now commonplace, it is not surprising that members of clinical ethics committees (CECs) are becoming more aware of their potential legal liability. Yet the vulnerability of committee members to legal action is difficult to assess with any certainty. This is because the CECs which have been set up in the UK are--if the American experience is followed--likely to vary significantly in terms of their functions, procedures, composition, structures and authority. As a consequence it is difficult to generalize about the legal implications. Nevertheless, despite these difficulties this article will outline the broad legal principles governing the potential liability of committee members. It will also consider the relationship between CECs and the courts. It begins, however, with a brief analysis of the relationship between ethics and law in committee deliberations, and in particular of the role of law and legal expertise on CECs.

  3. Brain death: legal obligations and the courts.

    PubMed

    Burkle, Christopher M; Pope, Thaddeus M

    2015-04-01

    Brain death, or death determined by neurologic criteria, has been legally adopted in all U.S. states for decades. Despite its long-established history, a lack of clear understanding has led to disputes requiring a legal forum for resolution. Recently, physicians and hospitals across the country have been impacted by a growing number of disputes about brain death. The authors offer clinicians a historical perspective on the evolution of brain death as a legal cause of death in the United States. They then review the more common legal categories of disputes encountered, including representative court cases for each. This overview provides physicians with a general legal perspective on brain death so they may better appreciate the pertinent issues if and when later confronted.

  4. Determination of the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO) Purifiers for Indoor Air Pollutants Using a Closed-Loop Reactor. Part II: Experimental Results.

    PubMed

    Héquet, Valérie; Batault, Frédéric; Raillard, Cécile; Thévenet, Frédéric; Le Coq, Laurence; Dumont, Éric

    2017-03-06

    The performances of a laboratory PhotoCatalytic Oxidation (PCO) device were determined using a recirculation closed-loop pilot reactor. The closed-loop system was modeled by associating equations related to two ideal reactors: a perfectly mixed reservoir with a volume of VR = 0.42 m³ and a plug flow system corresponding to the PCO device with a volume of VP = 5.6 × 10(-3) m³. The PCO device was composed of a pleated photocatalytic filter (1100 cm²) and two 18-W UVA fluorescent tubes. The Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of the apparatus was measured under different operating conditions. The influence of three operating parameters was investigated: (i) light irradiance I from 0.10 to 2.0 mW·cm(-2); (ii) air velocity v from 0.2 to 1.9 m·s(-1); and (iii) initial toluene concentration C₀ (200, 600, 1000 and 4700 ppbv). The results showed that the conditions needed to apply a first-order decay model to the experimental data (described in Part I) were fulfilled. The CADR values, ranging from 0.35 to 3.95 m³·h(-1), were mainly dependent on the light irradiance intensity. A square root influence of the light irradiance was observed. Although the CADR of the PCO device inserted in the closed-loop reactor did not theoretically depend on the flow rate (see Part I), the experimental results did not enable the confirmation of this prediction. The initial concentration was also a parameter influencing the CADR, as well as the toluene degradation rate. The maximum degradation rate rmax ranged from 342 to 4894 ppbv/h. Finally, this study evidenced that a recirculation closed-loop pilot could be used to develop a reliable standard test method to assess the effectiveness of PCO devices.

  5. Assessment of DoD Wounded Warrior Matters: Selection and Training of Warrior Transition Unit and Wounded Warrior Battalion Leaders and Cadre

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-22

    fill WTU cadre positions. As a result of our assessment in this area and discussions on-site with Wounded Warrior Transition Command ( WTC ) and WTU...leaders, the Army WTC subsequently issued stricter and more consistent detailed guidance on the identification, screening, selection, and assignment of...taken by WTC meets our previous concerns regarding this issue. United States Marine Corps - Wounded Warrior Regiment During our assessment, we

  6. Measuring Radiant Emissions from Entire Prescribed Fires with Ground, Airborne and Satellite Sensors RxCADRE 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, Matthew B.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Zajkowski, Thomas; Loudermilk, E. Louise; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Ellison, Luke; Kremens, Robert L.; Holley, William; Martinez, Otto; Paxton, Alexander; Bright, Benjamin C.; O'Brien, Joseph J.; Hornsby, Benjamin; Ichoku, Charles; Faulring, Jason; Gerace, Aaron; Peterson, David; Mauceri, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Characterising radiation from wildland fires is an important focus of fire science because radiation relates directly to the combustion process and can be measured across a wide range of spatial extents and resolutions. As part of a more comprehensive set of measurements collected during the 2012 Prescribed Fire Combustion and Atmospheric Dynamics Research (RxCADRE) field campaign, we used ground, airborne and spaceborne sensors to measure fire radiative power (FRP) from whole fires, applying different methods to small (2 ha) and large (.100 ha) burn blocks. For small blocks (n1/46), FRP estimated from an obliquely oriented long-wave infrared (LWIR) camera mounted on a boom lift were compared with FRP derived from combined data from tower-mounted radiometers and remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS). For large burn blocks (n1/43), satellite FRP measurements from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensors were compared with near-coincident FRP measurements derived from a LWIR imaging system aboard a piloted aircraft. We describe measurements and consider their strengths and weaknesses. Until quantitative sensors exist for small RPAS, their use in fire research will remain limited. For oblique, airborne and satellite sensors, further FRP measurement development is needed along with greater replication of coincident measurements, which we show to be feasible.

  7. Transfert et transport des nouveau-nés en situation de détresse vitale à Yaoundé, Cameroun: analyse situationnelle dans un hôpital de référence

    PubMed Central

    Nlend, Anne Esther Njom; Zeudja, Cécile; Nsoa, Lydie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Notre objectif était de décrire les caractéristiques du transfert des nouveau-nés en situation de détresse vitale vers le Centre Hospitalier d’ESSOS à Yaoundé, Cameroun. Méthodes Nous avons réalisé une étude transversale prospective d’Octobre 2014 à Janvier 2015. La collecte des données était faite à l’aide d’un questionnaire court auprès de l’opérateur du transfert. Principaux paramètres: moyen de transport, motif du transfert, délai du transfert, nombre de décours (itinéraire avant l’admission) prévalence de l’hypothermie, taux de mortalité néonatale. Résultats Nous avons enregistré 73 transferts durant la période Près de 1/5 (22%) étaient nés au sein du district de santé de la structure de référence. Les nouveau-nés référés venaient de structures tertiaires dans 24/73 (33%). Le principal motif de transfert était la grande prématurité (40%) suivi de l’asphyxie néonatale (26%). Le transfert était médicalisé dans 5/73 (7%) des cas et infirmier interhospitalier dans 10/73 (13,6%) des cas. Le délai moyen de transfert était de 17 heures, 60% avaient été transférés dans les 6 premières heures de vie et 22% (16/73) dans les deux heures. Pour plus de la moitié des nouveau-nés, un détour dans une autre structure avait été réalisé avant l’admission. L’hypothermie (température centrale inférieure à 36°) à l’arrivée était notée dans 20% des cas. 15/73(20,5%) des nouveau-nés transférés sont décédés. la température moyenne à l’arrivée des nouveau-nés décédés étaient de 35°5C vs 37°C chez les non-décédés (p=0,006). Le pourcentage de nouveau-nés ayant subi plus de 2 détours était de 57% chez les décédés versus 30% chez les non-décédés (p=0,02). Conclusion A Yaoundé, les conditions de transferts des nouveau-nés précaires grèvent le pronostic néonatal immédiat à cause d’un itinéraire erratique qui majore le risque d’hypothermie et de d

  8. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  9. Denial of abortion in legal settings

    PubMed Central

    Gerdts, Caitlin; DePiñeres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-01-01

    Background Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. Methods In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic characteristics of legal abortion seekers, as well as the frequency and reasons that women are denied abortion care. Results The proportion of women denied abortion services and the reasons for which they were denied varied widely by country. In Colombia, 2% of women surveyed did not receive the abortions they were seeking; in South Africa, 45% of women did not receive abortions on the day they were seeking abortion services. In both Tunisia and Nepal, 26% of women were denied their wanted abortions. Conclusions The denial of legal abortion services may have serious consequences for women's health and wellbeing. Additional evidence on the risk factors for presenting later in pregnancy, predictors of seeking unsafe illegal abortion, and the health consequences of illegal abortion and childbirth after an unwanted pregnancy is needed. Such data would assist the development of programmes and policies aimed at increasing access to and utilisation of safe abortion services where abortion is legal, and harm reduction models for women who are unable to access legal abortion services. PMID:25511805

  10. Dermatological legal claims in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Sachiko; Isogawa, Naoyuki; Ushiro, Shin; Ayuzawa, Junko; Furue, Masutaka

    2008-07-01

    Health-care safety management has recently been highlighted for patient safety. However, specialist-based risks in clinical settings have hardly been discussed in Japan so far. A review of dermatological legal claims may delineate these risks. This study examined court precedents from the databases "Courts in Japan" and LEX/DB. Thirty-four dermatology-related civil cases were found from 1968-2006. Of the 34 cases, 32 (94%) were judged and two (6%) were retried. Of these 32 cases, 11 (34%) were appealed to higher courts. Among the 34 litigations, the defendants of eight (23%) were dermatology specialists, 20 (59%) were non-dermatologists and six (18%) of unknown specialty. The defendants' negligence was determined at either level in court in 25 of the 34 cases. The negligence in these 25 cases was categorized into five groups: (i) delayed diagnosis (none); (ii) complication during diagnosis procedure (one, 4%); (iii) inappropriate treatment (nine, 36%); (iv) complication during treatment procedure (10, 40%); and (v) insufficient informed consent (five, 20%). The present study may help to improve strategies for health-care safety management in the dermatological field in Japan.

  11. Victim advocates' perceptions of legal work.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Kenneth H

    2011-12-01

    Past scholarship has weighed the risks and rewards of legal remedies for victims of domestic violence and sexual assault. Missing from this debate, however, is an analysis of the social incentives for victim advocates to offer legal options to their clients. Preliminary findings show that victim advocates perceive that outsiders respect legal work more than their care work with clients (listening, caring, and empathizing). This study offers three explanations for this phenomenon: (1) the devaluation of women's care work in general, (2) the confidentiality constraints on communicating the value of their care work, and (3) popular assumptions that care work requires professional credentials in order to be legitimate.

  12. A longitudinal study assessing the maintenance condition of cadres of four types of wheelchairs provided in low-resource areas.

    PubMed

    Rispin, Karen; Riseling, Kristofer; Wee, Joy

    2017-03-22

    Wheelchair breakdowns increase the risk of injury and limit the mobility of wheelchair users. In the endeavour to meet the enormous global need for wheelchairs, manufacturers of wheelchairs for low-resource settings face a cost-benefit tension between affordability and durability. Field studies are needed to provide feedback on durability. Four manufacturers provided cadres of wheelchairs to the organization providing rehabilitation to students at a boarding school for children with disabilities in a low-resource area. The Wheelchair Components Questionnaire for Condition was used to evaluate wheelchair maintenance condition at several time intervals after fitting. Because the maintenance regime was not identical for the four wheelchair types, wheelchair types were not compared. Analysis of variance indicated differences in condition across time and between wheelchair components. Tukey's simultaneous comparison of means indicated that across the entire group, brakes, seats, casters and foot rests received lower ratings than frame. Preliminary data after each iteration of this study were provided to manufactures and resulted in responsive design changes. Implications for Rehabilitation Longitudinal studies with the Wheelchair Components Questionnaire for Condition (WCQc) have enabled manufacturers to make responsive design improvements. Additional studies could be done with other wheelchair types to result in responsive positive design changes for those wheelchairs as well. The WCQc can be used in studies on wheelchair condition even when records of repair history are not reliably available, a situation which is not uncommon in low-resource areas. Data sets collected at an individual clinic uses the WCQc could focus attention on wheelchair components needing regular repair. With that data in mind, the maintenance regime could be modified to respond and in so doing improve wheelchair condition and reduce loss of mobility or risk of injury. Organizations involved in

  13. The employment and wages of legalized immigrants.

    PubMed

    Borjas, G J; Tienda, M

    1993-01-01

    "This article analyzes the employment and wages of recently legalized immigrants [in the United States] using the Legalization Application Processing System (LAPS) file, an administrative file based on the individual records of amnesty applicants, and draws comparisons with a sample of the foreign-born population from the Current Population Surveys of 1983, 1986 and 1988. Compared to the total foreign-born population, the legalized immigrant population differs in four important respects that bear on labor market position: 1) a younger age structure; 2) a less balanced gender composition; 3) a greater representation of Latin Americans; and 4) few years of U.S. residence. LAPS data reveal high rates of labor force participation among legalized immigrants, which exceeded the rates of the foreign-born population by approximately 5 and 17 percent for men and women, respectively."

  14. Some Legal Aspects of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Casimir J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This article explores some legal aspects of public and private education, as well as several Amendments to the Constitution and their relationships to higher education: the First, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Amendments. (Author)

  15. Managing Legal Texts in Requirements Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Paul N.; Antón, Annie I.

    Laws and regulations are playing an increasingly important role in requirements engineering and systems development. Monitoring systems for requirements and policy compliance has been recognized in the requirements engineering community as a key area for research. Similarly, legal compliance is critical in systems development, especially given that non-compliance can result in both financial and criminal penalties. Working with legal texts can be very challenging, however, because they contain numerous ambiguities, cross-references, domain-specific definitions, and acronyms, and are frequently amended via new statutes, regulations, and case law. Requirements engineers and compliance auditors must be able to identify relevant legal texts, extract requirements and other key concepts, and monitor compliance. This chapter surveys research efforts over the past 50 years in handling legal texts for systems development. This survey can aid requirements engineers and auditors to better specify, test, and monitor systems for compliance.

  16. Vendors on Campus: The Legal Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Barbara A.; Thomas, Stephen B.

    1989-01-01

    Legal disputes concern limiting access of sales demonstrations to student residence halls. Court cases argue the regulation of commercial speech, the rights of sales demonstrators on campus, the university's censorship of demonstrations, and student privacy and association rights. (SI)

  17. 47 CFR 3.23 - Legal applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Application Procedures § 3.23 Legal applicant. The application shall be signed by the individual, partner or primary officer of a...

  18. 47 CFR 3.23 - Legal applicant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Application Procedures § 3.23 Legal applicant. The application shall be signed by the individual, partner or primary officer of a...

  19. Long-term-care legal update.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1998-04-01

    As more nurses move from the acute care setting to long-term-care and home health care, different practice issues arise. To maximize liability protection, nurses must understand the legal issues unique to each delivery system.

  20. 45 CFR 1321.71 - Legal assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... assistance in the principal language spoken by clients in areas where a significant number of clients do not speak English as their principal language. (d) A legal assistance provider may not require an...

  1. 45 CFR 1321.71 - Legal assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... assistance in the principal language spoken by clients in areas where a significant number of clients do not speak English as their principal language. (d) A legal assistance provider may not require an...

  2. 45 CFR 1321.71 - Legal assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... assistance in the principal language spoken by clients in areas where a significant number of clients do not speak English as their principal language. (d) A legal assistance provider may not require an...

  3. 45 CFR 1321.71 - Legal assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... assistance in the principal language spoken by clients in areas where a significant number of clients do not speak English as their principal language. (d) A legal assistance provider may not require an...

  4. 45 CFR 1321.71 - Legal assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assistance in the principal language spoken by clients in areas where a significant number of clients do not speak English as their principal language. (d) A legal assistance provider may not require an...

  5. Bilingual Education: Legal Issues and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha M.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews legal activity since the "Lau" decision that has focused on obligations of school districts to address the needs of English deficient students. Explores the decision's implications for further federal and state roles in establishing educational policy. (Author/GC)

  6. Continuing Legal Education: Should It Be Compulsory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leete, Burt A.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the possibility of compulsory legal education, examining recent experience of the accounting profession with mandatory continuing education, and presenting results of a survey of 400 lawyers which indicated no consensus on the subject. (JT)

  7. 40 CFR 52.1275 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Mississippi § 52.1275 Legal authority. (a... of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met, since section 7106-117 of the Mississippi Code could,...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1275 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Mississippi § 52.1275 Legal authority. (a... of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met, since section 7106-117 of the Mississippi Code could,...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1275 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Mississippi § 52.1275 Legal authority. (a... of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met, since section 7106-117 of the Mississippi Code could,...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1275 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Mississippi § 52.1275 Legal authority. (a... of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met, since section 7106-117 of the Mississippi Code could,...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1275 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Mississippi § 52.1275 Legal authority. (a... of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met, since section 7106-117 of the Mississippi Code could,...

  12. 21 CFR 120.9 - Legal basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis. Failure of a processor to have and to implement a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point...

  13. Legalization of marijuana: potential impact on youth.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Alain

    2004-06-01

    As experts in the health care of children and adolescents, pediatricians may be called on to advise legislators concerning the potential impact of changes in the legal status of marijuana on adolescents. Parents, too, may look to pediatricians for advice as they consider whether to support state-level initiatives that propose to legalize the use of marijuana for medical purposes or to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana. This policy statement provides the position of the American Academy of Pediatrics on the issue of marijuana legalization, and the accompanying technical report (available online) reviews what is currently known about the relationship between adolescents' use of marijuana and its legal status to better understand how change might influence the degree of marijuana use by adolescents in the future.

  14. The legal status of Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altamura, M.; Ferraris, L.; Miozzo, D.; Musso, L.; Siccardi, F.

    2011-03-01

    An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008). Civil Protection (CP) systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1. Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009). One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006). This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008) of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984). The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing meteo-hydrological alerts by CPs. Footnotes: 1 The Italian Civil Protection is working

  15. 40 CFR 52.924 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.924 Section 52.924... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.924 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met since K.R.S. 224.380 of the Air Pollution Control Law of the Commonwealth...

  16. A legal version of the nanoworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacour, Stéphanie

    2011-09-01

    Nanosciences and nanotechnologies come into a pre-existing legal system. Their arrival, and how they are received are worthy of analysis. Such an effort shall at first include simply lexical considerations, in order to penetrate, via their origins, the traces of these specific objects into the territory of law. The goal of this article is to explore the effects of "nanos" in various legal fields, including their relevance to the principle of precaution, patent law, and the applicable laws for chemical substances.

  17. Nurse, legal society receive human rights award.

    PubMed

    2004-12-01

    The 2004 Canadian Awards for Action on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights have been presented to Megan Oleson, a Vancouver nurse who set up a temporary, unauthorized safe injection site (SIS) for intravenous drug users in the Downtown Eastside; and to the Pivot Legal Society (PLS), also of Vancouver. The PLS worked with Oleson to set up the temporary site while Canada's first legal SIS was still under construction.

  18. [Depression and legal capacity to stand trial].

    PubMed

    Bolechała, Filip; Skupień, Elzbieta

    2006-01-01

    The criteria for assessment of legal capacity to stand trial have long been a significant issue in the Polish criminal law. The main problem in opinionating practice is the fact that the code of penal procedure and the executive penal code do not provide any univocal criteria of a mental disease that should be met according to the legal regulations in force. Because of their nature and lack of uniformity, depression and affective disorders pose a particularly great problem for experts who should opinionate on the legal capacity of the suspected and the accused to stand trial. On the one hand, it cannot be accepted that a mental illness renders a person unable to substantially understand legal proceedings and to make a rational defense. On the other hand, however, emotional reactions and mild-degree depression disorders that are only natural when an individual violates law should not be allowed to be regarded as a grave disease and to paralyze legal proceedings. In the present study, the authors have attempted to describe the guidelines that should be followed by court-appointed experts in psychiatry that are commissioned by the court to assess the mental state of an individual. The report emphasizes that in such cases, a thorough analysis, based on medical and legal premises and the experience of the involved court experts are necessary.

  19. Understanding How Grammatical Aspect Influences Legal Judgment

    PubMed Central

    Sherrill, Andrew M.; Eerland, Anita; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Magliano, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that grammatical aspect can bias how individuals perceive criminal intentionality during discourse comprehension. Given that criminal intentionality is a common criterion for legal definitions (e.g., first-degree murder), the present study explored whether grammatical aspect may also impact legal judgments. In a series of four experiments participants were provided with a legal definition and a description of a crime in which the grammatical aspect of provocation and murder events were manipulated. Participants were asked to make a decision (first- vs. second-degree murder) and then indicate factors that impacted their decision. Findings suggest that legal judgments can be affected by grammatical aspect but the most robust effects were limited to temporal dynamics (i.e., imperfective aspect results in more murder actions than perfective aspect), which may in turn influence other representational systems (i.e., number of murder actions positively predicts perceived intentionality). In addition, findings demonstrate that the influence of grammatical aspect on situation model construction and evaluation is dependent upon the larger linguistic and semantic context. Together, the results suggest grammatical aspect has indirect influences on legal judgments to the extent that variability in aspect changes the features of the situation model that align with criteria for making legal judgments. PMID:26496364

  20. 20 CFR 222.33 - Relationship resulting from legal adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship resulting from legal adoption... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.33 Relationship resulting from legal adoption... applicable State law. Legal adoption differs from equitable adoption in that in the case of legal...

  1. 20 CFR 222.33 - Relationship resulting from legal adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Relationship resulting from legal adoption... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.33 Relationship resulting from legal adoption... applicable State law. Legal adoption differs from equitable adoption in that in the case of legal...

  2. 20 CFR 222.33 - Relationship resulting from legal adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Relationship resulting from legal adoption... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.33 Relationship resulting from legal adoption... applicable State law. Legal adoption differs from equitable adoption in that in the case of legal...

  3. 20 CFR 222.33 - Relationship resulting from legal adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Relationship resulting from legal adoption... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.33 Relationship resulting from legal adoption... applicable State law. Legal adoption differs from equitable adoption in that in the case of legal...

  4. 20 CFR 222.33 - Relationship resulting from legal adoption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Relationship resulting from legal adoption... RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Child § 222.33 Relationship resulting from legal adoption... applicable State law. Legal adoption differs from equitable adoption in that in the case of legal...

  5. 45 CFR 505.2 - Persons under legal disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Persons under legal disability. 505.2 Section 505... under legal disability. (a) Claims may be submitted on behalf of persons who, being otherwise eligible... legal disability, by the natural or legal guardian, committee, conservator, curator, or any other...

  6. Business Services and Technology. Legal Careers Instructional Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti.

    This instructional guide focuses on legal careers, a part of the Business Services and Technology Program developed by the Michigan Department of Education Office of Career and Technical Education. It provides a variety of curriculum materials for teaching about the occupations of legal office specialist and legal assistant. The legal office…

  7. 5 CFR 1653.12 - Qualifying legal processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... an earlier legal process; (4) A legal process requiring the TSP to make a payment in the future; and (5) A legal process requiring a series of payments. (6) A legal process that designates the specific TSP Fund, source of contributions, or balance from which the payment or portions of the payment...

  8. Legal Nature and Functions of Referendum in Constitutional Law Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucherenko, Petr A.; Sangadzhiev, Badma.V.; Velibekov, Murad C.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study of the legal nature and functions of the referendum is conditioned by the increasing dynamics of development of direct democracy in the developed countries and the needs to legalize it in constitutional and legal norms to ensure stability in society. The purpose of this paper is to define the legal nature of the…

  9. Legal Informatics: Application of Information Technology in Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdelez, Sanda; O'Hare, Sheila

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the literature on legal information systems/CALR (computer-assisted legal research) and law office automation, including legal expert systems and information technology applications relevant to legal education and courts. The new phenomenon of Internet use in the field of law is also discussed. Contains 128 references. (AEF)

  10. The Role of Legal Education in Shaping the Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.

    1988-01-01

    Legal education is falling short of any meaningful effort to shape the legal profession. Too many members of the law school community are either indifferent to or hopelessly naive about the problems of legal practice. Law schools must address major structural problems threatening the legal system. (MSE)

  11. 48 CFR 1552.211-76 - Legal analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Legal analysis. 1552.211... Legal analysis. As prescribed in 1511.011-76, insert this contract clause when it is determined that the contract involves legal analysis. Legal Analysis (APR 1984) The Contractor shall furnish to the...

  12. 48 CFR 1552.211-76 - Legal analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Legal analysis. 1552.211... Legal analysis. As prescribed in 1511.011-76, insert this contract clause when it is determined that the contract involves legal analysis. Legal Analysis (APR 1984) The Contractor shall furnish to the...

  13. 48 CFR 1552.211-76 - Legal analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Legal analysis. 1552.211... Legal analysis. As prescribed in 1511.011-76, insert this contract clause when it is determined that the contract involves legal analysis. Legal Analysis (APR 1984) The Contractor shall furnish to the...

  14. 48 CFR 1552.211-76 - Legal analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Legal analysis. 1552.211... Legal analysis. As prescribed in 1511.011-76, insert this contract clause when it is determined that the contract involves legal analysis. Legal Analysis (APR 1984) The Contractor shall furnish to the...

  15. 45 CFR 505.2 - Persons under legal disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Persons under legal disability. 505.2 Section 505... under legal disability. (a) Claims may be submitted on behalf of persons who, being otherwise eligible... legal disability, by the natural or legal guardian, committee, conservator, curator, or any other...

  16. 45 CFR 505.2 - Persons under legal disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Persons under legal disability. 505.2 Section 505... under legal disability. (a) Claims may be submitted on behalf of persons who, being otherwise eligible... legal disability, by the natural or legal guardian, committee, conservator, curator, or any other...

  17. 45 CFR 505.2 - Persons under legal disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Persons under legal disability. 505.2 Section 505... under legal disability. (a) Claims may be submitted on behalf of persons who, being otherwise eligible... legal disability, by the natural or legal guardian, committee, conservator, curator, or any other...

  18. 45 CFR 505.2 - Persons under legal disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Persons under legal disability. 505.2 Section 505... under legal disability. (a) Claims may be submitted on behalf of persons who, being otherwise eligible... legal disability, by the natural or legal guardian, committee, conservator, curator, or any other...

  19. Les conjonctivites néonatales dans le canton de Glidji au Sud du Togo: une étude transversale à propos de 159 nouveau-nés

    PubMed Central

    Kokou, Vonor; Nidain, Maneh; Kassoula, Nononsaa Batomguela; Kwassi, Fiaty- Amenouvor; Meba, Banla; Patrice, Balo Komi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Le but de l’étude était décrire les aspects épidémiologiques des conjonctivites néonatales dans le canton de Glidji au Sud du Togo. Methodes Nous avons mené une étude transversale dans les 4 Unités Sanitaires Périphériques du canton de Glidji du 19 Mars au 13 Mai 2009 soit 8 semaines. Tous les nouveau-nés ont été inclus et la conjonctivite néonatale était définie par la présence chez un nouveau-né d'au moins deux des signes suivants: hyperhémie conjonctivale, œdème palpébral, chémosis, sécrétions purulentes, larmoiement. Les paramètres étudiés étaient l’âge, le sexe, les facteurs de risque, les antécédents, la présence ou non de conjonctivite, les germes en causes et l’évolution sous traitement. Resultats Sur la période, 159 nouveau-nés ont été examinés. L’âge moyen était de 10,9 jours avec des extrêmes de 0 à 28 jours. Il y avait 80 garçons pour 79 filles soit un sex-ratio de 1,01. Sur les 159 nouveau-nés, 7 cas de conjonctivite ont été diagnostiqués soit une prévalence de 4,4%. Les facteurs de risque identifiés étaient l'accouchement par voie basse et la présence d'IST chez la mère pendant la grossesse. Sur les 7 cas de conjonctivite, l'examen cytobactériologique a permis d'isoler le staphylococcus aureus dans 2 cas. L’évolution des cas de conjonctivite sous traitement était favorable avec régression des signes dès le 3è jour. Conclusion Les conjonctivites néonatales avaient une prévalence de 4,4% dans le canton de Glidji au sud du Togo et le staphylocoque doré était le germe en cause. Leur prévention passe par un bon suivi lors de la consultation prénatale et l'instillation de collyre antibiotique à la naissance PMID:27642383

  20. Facteurs associes aux décès des nouveau-nés suspects d'infections bactériennes au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Pédiatrique Charles de Gaulle de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouédraogo, Solange Odile Yugbaré; Méda, Désiré; Dao, Lassina; Kouéta, Fla; Ludovic, Kam; Traoré, Ramata Ouédraogo; Yé, Diarra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Il s'agit d’étudier les facteurs associés au décès des nouveau-nés suspects d'infections bactériennes au centre hospitalier universitaire pédiatrique Charles de gaulle de Ouagadougou. Méthodes Nous avons mené une étude de cohorte rétrospective du 1er janvier 2009 au 31 décembre 2012 au centre hospitalier universitaire pédiatrique Charles de gaulle de Ouagadougou. Résultats La fréquence hospitalière des nouveau-nés suspects d'infection bactérienne sur était de 62,8%. L’âge médian à l'admission était de trois jours et le sex ratio de 1,1. Parmi ces nouveau-nés, 351 (22,8%) ont bénéficié d'au moins un examen bactériologique, et 28 (8%) ont eu la confirmation de l'origine bactérienne de l'infection. Au cours de la période néonatale, 138(9%) nouveau-nés sont décédés avec un taux de létalité précoce et tardive respectivement de 9,6% et 8,3%. Le lieu de résidence, le mode d'admission, le nombre de consultations prénatales, le poids de naissance, la présence de signes de gravité et l'année d'admission étaient les facteurs de risque indépendants associés au décès. Conclusion Les facteurs associés au décès devraient être pris en compte dans les interventions de santé pour réduire la mortalité néonatale. PMID:27583071

  1. Legal abortion in Georgia, 1980.

    PubMed

    Spitz, A M; Oberle, M; Zaro, S M

    1984-02-01

    According to data reported to the Georgia Department of Human Resources (DHR), the number of induced abortions performedin Georgia in 1980 decreased for the 1st time since 1968 when the state legalized abortion. To verify this reported decrease, the DHR data were compared with statistics obtained by the Alan Guttmacher Institute in a 1980 survey of abortion providers in Georgia. Since the AGI contacts providers directly, its statistics are considered a more accurate reflection of abortions performed. According to the DHR, the number of abortions dropped from 36,579 in 1979 to 33,288 in 1980, a 9% decrease, and the abortion rate fell from 26.6/1000 women ages 15-44 years to 23.9/1000. AGI data indicated a drop from 38,760 abortions in 1979 to 37,890 in 1980, a 2% decrease. Since both sources noted a similar trend despite differences in data collection methods, the 1980 decline in abortion procedures in Georgia is considered to represent a true decline rather than s statistical artifact. The sociodemographic characteristics of women obtaining abortions in Georgia in 1980 were also analyzed on the basis of DHR data. Although the number of abortions in Georgia performed on Georgia residents increased 2.5% from 1979-80 to 90.7%, the abortion ratio for residents decreased from 367.7 to 327.4 abortions/1000 live births. There was little change in the age, race, or marital status distribution of women receiving abortions. The ratio for white women was 317 abortions/1000 live births and that for blacks was 342/1000. The abortion ratio for unmarried women (1166/1000) was 13 times that for married women (88/1000). The number of repeat abortions decreased form 34% in 1979 to 29% in 1980. Moreover, 93% of women obtaining abortions did so in the 1st 12 weeks of gestation compared with 89% in 1979. The percentage of abortions performed in clinics increased from 66.5% in 1979 to 75.3% in 1980, with suction curettage accounting for 85% of all abortions in the 1st 12 weeks of

  2. Law in Context: Teaching Legal Studies through the Lens of Extra-Legal Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Sandra K.; DiMatteo, Larry A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to persuade legal studies teachers of the benefits of using works from other disciplines to illustrate the rationales for law, the greater context in which the legal order operates, and the relationship between law and society. The tangential benefits of using works from other disciplines are the enhancement of the…

  3. Pre-event Smallpox Vaccination for Healthcare Workers Revisited – the Need for a Carefully Screened Multidisciplinary Cadre

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, JD D.

    2007-03-01

    Abstract As healthcare institutions are a focus of smallpox transmission early in an epidemic, several mathematical models support pre-event smallpox vaccination of healthcare workers (HCWs). The deciding factor for HCW voluntary vaccination is the risk of disease exposure versus the risk of vaccine adverse events. In a United States military population, with careful screening to exclude atopic dermatitis/eczema and immunosuppression, over 1 million vaccinia vaccinations were delivered with 1 fatality attributed to vaccination. Among 37,901 U.S. civilian volunteer healthcare workers vaccinated, 100 serious adverse events were reported including 10 ischemic cardiac episodes and six myocardial infarctions – 2 were fatal. This older population had a higher rate of adverse events due to age related coronary artery disease. T-cell mediated inflammatory processes, induced by live vaccinia vaccination, may have a role in the observed acute coronary artery events. With exclusion of individuals at risk for coronary artery disease, atopic dermatitis/eczema, and immunosuppression, HCWs can be smallpox vaccinated with minimal risk. A smallpox pre-vaccinated multidisciplinary cadre (physician, nurse, infection control practitioner, technician) will supply leadership to deal with fear and uncertainty while limiting spread and initial mortality of smallpox. Stochastic – from the Greek meaning “skillful in aiming” – is currently interpreted as arising from chance and involving probability. This issue’s article “Containing a large bioterrorist smallpox attack: a computer simulation approach” by Longini et al. is a discrete time, stochastic computer simulation model that offers additional planning guidance for a smallpox (variola virus) outbreak (1). Although interpretation of the model’s information may differ, Longini’s article concludes “Given that surveillance and containment measures are in place, preemptive vaccination of hospital workers would further

  4. Human genetic information: the legal implications.

    PubMed

    Brahams, D

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a brief summary of some of the key legal issues raised by human genetic information and research as viewed from a British common law standpoint. The law is basically reactive rather than prospective and problems posed by futuristic medico-scientific discoveries are likely to be dealt with by reference to established legal principles and analogies made with decided cases. The acquisition and research into human genetic information in the form of DNA profiling may have wide-ranging legal implications. Human genetic information may provide an evidential tool in the legal process when the identity of a specific individual or his family connections and relationships are called into question. It may also pose problems of confidentiality which could conflict with a duty of disclosure. In the future it may be possible to identify a propensity to develop a disease which may be seriously disabling or terminal long before any symptoms are detectable. This sensitive information could be of considerable interest to any prospective employer, insurer, marriage partner or family member and is of serious concern to the individual himself. How far should or could such information lawfully be made available and to whom? Legal debates are also likely to focus on ownership of human genetic information, the patenting of techniques to unravel it, and therapies and medicines developed therefrom. The law will be invoked to safeguard any intellectual property which may exist and to patent any inventive steps in the field.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. [The legal status of a human corpse].

    PubMed

    Sodesaki, K

    2001-07-01

    A human corpse presents a number of difficulties, one of which involves difficulties associated with its legal status. A human body, once dead, is considered only as a weight of material, although it signifies continuity of what used to be a living being. A corpse is not an integral part of a human being any more. Legal human rights are only applicable to living humans, and not to a corpse. A fertilized human ovum, a human embryo, a fetus or a separated part of a (live) human body has legal-status problems that are similar to those of a corpse. In Japan, destruction, abandonment or ryotoku (take illegal possession) of a corpse, is forbidden by Japanese Criminal Law #190. This law aims to respect popular religious beliefs, rather than to protect personal rights of a given dead person. Our society needs some other way to provide a dead person with legal protection. Those of us practicing in legal medicine should remind the students in our classroom as well as ourselves of the problems just mentioned. We must always keep in mind that autopsy is exceptionally permitted by law with respect to a corpse for the larger good of society at large.

  6. [Legal repercussions of Clinical Ethics Committees reports].

    PubMed

    Couceiro V, Azucena; Beca I, Juan Pablo

    2006-04-01

    Clinical Ethics Committees and Research Ethics Committees have their own specific roles. The Clinical Ethics Committee's pronouncements have an advisory function, whereas Research Ethics Committees' decisions are binding. This article analyzes the legal impact of the Clinical Ethics Committees' reports. Legal and medical reasoning share the same practical nature. Both can have several correct answers to the same situation. Clinical Ethics Committees deliberate about these alternatives and analyze the involved values. Their conclusions are non-compulsory recommendations. They do not replace nor diminish the doctor's personal responsibility. Even though the Clinical Ethics Committees' reports are not binding, they constitute a sort of "expert's opinion", expressed by qualified professionals, who assume their own professional responsibility as advisors. The members' behavior is necessarily subject to constitutional and legal regulations. When judges review the Clinical Ethics Committee's reports, they must realize that their nature is advisory, and also consider them an essential element to reduce the gap between the medical and legal fields. In this way, the problem of increasingly transforming medicine into a legal issue can be prevented.

  7. Evaluating medico-legal decisional competency criteria.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Demian

    2015-06-01

    In this paper I get clearer on the considerations that ought to inform the evaluation and development of medico-legal competency criteria-where this is taken to be a question regarding the abilities that ought to be needed for a patient to be found competent in medico-legal contexts. In the "Decisional Competency in Medico-Legal Contexts" section I explore how the question regarding the abilities that ought to be needed for decisional competence is to be interpreted. I begin by considering an interpretation that takes the question to be asking about the abilities needed to satisfy an idealized view of competent decision-making, according to which decisional competency is a matter of possessing those abilities or attributes that are needed to engage in good or effective or, perhaps, substantially autonomous or rational decision-making. The view has some plausibility-it accords with the way decisional competency is understood in a number of everyday contexts-but fails as an interpretation of the question regarding the abilities that should be needed for decisional competence in medico-legal contexts. Nevertheless, consideration of why it is mistaken suggests a more accurate interpretation and points the way in which the question regarding the evaluation of medico-legal competency criteria is to be answered. Building on other scholarly work in the area, I outline in the "Primary and Secondary Requirements" section several requirements that decisional competence criteria ought to satisfy. Then, in the "Applying the Framework" section, I say something about the extent to which medico-legal competency criteria, as well as some models of decisional competency proposed in the academic literature, fulfil those requirements.

  8. Legal and social ambivalence regarding homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R G

    1977-01-01

    Social controversy and legal ambivalence have been prevalent regarding homosexuality. Guardians of tradition, such as the churches, the mental health professional organizations, and the legal experts, have all moved toward decriminalization in their own fashion. Yet this thrust has been halted by a recent Supreme Court decision. The homosexual may have to retreat to the closet unless renewal occurs. Some information is available on what societal and behavioral changes will occur as the laws change. However, a more scientifically adequate information base, as well as political courage, is required before those seeking decriminalization are likely to succeed.

  9. Determination of the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO) Purifiers for Indoor Air Pollutants Using a Closed-Loop Reactor. Part I: Theoretical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Éric; Héquet, Valérie

    2017-03-06

    This study demonstrated that a laboratory-scale recirculation closed-loop reactor can be an efficient technique for the determination of the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of PhotoCatalytic Oxidation (PCO) air purification devices. The recirculation closed-loop reactor was modeled by associating equations related to two ideal reactors: one is a perfectly mixed reservoir and the other is a plug flow system corresponding to the PCO device itself. Based on the assumption that the ratio between the residence time in the PCO device and the residence time in the reservoir τP/τR tends to 0, the model highlights that a lab closed-loop reactor can be a suitable technique for the determination of the efficiency of PCO devices. Moreover, if the single-pass removal efficiency is lower than 5% of the treated flow rate, the decrease in the pollutant concentration over time can be characterized by a first-order decay model in which the time constant is proportional to the CADR. The limits of the model are examined and reported in terms of operating conditions (experiment duration, ratio of residence times, and flow rate ranges).

  10. Evaluation du potentiel energetique de la biomasse forestiere au Nouveau-Brunswick pour la production de chaleur et d'electricite en cogeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Stephane

    Ce travail de recherche porte sur l'évaluation du potentiel énergétique de la biomasse forestière au Nouveau-Brunswick. Plus précisément, l'étude cherche à quantifier les puissances thermique et électrique pouvant être générées à partir de cette biomasse lorsque celle-ci est utilisée comme source de combustible dans des centrales de cogénération réparties sur l'ensemble du territoire néo-brunswickois. Dans un premier temps, l'identification de sites pouvant potentiellement accueillir une centrale de cogénération à la biomasse est effectuée à partir de certains critères et lignes directrices. Au total, 17 sites sont retenus. Par la suite, l'aire d'approvisionnement en biomasse forestière de chacun des sites choisis est délimitée selon la distance de transport la plus courte de la biomasse. Dans le même ordre d'idées, des zones de transport sont établies afin de déterminer la distribution spatiale de la biomasse forestière à l'intérieur de chacune des aires d'approvisionnement. En second lieu, les quantités de biomasse forestière pouvant être récoltées annuellement de façon durable sont estimées selon différentes méthodes adaptées aux propriétaires des terres. La biomasse forestière disponible est ensuite allouée aux aires d'approvisionnement selon sa distribution spatiale. En dernier lieu, lorsque les quantités de biomasse forestière disponible annuellement pour chacune des aires d'approvisionnement sont déterminées, les quantités d'énergie (Joules) ainsi que les puissances thermiques (Wth) et électriques (We) pouvant être générées à partir de ces quantités de biomasse sont estimées à l'aide de modèles énergétiques. Les résultats obtenus démontrent, qu'au Nouveau-Brunswick, environ 15.5 million de tonnes métriques vertes de biomasse forestière sont potentiellement disponibles annuellement de façon durable. Répartie selon les trois principales catégories de biomasse forestière, les résultats d

  11. Citing Legal Material in APA Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Allan G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Guidelines are offered to authors on the correct citation format for legal references, including statutes and regulations, court decisions, and law review articles. Standards are based on those published by the Harvard Law Review Association and the American Psychological Association. (DB)

  12. 5 CFR 919.965 - Legal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial proceeding, including a proceeding under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812), to which the Federal Government or a....965 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE...

  13. 40 CFR 52.2574 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met since section 144.33 of the Wisconsin Air Law will... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.2574 Section 52.2574 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2574 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met since section 144.33 of the Wisconsin Air Law will... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 52.2574 Section 52.2574 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  15. The Legal Recognition of Sign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an analytical overview of the different types of explicit legal recognition of sign languages. Five categories are distinguished: constitutional recognition, recognition by means of general language legislation, recognition by means of a sign language law or act, recognition by means of a sign language law or act including…

  16. 14 CFR 1203.100 - Legal basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Legal basis. 1203.100 Section 1203.100 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Scope § 1203... that NASA has responsibility for safeguarding. (c) The National Aeronautics and Space Act. (1)...

  17. 14 CFR 1203.100 - Legal basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Legal basis. 1203.100 Section 1203.100 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Scope § 1203... that NASA has responsibility for safeguarding. (c) The National Aeronautics and Space Act. (1)...

  18. Legal Protections Gay Students Must Receive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Julie

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses practical guidance on schools' legal rights and responsibilities with respect to students, programs, and curriculum. Like all other individuals, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students are guaranteed equal protection under the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution and free speech and association under the…

  19. Legal Portion in Russian Inheritance Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inshina, Roza; Murzalimova, Lyudmila

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the right to inherit as one of the basic human rights guaranteed by the Constitution of the Russian Federation. The state has set rules according to which after a person's death, his or her property is inherited by other persons. The Russian civil legislation establishes the institution of legal portions that is…

  20. Children's Health in a Legal Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntington, Clare; Scott, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. legal system gives parents the authority and responsibility to make decisions about their children's health care, and favors parental rights over society's collective responsibility to provide for children's welfare. Neither the federal government nor state governments have an affirmative obligation to protect and promote children's…

  1. Legal Challenges to Compulsory Attendance Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckham, Joseph C.

    Legal challenges to state compulsory attendance laws have emphasized four interrelated constitutional claims. Under provisions of the free exercise clause of the First Amendment, parents have challenged the state's authority to require public school attendance in lieu of home instruction and private, religious organizations have refused to comply…

  2. 40 CFR 52.1575 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Jersey § 52.1575 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met, since section 26:2C-9 of the New Jersey Air...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1575 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Jersey § 52.1575 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met, since section 26:2C-9 of the New Jersey Air...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1575 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Jersey § 52.1575 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met, since section 26:2C-9 of the New Jersey Air...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1575 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Jersey § 52.1575 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met, since section 26:2C-9 of the New Jersey Air...

  6. The legal imperative for treating rare disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Life-saving orphan drugs are some of the most expensive medicines. European Union governments aim to accommodate their provision within stretched healthcare budgets but face pressure to reduce funding of such treatments. Patients struggle to retain or gain access to them as their special status is questioned, causing distress and in some cases, fears of premature death. In the UK and EU reimbursement and pricing model of drugs, and orphan drugs in particular, is being re-evaluated. Methods Using the United Kingdom as a case study we present, for the first time, legal arguments which compel governments to provide orphan medicinal products. These include (i) disability legislation, (ii) national and organisational constitutions, (iii) judicial review, (iv) tort law and (v) human rights legislation. We then address directly potential objections to our analysis and counter arguments which aim to limit provision of orphan drugs to the intended patient recipients. Results We demonstrate that a compelling case can be made that the law demands the treatment of orphan diseases. Conclusions Our legal framework will assist doctors and patients in ensuring the continued provision of treatments despite significant economic pressure to reduce funding. These legal avenues will empower stakeholders in drafting funding guidelines throughout the EU. The legal right to treatment extends beyond rare diseases and our analysis may therefore affect allocation of healthcare budgets throughout the EU. PMID:24010951

  7. The Legality of School Vouchers: Round Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha

    2006-01-01

    In 2002 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that state-supported vouchers, which parents can redeem in private schools, do not offend the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. Thus, the legality of government vouchers to fund education will be determined primarily on the basis of state law. Specifically, programs are being challenged under state…

  8. The COUNSELOR Project: Understanding Legal Argument.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    cannot reasonably expect the judge to maintain a " tabula rasa " mentality, where his y decision is presumably based only on the propositions presented...this is the case, then the role of the audience becomes crucial. Since the audience in legal argumentation is a very specialized group, it is

  9. Legal Aspects of Educating the Developmentally Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III

    A major legal development in the 1970s has been the extension of the principle of egalitarianism to the developmentally disabled, particularly the mentally retarded. The principle that all persons, however unequal they may be in terms of their development, should be treated equally in the sense of being granted equal opportunities has been…

  10. 40 CFR 62.4623 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Louisiana Plan for Control of Designated Pollutants from Existing Facilities (section 111(d) Plan) § 62.4623 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 60.26(a) of this chapter are not met since the plan does not...

  11. 40 CFR 62.4623 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Louisiana Plan for Control of Designated Pollutants from Existing Facilities (section 111(d) Plan) § 62.4623 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 60.26(a) of this chapter are not met since the plan does not...

  12. Legal History Meets the Honors Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Robert B., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the "Law and Culture" course that he developed to teach in the Butler University Honors Program. The course looks at some landmark periods or events in legal history and explores how those events were the product of their culture, and how they affected their culture. Among the events or periods that the author…

  13. Legal Issues in Public School Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckham, Joseph, Ed.; Zirkel, Perry A., Ed.

    The relationship between public schools and their employees is one of the most frequently litigated aspects of American education. Accordingly, the chapters in this text present a comprehensive and current report of legal issues in public school employment. Chapter titles and authors are as follows: (1) "Critical Elements of the Employment…

  14. The Legal Deposit of Electronic Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickery, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Discusses electronic publication and legal deposit (the requirement that publications produced within a certain jurisdiction be deposited, usually in designated libraries which include the national library). The need for extension of deposit requirements to electronic materials, issues of concern, current legislation worldwide, and the role of…

  15. Current Illinois Legal Issues. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopecky, Frank J., Ed.; Wilkin, Rebecca S., Ed.

    Designed as supplementary reading in American government or social studies courses, this compilation of articles is intended to help students gain a better understanding of the judiciary's role in the Illinois legal system. The first of three sections contains articles about judges and the court system. The second section examines the criminal…

  16. The Principal's Legal Handbook. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kenneth, Ed.; Gooden, Mark, Ed.; Mead, Julie, Ed.; Pauken, Patrick, Ed.; Eckes, Suzanne, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The Principal's Legal Handbook contains information and recommendations for practice in four areas. Section 1, "Students and the Law," yields interesting and informative answers on a number of issues related to students and the law: recent issues in schools relative to students' rights; the use of technology; and the latest case law and…

  17. 33 CFR 326.5 - Legal action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recommend criminal or civil actions to obtain penalties for violations, compliance with the orders and... for criminal or civil action include, but are not limited to, violations which, in the district... directly to the U.S. Attorney. Because of the unique legal system in the Trust Territories, all cases...

  18. 33 CFR 326.5 - Legal action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... recommend criminal or civil actions to obtain penalties for violations, compliance with the orders and... for criminal or civil action include, but are not limited to, violations which, in the district... directly to the U.S. Attorney. Because of the unique legal system in the Trust Territories, all cases...

  19. 42 CFR 425.104 - Legal entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Legal entity. 425.104 Section 425.104 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE... law, and authorized to conduct business in each State in which it operates for purposes of...

  20. HIV, drugs and the legal environment

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Beletsky, Leo; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A large body of scientific evidence indicates that policies based solely on law enforcement without taking into account public health and human rights considerations increase the health risks of people who inject drugs (PWIDs) and their communities. Although formal laws are an important component of the legal environment supporting harm reduction, it is the enforcement of the law that affects PWIDs' behavior and attitudes most acutely. This commentary focuses primarily on drug policies and policing practices that increase PWIDs' risk of acquiring HIV and viral hepatitis, and avenues for intervention. Policy and legal reforms that promote public health over the criminalization of drug use and PWID are urgently needed. This should include alternative regulatory frameworks for illicit drug possession and use. Changing legal norms and improving law enforcement responses to drug-related harms requires partnerships that are broader than the necessary bridges between criminal justice and public health sectors. HIV prevention efforts must partner with wider initiatives that seek to improve police professionalism, accountability, and transparency and boost the rule of law. Public health and criminal justice professionals can work synergistically to shift the legal environment away from one that exacerbates HIV risks to one that promotes safe and healthy communities. PMID:25265900

  1. An Administrator's Legal Guide to Student Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Eugene T.

    The purpose of this study was to help public school administrators, especially principals, to understand the legal and constitutional limitations of their authority in dealing with students. Control of students is discussed as five separate topics, each representing a chapter, as follows: (1) freedom of expression and First Amendment rights; (2)…

  2. Environment and the Law. Legal Almanac Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Irving J.

    This survey is designed to provide the general reader with some basic background on the legal aspects of the effort to achieve environmental quality. The first chapter discusses the structure of federal environmental control in terms of newly established agencies and recently enacted legislation. Other chapters deal individually with air, water,…

  3. 36 CFR 1275.14 - Legal custody.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal custody. 1275.14 Section 1275.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION NIXON PRESIDENTIAL MATERIALS PRESERVATION AND PROTECTION OF AND ACCESS TO THE PRESIDENTIAL HISTORICAL MATERIALS...

  4. Pharmacogenetics in medico-legal context.

    PubMed

    Sajantila, A; Palo, J U; Ojanperä, I; Davis, C; Budowle, B

    2010-12-15

    Medico-legal autopsy is the primary method in determining the cause and manner of death when the death is suspected to be unnatural. In some of these autopsies, the death remains ambiguous, even after a complete autopsy including histological investigation and toxicological screenings. In cases where there are no morphological abnormalities, medico-legal genetics may offer additional means to provide knowledge of possible genetic mutations, which may have initiated the process or predisposed the individual to stress risk conditions leading to death. One class of ambiguous deaths consists of drug-related deaths where the interpretation of the toxicological results are not clear. In such situations post mortem genotyping and the analysis of metabolite rations may provide an insight to the findings. A few cases demonstrating the potential strength of pharmacogenetics in medico-legal context has been published. However, there is a paramount need for serious scientific studies before the field of post mortem pharmacogenetics can be utilized in routine medico-legal analyses casework and brought routinely into courtroom.

  5. Child Custody: Legal Decisions and Family Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Craig A., Ed.

    This collection addresses child custody decisions and the resultant outcomes for children and their families. The first section of the book examines aspects of the legal decision-making process as well as legislative guidelines affecting custody and post-divorce issues. The second section focuses on post-divorce family patterns for fathers,…

  6. Reduction in Force: A Legal Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckham, Joseph C.

    Courts have been reluctant to interfere with the decision-making authority of local school boards. However, a reduction-in-force (RIF) decision can be legally challenged by a discharged employee with evidence that the school board has either: (1) acted arbitrarily or capriciously, (2) failed to comply with procedural mandates, or (3) utilized…

  7. Reduction in Force: The Legal Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Martha L.

    Six legal issues surrounding a school district's reduction in force are described in this twelfth chapter in a book on school law. First, the courts generally hold that the school board must prove that a reduction in force (RIF) is inescapable. The second issue revolves around which positions and employees are being eliminated. In deciding such…

  8. Resistance to Reform in Legal Ethics Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Elizabeth D.

    Perceptions of forces that may restrain the implementation of needed change in legal ethics instruction were investigated in 1984, using a model of resistance to planned change proposed by Goodwin Watson. Based on this model, five barriers to change were assessed: conformity to norms, systemic and cultural coherence, vested interests, the…

  9. School Safety & Youth Violence: A Legal Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Kirk A.; Ross, Catherine J.

    This legal primer on violence in schools addresses the responsibility of school officials to respond to undisciplined youths whose behavior threatens the welfare and safety of other children in attendance. It is broken down into sections that provide a brief overview of the key rules and guidelines for school officials and teachers in each topic…

  10. Legal Issues in Anonymity and Pseudonymity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froomkin, A. Michael

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of anonymous and pseudonymous communications is an important and contentious Internetrelated issues of the 21st century. Resolution of this controversy will effect freedom of speech, nature of electronic commerce, and capabilities of law enforcement. The legal constraints on anonymous communication, and the constitutional constraints on…

  11. Connecting Legal Discourse with Real World Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Nigel

    This paper reports on the strategies used by an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teacher to help law students whose first language is Chinese in an English-for-law course learn and understand how to negotiate legal texts and ordinances and connect them with the concerns of people in the real world. The example of the recently enacted Human Organ…

  12. Legal Cases: Their Use in Engineering Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Richard P.

    1984-01-01

    Provides rationale for using legal case study method to teach law applied to the construction process, giving general form of a typical case report. Suggests methods of using case study court reports in engineering curriculum, dicussing direction to take and selection of case studies. Lists examples available from Engineering Case Library. (JM)

  13. Sexual Harassment on Campus: A Legal Compendium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Tol, Joan E., Ed.

    Law review and journal articles on sexual harassment in higher education are presented along with policies and procedures from selected universities and organizations, guidance on drafting policies, and a selected bibliography. The following law review and journal articles are presented: "Recent Legal Developments in Sexual Harassment"…

  14. The Reliability and Legality of Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbebaku, C. A.; Adavbiele, A. Justina

    2016-01-01

    Today, the classroom beyond the border through online Open University education in Nigeria has made it possible for many students to obtain university degrees. However, the reliability and legality of such degrees have become questionable. This paper is a descriptive exploratory case study regarding the public and private sector end-users, whose…

  15. 78 FR 67983 - Proposed Legal Interpretation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... the en route cruise portion of the flight. DATES: Comments must be received on or before January 13... cruise portion of a flight. This proposed legal interpretation addresses the qualification requirements... such may only leave his or her duty station for purposes of rest during the en route cruise portion...

  16. 40 CFR 52.625 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Hawaii § 52.625 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met, since sections 322-64(5) and 322-66 of the Hawaii Revised Statutes could,...

  17. 40 CFR 52.625 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Hawaii § 52.625 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met, since sections 322-64(5) and 322-66 of the Hawaii Revised Statutes could,...

  18. 40 CFR 52.625 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Hawaii § 52.625 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met, since sections 322-64(5) and 322-66 of the Hawaii Revised Statutes could,...

  19. 40 CFR 52.625 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Hawaii § 52.625 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met, since sections 322-64(5) and 322-66 of the Hawaii Revised Statutes could,...

  20. 40 CFR 52.625 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Hawaii § 52.625 Legal authority. (a) The requirements of § 51.230(f) of this chapter are not met, since sections 322-64(5) and 322-66 of the Hawaii Revised Statutes could,...

  1. The Medicalization and Legalization of Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberger, Eli H.; Bourne, Richard

    The authors propose that theoretical confusion and clinical inadequacy regarding child abuse is due, in part, from medical and legal ambiguity concerning child abuse and from dilemmas surrounding social policy and the professional response toward families and children. The dilemmas of social policy (family autonomy versus coercive intervention)…

  2. Corporal Punishment: Legalities, Realities, and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchey, Patricia H.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a quiz that will help readers determine the reliability of their own perceptions relating to corporal punishment in schools. Discusses U.S. Courts and corporal punishment, worldwide and nationwide legality, and the realities of corporal punishment in the United States. Discusses implications for what teachers can do to address corporal…

  3. Political and Legal Progress Since 1964

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glickstein, Howard

    1975-01-01

    The stated purpose of this testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, is to evaluate the political and legal progress--or lack of it--that has been made toward achieving racial equality in the decade since the Civil Rights Act of 1964 became law. (Author/JM)

  4. The Legal Rights of Maine Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Judy R.; Marshall, Gail

    This booklet is intended to help Maine women recognize and enforce their rights under Maine and federal law. It is not designed to be a substitute for lawyers' services, but to inform women of their legal rights so that they will know when to consult a lawyer or a governmental agency for assistance in enforcing these rights. Organized topically by…

  5. Legal Research: An Emerging Paradigm for Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Given the need to develop research methodologies to address new and emerging issues in our field, this article provides an overview of traditional legal research. This article, which admittedly focuses on the American approach, should be of interest to South Africa researchers in Education Law in light of growing interest among scholars on how our…

  6. Legal Challenges to All-Female Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldblum, Chai R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes legal doctrines used to challenge single-sex organizations. Discusses the role that all-female organizations can play in meeting the special needs of girls and women and describes how the compensatory purpose doctrine can be used to defend against challenges under state equal rights amendments and public accommodation statutes. (KH)

  7. Temporal Visualization for Legal Case Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Chanda; Allen, Robert B.; Plaisant, Catherine; Shneiderman, Ben

    1999-01-01

    Discusses visualization of legal information using a tool for temporal information called "LifeLines." Explores ways "LifeLines" could aid in viewing the links between original case and direct and indirect case histories. Uses the case of Apple Computer, Inc. versus Microsoft Corporation and Hewlett Packard Company to…

  8. Judicial Attitude toward Legal Rights and AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavis, Paul F.

    1989-01-01

    Caselaw that functions as law until statutes are enacted has been characteristic of legal issues surrounding the HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) diseases. In most cases such caselaw has protected the civil rights of persons with HIV/AIDS under established law as well as the traditions of Western…

  9. Considering Layoffs? Tips for Avoiding Legal Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelderman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The fiscal year that begins on July 1 for most colleges is expected to bring a wave of layoffs, as institutions grapple with declining state contributions, a falloff in donations, and other budget pressures. Eliminating jobs can create a number of legal pitfalls, including potential lawsuits for breach of contract or discrimination. If handled…

  10. Legal Questions of the Application of Microfilms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basco, Jeno; And Others

    This study analyses and summarizes the statutory regulations of various countries regarding the legal validation and use of certified microcopies in place of original documents. Descriptions are provided and rules summarized for the categories of: (1) the purpose of microfilming; (2) principle uses of microfilm; (3) the making of microfilm and…

  11. The Legal Status of Adolescents 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Inst. of Social Welfare Research, Athens, GA.

    This report presents both compilation of recent information on the legal status of adolescents in the United States and a resource for assessing the changes and trends faced by today's adolescents. The first eleven chapters of the report present summary tables and accompanying assessments of the sources of change that occurred in the statutory law…

  12. 40 CFR 52.1325 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... chapter). (2) St. Louis City Division of Air Pollution Control: (i) Authority to require recordkeeping is... local legal authority. (1) St. Louis County Division of Air Pollution Control: (i) Authority to require... public is inadequate because section 612.350, St. Louis County Air Pollution Control Code,...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1325 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... chapter). (2) St. Louis City Division of Air Pollution Control: (i) Authority to require recordkeeping is... local legal authority. (1) St. Louis County Division of Air Pollution Control: (i) Authority to require... public is inadequate because section 612.350, St. Louis County Air Pollution Control Code,...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1325 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... chapter). (2) St. Louis City Division of Air Pollution Control: (i) Authority to require recordkeeping is... local legal authority. (1) St. Louis County Division of Air Pollution Control: (i) Authority to require... public is inadequate because section 612.350, St. Louis County Air Pollution Control Code,...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1325 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... chapter). (2) St. Louis City Division of Air Pollution Control: (i) Authority to require recordkeeping is... local legal authority. (1) St. Louis County Division of Air Pollution Control: (i) Authority to require... public is inadequate because section 612.350, St. Louis County Air Pollution Control Code,...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1325 - Legal authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... chapter). (2) St. Louis City Division of Air Pollution Control: (i) Authority to require recordkeeping is... local legal authority. (1) St. Louis County Division of Air Pollution Control: (i) Authority to require... public is inadequate because section 612.350, St. Louis County Air Pollution Control Code,...

  17. Women's Legal Rights in Alaska. Reprint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatter, Sue Ellen; Saville, Sandra K.

    This publication is intended to help women in Alaska learn about their legal rights. Some of the information is of a general nature and will be of interest to women in other states. Some of the laws and resources are relevant to Alaska only. The publication can serve as a model to other states wanting to develop a resource to inform women about…

  18. Nursing Homes as Teaching Institutions: Legal Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapp, Marshall B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the trend toward affiliation of nursing homes with educational programs as clinical teaching institutions for medical, nursing, and allied health students. Reviews potential ethical and legal issues for the nursing home administrator, professional staff member, educator, and student, including informed consent, supervisory…

  19. Legal Aspects of Cardiac Rehabilitation Exercise Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, William; Herbert, David L.

    1988-01-01

    A medical model is used to examine liability issues related to cardiac rehabilitation programs. Obtaining effective informed consent from patients, standardizing policies and procedures, and exercise prescription and monitoring are among the proposed elements of a risk management model for developing safe and legally defensible programs. (IAH)

  20. Ethical and Legal Responsibilities of Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennen, Robert E.

    In the aftermath of the Watergate scandal, each profession is reviewing its ethical practices. This paper assists in this renewal by citing the code of ethical standards of APGA; reviewing the laws of the State of Nevada regarding privileged communications; and covering the legal aspects which relate to counseling situations. (Author)

  1. Top 10 Campus Legal Issues for Boards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    A principle responsibility of a board member is to understand the environment in which his or her institution operates. Today, that environment includes a host of legal risks that every institution of higher education must be prepared to assess and proactively address. Colleges and universities work to contain and manage those risks through such…

  2. Instructional Materials Approved for Legal Compliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Curriculum Framework and Instructional Materials Unit.

    Intended to facilitate the selection of instructional materials that meet California's legal compliance requirements, this list contains materials that have been reviewed against social content criteria having to do with the depiction of males and females, various ethnic groups, the aged, the disabled, and others to ensure that they are responsive…

  3. Legal and Institutional Foundations of Adaptive Environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Legal and institutional structures fundamentally shape opportunities for adaptive governance of environmental resources at multiple ecological and societal scales. Properties of adaptive governance are widely studied. However, these studies have not resulted in consolidated frameworks for legal and institutional design, limiting our ability to promote adaptation and social-ecological resilience. We develop an overarching framework that describes the current and potential role of law in enabling adaptation. We apply this framework to different social-ecological settings, centers of activity, and scales, illustrating the multidimensional and polycentric nature of water governance. Adaptation typically emerges organically among multiple centers of agency and authority in society as a relatively self-organized or autonomous process marked by innovation, social learning, and political deliberation. This self-directed and emergent process is difficult to create in an exogenous, top-down fashion. However, traditional centers of authority may establish enabling conditions for adaptation using a suite of legal, economic, and democratic tools to legitimize and facilitate self-organization, coordination, and collaboration across scales. The principles outlined here provide preliminary legal and institutional foundations for adaptive environmental governance, which may inform institutional design and guide future scholarship. Adaptation typically emerges organically among m

  4. Legal Aspects of University Autonomy in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranieri, Nina Beatriz Stocco

    2009-01-01

    State control over higher education has been provided for in the Brazilian legal system since the establishment of the republic, with university autonomy having been the object of six reforms of higher education and various federal decrees up until the federal constitution of 1988, which upheld it in Article 207. In a country with a limited and…

  5. European stem cell research in legal shackles.

    PubMed

    Nielen, Myrthe G; de Vries, Sybe A; Geijsen, Niels

    2013-12-11

    Advances in stem cell biology have raised legal challenges to the patentability of stem cells and any derived technologies and processes. In 1999, Oliver Brüstle was granted a patent for the generation and therapeutic use of neural cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The patent was challenged and put before the European Court of Justice, which ruled that inventions involving the prior destruction of human embryos cannot be patented. The legal maneuvering around this case demonstrates that the future of stem cell-based patents in Europe remains unsettled. Furthermore, owing to the European Court's broad definition of hESC as 'any cell that is capable of commencing development into a human being,' novel technologies that could eliminate the need for hESCs, such as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), are at risk of being included under the same ruling. Advances in the in vitro development of germ cells from pluripotent stem cells may one day provide a direct developmental path from iPSC to oocyte and sperm, and, according to the European Court's reasoning, legally equate iPSCs with human embryos. In this review, we will briefly discuss the Brüstle v Greenpeace case and the implications of the European Court of Justice's ruling. We will identify potential risks for stem cell research and future therapeutics resulting from the broad legal definition of the human embryo. Finally, we will broach the current legal landscape, as this broad definition has also created great uncertainty about the status of human iPSCs.

  6. 75 FR 47632 - Thomson Reuters Legal, Legal Editorial Operations, Cleveland Office, Including Workers Whose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ..., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid Through West Services, Inc., Independence..., Legal Editorial Operations, Cleveland Office had their wages reported under a separated unemployment... workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages are paid through West Services, Inc., Independence,...

  7. 28 CFR 543.11 - Legal research and preparation of legal documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contain the inmate's name and/or case caption prominently displayed on the first page, documents... impractical, the Warden shall allow an inmate preparing legal documents to use a typewriter, or, if the...

  8. 28 CFR 543.11 - Legal research and preparation of legal documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contain the inmate's name and/or case caption prominently displayed on the first page, documents... impractical, the Warden shall allow an inmate preparing legal documents to use a typewriter, or, if the...

  9. 28 CFR 543.11 - Legal research and preparation of legal documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contain the inmate's name and/or case caption prominently displayed on the first page, documents... impractical, the Warden shall allow an inmate preparing legal documents to use a typewriter, or, if the...

  10. 28 CFR 543.11 - Legal research and preparation of legal documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contain the inmate's name and/or case caption prominently displayed on the first page, documents... impractical, the Warden shall allow an inmate preparing legal documents to use a typewriter, or, if the...

  11. 28 CFR 543.11 - Legal research and preparation of legal documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contain the inmate's name and/or case caption prominently displayed on the first page, documents... impractical, the Warden shall allow an inmate preparing legal documents to use a typewriter, or, if the...

  12. Certificates of Confidentiality: Legal Counsels’ Experiences with and Perspectives on Legal Demands for Research Data

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Leslie E.; Dame, Lauren A.; Patel, Mayank J.; Williams, Brett A.; Austin, Jeffrey A.; Beskow, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    The Certificate of Confidentiality (Certificate) is an important tool for protecting identifiable, sensitive human subjects research data in the United States. However, little is known about the Certificate’s effectiveness in protecting identifiable data. We interviewed 24 legal counsel representing U.S. research institutions about their experiences with legal demands for research data. Our respondents reported few, if any, legal demands over the course of their tenure, but two-thirds had experience with legal demands for data protected by a Certificate. They reported such demands often were resolved without disclosure of identifiable research data, typically without court intervention. While our respondents reported similar success protecting identifiable data in court, they often did not rely on the Certificate to do so. PMID:23086043

  13. 78 FR 29247 - Contractor Legal Management Requirements; Acquisition Regulations; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ..., on May 14, 2013. Paul Bosco, Director, Office of Acquisition and Project Management. BILLING CODE... Part 952 RIN 1990-AA37 Contractor Legal Management Requirements; Acquisition Regulations; Correction..., DOE revised existing regulations covering contractor legal management requirements....

  14. Legal Education, Liberal Education, and the Trivial "Artes."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Bruce A.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the influence of liberal education upon legal education, studying the historical process according to which changes of emphasis within liberal education (from rhetoric to dialectic or the reverse) have been reflected in related changes in legal education. (AYC)

  15. An Interdisciplinary Seminar on Legal Issues in Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Dale L.

    1989-01-01

    A seminar on legal issues in medicine brings together medical (obstetrics/gynecology) and law students to promote mutual understanding of the legal and medical realms, their effects on each other, and the potential for cooperation. (MSE)

  16. Sexual orientation and gender identity in North America: legal trends, legal contrasts.

    PubMed

    Elliott, R Douglas; Bonauto, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The article provides a comparative analysis of recent legal developments with regard to LGBT rights in Canada and the United States of America. Both countries have made great progress towards better protection and full recognition of LGBT rights. Despite this progress, Canada appears to be ahead of the United States, as illustrated by two most recent court decisions (e.g. Halpern, legalizing same-sex marriage in Ontario, and Lawrence v. Texas, decriminalizing consensual sodomy in the United States).

  17. Public perceptions of arguments supporting and opposing recreational marijuana legalization.

    PubMed

    McGinty, Emma E; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Heley, Kathryn; Barry, Colleen L

    2017-02-09

    In debates about recreational marijuana legalization, pro-legalization arguments highlighting economic and other potential policy benefits compete with anti-legalization arguments emphasizing public health risks. In 2016, we conducted a national survey using an online panel (N=979) designed to answer two main research questions: (1) How do Americans perceive the relative strength of competing arguments about recreational marijuana legalization? (2) How are perceptions of argument strength associated with public support for recreational marijuana legalization? We examined differences in attitudes among individuals living in states that have/have not legalized recreational marijuana and among Democrats/Independents/Republicans. Ordered logit regression assessed the relationship between perceived argument strength and public support for recreational marijuana legalization. Respondents rated pro-legalization arguments highlighting beneficial economic and criminal justice consequences as more persuasive than anti-legalization arguments emphasizing adverse public health effects. Respondents were more likely to agree with arguments highlighting legalization's potential to increase tax revenue (63.9%) and reduce prison overcrowding (62.8%) than arguments emphasizing negative consequences on motor vehicle crashes (51.8%) and youth health (49.6%). The highest rated anti-legalization arguments highlighted the conflict between state and federal marijuana laws (63.0%) and asserted that legalization will fail to eliminate the black market (57.2%). Respondents who endorsed pro-legalization economic and criminal justice arguments were more likely than other respondents to support legalization. Our findings indicate that, on both side of the recreational marijuana legalization debate, there are arguments that resonate with the American public. However, public health risk messages were viewed as less compelling than pro-legalization economic and criminal justice-oriented arguments.

  18. Legal perceptions of forensic DNA profiling part I: a review of the legal literature.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Simon J

    2005-12-01

    A forensic biologist is usually involved in the criminal justice system process somewhere between the police and the legal system, interacting in a practical context regularly and extensively with both. Forensic DNA research and development commonly involves initiatives that encroach into the neighbouring domains of the law enforcement or legal agencies. Despite this level of association, establishing meaningful cross-disciplinary communication and understanding within the justice system remains a challenge. As an example, there is an abundance of literature relating to forensic DNA profiling in legal and criminological periodicals. Such journals are perhaps outside the regular reading of forensic scientists and much of the legal discussion appears to go unnoticed. This situation is understandable; however, it is also undesirable particularly as forensic DNA developments are intertwined with significant changes in legislation and contentious issues of privacy, civil liberty and social justice. This paper attempts to address this shortcoming directly by summarising - from the viewpoint of a forensic scientist - some of the discussion in the legal literature. In particular the review focuses on discussion raising ideological and ethical concerns. Awareness of these views is of relevance to forensic science. It assists us to accurately place DNA evidence into context and to develop its role in achieving the broader criminal justice system objectives. Understanding the discussion also provides a way to enter the debate and communicate at an appropriate level the true potential of DNA to the legal community.

  19. 32 CFR 727.6 - Functions of legal assistance officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with their personal legal problems, or refer such persons to a civilian lawyer as provided in § 727.9... another party or his lawyer, and prepare all types of legal documents, including pleadings, as are... liaison with local bar organizations, lawyer referral services, legal aid societies, and other...

  20. 38 CFR 13.102 - Accountability of legal custodians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accountability of legal... VETERANS BENEFITS ADMINISTRATION, FIDUCIARY ACTIVITIES § 13.102 Accountability of legal custodians. (a) Institutionalized veterans without spouse or child. The legal custodian of VA benefits of an incompetent veteran...

  1. 5 CFR 1653.13 - Processing legal processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing legal processes. 1653.13 Section 1653.13 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Legal Process for the Enforcement of a Participant's...

  2. 38 CFR 13.102 - Accountability of legal custodians.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Accountability of legal... VETERANS BENEFITS ADMINISTRATION, FIDUCIARY ACTIVITIES § 13.102 Accountability of legal custodians. (a) Institutionalized veterans without spouse or child. The legal custodian of VA benefits of an incompetent veteran...

  3. 5 CFR 1653.12 - Qualifying legal processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifying legal processes. 1653.12 Section 1653.12 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Legal Process for the Enforcement of a Participant's...

  4. 5 CFR 1653.12 - Qualifying legal processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualifying legal processes. 1653.12 Section 1653.12 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD COURT ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Legal Process for the Enforcement of a Participant's...

  5. 5 CFR 1653.13 - Processing legal processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TSP is notified in writing that the legal process has been appealed, and that the effect of the filing... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing legal processes. 1653.13... PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Legal Process for the Enforcement of a Participant's...

  6. Legal Writing: The Impossible Takes a Little Longer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Mary Ellen

    1980-01-01

    The expansion of legal writing programs, justification for such action, and the elements of legal writing are outlined. The place of legal writing in a modern law school and special difficulties in program design are addressed. The USC program is described. Available from Union University, 80 Scotland Ave., Albany, NY 12208; $2.50, entire issue.…

  7. 77 FR 12754 - Contractor Legal Management Requirements; Acquisition Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... Part 719 48 Parts 931, 952 and 970 RIN 1990-AA37 Contractor Legal Management Requirements; Acquisition... covering contractor legal management requirements and make conforming amendments to the Department of... rulemaking to revise existing regulations covering contractor legal management requirements and...

  8. 25 CFR 115.102 - Adults under legal disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adults under legal disability. 115.102 Section 115.102... AND INDIVIDUAL INDIANS IIM Accounts § 115.102 Adults under legal disability. The funds of an adult who is non compos mentis or under other legal disability may be disbursed for his benefit for...

  9. 30 CFR 41.20 - Legal identity report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal identity report. 41.20 Section 41.20... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS NOTIFICATION OF LEGAL IDENTITY Operator's Report to the Mine Safety and Health Administration § 41.20 Legal identity report. Each operator of a coal or other mine shall file notification...

  10. 30 CFR 41.20 - Legal identity report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Legal identity report. 41.20 Section 41.20... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS NOTIFICATION OF LEGAL IDENTITY Operator's Report to the Mine Safety and Health Administration § 41.20 Legal identity report. Each operator of a coal or other mine shall file notification...

  11. 30 CFR 41.20 - Legal identity report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal identity report. 41.20 Section 41.20... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS NOTIFICATION OF LEGAL IDENTITY Operator's Report to the Mine Safety and Health Administration § 41.20 Legal identity report. Each operator of a coal or other mine shall file notification...

  12. 30 CFR 41.20 - Legal identity report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Legal identity report. 41.20 Section 41.20... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS NOTIFICATION OF LEGAL IDENTITY Operator's Report to the Mine Safety and Health Administration § 41.20 Legal identity report. Each operator of a coal or other mine shall file notification...

  13. 30 CFR 41.20 - Legal identity report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Legal identity report. 41.20 Section 41.20... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS NOTIFICATION OF LEGAL IDENTITY Operator's Report to the Mine Safety and Health Administration § 41.20 Legal identity report. Each operator of a coal or other mine shall file notification...

  14. 17 CFR 45.6 - Legal entity identifiers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... entity or entities in the record. (c) Governance principles for the legal entity identifier. The legal... conform to the governance principles set forth in paragraphs (c)(1) through (4) of this section. (1) International governance. The issuance of the legal entity identifier used pursuant to this section, and...

  15. 17 CFR 45.6 - Legal entity identifiers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... entity or entities in the record. (c) Governance principles for the legal entity identifier. The legal... conform to the governance principles set forth in paragraphs (c)(1) through (4) of this section. (1) International governance. The issuance of the legal entity identifier used pursuant to this section, and...

  16. 17 CFR 45.6 - Legal entity identifiers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... entity or entities in the record. (c) Governance principles for the legal entity identifier. The legal... conform to the governance principles set forth in paragraphs (c)(1) through (4) of this section. (1) International governance. The issuance of the legal entity identifier used pursuant to this section, and...

  17. Are AustLII and Google Enough for Legal Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Colin

    2006-01-01

    For the past ten years law students, academics and legal practitioners have relied on AustLII and various internet search engines to conduct legal research. The purpose of this article is to examine what these can offer and to note the importance of other websites when conducting legal research. This article is based on an address given to the…

  18. 40 CFR 51.160 - Legally enforceable procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Legally enforceable procedures. 51.160 Section 51.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Modifications § 51.160 Legally enforceable procedures. (a) Each plan must set forth legally...

  19. The American self and the long march to legal equality.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Norbert

    2011-10-01

    Legally, women, Native Americans, and African-Americans were defined by the American Constitution as inferior. The pragmatists gradually showed that all selves are equal. These ideas helped the minorities to attain nearly full legal status. But economic status is going in the other direction, toward inequality. It threatens to overcome the hard-won legal equality and make it meaningless.

  20. Males, Fathers and Husbands: Changing Roles and Reciprocal Legal Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aberg, Miriam; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Discrimination toward men can be found in the legal definition of marriage, legal age requirements at marriage, support, child custody, unmarried fathers' rights, abortion, and cohabitation. With the increasing equality between the sexes, men will gain in their legal options of roles. (Author)

  1. Legal Change and Stigma in Surrogacy and Abortion.

    PubMed

    Robertson, John A

    2015-01-01

    Stigma marks both surrogacy and abortion. Legal change lessens stigma but may not remove it altogether. Post-legalization regulation may reinstall stigma by surrounding a legalized practice with barriers that make exercise of that right more difficult. As a result, law may reenact stigma even as it purports to take it away.

  2. 24 CFR 58.11 - Legal capacity and performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal capacity and performance. 58... RESPONSIBILITIES General Policy: Responsibilities of Responsible Entities § 58.11 Legal capacity and performance. (a) A responsible entity which believes that it does not have the legal capacity to carry out...

  3. 24 CFR 58.11 - Legal capacity and performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Legal capacity and performance. 58... RESPONSIBILITIES General Policy: Responsibilities of Responsible Entities § 58.11 Legal capacity and performance. (a) A responsible entity which believes that it does not have the legal capacity to carry out...

  4. 24 CFR 58.11 - Legal capacity and performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Legal capacity and performance. 58... RESPONSIBILITIES General Policy: Responsibilities of Responsible Entities § 58.11 Legal capacity and performance. (a) A responsible entity which believes that it does not have the legal capacity to carry out...

  5. 24 CFR 58.11 - Legal capacity and performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Legal capacity and performance. 58... RESPONSIBILITIES General Policy: Responsibilities of Responsible Entities § 58.11 Legal capacity and performance. (a) A responsible entity which believes that it does not have the legal capacity to carry out...

  6. 24 CFR 58.11 - Legal capacity and performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Legal capacity and performance. 58... RESPONSIBILITIES General Policy: Responsibilities of Responsible Entities § 58.11 Legal capacity and performance. (a) A responsible entity which believes that it does not have the legal capacity to carry out...

  7. 48 CFR 1511.011-76 - Legal analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Legal analysis. 1511.011... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS 1511.011-76 Legal analysis. Contracting Officers shall insert the clause at 1552.211-76 when it is determined that the contract involves legal analysis....

  8. 48 CFR 1511.011-76 - Legal analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Legal analysis. 1511.011... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS 1511.011-76 Legal analysis. Contracting Officers shall insert the clause at 1552.211-76 when it is determined that the contract involves legal analysis....

  9. 48 CFR 1511.011-76 - Legal analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Legal analysis. 1511.011-76... PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS 1511.011-76 Legal analysis. Contracting Officers shall insert the clause at 1552.211-76 when it is determined that the contract involves legal analysis....

  10. 48 CFR 1511.011-76 - Legal analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Legal analysis. 1511.011... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS 1511.011-76 Legal analysis. Contracting Officers shall insert the clause at 1552.211-76 when it is determined that the contract involves legal analysis....

  11. 48 CFR 1511.011-76 - Legal analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Legal analysis. 1511.011... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS 1511.011-76 Legal analysis. Contracting Officers shall insert the clause at 1552.211-76 when it is determined that the contract involves legal analysis....

  12. 48 CFR 1552.211-76 - Legal analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Legal analysis. 1552.211-76... analysis. As prescribed in 1511.011-76, insert this contract clause when it is determined that the contract involves legal analysis. Legal Analysis (APR 1984) The Contractor shall furnish to the Project Officer...

  13. 45 CFR 400.115 - Establishing legal responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Child Welfare Services § 400.115 Establishing legal responsibility. (a) A State must ensure that legal... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Establishing legal responsibility. 400.115 Section 400.115 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE...

  14. 45 CFR 400.115 - Establishing legal responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Child Welfare Services § 400.115 Establishing legal responsibility. (a) A State must ensure that legal... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Establishing legal responsibility. 400.115 Section 400.115 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE...

  15. 45 CFR 400.115 - Establishing legal responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Child Welfare Services § 400.115 Establishing legal responsibility. (a) A State must ensure that legal... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Establishing legal responsibility. 400.115 Section 400.115 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE...

  16. Identifying the Need for Teaching Ethics in Professional Legal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askins, Billy E.; And Others

    This paper describes how the Minimum Continuing Legal Education Board (MCLE) of the Supreme Court of New Mexico used the "MacCrate Report" to start a process of identifying the need for practical training in ethics education for legal professionals. The report, "Legal Education and Professional Development--An Educational…

  17. 32 CFR 516.17 - SJA or legal adviser procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true SJA or legal adviser procedures. 516.17 Section 516.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.17 SJA or legal...

  18. Rachianesthésie pour césarienne: facteurs de risque d'apparition de scores d'Apgar inférieur à 7 chez les nouveau-nés malgaches

    PubMed Central

    Rasolonjatovo, Tsiorintsoa Yvonne; Ravololonirina, Bako Minosoa Gilberthe; Randriamanantany, Zely Arivelo; Raveloson, Nasolotsiry Enintsoa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction La rachianesthésie est courante en obstétrique. L'hypotension artérielle maternelle apparaît dans 50-80%. Elle affecte l’équilibre acido-basique et l’état clinique du nouveau-né. Pour y remédier, l'usage de vasoconstricteurs est incontournable. L’éphédrine était de loin de premier choix en obstétrique. Dans les pays développés, elle est co-administrée avec la phényléphrine. A Madagascar, seule l’éphédrine reste disponible. Notre étude consiste à déterminer les facteurs de risque d'apparition du score d'Apgar inférieur à 7 chez les nouveau-nés. Méthodes Une étude rétrospective transversale, analytique, était effectuée à la Maternité de Befelatanana, Antananarivo Madagascar (Décembre 2010-Décembre 2011). Nous avons inclus 344 césariennes opérées sous rachianesthésie. Le critère principal de jugement était l'observation de score d'Apgar inférieur ou égal à 7 à la première minute. Les données étaient analysées sur logiciel Epi Info version 6.04 (IC à 95%, p bilatéral < 0.05). Résultats Le score d'Apgar était inférieur ou égal à 7 dans 42%. Les facteurs de risque retrouvés étaient la césarienne en urgence, la dose d’éphédrine dépassant 30mg ainsi que la baisse de la pression artérielle diastolique supérieure à 10% par rapport à sa valeur initiale (p respectif <<0.05). Conclusion La précarité de l’état clinique des nouveau-nés à la naissance est multifactorielle. La baisse de la pression artérielle diastolique associée à une dose élevée d’éphédrine est néfaste. De plus, l'augmentation de la catécholaminémie maternelle puis fœtale l'aggrave. PMID:25821536

  19. Morbidité et mortalité des nouveau-nés hospitalisés sur 10 années à la Clinique El Fateh-Suka (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Nagalo, Kisito; Dao, Fousséni; Tall, François Housséini; Yé, Diarra

    2013-01-01

    Introduction La mortalité néonatale demeure un problème majeur de santé publique dans les pays en développement. Notre étude avait pour but de déterminer la morbidité et la mortalité des nouveau-nés à Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Méthodes Une étude rétrospective sur 10 années a permis d'inclure tous les nouveau-nés admis dans l'Unité de Néonatologie de la Clinique El Fateh-Suka. Résultats Au total, 697 nouveau-nés étaient hospitalisés sur la période d'étude. Les principaux diagnostics étaient les infections néonatales (23.5%), les anomalies liées à la durée de la gestation et à la croissance du fætus (17.9%) et le paludisme congénital (15.1%). Les 91 (13.1%) décès étaient dus aux anomalies liées à la durée de la grossesse et à la croissance du fætus (46.1%), à l'hypoxie intra-utérine et à l'asphyxie obstétricale (20,9%) et aux infections néonatales (17.6%). Ces décès survenaient dans 81.3% dans les 72 heures, dans 93.4% des cas dans la première semaine d'hospitalisation. Le facteur de risque associé à ces décès était la voie basse d'accouchement (p = 0.02). Conclusion Cette étude a identifié des pathologies évitables déjà décrites comme les principales causes d'hospitalisations et de décès néonatals. La voie basse d'accouchement était le facteur de risque associé à ces décès, ce qui n'avait pas encore été rapporté. Les efforts pour améliorer la qualité des services de soins périnatals doivent être intensifiés afin de réduire la mortalité néonatale dans les pays en développement. PMID:23785558

  20. L'effet Peltier appliqué à la conception et la réalisation d'un nouveau capteur de débit massique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wattiau, F.; Gaviot, E.; Thery, P.

    1993-08-01

    éalisation d'un nouveau capteur de débit massique basé sur l'effet Peltier. Le capteur en forme de circuit imprimé bimétallique, comporte plusieurs pistes métalliques continues parallèles entre elles et partiellement recouvertes par un grand nombre de dépôts électrolytiques de nature différente. Un tel circuit se comporte comme un circuit thermoélectrique classique dans lequel les parties homogènes non recouvertes par le dépôt électrolytique constituent le premier conducteur du couple, les parties plaquées constituant le second conducteur. La méthode de mesure consiste à faire passer un courant électrique dans une ou plusieurs pistes constituant le circuit émetteur de façon à générer par effet Peltier des gradients thermiques qui seront détectés par un circuit détecteur identique placé à proximité. Dans le cas particulier d'un fluide au repos, la f.e.m. détectée par le circuit détecteur dépend de la conductivité thermique du fluide. Lorsque le fluide est en mouvement relatif par rapport au circuit, il est possible de détecter une f.e.m. dépendant en grandeur et en signe de la vitesse d'écoulement du fluide. A titre d'application un capteur de débit massique a été réalisé en plaçant les circuits thermoélectriques dans une canalisation parcourue par le fluide en mouvement.

  1. Overlapping universe: understanding legal insanity and psychosis.

    PubMed

    Torry, Zachary D; Billick, Stephen B

    2010-09-01

    The Insanity Defense of Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity is the defense used by some mentally disordered defendants who do not have the capacity for understanding right and wrong at the time of their criminal act. This defense has perplexed legal and mental health professionals for centuries. Though it has been a part of the legal system since the early Greeks, it has been and continues to be amended, modified, and in some jurisdictions, abolished. Moreover, despite its infrequent use, many in our society hold onto the belief that defendants can evade criminal responsibility by means of this defense. Furthermore, insanity is often equated with psychosis; however, the two are not the same and have different connotations. It is essential for any clinical psychiatrist to understand the concept of the insanity defense and how it differs from psychosis. This paper will clarify the meaning and purpose of the insanity defense and will differentiate insanity and psychosis.

  2. Legal and regulatory responses to innovative treatment.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tracey Evans

    2013-01-01

    Developments in medical technology, healthcare delivery, and commercial interests in medicine have increased both the potential for conflicts of interest on the part of physicians, and doubts over the sufficiency of patient autonomy as a justification for administering innovative therapy. The legal and regulatory treatment of innovative therapy is therefore an important question, on which there is a current lack of consensus on a number of issues. This paper discusses recent developments in Singapore and uses them as a springboard to flesh out basic regulatory issues that arise from the deployment of innovative treatment: the distinction between innovative treatment and clinical research, the adequacy of the current post hoc scrutiny of innovative therapy under existing legal principles and the need for further specialised regulatory oversight.

  3. Public Health Legal Preparedness in Indian Country

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Rebecca McLaughlin; DeBruyn, Lemyra; Stier, Daniel D.

    2009-01-01

    American Indian/Alaska Native tribal governments are sovereign entities with inherent authority to create laws and enact health regulations. Laws are an essential tool for ensuring effective public health responses to emerging threats. To analyze how tribal laws support public health practice in tribal communities, we reviewed tribal legal documentation available through online databases and talked with subject-matter experts in tribal public health law. Of the 70 tribal codes we found, 14 (20%) had no clearly identifiable public health provisions. The public health–related statutes within the remaining codes were rarely well integrated or comprehensive. Our findings provide an evidence base to help tribal leaders strengthen public health legal foundations in tribal communities. PMID:19150897

  4. [Bioethics in Latin America: legal perspective].

    PubMed

    Figueroa Yáñez, Gonzalo

    2003-01-01

    The jurist's work is to detect the legal guiding principles, analize them and to anticipate what kind of acceptance they will have. The legislator must be prudent if the subject studied is changeable as it happens with the norms applied in Bioethics. This detection process is more delicate if the guiding principles that have to be detected are valid for such an extensive region, as it is Latin America, where the legislation of the different countries that form it would adopt them. The two problems that will be studied here are: a) if it is advisable or not to raise some Bioethic basic principles to the constitutional level. b) which are the main principles that have been adopted by the juridical legislations of Latin America and who, in some way, guide the legal regulation.

  5. Comparative legal aspects of pain management.

    PubMed

    Vansweevelt, T

    2008-12-01

    Administering pain medication to terminal patients can cause legal problems when it has a life-shortening effect, because according to some authors it equates with manslaughter. The legal basis of the acceptance of pain alleviation with life-shortening effect can be found on the grounds of necessity. In different countries physicians have been prosecuted because of their pain management, which to the public prosecutor was in fact a sort of euthanasia. On the other hand, it is not unknown that physicians administer opioids to mask euthanasia. Pain management needs some rules, which can reassure the physician who alleviates pain. The physician who alleviates pain with life-shortening effect will have to act with due care to avoid a liability risk. This implies at least an informed consent, to observe the proportionality rule, and to keep a medical record.

  6. [Legal aspects of networking of medical activities].

    PubMed

    Preissler, Reinhold

    2005-04-01

    Medical networks lack a legal definition. From the viewpoint of social law, this term means a form of organization of joint-service providers in a non-specified composition for the undertaking of medical care activities; from the point of view of occupational law, this consists of a loose form of joint practice. Such medical network can conclude treatment contracts with the patients and exchange patients' medical records. A practice network can take over services as contract partner of hospitals or other institutions, in the interest of improved competition chances within the integrated care system. The joining of a third partner is basically left open by the MBO, however according to SGB V this is possible only after approval by all contract partners. In advance of a planned medical care center, is it recommended to found a physician network as starting model. Before single practices fuse into a single enterprise, management-, tax-, legal-, as well as psychological aspects must be considered.

  7. Legal and ethical issues of uterus transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Bernard M

    2016-04-01

    The clinically detailed report of a successful uterus transplantation and live birth in Sweden, in which a family friend donated her uterus, provides a basis for expanded practice. Family members and friends can serve as living donors without offending legal or ethical prohibitions of paid organ donation, even though family members and friends often engage in reciprocal gift exchanges. Donations from living unrelated sources are more problematic, and there is a need to monitor donors' genuine altruism and motivation. Donation by deceased women-i.e. cadaveric donation-raises issues of uterus suitability for transplantation, and how death is diagnosed. Organs' suitability for donation is often achieved by ventilation to maintain cardiac function for blood circulation, but laws and cultures could deem that a heartbeat indicates donors' live status. Issues could arise concerning ownership and control of organs between recovery from donors and implantation into recipients, and on removal following childbirth, that require legal resolution.

  8. Alcohol: the clinician's role in evaluating legal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Lande, R G

    1993-11-01

    Alcohol-related misconduct poses a challenge for society, the legal system, and the medical profession. The debate is centered on alcohol abuse and the determination of responsibility for misbehavior. In assessing responsibility, the legal system often requests the expertise of the medical professional. The knowledgeable clinician can contribute to the just resolution of complex medico-legal cases. The best contribution considers medical facts in relation to the evolution of legal thinking. This article explores the historical, social, and legal approaches to alcohol-related misconduct. The article concludes with a discussion of a model clinical assessment.

  9. Requirements of weighing in legal metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Källgren, Håkan; Pendrill, Leslie

    2003-12-01

    A review is given of recent developments in the formulation of requirements of weighing where such measurements are performed in society and industry with legal implications such as safety, fair trade and environmental considerations. Traditional legal metrology in the area of weights and measures has been developed and given an expanded scope in recent years. This reflects, on the one hand, technical and scientific development (computerization of weighing devices, improved weight manufacturing and new methods of magnetism determination, for example), and on the other hand, administrative evolution (global requirements of the market and the Measurement Instrument Directive). Particularly fruitful has been the joint effort by the scientific mass metrology and legal metrology communities in the development in the last decade of international recommendations—especially OIML R111—on weighing. Consensus has been reached in the international weighing forum concerning important areas such as maximum permissible errors for weights, how to calculate measurement uncertainty and how measurement uncertainty should be accounted for in relation to conformity assessment. These international recommendations for weights as mass standards include both tolerances and extensive instructions about various influence quantities that affect the weight result, such as magnetization, surface roughness and volume of weights. Much remains to be done, however: corresponding requirements of weighing devices in particular need to meet the challenges of a rapidly changing technology. The promising collaboration between scientific and legal metrology initiated in the area of weights may act as a model and stimulate similar developments in other areas of metrology, particularly where requirements are generic (for instance uncertainty and conformity) or analogous.

  10. Overview of the TREC 2008 Legal Track

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    Judge Grimm, writing in Victor Stanley v. Creative Pipe [13], went on to make this rather extraordinary set of observations about discovery of...results of the TREC Legal Track to date can be said to meet the judiciary’s ex- pectations, it is nevertheless the case that the opinion in Victor Stanley ...Crowley LLP), Joe Looby and Ryan Bilbrey (FTI Consulting), and the team from H5 (Todd Elmer, Jim Donahue, Misti Gerber , and others) for their

  11. [One year of counseling before legal abortion].

    PubMed

    Gosselin, G

    1976-01-01

    The required interview with a counselor before legal abortion in France can become depressing for the counselor because almost all clients are already committed, interpret it as one more bureaucratic barrier, and in mass appear as numerous cases of failure. Despite this the author tries to be open and nonjudgemental in order to permit free exchange and reconsideration, and to dispense information on contraception and social services. She encountered only 4 reconsiderations in hundreds of interviews.

  12. Legal briefing: conscience clauses and conscientious refusal.

    PubMed

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to conscience clauses and conscientious refusal. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it has also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions. Over the past several months, conscientious refusal disputes have had an unusually high profile not only in courthouses, but also in legislative and regulatory halls across the United States. Healthcare providers' own moral beliefs have been obstructing and are expected to increasingly obstruct patients' access to medical services. For example, some providers, on ethical or moral grounds, have denied: (1) sterilization procedures to pregnant patients, (2) pain medications in end-of-life situations, and (3) information about emergency contraception to rape victims. On the other hand, many healthcare providers have been forced to provide medical treatment that is inconsistent with their moral beliefs. There are two fundamental types of conscientious objection laws. First, there are laws that permit healthcare workers to refuse providing - on ethical, moral, or religious grounds healthcare services that they might otherwise have a legal or employer-mandated obligation to provide. Second, there are laws directed at forcing healthcare workers to provide services to which they might have ethical, moral, or religious objections. Both types of laws are rarely comprehensive, but instead target: (1) certain types of healthcare providers, (2) specific categories of healthcare services, (3) specific patient circumstances, and (4) certain conditions under which a right or obligation is triggered. For the sake of clarity, I have grouped recent legal developments concerning conscientious refusal into eight categories: 1. Abortion: right to refuse 2. Abortion: duty to provide 3. Contraception: right to refuse 4. Contraception: duty to provide 5. Sterilization: right to refuse 6. Fertility, HIV, vaccines

  13. Legal implications of the exotic pet practice.

    PubMed

    Maas, Adolf K

    2005-09-01

    The ever-growing complexity of veterinary laws compounds the problem for the exotic pet practice. Issues of possession, treatment, vaccination, and ethics shape the legal landscape for the veterinarian, and as new problems develop, new legislation will be created. Only by learning and understanding the current laws and regulations of the jurisdiction can a practitioner hope to keep abreast of the changes and additions as they occur and to minimize the risk of liability.

  14. [Artificial insemination as a legal problem].

    PubMed

    Nesterowicz, M

    1977-08-01

    This paper which was submitted to the Fifth World Congress on Medical Law, which oonvened in the Philippines July 16-19, 1976, presents some of the as yet unresolved problems in Polish law that may occur in decisions involving artificial insemination. Legal standards must be established, so that when applied to family and inheritance rights, they will not conflict with international law as it affects the individual. Basically Polish law accepts artificial insemination by husband (AIH). Regardless of whether the husband's sperm was used with or without his consent, he is legally obligated as the child's father and must provide for it. He may not disinherit the child. On the other hand artificial insemination by donor (AID) is highly controversial. There ae those who claim it destroys the real meaning of marriage, family and motherhood, and thus should be declared illegal, forbidding doctors to practice it. This is no solution to the problem. The law presently bars the donor from paternal rights since he did not have physical relations with the mother. Under the law, a married woman who has been artificially inseminated by an unknown donor may not claim that her husband has paternal responsibilities toward the child. The wife's husband may accept the child, but legally may not adopt it. If a couple jointly decide to try AID, they should first agreee to financially provide for the child. In the case of a single woman, or a married women who decided on AID without the husband's consent, financial support should perhaps be offered by the Alimony Fund if the mother has insufficient means. Knowing that in the future sperm may be preserved for many years, legal tangles will develop even with AIH if for example the husband has been dead for several years prior to the wife's insemination. As the law stands today, the child could not inherit the father's estate.

  15. Dementia in prison: ethical and legal implications.

    PubMed

    Fazel, S; McMillan, J; O'Donnell, I

    2002-06-01

    As the number of elderly prisoners increases in the UK and other Western countries, there will be individuals who develop dementia whilst in custody. We present two case vignettes of men with dementia in English prisons, and explore some of the ethical implications that their continuing detention raises. We find little to support their detention in the various purposes of prison put forward by legal philosophers and penologists, and conclude by raising some of the possible implications of The Human Rights Act 1998.

  16. [Advance directives: the legal situation in Belgium].

    PubMed

    Herremans, Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, Belgium passed laws on de-criminalizing euthanasia, on palliative care and on patients' rights. These legislations, fundamental in the field of medical law, have sanctioned the patient's right to personal autonomy, as well the principle of freedom of conscience for everyone, including the doctors. The anticipated declarations - or livings wills - both for euthanasia and for the patient's right to refuse medical treatment have become legal.

  17. Query Expansion for Noisy Legal Documents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    methodologies and results. 1 Introduction The TREC Legal Track is designed to model a real-world challenge known as “e-discovery.” In e-discovery, given a...techniques such as Inverse Document Frequency (IDF) that are insensitive to the content 1 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions

  18. [Diagnosis of HIV infections in legal regulations].

    PubMed

    Zaba, Czesław; Zaba, Zbigniew; Klimberg, Aneta; Swiderski, Paweł

    2007-01-01

    The study aimed at presenting current legal regulations associated with the management of patients suspected of being infected with HIV. Diagnostic management of infections with HIV represents a complex issue that is associated with several problems, not only of a legal, but also practical character. Drawing a blood sample from the patient and its testing for HIV results in infringement of the patient's privacy, and the latter is legally protected. Before conducting the test for HIV infection, the doctor is obliged to obtain the consent of the patient and, when the result is available, he should inform the individual in question and provide recommendations, as recommended by WHO. The patient has the right to be tested anonymously. Blood samples for HIV detection may be collected without the patient's consent in cases of obligatory tests performed as an element of a disease prevention program, in individuals who are charged with or convicted of a crime, or in case of a medical treatment. Unlawful activities result in infringement of the patient's right to self-determination and constitute acts against his/her interests.

  19. [Assistance in hunger strikes: legal guidelines].

    PubMed

    Gevers, J K

    2000-05-20

    Hunger strikes raise ethical and legal issues, in addition to societal and medical ones. The World Medical Association adopted resolutions in 1975 (Declaration of Tokyo) and 1991 (Declaration of Malta) in which respect for the decision to refuse food was confirmed. A survey of the relevant international and national standards shows that in the Netherlands law and policy are more supportive of respect for food refusal (and against forced feeding) than would seem to be the case at the international level. However, respect for the decision of the hunger striker requires that it is well-considered, informed, and free from group coercion. The existence of an unambiguous legal framework will not save the advising physician from difficult dilemmas which will in particular occur in case of a protracted hunger strike. In anticipation of expected loss of judgement capacities in protracted hunger strikers it is advisable that the wishes of the striker and the professional policy that the physician will adopt are written down. In case of hunger strike legal standards cannot fully replace psychological insight, professional ethics and conscience, however.

  20. Telecommunications, health care, and legal liability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Chris

    1990-06-01

    Regulation of health care telecommunications is fragmented in Canada. Further neither the legislative nor the administrative nor the judicial processes have managed to respond successfully to the impact of telecommunications technology. The result is a legal environment that is necessarily speculative for both telecommunications service providers and health care personnel and facilities. Critical issues include ensuring confidentiality for sensitive patient records and health information liability of telecommunications service providers for inaccurate transmission liability of health care providers for use or non-use of telecommunications services. Limitation of legal liability for both telecommunications and health care service providers is likely to be most effective when based on contract but the creation of the necessary contracts is potentially unduly cumbersome both legally and practically. 1. CONSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS Telecommunications systems that are empowered to operate or connect cross provincial or international boundaries are subject to federal regulation bu the scheme is incomplete in respect of a system set up as a provincial agency. Health care on the other hand is very much a matter of provincial rather than federal authority as a matter of strict law but the fiscal strength of the federal government enables it to provide money to the provinces for financing health care and to4 use this as a device for securing compliance with certain federal standards. Nevertheless the political willingness of the federal health authorities to impose standards on the provinces

  1. Sanctions for research misconduct: a legal perspective.

    PubMed

    Dresser, R

    1993-09-01

    The author discusses the legal principles that could assist in the design and administration of the official response to conduct found to threaten the integrity of the scientific process. The primary emphasis is on the principles that shape decisions about punishment. In the present climate of uncertainty about misconduct, it is difficult to adopt fair and consistent approaches to the selection of sanctions and other remedial actions. Officials have taken a variety of actions in response to unacceptable research behavior. Some federal actions have involved proceedings to recover the offending grant recipients' federal funds, prohibiting them from receiving federal grants or contracts for a set period, terminating or withholding ongoing grant support, and mandating future supervision of the offenders' research conduct; and universities have denied or revoked tenure, required or accepted retirement, and disclosed misconduct findings to potential future employers. Three types of legal remedies seem to have influenced the selection of sanctions in past cases: (1) the quasi-contractual legal remedy of restitution, (2) the philosophy of "just deserts," or retribution, based on the largely intuitive idea that the individual who engages in criminal conduct deserves punishment, and (3) deterrence of misconduct. Each type has a range of considerations and implications, and officials should thoughtfully consider the appropriate role of each, because their selection of sanctions will probably have a significant effect on the research community's perceptions of the system's fairness and efficacy.

  2. Legal issues for chem-bioinformatics models.

    PubMed

    Duardo-Sanchez, Aliuska; Gonzalez-Diaz, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    Chem-Bioinformatic models connect the chemical structure of drugs and/or targets (protein, gen, RNA, microorganism, tissue, disease...) with drug biological activity over this target. On the other hand, a systematic judicial framework is needed to provide appropriate and relevant guidance for addressing various computing techniques as applied to scientific research in biosciences frontiers. This article reviews both: the use of the predictions made with models for regulatory purposes and how to protect (in legal terms) the models of molecular systems per se, and the software used to seek them. First we review: i) models as a tool for regulatory purposes, ii) Organizations Involved with Validation of models, iii) Regulatory Guidelines and Documents for models, iv) Models for Human Health and Environmental Endpoint, and v) Difficulties to Validation of models, and other issues. Next, we focused on the legal protection of models and software; including: a short summary of topics, and methods for legal protection of computer software. We close the review with a section that treats the taxes in software use.

  3. The impact of cuts in legal aid funding on charities

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Debra; Barr, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This article focusses on the specific impact of the cuts in legal aid funding on the charitable sector. The sector plays a significant role in advice giving. Some charities have the provision of legal advice as their sole purpose, whilst the work of other charities includes the giving of legal advice. Funding comes via a number of sources including legal aid, local authorities and charitable trusts. Whilst this volume highlights the legal aid reforms that will lead to significant cuts in funding, this article notes that charitable providers of legal advice have also suffered major cuts from their other traditional funding sources. Against this background, the article considers the serious and often unforeseen consequences for charities of the legal aid reforms, which go far beyond the impact on the high street law firm and access to justice for claimants. PMID:23667296

  4. Statements from Youth in Legal Contexts: Effects of Consistency, Legal Role, and Age.

    PubMed

    Molinaro, Peter F; Malloy, Lindsay C

    2016-01-01

    Jurors are often asked to evaluate statements provided by young victims, witnesses, and suspects. When, over time, youths' statements contain inconsistent information or recantations of prior statements, jurors face a difficult task in evaluating the validity of the initial claim. The underlying reasons for inconsistencies and recantation of young people's statements, particularly in cases of child sexual abuse, have been debated. Of primary interest here is whether inconsistencies (e.g., recantation) are evaluated differently by fact finders depending on the youth's age and role in a legal case. The current study examined effects of consistency of juvenile statements, legal role, and age on perceptions of testimony in a child sexual abuse investigation. Participants (N = 693) read vignettes describing child sexual abuse in which consistency of a follow-up statement (consistent, inconsistent, recanted), legal role (victim, witness, suspect), and age (10 years, 16 years) of the juvenile providing testimony were manipulated. The results revealed that judgments of initial statement quality, blameworthiness, and guilt were dependent on the consistency of follow-up statements and on the interactive effects of a juvenile's legal role and age. The current study has theoretical implications for understanding juror decision-making and practical implications for legal professionals and fact finders evaluating youths' statements. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Weaponisation of Space - Some Legal Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper will examine a current national initiative from the United States of America to achieve greater national security through the `weaponisation' of extra-atmospheric space. We will propose a synthesis of the current international legal framework pertaining to military activities in space. Based on the analysis of the legal regime and on some current national and regional political initiatives, we will make some practical recommendations to prevent an arms race in space. Civil remote sensing, telecommunications, and launchers launch vehicle technologies have all benefited from a military heritage. They are dual use technologies, in other words, technologies that have both military and civilian applications. In fact, space has always been militarised, ever since the first satellites were put in orbit for reconnaissance missions. But recently, some national policies and technological advances are making the militarisation of space less `discrete'. Military assets from different countries are already stationed in orbit (e.g. reconnaissance and navigation satellites), but they might soon be joined by new `space weapons' with lethal strike capabilities. Currently, in the United States, military and civilian space activities are being closely intertwined. A typical example is the call of the NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe, a former Secretary of the Navy, for closer cooperation on research and development between NASA and the Department of Defense. Concerning plans to station weapons in space, the American Air Force Space Command issued, in February 2000, its `Strategic Master Plan for FY02 and Beyond'. It states that the United States "...future Air Force Space Command capabilities will enable a fully integrated Aerospace Force to rapidly engage military forces worldwide. [...] Full spectrum dominance in the space medium will be achieved through total space situational awareness, protection of friendly space assets, prevention of unauthorized use of those assets

  6. [Legal and medico-legal assessment of medical errors in obstetrics].

    PubMed

    Jurek, Tomasz; Swiatek, Barbara; Rorat, Marta; Drozd, Radosław

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the doctrine of criminal law and the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in search of a starting point for the legal protection of human life and health. In cases of medical errors in obstetrics concerning a fetus, an act of a perpetrator can be classified as manslaughter or exposure to direct danger of loss of life or great bodily injury depending on whether the fetus is recognized as "a human being". The authors criticize the doctrinal criteria of the beginning of legal protection: spatial, physiological, obstetric, and developmental, pointing to the possibilities of decriminalization of medical errors of omission. A solution to this situation is the presented evolution of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. It moves towards establishing the beginning of legal and criminal protection of life and health at the "moment of emergence of objective grounds to necessitate delivery".

  7. La traduction juridique et son enseignment: aspects theoriques et pratiques (Legal Translation and Its Teaching: Theoretical and Practical Aspects).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gemar, Jean-Claude

    1979-01-01

    Examines the constraining nature of legal language, legal terminology, the differences among legal systems, problems of documentation, and an interdisciplinary approach to legal translation, and their relationship to the teaching of legal translation. (AM)

  8. The Minimum Legal Drinking Age and Crime

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We use variation from the minimum legal drinking age to estimate the causal effect of access to alcohol on crime. Using a census of arrests in California and a regression discontinuity design, we find that individuals just over age 21 are 5.9% more likely to be arrested than individuals just under 21. This increase is mostly due to assaults, alcohol-related offenses, and nuisance crimes. These results suggest that policies that restrict access to alcohol have the potential to substantially reduce crime. PMID:26120205

  9. Criminal and legal responsibilities in Tourette's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gullucayir, Sibel; Asirdizer, Mahmut; Yavuz, M Sunay; Zeyfeoglu, Yildiray; Ulucay, Tarik

    2009-01-01

    Tourette's Syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychological disorder characterized by the presence of multiple involuntary motor tics accompanied by one or more vocal tics. Articles about TS and criminal responsibility and the restriction of civil rights are limited. A person with TS was evaluated to consider his criminal responsibility after swearing at a referee during a football game. He was also evaluated as to whether or not he was capable of professionally driving a service bus. Additionally, medico-legal situations regarding military service, obtaining a shotgun license and marriages of patients with TS were considered.

  10. Language skills and earnings among legalized aliens.

    PubMed

    Chiswick, B R; Miller, P W

    1999-01-01

    "This paper uses the data on males and females from the 1989 [U.S.] Legalized Population Survey (LPS), a sample of aliens granted amnesty under 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act, to analyse English language proficiency and earnings.... English language proficiency is greater for those with more schooling, who immigrated at a younger age, who have been in the United States longer, with a more continuos stay, and who have less access to other origin language speakers where they live. Earnings are higher by about 8% for men and 17% for women who are proficient in both speaking and reading English, compared to those lacking both skills."

  11. Rape: Legal issues in mental health perspective.

    PubMed

    Jiloha, R C

    2013-07-01

    Rape of women by men has occurred throughout recorded history and across cultures and religions. It is a crime against basic human right and a most common crime against women in India. In this article, rape is discussed from legal and mental health perspective. In India 'rape laws' began with enactment of Indian Penal Code in 1860. There have been subsequent amendments and the main issue of focus remained the definition of 'rape and inclusion of 'marital rape' in the ambit of rape. Law Commission Reports related to rape and the psychological impacts of rape have been discussed.

  12. The legal framework for effective competition.

    PubMed

    Berenson, R A; Hastings, D A; Kopit, W G

    1996-01-01

    Largely because of its indifference to spiraling costs, the professional domination model is being replaced by a market model based on competition among managed care plans and integrated delivery systems. In general, the more fully integrated previously competing providers become--for instance, by assuming financial risk together--the less legal risk is present, because of a decreased possibility of improper conspiratorial or collective behavior. Nevertheless, provider joint ventures and integrated delivery systems face a complex interaction of practical challenges and various legal and regulatory risks. This chapter explores ways in which laws involving fraud and abuse, self-referral, private inurement, corporate practice of medicine, Medicare reimbursement policy, and antitrust enforcement affect typical integrated delivery systems. From a legal standpoint, it might seem logical that the laws regulating health care providers would support and promote integration. A permissive legal environment to foster development of an integrated service network model assumes its development in a delivery system in which networks are at financial risk for the services provided. However, many of the laws and regulations governing integrated provider development were established at a time when joint ventures and other alliances were organizing in a predominantly fee-for-service environment and were generating significant increases in health care costs without producing demonstrable efficiencies or quality enhancements. The results is a fundamental inconsistency in government policy. The demand for collaboration by purchasers and legislatures does not necessarily cause the vast body of health care regulators to revise their concerns that many of the very collaborative activities being encouraged trigger potentially illegal acts and relationships. In a market model, the application of federal and state antitrust laws is especially important. In 1993 and 1994, the Department of

  13. Legal mechanisms supporting accountable care principles.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Tara

    2014-11-01

    Public health and private providers and facilities may shape the future of the US health system by engaging in new ways to deliver care to patients. "Accountable care" contracts allow private health care and public health providers and facilities to collaboratively serve defined populations. Accountable care frameworks emphasize health care quality and cost savings, among other goals. In this article, I explore the legal context for accountable care, including the mechanisms by which providers, facilities, and public health coordinate activities, avoid inefficiencies, and improve health outcomes. I highlight ongoing evaluations of the impact of accountable care on public health outcomes.

  14. Recruiting physicians: avoiding the legal minefield.

    PubMed

    Copeland, W M

    1992-01-01

    This article identifies and discusses the legal problems and pitfalls associated with the implementation of a physician recruitment program. Careful structuring is necessary to strike a balance meeting the requirements of both the Internal Revenue Code and the Medicare fraud and abuse provisions. The various tax considerations that may affect physician recruitment are comprehensively analyzed. Similar analysis is made of the Medicare fraud and abuse statute. Also included is a list of items that must be taken into consideration when embarking on a physician recruitment program.

  15. [Obligatory treatment: ethical, medical and legal issues].

    PubMed

    Archambault, Jean-Claude

    2006-06-01

    Legislation passed on 30 June 1838 created a medico-administrative and legal framework for forced hospitalization. Updated in 1990, this law has been evaluated twice. The last evaluation, in 2005, recommended a 72-hour observation period before deciding whether hospitalization was necessary. The situation of violent patients remains unclear. On the one hand, the psychiatrist has no means of impinging on these patients if they decide to stop their treatment once outside the hospital. On the other hand, for patients who are declared to be irresponsible, it would be wise to consider the possibility of being able to judge them, and adapt their sentences accordingly.

  16. Irrationality: psychological, ethical and legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, A

    1999-01-01

    A definition and a concise classification of irrational mentality and behaviour is proposed in the paper. The basic goal is to reveal the psychological mechanisms of inducing irrational individual and group behaviour by certain social agents. An attempt is made to apply the methodology of self-organization theory to the analysis of psychic equilibrium. The inducing of irrational behaviour is qualified as a crime against the freedom of the individual. In view of its grave social consequences a plea for its serious legal treatment is made.

  17. Constitutional and Legal Protection for Life Support Limitation in India

    PubMed Central

    Mani, RK

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate treatment limitations towards the end of life to reduce unwanted burdens require ethical clarity that is supported by appropriate legislation. The lack of knowledge of enabling legal provisions, physicians feel vulnerable to legal misinterpretation of treatment limiting decisions. In India the lack of societal awareness, inadequate exploration of the gray areas of bio-ethics and unambiguous legal position relating to terminal illness have resulted in poor quality end of life care. Much of the perceived vulnerability by the physician is attributable to insufficient knowledge and understanding of existing constitutional and legal position in India. While we await informed legal and legislative opinion, this paper highlights possible legal liabilities arising from treatment limitation decisions with available defense. It is hoped that such clarity would lead to more confident ethical decisions and improved end of life care for patients. PMID:26600691

  18. Legal Report: Implementation of the Legalization Provisions under the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isgro, Francesco

    1987-01-01

    This article examines the eligibility requirements and outlines the procedures for applying for legalization under the new Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. The law as Congress passed it is a liberal one, but there is still room for flexibility in the interpretation of the regulations. (Author/VM)

  19. Day Care Legal Handbook: Legal Aspects of Organizing and Operating Day Care Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikman, William F.

    This guide for providers of day care services presents information on business regulations and other legal considerations affecting for-profit and not-for-profit day care programs. Three basic topics covered are: (1) choosing the type of organization (sole proprietorship, partnership or corporation), (2) forming the organization, and (3) operating…

  20. [Situation of legal conflicts in criminal proceedings].

    PubMed

    Krause, Daniel M

    2003-11-01

    Criminal proceedings against physicians involving an alleged professional malpractice usually represent a complex problem raising issues in various (potential) areas of conflict. In many cases such proceedings are accompanied by liability actions in civil courts, occasionally proceedings have been initiated by the Medical Board in order to clarify a case of professional misconduct. Often, a medical malpractice insurance is involved. In order to protect the physician's interests in the best possible way, any action in the various matters needs concerted efforts. No statement or comment regarding the allegations should be rendered to the prosecution before access to the investigation file has been granted. No negative conclusions may be drawn from the use of the right to refuse testimony. The preparation of a written statement requires a thorough legal and factual analysis of the allegations as well as the evidence they are based on. In this respect professional legal assistance is essential. It does not constitute a breach of the doctor-patient confidentiality if the physician discloses information in order to defend himself against criminal allegations. If several physicians are charged with an offense it is recommendable in most cases to coordinate defense activities.

  1. Legal and ethical issues in research

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Camille; Han, Nian-Lin Reena; Sng, Ban Leong

    2016-01-01

    Legal and ethical issues form an important component of modern research, related to the subject and researcher. This article seeks to briefly review the various international guidelines and regulations that exist on issues related to informed consent, confidentiality, providing incentives and various forms of research misconduct. Relevant original publications (The Declaration of Helsinki, Belmont Report, Council for International Organisations of Medical Sciences/World Health Organisation International Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects, World Association of Medical Editors Recommendations on Publication Ethics Policies, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, CoSE White Paper, International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use-Good Clinical Practice) form the literature that are relevant to the ethical and legal aspects of conducting research that researchers should abide by when conducting translational and clinical research. Researchers should note the major international guidelines and regional differences in legislation. Hence, specific ethical advice should be sought at local Ethics Review Committees. PMID:27729698

  2. Legal Medicine Information System using CDISC ODM.

    PubMed

    Kiuchi, Takahiro; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Kotani, Hirokazu; Tamaki, Keiji; Nagai, Hisashi; Harada, Kazuki; Ishikawa, Hirono

    2013-11-01

    We have developed a new database system for forensic autopsies, called the Legal Medicine Information System, using the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC) Operational Data Model (ODM). This system comprises two subsystems, namely the Institutional Database System (IDS) located in each institute and containing personal information, and the Central Anonymous Database System (CADS) located in the University Hospital Medical Information Network Center containing only anonymous information. CDISC ODM is used as the data transfer protocol between the two subsystems. Using the IDS, forensic pathologists and other staff can register and search for institutional autopsy information, print death certificates, and extract data for statistical analysis. They can also submit anonymous autopsy information to the CADS semi-automatically. This reduces the burden of double data entry, the time-lag of central data collection, and anxiety regarding legal and ethical issues. Using the CADS, various studies on the causes of death can be conducted quickly and easily, and the results can be used to prevent similar accidents, diseases, and abuse.

  3. THE CONCEPT OF EXCEPTIONALITY: A LEGAL FARCE?

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Amy

    2012-01-01

    How do we decide which treatments should be offered by the National Health Service (NHS) when we cannot afford to fund them all? In the absence of a positive appraisal by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), which mandates the provision of a treatment by the NHS, Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) are free to decide whether to provide a particular drug to some, or all, of their population. However, as public bodies, it is a well-established principle of Administrative Law that PCTs are not at liberty to fetter the exercise of their own discretion. They must recognise the possibility that some patients will have exceptional circumstances, and as a consequence, any general policy prohibiting the funding of a drug cannot be absolute. In the absence of statutory guidance on what might constitute exceptional, clinicians are left guessing as to whether their patients might be eligible for funding on the grounds of exceptionality. Using the context of expensive cancer drugs, I will examine the concept of exceptionality from clinical, moral, and legal perspectives, focussing particularly on the role of social factors in determining exceptionality. I will review the cases where PCTs' decisions not to fund cancer drugs were subject to legal action and argue that the courts have provided little guidance on interpreting the term exceptional, and that the concept has a limited role to play in the allocation of scarce health resources at a local level. PMID:22389444

  4. Legal Issues for the Medical Director.

    PubMed

    Trulove, William G

    2015-09-04

    The nephrologist serving as medical director of a dialysis clinic must understand that the role of director is not simply an extension of being a good nephrologist. The two roles-nephrology practice and the leadership of a dialysis clinic-may be filled by a single person. However, each role contains unique tasks, requiring specific skill sets, and each role comes with inherent, associated legal risks. The medical director assumes a new level of responsibility and accountability defined by contractual obligations to the dialysis provider and by state and federal regulations. Hence, a medical director is accountable not only for providing standard-of-care treatment to his or her private practice patients dialyzed at the clinic but also for maintaining the safety of the dialysis clinic patient population and staff. Accordingly, a nephrologist serving in the role of medical director faces distinct legal risks beyond typical professional liability concerns. The medical director must also be mindful of regulatory compliance, unique avenues to licensure board complaints, and implications of careless communication habits. A thoughtful and prepared medical director can mitigate these risk exposures by understanding the sources of these challenges: contractual obligations, pertinent regulatory responsibilities, and the modern electronic communications environment.

  5. [Temporary disability and its legal implications].

    PubMed

    Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Martí Amengual, Gabriel; Puig Bausili, Lluïsa; Arimany-Manso, Josep

    2014-03-01

    Temporary disability is the condition that workers face when, as the result of illness (common or professional) or accident (work-related or not), they are temporarily prevented from performing their work and require health care. The management of temporary disability is a medical act that involves (in addition to a complex clinical assessment) obvious social, occupational and financial connotations and requires continuing medical follow-up from doctors, as well as responses to medical-legal conflicts. The regulatory framework on the subject is extensive in the Spanish setting and highly diverse in the European setting. Beyond the regulatory framework, the repercussions of temporary disability are self-evident at all levels. Although determining temporary disability is a common medical act for practicing physicians, it is not exempt from risks or difficulties arising from the assessment itself and the characteristics of practicing medical care. Established medical-legal conflicts include the processing of health data and the requirements for transferring information related to workers' temporary disability to their company's medical services. The interest and usefulness demonstrated by the data obtained from forensic medicine for public health require the incorporation of these data into general healthcare information, as it could be essential to the surveillance of worker health. The recommendations established by medical societies, as good practice guidelines, are especially useful in this type of conflict.

  6. The Public Health Framework of Legalized Marijuana in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Tista; Van Dyke, Mike; Maffey, Ali; Whitley, Elizabeth; Gillim-Ross, Laura; Wolk, Larry

    2016-01-01

    On January 1, 2014, Colorado became the first state in the nation to sell legal recreational marijuana for adult use. As a result, Colorado has had to carefully examine potential population health and safety impacts as well as the role of public health in response to legalization. We have discussed an emerging public health framework for legalized recreational marijuana. We have outlined this framework according to the core public health functions of assessment, policy development, and assurance. In addition, we have discussed challenges to implementing this framework that other states considering legalization may face.

  7. The Public Health Framework of Legalized Marijuana in Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Mike; Maffey, Ali; Whitley, Elizabeth; Gillim-Ross, Laura; Wolk, Larry

    2016-01-01

    On January 1, 2014, Colorado became the first state in the nation to sell legal recreational marijuana for adult use. As a result, Colorado has had to carefully examine potential population health and safety impacts as well as the role of public health in response to legalization. We have discussed an emerging public health framework for legalized recreational marijuana. We have outlined this framework according to the core public health functions of assessment, policy development, and assurance. In addition, we have discussed challenges to implementing this framework that other states considering legalization may face. PMID:26562117

  8. Antiprogestin drugs: ethical, legal and medical issues.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J; Grimes, D A

    1992-01-01

    RU 486 allows women the choice of a medical rather than a surgical abortion, and, for most women, the choice is one of procedure, not of whether to have an abortion. Issues surrounding RU 486 were explored in an American Society of Law and Medicine conference in December 1991 entitled "Antiprogestin Drugs: Ethical, Legal and Medical Issues." An introduction to 14 conference papers provides an overview of the proceedings. Baulieu, the father of RU 486, described updated developments in its use and the medically supervised method of abortion. Bygdeman and Swahn presented their work in Sweden on combining RU 486 with a prostaglandin to make abortion more effective. They suggested that the drug may be an attractive postovulation contraceptive. Greenslad et al. discussed service delivery aspects of the use of RU 486. Holt considered the implications of use of the drug in low-resource settings. A survey of obstetricians and gynecologists, presented by Heilig, indicates that 22% more physicians would perform a medical abortion. Patient perspectives were addressed by David, who stated that measuring acceptability of an abortion technique is difficult; women have historically used whatever method is available. A collaborative research project in India and Cuba on why women chose certain methods was reported by Winikoff et al. (90% of women would choose medical abortion if faced with the choice again). Berer analyzed French data on women's perspectives on medical vs. surgical abortion. The question of adolescent use of the drug was considered by Senderowitz, who lamented the lack of data on the subject and described what is known about adolescent pregnancy. Macklin proposed a framework for ethical analysis and used facts to address ethical questions. Weinstein provided another ethical framework, to analyze whether pharmacists have a right to refuse to provide abortifacient drugs. Buc approached the subject from a legal point of view and concluded that, whereas legal problems

  9. Helping veterans with mental illness overcome civil legal issues: collaboration between a veterans affairs psychosocial rehabilitation center and a nonprofit legal center.

    PubMed

    Wong, Catherine F; Tsai, Jack; Klee, Anne; Udell, Howard R; Harkness, Laurie; Middleton, Margaret

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the collaboration between a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) community-based psychosocial rehabilitation center and a nonprofit legal center that primarily addresses the civil legal issues of veterans who have mental illness and/or are homeless. The legal center is located on-site at the VA psychosocial rehabilitation center and serves veterans who receive VA mental health treatment and other social services. Once veterans establish contact with the legal center and authorize the release of their health information, legal center staff members work closely with VA clinicians to help veterans address legal issues that may be obstacles to recovery. Development of this collaboration is described, along with the legal center's funding, clientele, and operations. The most common types of civil legal matters the legal center handles are also briefly described. Experiences of the legal center suggest that professional aid for civil legal problems provided within VA facilities may be beneficial for veterans and warrants empirical study.

  10. Legal Language: What Is It and What Can We Do about It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charrow, Veda R.; Crandall, JoAnn

    Legal language is discussed in the context of concern about the comprehensibility of consumer documents and the trend toward simplification of the language used in these documents. Specific features of legal language and its functions within the legal community and society are identified. As a primary tool of the legal profession, legal language…

  11. 40 CFR 2.205 - Final confidentiality determination by EPA legal office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EPA legal office. 2.205 Section 2.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... determination by EPA legal office. (a) Role of EPA legal office. (1) The appropriate EPA legal office (see... pending, the EPA legal office's determination shall serve as the final determination on appeal from...

  12. 10 CFR 719.10 - What information must be included in the legal management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What information must be included in the legal management plan? 719.10 Section 719.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS Legal Management Plan § 719.10 What information must be included in the legal management plan? The legal...

  13. 10 CFR 719.10 - Who must submit a Legal Management Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who must submit a Legal Management Plan? 719.10 Section 719.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS Legal Management Plan, Staffing and Resource Plan and Annual Legal Budget § 719.10 Who must submit a Legal Management...

  14. 10 CFR 719.10 - What information must be included in the legal management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What information must be included in the legal management plan? 719.10 Section 719.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS Legal Management Plan § 719.10 What information must be included in the legal management plan? The legal...

  15. 10 CFR 719.10 - What information must be included in the legal management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What information must be included in the legal management plan? 719.10 Section 719.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS Legal Management Plan § 719.10 What information must be included in the legal management plan? The legal...

  16. 10 CFR 719.10 - What information must be included in the legal management plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What information must be included in the legal management plan? 719.10 Section 719.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTOR LEGAL MANAGEMENT REQUIREMENTS Legal Management Plan § 719.10 What information must be included in the legal management plan? The legal...

  17. Perception de la verticale avec Un cadre visuel solidaire de la tete: implications pour la conception des afficheurs de casques en ae’ronauflque (Perception of the Vertical With a Head-Mounted Visual Frame: Implication for the Design of Helmet-Mounted Displays in Aeronautics)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-01

    leurs changements d’orientation. L’orientation du cadre solidaire de la tete ne peut etre 6valude que sur la base des signaux de position de la tete...r6fdrentiel c6phalocentr6 sont inexistantes. Au contraire, lorsque lorientation du cadre est dissoci6e de celle de la tete, toute rotation peut etre ...rapport it la tete peuvent etre prises en compte en conjonction avec les signaux vestibulaires et proprioceptifs qui renseignent sur lorientation de la

  18. Consent--its medico legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Yadwad, B S; Gouda, H

    2005-10-01

    One of the duties of a doctor towards his patients is to obtain consent before any medical examination. Any such examination without prior consent amounts to an assault on the patient. Consent is defined under Indian Contract Act (because Doctor Patient relationship isa contract) as "two or more persons are said to consent when they agree to the same thing in the same sense." Consent may be implied, expressed or informed depending upon the circumstances. But the consent of the patient is not required in situations like medical emergency, for vaccination etc. If the patient is not medically or legally competent to give consent, the consent of the parents or guardians or any person present at the time with the patient can be taken. Any research on a potential subject, removal of organs for transplantation, publication of information obtained during medical examination also require consent of the concerned person.

  19. Legality of Non-Cooperative Satellite Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Siqing

    2013-09-01

    Uncontrolled growth of non-functional satellites has imposed significant threats on the space environment. However, out of various concerns, not all States are willing to adopt measures to minimize the debris caused by their own space activities. This article analyzes whether the threatened States are entitled to the right to remove space debris of another State without prior consent. Firstly, the author examines who exercises jurisdiction over the non-functional satellites; then, by analyzing Article IX of the Outer Space Treaty and the IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines, the author finds that there is a forthcoming debris removal obligation under international law; further, the author suggests two legal basis for the non-cooperative removal: Article IX of the Outer Space Treaty and the Precautionary Principle. In conclusion, it is neither justifiable nor efficient to absolutely prohibit the threatened States to remove non-functional satellites without prior consent.

  20. Legal aspects of E-HEALTH.

    PubMed

    Callens, Stefaan; Cierkens, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Cross-border activities in health care in the European single market are increasing. Many of these cross-border developments are related to e-Health. E-Health describes the application of information and communication technologies across the whole range of functions that affect the health care sector. E-health attracts a growing interest on the European level that highlights the sharp need of appropriate regulatory framework able to ensure its promotion in the European Union. Some Directives constitute a step in this direction. Both the Data Protection Directive, the E-Commerce Directive, the Medical Device Directive and the Directive on Distance Contracting are some of the most important European legal achievements related to e-Health. Although the directives are not adopted especially for e-health applications, they are indirectly very important for e-Health. Firstly, the Data Protection Directive applies to personal data which form part of a filing system and contains several important principles that have to be complied with by e-Health actors processing personal data concerning health. Secondly, the E-commerce Directive applies to services provided at a distance by electronic means. Many e-Health applications fall within this scope. Thirdly, the Medical Devices Directive is of importance for the e-Health sector, especially with regard to e.g. the medical software that is used in many e-health applications. Finally, the Directive on Distance Contracting applies to contracts for goods or services which make use of one or more means of distance communication; E-Health business may involve the conclusion of contracts. Despite these Directives more developments are needed at the European level in order to make sure that e-Health will play an even more important role in health care systems than is the case today. The new e-Health applications like electronic health records, e-health platforms, health grids and the further use of genetic data and tissue involve new

  1. [Legal aspects of transplant and donation].

    PubMed

    Teijeira, R

    2006-01-01

    The Spanish model of organ and tissue donation enjoys great prestige in the world medical sphere and has been the object of study and imitation in different countries. Part of this success is due to the fact that since the year 1979 different legal norms have been enacted that have regulated and facilitated donation. The current legislation on the donation and transplant of organs and tissues is based on the principles of the gratuity and confidentiality of the donation, indicating the need for facilitating the formation of organisations at the level of the autonomous communities and at the national level. It also contains the requisites for donation of both live donors and deceased donors, establishing the norms for certification of death due to cardiorespiratory arrest and due to the irreversible cease of brain functions.

  2. The Courts, Public Health, and Legal Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Stier, Daniel D.; Nicks, Diane; Cowan, Gregory J.

    2007-01-01

    The judicial branch’s key roles, as guardian of civil liberties and protector of the rule of law, can be acutely relevant during public health emergencies when courts may need to issue orders authorizing actions to protect public health or restraining public health actions that are determined to unduly interfere with civil rights. Legal preparedness for public health emergencies, therefore, necessitates an understanding of the court system and how courts are involved in public health issues. In this article we briefly describe the court system and then focus on what public health practitioners need to know about the judicial system in a public health emergency, including the courts’ roles and the consequent need to keep courts open during emergencies. PMID:17413084

  3. Legal implications of managed care arrangements.

    PubMed

    Knox, W A; Epstein, D M

    1994-09-01

    Prior to the 1980s, managed care was virtually nonexistent as a force in health care. Presently, 64 percent of employees in America are covered by managed care plans, including health maintenance organizations (20 percent) and preferred provider organizations (44 percent). In contrast, only 29 percent of employees were enrolled in managed care plans in 1988 and only 47 percent in 1991. To date, the primary reason for this incredible growth in managed care has been economic-market pressure to reduce health care costs. For the foreseeable future, political pressures are likely to fuel this growth, as managed care is at the center of President Clinton's national health care plan. Although there are numerous legal issues surrounding managed care, this article focuses primarily on antitrust implications when forming managed care entities. In addition, the corporate practice of medicine doctrine, certain tax issues, and the fraud and abuse laws are discussed.

  4. The living will: legal and ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wold, J L

    1992-02-01

    Problems surrounding issues of dying and death are many. Health professionals, families and individuals all must cope with different aspects of these problems. The living will has been discussed as one way people can alleviate many of the problems associated with the decision to die with dignity. Nurses are in the perfect position to educate people concerning the benefits of having a living will. As patient advocate, it is imperative nurses be apprised of the laws in their states regarding living wills. By initiating a living will, individuals can make their wishes known to both family and the medical establishment. Increased public education concerning state living will legislation and concomitant rights under these laws is needed. Through education, many of the legal and ethical issues that arise from ignorance of the law may be avoided before they become problems.

  5. Standard of care: the legal view.

    PubMed

    Curley, Arthur W; Peltier, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    The standard of care is a legal construct, a line defined by juries, based on expert testimony, marking a point where treatment failed to meet expectations for what a reasonable professional would have done. There is no before-the-fact objective definition of this standard, except for cases of law and regulation, such as the Occupational Safety and Health Admintration (OSHA). Practitioners must use their judgment in determining what would be acceptable should a case come to trial. Professional codes of conduct and acting in the patient's best interests are helpful guides to practicing within the standard of care. Continuing education credit is available for this and the following article together online at www.dentalethics.org for those who wish to complete the quiz and exercises associated with them (see Course 22).

  6. Space debris, remarks on current legal issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerrest, Armel

    2001-10-01

    A legal definition of space debris must take into consideration its consequences on the legal status of the object. For the purpose of mitigation of space debris at the time of the launch, any object launched in outer pace will turn sooner or later into a space debris. For liability purposes, a definition of a "space object " is more useful that the notion of "space debris". It must be sure that every space debris is considered as a space objet according to the liability convention. At the end and certainly a more difficult issue is the qualification of a space object as a space debris when it will be technically feasible to remove it. The question of the property of the debris or object should be important. States are responsible and liable for space debris. According to article VI and VII of the Outer Space Treaty, they must authorise and control any national space activity and make sure these activities will not be conducted against the law. In the case of an accident and excepting the use of nuclear power sources, the main problem lies on damage in outer space to other spacecraft. In that case, the victim must prove a fault. According with the lack of precise rules it should be difficult. It should be necessary to precise the law applicable to space debris. At the domestic level, rules must be taken to prevent space debris through an assessment of risk within the licensing process. At the international level, the principle of an obligation to mitigate debris should be clearly accepted. Some general rules should be useful to avoid breach of competition between commercial actors. The adoption of a clear and precise code of conduct should be of great help because it would determine the good launching States' behaviour and greatly helps the judge appreciating the proof of a fault in case of an accident.

  7. "Legal Problem Question Answer Genre" across Jurisdictions and Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessuto, Girolamo

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyse discourse patterns of legal opinions in two languages and cultures--namely, Legal Problem Question Answers (LPQs) in the UK academic writing context and Pareri (Ps) in the Italian professional writing context. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of discourse in this paper, based on the tenets of genre analysis,…

  8. 15 CFR 241.2 - Legal standard barrels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., VEGETABLES AND OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.2 Legal standard barrels. (a) Any barrel..., other than cranberries, in section 1 of the standard-barrel law, or any barrel or a subdivision thereof... than cranberries, or a legal subdivision thereof. No other barrel or subdivision in barrel form is...

  9. 15 CFR 241.2 - Legal standard barrels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., VEGETABLES AND OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.2 Legal standard barrels. (a) Any barrel..., other than cranberries, in section 1 of the standard-barrel law, or any barrel or a subdivision thereof... than cranberries, or a legal subdivision thereof. No other barrel or subdivision in barrel form is...

  10. 15 CFR 241.2 - Legal standard barrels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., VEGETABLES AND OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.2 Legal standard barrels. (a) Any barrel..., other than cranberries, in section 1 of the standard-barrel law, or any barrel or a subdivision thereof... than cranberries, or a legal subdivision thereof. No other barrel or subdivision in barrel form is...

  11. 15 CFR 241.2 - Legal standard barrels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., VEGETABLES AND OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.2 Legal standard barrels. (a) Any barrel..., other than cranberries, in section 1 of the standard-barrel law, or any barrel or a subdivision thereof... than cranberries, or a legal subdivision thereof. No other barrel or subdivision in barrel form is...

  12. 15 CFR 241.2 - Legal standard barrels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., VEGETABLES AND OTHER DRY COMMODITIES, AND FOR CRANBERRIES § 241.2 Legal standard barrels. (a) Any barrel..., other than cranberries, in section 1 of the standard-barrel law, or any barrel or a subdivision thereof... than cranberries, or a legal subdivision thereof. No other barrel or subdivision in barrel form is...

  13. 78 FR 57619 - Legal Services Trade Mission to China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Legal Services Trade Mission to China AGENCY: International Trade... FR 20893, April 8, 2013, regarding the Executive-Led Legal Services Trade Mission to China...

  14. Serving the Newly Legalized: Their Characteristics and Current Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Susan Forbes; And Others

    The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) provides for the legalization of undocumented aliens through several programs. IRCA established the State Legalization Impact Assistance Grants (SLIAG) "to alleviate the financial impact on States and local governments that may result from the adjustment of immigrant status" through…

  15. Thinking Like a Lawyer, Thinking Like a Legal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Richard Clay

    2013-01-01

    The legal system is the product of lawyers. Lawyers are the product of a specific educational system. Therefore, to understand the legal system, we must first explore how lawyers are trained and conditioned to think. What does it mean to "Think Like a Lawyer?'' This dissertation makes use of autoethnography to explore the experience…

  16. Bricks without Straw: The Sorry State of American Legal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rounds, Charles E., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    While many law students and recent grads have come to feel that legal education is an expensive waste of time now that the job market for lawyers has collapsed, some seasoned law practitioners have their own concerns about the worth of a legal education. Their concerns, however, relate to product quality rather than product marketability.…

  17. Lawyers for Texas. A study of Legal Education in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Coll. and Univ. System, Austin. Coordinating Board.

    In response to requests from Texas institutions of higher education to establish additional legal education programs, the Coordinating Board, Texas College and University System in October 1972, appointed two groups to undertake a cooperative study to assist in determining whether or not additional opportunities for legal education were needed in…

  18. Effective Communication in Legal and Public Policy Hearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Jim; Sonsteng, John; Thorstad, Linda

    2014-04-01

    Scientists play a special role in legal debates and public policy decisions. The challenge for scientists who serve as expert witnesses is to communicate effectively in various legal forums, including litigation and legislative hearings. Expert witnesses must not advocate for one side or the other but must be able to convey the meaning as well as the quality and accuracy of their work.

  19. 40 CFR 49.11043 - Legal authority. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Legal authority. 49.11043 Section 49.11043 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... Implementation Plan for the Upper Skagit Indian Tribe of Washington § 49.11043 Legal authority....

  20. 40 CFR 49.11043 - Legal authority. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal authority. 49.11043 Section 49.11043 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... Skagit Indian Tribe of Washington § 49.11043 Legal authority....

  1. 40 CFR 49.11043 - Legal authority. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Legal authority. 49.11043 Section 49.11043 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... Implementation Plan for the Upper Skagit Indian Tribe of Washington § 49.11043 Legal authority....

  2. 40 CFR 49.11043 - Legal authority. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Legal authority. 49.11043 Section 49.11043 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... Implementation Plan for the Upper Skagit Indian Tribe of Washington § 49.11043 Legal authority....

  3. 40 CFR 49.11043 - Legal authority. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Legal authority. 49.11043 Section 49.11043 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... Implementation Plan for the Upper Skagit Indian Tribe of Washington § 49.11043 Legal authority....

  4. 20 CFR 638.534 - Legal services to students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Legal services to students. 638.534 Section... students. (a) The Job Corps Director shall develop procedures to afford students effective and competent legal representation in criminal and certain civil cases. This shall include assisting students...

  5. 20 CFR 638.534 - Legal services to students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Legal services to students. 638.534 Section... students. (a) The Job Corps Director shall develop procedures to afford students effective and competent legal representation in criminal and certain civil cases. This shall include assisting students...

  6. 20 CFR 638.534 - Legal services to students.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal services to students. 638.534 Section... students. (a) The Job Corps Director shall develop procedures to afford students effective and competent legal representation in criminal and certain civil cases. This shall include assisting students...

  7. An Overview of Legal Issues in Recreational Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Legal issues which intramural and recreational sports professionals should understand are discussed. These professionals need continuing education, and legal issues should be part of professional development programs in recreational sports, emphasizing programing (civil liberties, civil rights, and criminal issues) and administration…

  8. Language Skill Definition: A Study of Legalized Aliens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.; Miller, Paul W.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes measures of language skills of legalized aliens using data from the Legalized Population Survey (LPS) of aliens who received amnesty under the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act. Includes self-assessed overall speaking skills, speaking and reading in specific situations, and perceptions of the impact of language skills on job…

  9. The Legal Framework for Establishing Private Universities in Swaziland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbanze, C. V.; Coetzee, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on a doctoral study which investigated the legal and management frameworks required for establishing private universities in Swaziland. The focus is particularly on the legal framework for establishing the Southern Africa Nazarene University (SANU). Managers involved in establishing SANU encountered a lack of both specific…

  10. Fumbling toward a Critical Legal Pedagogy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matambanadzo, Saru

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the culture and practice of legal education in the United States functions to dehumanize law students and potentially produce one-dimensional lawyers in the service of corporate interests and the capitalist status quo. These lawyers are trained to serve not only as the guardians of legal rights, social entitlements and…

  11. Health and Legal Services in a Disadvantaged Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Challenor, Bernard; Onyeani, Loretta

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the role legal services play in public health care delivery in disadvantaged communities in relation to such socio-medical problems as lead poisoning, child abuse, involuntary mental commitment, and housing code violations. Recommends a legal advocacy program to ensure adequate public health care. (Author/SF)

  12. Legal Education for Sustainability: A Report on US Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dernbach, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This article is an overview of sustainability efforts in US law schools. It describes two sets of drivers for these efforts--inside and outside the legal profession. Drivers from within the legal profession include the American Bar Association as well as several state and local bar associations; law firms and other law organisations; and current…

  13. 22 CFR 92.11 - Preparation of legal documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preparation of legal documents. 92.11 Section... General Notarial Procedures § 92.11 Preparation of legal documents. (a) By attorneys. When a document has... provisions in § 92.24 regarding the preparation of affidavits.) When asked to perform such a service,...

  14. 22 CFR 92.11 - Preparation of legal documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preparation of legal documents. 92.11 Section... General Notarial Procedures § 92.11 Preparation of legal documents. (a) By attorneys. When a document has... provisions in § 92.24 regarding the preparation of affidavits.) When asked to perform such a service,...

  15. 22 CFR 92.11 - Preparation of legal documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preparation of legal documents. 92.11 Section... General Notarial Procedures § 92.11 Preparation of legal documents. (a) By attorneys. When a document has... provisions in § 92.24 regarding the preparation of affidavits.) When asked to perform such a service,...

  16. 22 CFR 92.11 - Preparation of legal documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preparation of legal documents. 92.11 Section... General Notarial Procedures § 92.11 Preparation of legal documents. (a) By attorneys. When a document has... provisions in § 92.24 regarding the preparation of affidavits.) When asked to perform such a service,...

  17. 22 CFR 92.11 - Preparation of legal documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preparation of legal documents. 92.11 Section... General Notarial Procedures § 92.11 Preparation of legal documents. (a) By attorneys. When a document has... provisions in § 92.24 regarding the preparation of affidavits.) When asked to perform such a service,...

  18. Legal regime of human activities in outer space law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golda, Carlo

    1994-01-01

    Current developments in space activities increasingly involve the presence of humans on board spacecraft and, in the near future, on the Moon, on Mars, on board Space Stations, etc. With respect to these challenges, the political and legal issues connected to the status of astronauts are largely unclear and require a new doctrinal attention. In the same way, many legal and political questions remain open in the structure of future space crews: the need for international standards in the definition and training of astronauts, etc.; but, first of all, an international uniform legal definition of astronauts. Moreover, the legal structure for human life and operations in outer space can be a new and relevant paradigm for the definition of similar rules in all the situations and environments in which humans are involved in extreme frontiers. The present article starts from an overview on the existing legal and political definitions of 'astronauts', moving to the search of a more useful definition. This is followed by an analysis of the concrete problems created by human space activities, and the legal and political responses to them (the need for a code of conduct; the structure of the crew and the existing rules in the US and ex-USSR; the new legal theories on the argument; the definition and structure of a code of conduct; the next legal problems in fields such as privacy law, communications law, business law, criminal law, etc.).

  19. Lessons in Conflict: Legal Education Materials for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, William M.

    This guide includes 18 units, special teaching instructions, a brief history of legal assistance, a multimedia resource guide, and a list of democratic principles which are stressed repeatedly in the units. The units employ the case approach to illustrate legal issues for class problem solving. Facts, issues and laws are chosen on the basis of…

  20. Race and School Vouchers: Legal, Historical, and Political Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooden, Mark A.; Jabbar, Huriya; Torres, Mario S., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates legal and political issues as they relate to school vouchers serving students of color. Specifically, we draw on the empirical, historical, and legal research to examine whether school vouchers will create a more equitable system of education for poor students of color. First, we present a history of vouchers, including…

  1. Diversity and Affirmative Action: Evolving Principles and Continuing Legal Battles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Scott R.

    This chapter reviews the legal standards governing affirmative action in higher education, examining the diversity rationale and contrasting the cases of Hopwood v. Texas and Wittmer v. Peters, which were decided in 1996. It discusses: the legal standard governing affirmative action in higher education; the remedial interest in overcoming the…

  2. The American Legal System: A Field Study Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milwaukee Public Schools, WI. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The document presents an outline for a high school legal education program which emphasizes field experiences. The program is called the American Legal System Satellite Center, and is designed to provide students with experiential knowledge of the functions, procedures, and facets of law; to expose them to a wide range of law-related career…

  3. Limited License Legal Technician. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    A landmark state Supreme Court rule that promises to create new jobs and expand public access to legal help is coming to life at Washington's community and technical colleges. Four colleges--Highline, Edmonds, Tacoma, and Spokane--started training students to become "Limited License Legal Technicians" (LLLTs) in 2014. The state Supreme…

  4. Measuring Legal Research Skills on a Bar Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Stephen P.

    Based on the importance for newly licensed attorneys to conduct legal research, this study assessed the relationship between bar exam scores and scores on a test designed to measure certain important legal research skills. It also investigated whether differences in performance level among racial groups on the Research Test paralleled differences…

  5. Using Metal Detectors in the Public Schools: Some Legal Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklun, Eugene C.

    1996-01-01

    Examines two legal issues related to the use of metal detectors in public schools: their legality under the Fourth Amendment and the potential liability of schools who fail to use them to keep weapons out of their buildings. (91 footnotes) (MLF)

  6. 42 CFR 35.12 - Solicitation of legal business prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Solicitation of legal business prohibited. 35.12 Section 35.12 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.12 Solicitation of legal...

  7. 42 CFR 35.12 - Solicitation of legal business prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Solicitation of legal business prohibited. 35.12 Section 35.12 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.12 Solicitation of legal...

  8. 42 CFR 35.12 - Solicitation of legal business prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Solicitation of legal business prohibited. 35.12 Section 35.12 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.12 Solicitation of legal...

  9. College Teaching and Teachers: Legal Implications of Academic Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Thomas J., Ed.

    This document presents the proceedings of a conference at the University of Alabama designed to examine the legal implications of academic affairs. Papers cover women's rights in academe, and some extra-legal concerns, the outlook for faculty bargaining, an industrial relations approach to faculty collective bargaining, and the courts and academic…

  10. 17 CFR 39.27 - Legal risk considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... by the appropriate foreign licensing authority. (b) Legal framework. A derivatives clearing organization shall operate pursuant to a well-founded, transparent, and enforceable legal framework that... framework shall provide for: (1) The derivatives clearing organization to act as a counterparty,...

  11. 17 CFR 39.27 - Legal risk considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... by the appropriate foreign licensing authority. (b) Legal framework. A derivatives clearing organization shall operate pursuant to a well-founded, transparent, and enforceable legal framework that... framework shall provide for: (1) The derivatives clearing organization to act as a counterparty,...

  12. Public Relations vs. Legal Strategies in Organizational Crisis Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Kathy R.; Rubin, Maureen Shubow

    1995-01-01

    Finds that in almost two-thirds of the cases studied, in which organizations responded to public charges of sexual harassment, legal strategy--rather than public relations strategy--was used by official spokespersons. Argues that organizations need to reconcile the often contradictory counsel of public relations and legal professionals. (SR)

  13. On the Legal Issues of Teaching Evolution in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    In order to effectively teach evolution to all students, even those resistant to learning evolution, science teachers may question the extent to which religion can legally be discussed in the public high school science classroom. Evolution is taught from a variety of approaches, each of which has legal implications. Four approaches to teaching…

  14. 78 FR 25795 - Contractor Legal Management Requirements; Acquisition Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... commonplace among businesses. The Legal Management Plan assists Department Counsel in understanding the... developing an understanding of the contractor's internal legal resources. Although not determinative on its... budget developed in paragraph (c) of the section, but that the particularized budget requirement for...

  15. 45 CFR 1624.5 - Accessibility of legal services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... changes in existing facilities when other methods are effective in achieving compliance. In choosing among available methods for meeting the requirements of this paragraph, a legal services program shall give priority to those methods that offer legal services to persons with disabilities in the most...

  16. 45 CFR 1624.5 - Accessibility of legal services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... changes in existing facilities when other methods are effective in achieving compliance. In choosing among available methods for meeting the requirements of this paragraph, a legal services program shall give priority to those methods that offer legal services to persons with disabilities in the most...

  17. 5 CFR 1604.9 - Court orders and legal processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Court orders and legal processes. 1604.9 Section 1604.9 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD UNIFORMED SERVICES ACCOUNTS § 1604.9 Court orders and legal processes. A TSP account can be divided in an action for...

  18. Second-generation legal issues in integrated delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Teske, J M

    1995-01-01

    The formation and operation of integrated healthcare delivery systems raise significant legal issues. Some of these issues, such as antitrust, tax-exempt status, and fraud and abuse, have been discussed extensively. However, other legal issues, such as those involving management of business risk, use of systemwide information management, and securing of tax-exempt financing, have not received much attention.

  19. 38 CFR 1.490 - Legal effect of order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Legal effect of order. 1... PROVISIONS Court Orders Authorizing Disclosures and Use § 1.490 Legal effect of order. The records to which... court of competent jurisdiction granted after application showing good cause therefore. In...

  20. 38 CFR 1.490 - Legal effect of order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Legal effect of order. 1... PROVISIONS Court Orders Authorizing Disclosures and Use § 1.490 Legal effect of order. The records to which... court of competent jurisdiction granted after application showing good cause therefore. In...